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Sample records for beetles coleoptera staphylinidae

  1. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    PubMed

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses.

  2. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    PubMed

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. PMID:23550535

  3. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

  4. Treatment outcome of Paederus dermatitis due to rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) on guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Azizi, K; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

    2011-08-01

    Linear dermatitis (or dermatitis linearis, DL) is a skin blistering inflammatory lesion caused by exposure to the pederin toxin from rove beetles. Although it is prevalent in many countries of the Middle East region, this is not a notifiable disease. In recent years, a number of clinical symptoms outbreaks of DL has been reported from a few neighboring countries of Iran, but no report of experimental treatment among small laboratory rodents is known. This is a prerequisite to ascertain the nature of the best treatment strategy in cases of infestation with these beetles, as it occurs among local settlers during hot seasons in certain parts of the southern Iranian province of Fars. Live Paederus beetles were collected, identified to species level, sexed apart and partly processed to obtain their hemolymph toxin pederin in ethanol for dermal application on guinea pigs. Two Paederus species were found. Paederus ilsae (Bernhauer) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) was more abundant than P. iliensis (Coiffait). Recovery from DL due to live P. ilsae beetles was quicker and less complex than that of pederin in ethanol on guinea pigs. The application of potassium permanganate with calamine to heal DL was also more effective than fluocinolone treatment. This topical corticosteroid is thus considered less able to avert the cytotoxic action of pederin on the skin of guinea pigs than the antipruritic and cleansing agents. It seems likely that fluocinolone has certain effects which delays the recovery period for the treated skin.

  5. How old are the rove beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and their lineages? Seeking an answer with DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2013-06-01

    The phylogeny and related evolutionary history of rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) remain unclear. This study provides phylogenetic analyses for the family based on three genes (mitochondrial COI, nuclear protein-coding wingless and a portion of the ribosomal 28S rDNA) including 2413 bp for 104 taxa representing most major staphylinid lineages. The subfamilies Oxyporinae, Paederinae, Steninae, and Proteininae are all well-supported clades, as evidenced by all three inference methods, namely maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference, and maximum likelihood. From fossils available for calibration, the divergence time of the main lineages in the family is estimated based on an uncorrelated lognormal relaxed molecular clock analysis method. The molecular clock analysis suggests that the family Staphylinidae dates from approximately the Early Triassic epoch and the most lineages of the family started to radiate from the Late Jurassic to the Early Paleogene.

  6. Proparasitylenchus californicus n. sp. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae), parasitic in the intertidal rove beetle Tarphiota geniculata (Mäklin) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Datlen, Nicole; Espinoza, Magaly; McLaughlin, John

    2015-09-01

    A new nematode species, Proparasitylenchus californicus n. sp., is described from the intertidal rove beetle Tarphiota geniculata (Mäklin) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in California, USA. The new species differs from European representatives of the genus by possessing a cleft stylet in both sexes. The parasitic female is ovoviviparous and produces numerous juveniles that moult twice in the beetle host, then exit and moult twice to the adult stage in the environment. After mating, the free-living fertilised females enter a new host. Heavy infections sterilise the beetles. This is the first record of the genus Proparasitylenchus Wachek, 1955 in the New World and the first allantonematid parasite of a marine, intertidal beetle.

  7. Population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of beetles (Coleoptera: Histeridae and Staphylinidae) from the Sonoran Desert associated with rotting columnar cacti.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, Edward; Johnson, Sarah; Richmond, Maxi Polihronakis; Markow, Therese A

    2013-12-01

    Dozens of arthropod species are known to feed and breed in the necrotic tissues (rots) of columnar cacti in the Sonoran Desert. Because the necrotic patches are ephemeral, the associated arthropods must continually disperse to new cacti and therefore the populations of any given species are expected to show very little local genetic differentiation. While this has been found to be true for the cactophilic Drosophila, the evolutionary histories and characteristics of other arthropods inhabiting the same necrotic patches, especially the beetles, have yet to be examined. Here we used nucleotide sequence data from segments of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes to examine population structure and demographic history of three sympatric beetle species (Coleoptera: Histeridae and Staphylinidae) collected on senita cactus (Lophocereus schottii) from six widely-separated localities on the Baja California peninsula of northwestern Mexico. Two histerids, Iliotona beyeri and Carcinops gilensis, and an unidentified staphylinid, Belonuchus sp., showed little or no population structure over a broad geographic area on the peninsula, consistent with the prediction that these beetles should show high dispersal ability. Demographic tests revealed varying levels of historical population expansion among the beetle species analyzed, which are discussed in light of their ecologies and concurrent biogeographic events. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses of COI sequences in Carcinops collected on a variety of columnar cacti from both peninsular and mainland Mexico localities revealed several species-level partitions, including a putative undescribed peninsular species that occurred sympatrically with C. gilensis on senita.

  8. Emergence and seasonal activity of the entomophagous rove beetle Aleochara bilineata (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in canola in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Broatch, J S; Dosdall, L M; Yang, R-C; Harker, K N; Clayton, G W

    2008-12-01

    Aleochara bilineata Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is an important natural enemy of root maggots (Delia spp.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), which are serious pests of brassicaceous crops in North America and Europe. Adults of A. bilineata feed on eggs and larvae of root maggots, and A. bilineata larvae parasitize Delia spp. pupae. Emergence and seasonal activity patterns of A. bilineata were investigated during 2003-2005 in canola (Brassica rapa L. and Brassica napus L.) in central Alberta, Canada, in relation to degree-day (DD) accumulations and Julian date. Captures of A. bilineata adults from pitfall traps within emergence cages situated over canola stubble from the previous year indicated that approximately 428, 493, and 455 DD (soil base 5.57 degrees C) and 187, 189, and 180 Julian days were required for 50% emergence in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively (3-yr mean = 185.1 +/- 2.8 Julian days [SEM]). Captures of A. bilineata adults from pitfall traps placed in current canola crops determined that 50% levels of activity density required 379 DD and 180 Julian days in 2004. A logistic model that described the relationship of degree-days and Julian days with emergence of adult beetles was appraised, and good correspondence was evident between predicted and observed cumulative emergence patterns. Emergence and seasonal activity periods of A. bilineata in canola were well synchronized with occurrence of preimaginal life stages of its principal hosts, Delia radicum (L.) and Delia platura Meigen, with beetle emergence beginning shortly after the onset of root maggot oviposition.

  9. Functional morphology and adhesive performance of the stick-capture apparatus of the rove beetles Stenus spp. (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Koerner, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N; Betz, Oliver

    2012-04-01

    The adhesive prey-capture apparatus of the representatives of the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) is an outstanding example of biological adhesive systems. This unique prey-capture device is used for catching elusive prey by combining (i) hierarchically structured adhesive outgrowths, (ii) an adhesive secretion, and (iii) a network of cuticular fibres within the pad. The outgrowths arise from a pad-like cuticle and are completely immersed within the secretion. To date, the forces generated during the predatory strike of these beetles have only been estimated theoretically. In the present study, we used force transducers to measure both the compressive and adhesive forces during the predatory strike of two Stenus species. The experiments revealed that the compressive forces are low, ranging from 0.10 mN (Stenus bimaculatus) to 0.18 mN (Stenus juno), whereas the corresponding adhesive forces attain up to 1.0 mN in S. juno and 1.08 mN in S. bimaculatus. The tenacity or adhesive strength (adhesive force per apparent unit area) amounts to 51.9 kPa (S. bimaculatus) and 69.7 kPa (S. juno). S. juno beetles possess significantly smaller pad surface areas than S. bimaculatus but seem to compensate for this disadvantage by generating higher compressive forces. Consequently, S. juno beetles reach almost identical adhesive properties and an equal prey-capture success in attacks on larger prey. The possible functions of the various parts of the adhesive system during the adhesive prey-capture process are discussed in detail.

  10. Comparative morphology of the larvae of the rove beetles of Paederus, Lathrobium, and Tetartopeus, with notes on its systematic position (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae).

    PubMed

    Staniec, Bernard; Sałapa, Dorota; Pietrykowska-Tudruj, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The mature larvae of the rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) Lathrobium lineatocolle Scriba and Tetartopeus quadratus (Paykull) are described for the first time, and the larva of Paederus littoralis Gravenhorst is redescribed. Detailed illustrations of their structural features are provided. The description of T. quadratus is the first for that genus. Diagnostic larval, morphological characters for Paederus, Lathrobium, and Tetartopeus are proposed. Based on the earlier published and new data, morphological comparisons at the subtribal and genus levels within the subfamily Paederinae are given. The principal differences among subtribes and genera involve structures located on the head, but several relate to abdominal sclerites and urogomphi. Based on the current data, the previously proposed characters diagnostic for the subfamily Paederinae are verified. A status of Paederidus and Tetartopeus as genera as opposed to their subgeneric status within Paederus and Lathrobium, respectively, was confirmed.

  11. Ground and rove beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) are affected by mulches and weeds in highbush blueberries.

    PubMed

    Renkema, J M; Lynch, D H; Cutler, G C; Mackenzie, K; Walde, S J

    2012-10-01

    Biological control of insects by predators may be indirectly influenced by management practices that change the invertebrate community in agroecosystems. In this study we examined effects that mulching and weeding have on predatory beetles (Carabidae and Staphylinidae) and their potential prey in a highbush blueberry field. We compared beetle communities in unweeded control plots to those that were weeded and/or received a single application of compost or pine needle mulch. Compost mulch and weeding significantly affected the carabid community while the staphylinid community responded to compost and pine needle mulches. Effects because of mulch tended to intensify in the year after mulch application for both families. Estimates of species richness and diversity for Carabidae and Staphylinidae were similar in all plot types, but rarefaction curves suggested higher Carabidae richness in unmulched plots despite fewer individuals captured. Carnivorous Carabidae, dominated by Pterostichus melanarius, were most frequently captured in compost plots both years, and omnivores were most frequently captured in unweeded compost. Density of millipedes, the most abundant potential prey, was generally greater in mulched plots, whereas seasonal abundance of small earthworms varied among mulch types. Our results have potential implications for biological control in mulched highbush blueberries depending on beetle consumption rates for key pests and how rates are affected by alternative prey.

  12. Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-12-01

    In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems.

  13. The oldest micropepline beetle from Cretaceous Burmese amber and its phylogenetic implications (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chen-Yang; Huang, Di-Ying

    2014-10-01

    The staphylinid subfamily Micropeplinae includes small strongly sclerotized beetles with truncate elytra leaving the most part of abdomen exposed. Fossil micropeplines are rare and confined to Cenozoic representatives of extant genera. Here, we describe the oldest micropepline, Protopeplus cretaceus gen. and sp. n., from the Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber. Fluorescence microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were both used to reveal diagnostic features of Micropeplinae and some primitive traits that place Protopeplus very basally within Micropeplinae.

  14. Intrageneric differences in the four stereoisomers of stenusine in the rove beetle genus, Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Burkhardt, Dirk; Gedig, Thomas; Dettner, Konrad; Mosandl, Armin; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2007-02-01

    Most species of the rove beetle genus Stenus employ the spreading alkaloid stenusine as an escape mechanism on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they emit stenusine from their pygidial glands, and it propels them over the water very quickly. Stenusine is a chiral molecule with four stereoisomers: (2' R,3 R)-, (2' S,3 R)-, (2' S,3 S)-, and (2' R,3 S)-stenusine. The percentile ratio of these four isomers is only known for the most common species of the genus: Stenus comma. With the intention of determining the stereoisomer ratios of five additional species from the two subgenera, Stenus and Hypostenus, we used GC/mass spectrometry measurements with a chiral phase . The results showed that the ratio differs among the genus. These findings can be a basis for chemotaxonomy. It is also possible that the biological function of stenusine, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide, varies with changing stereoisomer composition.

  15. Queue up, please! Spermathecal filling in the rove beetle Drusilla canaliculata (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Michael; Gack, Claudia; Speck, Thomas; Peschke, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Most studies on insect sperm motility have been conducted in vitro using artificial environments outside the animal’s body. Only little is known about the function of motile insect sperm at different sites within the male or female genital tracts. We dissected genital tracts of female rove beetles ( Drusilla canaliculata) to show that spermatozoa use their own motility to migrate from the spermatophore into the spermatheca. Our dissection method allowed direct observation and filming of the spermathecal filling process inside the female’s genital tract. Spermatozoa were found to enter the spermatheca individually, sometimes in groups of two or three. Although exhibiting only weak motility and no progressive motion in buffer solution, the spermatozoa inside the female show vigorous lashing and reach an average velocity of 47.5 μm s-1. To gain mobility and speed, the spermatozoa likely utilize the relatively small diameter of the spermathecal duct to push themselves off the duct walls, rather than swimming freely in seminal fluid. The spermatozoa (approximately 1,250 μm) are considerably longer than the distance they have to travel along the spermathecal duct (approximately 800 μm). Our study provides the first direct observation of active sperm migration within the female of an insect stressing the importance of the genital tract as a prerequisite for functional sperm motility.

  16. Phylogeny and revision of a colorful Neotropical genus of rove beetles: Xenopygus Bernhauer (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Caron, Edilson; Castro, Jessica C De; Silva, Maycon R Da; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S

    2016-07-14

    Xenopygus Bernhauer is one of the most colorful staphylinid beetles and widespread in the Neotropical region. The aim of this study was to test the monophyly of Xenopygus based on adult morphology and to review the current species. Cladistic analysis was performed with six ingroup species, including two new species. Xenopygus is a monophyletic group supported by: antennomere V as wide as long to slightly wider, antennomere VII two times wider than long and superior line of pronotal hypomere developed, continuous on the anterior angle of pronotum. Xenopygus is composed of six species, four previously described and two new species, with the following topology: ((X. analis+(X. bicolor+X. confusus))+(X. cordovensis+(X. sancticamillus, sp. nov.+ X. petilicolis, sp. nov.))). Xenopygus is the sister group to a clade formed by species of Dysanellus and Xanthopygus, corroborating previous phylogenetic studies. The genus, and all its species were redescribed, an identification key was produced and illustration diagnostic plates and distribution maps were also provided.

  17. Digestion, growth and reproductive performance of the zoophytophagous rove beetle Philonthus quisquiliarius (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) fed on animal and plant based diets.

    PubMed

    García, Matías; Farinós, Gema P; Castañera, Pedro; Ortego, Félix

    2012-10-01

    The zoophytophagous feeding habits of larvae and adults of the rove beetle, Philonthus quisquiliarius (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), are reported for the first time. This study evaluates the effects of different feeding regimes on its growth and reproductive performance (i.e., larval growth, adult weight gain, consumption, fecundity and fertility) and digestive physiology. Larvae presented similar growth rates when fed on living animal or on green plant material for 48 h. However, higher consumption rates and lower efficiencies of conversion of digested matter to body mass were obtained when leaves were consumed. Adults presented also positive weight gains regardless of the food consumed (plant or animal material). Interestingly, the highest weight gain rate and efficiency of digestion resulted when adults fed on a rearing diet containing nutrients from both animals and plants. Moreover, we have found negative effects upon P. quisquiliarius fecundity and fertility when supplemental plant nutrients were removed from the optimum rearing diet. Physiological adaptations to allow trophic switching between predation and phytophagy have been found, such as the higher ratio of α-amylase activity to protease activity to deal with the inverted protein-carbohydrate ratio of plant versus animal tissues. Furthermore, this species has an arsenal of digestive proteases whose activity is affected by the type of diet ingested. All together, our results suggest that P. quisquiliarius needs certain nutrients, which are obtained only from plant material. This knowledge will help to understand the complex trophic interactions that occur in agroecosystems.

  18. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J.; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey. PMID:27587977

  19. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey. PMID:27587977

  20. Twelve new species and fifty-three new provincial distribution records of Aleocharinae rove beetles of Saskatchewan, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Larson, David J; Labrecque, Myriam; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    One hundred twenty species of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae) are recognized in the province of Saskatchewan. Sixty-five new provincial records, including twelve new species and one new North American record, are presented. Oligota inflata (Mannerheim), a Palearctic species, is newly recorded for North America. The following twelve species are described as new to science: Acrotona pseudopygmaea Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Agaricomorpha pulchra Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. (new genus record for Canadian fauna), Aleochara elisabethae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) larsonae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) pseudopittionii Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) spermathecorum Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) richardsoni Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Brachyusa saskatchewanae Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota langori Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota simulans Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., Dochmonota websteri Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n., and Oxypoda domestica Klimaszewski & Larson, sp. n. Colour images of habitus and black and white images of the median lobe of the aedeagus, spermatheca, and tergite and sternite VIII are presented for all new species, Oligota inflata Mannerheim and Dochmonota rudiventris (Eppelsheim). A new synonymy is established: Tetralina filitarsus Casey, syn. n. = Tetralina helenae Casey, now placed in the genus Brachyusa Mulsant & Rey.

  1. The Influence of Weather and Lunar Phases on the Flight Activity of Paederus Rove Beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, F S; Lobo, S E P D; Lima, D C B; Brito, J M; Costa-Neta, B M

    2015-06-01

    Despite the medical importance of Paederus beetles, no studies have studied the influence of the abiotic factors on the flight activity and nighttime dispersal of these insects in Brazil. Therefore, the influence of both climatic factors and moon phase on black-light catches of Paederus rove beetles was investigated. Paederus beetles were attracted to a black light source hourly from 1800 to 0600 hours, and data on weather conditions as well as moon phase data were taken for every sampling date. Overall, 543 individuals of Paederus beetles belonging to four species were captured: P. protensus, P. columbinus, P. brasiliensis, and P. mutans. Paederus beetles were mostly active in the warmest parts of the studied nights. Variations in nighttime temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and moon phases appear not to affect Paederus flight. The diurnal temperature was observed to affect the night hourly dispersal of Paederus rove beetles as well as their distribution pattern during the entire period of study. The true environmental condition responsible for Paederus beetles seasonal pattern and daily night dispersal in northeastern Brazil were the annual moisture and drought cycles and the diurnal maximum temperatures, respectively. Significant trap catches were observed in the earliest hours after sunset (1800-2100), and people must be aware of this fact, as it can notably increase the risk of acquiring linearis dermatitis from the contact with large numbers of active Paederus.

  2. The Influence of Weather and Lunar Phases on the Flight Activity of Paederus Rove Beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, F S; Lobo, S E P D; Lima, D C B; Brito, J M; Costa-Neta, B M

    2015-06-01

    Despite the medical importance of Paederus beetles, no studies have studied the influence of the abiotic factors on the flight activity and nighttime dispersal of these insects in Brazil. Therefore, the influence of both climatic factors and moon phase on black-light catches of Paederus rove beetles was investigated. Paederus beetles were attracted to a black light source hourly from 1800 to 0600 hours, and data on weather conditions as well as moon phase data were taken for every sampling date. Overall, 543 individuals of Paederus beetles belonging to four species were captured: P. protensus, P. columbinus, P. brasiliensis, and P. mutans. Paederus beetles were mostly active in the warmest parts of the studied nights. Variations in nighttime temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and moon phases appear not to affect Paederus flight. The diurnal temperature was observed to affect the night hourly dispersal of Paederus rove beetles as well as their distribution pattern during the entire period of study. The true environmental condition responsible for Paederus beetles seasonal pattern and daily night dispersal in northeastern Brazil were the annual moisture and drought cycles and the diurnal maximum temperatures, respectively. Significant trap catches were observed in the earliest hours after sunset (1800-2100), and people must be aware of this fact, as it can notably increase the risk of acquiring linearis dermatitis from the contact with large numbers of active Paederus. PMID:26313994

  3. Adhesive performance of the stick-capture apparatus of rove beetles of the genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) toward various surfaces.

    PubMed

    Koerner, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N; Betz, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Rove beetles of the genus Stenus possess a unique adhesive prey-capture apparatus that enables them to catch elusive prey such as springtails over a distance of several millimeters. The prey-capture device combines the hierarchically organized morphology of dry adhesive systems with the properties of wet ones, since an adhesive secretion is released into the contact zone. We hypothesize that this combination enables Stenus species successfully to capture prey possessing a wide range of surface structures and chemistries. We have investigated the influence of both surface energy and roughness of the substrate on the adhesive performance of the prey-capture apparatus in two Stenus species. Force transducers have been used to measure both the compressive and adhesive forces generated during the predatory strike of the beetles on (1) epoxy resin surfaces with defined roughness values (smooth versus rough with asperity diameters ranging from 0.3 to 12 μm) and (2) hydrophobic versus hydrophilic glass surfaces. Our experiments show that neither the surface roughness nor the surface energy significantly influences the attachment ability of the prey-capture apparatus. Thus, in contrast to the performance of locomotory adhesive systems in geckos, beetles, and flies, no critical surface roughness exists that might impede adhesion of the prey-capture apparatus of Stenus beetles. The prey-capture apparatus of Stenus beetles is therefore well adapted to adhere to the various unpredictable surfaces with diverse roughness and surface energy occurring in a wide range of potential prey.

  4. Adhesive performance of the stick-capture apparatus of rove beetles of the genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) toward various surfaces.

    PubMed

    Koerner, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N; Betz, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Rove beetles of the genus Stenus possess a unique adhesive prey-capture apparatus that enables them to catch elusive prey such as springtails over a distance of several millimeters. The prey-capture device combines the hierarchically organized morphology of dry adhesive systems with the properties of wet ones, since an adhesive secretion is released into the contact zone. We hypothesize that this combination enables Stenus species successfully to capture prey possessing a wide range of surface structures and chemistries. We have investigated the influence of both surface energy and roughness of the substrate on the adhesive performance of the prey-capture apparatus in two Stenus species. Force transducers have been used to measure both the compressive and adhesive forces generated during the predatory strike of the beetles on (1) epoxy resin surfaces with defined roughness values (smooth versus rough with asperity diameters ranging from 0.3 to 12 μm) and (2) hydrophobic versus hydrophilic glass surfaces. Our experiments show that neither the surface roughness nor the surface energy significantly influences the attachment ability of the prey-capture apparatus. Thus, in contrast to the performance of locomotory adhesive systems in geckos, beetles, and flies, no critical surface roughness exists that might impede adhesion of the prey-capture apparatus of Stenus beetles. The prey-capture apparatus of Stenus beetles is therefore well adapted to adhere to the various unpredictable surfaces with diverse roughness and surface energy occurring in a wide range of potential prey. PMID:22119444

  5. Novel oligonucleotide probes for in situ detection of pederin-producing endosymbionts of Paederus riparius rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Kador, Matthias; Horn, Marcus A; Dettner, Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts from female Paederus rove beetles are hitherto uncultured, phylogenetically related to Pseudomonas sp., and produce the polyketide pederin, which exhibits strong cytotoxic effects and antitumoral activities. The location of such endosymbionts inside beetles and on beetles' eggs is hypothesized based on indirect evidence rather than elucidated. Thus, an endosymbiont-specific and a competitor oligonucleotide probe (Cy3-labelled PAE444 and unlabelled cPAE444, respectively) were designed and utilized for FISH with semi-thin sections of Paederus riparius eggs. Cy3-PAE444-positive cells were densely packed and covered the whole eggshell. Hundred percent of EUB338-Mix-positive total bacterial cells were PAE444 positive, indicating a biofilm dominated by Paederus endosymbionts. Analysis of different egg deposition stadiums by electron microscopy and pks (polyketide synthase gene, a structural gene associated with pederin biosynthesis)-PCR supported results obtained by FISH and revealed that the endosymbiont-containing layer is applied to the eggshell inside the efferent duct. These findings suggest that P. riparius endosymbionts are located inside unknown structures of the female genitalia, which allow for a well-regulated release of endosymbionts during oviposition. The novel oligonucleotide probes developed in this study will facilitate (1) the identification of symbiont-containing structures within genitalia of their beetle hosts and (2) directed cultivation approaches in the future.

  6. Functional diversity of staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in maize fields: testing the possible effect of genetically modified, insect resistant maize.

    PubMed

    Svobodová, Z; Skoková Habuštová, O; Boháč, J; Sehnal, F

    2016-08-01

    Staphylinid beetles are recommended bioindicators for the pre-market environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) insect protected maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Our multiannual study is a unique European analysis of a staphylinid community within a 14 ha maize field. GM maize, its near-isogenic hybrid (with or without insecticide treatment), and two other reference hybrids were each grown in five 0.5 ha plots. The opportunity for exposure to Cry toxin from plant residues ploughed into the soil was shown by the presence of saprophagous dipteran larvae that are common prey of predatory staphylinid species and hosts of the parasitoid species. 2587 individuals belonging to 77 staphylinid species were sampled using pitfall traps. Lesteva longoelytrata (31%), Oxypoda acuminata (12%), Aloconota sulcifrons (8%) and Anotylus rugosus (7%) were the most abundant beetles in the field. Bionomics, food specialization, temperature requirements and size group were assigned for 25 most common species. These traits determine the occurrence of staphylinid beetles in the field, the food sources they could utilize and thus also their likely contact with the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Statistical analysis of activity abundance, Rao indices and multivariate analysis of distribution of particular categories of functional traits in the field showed negligible effects of the experimental treatments, including the GM maize, upon the staphylinid community. Staphylinid beetles represent a considerably diverse part of epigeic field fauna with wide food specialization; these features render them suitable for the assessment of environmental safety of GM insect protected maize. However, the availability of prey and the presence of particular staphylinid species and their abundance are highly variable; this complicates the interpretation of the results. PMID:26781035

  7. Two new species and new provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W; Bourdon, Caroline; Gilbert, Amélie; Labrecque, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Two new species, Atheta pseudovestita Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., Silusa prettyae Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., are described, and 16 new provincial records, including one new country record, of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, bionomics information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A new checklist with 189 species of aleocharines recorded from the province is presented. PMID:27408552

  8. Functional diversity of staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in maize fields: testing the possible effect of genetically modified, insect resistant maize.

    PubMed

    Svobodová, Z; Skoková Habuštová, O; Boháč, J; Sehnal, F

    2016-08-01

    Staphylinid beetles are recommended bioindicators for the pre-market environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) insect protected maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Our multiannual study is a unique European analysis of a staphylinid community within a 14 ha maize field. GM maize, its near-isogenic hybrid (with or without insecticide treatment), and two other reference hybrids were each grown in five 0.5 ha plots. The opportunity for exposure to Cry toxin from plant residues ploughed into the soil was shown by the presence of saprophagous dipteran larvae that are common prey of predatory staphylinid species and hosts of the parasitoid species. 2587 individuals belonging to 77 staphylinid species were sampled using pitfall traps. Lesteva longoelytrata (31%), Oxypoda acuminata (12%), Aloconota sulcifrons (8%) and Anotylus rugosus (7%) were the most abundant beetles in the field. Bionomics, food specialization, temperature requirements and size group were assigned for 25 most common species. These traits determine the occurrence of staphylinid beetles in the field, the food sources they could utilize and thus also their likely contact with the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Statistical analysis of activity abundance, Rao indices and multivariate analysis of distribution of particular categories of functional traits in the field showed negligible effects of the experimental treatments, including the GM maize, upon the staphylinid community. Staphylinid beetles represent a considerably diverse part of epigeic field fauna with wide food specialization; these features render them suitable for the assessment of environmental safety of GM insect protected maize. However, the availability of prey and the presence of particular staphylinid species and their abundance are highly variable; this complicates the interpretation of the results.

  9. Two new species and new provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W; Bourdon, Caroline; Gilbert, Amélie; Labrecque, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Two new species, Atheta pseudovestita Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., Silusa prettyae Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., are described, and 16 new provincial records, including one new country record, of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, bionomics information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A new checklist with 189 species of aleocharines recorded from the province is presented.

  10. Two new species and new provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W.; Bourdon, Caroline; Gilbert, Amélie; Labrecque, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Atheta pseudovestita Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., Silusa prettyae Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., are described, and 16 new provincial records, including one new country record, of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, bionomics information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A new checklist with 189 species of aleocharines recorded from the province is presented. PMID:27408552

  11. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Séguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Newton, Alfred F.; Thayer, Margaret K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were

  12. Male secondary sexual characters resolve taxonomic uncertainty: five new species and a review of the formerly monotypic rove beetle genus Mimosticus Sharp (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae).

    PubMed

    Brunke, Adam; Solodovnikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The hitherto poorly known Neotropical rove beetle genus Mimosticus is reviewed. Five new species are described from the Andes, Mimosticus aeneipennis sp. n., Mimosticus latens sp. n., Mimosticus pseudosharpi sp. n., Mimosticus sharpi sp. n. and Mimosticus tenuiformis sp. n. The widely distributed type species of the genus, Mimosticus viridipennis Sharp, 1884, is redescribed. Aedeagal characters traditionally used to delimit species in Staphylinidae exhibited only subtle inter-specific differences in Mimosticus but were corroborated by distinct differences in male secondary sexual characters. A modern description and morphological diagnosis of the genus are provided, distribution and bionomic data are summarized, and the placement of Mimosticus in the Staphylinini subtribe Amblyopinina is justified in the context of recent, character-based phylogenetic hypotheses.

  13. Revision of the rove beetle genus Antimerus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Staphylininae), a puzzling endemic Australian lineage of the tribe Staphylinini

    PubMed Central

    Solodovnikov, A.; Newton, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The genus Antimerus Fauvel, 1878, endemic to eastern Australia and Tasmania and a phylogenetically enigmatic member of the large rove beetle tribe Staphylinini, is revised. The genus and each of its four previously known species are redescribed, and a lectotype is designated for Antimerus punctipennis Lea, 1906. Five species are described as new: Antimerus metallicus sp. n., Antimerus jamesrodmani sp. n., Antimerus gracilis sp. n., Antimerus bellus sp. n. and Antimerus monteithi sp. n., so that the number of known species in this genus now totals nine. For the first time Antimerus larvae are described, tentatively identified as Antimerus smaragdinus Fauvel, 1878, Antimerus punctipennis and Antimerus metallicus. Available distributional and bionomic data are provided for each species and summarized in the discussion. Adult and larval morphology of Antimerus and its distribution patterns are discussed in the broader context of new data on the evolution of the entire tribe Staphylinini, and with respect to the formation of the Australian fauna of this tribe. The phylogenetic position of Antimerus within Staphylinini remains unresolved pending a targeted formal study. However, a majority of currently available data suggests that it could be a basal member of the recently recovered monophyletic clade of Staphylinini tentatively called “Staphylinini propria”. PMID:21594033

  14. Foreign-language skills in rove-beetles? Evidence for chemical mimicry of ant alarm pheromones in myrmecophilous Pella beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Stoeffler, Michael; Maier, Tanja S; Tolasch, Till; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2007-07-01

    By using chemical analyses, as well as laboratory and field behavioral tests, we tested the hypothesis that rove beetles of the myrmecophilous genus Pella use alarm pheromone compounds to avert attacks by their host ant Lasius fuliginosus. The secretions of Pellafunestus and P. humeralis contain quinones and different aliphatic compounds, mainly undecane and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone). The latter two chemicals are also found in L. fuliginosus pheromone glands. Behavioral tests confirmed that undecane serves as an "aggressive alarm"-inducing pheromone in L. fuliginosus, whereas sulcatone most likely is a "panic-alarm"-inducing pheromone. The main tergal-secretion compounds, various quinones and undecane, individually and in mixtures induced aggression in L. fuliginosus workers. When sulcatone was added to these compounds, the space around the odor source was avoided and a reduced number of aggressive acts observed, suggesting that sulcatone blocks the aggression-inducing effect of undecane and the quinones. These results support the hypothesis that Pella beetles mimic alarm pheromones of their hosts. This is a rare example of chemical mimicry in myrmecophilous insects in which chemicals other than cuticular hydrocarbons are used. PMID:17558536

  15. Darwin's legacy to rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae): A new genus and a new species, including materials collected on the Beagle's voyage.

    PubMed

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    A species of xanthopygine rove beetles is described and figured here as Darwinilus sedarisi gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype was collected by Charles Darwin in Bahía Blanca, Argentina on the Beagle's voyage. The contributions of Charles Darwin to rove beetle systematics are summarized briefly.

  16. Darwin’s legacy to rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae): A new genus and a new species, including materials collected on the Beagle’s voyage

    PubMed Central

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A species of xanthopygine rove beetles is described and figured here as Darwinilus sedarisi gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype was collected by Charles Darwin in Bahía Blanca, Argentina on the Beagle’s voyage. The contributions of Charles Darwin to rove beetle systematics are summarized briefly. PMID:24574856

  17. [Necrophilous beetles diversity (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae and Trogidae) in a semiarid area of Zapotitlán de las Salinas Valley, Puebla, México].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Esteban; Quezada-García, Roberto; Padilla-Ramírez, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    Mexico is constituted of arid and semiarid areas in more than half of its land extension, where most of their resources are available only during the rainy season. For those species that recycle resources, such as the carrion fauna, this represents a highly active season; however, the biological and diversity patterns of carrion fauna are poorly understood in these areas. Here, we studied the abundance, diversity and richness of the Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae and Trogidae families in the Zapotitlán de las Salinas Valley in Puebla, Mexico. Over a one-year period, monthly samples were collected from five different vegetation systems that included the scrublands, a columnar cactus landscape, and altered vegetation. Samples were collected with the use of NTP-80 traps baited with squid, and data on abundance and richness were obtained and evaluated, with respect to monthly precipitation and sampling site location. We collected a total of 613 insects from 12 genera and 15 species. Across systems, Staphylinidae showed the greatest richness (nine species) and abundance (74.2%), followed by Scarabaeidae (21.9%), Silphidae (2.9%) and Trogidae (1%). Significant differences were observed between sites and months; nevertheless, no relationship was observed between abundance and temperature or precipitation. Across taxonomic groups, abundance and richness were most evident for scrub sites, while a greater abundance during the dry season was obtained. The results of this study indicated that the carrion faunal community composition is closely related to the type of vegetation and did not depend on the rainy season. In spite that lesser carrion fauna was observed in this area when compared to other regions of Mexico, this report constitutes a significant contribution to our understanding of the ecological role of this fauna in arid areas.

  18. Abundance and Night Hourly Dispersal of the Vesicating Beetles of the Genus Paederus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) Attracted to Fluorescent, Incandescent, and Black Light Sources in the Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Lima, D C B; Costa, A A V; Silva, F S

    2015-01-01

    Paederus beetles are cosmopolitan medically important insects that cause dermatitis linearis to humans. In Brazil, despite the medical importance of these beetles, no studies focusing directly on the abundance and ecological features of harmful species exist. Therefore, this study aims at determining the abundance and the nocturnal hourly dispersal of Paederus species attracted to fluorescent, incandescent, and black light sources in the Brazilian savanna. Paederus species were captured from May to September for three consecutive years, between 2011 and 2013. The specimens were caught hourly, from 1800 to 0600 hours. Paederus beetles were attracted to incandescent, fluorescent, and black light lamps as light sources. A total of 959 individuals of five species were collected. The collected species were Paederus protensus Sharp (59.85%), Paederus columbinus Laporte de Castelnau (29.20%), Paederus mutans Sharp (7.09%), Paederus brasiliensis Erichson (3.34%), and Paederus ferus Erichson (0.52%). The black light was the most attractive source, and the darkest collecting point was the most representative for the number of individuals. The lowest catches were captured at full moon, and the highest catches were between 2200 and 0100 hours. Future investigations are needed to better understand the role of night temperature and soil humidity affecting the seasonal growth of Paederus beetle populations of northeastern Brazil. PMID:26336279

  19. A new species of Anomognathus and new Canadian and provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W; Hammond, H E James; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Anomognathus athabascensis Klimaszewski, Hammond & Langor, sp. n., and nine new provincial records including one new country record of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Alberta. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, natural history information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A checklist for all recorded aleocharines from Alberta is updated.

  20. Abundance and Night Hourly Dispersal of the Vesicating Beetles of the Genus Paederus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) Attracted to Fluorescent, Incandescent, and Black Light Sources in the Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Lima, D C B; Costa, A A V; Silva, F S

    2015-01-01

    Paederus beetles are cosmopolitan medically important insects that cause dermatitis linearis to humans. In Brazil, despite the medical importance of these beetles, no studies focusing directly on the abundance and ecological features of harmful species exist. Therefore, this study aims at determining the abundance and the nocturnal hourly dispersal of Paederus species attracted to fluorescent, incandescent, and black light sources in the Brazilian savanna. Paederus species were captured from May to September for three consecutive years, between 2011 and 2013. The specimens were caught hourly, from 1800 to 0600 hours. Paederus beetles were attracted to incandescent, fluorescent, and black light lamps as light sources. A total of 959 individuals of five species were collected. The collected species were Paederus protensus Sharp (59.85%), Paederus columbinus Laporte de Castelnau (29.20%), Paederus mutans Sharp (7.09%), Paederus brasiliensis Erichson (3.34%), and Paederus ferus Erichson (0.52%). The black light was the most attractive source, and the darkest collecting point was the most representative for the number of individuals. The lowest catches were captured at full moon, and the highest catches were between 2200 and 0100 hours. Future investigations are needed to better understand the role of night temperature and soil humidity affecting the seasonal growth of Paederus beetle populations of northeastern Brazil.

  1. Myrmecophilous rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) associated with Aenictus hodgsoni (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Thailand, with description of two new genera and three new species.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Munetoshi; Komatsu, Takashi; Katayama, Yuji; Song, Xiao-Bin; Sakchoowong, Watana

    2014-05-19

    Three species of rove beetles (subfamily Aleocharinae) were collected from colonies of Aenictus hodgsoni Forel, 1901 in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. They are classified into three genera, including two new genera, and described herein as: Aenictobia siamensis Maruyama, sp. n. (tribe Aenictoteratini), Aenictosymbia cornuta Maruyama, gen. & sp. n. (tribe Lomechusini) and Aenictoxenides mirabilis Maruyama, gen. & sp. n. (tribe Pygostenini). The systematic positions of the new genera are discussed.

  2. A new species of Anomognathus and new Canadian and provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W.; Hammond, H.E. James; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Anomognathus athabascensis Klimaszewski, Hammond & Langor, sp. n., and nine new provincial records including one new country record of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Alberta. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, natural history information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A checklist for all recorded aleocharines from Alberta is updated. PMID:27199584

  3. Eight new species, a new record, and redescription of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904: The first record of termitophilous rove beetles in Cambodia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Kanao, Taisuke; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-11-18

    As the first record of the Cambodian termitophilous rove beetles, eight new species of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904 (Aleocharini: Compactopediina) are described, along with a redescription of the genus. Discoxenus katayamai Kanao & Maruyama, 2010, which was originally known from Thailand, is newly recorded from Cambodia and redescribed. Discoxenus species are morphologically divided into two species groups, namely the latiabdominalis and the assmuthi. The latiabdominalis species group includes D. latiabdominalis n. sp. and D. cambodiensis n. sp., and both species are associated with Odontotermes maesodensis Ahmad, 1965. The assmuthi species group comprises 11 species: D. assmuthi Wasmann, 1904, D. lepisma Wasmann, 1904, D. indicus Kistner, 1982, D. malaysiensis Kistner, 1982, D. phourini n. sp., D. kohkongensis n. sp., D. hirsutus n. sp., D. minutus n. sp., D. lucidus n. sp., D. kakizoei n. sp., and D. katayamai. The members in the assmuthi species group are associated with Odontotermes or Hypotermes termites. One of the unique morphological features of the assmuthi species group is the strongly developed distal crest of the male aedeagal median lobe while that observed in the latiabdominalis species group is not produced, which is general character state in the tribe Aleocharini. The character state of distal crest and several other morphological features such as mouthparts are considered to support the monophyly of respective species groups in Discoxenus.

  4. Eight new species, a new record, and redescription of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904: The first record of termitophilous rove beetles in Cambodia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Kanao, Taisuke; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    As the first record of the Cambodian termitophilous rove beetles, eight new species of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904 (Aleocharini: Compactopediina) are described, along with a redescription of the genus. Discoxenus katayamai Kanao & Maruyama, 2010, which was originally known from Thailand, is newly recorded from Cambodia and redescribed. Discoxenus species are morphologically divided into two species groups, namely the latiabdominalis and the assmuthi. The latiabdominalis species group includes D. latiabdominalis n. sp. and D. cambodiensis n. sp., and both species are associated with Odontotermes maesodensis Ahmad, 1965. The assmuthi species group comprises 11 species: D. assmuthi Wasmann, 1904, D. lepisma Wasmann, 1904, D. indicus Kistner, 1982, D. malaysiensis Kistner, 1982, D. phourini n. sp., D. kohkongensis n. sp., D. hirsutus n. sp., D. minutus n. sp., D. lucidus n. sp., D. kakizoei n. sp., and D. katayamai. The members in the assmuthi species group are associated with Odontotermes or Hypotermes termites. One of the unique morphological features of the assmuthi species group is the strongly developed distal crest of the male aedeagal median lobe while that observed in the latiabdominalis species group is not produced, which is general character state in the tribe Aleocharini. The character state of distal crest and several other morphological features such as mouthparts are considered to support the monophyly of respective species groups in Discoxenus. PMID:26624709

  5. Life table of Paederus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Jaal, Zairi; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2012-05-01

    The life history characteristics of the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes Curtis were studied under laboratory conditions using three field strains from Malaysia: Desa Wawasan (DW), Sri Pinang (SP), and Ampang Jajar (AJ). The total development time of immature stages differed significantly among the three strains, especially between DW (17.43 +/- 0.16 d), SP (18.60 +/- 0.19 d), and AJ (18.68 +/- 0.22 d). Adult females and males from DW also exhibited a shorter life span, although the difference among strains was not significant. In terms of fecundity, the numbers of eggs laid per female for DW, SP, and AJ were 121.28 +/- 15.98, 127.30 +/- 18.01, and 147.45 +/- 17.12, respectively. Additionally, because of the shorter life span in DW strain, two apparent peaks in age-stage specific fecundity were detected. The beetles compensated for their shorter life span by increasing their reproductive activity to sustain the progeny in the population. The intrinsic rates of increase (r) of P. fuscipes from DW, SP, and AJ were 0.0773 +/- 0.0046 d(-1), 0.0788 +/- 0.0051 d(-1), and 0.0873 +/- 0.0054 d(-1), respectively; and the net reproduction rates (R0) were 40.09 +/- 7.39 offspring, 45.29 +/- 8.74 offspring, and 42.34 +/- 8.25 offspring, respectively. The mean generation time of P. fuscipes from AJ was 43.08 +/- 1.07 d, which was significantly higher than that from DW (47.95 +/- 1.36 d) and SP (48.57 +/- 1.43 d). The total immature development time of P. fuscipes in this study was shorter than values reported in previous studies.

  6. Beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, W E; Alves, A C F; Creão-Duarte, A J

    2014-08-01

    The species richness, abundance and seasonality of Coleoptera fauna associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area were examined. Tray, pitfall and modified Shannon traps were settled together to collect these insects during two seasons (dry and rainy). 4,851 beetles were collected, belonging to 19 families and 88 species. Staphylinidae (2,184) and Histeridae (1,264) were the most abundant families and accounted for 71.1% of the specimens collected. Scarabaeidae (15) showed the highest species richness. The most abundant species were Atheta iheringi Bernhauer, 1908 (Staphylinidae) (1,685), Euspilotus sp. (Histeridae) (461), Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) (Nitidulidae) (394), Xerosaprinus diptychus (Marseul, 1855) (Histeridae) (331) and Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 (Dermestidae). Amongst these species, X. diptychus showed to be strongly influenced by seasonality, since 96.1% of the specimens were collected during the dry season.

  7. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology. PMID:26249885

  8. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-06-19

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology.

  9. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given. PMID:27615867

  10. Can rove beetles (Staphylinidae) be excluded in studies focusing on saproxylic beetles in central European beech forests?

    PubMed

    Parmain, G; Bouget, C; Müller, J; Horak, J; Gossner, M M; Lachat, T; Isacsson, G

    2015-02-01

    Monitoring saproxylic beetle diversity, though challenging, can help identifying relevant conservation sites or key drivers of forest biodiversity, and assessing the impact of forestry practices on biodiversity. Unfortunately, monitoring species assemblages is costly, mainly due to the time spent on identification. Excluding families which are rich in specimens and species but are difficult to identify is a frequent procedure used in ecological entomology to reduce the identification cost. The Staphylinidae (rove beetle) family is both one of the most frequently excluded and one of the most species-rich saproxylic beetle families. Using a large-scale beetle and environmental dataset from 238 beech stands across Europe, we evaluated the effects of staphylinid exclusion on results in ecological forest studies. Simplified staphylinid-excluded assemblages were found to be relevant surrogates for whole assemblages. The species richness and composition of saproxylic beetle assemblages both with and without staphylinids responded congruently to landscape, climatic and stand gradients, even when the assemblages included a high proportion of staphylinid species. At both local and regional scales, the species richness as well as the species composition of staphylinid-included and staphylinid-excluded assemblages were highly positively correlated. Ranking of sites according to their biodiversity level, which either included or excluded Staphylinidae in species richness, also gave congruent results. From our results, species assemblages omitting staphylinids can be taken as efficient surrogates for complete assemblages in large scale biodiversity monitoring studies.

  11. Generalist predators (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Staphylinidae) associated with millipede populations in sweet potato and carrot fields and implications for millipede management.

    PubMed

    Brunke, Adam J; Bahlai, Christine A; Sears, Mark K; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2009-08-01

    The predatory beetle assemblage of Ontario carrot and sweet potato fields was described and assessed to identify species of interest to the control of the emerging pest millipede Cylindroiulus caeruleocinctus (Wood) (Diplopoda: Julidae). Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was identified as a dominant species, and seven other carabid species [Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger), Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer), Ophonus puncticeps (Stephens), H. erraticus Say, Bembidion quadrimaculatum oppositum Say, Poecilus chalcites (Say), Scarites subterraneus Fabricius, and Pterostichus permundus (Say)] were identified as common species on the basis of activity density. Common species became more abundant as the growing season progressed. In laboratory bioassays, P. melanarius preyed on millipedes regardless of prey size, whereas H. erraticus never selected millipedes as prey. A significant positive spatiotemporal relationship was found between P. melanarius and C. caeruleocinctus in sweet potato fields. P. melanarius was found to be a natural enemy of C. caeruleocinctus, and other common carabid species warrant future study. The role of Staphylinidae in millipede control could not be elucidated, likely because of low trapping efficiency. Tachinus corticinus Gravenhorst, an introduced staphylinid from Europe, was newly recorded in Ontario, extending its North American range considerably westward from the province of Quebec. The results of this study are an important foundational step toward developing a successful integrated pest management strategy for controlling millipede damage in crops. PMID:19689889

  12. Coastal Staphylinidae (Coleoptera): A worldwide checklist, biogeography and natural history

    PubMed Central

    Frank, J. H.; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae. By ‘coastal habitats’ we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs. The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state). Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database. The ‘Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes’ section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history. The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the Pacific. This

  13. Coastal Staphylinidae (Coleoptera): A worldwide checklist, biogeography and natural history.

    PubMed

    Frank, J H; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae.By 'coastal habitats' we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs.The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state). Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database.The 'Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes' section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history.The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the Pacific. This difference is a

  14. New distribution records for Canadian Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae), and new synonymies for Trichiusa

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Godin, Benoit; Langor, David; Bourdon, Caroline; Lee, Seung-Il; Horwood, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fifty-four new Canadian provincial records of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae), including three new Canadian records and one new North American record, are presented. Of these, 33 are new provincial records for Saskatchewan, 14 for Alberta, two for British Columbia, three for Manitoba, two for the Northwest Territories and one for the Yukon Territory. The following are new Canadian records: Trichiusa pilosa Casey [formerly reported from Nova Scotia and Ontario as Trichiusa postica Casey], Acrotona recondita (Erichson) and the adventive Palaearctic Atheta nigra (Kraatz), which is also a new North American record. Bionomics information and new locality records are provided. The following new synonyms of Trichiusa pilosa Casey are established: Trichiusa atra Casey, Trichiusa monticola Casey, Trichiusa parviceps Casey, and Trichiusa postica Casey. The numbers of Aleocharinae remaining to be discovered in Canadian provinces and territories are discussed. PMID:25931964

  15. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  16. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category

  17. Necrophilous Staphylininae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) as indicators of season of death and corpse relocation.

    PubMed

    Mądra, Anna; Konwerski, Szymon; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2014-09-01

    Several case studies confirm that habitat and seasonal preferences of necrophilous insects are the source of valuable information about the season of death or corpse relocation. Rove beetles (Staphylinidae) are common predators found on corpses and subfamily Staphylininae includes species of the largest forensic importance. In order to evaluate usefulness of Staphylininae as indicators of season of death or corpse relocation, a pig carrion experiment was made from April to October in open and forest habitats of Central Europe. Forty species of Staphylininae were collected, with hairy rove beetle (Creophilus maxillosus) being the most abundant. Some species exhibited a clear preference towards particular habitats. It was found that Philonthus lepidus was exclusive to open habitats and therefore may be useful as indicator of corpse relocation from open to forest habitats. Philonthus decorus was the only species found exclusively on carcasses in forests. Clear seasonality was present in nine species. Philonthus lepidus, Bisnius nitidulus, Philonthusconcinnus and Gabrius osseticus were spring-early summer species, while Philonthusspinipes and Ocypus olens were late summer-early fall species. Bisnius fimetarius and Staphylinus erythropterus were spring-summer species. Platydracus stercorarius was summer species. These results indicate that some Staphylininae are good candidates for indicators of season of death or corpse relocation. PMID:25016538

  18. Susceptibility of Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tourtois, Joseph; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) are two soil-dwelling biological control agents used to manage western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and fungus gnats Bradysis spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) in glasshouses. Growers often use multiple natural enemies to achieve economic control, but knowledge of interactions among natural enemies is lacking. We conducted a laboratory bioassay to test the pathogenicity of four commercially available nematode species—Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhbditidae), Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), S. feltiae (Filipjev), and S. riobrave Cabanillas et al.—to third instar and adult D. coriaria. Third instars were three times more susceptible than the adults to the entomopathogenic nematodes. Mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora was lower than the mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave. Neither infective juvenile foraging behavior nor size correlates with D. coriaria mortality. Dalotia coriaria appears to be most likely compatible with applications of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. PMID:26463077

  19. Injuries from Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Southcott, R V

    The effects of Coleoptera (beetles) on humans in the Australian region are surveyed. Ill-effects range from the immediate trauma of a bite, possibly with minor effects from the beetle's salivary secretions, to the effects of the vesicating beetles of the families Meloidae, Oedemeridae and Staphylinidae, and also the acute corneal erosion that is attributed to the small beetle Orthoperus sp. (family Corylophidae) in southeastern Australia. Reference also is made to other effects that are known as a result of beetle metabolites or structures, such as "carpet beetle dermatitis" from the irritating hairs of Anthrenus larvae (family Dermestidae), and inhalational asthma from beetles, notably the grain weevil Sitophilus, the causative agent of certain cases of grain-worker's asthma. Beetles as human intestinal inhabitants, and their role as intermediary hosts of metazoal diseases are discussed.

  20. Injuries from Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Southcott, R V

    The effects of Coleoptera (beetles) on humans in the Australian region are surveyed. Ill-effects range from the immediate trauma of a bite, possibly with minor effects from the beetle's salivary secretions, to the effects of the vesicating beetles of the families Meloidae, Oedemeridae and Staphylinidae, and also the acute corneal erosion that is attributed to the small beetle Orthoperus sp. (family Corylophidae) in southeastern Australia. Reference also is made to other effects that are known as a result of beetle metabolites or structures, such as "carpet beetle dermatitis" from the irritating hairs of Anthrenus larvae (family Dermestidae), and inhalational asthma from beetles, notably the grain weevil Sitophilus, the causative agent of certain cases of grain-worker's asthma. Beetles as human intestinal inhabitants, and their role as intermediary hosts of metazoal diseases are discussed. PMID:2593912

  1. Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin Louise

    1991-01-01

    Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

  2. New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

  3. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele

    2014-11-26

    An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured.

  4. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured. PMID:25543941

  5. Attractants for the green June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, D T; Lewis, B A; Bryant, R J; Liyanage, R; Lay, J O; Pszczolkowski, M A

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate lures for adult green June beetles, Cotinis nitida (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), for future use in a mass trapping program. Volatile organic compounds collected from headspace of green June beetles feeding on fermenting ripe apple (Malus spp.), the natural lure that elicits feeding aggregations, were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Yellow funnel traps baited with 91% isopropanol or the five component blend were equally effective in eliciting aggregation behavior and often more attractive to green June beetles than the natural lure. In 2008, three trap lines adjacent and parallel to the perimeter of two vineyards, each with 12 Xpando yellow funnel traps baited with either 91% isopropanol or the five component blend, differed in catch of green June beetles across sample dates, and sample date by bait interaction but there were no differences among these two baits. A season total of 324,007 green June beetle were captured by these 36 baited traps. A brief review is included of fermentation volatiles attractive to insects. We conclude with the potential cost to use mass trapping against adult green June beetles.

  6. DNA Barcoding of Japanese Click Beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa. PMID:25636000

  7. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    PubMed

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  8. Endemism patterns in the Italian leaf beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Maurizio; Urbani, Fabrizia; D’Alessandro, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution the results of a zoogeographical analysis, carried out on the 123 endemic leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in Italy and its immediately adjacent regions, are reported. To assess the level of faunistic similarity among the different geographic regions studied, a cluster analysis was performed, based on the endemic component. This was done by calculating the Baroni Urbani & Buser’s similarity index (BUB). Finally, a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify the most important areas of endemism in Italy. PMID:24163584

  9. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra.

  10. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra. PMID:25499796

  11. Timing of onset of evening activity of adult chinese rose beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...

  12. Primary types of Chinese longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary types of Chinese (mainland China, Taiwan, and Tibet) longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution are catalogued and figured, current through 2012. Data on the original combination, current name, current tribal classification, and ...

  13. Primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) are catalogued and figured, current through 2012 (but also including some 2013 holotypes). Data on the original combination, current combina...

  14. New species and distributional records of Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) from Ontario, Canada, with a checklist of recorded species

    PubMed Central

    Brunke, Adam J.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Dorval, Julie-Anne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paiero, Steven M.; Marshall, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of Ontario were reviewed in the context of recently studied material, primarily from insect surveys conducted by the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada). Aleochara daviesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Agaricomorpha websteri Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) alesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Dinaraea backusensis Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., and Strigota obscurata Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n. are described as new to science. We also report 47 new Ontario records and 24 new Canadian records. Callicerus rigidicornis (Erichson) and Alevonota gracilenta (Erichson) are newly reported from North America as adventive species. A checklist, with Canadian distributions by province, of the 224 species of Aleocharinae known from Ontario is given. The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Dexiogyia angustiventris (Casey): (Dexiogyia asperata (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia abscissa (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia tenuicauda (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia intenta (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia alticola (Casey) syn. n.). The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Acrotona subpygmaea (Bernhauer): (Acrotona avia (Casey) syn. n., Acrotona puritana (Casey) syn. n.). Lectotypes are designated for Thiasophila angustiventris Casey, Thiasophila asperata Casey, Ischnoglossa intenta Casey, Oxypoda rubescans Casey, Chilopora americana Casey, Chilopora fuliginosa Casey, Coprothassa smithi Casey, Atheta subpygmaea Bernhauer, Colpodota puritana Casey, Strigota seducens Casey, Trichiusa compacta Casey, Trichiusa hirsuta Casey and Trichiusa robustula Casey. PMID:22577320

  15. [Comparative histology of mushroom bodies in carnivorous beetles of the suborder polyphaga (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom bodies in beetles of the families Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Cantharidae, Trogossitidae, Peltidae, Cleridae, Malachiidae, and Coccinellidae are shown to be rather poorly developed. The calyx region of the mushroom bodies in these beetles never forms two separate cups, and the peduncular apparatus includes a unified shaft almost over its entire length. Only the pedunculus contains two separate shafts in a few cases. Two proliferative centers consisting of one to three neuroblasts are often found in each Kenyon cell group. The shift from carnivorous to feeding on pollen or leaves, which has taken place in some taxa, does not visibly affect the degree of mushroom body development.

  16. Diversity abundance and seasonality of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionida) in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...

  17. Seasonal and spatial dispersal patterns of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionidae) from forest habitats into production nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are important pests of tree nurseries. While they are known to migrate in early spring from peripheral forested areas into nurseries, there are few data to show how far ambrosia beetles will fly to infest new host trees, or whether a mass trapping...

  18. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  19. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  20. Oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, D S; Christmas, T I; Greig, D E

    1990-05-01

    Blister beetle dermatosis is a distinctive vesiculobullous eruption that occurs after contact with three major groups of beetles (Order: Coleoptera). It is caused by a vesicant chemical contained in the body fluids of the beetles. The smallest and least known family is the Oedemeridae. Although there are few references in the medical literature, blister beetle dermatosis caused by oedemerids may be more common and widespread than currently recognized. The best known family is the Meloidae with numerous species worldwide causing blistering. The vesicant chemical in both Oedemeridae and Meloidae is cantharidin. The third group of blister beetles includes species of the genus Paederus (Family: Staphylinidae). The clinicopathologic picture differs because this genus contains a different vesicant agent, pederin. The clinicopathologic features of oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis are described. The world medical and relevant entomologic literature is reviewed.

  1. Oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, D S; Christmas, T I; Greig, D E

    1990-05-01

    Blister beetle dermatosis is a distinctive vesiculobullous eruption that occurs after contact with three major groups of beetles (Order: Coleoptera). It is caused by a vesicant chemical contained in the body fluids of the beetles. The smallest and least known family is the Oedemeridae. Although there are few references in the medical literature, blister beetle dermatosis caused by oedemerids may be more common and widespread than currently recognized. The best known family is the Meloidae with numerous species worldwide causing blistering. The vesicant chemical in both Oedemeridae and Meloidae is cantharidin. The third group of blister beetles includes species of the genus Paederus (Family: Staphylinidae). The clinicopathologic picture differs because this genus contains a different vesicant agent, pederin. The clinicopathologic features of oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis are described. The world medical and relevant entomologic literature is reviewed. PMID:2189910

  2. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  3. A revision of the Neotropical species of Bolitogyrus Chevrolat, a geographically disjunct lineage of Staphylinini (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Brunke, Adam J; Solodovnikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical species of the rarely collected genus Bolitogyrus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae: Staphylinini) are revised. The genus exhibits an uncommon, disjunct distribution between the Neotropical and Oriental Regions and is of unknown phylogenetic position within Staphylinini. Morphological evolution remarkable for Staphylinini was discovered within Bolitogyrus, including sexually dimorphic modifications of the pronotum that may be involved in male competition for females. rSEM interactive animations were used to establish morphological species boundaries between two highly variable species and are provided to illustrate diagnostic characters of the genitalia in unconventional views. The genus is redescribed based on the world fauna and twenty-eight Neotropical species are considered valid. Of these, nineteen are described as new to science: Bolitogyrus ashei sp. n.; B. apicofasciatus sp. n.; B. brevistellus sp. n.; B. bufo sp. n.; B. cheungi sp. n.; B. cornutus sp. n.; B. divisus sp. n.; B. falini sp. n.; B. gracilis sp. n.; B. inexspectatus sp. n.; B. longistellus sp. n.; B. marquezi sp. n.; B. newtoni sp. n.; B. pseudotortifolius sp. n.; B. pulchrus sp. n.; B. silex sp. n.; B. thomasi sp. n.; B. tortifolius sp. n.; and B. viridescens sp. n. Bolitogyrus sallei (Kraatz), stat. r. is removed from synonymy with B. buphthalmus (Erichson) and the following new synonyms are proposed: Cyrtothorax cyanescens Sharp, 1884, syn. n. = Quedius buphthalmus Erichson, 1840; C. nevermanni Scheerpeltz, 1974, syn. n. = C. costaricensis Wendeler, 1927. A summary of all available bionomic and distributional data, as well as an illustrated identification key to and diagnoses of all Neotropical species are provided. PMID:25061393

  4. A revision of the Neotropical species of Bolitogyrus Chevrolat, a geographically disjunct lineage of Staphylinini (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Brunke, Adam J.; Solodovnikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical species of the rarely collected genus Bolitogyrus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae: Staphylinini) are revised. The genus exhibits an uncommon, disjunct distribution between the Neotropical and Oriental Regions and is of unknown phylogenetic position within Staphylinini. Morphological evolution remarkable for Staphylinini was discovered within Bolitogyrus, including sexually dimorphic modifications of the pronotum that may be involved in male competition for females. rSEM interactive animations were used to establish morphological species boundaries between two highly variable species and are provided to illustrate diagnostic characters of the genitalia in unconventional views. The genus is redescribed based on the world fauna and twenty-eight Neotropical species are considered valid. Of these, nineteen are described as new to science: Bolitogyrus ashei sp. n.; B. apicofasciatus sp. n.; B. brevistellus sp. n.; B. bufo sp. n.; B. cheungi sp. n.; B. cornutus sp. n.; B. divisus sp. n.; B. falini sp. n.; B. gracilis sp. n.; B. inexspectatus sp. n.; B. longistellus sp. n.; B. marquezi sp. n.; B. newtoni sp. n.; B. pseudotortifolius sp. n.; B. pulchrus sp. n.; B. silex sp. n.; B. thomasi sp. n.; B. tortifolius sp. n.; and B. viridescens sp. n. Bolitogyrus sallei (Kraatz), stat. r. is removed from synonymy with B. buphthalmus (Erichson) and the following new synonyms are proposed: Cyrtothorax cyanescens Sharp, 1884, syn. n. = Quedius buphthalmus Erichson, 1840; C. nevermanni Scheerpeltz, 1974, syn. n. = C. costaricensis Wendeler, 1927. A summary of all available bionomic and distributional data, as well as an illustrated identification key to and diagnoses of all Neotropical species are provided. PMID:25061393

  5. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  6. Intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), between adjacent cotton and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Bastola, Anup; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, R Patrick; Shrestha, Ram B; Chen, Fa-Jun; Carroll, Stanley C

    2016-02-01

    A 2-year study was conducted to characterize the intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) between adjacent cotton and alfalfa. A dual protein-marking method was used to assess the intercrop movement of the lady beetles in each crop. In turns field collected lady beetles in each crop were assayed by protein specific ELISA to quantify the movement of beetles between the crops. Results indicated that a high percentage of convergent lady beetles caught in cotton (46% in 2008; 56% in 2009) and alfalfa (46% in 2008; 71% in 2009) contained a protein mark, thus indicating that convergent lady beetle movement was largely bidirectional between the adjacent crops. Although at a much lower proportion, lady beetles also showed unidirectional movement from cotton to alfalfa (5% in 2008 and 6% in 2009) and from alfalfa to cotton (9% in 2008 and 14% in 2009). The season-long bidirectional movement exhibited by the beetles was significantly higher in alfalfa than cotton during both years of the study. The total influx of lady beetles (bidirectional and unidirectional combined) was significantly higher in alfalfa compared with that in cotton for both years. While convergent lady beetles moved between adjacent cotton and alfalfa, they were more attracted to alfalfa when cotton was not flowering and/or when alfalfa offered more opportunities for prey. This study offers much needed information on intercrop movement of the convergent lady beetle that should facilitate integrated pest management decisions in cotton utilizing conservation biological control.

  7. Effect of abiotic factors on initiation of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) flight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum flight aren’t fully understood. We investigated the impa...

  8. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  9. Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental tree nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...

  10. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333

  11. Skimming behaviour and spreading potential of Stenus species and Dianous coerulescens (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Carolin; Seifert, Karlheinz; Dettner, Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Rove beetles of the genus Stenus Latreille and the genus Dianous Leach possess pygidial glands containing a multifunctional secretion of piperidine and pyridine-derived alkaloids as well as several terpenes. One important character of this secretion is the spreading potential of its different compounds, stenusine, norstenusine, 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine, cicindeloine, α-pinene, 1,8-cineole and 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one. The individual secretion composition enables the beetles to skim rapidly and far over the water surface, even when just a small amount of secretion is emitted. Ethological investigations of several Stenus species revealed that the skimming ability, skimming velocity and the skimming behaviour differ between the Stenus species. These differences can be linked to varied habitat claims and secretion saving mechanisms. By means of tensiometer measurements using the pendant drop method, the spreading pressure of all secretion constituents as well as some naturally identical beetle secretions on the water surface could be established. The compound 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine excelled stenusine believed to date to be mainly responsible for skimming relating to its surface activity. The naturally identical secretions are not subject to synergistic effects of the single compounds concerning the spreading potential. Furthermore, evolutionary aspects of the Steninae's pygidial gland secretion are discussed.

  12. Factors influencing flight capacity of the mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Whitehouse, C M; Sykes, J

    2014-02-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most damaging pest of mature pine (Pinaceae) in western North America. Although mountain pine beetles have an obligate dispersal phase during which adults must locate a new host for brood production, dispersal is a poorly understood aspect of its ecology. This flight mill study was designed to test the effects of beetle size, sex, and age on flight capacity. Energy use during flight was assessed through measurements of weight before and after flight and fat content of flown versus control beetles. The mean flight distance achieved by mountain pine beetles varied between 2.12 and 5.95 km over the 23-h bioassay, but the longest total flight of an individual beetle was >24 km. Beetle preflight weight influenced flight initiation, flight distance, and duration. Bigger beetles are more likely to fly and once in flight fly longer and farther than smaller beetles. There was no direct effect of beetle sex on flight capacity. Flight capacity of beetles declined with age postemergence. Although individual flight capacity was variable, flight velocity was relatively constant between 1.55 and 1.93 km/h. Lipids are used to power flight in mountain pine beetles, as lipid content was lower in beetles flown on the flight mills compared with beetles that did not fly. Flight distance was negatively correlated with beetle postflight lipid content. The baseline flight capacity data revealed in this study have implications for understanding the population dynamics of this eruptive forest pest.

  13. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Seago, Ainsley E.; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as ‘living jewels’, in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles. PMID:18957361

  14. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Seago, Ainsley E; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D

    2009-04-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as 'living jewels', in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles.

  15. Endogenous cellulolytic enzyme systems in the longhorn beetle Mesosa myops (Insecta: Coleoptera) studied by transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Song, Keqing; Teng, Huajing; Zhang, Bin; Li, Wenzhu; Xue, Huaijun; Yang, Xingke

    2015-09-01

    The Cerambycidae (longhorn beetle) is a large family of Coleoptera with xylophagous feeding habits. Cellulose digestion plays an important role in these wood-feeding insects. In this study, transcriptomic technology was used to obtain one glycoside hydrolase family 45 (GH45) cellulase and seven GH5 cellulases from Mesosa myops, a typical longhorn beetle. Analyses of expression dynamics and evolutionary relationships provided a complete description of the cellulolytic system. The expression dynamics related to individual development indicated that endogenous GH45 and GH5 cellulases dominate cellulose digestion in M. myops. Evolutionary analyses suggested that GH45 cellulase gene is a general gene in the Coleoptera Suborder Polyphaga. Evolutionary analyses also indicated that the GH5 cellulase group in Lamiinae longhorn beetles is closely associated with wood feeding. This study demonstrated that there is a complex endogenous cellulolytic system in M. myops that is dominated by cellulases belonging to two glycoside hydrolase families.

  16. Mature larva of Stenichnus collaris (Müller & Kunze) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2013-12-03

    The mature larva of Stenichnus collaris is re-described on the basis of a shed larval skin. This is the first description of an immature Stenichnus identified by rearing to an adult beetle, and not only by collecting the larva in association with adults, as in previously published works. New data on the life history of St. collaris are provided, and possible serial homology of chaetotaxic structures across body segments is discussed. The structures of immature Nearctic St. turbatus, the only Stenichnus larva described with focus on the chaetotaxy, are compared with those of St. collaris and possible homologies are indicated.

  17. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-07-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  18. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-01-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  19. Testing the 'island rule' for a tenebrionid beetle (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Miquel

    2002-05-01

    Insular populations and their closest mainland counterparts commonly display body size differences that are considered to fit the island rule, a theoretical framework to explain both dwarfism and gigantism in isolated animal populations. The island rule is used to explain the pattern of change of body size at the inter-specific level. But the model implicitly makes also a prediction for the body size of isolated populations of a single species. It suggests that, for a hypothetical species covering a wide range of island sizes, there exists a specific island size where this species reaches the largest body size. Body size would be small (in relative terms) in the smallest islets of the species range. It would increase with island size, and reach a maximum at some specific island size. However, additional increases from such a specific island size would instead promote body size reduction, and small (in relative terms) body sizes would be found again on the largest islands. The biogeographical patterns predicted by the island rule have been described and analysed for vertebrates only (mainly mammals), but remain largely untested for insects or other invertebrates. I analyse here the pattern of body size variation between seven isolated insular populations of a flightless beetle, Asida planipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). This is an endemic species of Mallorca, Menorca and a number of islands and islets in the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean). The study covers seven of the 15 known populations (i.e., there are only 15 islands or islets inhabited by the species). The populations studied fit the pattern advanced above and we could, therefore, extrapolate the island rule to a very different kind of organism. However, the small sample size of some of the populations invites some caution at this early stage.

  20. Interactions between imidacloprid and Metarhizium brunneum on adult Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Russell, Calum W; Ugine, Todd A; Hajek, Ann E

    2010-11-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a longhorned beetle species native to Asia, has been introduced into several North American and European cities. Currently eradication and preventive measures are limited to identifying and destroying infested trees and protecting uninfested trees with trunk or soil-injections of the systemic insecticide imidacloprid. Because entomopathogenic fungi like Metarhizium brunneum Petch have been identified as virulent against these beetles we conducted several tests to determine the compatibility of the two agents in combination. Radial hyphal growth and the sporulation capacity of M. brunneum on Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast were not significantly affected by the presence of imidacloprid. In a 2×3 factorial experiment investigating interactions between exposure to imidacloprid and M. brunneum we observed no effect of imidacloprid alone on beetle survival when beetles were given a single dose of 10 or 100 ppm compared to control insects. We observed a significant effect of exposure to M. brunneum, and a significant interaction between imidacloprid and M. brunneum representing a synergistic effect of dual treatment. Beetles exposed to the fungus alone lived significantly longer compared to insects treated with a single dose of 100 ppm imidacloprid (9.5 vs. 6.5d). Consumption of striped maple twigs by beetles exposed to imidacloprid, across concentrations, was reduced 48% compared to control insects, where as consumption by M. brunneum-exposed beetles was reduced by 16% over the first 6-days of the test period. Beetles fed 100 ppm imidacloprid consumed 32% less over the first 3d compared to beetles not exposed to imidacloprid and thereafter consumed as much as beetles not fed 100 ppm imidacloprid. M. brunneum-exposed beetles consumed significantly less food than control insects throughout the test period, and beetles treated with imidacloprid produced significantly fewer conidia compared to beetles

  1. First records of Chevrolatiini and Cephenniini in Eocene Baltic amber (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Kubisz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Fossils of two tribes of the ant-like stone beetles, previously unknown in Eocene deposits, are recorded, based on inclusions in Baltic amber. Well-preserved specimens of Chevrolatia sp. (Chevrolatiini) and Cephennodes sp. (Cephenniini) are described, but the species lack reliable diagnostic characters and remain unnamed. This is the first record of a fossil of Chevrolatiini, an extant tribe that includes only one genus, Chevrolatia Jacquelin du Val, distributed in the Holarctic, Mexico, West Palaearctic and Afrotropical regions. The extant tribe Cephenniini, in turn, is cosmopolitan, but the only fossil unambiguously assigned to this taxon, an unnamed genus, was known from Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber. Many extant species of Cephennodes Reitter are known from Palaearctic, but they predominantly inhabit its eastern part, with only two species occurring in Europe. The Eocene specimen of Cephennodes sp. is also the first known fossil of this genus. PMID:27395147

  2. Pseudoexeirarthra, a new genus from New Zealand (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae), with descriptions of seven new species

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Seok; Carlton, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new endemic genus and seven new species of New Zealand pselaphine staphylinid beetles of the supertribe Faronitae are described as follows: Pseudoexeirarthra Park & Carlton, gen. n. (type species: Sagola spinifer Broun); Pseudoexeirarthra sungmini Park & Carlton, sp. n.; Pseudoexeirarthra kwangguki Park & Carlton, sp. n.; Pseudoexeirarthra youngboki Park & Carlton, sp. n.; Pseudoexeirarthra seiwoongi Park & Carlton, sp. n.; Pseudoexeirarthra parkeri Park & Carlton, sp. n.; Pseudoexeirarthra hlavaci Park & Carlton, sp. n.; Pseudoexeirarthra nomurai Park & Carlton, sp. n. Three species, Sagola spinifer Broun, Sagola colorata Broun, and Sagola puncticollis Broun, are transferred to the genus Pseudoexeirarthra. Six species are synonymized: Sagola dilucida Broun, Sagola guinnessi Broun, Sagola longicollis Broun, Sagola longula Broun, and Sagola rectipennis Broun under Pseudoexeirarthra spinifer (Broun); Sagola insueta Broun under Sagola colorata (Broun). A lectotype is designated for Pseudoexeirarthra spinifer (Broun). A key, habitus photographs, line drawings of diagnostic characters, and distribution maps are provided for each species. PMID:25878539

  3. Brounea, a new genus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) from New Zealand, with descriptions of nine new species.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Seok; Carlton, Christopher E

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and nine new species of New Zealand endemic pselaphine staphylinid beetles belonging to the supertribe Faronitae are described: Brounea Park & Carlton, gen. nov. (type species: Sagola setiventris Broun, 1915); B. yoonhoi Park & Carlton, sp. nov., B. chorui Park & Carlton, sp. nov., B. sungryongi Park & Carlton, sp. nov., B. mijeongae Park & Carlton sp. nov., B. seongmoi Park & Carlton sp. nov., B. daehyuni Park & Carlton sp. nov., B. mangamukaensis Park & Carlton sp. nov., B. sunjaei Park & Carlton sp. nov., and B. seungili Park & Carlton sp. nov. Two species, S. setiventris and S. tenuis Broun, 1886, are transferred to the genus Brounea. A key to species, habitus photographs, and line drawings of diagnostic characters are provided. PMID:26250249

  4. Pseudoexeirarthra, a new genus from New Zealand (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae), with descriptions of seven new species.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Seok; Carlton, Christopher E

    2015-01-01

    A new endemic genus and seven new species of New Zealand pselaphine staphylinid beetles of the supertribe Faronitae are described as follows: Pseudoexeirarthra Park & Carlton, gen. n. (type species: Sagolaspinifer Broun); Pseudoexeirarthrasungmini Park & Carlton, sp. n.; Pseudoexeirarthrakwangguki Park & Carlton, sp. n.; Pseudoexeirarthrayoungboki Park & Carlton, sp. n.; Pseudoexeirarthraseiwoongi Park & Carlton, sp. n.; Pseudoexeirarthraparkeri Park & Carlton, sp. n.; Pseudoexeirarthrahlavaci Park & Carlton, sp. n.; Pseudoexeirarthranomurai Park & Carlton, sp. n. Three species, Sagolaspinifer Broun, Sagolacolorata Broun, and Sagolapuncticollis Broun, are transferred to the genus Pseudoexeirarthra. Six species are synonymized: Sagoladilucida Broun, Sagolaguinnessi Broun, Sagolalongicollis Broun, Sagolalongula Broun, and Sagolarectipennis Broun under Pseudoexeirarthraspinifer (Broun); Sagolainsueta Broun under Sagolacolorata (Broun). A lectotype is designated for Pseudoexeirarthraspinifer (Broun). A key, habitus photographs, line drawings of diagnostic characters, and distribution maps are provided for each species. PMID:25878539

  5. Fungal symbionts in three exotic ambrosia beetles, Xylosandrus amputatus, Xyleborinus andrewesi, and Dryoxylon onoharaense (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract In nearly every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying trees. Some non-native ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody pla...

  6. Influence of temperature on survival and water relations of Paederus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Jaal, Zairi; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2013-09-01

    The effects of four temperatures (15, 23.5, 28, and 35 degrees C) on the biological characteristics of the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes Curtis were studied, and its cuticular permeability also was measured. Specimens successfully developed to adulthood at each temperature tested, but development time of each preadult stage significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Both egg and L1 stages required at least 80 degree days above a threshold of approximately 10 degrees C to develop to the subsequent stage. The lengthy development time and high survival rate of preadults at 15 degrees C suggests that P. fuscipes can survive in a harsh environment during cold weather by hibernating, and this ability could allow preadults to succeed ecologically in temperate countries. However, adult longevity was short, and no fecundity was recorded at 15 degrees C. At 28 degrees C, P. fuscipes exhibited a high survival rate of adults, which had a longer life span and high fecundity; thus, the population had the highest intrinsic rate of increase (0.0788 +/- 0.0051 d(-1)) and the shortest mean generation time (48.57 +/- 1.43 d) at 28 degrees C. At this temperature, the population might reach a size that could facilitate invasion into residential areas. However, in the absence of a hygric environment, P. fuscipes was unable to survive despite favorable temperature. Unlike in adults and pupae, high cuticular permeability values were found in the larval stages. This indicates that larvae are highly susceptible to desiccation, and it explains why the distribution of P. fuscipes is restricted to moist habitats.

  7. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    PubMed

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process. PMID:27385755

  8. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    PubMed

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process.

  9. Pymetrozine causes a nontarget pest, the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), to leave potato plants.

    PubMed

    Chang, G C; Snyder, W E

    2008-02-01

    Pymetrozine is a selective insecticide that targets aphids. Published assessments of the effects of pymetrozine on nontarget organisms focus mainly on predatory insects, and they rarely indicate toxicity. In a laboratory bioassay, survival of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), larvae was not affected by pymetrozine exposure. We subsequently used pymetrozine to implement low-aphid-density treatments in a field experiment that involved separate manipulations of Colorado potato beetle density. Unexpectedly, the addition of Colorado potato beetle adults and eggs did not increase the densities of Colorado potato beetle larvae in plots that were sprayed with pymetrozine (applied with water and an adjuvant). In control plots sprayed with water and adjuvant (without pymetrozine), addition of Colorado potato beetles increased densities of their larvae. Data collected on a smaller scale suggest that a behavioral mechanism underlies the population-level pattern: Colorado potato beetle larvae become more active and are less likely to remain on a host plant after exposure to pymetrozine. Thus, potato, Solanum tuberosum L., growers who use pymetrozine against aphids also might benefit in terms of Colorado potato beetle control.

  10. A culture method for darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp., have become a serious pest of Cucurbitaceae crops, especially in California. A culture method was sought to provide large numbers (> 500) of adult beetles of known age and sex that could be used for laboratory testing when needed. A method previously developed for ...

  11. Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

  12. Interlocking-based attachment during locomotion in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bußhardt, Philipp; Kunze, Daniel; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The attachment function of tibial spurs and pretarsal claws in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) during locomotion was examined in this study. First, we measured the angle, at which the beetles detached from substrates with different roughness. At a surface roughness of 12 μm and higher, intact animals were able to cling to a completely tilted platform (180°). Second, we estimated the forces the beetles could exert in walking on smooth and rough cylinders of different diameters, on a plane and also between two plates. To elucidate the role of the individual structures, we ablated them consecutively. We found tibial spurs not to be in use in walking on flat substrates. On some of the curved substrates, ablation of tibial spurs caused an effect. A clear effect of tibial spurs was revealed in walking between two plates. Thus, these structures are probably used for generating propulsion in narrowed spaces. PMID:25385502

  13. C-value estimates for 31 species of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Ryan Gregory, T; Nedved, Oldrich; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2003-01-01

    This study provides C-value (haploid nuclear DNA content) estimates for 31 species of ladybird beetles (representing 6 subfamilies and 8 tribes), the first such data for the family Coccinellidae. Despite their unparalleled diversity, the Coleoptera have been very poorly studied in terms of genome size variation, such that even this relatively modest sample of species makes the Coccinellidae the third best studied family of beetles, behind the Tenebrionidae and Chrysomelidae. The present study provides a comparison of patterns of genome size variation with these two relatively well-studied families. No correlation was found between genome size and body size in the ladybirds, in contrast to some other invertebrate groups but in keeping with findings for other beetle families. However, there is some indication that developmental time and/or feeding ecology is related to genome size in this group. Some phylogenetic patterns and possible associations with subgenomic features are also discussed.

  14. Two Additional Invasive Scarabaeoid Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of dynastine scarab beetles are reported for the first time on the island of Hawaii: the Pasadena masked chafer, Cyclocephala pasadenae (Casey)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini) and the Temnorhynchus retusus (Fabricius)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini). The Pasadena mask...

  15. Applying imidacloprid via a precision banding system to control striped cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Jasinski, J; Darr, M; Ozkan, E; Precheur, R

    2009-12-01

    The striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a key pest of cucurbit crops throughout its range. A novel precision band applicator was designed to inject a solid stream of imidacloprid solution in-furrow directly over the seed during planting to reduce beetle leaf feeding on pumpkin, zucchini, and cucumber crops. In 2004 and 2005, bioassays at the cotyledon through fifth leaf were conducted on striped cucumber beetles using seedling leaf tissue grown from seeds treated using both continuous and precision banded in-furrow imidacloprid solution applications. In 2004, 80% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 70% of the bioassay trials showed no significant difference in mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments. In 2005, 79% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 100% of the bioassays showed no significant difference in beetle mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments at the same insecticide rate. The environmental savings of precision banded treatments compared with continuous in-furrow treatment reduced imidacloprid up to 84.5% on a per hectare basis for all cucurbits tested in 2004 and 2005, translating into an economic savings up to $215/ha. In separate bioassay trials conducted in 2005 on pumpkin, where insecticide band length and injection volume were manipulated independently, several treatments had significantly higher beetle mortality than the check. There was a trend of increased beetle mortality in treatments using shorter band lengths combined with higher insecticide solution volumes.

  16. Contributions to the faunistics and bionomics of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in northeastern North America: discoveries made through study of the University of Guelph Insect Collection, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brunke, Adam J.; Marshall, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Staphylinidae (Rove Beetles) from northeastern North America deposited in the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada) were curated from 2008–2010 by the first author. The identification of this material has resulted in the recognition of thirty-five new provincial or state records, six new Canadian records, one new record for the United States and two new records for eastern Canada. All records are for subfamilies other than Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, which will be treated in future publications as collaborative projects. Range expansions of ten exotic species to additional provinces and states are reported. The known distributions of each species in northeastern North America are summarized and presented as maps, and those species with a distinctive habitus are illustrated with color photographs. Genitalia and/or secondary sexual characters are illustrated for those species currently only identifiable on the basis of dissected males. The majority of the new records are in groups that have been recently revised, demonstrating the importance of curation and local insect surveys to the understanding of biodiversity, even for taxa and areas considered ‘relatively well-known’. PMID:21594139

  17. Phylogenetically informative rearrangements in mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, and monophyly of aquatic elateriform beetles (Dryopoidea).

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Vogler, Alfried P

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial gene order in Coleoptera has been thought to be conservative but a survey of 60 complete or nearly complete genomes revealed a total of seven different gene rearrangements (deletions, gene order reversals), mainly affecting tRNA genes. All of these were found to be limited to a single taxon or a subclade of Coleoptera. The phylogenetic distribution of a translocation of tRNA(Pro) in three species of elateriform beetles was investigated further by sequencing three nearly complete mitochondrial genomes (Dascillidae, Byrrhidae, Limnichidae) and ten additional individuals for a ∼1370 bp diagnostic fragment spanning the relevant region. Phylogenetic analysis consistently recovered the monophyly of families previously grouped in the contentious superfamily Dryopoidea, a group of approximately 10 beetle families with mainly aquatic lifestyles. The Byrrhidae (moss beetles) were not part of this lineage, although they may be its sister group, to recover the widely accepted Byrrhoidea. The tRNA(Pro) translocation was present in all members of Dryopoidea, but not in any other Elateriformia, providing independent support for this lineage and for a single origin of aquatic habits.

  18. A checklist of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Nastas; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2015-09-30

    A checklist of all taxa of the family Cerambycidae (longhorn beetles) from Serbia is presented. The checklist is based on compilation of data gathered both from authors and available literature published up to now. A total of 265 species and 92 subspecies belonging to 109 genera, 48 tribes, and six subfamilies are recorded for Serbia. However, the presence of 28 species listed in Serbia may be questionable. Known distribution and biology of Serbian taxa are provided. The diversity of the fauna of longhorn beetles in Serbia is compared with the surrounding areas in the Balkan Peninsula.

  19. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

    2013-02-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).

  20. Inconspicuous structural coloration in the elytra of beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Qing, Youhua; Zhao, Li; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Chen, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The elytra of male beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera) display an inconspicuous iridescent bluish green color. By structural characterizations we find that the outermost elytral surface comprises a sculpted multilayer, which is the origin of structural coloration. In elytra both structural green and cyan colors are observed which arise from the modulations imposed on the multilayer, leading to a bluish green color by color mixing. The adoption of the sculpted multilayer can render structural coloration inconspicuous, which could be advantageous for camouflage. In addition, it can cause light emergence at nonspecular angles.

  1. Australian marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 2. Pachycyphon, a new genus of presumably terrestrial Australian Scirtidae.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The genus Pachycyphon is erected for marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) from tropical rainforests in Queensland, Australia. The following species are included: P. corpulentus sp. n., P. crassus sp. n., P. elegans sp. n., P. funicularis sp. n., P. gravis sp. n., P. monteithi sp. n., P. obesus sp. n., P. pinguis sp. n., P. serratus sp. n., P. turgidus sp. n. (the type species). Females are wingless and have fossorial ovipositors, a terrestrial larval life is therefore hypothesized. Pachycyphon is compared with other genera, especially probable relatives from temperate rainforests in southeastern Australia.

  2. Coleoptera of forensic interest: a study of seasonal community composition and succession in Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Prado e Castro, Catarina; García, María Dolores; Martins da Silva, Pedro; Faria e Silva, Israel; Serrano, Artur

    2013-10-10

    Some Coleoptera are recognised as being forensically important as post-mortem interval (PMI) indicators, especially in the later stages of cadaver decomposition. Because insect species and their timings of appearance in cadavers vary according to geographic location, it is important to know their succession patterns, as well as seasonality at a regional level. In this study, we aimed to contribute to broaden this knowledge by surveying beetle communities from the Lisbon area during the four seasons of the year, using piglet carcasses as animal models. Five stages were recognised during the decomposition process and they could be separated taking into account the occurrence and abundance of the specific groups of Coleoptera collected. Decay stages in general recorded higher abundance and richness of beetle species. A total of 82 species were identified, belonging to 28 families, in a total of 1968 adult Coleoptera collected. Autumn yielded the highest values of species abundance and richness, while the lowest values were recorded during winter. Staphylinidae was the most abundant family in all seasons, although in spring and summer Dermestidae was also quite dominant. In general, most species were related to the decay stages, particularly Margarinotus brunneus (Histeridae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae), and also Saprinus detersus (Histeridae) and Thanatophilus sinuatus (Silphidae), while only few were related to the dry stage, namely Oligota pusillima (Staphylinidae) and Dermestidae spp. larvae. On the other hand, Anotylus complanatus and Atheta pertyi (Staphylinidae) were apparently more associated with the fresh and bloated stages, respectively. The presence of some species was markedly seasonal, allowing a season characterisation based on the occurrence of certain taxa, which can be useful for forensic purposes.

  3. Checklist of the Iranian Ground Beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Azadbakhsh, Saeed; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-09-30

    An up-to-date checklist of the ground beetles of Iran is presented. Altogether 955 species and subspecies in 155 genera belonging to 26 subfamilies of Carabidae are reported; 25 taxa are recorded for Iran for the fist time. New localities are listed and some previous distributional records are discussed.

  4. Use of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) to deflesh human jaws.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, D; Colard, T; Becart, A; Hedouin, V

    2014-01-01

    We describe new experimental data for the defleshing of human bones using larder beetles (Dermestes haemorrhoidalis) (Küster, 1852). Although the ability of larder beetles to feed on vertebrate remains has been, and still is, used by taxidermists to deflesh skulls and bones, this method has never been documented from a quantitative perspective and has over time become ignored in most forensic anthropology or odontology laboratories. To promote the rational and efficient use of this method, we performed experiments to estimate the quantity of food consumed by larvae. From the 2nd instar to nymphosis, each larva consumed a mean of 0.13±0.03 g of dry beef muscle. We then used 100±50 D. haemorrhoidalis adults and 100±50 larvae to deflesh human maxillae and mandibles sampled within a forensic context (victim identification). Each sample was weighed and photographed before, during and after the experiment. According to our experiments, 20-25 days were sufficient to completely deflesh all of the samples. We concluded that a small number of larder beetles can be used to efficiently deflesh human jaws. According to this result, the use of larder beetles appears to be an inexpensive, simple and efficient way to clean mandibles and maxillae. Furthermore, this method is DNA-safe (compared to usual maceration techniques) and thus allows the samples to be used for subsequent DNA and drug analyses.

  5. Faunistics of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Jürgen, Wiesner; Matin, Muhammad Abdul; Zia, Ahmed; Sultan, Amir; Naz, Falak

    2010-01-01

    The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan for the first time.

  6. Faunistics of Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Jürgen, Wiesner; Matin, Muhammad Abdul; Zia, Ahmed; Sultan, Amir; Naz, Falak

    2010-01-01

    The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan for the first time. PMID:20874597

  7. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Angola: a descriptive catalogue and designation of neotypes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Artur R M; Capela, Rúben A

    2013-11-01

    An annotated catalogue of the species and subspecies of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) hitherto known from Angola is given. A total of 89 forms (74 species and 15 subspecies) is recorded from this southwestern country of Africa. Within this assemblage there are 31 endemic forms (33.3%). Some species are represented by only the holotype specimen (some without locality) or the type series. Others were recorded based on a single specimen. Records for six species previously unknow from Angola are given: Foveodromica sp. n. 1, Foveodromica sp. n. 2, Ophryodera rufomarginata bradshawi Péringuey, 1888, Elliptica muata parallelestriata (W. Horn, 1923), Lophyra differens (W. Horn, 1892) and Myriochila jucunda (Péringuey, 1892). A historical review, as well as some considerations on the distribution and conservation status of these beetles in Angola are also presented.

  8. A new type of infrared organ in the Australian "fire-beetle" Merimna atrata (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, A.; Bleckmann, Horst

    The Australian buprestid beetle Merimna atrata (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) approaches forest fires because its larvae develop in freshly burnt wood. So far nothing is known about possible sensory systems enabling the beetles to detect fires and to cope with the thermal environment close to the flames. We found that M. atrata has two pairs of infrared (IR) organs on the ventrolateral sides of the abdomen. Each IR organ consists of a specialized IR-absorbing area which is innervated by one thermosensitive multipolar neuron. The primary dendritic branches ramify into more than 800 closely packed terminal endings which contain a large number of mitochondria. We called the special morphology of the dendritic region a terminal dendritic mass. The type of IR receptor found in M. atrata is unique in insects and can best be compared with the IR organs of boid snakes.

  9. Book review: Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book entitled Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler. (246 pages, 324 black and white illustrations, 8.5 “ x 11"; ISBN 0-9753471-8-7. Forty dollars, paperback. Biota of South Carolina. Volume 5. Clemson University, Clemson, S. ...

  10. Checklist of beetles (Coleoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Second edition

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice; Davies, Anthony E.; Sikes, Derek S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract All 8237 species-group taxa of Coleoptera known to occur in Canada and Alaska are recorded by province/territory or state, along with their author(s) and year of publication, in a classification framework. Only presence of taxa in each Canadian province or territory and Alaska is noted. Labrador is considered a distinct geographical entity. Adventive and Holarctic species-group taxa are indicated. References to pertinent identification keys are given under the corresponding supraspecific taxa in the data archive. PMID:24363590

  11. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha, new genus) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria, new species) a...

  12. Host plant choice experiments of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Hitchner, Erin M; Kuhar, Thomas P; Dickens, Joseph C; Youngman, Roger R; Schultz, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Douglas G

    2008-06-01

    Field and laboratory-choice experiments were conducted to understand aspects of host plant orientation by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory bioassays, L. decemlineata oriented to volatiles emitted by potato, Solanum tuberosum L., foliage over both tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum L., and eggplant, Solanum melongena L., foliage, and eggplant over tomato foliage, all of which had been mechanically damaged. Field choice tests revealed more L. decemlineata adults, larvae, and egg masses on eggplant than on tomato. In other experiments, counts of live L. decemlineata on untreated paired plants and counts of dead beetles on imidacloprid-treated plants did not differ between potato and eggplant. L. decemlineata was significantly attracted to eggplant over both tomato and pepper. To determine whether feeding adults affected orientation to host plants, an imidacloprid-treated eggplant or potato plant was paired with an untreated eggplant or potato plant covered in a mesh bag containing two adult male beetles. Significantly more adults were attracted to eggplant with feeding male beetles paired with another eggplant than any other treatment combination. These results indicate that the presence of male L. decemlineata on plants affects host plant orientation and suggests that the male-produced aggregation pheromone may be involved.

  13. Field evaluation of essential oils for reducing attraction by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S

    2009-08-01

    Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle.

  14. A comparison of trap type and height for capturing cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Graham, Elizabeth E; Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2012-06-01

    Wood-boring beetles in the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) play important roles in many forest ecosystems. However, increasing numbers of invasive cerambycid species are transported to new countries by global commerce and threaten forest health in the United States and worldwide. Our goal was to identify effective detection tools for a broad array of cerambycid species by testing some known cerambycid attractants and a pheromone in different trap designs placed across a range of habitats. We compared numbers and species richness of cerambycid beetles captured with cross-vane panel traps and 12-unit Lindgren multiple-funnel traps, placed either at ground level (1.5 m high) or canopy level (approximately 3-10 m high), at eight sites classified as either residential, industrial, deciduous forest, or conifer forest. We captured 3,723 beetles representing 72 cerambycid species from 10 June to 15 July 2010. Species richness was highest for the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae, which accounted for 33 and 46% of all species captured, respectively. Overall, the cross-vane panel traps captured approximately 1.5 times more beetles than funnel traps. Twenty-one species were captured exclusively in traps at one height, either in the canopy or at ground level. More species were captured in hardwood sites (59 species) where a greater diversity of host material was available than in conifer (34 species), residential (41 species), or industrial (49) sites. Low numbers of beetles (n < 5) were recorded for 28 of the beetle species. The number of species captured per week ranged from 49 species on 21 June to 37 species on 12 July. Cross-vane panel traps installed across a vertical gradient should maximize the number of cerambycid species captured.

  15. Evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-08-01

    The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin.

  16. Involvement of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on human cadavers: a review of 81 forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Colard, Thomas; Vincent, Benoit; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valery

    2014-11-01

    From 1994 to 2013, French forensic entomology laboratories investigated 1,093 cases. Larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were observed in 81 (7.5%) of these cases. To describe and analyze these 81 cases, eight parameters were used: city, location (indoor or outdoor), decay stage (fresh, decay, or dry), dermestid species and instar (adults and/or larvae), presence of living calliphorid larvae, presence of calliphorid pupae or adults, and presence of other necrophagous species. Eight Dermestidae species were observed: Dermestes frischii (42% of cases), Dermestes undulatus (35.8%), Dermestes peruvianus (12.3%), Dermestes lardarius (9.9%), Dermestes haemorrhoidalis (8.6%), Dermestes maculatus (7.4%), Dermestes bicolor (3.7%), and Dermestes ater (1.2%). Larder beetles primarily developed on human cadavers in outdoor locations in areas with a dry climate and were never reported in oceanic areas (which are characterized by frequent rainfall and high ambient humidity). The number of dermestid species on a single corpse never exceeded three. Typically, one species was found per corpse. Species differed between indoor and outdoor cases, with D. frischii and D. undulatus dominant in outdoor cases, while D. peruvianus dominant in indoor cases. Calliphoridae was found in 88% of the cases, while Hydrotaea and Piophilidae were observed 40% of the time. Regarding Coleoptera, Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was observed in 46% of the cases. Lastly, we observed a typical decomposition pattern, with preferential feeding areas on the face, hands, and feet (i.e., the extremities). Pupation chambers on or inside the bones were not observed.

  17. Predator feeding choice on conspicuous and non-conspicuous carabid beetles: first results

    PubMed Central

    Bonacci, Teresa; Brandmayr, Pietro; Zetto Brandmayr, Tullia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Insects use various types of behaviour, chemical defences, mimetic, aposematic or cryptic appearances as anti-predatory strategies. Among insects, carabid beetles of the genus Brachinus are distasteful prey because they discharge an irritating “cloud” of quinones when threatened. These beetles live in aggregations and adopt warning (conspicuous pattern) colours and chemicals to create a template that is easily learnt by predators. Another carabid beetle, Anchomenus dorsalis, mimics the colours and cuticular profile of Brachinus and is usually found in Brachinus aggregations. In this paper we report results from laboratory observations on feeding choice of the following natural predators - Crocidura leucodon (Insectivora: Soricidae), Ocypus olens (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and Podarcis sicula (Reptilia: Lacertidae) - on carabid beetle species. Comparing the number of attacks of predators towards aposematic and non-aposematic prey, there was a statistically significant preference towards non-aposematic prey. PMID:21738410

  18. Outbreak of dermatitis linearis caused by Paederus ilsae and Paederus iliensis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) at a military base in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Silas A; Norton, Scott A; Carder, Mark C; Debboun, Mustapha

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of dermatitis linearis caused by Paederus iliensis (Coiffait) and Paederus ilsae (Bernhauer) occurred at Joint Base Balad in north central Iraq during 2007. It was the first reported incident of P iliensis in Iraq. Some Paederus species contain the vesicating chemical, pederin, which causes painful lesions when crushed on the skin. At this location, 20 Soldiers and Airmen sought medical treatment for skin blistering, most commonly affecting the neck and hands. All cases presented during May and June. Sampling for Paederus began in June after beetles were collected in an area where Soldiers had developed dermatitis and continued until October when no further beetles were collected. Paederus beetles were most likely flying in from areas surrounding the base, and were most common near the base's perimeter in close proximity to bright lights. Nighttime sampling showed that Paederus beetles were most active from one hour after sunset until midnight. Most of the military personnel affected were Soldiers who worked night shifts near bright lights. The occurrence of dermatitis linearis can largely be prevented by modifying the light sources that attract Paederus beetles.

  19. Outbreak of dermatitis linearis caused by Paederus ilsae and Paederus iliensis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) at a military base in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Silas A; Norton, Scott A; Carder, Mark C; Debboun, Mustapha

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of dermatitis linearis caused by Paederus iliensis (Coiffait) and Paederus ilsae (Bernhauer) occurred at Joint Base Balad in north central Iraq during 2007. It was the first reported incident of P iliensis in Iraq. Some Paederus species contain the vesicating chemical, pederin, which causes painful lesions when crushed on the skin. At this location, 20 Soldiers and Airmen sought medical treatment for skin blistering, most commonly affecting the neck and hands. All cases presented during May and June. Sampling for Paederus began in June after beetles were collected in an area where Soldiers had developed dermatitis and continued until October when no further beetles were collected. Paederus beetles were most likely flying in from areas surrounding the base, and were most common near the base's perimeter in close proximity to bright lights. Nighttime sampling showed that Paederus beetles were most active from one hour after sunset until midnight. Most of the military personnel affected were Soldiers who worked night shifts near bright lights. The occurrence of dermatitis linearis can largely be prevented by modifying the light sources that attract Paederus beetles. PMID:20084733

  20. Trends in detoxification enzymes and heavy metal accumulation in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) inhabiting a gradient of pollution.

    PubMed

    Stone, David; Jepson, Paul; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2002-05-01

    Non-specfic carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in the ground beetle, Pterosthicus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), from five sites along a gradient of heavy metal pollution. A previous study determined that beetles from the two most polluted sites (site codes OLK2 and OLK3) were more susceptible to additional stressors compared with beetles from the reference site (Stone et al., Environ. Pollut. 113, 239-244 2001), suggesting the possibility of physiological impairment. Metal body burdens in ground beetles from five sites along the gradient ranged from 79 to 201 microg/g Zn, 0.174 to 8.66 microg/g Pb and 1.14 to 10.8 microg/g Cd, whereas Cu seemed to be efficiently regulated regardless of metal levels in the soil. Beetle mid- and hindguts were homogenized and the soluble fraction containing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CaE) was assayed using kinetic analyses. Significantly higher levels of GST were found only in female beetles from the most polluted sites (OLK2 and OLK3; P=0.049, P<0.001, respectively) compared with the reference site (OLK7). In addition, OLK3 females had significantly higher levels of CaE compared with the reference beetles (P=0.01). Male beetles did not differ in enzyme activity along the metal gradient. Overall, obvious trends in detoxification enzymes were not detected in ground beetles in association with metal body burdens.

  1. Predation of Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Sloggett, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of predation of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) have focused on a limited number of predator taxa, such as birds and ants, while other potential predators have received limited attention. I here consider amphibians as predators of ladybirds. Published amphibian gut analyses show that ladybirds are quite often eaten by frogs and toads (Anura), with recorded frequencies reaching up to 15% of dietary items. Salamanders (Caudata) eat ladybirds less frequently, probably as their habits less often bring them into contact with the beetles. Amphibians do not appear to be deleteriously affected by the potentially toxic alkaloids that ladybirds possess. Amphibians, especially frogs and toads, use primarily prey movement as a release cue to attack their food; it is thus likely that their ability to discriminate against ladybirds and other chemically defended prey is limited. Because of this poor discriminatory power, amphibians have apparently evolved non-specific resistance to prey defensive chemicals, including ladybird alkaloids. Although amphibian-related ladybird mortality is limited, in certain habitats it could outweigh mortality from more frequently studied predators, notably birds. The gut analyses from the herpetological literature used in this study, suggest that in studying predation of insects, entomologists should consider specialized literature on other animal groups. PMID:26466621

  2. Predation of Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Amphibians.

    PubMed

    Sloggett, John J

    2012-01-01

    Studies of predation of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) have focused on a limited number of predator taxa, such as birds and ants, while other potential predators have received limited attention. I here consider amphibians as predators of ladybirds. Published amphibian gut analyses show that ladybirds are quite often eaten by frogs and toads (Anura), with recorded frequencies reaching up to 15% of dietary items. Salamanders (Caudata) eat ladybirds less frequently, probably as their habits less often bring them into contact with the beetles. Amphibians do not appear to be deleteriously affected by the potentially toxic alkaloids that ladybirds possess. Amphibians, especially frogs and toads, use primarily prey movement as a release cue to attack their food; it is thus likely that their ability to discriminate against ladybirds and other chemically defended prey is limited. Because of this poor discriminatory power, amphibians have apparently evolved non-specific resistance to prey defensive chemicals, including ladybird alkaloids. Although amphibian-related ladybird mortality is limited, in certain habitats it could outweigh mortality from more frequently studied predators, notably birds. The gut analyses from the herpetological literature used in this study, suggest that in studying predation of insects, entomologists should consider specialized literature on other animal groups.

  3. Experimental studies and dynamics modeling analysis of the swimming and diving of whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhonghua; Lenaghan, Scott C; Reese, Benjamin E; Jia, Xinghua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots. PMID:23209398

  4. Experimental Studies and Dynamics Modeling Analysis of the Swimming and Diving of Whirligig Beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xinghua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots. PMID:23209398

  5. Population densities of corn flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and incidence of Stewart's wilt in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Cook, K A; Weinzierl, R A; Pataky, J K; Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2005-06-01

    To quantify populations of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and refine estimates of a threshold for its control to prevent Stewart's wilt caused by Erwinia stewartii, sequential plantings of 'Jubilee' sweet corn were made at 2-wk intervals from April or May through August or September 2001 and 2002 at four locations from southern to northern Illinois: Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota. Densities of C. pulicaria and incidence of Stewart's wilt were monitored weekly. At Mendota, where C. pulicaria populations were decimated by cold temperatures during winter 2000-2001, densities reached 33.3 beetles per 15-cm yellow sticky trap per day by September 2002, after a mild 2001-2002 winter. Maximum incidence of Stewart's wilt in single plots at Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota was 22, 36, 39, and 2%, respectively, in 2001, and 33, 47, 99, and 87%, respectively, in 2002. In 24 plots where beetle densities were < or =2 per trap per day, Stewart's wilt incidence was <5% in 20 plots. We propose that two corn flea beetles per trap per day be used as a threshold for insecticide application to seedlings to control C. pulicaria and minimize subsequent incidence of Stewart's wilt in processing sweet corn. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays indicated that E. stewartii incidence in C. pulicaria peaked at 67, 62, and 54%, respectively, at Simpson, Brownstown, and Champaign, in 2001, and at 71, 76, and 60%, respectively, in 2002. Further studies might allow the use of areawide or field-specific estimates of E. stewartii incidence in corn flea beetles for adjusting management decisions. PMID:16022292

  6. Experimental studies and dynamics modeling analysis of the swimming and diving of whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhonghua; Lenaghan, Scott C; Reese, Benjamin E; Jia, Xinghua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots.

  7. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect Releases.

    PubMed

    Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread.

  8. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) diversity, activity density, and community structure in a diversified agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hummel, J D; Dosdall, L M; Clayton, G W; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T

    2012-02-01

    Diversity and abundance of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) can be enhanced in vegetable and field intercropping systems, but the complexity of polycultures precludes the application of generalized assumptions of effects for novel intercropping combinations. In a field experiment conducted at Lacombe and Ellerslie, Alberta, Canada, in 2005 and 2006, we investigated the effects of intercropping canola (Brassica napus L.) with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on the diversity and community structure of carabid beetles, and on the activity density responses of individual carabid species. Shannon-Wiener diversity index scores and species evenness increased significantly as the proportion of wheat comprising total crop plant populations increased in one site-year of the study, indicating a positive response to enhanced crop plant species evenness in the intercrops, and in that same site-year, ground beetle communities in intercrops shifted to more closely approximate those in wheat monocultures as the percentage of wheat in the intercrops increased. Individual carabid species activity densities showed differing responses to intercropping, although activity densities of some potential root maggot (Delia spp.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) predators were greater in intercrops with high proportions of wheat than in canola monocultures. The activity density of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger), the most abundant species collected, tended to be greater in canola monocultures than high-wheat intercrops or wheat monocultures. We conclude that intercrops of canola and wheat have the potential to enhance populations of some carabid species, therefore possibly exerting increased pressure on some canola insect pests.

  9. Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Mesostigmata: Gamasina, Microgyniina, Uropodina), associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Baltic amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Zwanzig, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites are extremely rare. Inclusions assignable to the tortoise mites (Mesostigmata, Uropodina) are described here for the first time from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. This is the oldest record of Uropodina and documents the first unequivocal amber examples potentially assignable to the extant genus Uroobovella Berlese, 1903 (Uropodoidea: Urodinychidae). Further mites in the same amber pieces are tentatively assigned to Microgynioidea (Microgyniina) and Ascidae (Gamasina), both potentially representing the oldest records of their respective superfamily and family groups. This new material also preserves behavioural ecology in the form of phoretic deutonymphs attached to their carriers via a characteristic anal pedicel. These deutonymphs in amber are intimately associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), probably belonging to the extinct species Nothorhina granulicollis Zang, 1905. Modern uropodines have been recorded phoretic on species belonging to several beetle families, including records of living Uroobovella spp. occurring on longhorn beetles. Through these amber inclusions, a uropodine-cerambycid association can now be dated back to at least the Eocene.

  10. Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Mesostigmata: Gamasina, Microgyniina, Uropodina), associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A; Kontschán, Jenő; Zwanzig, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites are extremely rare. Inclusions assignable to the tortoise mites (Mesostigmata, Uropodina) are described here for the first time from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. This is the oldest record of Uropodina and documents the first unequivocal amber examples potentially assignable to the extant genus Uroobovella Berlese, 1903 (Uropodoidea: Urodinychidae). Further mites in the same amber pieces are tentatively assigned to Microgynioidea (Microgyniina) and Ascidae (Gamasina), both potentially representing the oldest records of their respective superfamily and family groups. This new material also preserves behavioural ecology in the form of phoretic deutonymphs attached to their carriers via a characteristic anal pedicel. These deutonymphs in amber are intimately associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), probably belonging to the extinct species Nothorhina granulicollis Zang, 1905. Modern uropodines have been recorded phoretic on species belonging to several beetle families, including records of living Uroobovella spp. occurring on longhorn beetles. Through these amber inclusions, a uropodine-cerambycid association can now be dated back to at least the Eocene.

  11. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791

  12. Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Mesostigmata: Gamasina, Microgyniina, Uropodina), associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A; Kontschán, Jenő; Zwanzig, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites are extremely rare. Inclusions assignable to the tortoise mites (Mesostigmata, Uropodina) are described here for the first time from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. This is the oldest record of Uropodina and documents the first unequivocal amber examples potentially assignable to the extant genus Uroobovella Berlese, 1903 (Uropodoidea: Urodinychidae). Further mites in the same amber pieces are tentatively assigned to Microgynioidea (Microgyniina) and Ascidae (Gamasina), both potentially representing the oldest records of their respective superfamily and family groups. This new material also preserves behavioural ecology in the form of phoretic deutonymphs attached to their carriers via a characteristic anal pedicel. These deutonymphs in amber are intimately associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), probably belonging to the extinct species Nothorhina granulicollis Zang, 1905. Modern uropodines have been recorded phoretic on species belonging to several beetle families, including records of living Uroobovella spp. occurring on longhorn beetles. Through these amber inclusions, a uropodine-cerambycid association can now be dated back to at least the Eocene. PMID:23546538

  13. Insecticide resistance status of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults in northern Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Tian; Xiong, Man-Hui; Lu, Wei-Ping; Liu, Ping; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2010-08-01

    Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has become the economically most important insect defoliator of potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L., in northern Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in China. Currently, control of Colorado potato beetle relies mainly on chemical insecticides. And this may result in insecticide resistance. In this study, LD50 values were measured by a topical bioassay for 14 conventional insecticides in seven local populations from Urumqi, Changji, Tacheng, Nilka, Gongliu, Qapqal, and Tekes counties (cities). The Tekes field population was the most susceptible population and was selected as a reference strain. Compared with the Tekes strain, the Changji, Qapqal, Nilka, Tacheng, and Gongliu populations exhibited moderate to very high levels of resistance to cyhalothrin. The Qapqal and Changji populations showed a moderate and a very high resistance to deltamethrin, respectively. And the Changji population developed a high resistance against alpha-cypermethrin. Moreover, the Qapqal population had a moderate resistance to carbofuran, and the Urumqi population reached high level of resistance to endosulfan. Possible resistance mechanisms of the Changji and Qapqal populations were determined using three enzyme inhibitors. Triphenyl phosphate (TPP), diethylmeleate, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) had little synergism to cyhalothrin in the two populations. In contrast, PBO and TPP exhibited some synergistic effects to carbofuran in the Qapqal population, indicating the involvement of monooxygenases and esterases in conferring carbofuran resistance. It seems that additional mechanisms, such as target site insensitivity, should play an important role in Colorado potato beetle resistances to cyhalothrin and carbofuran in northern Xinjiang local populations.

  14. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses.

  15. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses. PMID:23786050

  16. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  17. Phylogeny and evolutionary history of the blister beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Bologna, Marco A; Oliverio, Marco; Pitzalis, Monica; Mariottini, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    Meloid beetles are well characterised by both morphological and biological features. Previous phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphological characters assumed the repeated parallel evolution of complex biological novelties. In this work relationships among several taxa of the four subfamilies and almost all tribes representing meloid diversity are examined by using mitochondrial (16S) and nuclear (ITS2) DNA sequences, in 25 genera (using Anthicidae as outgroup). Secondary structure of 16S and ITS2 rRNAs were modelled. ITS2 structure represents a synapomorphic condition for the family and informative characters at the tribal level. Phylogenetic hypotheses based on separate and combined analysis of the 16S and ITS2 rDNA sequences, and morpho-biological characters were tested, and compared with previous morphological classifications. Molecular dating allowed an outline of the main steps of the evolutionary history of Meloidae, which evolved during Early Cretaceous and then radiated considerably with the adoption of hypermetaboly and parasitic behaviour, and with repeated, parallel evolution of larval phoresy on its hosts.

  18. Phylogeny and evolutionary history of the blister beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Bologna, Marco A; Oliverio, Marco; Pitzalis, Monica; Mariottini, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    Meloid beetles are well characterised by both morphological and biological features. Previous phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphological characters assumed the repeated parallel evolution of complex biological novelties. In this work relationships among several taxa of the four subfamilies and almost all tribes representing meloid diversity are examined by using mitochondrial (16S) and nuclear (ITS2) DNA sequences, in 25 genera (using Anthicidae as outgroup). Secondary structure of 16S and ITS2 rRNAs were modelled. ITS2 structure represents a synapomorphic condition for the family and informative characters at the tribal level. Phylogenetic hypotheses based on separate and combined analysis of the 16S and ITS2 rDNA sequences, and morpho-biological characters were tested, and compared with previous morphological classifications. Molecular dating allowed an outline of the main steps of the evolutionary history of Meloidae, which evolved during Early Cretaceous and then radiated considerably with the adoption of hypermetaboly and parasitic behaviour, and with repeated, parallel evolution of larval phoresy on its hosts. PMID:18514547

  19. Geometric analysis of nutrient balancing in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2014-12-01

    Geometric analysis of the nutritional regulatory responses was performed on an omnivorous mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to test whether this beetle had the capacity to balance the intake of protein and carbohydrate. We also identified the pattern of ingestive trade-off employed when the insect was forced to balance the costs of over- and under-ingesting macronutrients. When allowed to mix their diet from two nutritionally imbalanced but complementary foods (protein-biased food: p35:c7 or p28:c5.6; carbohydrate-biased food: p7:c35 or p5.6:c28), beetles of both sexes actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a ratio of 1:1. When confined to one of seven nutritionally imbalanced foods (p0:c42, p7:c35, p14:c28, p21:c21, p28:c14, p35:c7 or p42:c0), beetles over-ingested the excessive nutrient from these foods to such an extent that all the points of protein-carbohydrate intake aligned linearly in the nutrient space, a pattern that is characteristic of generalist feeders and omnivores. Under the restricted feeding conditions, males ate more nutrients but were less efficient at retaining their body lipids than females. Body lipid content was higher on carbohydrate-rich foods and was positively correlated with starvation resistance. Our results are consistent with the prediction based on the nutritional heterogeneity hypothesis, which links the nutritional regulatory responses of insects to their diet breadth and feeding ecology.

  20. Geometric analysis of nutrient balancing in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2014-12-01

    Geometric analysis of the nutritional regulatory responses was performed on an omnivorous mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to test whether this beetle had the capacity to balance the intake of protein and carbohydrate. We also identified the pattern of ingestive trade-off employed when the insect was forced to balance the costs of over- and under-ingesting macronutrients. When allowed to mix their diet from two nutritionally imbalanced but complementary foods (protein-biased food: p35:c7 or p28:c5.6; carbohydrate-biased food: p7:c35 or p5.6:c28), beetles of both sexes actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a ratio of 1:1. When confined to one of seven nutritionally imbalanced foods (p0:c42, p7:c35, p14:c28, p21:c21, p28:c14, p35:c7 or p42:c0), beetles over-ingested the excessive nutrient from these foods to such an extent that all the points of protein-carbohydrate intake aligned linearly in the nutrient space, a pattern that is characteristic of generalist feeders and omnivores. Under the restricted feeding conditions, males ate more nutrients but were less efficient at retaining their body lipids than females. Body lipid content was higher on carbohydrate-rich foods and was positively correlated with starvation resistance. Our results are consistent with the prediction based on the nutritional heterogeneity hypothesis, which links the nutritional regulatory responses of insects to their diet breadth and feeding ecology. PMID:25308181

  1. Variability in Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Reproduction in Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Meikle, William G; Holst, Niels; Cook, Steven C; Patt, Joseph M

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine how several key factors affect population growth of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine effects of food quantity and temperature on reproduction of cohorts of young A. tumida adults (1:1 sex ratio) housed in experimental arenas. Daily numbers and total mass of larvae exiting arenas were highly variable within treatment. Either one or two cohorts of larvae were observed exiting the arenas. Food quantity, either 10 g or 20 g, did not significantly affect the number of larvae exiting arenas at 32°C, but did at 28°C; arenas provided 20 g food produced significantly more larvae than arenas provided 10 g. Temperature did not affect the total mass of larvae provided 10 g food, but did affect larval mass provided 20 g; beetles kept at 28°C produced more larval mass than at 32°C. Field experiments were conducted to examine A. tumida reproductive success in full strength bee colonies. Beetles were introduced into hives as egg-infested frames and as adults, and some bee colonies were artificially weakened through removal of sealed brood. Efforts were unsuccessful; no larvae were observed exiting from, or during the inspection of, any hives. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. The variability observed in A. tumida reproduction even in controlled laboratory conditions and the difficulty in causing beetle infestations in field experiments involving full colonies suggest that accurately forecasting the A. tumida severity in such colonies will be difficult.

  2. Variability in Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Reproduction in Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Meikle, William G; Holst, Niels; Cook, Steven C; Patt, Joseph M

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine how several key factors affect population growth of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine effects of food quantity and temperature on reproduction of cohorts of young A. tumida adults (1:1 sex ratio) housed in experimental arenas. Daily numbers and total mass of larvae exiting arenas were highly variable within treatment. Either one or two cohorts of larvae were observed exiting the arenas. Food quantity, either 10 g or 20 g, did not significantly affect the number of larvae exiting arenas at 32°C, but did at 28°C; arenas provided 20 g food produced significantly more larvae than arenas provided 10 g. Temperature did not affect the total mass of larvae provided 10 g food, but did affect larval mass provided 20 g; beetles kept at 28°C produced more larval mass than at 32°C. Field experiments were conducted to examine A. tumida reproductive success in full strength bee colonies. Beetles were introduced into hives as egg-infested frames and as adults, and some bee colonies were artificially weakened through removal of sealed brood. Efforts were unsuccessful; no larvae were observed exiting from, or during the inspection of, any hives. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. The variability observed in A. tumida reproduction even in controlled laboratory conditions and the difficulty in causing beetle infestations in field experiments involving full colonies suggest that accurately forecasting the A. tumida severity in such colonies will be difficult. PMID:26470208

  3. Redefinition of the genus Silphitrombium (Trombidiformes: Neothrombiidae) with description of two new species parasitizing beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae, Tenebrionidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Tashakor, Samaneh; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Saboori, Alireza

    2013-11-15

    Two new species of Silphitrombium Fain, 1992 (Acari: Prostigmata: Neothrombiidae), ectoparasites of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera), are described from Sistan and Baluchestan Province, eastern Iran: S. elateridum sp. nov. on Heteroderes heideni Reitter, 1891 (Col.: Elateridae) and S. iranicum sp. nov. on Opatroides punctulatus Brullé, 1832 (Col.: Tenebrionidae) and the genus Silphitrombium is redefined. It is the first record of the relationship between beetles of the families Elateridae and Tenebrionidae, and mites of the genus Silphitrombium. A key to the species of the genus is presented.

  4. Discovery of mycangia and the associated xylose-fermenting yeasts in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi

    2010-03-01

    Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.

  5. Effects of pitfall trap preservative on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCravy, K.W.; Willand, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of six pitfall trap preservatives (5% acetic acid solution, distilled water, 70% ethanol, 50% ethylene glycol solution, 50% propylene glycol solution, and 10% saline solution) on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in a west-central Illinois deciduous forest from May to October 2005. A total of 819 carabids, representing 33 species and 19 genera, were collected. Saline produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, while distilled water produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid. Significant associations between numbers of captures and treatment were seen in four species: Amphasia interstitialis (Say), Calathus opaculus LeConte, Chlaenius nemoralis Say, and Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte). Results of this study suggest that type of preservative used can have substantial effects on abundance and species composition of carabids collected in pitfall traps.

  6. Tree Diversity Mediates the Distribution of Longhorn Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in a Changing Tropical Landscape (Southern Yunnan, SW China)

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ling-Zeng; Martin, Konrad; Weigel, Andreas; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Longhorn beetles (Coleoptera : Cerambycidae) have been used to identify sites of high biological diversity and conservation value in cultivated landscapes, but were rarely studied in changing landscapes of humid tropics. This study was conducted in a region of southern Yunnan, China, which was dominated by natural rainforest until 30 years ago, but is successively transformed into commercial rubber monoculture plantations since that time. The objectives were to investigate longhorn beetle species diversity and distribution in the major land use types of this landscape and to estimate the effects of an expected expansion of rubber plantations on the longhorn beetle assemblages. The results showed that tree species diversity (181 species in total) and longhorn beetle diversity (220 species in total) were closely related with no significant differences between the tree and longhorn beetles assemblages shown by similarity distance analysis. There was a highly positive relationship between the estimated species richness of longhorn beetles and the number of tree species. Individual numbers of longhorn beetles and trees were also highly positive related at the sampling sites. Non-metric multidimensional scaling revealed that the degree of canopy coverage, succession age and tree diversity explained 78.5% of the total variation in longhorn beetle assemblage composition. Natural forest sites had significantly higher numbers of species and individuals than any other type of habitat. Although young rubber plantations bear the highest longhorn beetle diversity outside forests (half of the total number of longhorn beetle species recorded in total), they can not provide permanent habitats for most of these species, because they develop into closed canopy plantations with less suitable habitat conditions. Therefore, along with an expected expansion of rubber cultivation which largely proceeds at the expense of forest areas, the habitat conditions for longhorn beetles in this

  7. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 7. Genus Nothocyphon, new genus.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2015-07-06

    The new genus Nothocyphon (type species: Helodes (Cyphon ?) lindensis Blackburn, 1892) is proposed for small Contacyphon-like Australian beetles. The included species exhibit a generalized body structure, lacking the derived character expressions of related genera. Male tergite 9 is very weakly developed, membranous and bare. This is derived but as a reduction only weakly supports the monophyly of Nothocyphon.The new genus includes 39 species, with 37 newly described herein: Nothocyphon alces, n. sp., N. amita, n. sp., N. amphora, n. sp., N. armatus, n. sp., N. armstrongi, n. sp., N. auritus, n. sp., N. banksiae, n. sp., N. biserratus, n. sp., N. brevihamatus, n. sp., N. crux, n. sp., N. denticulatus, n. sp., N. donnabuangi, n. sp., N. esau, n. sp., N. frater (Blackburn), n. comb., N. horridus, n. sp., N. ímitator, n. sp., N. isolaeregis, n. sp., N. lanceolatus, n. sp., N. lindensis (Blackburn), n. comb., N. multidentatus, n. sp., N. naso, n. sp., N. nungatta, n. sp., N. pacificus, n. sp., N. patruelis, n. sp., N. platyphallus, n. sp., N. plicatus, n. sp., N. radula, n. sp., N. sarcophilus, n. sp., N. scutiger, n. sp., N. serratipenis, n. sp., N. signatus, n. sp., N. soror, n. sp., N. taeniatus, n. sp., N. taurus, n. sp., N. thylacinus, n. sp., N. triangulum, n. sp., N. vandiemeni, n. sp., N. wattsi, n. sp., N. ypsilon, n. sp.Lectotypes are designated for N. frater (Blackburn) and N. lindensis (Blackburn). All species are redescribed or described, and illustrated. Several informal species groups are recognized, and identification keys to males are provided.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of the burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorinae).

    PubMed

    Sikes, Derek S; Venables, Chandra

    2013-12-01

    Burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus) are well-known for their monopolization of small vertebrate carcasses in subterranean crypts and complex biparental care behaviors. They have been the focus of intense behavioral, ecological, and conservation research since the 1980s yet no thorough phylogenetic estimate for the group exists. Herein, we infer relationships, test past hypotheses of relationships, and test biogeographic scenarios among 55 of the subfamily Nicrophorinae's currently valid and extant 72 species. Two mitochondrial genes, COI and COII, and two nuclear genes, the D2 region of 28S, and the protein coding gene CAD, provided 3,971 nucleotides for 58 nicrophorine and 5 outgroup specimens. Ten partitions, with each modeled by GTR+I+G, were used for a 100 M generation MrBayes analysis and maximum likelihood bootstrapping with Garli. The inferred Bayesian phylogeny was mostly well-resolved with only three weak branches of biogeographic relevance. The common ancestor of the subfamily and of the genus Nicrophorus was reconstructed as Old World with four separate transitions to the New World and four reverse colonizations of the Old World from the New. Divergence dating from analysis with BEAST indicate the genus Nicrophorus originated in the Cretaceous, 127-99 Ma. Most prior, pre-cladistic hypotheses of relationships were strongly rejected while most modern hypotheses were largely congruent with monophyletic groups in our estimated phylogeny. Our results reject a recent hypothesis that Nicrophorus morio Gebler, 1817 (NEW STATUS as valid species) is a subspecies of N. germanicus (L., 1758). Two subgenera of Nicrophorus are recognized: NecroxenusSemenov-Tian-Shanskij, 1933, and NicrophorusFabricius, 1775.

  9. Adaptation of the egg of the desert beetle, Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to arid environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Shi, Meng; Hou, Xiaojuan; Meng, Shanshan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Microdera punctipennis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an endemic species in Guerbantonggut desert in China. To explore the ways that M. punctipennis egg adapts to dry desert environment, morphological characteristics of the egg was investigated along with the egg of the nondesert beetle Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Water loss rate and survival rate of these eggs under different dry treatments (relative humidity0, 10, and 20%) were measured to evaluate the desiccation resistance of the eggs at different developmental stages (day 0, 2, and 5 eggs). Our results showed that the 50-egg weight in T. molitor was heavier than M. punctipennis, while the 50-first-instar larva weight in T. molitor was almost the same as in M. punctipennis. The water loss rate of M. punctipennis egg under dry conditions was significantly lower than T. molitor, and the egg survival rate was significantly higher than T. molitor. The estimated developmental threshold temperature of M. punctipennis egg was 18.30°C, and the critical thermal maximum of M. punctipennis egg is above 39°C. These features partly account for the adaptability of M. punctipennis to desert environment in egg stage. PMID:25525108

  10. Baseline toxicity and field efficacy of metaflumizone on Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Hitchner, Erin M; Kuhar, Thomas P; Dively, Galen P; Youngman, Roger R; Philips, Christopher R; Anderson, Troy D

    2012-02-01

    Baseline toxicity levels to a novel semicarbazone insecticide, metaflumizone were established for 25 field populations of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae),from North America. Excluding the susceptible laboratory strain, 50% lethal concentrations of metaflumizone ranged from 0.57 to 1.31 ppm, while response slopes ranged from 1.92 to 4.24 (average = 2.93), and were unrelated to the 50% lethal concentration (r = 0.06; P = 0.76). Beetle populations with known resistance to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid also exhibited the highest LC50 levels to metaflumizone suggesting at least the possibility of cross-resistance. Additional experiments using a potato leaf-dip bioassay as well as field efficacy evaluations confirmed the high level of toxicity of metaflumizone to L. decemlineata and demonstrated a potential benefit of tank mixing a low rate of the pyrethroid esfenvalerate with metaflumizone at one-tenth the recommended field rate. These research findings confirm that metaflumizone is highly active against L. decemlineata larvae and adults and could provide an effective alternative insecticide for potato pest management. PMID:22420273

  11. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  12. Annotated catalogue of the carabid beetles of the Republic of Macedonia (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Slavčo; Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2015-08-20

    The catalogue of the ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Republic of Macedonia is the result of our permanent investigation during 15 years. It is based on the critical review of the data in 255 scientific publications and the revision of the collections deposited in the museums in Macedonia (Skopje and Struga), other European countries (Berlin, Budapest, Vienna, Sofia) and the first author's private collection. For all of the species and subspecies we have presented the known literature references, precise data for the studied material and overall distribution in the Republic of Macedonia. The study of the material resulted in new country records of 10 genera, 101 species and 25 subspecies. First detailed records are provided for another 47 species and subspecies, and additional material was studied of 482 species and subspecies. Type material of 18 species and subspecies was also examined. Thirteen species and one subspecies were rejected from the list of Macedonian ground beetles. Six more species are treated as questionable and were not included in the present list. As a result, the presence of 571 species and 234 subspecies (626 taxa in total) in Macedonia is confirmed. These taxa are arranged in 104 genera, 31 subtribes, 35 tribes and 13 subfamilies. The most numerous in term of the species are the genera Bembidion (60), Harpalus (48) and Amara (46), as well as Pterostichus (26), Ophonus (19), Carabus (16), Trechus (16), Brachinus (16) and Dyschirius (15).

  13. Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, Christopher I.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

    In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis.

  14. Climatic, Edaphic Factors and Cropping History Help Predict Click Beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) (Agriotes spp.) Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kozina, A.; Lemic, D.; Bazok, R.; Mikac, K. M.; Mclean, C. M.; Ivezić, M.; Igrc Barčić, J.

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that the abundance of Agriotes wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is affected by agro-ecological factors such as climatic and edaphic factors and the crop/previous crop grown at the sites investigated. The aim of this study, conducted in three different geographic counties in Croatia from 2007 to 2009, was to determine the factors that influence the abundance of adult click beetle of the species Agriotes brevis Cand., Agriotes lineatus (L.), Agriotes obscurus (L.), Agriotes sputator (L.), and Agriotes ustulatus Schall. The mean annual air temperature, total rainfall, percentage of coarse and fine sand, coarse and fine silt and clay, the soil pH, and humus were investigated as potential factors that may influence abundance. Adult click beetle emergence was monitored using sex pheromone traps (YATLORf and VARb3). Exploratory data analysis was preformed via regression tree models and regional differences in Agriotes species’ abundance were predicted based on the agro-ecological factors measured. It was found that the best overall predictor of A. brevis abundance was the previous crop grown. Conversely, the best predictor of A. lineatus abundance was the current crop being grown and the percentage of humus. The best predictor of A. obscurus abundance was soil pH in KCl. The best predictor of A. sputator abundance was rainfall. Finally, the best predictors of A. ustulatus abundance were soil pH in KCl and humus. These results may be useful in regional pest control programs or for predicting future outbreaks of these species. PMID:26175463

  15. Baseline toxicity and field efficacy of metaflumizone on Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Hitchner, Erin M; Kuhar, Thomas P; Dively, Galen P; Youngman, Roger R; Philips, Christopher R; Anderson, Troy D

    2012-02-01

    Baseline toxicity levels to a novel semicarbazone insecticide, metaflumizone were established for 25 field populations of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae),from North America. Excluding the susceptible laboratory strain, 50% lethal concentrations of metaflumizone ranged from 0.57 to 1.31 ppm, while response slopes ranged from 1.92 to 4.24 (average = 2.93), and were unrelated to the 50% lethal concentration (r = 0.06; P = 0.76). Beetle populations with known resistance to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid also exhibited the highest LC50 levels to metaflumizone suggesting at least the possibility of cross-resistance. Additional experiments using a potato leaf-dip bioassay as well as field efficacy evaluations confirmed the high level of toxicity of metaflumizone to L. decemlineata and demonstrated a potential benefit of tank mixing a low rate of the pyrethroid esfenvalerate with metaflumizone at one-tenth the recommended field rate. These research findings confirm that metaflumizone is highly active against L. decemlineata larvae and adults and could provide an effective alternative insecticide for potato pest management.

  16. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in conventional and diversified crop rotation systems.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Megan E; Liebman, Matt; Rice, Marlin E

    2008-02-01

    Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are important in agro-ecosystems as generalist predators of invertebrate pests and weed seeds and as prey for larger animals. However, it is not well understood how cropping systems affect ground beetles. Over a 2-yr period, carabids were monitored two times per month using pitfall traps in a conventional chemical input, 2-yr, corn/soybean rotation system and a low input, 4-yr, corn/soybean/triticale-alfalfa/alfalfa rotation system. Carabid assemblages were largely dominated by a few species across all cropping treatments with Poecilus chalcites Say comprising >70% of pitfall catches in both years of study. Overall carabid activity density and species richness were higher in the low input, 4-yr rotation compared with the conventionally managed, 2-yr rotation. There were greater differences in the temporal activity density and species richness of carabids among crops than within corn and soybean treatments managed with different agrichemical inputs and soil disturbance regimes. Detrended correspondence analysis showed strong yearly variation in carabid assemblages in all cropping treatments. The increase in carabid activity density and species richness observed in the 4-yr crop rotation highlights the potential benefits of diverse crop habitats for carabids and the possibility for managing natural enemies by manipulating crop rotations.

  17. Bacteriome-Localized Intracellular Symbionts in Pollen-Feeding Beetles of the Genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae)

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Benjamin; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Several insect taxa are associated with intracellular symbionts that provision limiting nutrients to their hosts. Such tightly integrated symbioses are especially common in insects feeding on nutritionally challenging diets like phloem sap or vertebrate blood, but also occur in seed-eating and omnivorous taxa. Here, we characterize an intracellular symbiosis in pollen-feeding beetles of the genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae). High-throughput tag-encoded 16S amplicon pyrosequencing of adult D. plumbeus and D. virens revealed a single gamma-proteobacterial symbiont (‘Candidatus Dasytiphilus stammeri’) that amounts to 52.4–98.7% of the adult beetles’ entire microbial community. Almost complete 16S rRNA sequences phylogenetically placed the symbiont into a clade comprising Buchnera and other insect endosymbionts, but sequence similarities to these closest relatives were surprisingly low (83.4–87.4%). Using histological examination, three-dimensional reconstructions, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we localized the symbionts in three mulberry-shaped bacteriomes that are associated with the mid- to hind-gut transition in adult male and female beetles. Given the specialized pollen-feeding habits of the adults that contrasts with the larvae’s carnivorous lifestyle, the symbionts may provision limiting essential amino acids or vitamins as in other intracellular symbioses, or they might produce digestive enzymes that break up the fastidious pollen walls and thereby contribute to the host’s nutrition. In either case, the presence of gamma-proteobacterial symbionts in pollen-feeding beetles indicates that intracellular mutualists are more widely distributed across insects with diverse feeding habits than previously recognized. PMID:27713733

  18. Synergistic blends of monoterpenes for aggregation pheromones of the mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Borden, John H; Pureswaran, Deepa S; Lafontaine, Jean Pierre

    2008-08-01

    The superiority of the host monoterpene myrcene as a synergist for trans-verbenol and exo-brevicomin, aggregation pheromone components of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), suggests that the ancestral host of the mountain pine beetle is a pine rich in myrcene. A field trapping experiment in British Columbia testing reconstituted bole oleoresin of whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis Engelmann, composed of mainly myrcene (20.7%), terpinolene (6.8%), and 3-carene (61.9%) showed it to be a better pheromone synergist than reconstituted bole oleoresin of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia Engelmann, which contained only 2.7, 1.0, and 6.0%, respectively, of the above-mentioned three compounds. In the same experiment myrcene alone was the best synergist. In subsequent experiments, testing myrcene, terpinolene and 3-carene alone and in all possible binary and ternary combinations, a 50:50 blend of myrcene and terpinolene released at the same rate as either compound alone generally resulted in trap catches approximately 3 times higher than with myrcene as a synergist. This result held as long as the terpinolene was free of contaminants, and the traps were in the open, well away from potential interference of semiochemicals emitted by newly attacked trees. 3-Carene seemed to be inert or slightly inhibitory. No single monoterpene tested alone or in binary or ternary combination in the absence of pheromones was attractive. There was no effect of doubling or tripling the release rate of myrcene or terpinolene. In five of nine experiments, adding terpinolene to myrcene caused a significant increase in the percentage of female mountain pine beetles captured. Among host pines, the presence of highly synergistic monoterpenes at various levels in combination with other monoterpenes that are apparently either inert or inhibitory could account for different degrees of pheromone synergism, and thus host preference. The

  19. Further contributions to the Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) fauna of New Brunswick and Canada including descriptions of 27 new species

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Bourdon, Caroline; Sweeney, Jon D.; Hughes, Cory C.; Labrecque, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats the discovery of new species and new records of aleocharine beetles for the province of New Brunswick. We report here 27 species new to science, one new North American record, six new Canadian records, and 29 new provincial records. The following are the new species: Acrotona brachyoptera Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Acrotona sphagnorum Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) alphacrenuliventris Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) chartersensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) cranberriensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) bubo Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) mcalpinei Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) makepeacei Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) giguereae Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Dimetrota) petitcapensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) pseudoschistoglossa Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) sphagnicola Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (sensu lato) thujae Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Pseudota) pseudoklagesi Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Philhygra atypicalis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Schistoglossa (Schistoglossa) pelletieri Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Thamiaraea corverae Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Thamiaraea claydeni Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Pleurotobia bourdonae Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Pleurotobia brunswickensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Agaricomorpha vincenti Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Gyrophaena (Gyrophaena) aldersonae Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Oligota polyporicola Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Oligota sevogle Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Hylota cryptica Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Oxypoda sunpokeana Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., and Phloeopora gilbertae Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n. The spermatheca of Dinaraea curtipenis Klimaszewski & Webster, Dinaraea longipenis Klimaszewski & Webster, and

  20. Pastoral practices to reverse shrub encroachment of sub-alpine grasslands: dung beetles (coleoptera, scarabaeoidea) respond more quickly than vegetation.

    PubMed

    Tocco, Claudia; Probo, Massimiliano; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Negro, Matteo; Nervo, Beatrice; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, pastoral abandonment has produced profound ecological changes in the Alps. In particular, the reduction in grazing has led to extensive shrub encroachment of semi-natural grasslands, which may represent a threat to open habitat biodiversity. To reverse shrub encroachment, we assessed short-term effects of two different pastoral practices on vegetation and dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Strategic placement of mineral mix supplements (MMS) and arrangement of temporary night camp areas (TNCA) for cattle were carried out during summer 2011 in the Val Troncea Natural Park, north-western Italian Alps. In 2012, one year after treatment, a reduction in shrub cover and an increase in bare ground cover around MMS sites was detected. A more intense effect was detected within TNCA through increases in forage pastoral value, and in the cover and height of the herbaceous layer. Immediately after treatment, changes in dung beetle diversity (total abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, taxonomic and functional diversity) showed a limited disturbance effect caused by high cattle density. In contrast, dung beetle diversity significantly increased one year later both at MMS and TNCA sites, with a stronger effect within TNCA. Multivariate Regression Trees and associated Indicator Value analyses showed that some ecologically relevant dung beetle species preferred areas deprived of shrub vegetation. Our main conclusions are: i) TNCA are more effective than MMS in terms of changes to vegetation and dung beetles, ii) dung beetles respond more quickly than vegetation to pastoral practices, and iii) the main driver of the rapid response by dung beetles is the removal of shrubs. The resulting increase in dung beetle abundance and diversity, which are largely responsible for grassland ecosystem functioning, may have a positive effect on meso-eutrophic grassland restoration. Shrub encroachment in the Alps may therefore be reversed, and restoration of

  1. Pastoral Practices to Reverse Shrub Encroachment of Sub-Alpine Grasslands: Dung Beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea) Respond More Quickly Than Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Tocco, Claudia; Probo, Massimiliano; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Negro, Matteo; Nervo, Beatrice; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, pastoral abandonment has produced profound ecological changes in the Alps. In particular, the reduction in grazing has led to extensive shrub encroachment of semi-natural grasslands, which may represent a threat to open habitat biodiversity. To reverse shrub encroachment, we assessed short-term effects of two different pastoral practices on vegetation and dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Strategic placement of mineral mix supplements (MMS) and arrangement of temporary night camp areas (TNCA) for cattle were carried out during summer 2011 in the Val Troncea Natural Park, north-western Italian Alps. In 2012, one year after treatment, a reduction in shrub cover and an increase in bare ground cover around MMS sites was detected. A more intense effect was detected within TNCA through increases in forage pastoral value, and in the cover and height of the herbaceous layer. Immediately after treatment, changes in dung beetle diversity (total abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, taxonomic and functional diversity) showed a limited disturbance effect caused by high cattle density. In contrast, dung beetle diversity significantly increased one year later both at MMS and TNCA sites, with a stronger effect within TNCA. Multivariate Regression Trees and associated Indicator Value analyses showed that some ecologically relevant dung beetle species preferred areas deprived of shrub vegetation. Our main conclusions are: i) TNCA are more effective than MMS in terms of changes to vegetation and dung beetles, ii) dung beetles respond more quickly than vegetation to pastoral practices, and iii) the main driver of the rapid response by dung beetles is the removal of shrubs. The resulting increase in dung beetle abundance and diversity, which are largely responsible for grassland ecosystem functioning, may have a positive effect on meso-eutrophic grassland restoration. Shrub encroachment in the Alps may therefore be reversed, and restoration of

  2. Exploring the Leaf Beetle Fauna (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of an Ecuadorian Mountain Forest Using DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Thormann, Birthe; Ahrens, Dirk; Marín Armijos, Diego; Peters, Marcell K.; Wagner, Thomas; Wägele, Johann W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tropical mountain forests are hotspots of biodiversity hosting a huge but little known diversity of insects that is endangered by habitat destruction and climate change. Therefore, rapid assessment approaches of insect diversity are urgently needed to complement slower traditional taxonomic approaches. We empirically compare different DNA-based species delimitation approaches for a rapid biodiversity assessment of hyperdiverse leaf beetle assemblages along an elevational gradient in southern Ecuador and explore their effect on species richness estimates. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a COI barcode data set of 674 leaf beetle specimens (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of 266 morphospecies from three sample sites in the Podocarpus National Park, we employed statistical parsimony analysis, distance-based clustering, GMYC- and PTP-modelling to delimit species-like units and compared them to morphology-based (parataxonomic) species identifications. The four different approaches for DNA-based species delimitation revealed highly similar numbers of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) (n = 284–289). Estimated total species richness was considerably higher than the sampled amount, 414 for morphospecies (Chao2) and 469–481 for the different MOTU types. Assemblages at different elevational levels (1000 vs. 2000 m) had similar species numbers but a very distinct species composition for all delimitation methods. Most species were found only at one elevation while this turnover pattern was even more pronounced for DNA-based delimitation. Conclusions/Significance Given the high congruence of DNA-based delimitation results, probably due to the sampling structure, our study suggests that when applied to species communities on a regionally limited level with high amount of rare species (i.e. ~50% singletons), the choice of species delimitation method can be of minor relevance for assessing species numbers and turnover in tropical insect communities

  3. Ibonikawhite, new replacement name for Whitea Descamps, 1977 (Orthoptera: Thericleidae), not Whitea Hutton, 1904 (Coleoptera: Pselaphinae), and standardised English names for the included species.

    PubMed

    Stals, Riaan; Armstrong, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    Marius Descamps (1977) established the genus Whitea for four new species of forbhoppers (Orthoptera: Thericleidae) from the present-day Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa. The type species (by original designation) is W. fissicauda Descamps, 1977. Descamps's genus name is, however, preoccupied by Whitea Hutton, 1904, the name of a monotypic shortwing mould beetle genus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) from New Zealand. Whitea Hutton is itself a replacement name and was involved in another nomenclatural muddle, resolved by Brown (1964). The type species of the pselaphine genus (by monotypy) is Euplectus laevifrons Broun, 1893: 1425. PMID:27395886

  4. Parasitism of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by a New Species of Hairworm (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Crystal M; Hanelt, Ben; Buddle, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    The host-parasite associations between ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) collected from the Arctic (an understudied and ecologically important region) is described. Carabids and their parasites were collected from 12 sites spanning the 3 northernmost ecoclimatic zones of Canada (north boreal, subarctic, and high Arctic) using standardized methods. The beetles and hairworms were identified using traditional morphological approaches. Seven beetle species are recorded as hosts: Amara alpina, Pterostichus caribou, Pterostichus brevicornis, Pterostichus tareumiut, Pterostichus haematopus, Patrobus septentrionis, and Notiophilus borealis. All represent new host records (increasing the known North American host list from 14 to 21), and this is the first record of hairworm infection in the genus Notiophilus. Beetles from Banks Island, Northwest Territory, were infected in high numbers (11-19% per sampling period) and were used as an ecological case study. There was no significant relationship between infection status and host species, body size, or sex. Beetles collected in yellow pan traps and in wet habitats were more likely to be infected, likely due to water-seeking behavior induced by the parasites. Morphological examinations indicate that the hairworms collected from all locations represent a single, new species of Gordionus, making it only the sixth hairworm species and the third species of that genus found in Canada. Hosts are unknown for all other Canadian (and 1 Alaskan) Gordionus species. PMID:26959639

  5. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. II. Wing reduction and the sensory field.

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro; Polilov, Alexey; Cherney, Lyubov; Browdy, Vassily; Kovalev, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    Loss of the flight ability and wing reduction has been reported for many taxa of Coleoptera. If elytra are closed, their roots are clenched between the tergum and the pleuron, forces applied to the elytra can not be transmitted to the field of campaniform sensilla situated on the root. That is why it is plausible to assume that the field becomes redundant in non-flying beetles. We examined the relationships between the hind wing reduction and characters of this mechanosensory field in beetles of six families. We measured the size of the elytron, that of the hind wing and counted the number of sensilla in the sensory field. Mesopterous non-flying beetles retain one half to one third of sensilla present in macropterous species of the same body size. Further reduction of the sensory field in brachypterous species is obvious, but sensilla are still present in insects with strongly reduced wings, as long as their elytra are separable and mesothoracic axillaries are present. Complete loss of sensilla coincides with the existence of a permanent sutural lock. However, some beetles with permanently locked elytra and absence of axillaries still retain few campaniform sensilla. A very special case of an extreme wing modification in feather-wing beetles is considered. No sensilla were revealed either on the root of the elytron or on the basal segment of such fringed wings in flying ptiliid species.

  6. Parasitism of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by a New Species of Hairworm (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Crystal M; Hanelt, Ben; Buddle, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    The host-parasite associations between ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) collected from the Arctic (an understudied and ecologically important region) is described. Carabids and their parasites were collected from 12 sites spanning the 3 northernmost ecoclimatic zones of Canada (north boreal, subarctic, and high Arctic) using standardized methods. The beetles and hairworms were identified using traditional morphological approaches. Seven beetle species are recorded as hosts: Amara alpina, Pterostichus caribou, Pterostichus brevicornis, Pterostichus tareumiut, Pterostichus haematopus, Patrobus septentrionis, and Notiophilus borealis. All represent new host records (increasing the known North American host list from 14 to 21), and this is the first record of hairworm infection in the genus Notiophilus. Beetles from Banks Island, Northwest Territory, were infected in high numbers (11-19% per sampling period) and were used as an ecological case study. There was no significant relationship between infection status and host species, body size, or sex. Beetles collected in yellow pan traps and in wet habitats were more likely to be infected, likely due to water-seeking behavior induced by the parasites. Morphological examinations indicate that the hairworms collected from all locations represent a single, new species of Gordionus, making it only the sixth hairworm species and the third species of that genus found in Canada. Hosts are unknown for all other Canadian (and 1 Alaskan) Gordionus species.

  7. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.

  8. Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), an Associate of Dorcus Stag Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2014-01-01

    A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties. PMID:24644371

  9. Oil pipeline corridor through an intact forest alters ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in southeastern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Bareena; Horn, David J; Purrington, Foster F; Gandhi, Kamal J K

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages were monitored 1 yr after the construction of a corridor for installation of an oil pipeline along a xeric ridge-top forest in southeastern Ohio. After the creation of the corridor, three distinct habitats were evident in these sites: open corridor, ecotone areas around the corridor, and undisturbed forest interior. Carabidae were collected using directional pitfall traps that were placed parallel and perpendicular to the corridor in each of the three habitats. Results indicate that more carabids were present in the ecotone than in the other two habitats. Carabid diversity as estimated by rarefaction was highest in the corridor followed by ecotone and forest interior. Generalist and forest specialists such as Synuchus impunctatus (Say), Carabus goryi Dejean, and Pterostichus trinarius (Casey) were present in greater numbers in the forest interior and ecotone assemblages. In contrast, open-habitat specialists such as Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) and Selenophorus opalinus (LeConte) were present in greater numbers in the corridor assemblages. Carabid assemblages of the corridor were distinct from those of the ecotone and forest interior, whereas the latter two habitats had very similar assemblages. The successional pathway of the corridor carabid assemblage will therefore be likely different from that of the forest interior and ecotone. Overall, results indicate that construction of the oil pipeline corridor had significant short-term effects on the carabid numbers, diversity, and species composition because of ensuing habitat changes and fragmentation of the forest.

  10. Species limits in polymorphic mimetic Eniclases net-winged beetles from New Guinean mountains (Coleoptera, Lycidae).

    PubMed

    Bocek, Matej; Bocak, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp. n., Eniclases pseudoapertus sp. n., Eniclases pseudoluteolus sp. n., Eniclases tikapurensis sp. n., and Eniclases variabilis sp. n. Different levels of genetic and morphological diversification were identified in various sister-species pairs. As a result, both morphological and molecular analyses are used to delimit species. Sister-species with uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence as low as 0.45% were morphologically distinct not only in color pattern, but also in the relative size of eyes. Conversely, differences in color pattern regardless of their magnitude did not necessarily indicate genetic distance and intraspecific mimicry polymorphism was common. Additionally, genetic divergence without morphological differentiation was detected in one sister-species pair. Low dispersal propensity, diverse mimicry patterns, and mimetic polymorphism resulted in complex diversification of Eniclases and uncertain species delimitation in recently diversified lineages.

  11. Cold hardiness of Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) larvae in different populations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuqian; Xu, Lili; Tian, Bing; Tao, Jing; Wang, Jinlin; Zong, Shixiang

    2014-10-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is distributed widely in China, where it causes severe damage to forests, and is a quarantine pest in Europe, the United States, and Canada. A. glabripennis overwinters as dormant larvae to avoid adverse environmental conditions. To elucidate the cold hardiness of A. glabripennis larvae, the supercooling point (SCP), freezing point (FP), and cold hardiness-related compounds were examined in overwintering larva from five populations in China (Yili, Yanchi, Wulateqianqi, Beijing, and Dezhou). The results showed that the SCP and FP differed significantly among populations, where the SCP of larvae in the Wulateqianqi population was the lowest and highest in the Beijing population. The water, fat, and glycogen contents also differed significantly among the five populations. The SCPs of larvae from all five populations were proportional to glycogen contents, but had no association with water contents and fat contents. The total contents of seven low-molecular weight compounds (glycerol, galactose, glucose, mannose, sorbitol, inositol, and trehalose) differed significantly among populations. Thus, A. glabripennis larvae from different geographical populations contained different sugars or sugar alcohols (especially glycerol, glucose, sorbitol, and trehalose), which helped them to resist cold temperatures. This study provides basic information about that may facilitate the prediction of distribution range expansions and ensure proper implementation of the integrated management of A. glabripennis populations. PMID:25202887

  12. Species limits in polymorphic mimetic Eniclases net-winged beetles from New Guinean mountains (Coleoptera, Lycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bocek, Matej; Bocak, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp. n., Eniclases pseudoapertus sp. n., Eniclases pseudoluteolus sp. n., Eniclases tikapurensis sp. n., and Eniclases variabilis sp. n. Different levels of genetic and morphological diversification were identified in various sister-species pairs. As a result, both morphological and molecular analyses are used to delimit species. Sister-species with uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence as low as 0.45% were morphologically distinct not only in color pattern, but also in the relative size of eyes. Conversely, differences in color pattern regardless of their magnitude did not necessarily indicate genetic distance and intraspecific mimicry polymorphism was common. Additionally, genetic divergence without morphological differentiation was detected in one sister-species pair. Low dispersal propensity, diverse mimicry patterns, and mimetic polymorphism resulted in complex diversification of Eniclases and uncertain species delimitation in recently diversified lineages. PMID:27408550

  13. Identification, distribution, and adult phenology of the carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of Texas.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Patricia L; Riley, Edward G; Oswald, John D

    2013-01-01

    The carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of Texas are surveyed. Thirteen of the 14 species, and five of the six genera, of this ecologically and forensically important group of scavengers that have previously been reported from Texas are confirmed here based on a study of 3,732 adult specimens. The one reported, but unconfirmed, species, Oxelytrum discicolle, was probably based on erroneous label data and is excluded from the Texas fauna. Two additional species, Nicrophorus sayi and N. investigator are discussed as possible, but unconfirmed, components of the fauna. Taxonomic diagnoses, Texas distribution range maps, seasonality profiles, and biological notes are presented for each confirmed species. The confirmed Texas silphid fauna of 13 species comprises 43% of the 30 species of this family that are known from America north of Mexico. The highest richness (11 species) is found in the combined Austroriparian and Texan biotic provinces of eastern Texas. Phenologically, three species (Necrophila americana, O. rugulosum and Nicrophorus tomentosus) exhibit bimodal adult temporal occurrence patterns with peaks in the spring and late summer or fall; four species (Oiceoptoma noveboracense, Necrodes surinamensis, Nicrophorus carolinus, and N. orbicollis) exhibit unimodal occurrence patterns with a single peak in late spring or early summer; one species (Oiceoptonia inaequale) exhibits a unimodal occurrence pattern with a single peak in early spring; and five species (Thanatophilus truncatus, Nicrophorus americanus, N. marginatus, N. mexicanus and N. pustulatus) display unimodal occurrence patterns with peaks in late summer or early fall.

  14. Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), an Associate of Dorcus Stag Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J

    2014-03-01

    A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties. PMID:24644371

  15. Behavioral explanations underlying the lack of trap effectiveness for small-scale management of Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Switzer, Paul V; Enstrom, Patrick C; Schoenick, Carissa A

    2009-06-01

    Traps containing a combination floral and synthetic pheromone lure are used to monitor and manage Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). One key factor limiting trap effectiveness for beetle control is the "trap spillover" phenomenon, in which the trap attracts beetles without capturing them, resulting in increased damage to surrounding host plants. We investigated the mechanisms underlying trap spillover by conducting two studies in a soybean field in east central Illinois. In the first study, we set up trap stations for 1 d and compared the sex, size, and egg load (for females) of beetles caught in the traps with those on the plants immediately surrounding the trap, downwind of the trap, at lure-only (no trap) stations, and at control areas. Females caught in traps tended to be smaller than those on plants surrounding the traps, and females attracted to the traps had fewer eggs than those downwind or at control sites. We did not find any difference in male characteristics. In the second study, we observed the behavior of beetles initially approaching traps. Upon initial approach, the majority of individuals landed on plants before making contact with the trap, and those beetles that spent an extended time on the leaves tended to be females. Arriving males would occasionally pair with these females on the plants. Overall, traps did not capture a random subset of the beetles present in the field. We hypothesize that trap spillover is a result of arriving females not being as attracted to the precise location of the trap as they are to the general location itself, and of arriving males seeking mates and finding them among these spillover females.

  16. Revision of Neotropical species of ant-like stone beetles misplaced in Stenichnus and Scydmoraphes (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2015-10-02

    Genera Stenichnus and Scydmoraphes are distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, with a few rather peculiar species described from South America. Type series of Stenichnus andicola Franz, Scydmoraphes venezolanus Franz and Scydmoraphes peruanus Franz were examined and the first of these species is transferred to Sciacharis Broun, while two new generic names are established to accommodate the two latter species: Meridaphes gen. n. and Perumicrus gen. n. This results in three new combinations: Sciacharis (incertae sedis) andicola (Franz) comb. n., Meridaphes venezolanus (Franz) comb. n., and Perumicrus peruanus (Franz) comb. n. Morphological structures of all treated taxa are described and illustrated in detail.

  17. Sucinolivolia torpida--a new genus and species of flea-beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Bukejs, Andris; Biondi, Maurizio; Alekseev, Vitalii I

    2015-12-15

    Sucinolivolia torpida gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) is described and illustrated from Eocene Baltic amber. The new monotypic genus is compared with fossil and extant flea-beetle genera. Sucinolivolia gen. nov. is similar to the extant Livolia Jacoby and Orthaltica Crotch, but difference include the absence of an antebasal pronotal sulcus, not crenulate lateral pronotal margins, possessing very short genae, more robust legs, and the shape of tibiae. Including this new record, six described species of Alticini are known from Baltic amber.

  18. Entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control agents for the vector of the laurel wilt disease, the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  19. Post entry interception of the yellow-spotted longhorned beetle,Psacothea hilaris (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Italy Genbank Accession Number GU244486

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psacothea hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) known as the yellow-spotted longhorned beetle is native from eastern Asia (China, Japan including Ryukyu, Shikoku and Honshu archipelago and Taïwan) where it attacks plants belonging to Moraceae family, in particular to Morus and Ficus genera. In...

  20. Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution, and abundnance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek watershed, Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riffle Beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) require very good water quality, mature streams with riffle habitat, and high dissolved oxygen content. As such, they prove to be good indicators of ecological health in agricultural headwater streams. We conducted static renewal aquatic bioassays using water fro...

  1. Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart’s wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea stewartii is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, the most serious bacterial disease of sweet corn and maize in the North-Central and Eastern USA. P. stewartii is transmitted mainly by the corn flea beetle Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and this bacterium is a...

  2. Molecular evidence of facultative intraguild predation by Monochamus titillator larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on members of the southern pine beetle guild

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeller, Erich N.; Husseneder, Claudia; Allison, Jeremy D.

    2012-11-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild (SPBG) is arguably the most destructive group of forest insects in the southeastern USA. This guild contains five species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Dendroctonus frontalis, Dendroctonus terebrans, Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis. A diverse community of illicit receivers is attracted to pheromones emitted by the SPBG, including the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). These woodborers have been traditionally classified as resource competitors; however, laboratory assays suggest that larval M. carolinensis may be facultative intraguild predators of SPBG larvae. This study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular gut content analyses to characterize subcortical interactions between M. titillator and members of the SPBG. The half-lives of SPBG DNA were estimated in the laboratory prior to examining these interactions in the field. A total of 271 field-collected M. titillator larvae were analyzed and 26 (9.6 %) tested positive for DNA of members of the SPBG. Of these larvae, 25 (96.2 %) tested positive for I. grandicollis and one (3.8 %) for I. calligraphus. Failure to detect D. terebrans and D. frontalis was likely due to their absence in the field. I. avulsus was present, but primers developed using adult tissues failed to amplify larval tissue. Results from this study support the hypothesis that larval Monochamus spp. are facultative intraguild predators of bark beetle larvae. Additionally, this study demonstrates the capabilities of PCR in elucidating the interactions of cryptic forest insects and provides a tool to better understand mechanisms driving southern pine beetle guild population fluctuations.

  3. Intra-Annual Variation in Responses by Flying Southern Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to Pheromone Component endo-Brevicomin.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian T; Brownie, Cavell; Barrett, JoAnne P

    2016-08-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endo-brevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component spacing, and proximity of beetle infestations. Anecdotal observations have further suggested that the effects of endo-brevicomin vary during the year. We investigated this possibility under nonoutbreak conditions in southwestern Mississippi where for two-and-a-half years we monitored traps baited with frontalin and the host odor alpha-pinene either (a) alone, or with an endo-brevicomin release device either (b) located directly on the trap, or (c) displaced 6 m away. The endo-brevicomin devices in our tests increased D. frontalis catches during all times of year, and 6 m displacement of the endo-brevicomin release device from the trap did not significantly alter responses except during the spring flight peak when displacement increased catches. Our data suggest that flying D. frontalis have a stronger tendency to avoid the immediate proximity of a release point of endo-brevicomin during their springtime dispersal flight when catches are greatest. Catches of Thanasimus dubius (F.) (Coleoptera: Cleridae), a major predator of D. frontalis, were not altered by endo-brevicomin, and ratios of D. frontalis to T. dubius changed over the course of the year. We discuss the possible effects of intra-annual variation in D. frontalis response to endo-brevicomin both on beetle attack behavior and use of endo-brevicomin as a lure adjuvant in D. frontalis population monitoring. PMID:27207264

  4. Intra-Annual Variation in Responses by Flying Southern Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to Pheromone Component endo-Brevicomin.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian T; Brownie, Cavell; Barrett, JoAnne P

    2016-08-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endo-brevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component spacing, and proximity of beetle infestations. Anecdotal observations have further suggested that the effects of endo-brevicomin vary during the year. We investigated this possibility under nonoutbreak conditions in southwestern Mississippi where for two-and-a-half years we monitored traps baited with frontalin and the host odor alpha-pinene either (a) alone, or with an endo-brevicomin release device either (b) located directly on the trap, or (c) displaced 6 m away. The endo-brevicomin devices in our tests increased D. frontalis catches during all times of year, and 6 m displacement of the endo-brevicomin release device from the trap did not significantly alter responses except during the spring flight peak when displacement increased catches. Our data suggest that flying D. frontalis have a stronger tendency to avoid the immediate proximity of a release point of endo-brevicomin during their springtime dispersal flight when catches are greatest. Catches of Thanasimus dubius (F.) (Coleoptera: Cleridae), a major predator of D. frontalis, were not altered by endo-brevicomin, and ratios of D. frontalis to T. dubius changed over the course of the year. We discuss the possible effects of intra-annual variation in D. frontalis response to endo-brevicomin both on beetle attack behavior and use of endo-brevicomin as a lure adjuvant in D. frontalis population monitoring.

  5. Attaching lures to multiple-funnel traps targeting saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera) in pine stands: inside or outside funnels?

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel R; Crowe, Christopher M; Barnes, Brittany F; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Duerr, Donald A

    2013-02-01

    We conducted two field trapping experiments with multiple-funnel traps in 2008 and one experiment in 2010 to determine the effects of lure placement (inside or outside funnels) on catches of saproxylic species of beetles (Coleoptera). The experiments were conducted in southern pine (Pinus spp.) stands in central Georgia using combinations of ethanol, alpha-pinene, ipsenol, and ipsdienol lures. We report on a modification to the multiple-funnel trap that allows placement of large lures inside the confines of the funnels with minimal blockage. In general, catches of five species of common longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae), two species of regeneration weevils (Curculionidae), four species of bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and seven species of beetle predators and ectoparasites (Cleridae, Histeridae, Tenebrionidae, Trogossitidae, and Zopheridae) were higher in funnel traps with lures attached inside the funnels than in those with lures attached outside of the funnels. Catches of the remaining species were unaffected by lure placement. In no instance were catches of any species lower in funnel traps with lures attached inside the funnels than in those with lures attached outside of the funnels. For most species, catches in modified funnel traps with ethanol, alpha-pinene, ipsenol, and ipsdienol lures attached inside funnels were comparable with those in cross-vane panel traps.

  6. Knockdown, residual, and antifeedant activity of pyrethroids and home landscape bioinsecticides against Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Linden foliage.

    PubMed

    Baumler, Rebecca E; Potter, Daniel A

    2007-04-01

    Residual toxicity and leaf protection capability of five pyrethroids, professional and home garden azadirachtin formulations, and six other bioinsecticides for the home landscape were evaluated against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), on linden, Tilia cordata L. Capacity of intoxicated beetles to recover and subsequently feed and disperse also was evaluated to provide insight on activity characteristics of the different compounds. Intact shoots were sprayed and left in the field for varying intervals before being challenged with beetles in no-choice and choice tests. All pyrethroids except permethrin gave greater leaf protection, knockdown, and kill than did carbaryl, the standard, after 14 d of weathering. Deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and lamda-cyhalothrin gave a high level of protection for at least 19 d, and azadirachtin (Azatin XL) deterred feeding in choice tests for as long as 14 d. Home garden formulations containing pyrethrins in canola oil (Pyola) or azadiractin (Neem-Away) gave good short-term (< 3-d) protection. Formulations of capsaicin, rotenone + pyrethrins, kaolin particle film, D-limonene, or garlic extract were ineffective, the latter two formulations being highly phytotoxic to linden. Results of this study should help support updating of guidelines for insecticidal control of Japanese beetles. PMID:17461070

  7. Wind as an abiotic factor of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) flight take-off activity under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, G; Mccarthy, P C; MacKinley, P D

    2010-10-01

    The flight take-off activity of Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was significantly higher at a landscape-protected than at semiexposed and exposed sites in a 2-yr field study. In both years, mean daylight temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity were generally similar at all sites, but wind speed was lower at the protected site than at the exposed sites. Results suggest that wind was the limiting abiotic factor for flight take-off at the exposed site. Caged beetles exposed to constant wind speeds of 3.4, 4.7, and 7.0 m/s showed a significant corresponding decrease in number of flight take-off. There was no cumulative effect of wind exposure on the readiness of the beetles to fly, suggesting that wind acts as a physical barrier to flight take-off. It should be possible to reduce Colorado potato beetle flight dispersal by selecting fields most exposed to wind over landscape-protected fields when rotating potato, Solanum tuberosum L., crops.

  8. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.

    PubMed

    Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G

    2013-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations.

  9. Feeding by flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Phyllotreta spp.) is decreased on canola (Brassica napus) seedlings with increased trichome density.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Juliana J; Holowachuk, Jennifer M; Gruber, Margaret Y; Grenkow, Larry F

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to determine the effects of increased numbers of trichomes on seedling stems, petioles, and first true leaves of Brassica napus L., canola, on the feeding and behavior of the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Seedlings of 'Westar' canola with genes inserted from Arabidopsis thaliana L. for increased trichome production, called Hairyl, were tested against Westar seedlings in no-choice and choice laboratory tests, and against parental plants and other cultivars grown from seed with and without insecticide in field trials at Saskatoon and Lethbridge, Canada. Analyses ofprefeeding and feeding behavior in no-choice tests of first true leaves found that flea beetles interacted with their host while off Hairyl leaves more so than beetles presented with leaves of Westar. Beetles required twice as much time to reach satiation when feeding on leaves with increased pubescence than on Westar leaves. In laboratory choice tests, flea beetles fed more on cotyledons and second true leaves of Westar than on comparable tissues of the transgenic line. In field trials, variations in feeding patterns were seen over time on cotyledons of the line with elevated trichomes. However, all four young true leaves of Hairyl seedlings were fed upon less than were the parental lines. Feeding on Hairyl plants frequently occurred at levels equal to or less than on cultivars grown from insecticide-treated seed. This study highlights the first host plant resistance trait developed in canola, dense pubescence, with a strong potential to deter feeding by crucifer flea beetles.

  10. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.

    PubMed

    Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G

    2013-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations. PMID:24468553

  11. Suitability of commercially available insect traps and pheromones for monitoring dusky sap beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and related insects in Bt sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F

    2005-06-01

    Two trap types and pheromone sources for the dusky sap beetle, Carpophilus lugubris Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), were compared in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt sweet corn fields over a 3-yr period. Overall, commercial traps and pheromones were equally effective as experimental traps and pheromones used previously for capturing C. lugubris and other sap beetle species. The commercial trap often caught significantly more Glischrochilus quadrisignatus Say than the experimental trap that had been used in previous studies. Bt corn significantly reduced caterpillar damage to ears compared with the non-Bt isoline and did not adversely affect levels of Orius sp., the most common insect predator. Sap beetle damage was the most common insect damage to Bt sweet corn ears. Sap beetles were detected by traps at population levels below that which are likely to cause economic concern, indicating commercially available traps and pheromone lures for monitoring sap beetles should be suitable for detecting them under commercial growing conditions. PMID:16022314

  12. Sperm bundle and reproductive organs of carabid beetles tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2007-05-01

    The morphological characteristics of sperm and reproductive organs may offer clues as to how reproductive systems have evolved. In this paper, the morphologies of the sperm and male reproductive organs of carabid beetles in the tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described, and the morphological associations among characters are examined. All species form sperm bundles in which the head of the sperm was embedded in a rod-shaped structure, i.e., spermatodesm. The spermatodesm shape (left-handed spiral, right-handed spiral, or without conspicuous spiral structure) and the condition of the sperm on the spermatodesm surface (with the tail free-moving or forming a thin, sheetlike structure) vary among species. In all species, the spiral directions of the convoluted seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia are the same on both sides of the body; that is, they show an asymmetric structure. The species in which the sperm bundle and the seminal vesicles both have a spiral structure could be classified into two types, with significant differences in sperm-bundle length between the two types. The species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle spiral of almost the same diameter have longer sperm bundles than the species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle tube of almost the same diameter. In the former type, the spiral directions of the sperm bundles and seminal vesicles are inevitably the same, whereas they differ in some species with the later type. Therefore, increased sperm bundle length appears to have been facilitated by the concordance of the sperm bundle’s coiling direction with the coiling direction of the seminal vesicle.

  13. Nutritional Physiology of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Fed on Various Barley Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Seifi, S; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J

    2016-02-01

    The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is known as one of the mostserious pests of grains in many parts of the world. In this study, the effect of nine barley cultivars (‘Bahman’,‘CB-84-10’, ‘Fajr 30’, ‘Makuyi’, ‘Nosrat’, ‘Yousof’, ‘13A1’, ‘18A1’, and ‘19 A1’) and a wheat cultivar (‘MV17’, as a control) was determined on the nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. granarium at 33 6 1C,relative humidity of 6565%, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest and lowest values of larval weight gain of sixth instar were detected on wheat (0.757±0.068 mg) and cultivar Bahman (0.342±0.071 mg). Also, T. granarium larvae fed on cultivar Bahman had the lowest value of efficiency of conversion of ingested food(10.90±2.09%) as compared with wheat and other barley cultivars. Also, the highest midgut amylolytic and proteolytic activities of sixth instar were on cultivar Bahman (0.364±0.024 mU/mg and 80.54±1.73 U/mg, respectively)and the lowest activities were on cultivar Nosrat (0.043±0.004 mU/mg and 7.15±0.01 U/mg, respectively).It is concluded that barley cultivar Bahman was the most unsuitable host for feeding of T. granarium.

  14. Global Transcriptome Profiling of the Pine Shoot Beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Zhao, Ning; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Background The pine shoot beetle Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is an economically important pest of Pinus yunnanensis in southwestern China. Developed resistance to insecticides due to chemical pesticides being used for a long time is a factor involved in its serious damage, which poses a challenge for management. In addition, highly efficient adaptation to divergent environmental ecologies results in this pest posing great potential threat to pine forests. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown as only limited nucleotide sequence data for this species is available. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we applied next generation sequencing (Illumina sequencing) to sequence the adult transcriptome of T. yunnanensis. A total of 51,822,230 reads were obtained. They were assembled into 140,702 scaffolds, and 60,031 unigenes. The unigenes were further functionally annotated with gene descriptions, Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG). In total, 80,932 unigenes were classified into GO, 13,599 unigenes were assigned to COG, and 33,875 unigenes were found in KO categories. A biochemical pathway database containing 219 predicted pathways was also created based on the annotations. In depth analysis of the data revealed a large number of genes related to insecticides resistance and heat shock protein genes associated with environmental stress. Conclusions/Significance The results facilitate the investigations of molecular resistance mechanisms to insecticides and environmental stress. This study lays the foundation for future functional genomics studies of important biological questions of this pest. PMID:22384206

  15. A quarter of a century succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages in remnant habitats in an urbanized matrix (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Kamal J.K.; Epstein, Marc E.; Koehle, Jessica J.; Purrington, Foster F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We studied the long-term (23–24 years) species turnover and succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, incl. Cicindelinae) in three remnant habitats [cottonwood (Populus spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) stands, and old fields] that are embedded within highly urbanized areas in central Minnesota. A total of 9,710 beetle individuals belonging to 98 species were caught in three sampling years: 1980, 1981 and 2005 in pitfall traps in identical locations within each habitat. Results indicate that there were 2–3 times greater trap catches in 2005 than in 1980 (cottonwood and oak stands, and old fields) and 1.4–1.7 times greater species diversity of beetles in 2005 than in the 1980-1981 suggesting increased habitat association by beetles over time. Although there were no significant differences in catches between 2005 and 1981 (only cottonwood stands and old fields), there was a trend where more beetles were caught in 2005. At the species-level, 10 times more of an open-habitat carabid species, Cyclotrachelus sodalis sodalis LeConte, was caught in 2005 than in 1980. However, trap catches of five other abundant carabid species [Pterostichus novus Straneo, Platynus decentis (Say), Platynus mutus (Say), Calathus gregarius (Say), and Poecilus lucublandus lucublandus (Say)] did not change indicating population stability of some beetle species. These remnant habitats were increasingly colonized by exotic carabid species as Carabus granulatus granulatus Linneaus, Clivina fossor (Linneaus) and Platynus melanarius (Illiger), that were trapped for the first time in 2005. Species composition of epigaeic beetles was quite distinct in 2005 from 1980 with 39 species reported for the first time in 2005, indicating a high turnover of assemblages. At the habitat-level, greatest species diversity was in cottonwood stands and lowest was in old fields, and all habitat types in 2005 diverged from those in 1980s, but not cottonwood stands in 1981. As our

  16. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap catch and seed predation by ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Fielding, Dennis J; DeFoliart, Linda S; Hagerty, Aaron M

    2013-04-01

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on nontarget organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species and their consumption of weed seeds have not been previously studied in agricultural settings in Alaska. This study examined the effect of grasshopper bran bait on carabid activity-density, as measured by pitfall trap catches, and subsequent predation by invertebrates of seeds of three species of weed. Data were collected in fallow fields in agricultural landscape in the interior of Alaska, near Delta Junction, in 2008 and 2010. Bait applications reduced ground beetle activity-density by over half in each of 2 yr of bait applications. Seed predation was generally low overall (1-10%/wk) and not strongly affected by the bait application, but predation of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) seed was lower on treated plots in 1 yr (340 seeds recovered versus 317 seeds, on treated versus untreated plots, respectively). Predation of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers) seeds was correlated with ground beetle activity-density in 1 yr, and predation of dragonhead mint (Dracocephalum parvifolium Nutt.) seed in the other year. We conclude that applications of carbaryl-bran bait for control of grasshoppers will have only a small, temporary effect on weed seed populations in high-latitude agricultural ecosystems. PMID:23786053

  17. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap catch and seed predation by ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Fielding, Dennis J; DeFoliart, Linda S; Hagerty, Aaron M

    2013-04-01

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on nontarget organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species and their consumption of weed seeds have not been previously studied in agricultural settings in Alaska. This study examined the effect of grasshopper bran bait on carabid activity-density, as measured by pitfall trap catches, and subsequent predation by invertebrates of seeds of three species of weed. Data were collected in fallow fields in agricultural landscape in the interior of Alaska, near Delta Junction, in 2008 and 2010. Bait applications reduced ground beetle activity-density by over half in each of 2 yr of bait applications. Seed predation was generally low overall (1-10%/wk) and not strongly affected by the bait application, but predation of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) seed was lower on treated plots in 1 yr (340 seeds recovered versus 317 seeds, on treated versus untreated plots, respectively). Predation of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers) seeds was correlated with ground beetle activity-density in 1 yr, and predation of dragonhead mint (Dracocephalum parvifolium Nutt.) seed in the other year. We conclude that applications of carbaryl-bran bait for control of grasshoppers will have only a small, temporary effect on weed seed populations in high-latitude agricultural ecosystems.

  18. Study of the dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) community at two sites: Atlantic forest and clear-cut, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, F A B; Costa, C M Q; Moura, R C; Farias, A I

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) community structure at two sites in the Charles Darwin Ecological Refuge in Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil. Dung beetles were collected in 2006 using monthly samples from 48 pitfall traps baited with human dung and bovine carrion. The dung beetle communities from the study sites were compared in terms of abundance, species richness, and diversity (Shannon index). Seasonality was analyzed by Spearman correlation between rainfall data and community parameters. In total, 2,560 individuals belonging to 40 species, 16 genera, and 6 tribes were collected. Species richness was higher for the clear-cut area compared with the forest habitat. Estimators of species richness suggested a total richness of 42-47 species in the entire study area. A positive correlation was observed between monthly rainfall and total abundance of individuals for the clear-cut area but not for the forest habitat. This study contributes to a better understanding of Scarabaeinae ecology in the Atlantic rainforest of northeastern Brazil.

  19. Notes on three braconid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Doryctinae) parasitizing oak long-horned beetle, Massicus raddei (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a severe pest of Quercus spp. in China, together with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liangming; Yang, Zhongqi; Tang, Yanlong; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitize larvae of oak longhorn beetle Massicus raddei Blessig (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a serious wood borer pest in North China. Rhoptrocentrus quercusi sp. nov., is described as a new species and Doryctes petiolatus Shestakov, as well as Zombrus bicolor (Enderlein). The three species are idiobiont ectoparasitoids, and may have potential for biological control of oak longhorn beetle.

  20. Preharvest quarantine treatments of Chlorantraniliprole,Clothianidin, & Imidacloprid-based insecticides for control of Japanese beetle Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae)& other scarab larvae in the root zone of field-grown nurserytrees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is an important quarantine pest of nurseries. Nursery plant movement from P. japonica-infested regions is regulated by the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (DJHP), which classifies states by risk categories. Treatm...

  1. First record of a Mermithidae (Nematoda) from the meloid beetle Meloe violaceus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Lückmann, Johannes; Poinar, George O

    2003-05-01

    A new record of nematode parasitism of meloid beetles is reported and all earlier records are summarised. Rates of parasitism could be influenced by the toxic compound cantharidin that these beetles possess.

  2. First record of a Mermithidae (Nematoda) from the meloid beetle Meloe violaceus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Lückmann, Johannes; Poinar, George O

    2003-05-01

    A new record of nematode parasitism of meloid beetles is reported and all earlier records are summarised. Rates of parasitism could be influenced by the toxic compound cantharidin that these beetles possess. PMID:12743809

  3. Identification of the forensically important beetles Nicrophorus japonicus, Ptomascopus plagiatus and Silpha carinata (Coleoptera: Silphidae) based on 16S rRNA gene in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z C; Guo, Y D; Zhang, X W; Shi, J; Yang, K T; Li, X L; Chen, Y Q; Cai, J F

    2012-09-01

    Sarcophagous beetles play an important role in estimating postmortem interval time (PMI) in the later stages decomposition of carcasses. However, the morphological similarity of beetles usually poses a challenge for forensic scientists within their routine work. As a supplementary to traditional morphological method, molecular genetics identification is simple and time-saving. A molecular identification method involving a 288-bp segment of the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene from 15 beetles of Silphidae (Coleoptera), collected from 5 locations in 4 Chinese provinces, was evaluated. Phenogram analysis of the sequenced segments by the unweighted pairgroup method analysis (UPGMA) method showed that all specimens were properly assigned into four species with strong similarity, which indicated the possibility of separation congeneric species with the short 16S rRNA fragment. These results will be instrumental for implementation of the Chinese database of forensically relevant beetles.

  4. [Transverse folding and the evolution of hind wings in beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, D N

    2013-01-01

    Strong intensification of the protective function of the fore wing in Coleoptera has made their flight apparatus a posteromotoric one and invited an apparatus responsible for folding the hindwings beneath the elytra to develop. Folding apparatus could hardly develop without higher deformability of veins or their parts, which diminished strength properties of the wing support. The effect was stressed by folds that intersected veins. Organization of the folds into a system confined this negative influence to a few wing regions and some veinal sections. This having happened, wing support and folding pattern evolved interrelated, the former into being more flexible, with no or minimum loss of rigidity, and the latter towards being less harmful for the supporting elements, especially axial ones. Monofunctionality, together with very simple structure and little specialization of constituent parts, made the folding pattern very labile during evolution. The folding pattern evolved more rapidly than wing venation, thus defining transformations of the latter. Evolutionary conservatism of wing venation stemmed from that many veins were strongly specialized in performing two conflicting functions. An adaptive compromise was necessary for the conflict to be solved, which determined the wing to orthogenetic development. The main evolutionary trends for wing venation and folding pattern were those towards simplification and a higher complexity, respectively. The beetle wing has passed through two main evolutionary stages. Among them, the first resulted in the development of the "Archostemata" wing type, the second started from the "cantharoid" structural plan. The main evolutionary factors were the infancies of wing posteromotorism at the first stage while the wing strongly influenced by size evolution, with the main trend towards miniaturization, at the second. The archostematan and "cantharoid" morphofunctional wing types differ fundamentally. In the wing of the former kind

  5. [Transverse folding and the evolution of hind wings in beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Strong intensification of the protective function of the fore wing in Coleoptera has made their flight apparatus a posteromotoric one and invited an apparatus responsible for folding the hindwings beneath the elytra to develop. Folding apparatus could hardly develop without higher deformability of veins or their parts, which diminished strength properties of the wing support. The effect was stressed by folds that intersected veins. Organization of the folds into a system confined this negative influence to a few wing regions and some veinal sections. This having happened, wing support and folding pattern evolved interrelated, the former into being more flexible, with no or minimum loss of rigidity, and the latter towards being less harmful for the supporting elements, especially axial ones. Monofunctionality, together with very simple structure and little specialization of constituent parts, made the folding pattern very labile during evolution. The folding pattern evolved more rapidly than wing venation, thus defining transformations of the latter. Evolutionary conservatism of wing venation stemmed from that many veins were strongly specialized in performing two conflicting functions. An adaptive compromise was necessary for the conflict to be solved, which determined the wing to orthogenetic development. The main evolutionary trends for wing venation and folding pattern were those towards simplification and a higher complexity, respectively. The beetle wing has passed through two main evolutionary stages. Among them, the first resulted in the development of the "Archostemata" wing type, the second started from the "cantharoid" structural plan. The main evolutionary factors were the infancies of wing posteromotorism at the first stage while the wing strongly influenced by size evolution, with the main trend towards miniaturization, at the second. The archostematan and "cantharoid" morphofunctional wing types differ fundamentally. In the wing of the former kind

  6. Simple and Efficient Trap for Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Facilitate Invasive Species Monitoring and Citizen Involvement.

    PubMed

    Steininger, M S; Hulcr, J; Šigut, M; Lucky, A

    2015-06-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae & Platypodinae) are among the most damaging forest pests worldwide, and monitoring is essential to damage prevention. Unfortunately, traps and attractants that are currently used are costly, and agencies rely on limited field personnel for deployment. The situation can be greatly aided by 1) the development of cost-effective trapping techniques, and 2) distribution of the effort through the Citizen Science approach. The goal of this study was to test a simple, effective trap that can be made and deployed by anyone interested in collecting bark and ambrosia beetles. Three trap types made from 2-liter soda bottles and, separately, four attractants were compared. Simple, one-window traps performed comparably at capturing species in traps painted or with multiple windows. A comparison of attractants in two-window traps found that 95% ethanol attracted the highest number of species but that Purell hand sanitizer (70% ethanol) and then Germ-X hand sanitizer (63% ethanol) were also effective. A perforated zip-top plastic bag containing Purell hanging over a trap filled with automobile antifreeze attracted the fewest species and individual specimens. Overall, >4,500 bark and ambrosia beetles, including 30 species were captured, representing a third of the regional species diversity. More than three quarters of the specimens were nonnative, representing nearly half of the known regional exotic species. These results suggest that simple one-window soda bottle traps baited with ethanol-based hand sanitizer will be effective and inexpensive tools for large-scale monitoring of bark and ambrosia beetles.

  7. Simple and Efficient Trap for Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Facilitate Invasive Species Monitoring and Citizen Involvement.

    PubMed

    Steininger, M S; Hulcr, J; Šigut, M; Lucky, A

    2015-06-01

    Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae & Platypodinae) are among the most damaging forest pests worldwide, and monitoring is essential to damage prevention. Unfortunately, traps and attractants that are currently used are costly, and agencies rely on limited field personnel for deployment. The situation can be greatly aided by 1) the development of cost-effective trapping techniques, and 2) distribution of the effort through the Citizen Science approach. The goal of this study was to test a simple, effective trap that can be made and deployed by anyone interested in collecting bark and ambrosia beetles. Three trap types made from 2-liter soda bottles and, separately, four attractants were compared. Simple, one-window traps performed comparably at capturing species in traps painted or with multiple windows. A comparison of attractants in two-window traps found that 95% ethanol attracted the highest number of species but that Purell hand sanitizer (70% ethanol) and then Germ-X hand sanitizer (63% ethanol) were also effective. A perforated zip-top plastic bag containing Purell hanging over a trap filled with automobile antifreeze attracted the fewest species and individual specimens. Overall, >4,500 bark and ambrosia beetles, including 30 species were captured, representing a third of the regional species diversity. More than three quarters of the specimens were nonnative, representing nearly half of the known regional exotic species. These results suggest that simple one-window soda bottle traps baited with ethanol-based hand sanitizer will be effective and inexpensive tools for large-scale monitoring of bark and ambrosia beetles. PMID:26470236

  8. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications.

    PubMed

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S; Bilton, David T

    2016-01-01

    Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this biodiverse

  9. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications.

    PubMed

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S; Bilton, David T

    2016-01-01

    Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this biodiverse

  10. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications

    PubMed Central

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S.; Bilton, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this

  11. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae)

    PubMed Central

    Lingafelter, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of a highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha gen. n.) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria sp. n.) and provisionally assigned to Tillomorphini. Three other new species of ant mimic longhorned beetles are described and illustrated: Calliclytus macoris sp. n. (Tillomorphini), Tilloclytus baoruco sp. n., and Tilloclytus neiba sp. n. (Anaglyptini). An identification key and distribution map to all known Hispaniolan species of these two tribes are presented. PMID:21852922

  12. A survey of the weevils of Ukraine. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae and Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Nikulina, Tatyana; Mandelshtam, Mikhail; Petrov, Alexander; Nazarenko, Vitalij; Yunakov, Nikolai

    2015-01-22

    Our knowledge of Ukrainian bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) is summarized as a baseline for future studies of the fauna, with a checklist including information on distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. One hundred twenty-two species are recorded from Ukraine, of which seven are recorded for the first time. One species is recorded for the first time from Europe. Previous records of 24 species are considered dubious and requiring confirmation. In contrast to the Palaearctic Catalogue (Knížek 2011b), we consider Anisandrus maiche to be first described by Kurentsov (1941) rather than by Eggers (1942); A. maiche (Eggers, 1942) is a junior synonym of A. maiche (Kurentsov, 1941). 

  13. Does a shift in host plants trigger speciation in the Alpine leaf beetle Oreina speciosissima (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Within the Coleoptera, the largest order in the animal kingdom, the exclusively herbivorous Chrysomelidae are recognized as one of the most species rich beetle families. The evolutionary processes that have fueled radiation into the more than thirty-five thousand currently recognized leaf beetle species remain partly unresolved. The prominent role of leaf beetles in the insect world, their omnipresence across all terrestrial biomes and their economic importance as common agricultural pest organisms make this family particularly interesting for studying the mechanisms that drive diversification. Here we specifically focus on two ecotypes of the alpine leaf beetle Oreina speciosissima (Scop.), which have been shown to exhibit morphological differences in male genitalia roughly corresponding to the subspecies Oreina speciosissima sensu stricto and Oreina speciosissima troglodytes. In general the two ecotypes segregate along an elevation gradient and by host plants: Oreina speciosissima sensu stricto colonizes high forb vegetation at low altitude and Oreina speciosissima troglodytes is found in stone run vegetation at higher elevations. Both host plants and leaf beetles have a patchy geographical distribution. Through use of gene sequencing and genome fingerprinting (AFLP) we analyzed the genetic structure and habitat use of Oreina speciosissima populations from the Swiss Alps to examine whether the two ecotypes have a genetic basis. By investigating a wide range of altitudes and focusing on the structuring effect of habitat types, we aim to provide answers regarding the factors that drive adaptive radiation in this phytophagous leaf beetle. Results While little phylogenetic resolution was observed based on the sequencing of four DNA regions, the topology and clustering resulting from AFLP genotyping grouped specimens according to their habitat, mostly defined by plant associations. A few specimens with intermediate morphologies clustered with one of the two

  14. [Co-adaptation between mites (Arachnida: Klinckowstroemiidae) and Passalidae beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Francke, Oscar F; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae establish an association with beetles of the family Passalidae known as phoresy. In order to obtain information about this association, we analyzed the relationship between mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae and beetles of the family Passalidae, as adult mites have been exclusively collected from host beetles. We examined 1 150 beetles collected in seven states of the Mexican Republic, and found 19 species of klinckowstroemiid mites associated with 168 passalids, that belong to 28 different species in 15 genera. Host specificity between species of both groups does not exist, as one species of passalid beetle can have several different symbionts; conversely, a given mite species can associate with passalid beetles of different species and even of different genera. This way, Odontotaenius zodiacus has been found associated with mites of seven species of the genus Klinckowstroemia. Besides, Klinckowstroemia valdezi is associated with five species of passalids. Furthermore, two and even three different species of mites have been found on one host beetle (synhospitality). The lack of congruence between the phylogenies of the mites and that of the beetles indicates that a process of co-adaptation by colonization is going on, because the association is due to the resources that passalid beetles can offer to the mites, like transportation, food and refuge. Since these resources are not host-specific, the klinckowstroemiid mites can climb onto virtually any species of passalid beetles occurring on the same habitat.

  15. Seasonal composition and temporal succession of necrophagous and predator beetles on pig carrion in central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Battán Horenstein, M; Linhares, A X

    2011-12-01

    Insects are the most important components of the terrestrial fauna associated with carrion because they recycle organic matter back into the ecosystem. They can be classified into four ecological categories comprising: necrophages; parasites and predators of necrophagous species; omnivores, and incidentals. To determine the composition and temporal succession of necrophagous and predator beetles on pig carrion, four experiments, one in each season, were carried out during 2004 in a rural area of Cordoba, central Argentina. Two pigs (Sus scrofa L.), weighing approximately 8 kg each, were used in each of the four experiments. The animals were killed by a sharp blow to the head and immediately placed in an appropriate trap. One pig was placed in the shade and the other in direct sunlight. Beetle fauna were collected daily during the first 4 weeks and thereafter every 2 or 3 days. Five stages of decomposition were observed and a total of 1586 adults and 4309 immatures of Coleoptera belonging to the Staphylinidae, Nitidulidae, Cleridae, Dermestidae, Histeridae, Anthicidae and Trogidae families were collected during the four experiments. The necrophagous community was represented by Dermestes maculates (De Geer), nitidulid species and members of the Trox genus. Staphylinidae, Cleridae and Histeridae species were considered to be the main predators of the necrophagous species.

  16. Checklist of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from the state of Morelos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Clark, Shawn M; Toledo-Hernández, Victor Hugo; Corona-López, Angélica María; Jones, Robert W

    2016-03-07

    We record 116 genera and 366 species of Chrysomelidae from the state of Morelos, Mexico. This represents an increase of 9.3% in the species richness of these beetles for the state. Also, Morelos is currently the third most diverse state in leaf beetles within Mexico, with 16.78% of total species recorded for the country. The most diverse genera were Calligrapha, Disonycha, Blepharida, Leptinotarsa, Cryptocephalus, Systena, Alagoasa, Diabrotica and Pachybrachis, each with more than eight species. Most of these genera contain large, showy beetles. When the chrysomelid fauna is more fully understood, some of the genera of tiny beetles will likely prove to be more diverse.

  17. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2013-02-01

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees.

  18. Further contributions to the staphylinid fauna of New Brunswick, Canada, and the USA, with descriptions of two new Proteinus species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Davies, Anthony E.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats the discovery of new species and new records of Staphylinidae from the subfamilies Omaliinae, Proteininae, Tachyporinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Steninae, Euaesthetinae, Pseudopsinae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae for the province of New Brunswick and other provinces of Canada, and the USA. We report here two species new to science, three new North American records, nine new Canadian records, two new USA records, and 50 new provincial records. The following are the species new to science: Proteinus hughesi Webster & Davies, sp. n. and Proteinus sweeneyi Webster & Klimaszewski, sp. n. (Proteininae). Sepedophilus immaculatus (Stephens) and Carpelimus erichsoni (Sharp), Carpelimus mundus (Sharp) are newly recorded from North America. New Canadian records are as follows: Carpelimus difficilis (Casey), Carpelimus gracilis (Mannerheim), Carpelimus lacustris (Notman), Carpelimus probus (Casey), Carpelimus pusillus (Gravenhorst), Carpelimus rivularis (Motschulsky), Carpelimus spretus (Casey), Carpelimus weissi (Notman) (Oxytelinae), and Edaphus lederi Eppelsheim (Euaesthetinae). This is the first record of the genus Edaphus for Canada. Bledius basalis LeConte and Carpelimus obesus (Kiesenwetter) (Oxytelinae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick. Proteinus acadiensis Klimaszewski and Proteinus pseudothomasi Klimaszewski are newly recorded from the USA and several provinces of Canada. Habitat data from New Brunswick are provided for most of the species treated in this contribution. PMID:27110167

  19. Further contributions to the staphylinid fauna of New Brunswick, Canada, and the USA, with descriptions of two new Proteinus species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Webster, Reginald P; Davies, Anthony E; Klimaszewski, Jan; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    This paper treats the discovery of new species and new records of Staphylinidae from the subfamilies Omaliinae, Proteininae, Tachyporinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Steninae, Euaesthetinae, Pseudopsinae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae for the province of New Brunswick and other provinces of Canada, and the USA. We report here two species new to science, three new North American records, nine new Canadian records, two new USA records, and 50 new provincial records. The following are the species new to science: Proteinus hughesi Webster & Davies, sp. n. and Proteinus sweeneyi Webster & Klimaszewski, sp. n. (Proteininae). Sepedophilus immaculatus (Stephens) and Carpelimus erichsoni (Sharp), Carpelimus mundus (Sharp) are newly recorded from North America. New Canadian records are as follows: Carpelimus difficilis (Casey), Carpelimus gracilis (Mannerheim), Carpelimus lacustris (Notman), Carpelimus probus (Casey), Carpelimus pusillus (Gravenhorst), Carpelimus rivularis (Motschulsky), Carpelimus spretus (Casey), Carpelimus weissi (Notman) (Oxytelinae), and Edaphus lederi Eppelsheim (Euaesthetinae). This is the first record of the genus Edaphus for Canada. Bledius basalis LeConte and Carpelimus obesus (Kiesenwetter) (Oxytelinae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick. Proteinus acadiensis Klimaszewski and Proteinus pseudothomasi Klimaszewski are newly recorded from the USA and several provinces of Canada. Habitat data from New Brunswick are provided for most of the species treated in this contribution.

  20. Host finding and acceptance preference of the yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), on cruciferous crops.

    PubMed

    Balusu, Rammohan R; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2011-12-01

    The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an introduced pest of cruciferous crops in the southern United States, and arguably the most damaging pest of organic crucifer vegetable production in the region. Studies were conducted in the greenhouse and laboratory to investigate host finding and acceptance preference of M. ochroloma on four commonly grown cruciferous crops: cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata), collards (B. oleracea L. variety acephala), napa cabbage [B. pekinensis (Lour.)], and turnip (B. rapa L.) First, adult beetles were allowed to choose among the four plants in a multiple-choice greenhouse cage experiment and host preference was evaluated by using three parameters: number of beetles on each plant, number of larvae on each plant, and plant damage ratings. The results showed that M. ochroloma adults actively discriminated among the four host plants, with significantly higher numbers recorded on turnip and napa cabbage than on cabbage or collards. Significantly higher numbers of larvae also were recorded on turnip and napa cabbage starting on day 10. Similarly, higher damage ratings were recorded on turnip and napa cabbage than on the remaining two hosts. Results of four-choice olfactometer experiments, which compared attraction of M. ochroloma to headspace volatiles of the four host plants, demonstrated that host preference is mediated primarily by plant volatiles. Both sexes were significantly more attracted to napa cabbage than to the remaining treatments, with turnip being the second most attractive plant. These results confirm that turnip and napa cabbage are two preferred host plants of M. ochroloma, and may support the development of a trap crop system and attractant-based strategies for managing M. ochroloma in crucifer production.

  1. Morphological characterization of pollens from three Apiaceae species and their ingestion by twelve-spotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    D'Ávila, V A; Aguiar-Menezes, E L; Gonçalves-Esteves, V; Mendonça, C B F; Pereira, R N; Santos, T M

    2016-04-19

    Larvae and adults of certain species of predator lady beetles feed on pollen, guaranteeing their survival, and at times, reproduction in the absence of preferred prey. Palynology, therefore, may contribute in the investigation of botanical families visited by these predators in order to obtain this floral resource. There are records of the visitation of Apiaceae flowers by Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), but not the ingestion of their pollen grains by this lady beetle. The external morphology of pollen grains of three Apiaceae aromatic species (Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) was characterized, and it was evaluated the ingestion of these pollens by fourth instar larvae and adults of C. maculata upon confinement along with flowers of these Apiaceae for 24 and 48 hours. The pollen grains of those species presented similar external morphology. In the two times of exposure, the larvae ingested the same amount of pollen from the three Apiaceae species, and the amount of C. sativum pollen ingested was the same between larvae and adults. The amount of A. graveolens pollen grains ingested by the adults was significantly greater than the pollens of C. sativum and F. vulgare, in 24 hours, with the opposite occurring in 48 hours. In the first 24 hours, the adults ingested more A. graveolens pollen than the larvae, with the opposite occurring with F. vulgare. There was no significant difference in the amount of Apiaceae pollen ingested between larvae and adults in 48 hours. The results suggest that the pollen-eating habits of certain aphidophagous lady beetles may be crucial in their preservation within agro-ecosystems.

  2. Host finding and acceptance preference of the yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), on cruciferous crops.

    PubMed

    Balusu, Rammohan R; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2011-12-01

    The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an introduced pest of cruciferous crops in the southern United States, and arguably the most damaging pest of organic crucifer vegetable production in the region. Studies were conducted in the greenhouse and laboratory to investigate host finding and acceptance preference of M. ochroloma on four commonly grown cruciferous crops: cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata), collards (B. oleracea L. variety acephala), napa cabbage [B. pekinensis (Lour.)], and turnip (B. rapa L.) First, adult beetles were allowed to choose among the four plants in a multiple-choice greenhouse cage experiment and host preference was evaluated by using three parameters: number of beetles on each plant, number of larvae on each plant, and plant damage ratings. The results showed that M. ochroloma adults actively discriminated among the four host plants, with significantly higher numbers recorded on turnip and napa cabbage than on cabbage or collards. Significantly higher numbers of larvae also were recorded on turnip and napa cabbage starting on day 10. Similarly, higher damage ratings were recorded on turnip and napa cabbage than on the remaining two hosts. Results of four-choice olfactometer experiments, which compared attraction of M. ochroloma to headspace volatiles of the four host plants, demonstrated that host preference is mediated primarily by plant volatiles. Both sexes were significantly more attracted to napa cabbage than to the remaining treatments, with turnip being the second most attractive plant. These results confirm that turnip and napa cabbage are two preferred host plants of M. ochroloma, and may support the development of a trap crop system and attractant-based strategies for managing M. ochroloma in crucifer production. PMID:22217763

  3. Efficacy of verbenone for protecting ponderosa pine stands from western pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in California.

    PubMed

    Fettig, Christopher J; McKelvey, Stephen R; Borys, Robert R; Dabney, Christopher P; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Nelson, Lori J; Seybold, Steven J

    2009-10-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., mortality in much of western North America. Currently, techniques for managing D. brevicomis infestations are limited. Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo [3.1.1] hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregation pheromone of several Dendroctonus spp., including D. brevicomis, and it has been registered as a biopesticide for control of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. We evaluated the efficacy of a 5-g verbenone pouch [82%-(-); 50 mg/d] applied at 125 Ulha for protecting P. ponderosa stands (2 ha) from D. brevicomis attack over a 3-yr period. No significant differences in levels of D. brevicomis-caused tree mortality or the percentage of unsuccessfully attacked trees were found between verbenone-treated and untreated plots during each year or cumulatively over the 3-yr period. Laboratory analyses of release rates and chemical composition of volatiles emanating from verbenone pouches after field exposure found no deterioration of the active ingredient or physical malfunction of the release device. The mean release rate of pouches from all locations and exposure periods was 44.5 mg/d. In a trapping bioassay, the range of inhibition of the 5-g verbenone pouch was determined to be statistically constant 2 m from the release device. We discuss the implications of these and other results to the development of verbenone as a semiochemical-based tool for management of D. brevicomis infestations in P. ponderosa stands.

  4. Morphological characterization of pollens from three Apiaceae species and their ingestion by twelve-spotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    D'Ávila, V A; Aguiar-Menezes, E L; Gonçalves-Esteves, V; Mendonça, C B F; Pereira, R N; Santos, T M

    2016-04-19

    Larvae and adults of certain species of predator lady beetles feed on pollen, guaranteeing their survival, and at times, reproduction in the absence of preferred prey. Palynology, therefore, may contribute in the investigation of botanical families visited by these predators in order to obtain this floral resource. There are records of the visitation of Apiaceae flowers by Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), but not the ingestion of their pollen grains by this lady beetle. The external morphology of pollen grains of three Apiaceae aromatic species (Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) was characterized, and it was evaluated the ingestion of these pollens by fourth instar larvae and adults of C. maculata upon confinement along with flowers of these Apiaceae for 24 and 48 hours. The pollen grains of those species presented similar external morphology. In the two times of exposure, the larvae ingested the same amount of pollen from the three Apiaceae species, and the amount of C. sativum pollen ingested was the same between larvae and adults. The amount of A. graveolens pollen grains ingested by the adults was significantly greater than the pollens of C. sativum and F. vulgare, in 24 hours, with the opposite occurring in 48 hours. In the first 24 hours, the adults ingested more A. graveolens pollen than the larvae, with the opposite occurring with F. vulgare. There was no significant difference in the amount of Apiaceae pollen ingested between larvae and adults in 48 hours. The results suggest that the pollen-eating habits of certain aphidophagous lady beetles may be crucial in their preservation within agro-ecosystems. PMID:27097091

  5. Combining engineered resistance, avidin, and natural resistance derived from Solanum chacoense bitter to control Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Susannah G; Douches, David S; Grafius, Edward J

    2009-06-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is the most destructive insect pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum (L.), in North America. Avidin sequesters available biotin, thereby causing abnormal growth and development of insects. We expressed avidin in two potato lines: MSE149-5Y, a susceptible potato line, and ND5873-15, a line with S. chacoense-derived insect resistance. A preliminary study was conducted to determine the bioactivity of the transgene in each background. A single transgenic line was selected in each background for further studies. Detached leaf bioassays were performed on transgenic and nontransgenic clones of the susceptible and S. chacoense lines by using first-stage Colorado potato beetle larvae. Consumption, survival, and survivor growth were measured after 5 d. Larvae consumed significantly less on the two avidin-expressing lines compared with the nontransgenic lines. Survival was also significantly less for larvae feeding on transgenic avidin lines compared with the nontransgenic lines. The mass of survivors was significantly reduced on two transgenic avidin lines compared with the nontransgenic lines. Further studies examined the development from first-stage larvae to adulthood on greenhouse-grown whole plants in a no-choice setting for larvae fed on the four potato lines. Development from first stage to pupation was significantly prolonged for larvae fed on the avidin line compared with larvae fed on the susceptible line. Significantly fewer larvae fed on transgenic avidin plants, avidin or avidin + S. chacoense-derived line survived to adulthood compared with survival on nontransgenic plants, susceptible or S. chacoense-derived line. Avidin-based resistance may be useful in managing Colorado potato beetle populations in commercial planting by reducing the population size.

  6. Balanced intake of protein and carbohydrate maximizes lifetime reproductive success in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in insect gerontological and nutritional research have suggested that the dietary protein:carbohydrate (P:C) balance is a critical determinant of lifespan and reproduction in many insects. However, most studies investigating this important role of dietary P:C balance have been conducted using dipteran and orthopteran species. In this study, we used the mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to test the effects of dietary P:C balance on lifespan and reproduction. Regardless of their reproductive status, both male and female beetles had the shortest lifespan at the protein-biased ratio of P:C 5:1. Mean lifespan was the longest at P:C 1:1 for males and at both P:C 1:1 and 1:5 for females. Mating significantly curtailed the lifespan of both males and females, indicating the survival cost of mating. Age-specific egg laying was significantly higher at P:C 1:1 than at the two imbalanced P:C ratios (1:5 or 5:1) at any given age throughout their lives, resulting in the highest lifetime reproductive success at P:C 1:1. When given a choice, beetles actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a slightly carbohydrate-biased ratio (P:C 1:1.54-1:1.64 for males and P:C 1:1.3-1:1.36 for females). The self-selected P:C ratio was significantly higher for females than males, reflecting a higher protein requirement for egg production. Collectively, our results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting the key role played by dietary macronutrient balance in shaping lifespan and reproduction in insects. PMID:27405009

  7. Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) captures using colored traps in southeast Tennessee and south Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetles have become a major problem for nursery production, with controls centered around an accurate monitoring program. While the use of semiochemicals by ambrosia beetles is well understood, their potential use of visual cues including color remains relatively understudied. Field tests...

  8. Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone of the Lesser Mealworm Beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) is a widespread, serious pest in poultry production facilities and is difficult to control by conventional means. Although pheromone-based tools have become useful in the management of other beetle pests, no pheromone was known for A. diape...

  9. Control of Chinese rose beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) through the use of solar-powered nighttime illumination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister), a scarab beetle found in Asia and the Pacific Islands, was first reported in Hawaii in 1891. Adults feed at night on leaves of a wide range of plant species, including many that are economically important. Aggregate feeding can stunt or even kill ...

  10. Effectiveness of hand removal for small-scale management of Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Switzer, Paul V; Cumming, Ryan M

    2014-02-01

    Hand removal is often recommended as a method for small-scale control of Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman). In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of daily hand removal for controlling damage by Japanese beetles on grape plants. We also investigated whether the timing of the removal (at 0800, 1400, or 1900 hours, or at all 3 periods) influenced the effectiveness of the technique. We found that hand removal significantly lowered the number of beetles on, and consequently the damage to, grape plants relative to nonremoval controls. Of the single removal treatments, removal of beetles at 1900 hours was most effective, with results similar to removing beetles three times per day. The majority of beetles removed from plants during the experiment were female, a pattern that matches our understanding of aggregation formation behavior in the species, and which may serve to enhance the benefits of hand removal. Hand removal seems to work by decreasing the number of feeding beetles, which in turn reduces the release of aggregation kairomones from the plant, and subsequently decreases the attractiveness of the plant to future beetles.

  11. Co-occurence of Two Invasive Species: The Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), was first detected a century ago and now occurs in most of the continental United States. The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was discovered in the United States in 2003 and is now...

  12. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  13. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity. PMID:24472199

  14. Parachordodes tegonotus n. sp. (Gordioidea: Nematomorpha), a hairworm parasite of ground beetles (Carabidae: Coleoptera), with a summary of gordiid parasites of carabids.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Rykken, Jessica; LaBonte, Jim

    2004-06-01

    A new species of hairworm, Parachordodes tegonotus n. sp. (Gordioidea: Nematomorpha) is described from three species of ground beetles (Carabidae: Coleoptera) from the state of Oregon. This is the first record of Parachordodes Camerano parasitising carabid beetles in North America. Diagnostic characters for the new species include size, colour, the nature and arrangement of the areoles, and the character, shape and extant of ornamentation on the ventral surface of the male tail. Encysted hairworm larvae found in the internal tissues of mayfly and caddisfly larvae at the type-locality were presumed to be those of P. tegonotus, indicating an indirect life-cycle involving paratenic hosts. A worldwide host list shows that some 70 species of ground beetles have been documented as developmental hosts to hairworms belonging to at least five genera, namely Gordius, Parachordodes, Dacochordodes, Gordionus and Paragordionus.

  15. Infestation of grain fields and degree-day phenology of the cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Utah: long-term patterns.

    PubMed

    Evans, Edward W; Carlile, Nolan R; Innes, Matthew B; Pitigala, Nadishan

    2014-02-01

    Scouting at key times in the seasonal development of insect pest populations, as guided by degree-day accumulation, is important for minimizing unwarranted insecticide application. Fields of small grains in northern Utah were censused weekly from 2001 to 2011, to assess infestation by the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and develop degree-day guidelines for measuring cereal leaf beetle abundance at peak egg and larval densities in any given year. Even in years of high overall numbers of cereal leaf beetle, relatively few fields were heavily infested (with 20 or more cereal leaf beetle eggs + larvae per 0.09 m2) at either egg or larval peak density during the growing season. In individual fields, the number of immature cereal leaf beetle (eggs + larvae) at peak larval density was positively related to the number of immature cereal leaf beetles present earlier at peak egg density. Although there was large variation among years in when cereal leaf beetle egg and larval numbers peaked during the season as measured by degree-day accumulation from 1 January, much of this variation was accounted for by the warmth of the early spring before significant egg laying occurred. Hence, degree-day estimates that account for early spring warmth can guide growers in scouting grain fields at peak egg densities to identify fields at high risk of subsequent economic damage from cereal leaf beetle larval feeding. The relatively low incidence of fields heavily infested by cereal leaf beetle in northern Utah emphasizes the benefit that growers can gain by scouting early before applying insecticide treatments.

  16. Leaf beetles are ant-nest beetles: the curious life of the juvenile stages of case-bearers (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae)

    PubMed Central

    Agrain, Federico A.; Buffington, Matthew L.; Chaboo, Caroline S.; Chamorro, Maria L.; Schöller, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although some species of Cryptocephalinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been documented with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for almost 200 years, information on this association is fragmentary. This contribution synthesizes extant literature and analysizes the data for biological patterns. Myrmecophily is more common in the tribe Clytrini than in Cryptocephalini, but not documented for Fulcidacini or the closely-related Lamprosomatinae. Myrmecophilous cryptocephalines (34 species in 14 genera) primarily live among formicine and myrmecines ants as hosts. These two ant lineages are putative sister-groups, with their root-node dated to between 77–90 mya. In the New World tropics, the relatively recent radiation of ants from moist forests to more xeric ecosystems might have propelled the association of cryptocephalines and ant nests. Literature records suggest that the defensive behavioral profile or chemical profile (or both) of these ants has been exploited by cryptocephalines. Another pattern appears to be that specialized natural enemies, especially parasitoid Hymenoptera, exploit cryptocephaline beetles inside the ant nests. With the extant data at hand, based on the minimum age of a fossil larva dated to 45 mya, we can infer that the origin of cryptocephaline myrmecophily could have arisen within the Upper Cretaceous or later. It remains unknown how many times myrmecophily has appeared, or how old is the behavior. This uncertainty is compounded by incongruent hypotheses about the origins of Chrysomelidae and angiosperm-associated lineages of cryptocephalines. Living with ants offers multiple advantages that might have aided the colonization of xeric environments by some cryptocephaline species. PMID:26798319

  17. Leaf beetles are ant-nest beetles: the curious life of the juvenile stages of case-bearers (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae).

    PubMed

    Agrain, Federico A; Buffington, Matthew L; Chaboo, Caroline S; Chamorro, Maria L; Schöller, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Although some species of Cryptocephalinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been documented with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for almost 200 years, information on this association is fragmentary. This contribution synthesizes extant literature and analysizes the data for biological patterns. Myrmecophily is more common in the tribe Clytrini than in Cryptocephalini, but not documented for Fulcidacini or the closely-related Lamprosomatinae. Myrmecophilous cryptocephalines (34 species in 14 genera) primarily live among formicine and myrmecines ants as hosts. These two ant lineages are putative sister-groups, with their root-node dated to between 77-90 mya. In the New World tropics, the relatively recent radiation of ants from moist forests to more xeric ecosystems might have propelled the association of cryptocephalines and ant nests. Literature records suggest that the defensive behavioral profile or chemical profile (or both) of these ants has been exploited by cryptocephalines. Another pattern appears to be that specialized natural enemies, especially parasitoid Hymenoptera, exploit cryptocephaline beetles inside the ant nests. With the extant data at hand, based on the minimum age of a fossil larva dated to 45 mya, we can infer that the origin of cryptocephaline myrmecophily could have arisen within the Upper Cretaceous or later. It remains unknown how many times myrmecophily has appeared, or how old is the behavior. This uncertainty is compounded by incongruent hypotheses about the origins of Chrysomelidae and angiosperm-associated lineages of cryptocephalines. Living with ants offers multiple advantages that might have aided the colonization of xeric environments by some cryptocephaline species. PMID:26798319

  18. Effect of Chipping and Solarization on Emergence and Boring Activity of a Recently Introduced Ambrosia Beetle (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Paine, Timothy D

    2015-08-01

    Polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) has recently invaded southern California. The beetle, along with its associated fungi, Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp., and Acremonium sp., causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and box elder (Acer negundo L.). With the spread of the beetle through Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in California, there is increasing concern that felled trees and pruned branches infested with polyphagous shot hole borer should receive sanitation treatment to reduce the potential spread of the beetle from the movement of untreated wood. We tested two sanitation methods to reduce beetle populations, chipping with a commercial chipper and solarization by covering logs with clear or black plastic in full sun. Both chipping and solarization decreased beetle emergence and boring activity compared to untreated control logs. Chipping was most effective for chip sizes <5 cm. Solarization was most effective using clear polyethylene sheeting during hot summer months, particularly August, when daily maximum temperatures were ≥35°C. Beetles persisted for 2 mo or more when solarization was applied during the spring or fall. PMID:26470327

  19. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  20. Attractiveness of native mammal's feces of different trophic guilds to dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Bogoni, Juliano A; Hernández, Malva I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammal feces are the primary food and nesting resource for the majority of dung beetle species, and larval development depends on the quantity and quality of that resource. Physiological necessities, competitive interactions, and resource sharing are common and suggest that dung beetles may show preferences for feces of greater nutritional quality, which may in turn impact beetle assemblages and community structure. This study investigated whether attractiveness of dung beetles to different resource (feces) types varies depending on mammal trophic guild and associated nutritional content. This study was conducted in Atlantic Forest fragments in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil. To evaluate attractiveness, the feces of the carnivore Puma concolor, the omnivores Cerdocyon thous and Sapajus nigritus, and the herbivore Tapirus terrestris were utilized as bait. Dung was collected from zoo animals fed a standard diet. Sampling was performed in triplicate in five areas in the summer of 2013. Four pitfall traps were established in each area, and each trap was baited with one type of mammal feces. Food preference of the species was analyzed by calculating Rodgers' index for cafeteria-type experiments. In total, 426 individuals from 17 species were collected. Rodgers' index showed that omnivorous mammal feces (C. thous) were most attractive to all dung beetle species, although it is known that dung beetles are commonly opportunistic with respect to search for and allocation of food resources. These results suggest that mammal loss could alter competitive interactions between dung beetles. PMID:25528749

  1. Attractiveness of native mammal's feces of different trophic guilds to dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Bogoni, Juliano A; Hernández, Malva I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammal feces are the primary food and nesting resource for the majority of dung beetle species, and larval development depends on the quantity and quality of that resource. Physiological necessities, competitive interactions, and resource sharing are common and suggest that dung beetles may show preferences for feces of greater nutritional quality, which may in turn impact beetle assemblages and community structure. This study investigated whether attractiveness of dung beetles to different resource (feces) types varies depending on mammal trophic guild and associated nutritional content. This study was conducted in Atlantic Forest fragments in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil. To evaluate attractiveness, the feces of the carnivore Puma concolor, the omnivores Cerdocyon thous and Sapajus nigritus, and the herbivore Tapirus terrestris were utilized as bait. Dung was collected from zoo animals fed a standard diet. Sampling was performed in triplicate in five areas in the summer of 2013. Four pitfall traps were established in each area, and each trap was baited with one type of mammal feces. Food preference of the species was analyzed by calculating Rodgers' index for cafeteria-type experiments. In total, 426 individuals from 17 species were collected. Rodgers' index showed that omnivorous mammal feces (C. thous) were most attractive to all dung beetle species, although it is known that dung beetles are commonly opportunistic with respect to search for and allocation of food resources. These results suggest that mammal loss could alter competitive interactions between dung beetles.

  2. Indirect closing of elytra by the prothorax in beetles (Coleoptera): general observations and exceptions.

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid

    2012-02-01

    Voluntary movements of the prothorax and the elytra in tethered flying beetles and manually induced movements of these parts in fresh dead beetles were recorded in 30 species representing 14 families. Participation of prothoracic elevation in the closing of the elytra was demonstrated in three ways. (i) The elevation was always simultaneous with elytral closing, in contrast to depression and elytral opening; a rare exception occurred in Lucanus cervus, whose elytra sometimes started to close before the cessation of wing strokes and the elevation of the prothorax. (ii) The manipulated elevation always induced closing of the spread elytra; the mechanical interaction between the hind edge of the pronotum and the roots of the elytra is a universal mechanism of closing the elytra in beetles. (iii) The prevention of pronoto-elytral contact in live beetles by the excision of the hind edge of the pronotum in front of the root prevented elytral closing after normal flight. Exceptions to this rule included some beetles that were able to close their elytra after such an excision: tiger beetles and diving beetles (seldomly) and rose chafers (always). This ability in Adephaga may be explained by attachments of the muscle actuating the 4th axillary plate, which differ from the attachments in Polyphaga. Cetoniinae open their elytra only by a small amount. It is proposed that their small direct adductors in combination with the elasticity of the sclerites are enough to achieve elytral closing without additional help from the prothorax.

  3. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans.

  4. Effect of temperature on the occurrence and distribution of colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Liu, Huai; Huang, Fangneng; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Wang, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Hui; Sun, Jin-Rui; Guo, Wen-Chao

    2014-04-01

    Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is the most destructive pest of potato in many countries of the world. It first invaded China from Kazakhstan in 1990s and now is a major pest of potato in many areas of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature on the spread of Colorado potato beetle in China after its invasion. Cold temperature in winter (December) and high temperature in summer (July) were analyzed in accordance with the absence and presence of Colorado potato beetle in Xinjiang. The boundary between the absence and presence of Colorado potato beetle in Xinjiang nearly coincided with the -8°C isotherm of monthly mean minimum temperature in winter. The stress of the low temperature in winter for Colorado potato beetle basically disappeared in the southeastern Hexi Corridor in Gansu Province of China, suggesting that the Hexi Corridor is the best channel to prevent any long-distance invasions of Colorado potato beetle into the Central Plains region. However, in Turpan City in northeastern Xinjiang, the extremely hot weather in the summer prevents the local colonization of Colorado potato beetle. Furthermore, according to our monitoring, high temperature in summer also limited Colorado potato beetle to diffuse eastward through Turpan. Results of this study suggest that it is essential to strengthen inspection and quarantine measures to prevent any artificial transmissions of Colorado potato beetle spreading eastward and thus to ensure the sustainable production of potato and other Solanaceae crops in northwest regions of China. PMID:24763102

  5. Colonization of disturbed trees by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, R.O.; Pulley, P.E.; Coulson, R.N. )

    1993-02-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild [Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. avulsus (Eichhoff)] uses disturbed hosts as habitat for establishment of within-tree populations. The process of colonization of disturbed hosts was examined. Using a procedure designed to emulate effects of a lightning strike, pines were severely disturbed. Response was characterized by measuring beetle populations that (1) arrived at the trees and (2) successfully attacked the trees. Establishment of within-tree populations was characterized by measuring length of egg gallery excavated by attacking adults. The time delay between arrival and attack for D. frontalis and I. calligraphus was also calculated. Attack densities of both species became asymptotic as arrival increased. The percentage of arriving beetles that attacked ranged from 9 to 41 for D. frontalis and from 8 to 59 for I. calligraphus. Numbers of beetles that arrived at the tree but did not attack ranged from 2.7 to 50.2 beetles per dm[sup 2] for D. frontalis and from 0.2 to 10.0 beetles per dm[sup 2] for I. calligraphus. Most D. frontalis and I. calligraphus attacked on the day they arrived. The delay between arrival and attack was longer for I. calligraphus than the D. frontalis. Egg gallery excavated by D. frontalis increased throughout the study. Eventually, the Ips species were excluded from the lower half of the hole. The low attack densities observed in this study illustrate the significance of disturbed trees in providing refuges for enzootic levels of bark beetles. The aggregation behavior of beetle populations colonizing disturbed hosts supported the contention that these trees serve as foci for initiation of infestations. Furthermore, in disturbed pines, small numbers of beetles were capable of overcoming host defense systems.

  6. Effect of temperature on the occurrence and distribution of colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Liu, Huai; Huang, Fangneng; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Wang, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Hui; Sun, Jin-Rui; Guo, Wen-Chao

    2014-04-01

    Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is the most destructive pest of potato in many countries of the world. It first invaded China from Kazakhstan in 1990s and now is a major pest of potato in many areas of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature on the spread of Colorado potato beetle in China after its invasion. Cold temperature in winter (December) and high temperature in summer (July) were analyzed in accordance with the absence and presence of Colorado potato beetle in Xinjiang. The boundary between the absence and presence of Colorado potato beetle in Xinjiang nearly coincided with the -8°C isotherm of monthly mean minimum temperature in winter. The stress of the low temperature in winter for Colorado potato beetle basically disappeared in the southeastern Hexi Corridor in Gansu Province of China, suggesting that the Hexi Corridor is the best channel to prevent any long-distance invasions of Colorado potato beetle into the Central Plains region. However, in Turpan City in northeastern Xinjiang, the extremely hot weather in the summer prevents the local colonization of Colorado potato beetle. Furthermore, according to our monitoring, high temperature in summer also limited Colorado potato beetle to diffuse eastward through Turpan. Results of this study suggest that it is essential to strengthen inspection and quarantine measures to prevent any artificial transmissions of Colorado potato beetle spreading eastward and thus to ensure the sustainable production of potato and other Solanaceae crops in northwest regions of China.

  7. [Histological structure of tripartite mushroom bodies in ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera: Carabidae)].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to members of the suborder Polyphaga; ground beetles have been found to possess tripartite mushroom bodies, which are poorly developed in members of basal taxa and maximally elaborated in evolutionarily advanced groups. Nevertheless, they do not reach the developmental stage, which has been previously found in particular families of beetles. It has been pointed out that anew formation of the Kenyon cells occurs during at least the first months of adult life, and inactive neuroblasts are found even in one-year-old beetles. It has been suggested that there is a relation between the Kenyon cell number and development of the centers of Kenyon cell new-formation.

  8. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  9. The acquisition and internal carriage of Salmonella by lesser mealworm beetles, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In poultry broiler production facilities, it is important to understand the sources and contribution of reservoir populations of pathogens to devise realistic management practices to contain the inadvertent propagation and dissemination of these pathogens. The lesser mealworm beetle, Alphitobius dia...

  10. Striped Cucumber Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Aggregation in Response to Cultivar and Flowering.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jeffrey; Hoffmann, Michael P; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The striped cucumber beetle [Acalymma vittatum (F.)] is a specialist pest of cucurbits throughout its range in the United States and Canada. Improved integrated pest management options are needed across the pest's range, especially on organic farms where there are few effective controls. Trap cropping in cucurbits is an option, but there are significant challenges to the technique. Because cucurbit flowers are highly attractive to the beetles, four field experiments tested whether cultivar and phenology interact to preferentially aggregate beetles. The first experiment tested the hypothesis that cucurbit flowers were more attractive to striped cucumber beetles than was foliage. The second experiment tested whether there were differences in beetle aggregation between two relatively attractive cultivars. The third and fourth experiments were factorial designs with two plant cultivars and two levels of flowering to specifically test for an interaction of cultivar and flowering. Results indicated that flowers were more attractive than foliage, beetle aggregation was affected by plant cultivar, and that there was an interaction of cultivar with flowering. We conclude that a single cultivar may be sufficient to serve as a generic trap crop to protect a wide variety of cucurbits. PMID:26313184

  11. Striped Cucumber Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Aggregation in Response to Cultivar and Flowering.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jeffrey; Hoffmann, Michael P; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The striped cucumber beetle [Acalymma vittatum (F.)] is a specialist pest of cucurbits throughout its range in the United States and Canada. Improved integrated pest management options are needed across the pest's range, especially on organic farms where there are few effective controls. Trap cropping in cucurbits is an option, but there are significant challenges to the technique. Because cucurbit flowers are highly attractive to the beetles, four field experiments tested whether cultivar and phenology interact to preferentially aggregate beetles. The first experiment tested the hypothesis that cucurbit flowers were more attractive to striped cucumber beetles than was foliage. The second experiment tested whether there were differences in beetle aggregation between two relatively attractive cultivars. The third and fourth experiments were factorial designs with two plant cultivars and two levels of flowering to specifically test for an interaction of cultivar and flowering. Results indicated that flowers were more attractive than foliage, beetle aggregation was affected by plant cultivar, and that there was an interaction of cultivar with flowering. We conclude that a single cultivar may be sufficient to serve as a generic trap crop to protect a wide variety of cucurbits.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a phytophagous ladybird beetle, Henosepilachna pusillanima (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Behere, G T; Firake, D M; Tay, W T; Azad Thakur, N S; Ngachan, S V

    2016-01-01

    Ladybird beetles are generally considered as agriculturally beneficial insects, but the ladybird beetles in the coleopteran subfamily Epilachninae are phytophagous and major plant feeding pest species which causes severe economic losses to cucurbitaceous and solanaceous crops. Henosepilachna pusillanima (Mulsant) is one of the important pest species of ladybird beetle. In this report, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of H. pusillanima. For sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome, we used the Ion Torrent sequencing platform. The complete circular mitochondrial genome of the H. pusillanima was determined to be 16,216 bp long. There were totally 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA, 2 ribosomal RNA and a control (A + T-rich) region estimated to be 1690 bp. The gene arrangement and orientations of assembled mitogenome were identical to the reported predatory ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. This is the first completely sequenced coleopteran mitochondrial genome from the beetle subfamily Epilachninae from India. Data generated in this study will benefit future comparative genomics studies for understanding the evolutionary relationships between predatory and phytophagous coccinellid beetles. PMID:24617459

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a phytophagous ladybird beetle, Henosepilachna pusillanima (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Behere, G T; Firake, D M; Tay, W T; Azad Thakur, N S; Ngachan, S V

    2016-01-01

    Ladybird beetles are generally considered as agriculturally beneficial insects, but the ladybird beetles in the coleopteran subfamily Epilachninae are phytophagous and major plant feeding pest species which causes severe economic losses to cucurbitaceous and solanaceous crops. Henosepilachna pusillanima (Mulsant) is one of the important pest species of ladybird beetle. In this report, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of H. pusillanima. For sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome, we used the Ion Torrent sequencing platform. The complete circular mitochondrial genome of the H. pusillanima was determined to be 16,216 bp long. There were totally 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA, 2 ribosomal RNA and a control (A + T-rich) region estimated to be 1690 bp. The gene arrangement and orientations of assembled mitogenome were identical to the reported predatory ladybird beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. This is the first completely sequenced coleopteran mitochondrial genome from the beetle subfamily Epilachninae from India. Data generated in this study will benefit future comparative genomics studies for understanding the evolutionary relationships between predatory and phytophagous coccinellid beetles.

  14. Gallery productivity, emergence, and flight activity of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Maner, M Lake; Hanula, James L; Braman, S Kristine

    2013-08-01

    Flight and emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, were monitored from March 2011 through August 2012 using Lindgren funnel traps baited with manuka oil and emergence traps attached over individual beetle galleries on infested redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Sprengel) trees. Of the 432 gallery entrances covered with emergence traps, 235 (54.4%) successfully produced at least two adults. Gallery success rates and time until adult emergence were highly variable and strongly depended on time of year galleries were initiated. Successful galleries produced 23.4 ± 2.50 (x ± SE) adult X. glabratus but one had 316 adults emerge from it. Galleries were active for an average of 231.9 ± 6.13 d but five were active for over 1 yr and one gallery produced beetles for 497 d. In total, 5,345 female and 196 males were collected during the study resulting in a sex ratio of ~27:1 (female:male) emerging from galleries. Ambrosia beetles other than X. glabratus were recovered from 18 galleries or ~4% of those studied. Beetles that attacked larger diameter trees were more likely to be successful and produce more brood. Lindgren trap captures reflected emergence trap collections but with a delay of about 1 mo between peaks in emergence and capture in traps. Peaks of activity occurred in fall 2011 and spring 2012, but at least some adult beetles were collected using both methods in every month of the year.

  15. Low doses of the common alpha-cypermethrin insecticide affect behavioural thermoregulation of the non-targeted beneficial carabid beetle Platynus assimilis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Merivee, Enno; Tooming, Ene; Must, Anne; Sibul, Ivar; Williams, Ingrid H

    2015-10-01

    Sub-lethal effects of pesticides on behavioural endpoints are poorly investigated in non-targeted beneficial carabids. Conspicuous changes in locomotor activity of carabids exposed to sub-lethal doses of neurotoxic insecticides suggest that many other behaviours of these insects might be severely injured as well. We hypothesize that behavioural thermoregulation of carabids may be affected by low doses of neurotoxic pyrethroid insecticide alpha-cypermethrin which may have direct deleterious consequences for the fitness and populations of the beetles in the field. Automated video tracking of the carabid beetle Platynus assimilis Paykull (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on an experimental thermal mosaic arena using EthoVision XT Version 9 software (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, The Netherlands) showed that brief exposure to alpha-cypermethrin at sub-lethal concentrations (0.1-10mgL(-1)) drastically reduces the ability of the beetles for behavioural thermoregulation. At noxious high temperature, a considerable number of the beetles died due to thermo-shock. Other intoxicated beetles that survived exposure to high temperature displayed behavioural abnormalities. During heating of the arena from 25 to 45°C, insecticide treated beetles showed a significant fall in tendency to hide in a cool shelter (20°C) and prolonged exposure to noxious high temperatures, accompanied by changes in locomotor activity. Next day after insecticide treatment the beetles recovered from behavioural abnormalities to a large extent but they still were considerably longer exposed to noxious high temperatures compared to the negative control beetles. Our results demonstrated that behavioural thermoregulation is a sensitive and important etho-toxicological biomarker in ground-dwelling carabids. Prolonged exposure to unfavourably high temperatures has an array of negative effects decreasing fitness and survival of these insects at elevated thermal conditions with deep temperature gradients

  16. Species composition of leaf beetle assemblages in the canopies of apple and pear orchards in Hungary and Great Britain (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Vig, K; Markó, V

    2004-01-01

    The species richness and species composition of Coleoptera assemblages were investigated in the canopies of apple and pear orchards in Hungary and in the apple orchards in Great Britain. The investigations were carried out in Hungary (Nagykovácsi: 3 plots, Kecskemét: 5 plots, Sárospatak: 4 plots) between 1990-94, and in Great Britain in Kent (East Malling, Marden and Robertsbridge) in 2001 and 2002. Former investigations in Hungary revealed that the diversity of Coleoptera assemblages in the canopy of apple and pear orchard were surprisingly high. As a result of our investigations it was found that altogether 324 species, almost 3% of the Hungarian beetle fauna were represented: 253 species in apple orchards and 188 species in pear orchards. Similar results were obtained in the investigations carried out in Great Britain between 2001-2002. In Hungary, the majority of the species belonged to the families Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae and Coccinelidae. The proportion of leaf beetles varied between 15 and 20%. The most common leaf beetle species in the canopy of the commercial orchards were Phyllotreta vittula, Phyllotreta atra, Phyllotreta nigripes, Oulemta melanopus, and Aphthona euphorbiae. In the abandoned orchards the most common species were Luperus xanthopoda, Smaragdina salicina and Orsodacne liieola. In Great Britain 44 leaf beetle species were found in the canopies of the investigated orchards. The species with higher abundance were Aphthona euphorbiae. Chaetocnema concinna and Longitarsus parvulus. We concluded, that leaf beetles give high part of the orchard canopy biodiversity and sometimes occur with high species richness and abundance. However, the reasons of their occurrence and their potential role are poorly known.

  17. Landscape patterns of species-level association between ground-beetles and overstory trees in boreal forests of western Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, J. A. Colin; Spence, John R.; Volney, W. Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Spatial associations between species of trees and ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) involve many indirect ecological processes, likely reflecting the function of numerous forest ecosystem components. Describing and quantifying these associations at the landscape scale is basic to the development of a surrogate-based framework for biodiversity monitoring and conservation. In this study, we used a systematic sampling grid covering 84 km2 of boreal mixedwood forest to characterize the ground-beetle assemblage associated with each tree species occurring on this landscape. Projecting the distribution of relative basal area of each tree species on the beetle ordination diagram suggests that the carabid community is structured by the same environmental factors that affects the distribution of trees, or perhaps even by trees per se. Interestingly beetle species are associated with tree species of the same rank order of abundance on this landscape, suggesting that conservation of less abundant trees will concomitantly foster conservation of less abundant beetle species. Landscape patterns of association described here are based on characteristics that can be directly linked to provincial forest inventories, providing a basis that is already available for use of tree species as biodiversity surrogates in boreal forest land management. PMID:22371676

  18. Susceptibility of brassicaceous plants to feeding by flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Soroka, Juliana; Grenkow, Larry

    2013-12-01

    Crucifer-feeding flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp., are chronic insect pests in Canadian prairie canola production. Multiple laboratory and field feeding bioassays were conducted to determine the susceptibility of a wide range of crucifer species, cultivars, and accessions to feeding by flea beetles with the goal of discovering sources of resistant germplasm. In 62 bioassays of 218 entries, no consistent decreased feeding by flea beetles was seen on any entries of Brassica carinata A. Braun, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., Brassica napus L., or Brassica rapa L. There was reduced feeding on condiment mustard Sinapis alba L. lines but not on canola-quality lines with reduced amounts of glucosinolates, which were fed on at levels equal to B. napus. Analyses of glucosinolate content found decreased quantities of hydroxybenzyl and butyl glucosinolates in preferred canola-quality S. alba lines and increased levels of hydroxybutenyl glucosinolates compared with levels in condiment S. alba lines. Eruca sativa Mill. was an excellent flea beetle host; Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz lines experienced little feeding. Lines of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries and Crambe hispanica L. had reduced feeding levels compared with Brassica entries, but Crambe glabrata DC did not. The results indicate possible sources of resistance to Phyllotreta flea beetles, while highlighting the complicated roles that glucosinolates may play in Phyllotreta host preference.

  19. The ground beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of Kenyir water catchment, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Fauziah; Sina, Ibnu; Fauzee, Fatmahjihan

    2008-11-01

    An assemblage of beetle specimens from family Carabidae (ground beetles) was carried out at Kenyir water catchment as an indicator to measure disturbance. The samplings were conducted from 30th July to 1st August 2007 at limestone forest of Teluk Bewah and the dipterocarp forest of Sungai Cicir. 28 individuals from 13 species were collected from Teluk Bewah whereas 54 individuals from ten species was sampled from Sungai Cicir. The carabids were more specious (Simpson Diversity index: 0.97) and more abundant (Margalef index: 5.35) at Teluk Bewah compared to Sungai Cicir (Simpson Diversity index, 0.72: Margalefindex, 2.22). Light trapping was most efficient assembling 97.56% of ground beetles compared to Malaise trap, pitfall and net sweeping. This is the first record of beetle assemblage at Kenyir water catchment, Malaysia. New records for Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia are Abacetus sp. 1, Abacetus sp. 2, Acupalpus rectifrotis, Aephnidius adelioides, Dischissus notulatus, Dolichoctis sp., Dolichoctis sp. 2, Dolichoctis straitus, Ophinoea bimaculata, Perigona sp., Pheropsophus piciccollis, Pheropsophus occipitalis, Stenolophus quinquepustulatus, Stenolophus smaragdulus, Stenolophus sp., Tachys coracinus, Casnoidea sp., Orthogonius sp. Seven species coded as Cara C, Cara J, Cara M, Cara N, Cara O, Cara R and Cara S were unidentified and are probably new species to be described in another report. There is moderately high diversity (Simpson Diversity index: 0.846) of Carabidae indicating that ecotourism does not affect diversity of ground beetle at Kenyir Lake.

  20. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands.

    PubMed

    Matalin, Andrey V; Chikatunov, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided.

  1. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands.

    PubMed

    Matalin, Andrey V; Chikatunov, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  2. The effects of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on the arthropod fauna of wheat fields in Chile.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, R; Alarcón, R; Neira, M

    2007-03-01

    The role of carabid beetles in reducing populations of phytophagous insects has been an elusive subject. A field experiment was established on a commercial wheat crop (cv. Otto) with an area of 4.5 ha in Valdivia, Chile, during the spring and summer of 1996-1997. The field had been under a prairie system for two years, before wheat sowing (fertilization and a pesticide had been applied during crop development). Samples were taken at approximately monthly intervals. Carabid beetles were sampled with a grid of pitfall traps and other insects were sampled with a vacuum insect net and soil cores. The genera of the carabids found are of neotropical origin. Exclusion by polythene barriers, together with removal of carabid beetles using traps, was an effective technique for controlling carabid populations in a commercial wheat crop. A reduction in the number of carabid beetles was associated with an increase in the number of springtails and arachnids, and a decrease of agromyzid adults. Phytophagous insects, such as homopterans and lepidopterous larvae, were not affected by carabid exclusion and removal. The action of carabid beetles on the arthropod fauna can be extremely complex, due to its predatory activity at multitrophic levels.

  3. Seasonal Flight Activity of the Sugarcane Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in North Carolina Using Black Light Traps.

    PubMed

    Billeisen, T L; Brandenburg, R L

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal flight activity, adult beetle sex count, and egg production were examined in sugarcane beetles Euetheola rugiceps (LeConte) caught in light traps in North Carolina from the fall of 2009 through the summer of 2014. A regression model using variable environmental conditions as predictive parameters was developed to examine the impact of these conditions on flight activity. Depending on flight trap location and sampling years, beetles exhibited an inconsistent flight pattern, with the majority of adults flying in the spring (April-June) and intermittently in the fall (September-October). Our model indicated that larger numbers of adults collected from traps coincided with an increase in average soil temperature. Sugarcane beetles also exhibit a synchronous emergence during both periods of flight activity. Eggs were detected in females collected from light traps every week throughout the entire sampling period. The majority of females produced 7-12 eggs, with most egg production occurring between 15 May and 1 August. The findings of this research provide adult sugarcane beetle emergence and flight behavior information necessary to determine optimal pesticide application timing.

  4. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands

    PubMed Central

    Matalin, Andrey V.; Chikatunov, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  5. Copro-necrophagous beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) diversity in an agroecosystem in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Reyes Novelo, Enrique; Delfín-González, Hugo; Angel Morón, Miguel

    2007-03-01

    Scarabaeinae are sensitive to structural habitat changes caused by disturbance. We compared copronecrophagous beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in three differently managed zones within an agroeco-system of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We placed dung and carrion traps once a month from June 2004 through May 2005. The beetle community included 17 species from the genera Canthon, Canthidium, Deltochilum, Pseudocanthon, Malagoniella, Onthophagus, Phanaeus, Copris, Uroxys, Sisyphus and Ateuchus. The secondary vegetation had a higher beetle diversity than the other two zones. Species richness was highest in the Brosimum alicastrum plantation. The pasture had the lowest species diversity and richness, but exhibited the highest abundance of Scarabaeinae in the dry season. The two zones with extensive tree cover were the most diverse. Roller beetles were dominant over burrower species and small-sized species outnumbered large species. Our data show two important issues: beetle species in the pasture extended their activity to the beginning of the dry season, while abundances dropped in the other, unirrigated zones; and the possibility that the Scarabaeinae living in neotropical forests are opportunistic saprophages and have specialized habits for resources other than dung. The B. alicastrum plantation is beneficial to the entire ranch production system because it functions as a dispersion and development area for stenotopic species limited to tree cover.

  6. How unique is the tiger beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae) of the Balkan Peninsula?

    PubMed Central

    Jaskuła, Radomir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The tiger beetle fauna of the Balkan Peninsula is one of the richest in Europe and includes 19 species or 41% of the European tiger beetle fauna. Assembled by their biogeographical origins, the Balkan tiger beetle species fall into 14 different groups that include, Mediterranean, Middle Oriental, Central Asiatic, Euro-Siberian, South and East European, Pannonian-Sarmatian, West Palaearctic, Turano-European and Afrotropico Indo-Mediterranean species. The Mediterranean Sclerophyl and the Pontian Steppe are the Balkan biogeographical provinces with the highest species richness, while the Balkan Highlands has the lowest Cicindelidae diversity. Most species are restricted to single habitat types in lowland areas of the Balkan Peninsula and only Calomera aulica aulica and Calomera littoralis nemoralis occur in respectively 3 and 4 different types of habitat. About 60% of all Balkan Cicindelidae species are found in habitats potentially endangered by human activity. PMID:21738429

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Coleoptera (Arthropoda: Insecta) and Genome Descriptions of Six New Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Song, H.; Cameron, S. L.; Whiting, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Coleoptera is the most diverse group of insects with over 360,000 described species divided into four suborders: Adephaga, Archostemata, Myxophaga, and Polyphaga. In this study, we present six new complete mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) descriptions, including a representative of each suborder, and analyze the evolution of mtgenomes from a comparative framework using all available coleopteran mtgenomes. We propose a modification of atypical cox1 start codons based on sequence alignment to better reflect the conservation observed across species as well as findings of TTG start codons in other genes. We also analyze tRNA-Ser(AGN) anticodons, usually GCU in arthropods, and report a conserved UCU anticodon as a possible synapomorphy across Polyphaga. We further analyze the secondary structure of tRNA-Ser(AGN) and present a consensus structure and an updated covariance model that allows tRNAscan-SE (via the COVE software package) to locate and fold these atypical tRNAs with much greater consistency. We also report secondary structure predictions for both rRNA genes based on conserved stems. All six species of beetle have the same gene order as the ancestral insect. We report noncoding DNA regions, including a small gap region of about 20 bp between tRNA-Ser(UCN) and nad1 that is present in all six genomes, and present results of a base composition analysis. PMID:18779259

  8. Revision of the Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini).

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelly B

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is revised. Thirty species are recognized. The following new species are described: Hydrodessus bimaculatus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus brevis sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus concolorans sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus continuus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus disjunctus sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus fasciatus sp. n. (Brazil), Hydrodessus imparilis sp. n. (Ecuador), Hydrodessus keithi sp. n. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador), Hydrodessus kurti sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus kylei sp. n. (Suriname, Venezuela), Hydrodessus laetus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus latotibialis sp. n. (Peru), Hydrodessus maculatus sp. n. (Guyana, Venezuela), Hydrodessus morsus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus palus sp. n. (Venezuela), and Hydrodessus tenuatus sp. n. (Suriname). The following new synonyms are established: Hydrodessus fragrans Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus biguttatus (Guignot, 1957) syn. n. and Hydrodessus robinae Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus octospilus (Guignot, 1957), syn. n. One species is transferred from Hydrodessus to Amarodytes Régimbart, Amarodytes soekhnandanae (Makhan, 1994), comb. n. Habitus photographs (dorsal and lateral) and photos of the ventral surfaces are provided for most species. Line drawings of male and female genitalia and other diagnostic features are also provided along with distribution maps. PMID:27110208

  9. Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.

  10. Revision of the Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is revised. Thirty species are recognized. The following new species are described: Hydrodessus bimaculatus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus brevis sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus concolorans sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus continuus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus disjunctus sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus fasciatus sp. n. (Brazil), Hydrodessus imparilis sp. n. (Ecuador), Hydrodessus keithi sp. n. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador), Hydrodessus kurti sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus kylei sp. n. (Suriname, Venezuela), Hydrodessus laetus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus latotibialis sp. n. (Peru), Hydrodessus maculatus sp. n. (Guyana, Venezuela), Hydrodessus morsus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus palus sp. n. (Venezuela), and Hydrodessus tenuatus sp. n. (Suriname). The following new synonyms are established: Hydrodessus fragrans Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus biguttatus (Guignot, 1957) syn. n. and Hydrodessus robinae Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus octospilus (Guignot, 1957), syn. n. One species is transferred from Hydrodessus to Amarodytes Régimbart, Amarodytes soekhnandanae (Makhan, 1994), comb. n. Habitus photographs (dorsal and lateral) and photos of the ventral surfaces are provided for most species. Line drawings of male and female genitalia and other diagnostic features are also provided along with distribution maps. PMID:27110208

  11. Heterochromatin and molecular characterization of DsmarMITE transposable element in the beetle Dichotomius schiffleri (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Xavier, Crislaine; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; de Moura, Rita Cássia

    2014-12-01

    Cytogenetic studies of the Neotropical beetle genus Dichotomius (Scarabaeinae, Coleoptera) have shown dynamism for centromeric constitutive heterochromatin sequences. In the present work we studied the chromosomes and isolated repetitive sequences of Dichotomius schiffleri aiming to contribute to the understanding of coleopteran genome/chromosomal organization. Dichotomius schiffleri presented a conserved karyotype and heterochromatin distribution in comparison to other species of the genus with 2n = 18, biarmed chromosomes, and pericentromeric C-positive blocks. Similarly to heterochromatin distributional patterns, the highly and moderately repetitive DNA fraction (C 0 t-1 DNA) was detected in pericentromeric areas, contrasting with the euchromatic mapping of an isolated TE (named DsmarMITE). After structural analyses, the DsmarMITE was classified as a non-autonomous element of the type miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) with terminal inverted repeats similar to Mariner elements of insects from different orders. The euchromatic distribution for DsmarMITE indicates that it does not play a part in the dynamics of constitutive heterochromatin sequences.

  12. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scaraebidae) at several different ecosystem functions in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Abdullah Muhaimin Mohammad; Yaakop, Salmah; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    Dung beetles has known for its bioindicator characteristic. Sensitive towards forest disturbance, dung beetles population and diversity will be less in disturbed and modified area. The objective of this study is to evaluate the diversity and distribution of dung beetles in different type of ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen baited pitfall traps aligned in three transects were used in this study. Samples were collected after 24 h and repeated three time collections and identified afterwards. Two ecosystem types were selected, which are forested and agricultural ecosystem (livestock and plantation). A total of 4249 individuals, 47 species, in 11 genera was successfully collected from all localities. The H' index for Fraser Hill, Langkawi, Bangi Reserve Forest, Selangor (HSB), Sungkai Reserve Forest, Perak (SRF), Chini Lake, Bera Lake, chicken farm, goat farm, Longan plantation, and palm oil plantation were 1.58, 1.74, 2.17, 2.63, 1.80, 1.52, 1.63, 0.46, 0.00 and 1.98 respectively.Forest ecosystem, SRF shows the highest abundance (1486 individuals) and diversity, while for agricultural ecosystem,palm oil plantation shows the highest with 273 individuals and 16 species. Based onDetrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) shows two groups that separate forest ecosystem with the agricultural ecosystem, with palm oil is the nearest to the forest. Palm oil ecosystem can sustain a dung beetles population due to the area can provide the requirements for the dung beetles to survive, such as food which comes from local domestic cows, shade from sunlight provide by the palm oil trees, and ground cover from small plants and shrubs.Even though modified ecosystem should have lower diversity of dung beetles, but some factors must be measured as well in order to have a better point of view.

  13. Optimising bait for pitfall trapping of Amazonian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Marsh, Charles J; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology.

  14. Optimising Bait for Pitfall Trapping of Amazonian Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae)

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Charles J.; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology

  15. Brood Ball-Mediated Transmission of Microbiome Members in the Dung Beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Anne M.; Hearn, David J.; Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Feindler, Michele; Feeser, Karla; Abebe, Tselotie

    2013-01-01

    Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood chamber. The

  16. First cavernicolous trechine beetle discovered in Guilin karst, northeastern Guangxi (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feifei; Tian, Mingyi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new subgenus and new species of anophthalmic trechine beetles, Oodinotrechus (Pingleotrechus) yinae subgen. n., sp. n., is described and illustrated from a limestone cave called Chaotianyan in southern part of Guilin karst, northeastern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The new taxon is very different from the Maolan-Mulun congeners belonging to the nominate subgenus Oodinotrechus (s. str.) Uéno, 1998, in several important character states including pronotal structure, elytral chaetotaxy and male genitalia. It is the first record of a cavernicolous trechine beetle in Guilin karst, and in the eastern part of Guangxi. In addition, a distribution map for the genus Oodinotrechus Uéno, 1998, is provided. PMID:26798298

  17. Cantharidin and demethylcantharidin (palasonin) content of blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) from southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich; Pogoda, Werner; Schneider, Michael; Kauert, Gerold

    2009-03-15

    In two species of meloid beetles, Hycleus oculatus and Hycleus tinctus, from southern Africa, cantharidin and demethylcantharidin (palasonin) were assayed quantitatively. For cantharidin the mean value per specimen was about 1 mg for H. oculatus and 0.2 mg for H. tinctus, the mean palasonin concentration was 20 (H. oculatus) and 12 times (H. tinctus) lower, respectively. However, considerable individual variation in the cantharidin concentration was observed and values of more than 6 mg of this compound per beetle were measured pointing to the high risk of severe and even fatal poisoning when ingesting these insects.

  18. Scale coloration change following water absorption in the beetle Hoplia coerulea (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Rassart, Marie; Simonis, Priscilla; Bay, Annick; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2009-09-01

    The blue scales on the cuticle of the male beetle Hoplia coerulea can absorb water, with the consequence that these scales, which have been shown to be responsible for the beetle's bright blue coloration, reversibly turn to emerald green with increasing water contents. Optical measurements are shown, by analytic photonic-crystal models, to be compatible with the full filling of the scales structures with water. The natural mechanism shows the way to produce a very efficient hygrochromic material: a medium which significantly changes color when its water contents are modified.

  19. Cantharidin and demethylcantharidin (palasonin) content of blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) from southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich; Pogoda, Werner; Schneider, Michael; Kauert, Gerold

    2009-03-15

    In two species of meloid beetles, Hycleus oculatus and Hycleus tinctus, from southern Africa, cantharidin and demethylcantharidin (palasonin) were assayed quantitatively. For cantharidin the mean value per specimen was about 1 mg for H. oculatus and 0.2 mg for H. tinctus, the mean palasonin concentration was 20 (H. oculatus) and 12 times (H. tinctus) lower, respectively. However, considerable individual variation in the cantharidin concentration was observed and values of more than 6 mg of this compound per beetle were measured pointing to the high risk of severe and even fatal poisoning when ingesting these insects. PMID:19708124

  20. A review and phylogeny of Scarabaeine dung beetle fossils (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), with the description of two Canthochilum species from Dominican amber.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Sergei; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Dimitrov, Dimitar

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing rate of systematic research on scarabaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), their fossil record has remained largely unrevised. In this paper, we review all 33 named scarabaeine fossils and describe two new species from Dominican amber (Canthochilum alleni sp.n., Canthochilum philipsivieorum sp.n.). We provide a catalogue of all fossil Scarabaeinae and evaluate their assignment to this subfamily, based primarily on the original descriptions but also, where possible, by examining the type specimens. We suggest that only 21 fossil taxa can be reliably assigned to the Scarabaeinae, while the remaining 14 should be treated as doubtful Scarabaeinae. The doubtful scarabaeines include the two oldest dung beetle fossils known from the Cretaceous and we suggest excluding them from any assessments of the minimum age of scarabaeine dung beetles. The earliest reliably described scarabaeine fossil appears to be Lobateuchus parisii, known from Oise amber (France), which shifts the minimum age of the Scarabaeinae to the Eocene (53 Ma). We scored the best-preserved fossils, namely Lobateuchus and the two Canthochilum species described herein, into the character matrix used in a recent morphology-based study of dung beetles, and then inferred their phylogenetic relationships with Bayesian and parsimony methods. All analyses yielded consistent phylogenies where the two fossil Canthochilum are placed in a clade with the extant species of Canthochilum, and Lobateuchus is recovered in a clade with the extant genera Ateuchus and Aphengium. Additionally, we evaluated the distribution of dung beetle fossils in the light of current global dung beetle phylogenetic hypotheses, geological time and biogeography. The presence of only extant genera in the late Oligocene and all later records suggests that the main present-day dung beetle lineages had already been established by the late Oligocene-mid Miocene. PMID:27547512

  1. Impact of decreasing ratios of insecticide-treated seed on flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Phyllotreta spp.) feeding levels and canola seed yields.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Juliana J; Grenkow, Larry F; Irvine, R Byron

    2008-12-01

    Field studies were conducted at two locations on the Canadian prairies to investigate use of reduced ratios of insecticide-treated seed in controlling flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Phyllotreta spp.) damage to canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.). Five treatments were evaluated: bare seed control, fungicide-only (0X), and three ratios of insecticide plus fungicide in proportions of all (1X), two thirds (0.67X), or one third (0.33X) of the seeds coated with insecticide. Decreasing treated seed ratios by one third had no consistent deleterious effects on flea beetle damage, seedling growth, plant density, seed yield, or net cash return. Flea beetle injury to seedlings in the 1X treatment was similar to that of seedlings in the 0.67X treatment, with only two exceptions, and it was almost always lower than that of seedlings without insecticide. The 0.33X treatment generally had flea beetle feeding levels between those of the two high and the two noninsecticide treatments. Plant stand and seedling growth rates with 1X and 0.67X treatments were similar and higher than with bare seed or fungicide-alone treatments. Seed yields were inversely proportional to flea beetle feeding levels. Under very heavy flea beetle feeding, seed yields and net cash returns were highest in 1X plots, but when flea beetle feeding pressure was less extreme and canola growing conditions were favorable, 0.67X seed yields and profits from them were comparable to those in 1X treatments. On an economic basis, currently there is no advantage to decreasing the level of insecticide treated canola seed, but other considerations may affect this assessment.

  2. A review and phylogeny of Scarabaeine dung beetle fossils (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), with the description of two Canthochilum species from Dominican amber

    PubMed Central

    Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Dimitrov, Dimitar

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing rate of systematic research on scarabaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), their fossil record has remained largely unrevised. In this paper, we review all 33 named scarabaeine fossils and describe two new species from Dominican amber (Canthochilum alleni sp.n., Canthochilum philipsivieorum sp.n.). We provide a catalogue of all fossil Scarabaeinae and evaluate their assignment to this subfamily, based primarily on the original descriptions but also, where possible, by examining the type specimens. We suggest that only 21 fossil taxa can be reliably assigned to the Scarabaeinae, while the remaining 14 should be treated as doubtful Scarabaeinae. The doubtful scarabaeines include the two oldest dung beetle fossils known from the Cretaceous and we suggest excluding them from any assessments of the minimum age of scarabaeine dung beetles. The earliest reliably described scarabaeine fossil appears to be Lobateuchus parisii, known from Oise amber (France), which shifts the minimum age of the Scarabaeinae to the Eocene (53 Ma). We scored the best-preserved fossils, namely Lobateuchus and the two Canthochilum species described herein, into the character matrix used in a recent morphology-based study of dung beetles, and then inferred their phylogenetic relationships with Bayesian and parsimony methods. All analyses yielded consistent phylogenies where the two fossil Canthochilum are placed in a clade with the extant species of Canthochilum, and Lobateuchus is recovered in a clade with the extant genera Ateuchus and Aphengium. Additionally, we evaluated the distribution of dung beetle fossils in the light of current global dung beetle phylogenetic hypotheses, geological time and biogeography. The presence of only extant genera in the late Oligocene and all later records suggests that the main present-day dung beetle lineages had already been established by the late Oligocene–mid Miocene. PMID:27547512

  3. A review and phylogeny of Scarabaeine dung beetle fossils (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), with the description of two Canthochilum species from Dominican amber.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Sergei; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Dimitrov, Dimitar

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing rate of systematic research on scarabaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), their fossil record has remained largely unrevised. In this paper, we review all 33 named scarabaeine fossils and describe two new species from Dominican amber (Canthochilum alleni sp.n., Canthochilum philipsivieorum sp.n.). We provide a catalogue of all fossil Scarabaeinae and evaluate their assignment to this subfamily, based primarily on the original descriptions but also, where possible, by examining the type specimens. We suggest that only 21 fossil taxa can be reliably assigned to the Scarabaeinae, while the remaining 14 should be treated as doubtful Scarabaeinae. The doubtful scarabaeines include the two oldest dung beetle fossils known from the Cretaceous and we suggest excluding them from any assessments of the minimum age of scarabaeine dung beetles. The earliest reliably described scarabaeine fossil appears to be Lobateuchus parisii, known from Oise amber (France), which shifts the minimum age of the Scarabaeinae to the Eocene (53 Ma). We scored the best-preserved fossils, namely Lobateuchus and the two Canthochilum species described herein, into the character matrix used in a recent morphology-based study of dung beetles, and then inferred their phylogenetic relationships with Bayesian and parsimony methods. All analyses yielded consistent phylogenies where the two fossil Canthochilum are placed in a clade with the extant species of Canthochilum, and Lobateuchus is recovered in a clade with the extant genera Ateuchus and Aphengium. Additionally, we evaluated the distribution of dung beetle fossils in the light of current global dung beetle phylogenetic hypotheses, geological time and biogeography. The presence of only extant genera in the late Oligocene and all later records suggests that the main present-day dung beetle lineages had already been established by the late Oligocene-mid Miocene.

  4. Larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Stenochiinae), Glyptotus cribratus LeConte and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim, with notes on ecological and behavioural similarities

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Warren E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study describes and illustrates the larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in the subfamily Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte from the southeastern United States, and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim from California. Both species inhabit forested regions where adults and larvae occur in soft rotten dry wood of dead branches on living trees or in sections recently fallen from them. Species identity was confirmed by rearing of adults and pupae and the discovery of both in pupal cells with associated exuvia. Specimen label data and notes on habitats are provided. Antipredator defense structures and behaviour are noted for larvae and pupae of both species. PMID:25009432

  5. Prosthetops wolybergensis sp. nov.--a giant amongst the 'minute moss beetles', with new data on other members of the genus (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetops wolfbergensis sp. nov. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) is described from the Western and Northern Cape regions of South Africa; the new species, at up to 4.2 mm total length, apparently being the longest 'minute moss beetle' described to date. Prosthetops species are characteristic inhabitants of temporary rainwater pools and seepages on exposed plateau in the Cape fold mountains, and on rock outcrops beside streams and rivers. New collection records and ecological data are given for members of the genus, and the female of Prosthetops pronotus Perkins & Balfour-Browne, 1994 is described and illustrated for the first time.

  6. A review of the primary types of the Hawaiian stag beetle genus Apterocyclus Waterhouse (Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae), with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, M J; Hawks, David C

    2014-01-01

    The species of the Hawaiian stag beetle genus Apterocyclus Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are reviewed following an examination of all primary types. Although the continued existence of the species is unknown and some possibly are extinct there are five recently extant species, including one species that is described here as new. The holotypes for all available names are pictured, and synonymies discussed and updated. Lectotypes are designated for Apterocyclus honoluluensis Waterhouse and A. munroi Sharp. A key to species and a revised catalog for the genus are provided.

  7. Management of Yellowmargined Leaf Beetle Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Using Turnip as a Trap Crop.

    PubMed

    Balusu, Rammohan; Rhodes, Elena; Liburd, Oscar; Fadamiro, Henry

    2015-12-01

    The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål, is a major pest of cruciferous vegetable crops in organic production systems. Very few organically acceptable management options are currently available for this pest. Field studies were conducted at a research station in Alabama and at a commercial organic vegetable farm in Florida to investigate the effectiveness of turnip, Brassica rapa rapa, as a trap crop for M. ochroloma. In the research station trial with cabbage planted as the cash crop, perimeter planting of turnip as a trap crop effectively reduced beetle numbers and crop damage below levels recorded in the control. During the first season of our on-farm trial, with napa cabbage and mustard as the cash crops, using turnip as a trap crop effectively reduced both beetle numbers and cash crop damage below levels found in the control plots, but economic damage was still high. In the second season, beetle populations were too low for significant differences in damage levels to occur between the trap crop and control plots. Together, these results suggest that turnip planted as a trap crop can be an effective control tactic for cruciferous crops, like cabbage, that are much less attractive to M. ochroloma than turnip. In crops, like mustard and napa cabbage, that are equally or only slightly less attractive than turnip, planting turnip as a trap crop would have to be used in combination with other tactics to manage M. ochroloma. PMID:26470380

  8. The South American Dung Beetle Genus Ennearabdus Lansberge (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Eucraniini)

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, Federico C.

    2010-01-01

    The South American endemic dung beetle genus Ennearabdus Lansberge is revised. Description, diagnosis and illustrations are presented for the only known species of the genus, E. lobocephalus (Harold). A lectotype is designated for Onthophagus lobocephalus Harold, the type species of Ennearabdus. The biology, biogeography, conservation status, and distribution based on the predictive distribution model of E. lobocephalus are also discussed. PMID:20673117

  9. A cell line derived from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a model organism for agricultural and medical research and its complete genome is sequenced. We established a continuously replicating T. castaneum cell line to complement existing physiological, genetic and genomic research tools. We set up trial cell ...

  10. Management of Yellowmargined Leaf Beetle Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Using Turnip as a Trap Crop.

    PubMed

    Balusu, Rammohan; Rhodes, Elena; Liburd, Oscar; Fadamiro, Henry

    2015-12-01

    The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål, is a major pest of cruciferous vegetable crops in organic production systems. Very few organically acceptable management options are currently available for this pest. Field studies were conducted at a research station in Alabama and at a commercial organic vegetable farm in Florida to investigate the effectiveness of turnip, Brassica rapa rapa, as a trap crop for M. ochroloma. In the research station trial with cabbage planted as the cash crop, perimeter planting of turnip as a trap crop effectively reduced beetle numbers and crop damage below levels recorded in the control. During the first season of our on-farm trial, with napa cabbage and mustard as the cash crops, using turnip as a trap crop effectively reduced both beetle numbers and cash crop damage below levels found in the control plots, but economic damage was still high. In the second season, beetle populations were too low for significant differences in damage levels to occur between the trap crop and control plots. Together, these results suggest that turnip planted as a trap crop can be an effective control tactic for cruciferous crops, like cabbage, that are much less attractive to M. ochroloma than turnip. In crops, like mustard and napa cabbage, that are equally or only slightly less attractive than turnip, planting turnip as a trap crop would have to be used in combination with other tactics to manage M. ochroloma.

  11. Volatiles emissions from the flea beetle Altica litigata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) associated with invasive Ludwigia hexapetala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water primrose flea beetle Altica litigata (family Chrysomelidae) is a known insect pest to several nursery plants due to its aggressive feeding behavior – typically carried out in significant numbers. This aggregate feeding usually results in severe defoliation of their host plant. However, bec...

  12. Carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Midwestern United States: a review and synthesis of recent research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carabid beetles comprise a diverse and ubiquitous family of insects. Carabids are important in conservation biology and often have close associations with particular habitat types, making them useful biomonitoring organisms. Many carabids are also important biological control agents due to their pre...

  13. Efficacy of current lures for detection of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its introduction into the USA in 2002, the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest, currently established in eight southeastern states. Females are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, that causes laurel wilt....

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the desert darkling beetle Asbolus verrucosus (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Rider, Stanley Dean

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the desert darkling beetle Asbolus verrucosus (LeConte, 1851) was sequenced using paired-end technology to an average depth of 42,111× and assembled using De Bruijn graph-based methods. The genome is 15,828 bp in length and conforms to the basal arthropod mitochondrial gene composition with the same gene orders and orientations as other darkling beetle mitochondria. This arrangement includes a control region, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 13 protein-coding genes. The main coding strand is probably replicated as the lagging strand (GC skew of -0.36 and AT skew of +0.19). Phylogenomics analyses are consistent with taxonomic classifications and indicate that Tenebrio molitor is the closest relative that has a completely sequenced mitochondrial genome available for analysis. This is the first fully assembled mitogenome sequence for a darkling beetle in the subfamily Pimeliinae and will be useful for population studies on members of this ecologically important group of beetles. PMID:26016880

  15. Biology of 11-Spotted Beetle Coccinella undicimpunctata L. (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) on Mustard Aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solangi, Bhai Khan; Ghani Lanjar, Abdul; Lohar, Mohammad Khan

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the biology of 11-spotted beetle Coccinella undecimpunctata L. on mustard aphid during the year 2006. The oviposition, fecundity, adult emergence, fertility percentage, sex ratio, longevity and mortality were studied in the laboratory on 10 separately reared pairs of beetles. The results indicated that average pre-copulation period was 4.1±1.28 days post copulation period 3.6±1.26 days, oviposition period, 37.7±6.88 days and post oviposition period 4.0±1.63 days. The mean fecundity was 593.4±86.5 eggs, fertile eggs were 531.80±76.16 with the fertility percentage of 89.63±3.44. the incubation was 3.1±1.19 and 3.1±0.94 days while 1st and 2nd instar larva period was 3.1±1.19 and 3.1±0.87 days and for 3rd and 4th instar larvae averaged 3.5±1.26 and 3.3±0.94 days, respectively whereas the total larval period was 12.9±1.28 days and pupal period 5.6±0.96 days. The average number of pupae observed were 19.9±6.69, while the male emergence was 7.4±2.63 (38.50±13.12%) and the female emergence was 8.9±3.66 (43.48±8.24%). The sex ratio (male: female) averaged 1:1.25±1: 0.45. thus the total male + female emergence was 81.99±13.37 per beetle pair. The mortality recorded was 3.7±3.43 beetles showing an averaged mortality of 17.57±14.51%. Longevity of the male was 36.5±4.17 days and the female longevity of 46.0±9.14 days. It was recorded that longevity period was significantly greater in case of female ladybird beetles as compared to their males. Adult emergence was greater in females of 11-spotted beetles as compared to males and thus the sex ratio was higher in females as compared to males. The longevity was comparably higher in case of females than in male beetles.

  16. Host range validation, molecular identification, and release and establishment of a Chinese biotype of the Asian leaf beetle Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Criocerinae) for control of Dioscorea bulbifera L. in ...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dioscorea bulbifera, an Asian vine, is invasive in the southeastern USA. It rarely flowers but propagates from potato-like bulbils formed in leaf axils, which persist into the subsequent growing season. Lilioceris cheni Gressitt and Kimoto, a foliage-feeding beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Crio...

  17. Local variation in susceptibility of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to insecticide.

    PubMed

    Pourmirza, Ali Asghr

    2005-12-01

    The susceptibility status of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), adults to phosalone was determined by dip and glass jar assay techniques. Bioassay results indicated a narrow variation in Colorado potato beetle insecticide susceptibility among sample sites. LC50 values were generally highest from specimens collected in field that received frequent phosalone applications for seven consecutive growing seasons. In five populations tested, LC50 values ranged from 503.72 to 827.95 ppm in dip test method. In glass jar technique, resistance ratio value of 1.72 for LC50 was obtained. A significant linear relationship between LC50 values of individual populations across test methods was detected. Both bioassay techniques were suitable for monitoring resistance to insecticide in Colorado potato beetle adult populations. Glass jar technique, however, exhibited less variability in LC50 estimates and showed a higher degree of sensitivity than the dip method. Filter paper and leaf disk techniques for larvae were two bioassay methods used to determine phosalone susceptibility in L. decemlineata populations. Both bioassay techniques exhibited a similar level of susceptibility of the larvae to phosalone; however, the fiducial limit values from filter paper method were narrow than the leaf disk assay technique. A significant direct relationship between LC50 values of individual population across test methods was observed. Differences in LC50 ranking among fields between adults and larvae indicated a differential susceptibility to insecticide between life stages. Low LC50 values obtained from Colorado potato beetle in sample sites indicated that phosalone resistance was not severe in these fields. The glass jar and filter paper testing methods are simple and sensitive test techniques for measuring susceptibility of Colorado potato beetle adults and larvae to phosalone, respectively.

  18. Evolutionary Constraints in Hind Wing Shape in Chinese Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming; McCullough, Erin; Song, Ke-Qing; Liu, Wan-Gang; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the evolution hindwing shape in Chinese dung beetle species using morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Previous studies have analyzed the evolution of wing shape within a single or very few species, or by comparing only a few wing traits. No study has analyzed wing shape evolution of a large number of species, or quantitatively compared morphological variation of wings with proposed phylogenetic relationships. This study examines the morphological variation of hindwings based on 19 landmarks, 119 morphological characters, and 81 beetle species. Only one most parsimonious tree (MPT) was found based on 119 wing and body characters. To better understand the possible role of the hindwing in the evolution of Scarabaeinae, additional phylogenetic analyses were proposed based on the only body features (106 characters, wing characters excluded). Two MPT were found based on 106 body characters, and five nodes were collapsed in a strict consensus. There was a strong correlation between the morphometric tree and all phylogenetic trees (r>0.5). Reconstructions of the ancestral wing forms suggest that Scarabaeinae hindwing morphology has not changed substantially over time, but the morphological changes that do occur are focused at the base of the wing. These results suggest that flight has been important since the origin of Scarabaeinae, and that variation in hindwing morphology has been limited by functional constraints. Comparison of metric disparity values and relative evolutionary sequences among Scarabaeinae tribes suggest that the primitive dung beetles had relatively diverse hindwing morphologies, while advanced dung beetles have relatively similar wing morphologies. The strong correlation between the morphometric tree and phylogenetic trees suggest that hindwing features reflect the evolution of whole body morphology and that wing characters are suitable for the phylogenetic analyses. By integrating morphometric and cladistic approaches, this

  19. Comparative efficacy of plant-derived essential oils for managing ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and their corresponding mass spectral characterization.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer

    2011-10-01

    Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) pose a significant challenge to producers of ornamental nursery stock. Conventional insecticides are commonly used for management purposes, but plant-derived essential oils also may discourage ambrosia beetles from initiating attacks. To identify promising commercially available products, field-based efficacy trials were conducted in Ohio in 2009 and 2010 with the following products: Armorex (Soil Technologies), Cinnacure (Proguard, Inc.), EcoTrol (EcoSMART Technologies, Inc.), and Veggie Pharm (Pharm Solutions, Inc.). Potted Magnolia virginiana L. were first injected with 75 ml of 5% ethanol to ensure ambrosia beetle pressure on experimental trees. Mixtures of each product (10% in water) and a water control were applied until runoff and attacks occurring under field conditions were quantified at 1, 4, 7, and 14 d after treatment (DAT). Ambrosia beetle attacks generally increased over time but at differing rates depending on the particular treatment. In 2009, Armorex and Veggie Pharm were associated with the lowest cumulative attacks 14 DAT. In 2010, Armorex and Cinnacure were associated with the fewest attacks 14 DAT. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to characterize the volatile compounds associated with each product. Allyl isothiocyanate, a compound with known repellent and insecticidal properties, was unique and predominant in Armorex. These experiments identified commercially available botanicals containing plant essential oils with activity against ambrosia beetles, along with demonstrating the usefulness of ethanol-injection to ensure ambrosia beetle pressure under field conditions. Characterizing the constituents of efficacious botanically based products could also lead to the development of improved botanical insecticides.

  20. Efficacy of verbenone and green leaf volatiles for protecting whitebark and limber pines from attack by mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Gillette, Nancy E; Kegley, Sandra J; Costello, Sheryl L; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Mehmel, Constance J; Wood, David L

    2014-08-01

    To develop safe and effective methods to protect whitebark pines, Pinus albicaulis Engelmann, and limber pines, Pinus flexilis James, from attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), we compared verbenone and verbenone plus green leaf volatiles (GLVs) for prevention of beetle attack. We used two strategies: area-wide protection where semiochemical-releasing flakes are dispersed over the forest floor, and individual tree tests where flakes are applied to tree trunks. The area-wide bioassays were conducted by applying verbenone- and GLV-releasing flakes without stickers to the forest floor on 0.81-ha plots dominated by whitebark pines in the State of Washington with four replicates. We conducted individual tree bioassays by applying the same formulations with stickers to whitebark and limber pines in Montana and Colorado, respectively. In all three situations, both verbenone-alone and verbenone plus GLVs significantly increased the proportion of trees escaping mass attack by beetles, but the two formulations were not significantly different from one another. Despite a lack of significance at a Bonferroni-adjusted α = 0.05, adding GLVs gave slightly greater absolute levels of tree protection in most cases. Monitoring traps placed in the area-wide treatments in Washington showed similar outcomes for numbers of beetles trapped: both treatments had significantly fewer beetles than controls, and they were not significantly different from one another. At peak flight, however, plots with GLVs combined with verbenone had roughly 40% fewer beetles than plots with verbenone alone. GLVs are considerably cheaper than verbenone, so tests of higher application rates may be warranted to achieve enhanced tree protection at reasonable cost.

  1. A Culture Method for Darkling Beetles, Blapstinus spp. (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Zilkowski, Bruce W; Cossé, Allard A

    2015-06-01

    Darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp., have become a serious pest of Cucurbitaceae crops, especially in California. A culture method was sought to provide large numbers (>500) of adult beetles of known age and sex that could be used for laboratory testing when needed. A method previously developed for Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) using a diet of ground chick feed, with apple slices as a moisture source, was modified for use with Blapstinus spp. and then compared with the same method substituting apple slices with zucchini as the moisture source. Rearing boxes set up with apple slices produced significantly more pupae and adults than boxes containing zucchini slices. However, using either zucchini or apples as a moisture source yielded over the target of 500 adults per rearing box. A previous method designed to sex A. diaperinus based on the presence (♀) or absence (♂) of second valvifers in the pupal stage also proved to be effective for sexing the Blapstinus spp.

  2. [Longicorn beetles (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae) differ considerably in the degree of their mushroom body development].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2011-01-01

    A duality in the general structure of the mushroom body in longicorn beetles is confirmed. This duality is associated with the fact that they are formed by two solitary neuroblasts or two neuroblast clusters on each side of the brain and are manifested as a bipartite structure of both the calyx, which is the main sensory input, and the peduncular apparatus. Within the studied longicorn beetles, modifications in the general structure of mushroom bodies have been found; these modifications are caused by two oppositely directed morphogenetic processes, namely, the concentration of structures and their compartmentalization. The concentration leads to disappearance of the bipartite structure of the peduncular apparatus, whereas compartmentalization leads to a secondary subdivision of these structures into anatomically distinct subsections. This process is most pronounced in the peduncle and lobes. The mushroom bodies are best developed and differentiated in the members of the subfamily Lamiinae.

  3. Evolutionary patterns of hind wing morphology in dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Bai, Ming; Beutel, Rolf G; Song, Ke-Qing; Liu, Wan-Gang; Malqin, Hinggan; Li, Sha; Hu, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2012-09-01

    The shape of wings can be a good predictor of adaptations to different selective pressures and the value of wing features in taxonomy and phylogeny has long been recognized. In our investigation of the hind wing evolution of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) we use geometric morphometrics combined with a cladistic approach. The variations of entire hind wings and of three specific regions of 80 dung beetle species were investigated using 19 landmarks and outline data. Extensive evidence indicates that the wing as a whole and the three separate regions were under different selective pressures. The detailed evolutionary patterns of the three regions and the reconstruction of the ancestral forms were computed by mapping the geometric morphometrics data onto a tree based on a cladistic character analysis.

  4. A Culture Method for Darkling Beetles, Blapstinus spp. (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Zilkowski, Bruce W; Cossé, Allard A

    2015-06-01

    Darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp., have become a serious pest of Cucurbitaceae crops, especially in California. A culture method was sought to provide large numbers (>500) of adult beetles of known age and sex that could be used for laboratory testing when needed. A method previously developed for Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) using a diet of ground chick feed, with apple slices as a moisture source, was modified for use with Blapstinus spp. and then compared with the same method substituting apple slices with zucchini as the moisture source. Rearing boxes set up with apple slices produced significantly more pupae and adults than boxes containing zucchini slices. However, using either zucchini or apples as a moisture source yielded over the target of 500 adults per rearing box. A previous method designed to sex A. diaperinus based on the presence (♀) or absence (♂) of second valvifers in the pupal stage also proved to be effective for sexing the Blapstinus spp. PMID:26470223

  5. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S.; Sullivan, Brian T.; Ayres, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  6. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Sprayable Polymer Gel Against Crucifer Flea Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Canola.

    PubMed

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2016-08-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), is a key pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in the northern Great Plains of North America. The efficacies of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.), a sprayable polymer gel, and a combination of both were assessed on canola for flea beetle management. Plots were treated soon after colonization by adult flea beetles, when canola was in the cotyledon to one-leaf stage. Ten plants along a 3.6-m section of row were selected and rated at pre-treatment and 7 and 14 d post treatment using the damage-rating scheme advanced by the European Plant Protection Organization, where 1 = 0%, 2 = 2%, 3 = 5%, 4 = 10%, and 5 = 25% leaf area injury. Under moderate flea beetle feeding pressure (1-3.3% leaf area damaged), seeds treated with Gaucho 600 (Bayer CropScience LP Raleigh, NC) (imidacloprid) produced the highest yield (843.2 kg/ha). Meanwhile, Barricade (Barricade International, Inc. Hobe Sound, FL) (polymer gel; 1%) + Scanmask (BioLogic Company Inc, Willow Hill, PA) (Steinernema feltiae) resulted in the highest yields: 1020.8 kg/ha under high (2.0-5.3% leaf area damaged), and 670.2 kg/ha at extremely high (4.3-8.6 % leaf area damaged) feeding pressure. Our results suggest that Barricade (1%) + Scanmask (S. feltiae) can serve as an alternative to the conventional chemical seed treatment. Moreover, Scanmask (S. feltiae) can be used to complement the effects of seed treatment after its protection has run out. PMID:27329629

  7. Subspecific Differentiation Events of Montane Stag Beetles (Coleoptera, Lucanidae) Endemic to Formosa Island

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic debates have been carrying on for decades over Formosan stag beetles, which consist of a high proportion of endemic species and subspecies featuring morphological variations associated with local adaptation. With the influence of periodical Pleistocene glaciations and the presence of several mountain ranges, the genetic differentiation and taxonomic recognition, within this medium-size island, of two endemic subspecies for each of four montane stag beetles, i.e. Lucanus ogakii, L. kanoi, Prismognathus davidis, and Neolucanus doro, has been an appealing issue. Based on monophyletic lineages and population structure, possible divergent scenarios have been proposed to clarify the subspecific status for each of the above mentioned stag beetles. Phylogenetic inferences based on COI+16S rDNA+28S rDNA of 240 Formosan lucanids have confirmed most species are monophyletic groups; and the intraspecific (<2%) and interspecific (>2%) genetic distances of the two mitochondrial genes could be applied concordantly for taxonomic identification. On account of Bayesian-based species delimitation, geographic distribution, population structure, and sequence divergences, the subspecific status for L. ogakii, L. kanoi, and Pri. davidis are congruent with their geographic distribution in this island; and the calibration time based on the mitochondrial genes shows the subspecific split events occurred 0.7–1 million years ago. In addition, a more complicated scenario, i.e. genetic differentiation including introgression/hybridization events, might have occurred among L. ogakii, L. kanoi, and L. maculifemoratus. The geological effects of mountain hindrance accompanied by periodical glaciations could have been vital in leading to the geographical subspecific differentiation of these montane stag beetles. PMID:27257861

  8. Subspecific Differentiation Events of Montane Stag Beetles (Coleoptera, Lucanidae) Endemic to Formosa Island.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Lung; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic debates have been carrying on for decades over Formosan stag beetles, which consist of a high proportion of endemic species and subspecies featuring morphological variations associated with local adaptation. With the influence of periodical Pleistocene glaciations and the presence of several mountain ranges, the genetic differentiation and taxonomic recognition, within this medium-size island, of two endemic subspecies for each of four montane stag beetles, i.e. Lucanus ogakii, L. kanoi, Prismognathus davidis, and Neolucanus doro, has been an appealing issue. Based on monophyletic lineages and population structure, possible divergent scenarios have been proposed to clarify the subspecific status for each of the above mentioned stag beetles. Phylogenetic inferences based on COI+16S rDNA+28S rDNA of 240 Formosan lucanids have confirmed most species are monophyletic groups; and the intraspecific (<2%) and interspecific (>2%) genetic distances of the two mitochondrial genes could be applied concordantly for taxonomic identification. On account of Bayesian-based species delimitation, geographic distribution, population structure, and sequence divergences, the subspecific status for L. ogakii, L. kanoi, and Pri. davidis are congruent with their geographic distribution in this island; and the calibration time based on the mitochondrial genes shows the subspecific split events occurred 0.7-1 million years ago. In addition, a more complicated scenario, i.e. genetic differentiation including introgression/hybridization events, might have occurred among L. ogakii, L. kanoi, and L. maculifemoratus. The geological effects of mountain hindrance accompanied by periodical glaciations could have been vital in leading to the geographical subspecific differentiation of these montane stag beetles.

  9. Wolbachia infections in world populations of bean beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) infesting cultivated and wild legumes.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Natsuko I; Tuda, Midori; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Lan, Yen-Chiu; Buranapanichpan, Sawai; Horng, Shwu-Bin; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-07-01

    Wolbachia endosymbionts are widespread among insects and other arthropods, often causing cytoplasmic incompatibility and other reproductive phenotypes in their hosts. Recently, possibilities of Wolbachia-mediated pest control and management have been proposed, and the bean beetles of the subfamily Bruchinae are known as serious pests of harvested and stored beans worldwide. Here we investigated Wolbachia infections in bean beetles from the world, representing seven genera, 20 species and 87 populations. Of 20 species examined, Wolbachia infections were detected in four species, Megabruchidius sophorae, Callosobruchus analis, C. latealbus and C. chinensis. Infection frequencies were partial in M. sophorae but perfect in the other species. In addition to C. chinensis described in the previous studies, C. latealbus was infected with two distinct Wolbachia strains. These Wolbachia strains from the bean beetles were phylogenetically not closely related to each other. Among world populations of C. chinensis, some Taiwanese populations on a wild leguminous plant, Rhynchosia minima, exhibited a peculiar Wolbachia infection pattern, suggesting the possibility that these populations comprise a distinct host race or a cryptic species.

  10. The history of endemic Iberian ground beetle description (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae): which species were described first?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.

    2007-01-01

    iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.

  11. Efficiency of flight interception traps for adult Colorado potato beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Boiteau, G

    2000-06-01

    Interception traps have been used to monitor and sample Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), populations in flight, but the efficiency of these traps was unknown. The efficiency of interception window traps is limited because flying adults avoid the traps and may bounce off the trap without being collected. All trap types tested were avoided in flight chamber tests, including those constructed of transparent Plexiglas or yellow wood boards. A larger screen trap and a harp trap designed to reduce detection were also avoided by the beetles in flight. None of the traps provide a direct estimate of the number of adults randomly flying in the trap area. The highest level of efficiency for window traps was obtained with the yellow trap, which caught 16% of the expected flying population. Harp and screen traps without frames intercepted 60-62% of the expected flying population. The presence of a frame did not increase significantly the avoidance of the screen and harp traps by beetles in flight. Recommendations are made to maintain or increase the efficiency of some traps.

  12. Effect of Lures and Colors on Capture of Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Tedders Pyramidal Traps.

    PubMed

    Kemp, E A; Cottrell, T E

    2015-10-01

    Purposeful attraction and aggregation of adult Coccinellidae at target sites would be useful for sampling purposes and pest suppression. We field-tested 1) lures in yellow and black pyramidal traps and 2) pyramidal traps that had been painted one or two colors (without lures) to determine if lures or trap color affected capture of adult Coccinellidae. In only one experiment with lures did a single rate of limonene increase trap capture, whereas no other lure ever did. Yellow traps, regardless of using a lure, always captured significantly more lady beetles than black traps. When single-color red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, black, and white traps (without lures) were tested, yellow traps captured significantly more lady beetles. Of all species of Coccinellidae captured in these single-color traps, 95% were the exotic species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Coccinella septempunctata L. H. axyridis alone dominated trap capture comprising 74.1% of all lady beetles. Two-color traps (yellow-green, yellow-orange, yellow-white, and yellow-black) never captured more than single-color yellow traps. These results demonstrate that yellow pyramidal traps can be used to purposefully attract, and when used without a collection device, possibly aggregate adult Coccinellidae at targeted field sites.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the American black flour beetle Tribolium audax (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Ou, Jing; Liu, Jin-Bo; Yao, Fu-Jiao; Wang, Xin-Guo; Wei, Zhao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Flour beetles of the genus Tribolium are all pests of stored products and cause severe economic losses every year. The American black flour beetle Tribolium audax is one of the important pest species of flour beetle, and it is also an important quarantine insect. Here we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of T. audax, which was intercepted by Huangpu Custom in maize from America. The complete circular mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of T. audax was 15,924 bp in length, containing 37 typical coding genes and one non-coding AT-rich region. The mitogenome of T. audax exhibits a gene arrangement and content identical to the most common type in insects. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for the cox1, which use AAC as its start codon instead of ATN. Eleven genes use standard complete termination codon (nine TAA, two TAG), whereas the nad4 and nad5 genes end with single T. Except for trnS1 (AGN), all tRNA genes display typical secondary cloverleaf structures as those of other insects. The sizes of the large and small ribosomal RNA genes are 1288 and 780 bp, respectively. The AT content of the AT-rich region is 81.36%. The 5 bp conserved motif TACTA was found in the intergenic region between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1.

  14. Temperature extremes, density dependence, and southern pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) population dynamics in east Texas.

    PubMed

    Friedenberg, Nicholas A; Sarkar, Sudipta; Kouchoukos, Nicholas; Billings, Ronald F; Ayres, Matthew P

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm., established that its population in east Texas responds to a delayed density-dependent process, whereas no clear role of climate has been determined. We tested two biological hypotheses for the influence of extreme temperatures on annual southern pine beetle population growth in the context of four alternative hypotheses for density-dependent population regulation. The significance of climate variables and their interaction with population regulation depended on the model of density dependence. The best model included both direct and delayed density dependence of a cubic rather than linear form. Population growth declined with the number of days exceeding 32 degrees C, temperatures previously reported to reduce brood survival. Density dependence also changed with the number of hot days. Growth was highest in years with average minimum winter temperatures. Severely cold winters may reduce survival, whereas warm winters may reduce the efficiency of spring infestation formation. Whereas most previous studies have incorporated climate as an additive effect on growth, we found that the form of delayed density dependence changed with the number of days >32 degrees C. The interaction between temperature and regulation, a potentially common phenomenon in ecology, may explain why southern pine beetle outbreaks do not occur at perfectly regular intervals. Factors other than climate, such as forest management and direct suppression, may have contributed significantly to the timing, severity, and eventual cessation of outbreaks since the mid-1950s.

  15. Effect of Lures and Colors on Capture of Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Tedders Pyramidal Traps.

    PubMed

    Kemp, E A; Cottrell, T E

    2015-10-01

    Purposeful attraction and aggregation of adult Coccinellidae at target sites would be useful for sampling purposes and pest suppression. We field-tested 1) lures in yellow and black pyramidal traps and 2) pyramidal traps that had been painted one or two colors (without lures) to determine if lures or trap color affected capture of adult Coccinellidae. In only one experiment with lures did a single rate of limonene increase trap capture, whereas no other lure ever did. Yellow traps, regardless of using a lure, always captured significantly more lady beetles than black traps. When single-color red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, black, and white traps (without lures) were tested, yellow traps captured significantly more lady beetles. Of all species of Coccinellidae captured in these single-color traps, 95% were the exotic species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Coccinella septempunctata L. H. axyridis alone dominated trap capture comprising 74.1% of all lady beetles. Two-color traps (yellow-green, yellow-orange, yellow-white, and yellow-black) never captured more than single-color yellow traps. These results demonstrate that yellow pyramidal traps can be used to purposefully attract, and when used without a collection device, possibly aggregate adult Coccinellidae at targeted field sites. PMID:26314010

  16. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the sex-determination gene doublesex in the sexually dimorphic broad-horned beetle Gnatocerus cornutus (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Ishiguro, Mai; Nishikawa, Hideto; Morita, Shinichi; Okada, Kensuke; Miyatake, Takahisa; Yaginuma, Toshinobu; Niimi, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    Various types of weapon traits found in insect order Coleoptera are known as outstanding examples of sexually selected exaggerated characters. It is known that the sex determination gene doublesex (dsx) plays a significant role in sex-specific expression of weapon traits in various beetles belonging to the superfamily Scarabaeoidea. Although sex-specific weapon traits have evolved independently in various Coleopteran groups, developmental mechanisms of sex-specific expression have not been studied outside of the Scarabaeoidea. In order to test the hypothesis that dsx-dependent sex-specific expression of weapon traits is a general mechanism among the Coleoptera, we have characterized the dsx in the sexually dimorphic broad-horned beetle Gnatocerus cornutus (Tenebrionidea, Tenebirionidae). By using molecular cloning, we identified five splicing variants of Gnatocerus cornutus dsx (Gcdsx), which are predicted to code four different isoforms. We found one male-specific variant (GcDsx-M), two female-specific variants (GcDsx-FL and GcDsx-FS) and two non-sex-specific variants (correspond to a single isoform, GcDsx-C). Knockdown of all Dsx isoforms resulted in intersex phenotype both in male and female. Also, knockdown of all female-specific isoforms transformed females to intersex phenotype, while did not affect male phenotype. Our results clearly illustrate the important function of Gcdsx in determining sex-specific trait expression in both sexes. PMID:27404087

  17. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the sex-determination gene doublesex in the sexually dimorphic broad-horned beetle Gnatocerus cornutus (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Ishiguro, Mai; Nishikawa, Hideto; Morita, Shinichi; Okada, Kensuke; Miyatake, Takahisa; Yaginuma, Toshinobu; Niimi, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    Various types of weapon traits found in insect order Coleoptera are known as outstanding examples of sexually selected exaggerated characters. It is known that the sex determination gene doublesex (dsx) plays a significant role in sex-specific expression of weapon traits in various beetles belonging to the superfamily Scarabaeoidea. Although sex-specific weapon traits have evolved independently in various Coleopteran groups, developmental mechanisms of sex-specific expression have not been studied outside of the Scarabaeoidea. In order to test the hypothesis that dsx-dependent sex-specific expression of weapon traits is a general mechanism among the Coleoptera, we have characterized the dsx in the sexually dimorphic broad-horned beetle Gnatocerus cornutus (Tenebrionidea, Tenebirionidae). By using molecular cloning, we identified five splicing variants of Gnatocerus cornutus dsx (Gcdsx), which are predicted to code four different isoforms. We found one male-specific variant (GcDsx-M), two female-specific variants (GcDsx-FL and GcDsx-FS) and two non-sex-specific variants (correspond to a single isoform, GcDsx-C). Knockdown of all Dsx isoforms resulted in intersex phenotype both in male and female. Also, knockdown of all female-specific isoforms transformed females to intersex phenotype, while did not affect male phenotype. Our results clearly illustrate the important function of Gcdsx in determining sex-specific trait expression in both sexes. PMID:27404087

  18. Enumerative and binomial sequential sampling plans for the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Galvan, T L; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D

    2007-06-01

    To develop a practical integrated pest management (IPM) system for the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in wine grapes, we assessed the spatial distribution of H. axyridis and developed eight sampling plans to estimate adult density or infestation level in grape clusters. We used 49 data sets collected from commercial vineyards in 2004 and 2005, in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Enumerative plans were developed using two precision levels (0.10 and 0.25); the six binomial plans reflected six unique action thresholds (3, 7, 12, 18, 22, and 31% of cluster samples infested with at least one H. axyridis). The spatial distribution of H. axyridis in wine grapes was aggregated, independent of cultivar and year, but it was more randomly distributed as mean density declined. The average sample number (ASN) for each sampling plan was determined using resampling software. For research purposes, an enumerative plan with a precision level of 0.10 (SE/X) resulted in a mean ASN of 546 clusters. For IPM applications, the enumerative plan with a precision level of 0.25 resulted in a mean ASN of 180 clusters. In contrast, the binomial plans resulted in much lower ASNs and provided high probabilities of arriving at correct "treat or no-treat" decisions, making these plans more efficient for IPM applications. For a tally threshold of one adult per cluster, the operating characteristic curves for the six action thresholds provided binomial sequential sampling plans with mean ASNs of only 19-26 clusters, and probabilities of making correct decisions between 83 and 96%. The benefits of the binomial sampling plans are discussed within the context of improving IPM programs for wine grapes.

  19. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.

    2005-04-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.

  20. Programmed cell death of the ovarian nurse cells during oogenesis of the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Mpakou, Vassiliki E; Velentzas, Athanassios D; Velentzas, Panagiotis D; Margaritis, Lukas H; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Papassideri, Issidora S

    2011-08-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an evolutionary conserved and genetically regulated form of cell death, in which the cell plays an active role in its own demise. It is widely recognized that PCD can be morphologically classified into three major types: type I, known as apoptosis, type II, called autophagy, and type III, specified as cytoplasmic cell death. So far, PCD has been morphologically analyzed in certain model insect species of the meroistic polytrophic ovary-type, but has never been examined before in insects carrying meroistic telotrophic ovaries. In the present study, we attempted to thoroughly describe the three different types (I, II and III) of PCD occurring during oogenesis in the meroistic telotrophic ovary of the Coleoptera species Adalia bipunctata, at different developmental ages of the adult female insects. We reveal that in the ladybird beetle A. bipunctata, the ovarian tropharia undergo age-dependent forms of apoptotic, autophagic and cytoplasmic (paraptotic-like) cell death, which seem to operate in a rather synergistic fashion, in accordance with previous observations in Diptera and Lepidoptera species. Furthermore, we herein demonstrate the occurrence of morphogenetically abnormal ovarioles in A. bipunctata female insects. These atretic ovarioles collapse and die through a PCD-mediated process that is characterized by the combined activation of all three types of PCD. Conclusively, the distinct cell death programs (I, II and III) specifically engaged during oogenesis of A. bipunctata provide strong evidence for the structural and functional conserved nature of PCD during insect evolution among meroistic telotrophic and meroistic polytrophic ovary-type insects.

  1. The diversity and biogeography of the Coleoptera of Churchill: insights from DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coleoptera is the most diverse order of insects (>300,000 described species), but its richness diminishes at increasing latitudes (e.g., ca. 7400 species recorded in Canada), particularly of phytophagous and detritivorous species. However, incomplete sampling of northern habitats and a lack of taxonomic study of some families limits our understanding of biodiversity patterns in the Coleoptera. We conducted an intensive biodiversity survey from 2006–2010 at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in order to quantify beetle species diversity in this model region, and to prepare a barcode library of beetles for sub-arctic biodiversity and ecological research. We employed DNA barcoding to provide estimates of provisional species diversity, including for families currently lacking taxonomic expertise, and to examine the guild structure, habitat distribution, and biogeography of beetles in the Churchill region. Results We obtained DNA barcodes from 3203 specimens representing 302 species or provisional species (the latter quantitatively defined on the basis of Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units, MOTUs) in 31 families of Coleoptera. Of the 184 taxa identified to the level of a Linnaean species name, 170 (92.4%) corresponded to a single MOTU, four (2.2%) represented closely related sibling species pairs within a single MOTU, and ten (5.4%) were divided into two or more MOTUs suggestive of cryptic species. The most diverse families were the Dytiscidae (63 spp.), Staphylinidae (54 spp.), and Carabidae (52 spp.), although the accumulation curve for Staphylinidae suggests that considerable additional diversity remains to be sampled in this family. Most of the species present are predatory, with phytophagous, mycophagous, and saprophagous guilds being represented by fewer species. Most named species of Carabidae and Dytiscidae showed a significant bias toward open habitats (wet or dry). Forest habitats, particularly dry boreal forest, although limited in extent in the

  2. The scarab beetle tribe Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of Colombia: taxonomy, natural history, and distribution.

    PubMed

    López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán

    2015-11-27

    Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species.

  3. Influence of ozone on induced resistance in soybean to the Mexican bean beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hengchen; Kogan, M. ); Endress, A.G. )

    1990-08-01

    The influence of ozone (O{sub 3}) on induced resistance in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., cv. Williams 82, was investigated. Feeding by larval soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), was used to induce resistance, and the feeding preference of the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivetis Mulsant, was used to indicate induced resistance. Greenhouse grown soybean plants at the V9 growth stage (eight open trifoliolates) were used in all experiments. One day following feeding injury by the soybean looper, the injured plants and the uninjured controls were exposed to three concentrations of ozone in transparent mylar chambers; level in ambient air (about 0.025 ppm), 0.06 ppm, or 0.1 ppm. Plants were exposed for 5 h a day for a period of 2-4 d. Ozone exposure at the levels used in this study produced no visible injuries to leaves. Low doses (up to 4-d-exposure to 0.06 ppm or 2-d exposure to 0.1 ppm) of ozone overrode the resistance in soybean that had been induced by the feeding of soybean looper larvae. Higher doses (3- or 4-d exposure to 0.1 ppm) of ozone actually resulted in a greater acceptability by the Mexican bean beetle of plants injured by the soybean looper than of uninjured plants. Doses of ozone used in these experiments did not significantly alter the feeding preference of the Mexican bean beetle for the uninjured plants. Because ozone pollution and herbivore injury are commonly experienced by plants in nature, the results of this study add another perspective to insect-plant interactions.

  4. Effects of nickel and temperature on the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2008-04-01

    In natural ecosystems it is not unusual for an organism to be exposed both to chemical and physical stressful factors at the same time. Herein we present results of the study on nickel toxicity to the carabid beetle, Pterostichus oblongopunctatus, and effect of Ni and temperature on the beetles respiration rates. In the first part of the study (Experiment I) we measured the survival, respiration rates and internal Ni concentrations in animals exposed for 245 d at constant temperature (20 degrees C) to food contaminated with Ni at nominal concentrations 0; 600; 1,200; 2,400; 4,800; and 9,600 mg kg(-1) dry weigh (dw). The LC(50) was estimated at 8,351 mg Ni kg(-1), with no effect on fertility. We found a significant positive correlation between Ni concentration in food and internal body concentration of Ni, and a negative correlation between Ni exposure and the respiration rate. Based on these results, the concentration of 2,400 mg kg(-1) (LOEC for the respiration rate) was selected for the second part of the study (Experiment II) in which field-collected males of P. oblongopunctatus were exposed to Ni-contaminated food for 64 d and then to uncontaminated food for the next 64 d at three temperatures: 10, 15 and 20 degrees C. In this part of the study we found that the temperature under which the beetles were kept affected their respiration rates, and that effect of Ni on the respiration was significant only in animals originating from 20 degrees C. The results from both experiments indicate that negative effects of nickel appear only after relatively long exposure. PMID:18080185

  5. Trophic structure stability and extinction dynamics of beetles (Coleoptera) in tropical forest fragments

    PubMed Central

    Didham, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    A first analysis of the stability of trophic structure following tropical forest fragmentation was performed in an experimentally fragmented tropical forest landscape in Central Amazonia. A taxonomically and trophically diverse assemblage of 993 species of beetles was sampled from 920 m2 of leaf litter at 46 sites varying in distance from forest edge and fragment area. Beetle density increased significantly towards the forest edge and showed non-linear changes with fragment area, due to the influx of numerous disturbed-area species into 10 ha and 1 ha fragments. There was a marked change in species composition with both decreasing distance from forest edge and decreasing fragment area, but surprisingly this change in composition was not accompanied by a change in species richness. Rarefied species richness did not vary significantly across any of the sites, indicating that local extinctions of deep forest species were balanced by equivalent colonization rates of disturbed-area species. The change in species composition with fragmentation was non-random across trophic groups. Proportions of predator species and xylophage species changed significantly with distance from forest edge, but no area-dependent changes in proportions of species in trophic groups were observed. Trophic structure was also analysed with respect to proportions of abundance in six trophic groups. Proportions of abundance of all trophic groups except xylomycetophages changed markedly with respect to both distance from forest edge and fragment area. Local extinction probabilities calculated for individual beetle species supported theoretical predictions of the differential susceptibility of higher trophic levels to extinction, and of changes in trophic structure following forest fragmentation. To reduce random effects due to sampling error, only abundant species (n = 46) were analysed for extinction probabilities, as defined by absence from samples. Of these common species, 27% had significantly

  6. A new species of tiger beetle from southeastern Arizona and Mexico (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelini).

    PubMed

    Duran, Daniel P; Roman, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    A new tiger beetle species, Cicindelidiamelissa Duran & Roman, sp. n., of the tribe Cicindelini, is described from high elevation montane forests of southeastern Arizona and Mexico. It appears to be most closely related to Cicindelidianebuligera (Bates) but is distinguished on the basis of multiple morphological characters and geographic range. The new species is also superficially similar to the widespread Cicindelidiasedecimpunctata (Klug), but distinguished on the basis of multiple morphological characters and habitat. Habitus, male and female reproductive structures, and known distribution map are presented. PMID:25589868

  7. Scale coloration change following water absorption in the beetle Hoplia coerulea (Coleoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassart, Marie; Simonis, Priscilla; Bay, Annick; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2009-09-01

    The blue scales on the cuticle of the male beetle Hoplia coerulea can absorb water, with the consequence that these scales, which have been shown to be responsible for the beetle’s bright blue coloration, reversibly turn to emerald green with increasing water contents. Optical measurements are shown, by analytic photonic-crystal models, to be compatible with the full filling of the scales structures with water. The natural mechanism shows the way to produce a very efficient hygrochromic material: a medium which significantly changes color when its water contents are modified.

  8. A new species of tiger beetle from southeastern Arizona and Mexico (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelini)

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Daniel P.; Roman, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new tiger beetle species, Cicindelidia melissa Duran & Roman, sp. n., of the tribe Cicindelini, is described from high elevation montane forests of southeastern Arizona and Mexico. It appears to be most closely related to Cicindelidia nebuligera (Bates) but is distinguished on the basis of multiple morphological characters and geographic range. The new species is also superficially similar to the widespread Cicindelidia sedecimpunctata (Klug), but distinguished on the basis of multiple morphological characters and habitat. Habitus, male and female reproductive structures, and known distribution map are presented. PMID:25589868

  9. [Leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): mushroom body simplification in the course of progressive evolution of the family].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Members of different subfamilies of Chrysomelidae differ strongly in the degree of mushroom body development. The mushroom bodies are especially strongly developed (with the calyx in the form of large cups and double shafts of the peduncular apparatus) in the evolutionarily primitive subfamilies Sagrinae and Criocerinae, and considerably reduced in members of more evolved subfamilies, with the calyx region weakly developed and shafts of the peduncular apparatus fused together. It is suggested that this mushroom body reduction can be related to the closer connection of the head with the prothorax, which is found in the more evolved leaf beetle subfamilies.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of Aeolesthes oenochrous (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): an endangered and colorful longhorn beetle.

    PubMed

    Chiu, William Chien-Hsien; Yeh, Wen-Bin; Chen, Mei-Er; Yang, Man-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Aeolesthes oenochrous (Fairmaire), a large and colorful longhorn beetle, is an endangered species in Taiwan. Its complete mitogenome, 15,747 bp, shows a typical coleopteran organization, containing 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one A + T rich region. Two protein coding genes, i.e. COI and ND1, have the atypical start codon of AAT and TTG, respectively. The third nucleotide position of codons shows extremely low guanine content. In the A + T rich region, there were two poly-T stretches with 14 and 13 thymine each. These two poly-T stretches were clarified by the cloning method.

  11. Egg-hatching synchrony and larval cannibalism in the dock leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Kutcherov, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Females of leaf beetles and many other herbivorous insects lay eggs in coherent batches. Hatchlings emerge more or less simultaneously and often prey on their late-hatching clutchmates. It is not certain, however, whether this synchrony of hatching is a mere by-product of cannibalism or whether an additional synchronizing factor exists. The following simple experiment was aimed at determining the causal relationship between cannibalism and simultaneous larval emergence. Egg clutches of the dock leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula were split into two halves. These halves were either kept as coherent groups in two separate dishes or, alternatively, only one half remained whole, whereas the other one was divided into single eggs, each of which was incubated in a separate dish. Halving of a clutch into coherent groups only slightly disrupted the synchrony of emergence. The consequence of individual isolation was more dramatic. Half-clutches consisting of disconnected solitary eggs required almost twice as much time for complete emergence of all larvae, which was significantly more than cannibalism as a sole synchronizing factor might explain. Moreover, survival rates were the same in coherent half-clutches (in the presence of cannibalism) and among isolated individuals. This group effect and the small contribution of cannibalism suggest the existence of an additional synchronizing factor. Possible mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are discussed. PMID:26482400

  12. Uncommon formation of two antiparallel sperm bundles per cyst in tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Glenda; Yotoko, Karla S. C.; Gomes, Luiz F.; Lino-Neto, José

    2012-09-01

    Several species of Tenebrionidae are stored-grain pests. Since they belong to a specious family, the systematics of these beetles is still in doubt. In insects, spermatogenesis and the spermatozoa exhibit great diversity, and are therefore commonly used in phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses. During the spermatogenetic process in these organisms, the cells originating from a single spermatogonium develop synchronically in groups referred to as cysts. At the end of this process, there is usually only one sperm bundle per cyst, with all the cells in the same orientation. This paper details the spermiogenesis of the tenebrionid beetles Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas confusa, Tribolium castaneum and Palembus dermestoides using whole mount and histological sections of the cysts. In these species, spermatogenesis is similar to that which occurs in most insects. However, during spermiogenesis, the nuclei of the spermatids migrate to two opposite regions at the periphery of the cyst, leading to the uncommon formation of two bundles of spermatozoa per cyst. This feature is possibly an apomorphy for Tenebrionidae.

  13. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. I. General part and allometry.

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro; Polilov, Alexey

    2014-11-01

    In this first of three articles we show the construction of the articular part of the elytron, the root. The root bears a conspicuous field of campaniform sensilla. This field was studied using light and scanning electron microscopes. The diversity of shape of the field among beetles, types of orientation of elongated sensilla within the field, individual variability of their number among conspecifics are demonstrated. Elongated sensilla point to the junction of the elytron with the second axillary plate. Presumably, they monitor twist movement in this junction, which is possible if the elytron is open. The goal of the whole project is to reveal the effect of both structure and function of the hind wings and elytra on the morphology of this mechanosensory field. Our data on allometric relationships between the animal size and quantitative characteristics of the field in normally flying beetles provide an important background for further functional analysis of this sensory organ. We selected 14 series of several species belonging to the same taxon but differing in size from big to small. It is revealed that the area of the sensory field is directly proportional to the elytral area, whereas the number of sensilla is proportional to the square root of the elytral area. Despite the great range in the elytral area (1500 times) in series of selected species the area of an external pit or cap of a single sensillum varies only 25-fold. The density of sensilla per unit area of the sensory field increases with decrease of the elytral area.

  14. Functional anatomy of the explosive defensive system of bombardier beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Brachininae).

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Muzzi, Maurizio; Romani, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides the first comparative anatomical study of the explosive pygidial defensive system of bombardier beetles in species classified in three brachinine subtribes: Brachinus (Brachinina), Pheropsophus (Pheropsophina) and Aptinus (Aptinina). We investigated the morphology and ultrastructure of this system using optical, fluorescence, and focused ion beam (FIB/SEM) microscopy. In doing so, we characterized and comparatively discussed: (1) the ultrastructure of the gland tissues producing hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide (secretory lobes), and those producing catalases and peroxidases (accessory glands); (2) the complex anatomy of the collecting duct; (3) the arrangement of the muscular bundles and the folding of the cuticle of the reservoir, suggesting a functional division of this chamber (dynamic part and storage part); (4) the great structural diversity of sculpticles inside the reaction chamber, where we could recognize six main types of microsculpture located in specific districts of the chamber. Additionally, using fluorescence microscopy, we highlighted the presence of resilin in two structures strongly subjected to mechanical stress during the discharge, the valve and the turrets of the reaction chamber. The results of this paper give a solid anatomic overview of the most popular beetle defensive system, contributing to the debate on its evolution within the Carabidae.

  15. [Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) of the northwestern slope of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Neis J; García, Héctor; Pulido, Luz A; Ospino, Deibi; Harváez, Juan C

    2009-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles in the middle and lower river basin of the Gaira river, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is described. Four sites were selected along an altitudinal gradient of 50-940 m for sampling from June to October, 2004. Dung beetles were captured using modified pitfall traps and manual recollections. We captured 7,872 individuals belonging to 29 species, distributed in 15 genera and five tribes of Scarabaeinae. Canthon and Onthophagus were the most diverse genera, each represented by six species. The sampled sites shared the following species: Onthophagus acuminatus Harold, O. clypeatus Blanchard, O. marginicollis Harold. Bocatoma was the most diverse site with 23 species; whereas Port Mosquito presented the highest abundance, with 3,262 individuals. Seven species represented 89% of all captures: Canthidium sp., Dichotomius sp., Uroxys sp. 1, Uroxys sp. 2, O. marginicollis, O. clypeatus and O. acuminatus. Of the 29 captured species, 17 belonged to the functional group of diggers and 10 were ball-rollers. We did not observe significant among-site differences in community structure. Abiotic factors such as altitude, temperature and humidity cannot explain observed variation in community structure across sites, indicating other variables such as vegetation cover, density of the vegetation and soil type may play a role in the community structure of these insects.

  16. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.W.; Wilkening, A.J.; Atkinson, T.H.; Nation, J.L.; Wilkinson, R.C.; Foltz, J.L.

    1988-06-01

    Responses of seven species of pine-infesting beetles to traps baited with either turpentine, ethanol, turpentine and ethanol released from separate dispensers, or a 1:1 solution of turpentine and ethanol released from one dispenser were assessed in three field experiments. The weevil species, Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and the cerambycid pine sawyer, Monochamus carolinenis (Olivier), were attracted to turpentine and were unaffected by the addition of ethanol. The ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, responded to ethanol alone but was not attracted to turpentine, nor did the presence of turpentine significantly affects its response to ethanol. The remaining four species) hylobius pales, M. titillator, Dendroctonus terebrans and x. pubescens) displayed responses to turpentine that were enhanced by the addition of ethanol, but in different ways according to the method of deployment. Reasons for increased responses by some species to a solution of turpentine and ethanol over the two released separately are not clear; they may lie in different dosages of evaporation rates of volatiles in the field. Laboratory analyses of trapped headspace volatiles from dispensers containing only turpentine and those containing a solution of turpentine and ethanol revealed no differences in the amounts of four principal monoterpene hydrocarbons (..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, and limonene) released over time.

  17. Egg-hatching synchrony and larval cannibalism in the dock leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Kutcherov, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Females of leaf beetles and many other herbivorous insects lay eggs in coherent batches. Hatchlings emerge more or less simultaneously and often prey on their late-hatching clutchmates. It is not certain, however, whether this synchrony of hatching is a mere by-product of cannibalism or whether an additional synchronizing factor exists. The following simple experiment was aimed at determining the causal relationship between cannibalism and simultaneous larval emergence. Egg clutches of the dock leaf beetle Gastrophysa viridula were split into two halves. These halves were either kept as coherent groups in two separate dishes or, alternatively, only one half remained whole, whereas the other one was divided into single eggs, each of which was incubated in a separate dish. Halving of a clutch into coherent groups only slightly disrupted the synchrony of emergence. The consequence of individual isolation was more dramatic. Half-clutches consisting of disconnected solitary eggs required almost twice as much time for complete emergence of all larvae, which was significantly more than cannibalism as a sole synchronizing factor might explain. Moreover, survival rates were the same in coherent half-clutches (in the presence of cannibalism) and among isolated individuals. This group effect and the small contribution of cannibalism suggest the existence of an additional synchronizing factor. Possible mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are discussed.

  18. The Genome and Methylome of a Beetle with Complex Social Behavior, Nicrophorus vespilloides (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Christopher B.; Ji, Lexiang; Wiberg, R. Axel W.; Shelton, Jennifer; McKinney, Elizabeth C.; Parker, Darren J.; Meagher, Richard B.; Benowitz, Kyle M.; Roy-Zokan, Eileen M.; Ritchie, Michael G.; Brown, Susan J.; Schmitz, Robert J.; Moore, Allen J.

    2015-01-01

    Testing for conserved and novel mechanisms underlying phenotypic evolution requires a diversity of genomes available for comparison spanning multiple independent lineages. For example, complex social behavior in insects has been investigated primarily with eusocial lineages, nearly all of which are Hymenoptera. If conserved genomic influences on sociality do exist, we need data from a wider range of taxa that also vary in their levels of sociality. Here, we present the assembled and annotated genome of the subsocial beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, a species long used to investigate evolutionary questions of complex social behavior. We used this genome to address two questions. First, do aspects of life history, such as using a carcass to breed, predict overlap in gene models more strongly than phylogeny? We found that the overlap in gene models was similar between N. vespilloides and all other insect groups regardless of life history. Second, like other insects with highly developed social behavior but unlike other beetles, does N. vespilloides have DNA methylation? We found strong evidence for an active DNA methylation system. The distribution of methylation was similar to other insects with exons having the most methylated CpGs. Methylation status appears highly conserved; 85% of the methylated genes in N. vespilloides are also methylated in the hymentopteran Nasonia vitripennis. The addition of this genome adds a coleopteran resource to answer questions about the evolution and mechanistic basis of sociality and to address questions about the potential role of methylation in social behavior. PMID:26454014

  19. Target-site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in German populations of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christoph T; Müller, Andreas; Heimbach, Udo; Nauen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major pest of winter oilseed rape in several European countries particularly attacking young emerging plants in autumn. Over the last several decades, pyrethroid insecticides have been foliarly applied to control flea beetle outbreaks. Recent control failures in northern Germany suggested pyrethroid resistance development in cabbage stem flea beetles, which were confirmed by resistance monitoring bioassays using lambda-cyhalothrin in an adult vial test. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of polymorphisms in the para-type voltage-gated sodium channel gene of P. chrysocephala known to be involved in knock-down resistance (kdr). By using a degenerate primer approach we PCR amplified part of the para-type sodium channel gene and identified in resistant flea beetles a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in an L1014F (kdr) mutation within domain IIS6 of the channel protein, known as one of the chief pyrethroid target-site resistance mechanisms in several other pest insects. Twenty populations including four archived museum samples collected between 1945 and 1958 were analyzed using a newly developed pyrosequencing diagnostic assay. The assay revealed a kdr allele frequency of 90-100% in those flea beetle populations expressing high-level cross-resistance in discriminating dose bioassays against different pyrethroids such as lambda-cyhalothrin, tau-fluvalinate, etofenprox and bifenthrin. The presence of target-site resistance to pyrethroids in cabbage stem flea beetle is extremely worrying considering the lack of effective alternative modes of action to control this pest in Germany and other European countries, and is likely to result in major control problems once it expands to other geographies. The striking fact that cabbage stem flea beetle is next to pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus the second coleopteran pest in European winter oilseed rape resisting

  20. Effectiveness of bifenthrin (Onyx) and carbaryl (Sevin SL) for protecting individual, high-value conifers from bark beetle attack (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the Western United States.

    PubMed

    Fettig, Christopher J; Allen, Kurt K; Borys, Robert R; Christopherson, John; Dabney, Christopher P; Eager, Thomas J; Gibson, Kenneth E; Hebertson, Elizabeth G; Long, Daniel F; Munson, A Steven; Shea, Patrick J; Smith, Sheri L; Haverty, Michael I

    2006-10-01

    High-value trees, such as those located in residential, recreational, or administrative sites, are particularly susceptible to bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack as a result of increased amounts of stress associated with drought, soil compaction, mechanical injury, or vandalism. Tree losses in these unique environments generally have a substantial impact. The value of these individual trees, cost of removal, and loss of esthetics may justify protection until the main thrust of a bark beetle infestation subsides. This situation emphasizes the need for ensuring that effective insecticides are available for individual tree protection. In this study, we assess the efficacy of bifenthrin (Onyx) and carbaryl (Sevin SL) for protecting: ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws., from western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, in California; mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins in South Dakota; and Ips spp. in Arizona; lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., from D. ponderosae in Montana; pinyon, Pinus edulis Engelm. in Colorado and Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem. in Nevada from pinyon ips, Ips confusus (LeConte); and Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii Parry ex. Engelm. from spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) in Utah. Few trees were attacked by Ips spp. in Arizona and that study was discontinued. Sevin SL (2.0%) was effective for protecting P. ponderosa, P. contorta, and P. monophylla for two field seasons. Estimates of efficacy could not be made during the second field season in P. edulis and P. engelmannii due to insufficient mortality in untreated, baited control trees. Two field seasons of efficacy was demonstrated in P. ponderosa/D. brevicomis and P. monophylla for 0.06% Onyx. We conclude that Onyx is an effective individual tree protection tool, but repeated annual applications may be required in some systems if multiyear control is desired.

  1. Effect of crop rotation distance on populations of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): development of areawide Colorado potato beetle pest management strategies.

    PubMed

    Sexson, Deana L; Wyman, Jeffrey A

    2005-06-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), overwinters adjacent to field edges and infests nearby fields in the spring, primarily by walking. Crop rotation is known to be an effective cultural control against Colorado potato beetle populations limiting spring infestations. Spatial separation is an important consideration in optimizing the rotational effect because long-distance rotations have been shown to reduce Colorado potato beetle infestations. To determine the effect of long-distance rotations on Colorado potato beetle populations in commercial Wisconsin potato production, a geographic area of >18,200 ha (>45,000) acres in southern Portage County, Wisconsin, was selected as an experimental area for areawide pest management of the Colorado potato beetle. From 1997 to 1999, beetle populations at edges within each potato field in this region were determined by spring and fall field sampling. The rotational distance between current and previous potato fields was measured and analysis was run between the distance and Colorado potato beetle populations. Long-distance rotations of >400 m were an effective cultural control management strategy to limit adult beetle infestations in the spring. This strategy can be optimized when collaborating growers are able to maximize their rotational distances by coordinating their rotational schemes within large areawide, geographic locations. Deploying long-distance rotations within a geographic area over many years would limit Colorado potato beetle populations and could result in a significantly reduced Colorado potato beetle populations entering fields in the spring.

  2. Beetle pollination of the fruit-scented cones of the South African cycad Stangeria eriopus.

    PubMed

    Proches, Serban; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-09-01

    There has been considerable uncertainty about the importance of wind vs. insects in cycad pollination, but recent studies in several cycad genera have indicated that these are pollinated primarily, if not exclusively, by insects. Stangeria represents an isolated southern African cycad lineage previously thought to be wind-pollinated. Unlike in most other cycads, there is no evidence of cone thermogenesis in Stangeria. We found that the scent of both male and female Stangeria cones mimics that of fermented fruit, the main volatiles being esters of acetic acid, ketones, and aldehydes. We found a large variety of insect visitors on the cones, the most common ones being sap and rove beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, Staphylinidae) and fruit flies (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Of these, only sap beetles (Nitidulidae) were able to effect pollination under experimental conditions. Because sap beetles are also pollinators of Cycas and members of several ancient angiosperm families, their role in the pollination of Stangeria adds interesting details to the role this group of insects has played in the history of plant-pollinator interactions. PMID:21622358

  3. A novel method for controlling multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Glemser, Erik J; Dowling, Lisa; Inglis, Debra; Pickering, Gary J; McFadden-Smith, Wendy; Sears, Mark K; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2012-10-01

    The introduced biological control agent Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) has attained pest status in North America as its presence in vineyards during harvest may compromise the quality of the resulting wine. Control of H. axyridis in vineyards is difficult as their populations may fluctuate daily, and there are few products registered to control this pest. Sulfur dioxide, in the form of potassium metabisulfite (KMS), is commonly used in wine as both an antimicrobial and an antioxidant. In this study, the effectiveness of KMS as a repellent against H. axyridis was measured. In a Y-tube olfactometer, H. axyridis spent significantly less time in the treatment arm (KMS 2.5, 5, and 10 g/liter) than in the control arm during a 10-min period. When sprayed in a vineyard, KMS significantly reduced the number of H. axyridis on grape vines. KMS is an effective repellent against H. axyridis and may be suitable for use in vineyards to control this pest. KMS (5 g/liter) applied to Riesling grapes at 2 wk, 1 wk, 3 d, or 1 d before harvest did not affect free sulfur dioxide in either freshly processed or settled juice. This study lays the foundation for the development of a pest management strategy incorporating repellents for H. axyridis in vineyards.

  4. Biological Studies On The Effect of Laser Radiation on Khapra Beetle Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera : Dermestidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nozahy, Adel M.; Ahmed, Salwa M. M. S.; Abdel-Kader, Mahomoud H.; Khalifa, Ibtesam A.

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effect of Argon-ion laser and carbon dioxide laser radiation on Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium and induced sterility. Radiobiological effects of irradiation were determined on adult stage of resulted 2-3 days-old pupae at LD30. The radiobiological studies induced determination of mortality, of, LD30, LD50 emergence, preovipositio period, fecundity, sterility, incubation period, larval duration, pupal duration and emergence of 1st generation. Experiments were carried out to determine the latent effect of irradiation on the wheat grains germination as well as the effects on the chemical constituents. In this respect irradiation of grains had no effect on the above ntioned parameters.

  5. Characterization and localization of Rickettsia sp. in water beetles of genus Deronectes (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Küchler, Stefan Martin; Kehl, Siegfried; Dettner, Konrad

    2009-05-01

    In the present study, Rickettsia sp. was detected in four water beetles of the genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae) for the first time. Rickettsiae were found in 100% of examined specimens of Deronectes platynotus (45/45), 39.4% of Deronectes aubei (28/71), 40% of Deronectes delarouzei (2/5) and 33.3% of Deronectes semirufus (1/3). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a phylogenetic relationship with rickettsial isolates of Limonia chorea (Diptera), tentatively classified as members of the basal ancestral group. Phylogenetic analysis of the gltA (citrate synthase) gene sequences showed that Deronectes symbionts were closest to bacterial symbionts from spiders. Ultrastructural examinations revealed typical morphological features and intracellular arrangements of rickettsiae. The distribution, transmission and localization of Rickettsia sp. in D. platynotus were studied using a diagnostic PCR assay and FISH. Eggs from infected females of D. platynotus were all Rickettsia-positive, indicative of a vertical transmission.

  6. Enhanced success of Mexican bean beetle (coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on glutathione-enriched soybean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.R.; Chiment, J.J. )

    1988-01-01

    Artificial augmentation of soybean leaves with reduced glutathione (GSH) elicited all of the same responses from Mexican bean beetle (MBB), Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, as did fumigation with the air pollutant sulfur dioxide. Larval growth, rate of development, and survivorship as well as adult fecundity and longevity were all significantly greater on excised leaves that had been allowed to imbibe a solution of the tripeptide. In addition, adults showed a strong preference for feeding on the treated leaves over nontreated leaves. Increased fecundity after feeding on treated leaves was a consequence of the earlier and longer period of egg laying rather than a change in the rate of egg production. The effects of GSH treatment were even more distinct than those produced by exposure of plants to the pollutant. These results establish the very close correlation between changes in foliar glutathione and alteration of MBB success on this plant in response to air pollution.

  7. Carabid Beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) as Indicatorsof Hydrological Site Conditions in Floodplain Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerisch, Michael; Schanowski, Arno; Figura, Wolfgang; Gerken, Bernd; Dziock, Frank; Henle, Klaus

    2006-08-01

    The relationship of carabid beetle species occurrence patterns and environmental variables characterising the hydrological regime has been studied at the River Elbe in Central Germany. Both flood duration and groundwater depth had major influence on species assemblages as the ordination of study plots mainly followed a gradient along these two variables. The simultaneous ordination of the plots according to species occurrence and environmental parameters showed a highly significant joint structure with the first two axes of a co-inertia analysis, explaining >98% of the variance. A total of 27 species out of 129 caught fulfilled criteria of fidelity and specificity to the plots of the five clusters revealed by their abiotic conditions and were sufficiently abundant to be suitable indicators for one or a combination of clusters of plots.

  8. Patterns in ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages along an urbanisation gradient in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elek, Zoltán; Lövei, Gábor L.

    2007-07-01

    The responses of ground beetles to an urbanisation gradient (forest-suburban area-urban park) were studied in and near Sorø, South Zealand, Denmark, during April-October 2004. The average number of species per trap did not differ significantly among the three urbanisation stages. The average number of forest species was significantly higher in the forest area (6.2 species/trap) than in either the suburban (4.12 spp/trap) or the urban (3.7 spp/trap) areas. Both the number of open-habitat species (1.8 spp/trap), and the generalist species (2.3 spp/trap) were highest in the urban area. The number of predaceous species was highest in the forest area (8.1 spp/trap), while the number of omnivorous species was highest in the urban area (0.9 spp/trap). Multivariate statistical procedures (NMDS, Sorensen similarity index) also confirmed that species composition changed remarkably along the forest-suburban-urban gradient. The highest number of species (S = 37) was found at the urban area, deviating from trends at other northern hemisphere sites (Canada, Finland) where the overall species richness was highest at the forest habitats. Urban green areas, including forest patches contribute to the quality of urban life and thus should be conserved. Apart from their recreational value, which is widely appreciated and enjoyed by human inhabitants, such green urban spaces provide seemingly adequate habitat for numerous species of ground beetles found in less developed forest areas some distance from the city core.

  9. Elevational Distribution and Conservation Biogeography of Phanaeine Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Sebastian K.; Hamel-Leigue, A. Caroli; Larsen, Trond H.; Mann, Darren J.; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W.; Gill, Bruce D.; Edmonds, W. D.; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann’s and Rapoport’s rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann’s rule. Rapoport’s rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport’s and refutation of Bergmann’s rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for

  10. Elevational distribution and conservation biogeography of phanaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Sebastian K; Hamel-Leigue, A Caroli; Larsen, Trond H; Mann, Darren J; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W; Gill, Bruce D; Edmonds, W D; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann's and Rapoport's rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann's rule. Rapoport's rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport's and refutation of Bergmann's rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for identifying

  11. The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Strandzha Mountain and adjacent coastal territories (Bulgaria and Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge of the ground-beetle fauna of Strandzha is currently incomplete, and is largely based on data from the Bulgarian part of the region and on records resulting from casual collecting. This study represents a critical revision of the available literature, museum collections and a three years field study of the carabid beetles of the Bulgarian and Turkish parts of Strandzha Mountain and the adjacent Black Sea Coast territories. New information A total of 328 species and subspecies of Carabidae, belonging to 327 species from the region of Strandzha Mountain and adjacent seacoast area, have been listed. Of these, 77 taxa represent new records for the Bulgarian part of the region, and 110 taxa new records for Turkish part of the studied region. Two taxa, one subgenus (Haptotapinus Reitter, 1886) and one species (Pterostichus crassiusculus), are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on a misidentification, the species Apotomus testaceus is excluded from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. Seven species (Carabus violaceus azurescens, Apotomus rufus, Platynus proximus, Molops alpestris kalofericus, M. dilatatus angulicollis, Pterostichus merklii, and Calathus metallicus) are treated as doubtful for the regional fauna, and one (Apotomus rufus) also for the Bulgarian fauna. Altogether, 43 taxa collected in the Turkish part of the region are new for European Turkey. New taxa for Turkey are the genera Myas and Oxypselaphus, the subgenus Feronidius, and nine species and subspecies (Carabus granulatus granulatus, Dyschirius tristis, Bembidion normannum apfelbecki, B. subcostatum vau, Acupalpus exiguus, Myas chalybaeus, Oxypselaphus obscurus, Pterostichus leonisi, Pt. melas). In addition, there are a further seven species that are here confirmed for Turkey. PMID:27099564

  12. In or out-of-Madagascar?--Colonization patterns for large-bodied diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Bukontaite, Rasa; Ranarilalatiana, Tolotra; Randriamihaja, Jacquelin Herisahala; Bergsten, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    High species diversity and endemism within Madagascar is mainly the result of species radiations following colonization from nearby continents or islands. Most of the endemic taxa are thought to be descendants of a single or small number of colonizers that arrived from Africa sometime during the Cenozoic and gave rise to highly diverse groups. This pattern is largely based on vertebrates and a small number of invertebrate groups. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of aquatic beetles on Madagascar is lacking, even though this species-rich group is often a dominant part of invertebrate freshwater communities in both standing and running water. Here we focus on large bodied diving beetles of the tribes Hydaticini and Cybistrini. Our aims with this study were to answer the following questions 1) How many colonization events does the present Malagasy fauna originate from? 2) Did any colonization event lead to a species radiation? 3) Where did the colonizers come from--Africa or Asia--and has there been any out-of-Madagascar event? 4) When did these events occur and were they concentrated to any particular time interval? Our results suggest that neither in Hydaticini nor in Cybistrini was there a single case of two or more endemic species forming a monophyletic group. The biogeographical analysis indicated different colonization histories for the two tribes. Cybistrini required at least eight separate colonization events, including the non-endemic species, all comparatively recent except the only lotic (running water) living Cybister operosus with an inferred colonization at 29 Ma. In Hydaticini the Madagascan endemics were spread out across the tree, often occupying basal positions in different species groups. The biogeographical analyses therefore postulated the very bold hypothesis of a Madagascan origin at a very deep basal node within Hydaticus and multiple out-of-Madagascar dispersal events. This hypothesis needs to be tested with equally intense taxon sampling

  13. The inheritance of intrasexual dimorphism in female diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Inoda, Toshio; Härdling, Roger; Kubota, Souichirou

    2012-08-01

    Many species of Dytiscus diving beetles exhibit intrasexual dimorphism, e.g., the elytra is smooth in some females and grooved in others. However, the expression of the grooves and whether they are a product of heredity or the environment remain unknown. One Japanese species, Dytiscus sharpi sharpi Wehncke, 1875 , also shows female dimorphism, with grooved and smooth morphs, while D. sharpi validus Régimbart, 1899, only has a single morph (the grooved type). A hybrid of the two species should therefore provide a means of sorting out how the grooves are inherited. We found two independent wetlands of D. sharpi sharpi in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. One was a place where a high proportion of grooved females lived, and the others had high proportions of smooth females. After five to eight generations of beetles from two populations with different proportions of grooved females were reared under aquarium conditions constituting a common garden design, i.e., water temperature, water depth, and presence of a plant for oviposition, the differences remained. We mated smooth virgin females of D. sharpi sharpi with males of D. sharpi validus to obtain hybrid offspring. The elytral traits of the hybrid females produced only grooved forms. These results suggested that the female dimorphism is determined by genetics, and that the grooved morph was dominant over the smooth one, independent of environmental factors. In addition, the hybrid insects did not differ from the two subspecies insects in larval survivorship, pupation success, or sex ratio. They also showed neither morphological abnormality nor reduced survival.

  14. In or out-of-Madagascar?--Colonization patterns for large-bodied diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Bukontaite, Rasa; Ranarilalatiana, Tolotra; Randriamihaja, Jacquelin Herisahala; Bergsten, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    High species diversity and endemism within Madagascar is mainly the result of species radiations following colonization from nearby continents or islands. Most of the endemic taxa are thought to be descendants of a single or small number of colonizers that arrived from Africa sometime during the Cenozoic and gave rise to highly diverse groups. This pattern is largely based on vertebrates and a small number of invertebrate groups. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of aquatic beetles on Madagascar is lacking, even though this species-rich group is often a dominant part of invertebrate freshwater communities in both standing and running water. Here we focus on large bodied diving beetles of the tribes Hydaticini and Cybistrini. Our aims with this study were to answer the following questions 1) How many colonization events does the present Malagasy fauna originate from? 2) Did any colonization event lead to a species radiation? 3) Where did the colonizers come from--Africa or Asia--and has there been any out-of-Madagascar event? 4) When did these events occur and were they concentrated to any particular time interval? Our results suggest that neither in Hydaticini nor in Cybistrini was there a single case of two or more endemic species forming a monophyletic group. The biogeographical analysis indicated different colonization histories for the two tribes. Cybistrini required at least eight separate colonization events, including the non-endemic species, all comparatively recent except the only lotic (running water) living Cybister operosus with an inferred colonization at 29 Ma. In Hydaticini the Madagascan endemics were spread out across the tree, often occupying basal positions in different species groups. The biogeographical analyses therefore postulated the very bold hypothesis of a Madagascan origin at a very deep basal node within Hydaticus and multiple out-of-Madagascar dispersal events. This hypothesis needs to be tested with equally intense taxon sampling

  15. Biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay trees in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Hanula, James L; Mayfield, Albert E; Fraedrich, Stephen W; Rabaglia, Robert J

    2008-08-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions to the southeastern United States responsible for the wilt of mature redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., trees. In 2006 and 2007, we investigated the seasonal flight activity of X. glabratus, its host associations, and population levels at eight locations in South Carolina and Georgia where infestations ranged from very recent to at least several years old. Adults were active throughout the year with peak activity in early September. Brood development seems to take 50-60 d. Wood infested with beetles and infected with the Raffaelea sp. was similar in attraction to uninfested redbay wood, whereas both were more attractive than a nonhost species. Sassafras, Sassafras albidium (Nutt.) Nees, another species of Lauraceae, was not attractive to X. glabratus and very few beetle entrance holes were found in sassafras wood compared with redbay. Conversely, avocado, Persea americana Mill., was as attractive to X. glabratus as swampbay, P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and both were more attractive than the nonhost red maple, Acer rubrum L. However, avocado had relatively few entrance holes in the wood. In 2007, we compared X. glabratus populations in areas where all mature redbay have died to areas where infestations were very active and more recent. Trap catches of X. glabratus and numbers of entrance holes in trap bolts of redbay were correlated with the number of dead trees with leaves attached. Older infestations where mature host trees had been eliminated by the wilt had low numbers of beetles resulting in trap catches ranging from 0.04 to 0.12 beetles per trap per d compared with 4-7 beetles per trap per d in areas with numerous recently dead trees. Our results indicate beetle populations drop dramatically after suitable host material is gone and provide hope that management strategies can be developed to restore

  16. Biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay trees in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Hanula, James L; Mayfield, Albert E; Fraedrich, Stephen W; Rabaglia, Robert J

    2008-08-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions to the southeastern United States responsible for the wilt of mature redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., trees. In 2006 and 2007, we investigated the seasonal flight activity of X. glabratus, its host associations, and population levels at eight locations in South Carolina and Georgia where infestations ranged from very recent to at least several years old. Adults were active throughout the year with peak activity in early September. Brood development seems to take 50-60 d. Wood infested with beetles and infected with the Raffaelea sp. was similar in attraction to uninfested redbay wood, whereas both were more attractive than a nonhost species. Sassafras, Sassafras albidium (Nutt.) Nees, another species of Lauraceae, was not attractive to X. glabratus and very few beetle entrance holes were found in sassafras wood compared with redbay. Conversely, avocado, Persea americana Mill., was as attractive to X. glabratus as swampbay, P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and both were more attractive than the nonhost red maple, Acer rubrum L. However, avocado had relatively few entrance holes in the wood. In 2007, we compared X. glabratus populations in areas where all mature redbay have died to areas where infestations were very active and more recent. Trap catches of X. glabratus and numbers of entrance holes in trap bolts of redbay were correlated with the number of dead trees with leaves attached. Older infestations where mature host trees had been eliminated by the wilt had low numbers of beetles resulting in trap catches ranging from 0.04 to 0.12 beetles per trap per d compared with 4-7 beetles per trap per d in areas with numerous recently dead trees. Our results indicate beetle populations drop dramatically after suitable host material is gone and provide hope that management strategies can be developed to restore

  17. Revision of the subgenus Tinotus Sharp, stat. n., of the parasitoid rove-beetle genus Aleochara Gravenhorst (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae) from Japan, Taiwan, and the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shûhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The subgenus Tinotus Sharp, 1833, stat. n., of the genus Aleochara Gravenhorst, 1802 (Aleocharini: Aleocharina) from Japan, Taiwan, and the Russian Far East is revised. Tinotus is a new record from the latter two regions. Three species are recognized: Aleochara (Tinotus) morion Gravenhorst, 1802, comb. n. [Japan (new record), the Russian Far East (new record)], Aleochara (Tinotus) eoa nom. n. [replacement name for Tinotus japonicus Cameron, 1933; Japan, Taiwan (new record)], and Aleochara (Tinotus) takashii sp. n. (central Honshû, Japan). The systematic position of Tinotus is discussed. All species are (re-)described, keyed, and figured. A world checklist of Tinotus species, comprising 40 valid species, is provided in an appendix. Additional taxonomic changes are proposed, including a new synonymy, a revalidation, 13 new replacement names, and 27 new combinations. PMID:27006606

  18. Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae).

    PubMed

    Fossen, Erlend I; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Nilsson, Anders N; Bergsten, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of Hydrobius arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes and Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus being sympatric. Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the Hydrobius fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes from Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular evidence

  19. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai‘i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax

  20. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation.

    PubMed

    Liebherr, James K

    2015-01-01

    The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai'i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax major sp. n

  1. Taxonomic Revision of Hispaniola Tiger Beetles in the Genus Brasiella Rivalier 1954 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Acciavatti, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Brasiella tiger beetle fauna on Hispaniola, the second largest island of the Greater Antilles, has more species diversity than currently recognized as all populations previously have been assigned to the insular endemic Brasiella dominicana (Mandl). A comparative study of adult morphology, particularly male genitalic and female abdominal characters, for available Brasiella specimens from populations on Hispaniola, proposes eight additional new species also endemic to this island. Except for three sympatric species in the Sierra de Baoruco in southern Dominican Republic occurring in different habitats, all the Brasiella on Hispaniola appear to be allopatric. Most species occur in the major mountainous regions of Hispaniola. Two species, however, are known only from river floodplains in the southern coastal plain of the Dominican Republic. Brasiella dominicana (Mandl) and Brasiella ocoa, new species, occur along river floodplains emanating from the eastern end of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. Two new Brasiella species, Brasiella bellorum, and Brasiella philipi, occur in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, the former species from central portions, and the latter species from north slopes of this mountain range, respectively. Three new Brasiella species, Brasiella rawlinsi, Brasiella iviei, and Brasiella youngi, are isolated in the Sierra de Baoruco, Dominican Republic, where each occupies a different habitat along an altitudinal gradient. The two new Brasiella species in Haiti are Brasiella darlingtoniana, in the Massif de la Selle, and Brasiella davidsoni, in the Massif de la Hotte. All nine Brasiella species on Hispaniola, along with Brasiella viridicollis (Dejean) and its two subspecies on Cuba, belong to the viridicollis species group of the genus Brasiella based on criteria presented in earlier published phylogenetic studies of Brazilian and West Indian tiger beetles. The subspecies Brasiella viridicollis fernandozayasi

  2. Dynamic spatial structure in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, Paul Erik

    2001-07-01

    Integrating GPS with visual canopy surveys, a 1-m sampling support was used to explore within-field spatial organization of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum (L.)). Georeferenced adult and large larvae counts were made in four ˜1.5 ha untreated potato fields during two seasons. Overwintered, immigrating adults established mean density trends, but spatial dependency (covariance structure) was not detected. Large larvae and F1 adults, in contrast, displayed covariance structure, accounting for up to ˜45% of the variation. Spatial patterns were related to population phenology, density, and mean density trends established during immigration. The stability of these patterns was tested in fields treated with a narrow perimeter (5.5 m) of systemic imidacloprid and in fields where all rows received the systemic. Perimeter treatment reduced mean densities with no effect on phenology. Immigrating adults established similar trends in both treatments, but F1 larval trends of the Perimeter treatments diverged from immigrant patterns. Immigrating adults had little to no spatial dependence (covariance structure), while covariance structure of F1 larval and F1 adult populations developed as density increased in both treatments. Yields increased at a proportion higher than the proportion of land area treated, but remained lower than the Whole-field treatment. Refinement of border width is discussed to optimize trade-offs between yield, quality, and long-term maintenance of susceptibility. To optimize perimeter width, locations of individual L. decemlineata overwintered adults were georeferenced within 24 hours of their immigration into a potato field in two field seasons. Distance was measured to the nearest field edge or to the field edge along a radial vector from the field center. The frequency of beetles captured within 1-m distance intervals was modeled as an exponential decay function of distance from the edge for

  3. Physiological niche and geographical range in European diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Rebekah; Moody, A John; Millán, Andrés; Billington, Richard A; Bilton, David T

    2016-06-01

    Geographical ranges vary greatly in size and position, even within recent clades, but the factors driving this remain poorly understood. In aquatic beetles, thermal niche has been shown to be related to both the relative range size and position of congeners but whether other physiological parameters play a role is unknown. Metabolic plasticity may be critical for species occupying more variable thermal environments and maintaining this plasticity may trade-off against other physiological processes such as immunocompetence. Here we combine data on thermal physiology with measures of metabolic plasticity and immunocompetence to explore these relationships in Deronectes (Dytiscidae). While variation in latitudinal range extent and position was explained in part by thermal physiology, aspects of metabolic plasticity and immunocompetence also appeared important. Northerly distributed, wide-ranging species apparently used different energy reserves under thermal stress from southern endemic congeners and differed in their antibacterial defences. This is the first indication that these processes may be related to geographical range, and suggests parameters that may be worthy of exploration in other taxa. PMID:27330169

  4. Condition dependence of male and female genital structures in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Cayetano, L; Bonduriansky, R

    2015-07-01

    Theory predicts that costly secondary sexual traits will evolve heightened condition dependence, and many studies have reported strong condition dependence of signal and weapon traits in a variety of species. However, although genital structures often play key roles in intersexual interactions and appear to be subject to sexual or sexually antagonistic selection, few studies have examined the condition dependence of genital structures, especially in both sexes simultaneously. We investigated the responses of male and female genital structures to manipulation of larval diet quality (new versus once-used mung beans) in the bruchid seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We quantified effects on mean relative size and static allometry of the male aedeagus, aedeagal spines, flap and paramere and the female reproductive tract and bursal spines. None of the male traits showed a significant effect of diet quality. In females, we found that longer bursal spines (relative to body size) were expressed on low-quality diet. Although the function of bursal spines is poorly understood, we suggest that greater bursal spine length in low-condition females may represent a sexually antagonistic adaptation. Overall, we found no evidence that genital traits in C. maculatus are expressed to a greater extent when nutrients are more abundant. This suggests that, even though some genital traits appear to function as secondary sexual traits, genital traits do not exhibit heightened condition dependence in this species. We discuss possible reasons for this finding.

  5. Mating behavior of a flower-visiting longhorn beetle Zorion guttigerum (Westwood) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiao; Chen, Li-Yuan

    2005-05-01

    Long-range sex pheromones have been demonstrated for several cerambycid beetle species. Our field study on the mating behavior of Zorion guttigerum, on the basis of its temporal and spatial distributions on mating and feeding sites (flowers), and longevity, however, suggests that such pheromones are not used by this species. Plant characteristics rather than long-range sex pheromones may play an important role in bringing both sexes together. Adult activities on flowers occur exclusively during the day with two peaks, one around midday and the other in the late afternoon. Overall operational sex ratio is male-biased (≈1 ♀:1.5 ♂) but it becomes very highly male-biased (≈1 ♀:9 ♂) when mating and feeding activities decrease to the minimum in mid-afternoon, suggesting that females leave flowers to oviposit during that period of time. For cerambycid species whose females oviposit alone, and in which mating and oviposition occur on different plants or different plant parts, the operational sex ratio appears to vary significantly over time on the mating sites. The number and duration of pair-bondings also vary over time for Z. guttigerum. Fewer and shorter pair-bondings in the morning may suggest a strong sexual selection process. After ≈2 h of selection, both sexes tend to engage in longer pair-bondings and mate more times before females leave the mating sites in mid-afternoon. Details of the mating behavior are described here.

  6. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Managing the Papuana uninodis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Taro Beetle in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Daigneault, A

    2014-10-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) plays a prominent role in the economies and cultures of Pacific Island countries such as Fiji. Unfortunately, taro is highly susceptible to invasion from taro beetles, which burrow into the corms and weaken the plants, rendering them unmarkable and prone to rot. Papuana uninodis Prell, an invasive alien species that is native to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, was first reported on Viti Levu (Fiji's largest island) in 1984. Since that time, taro production on Viti Levu has fallen substantially. In this paper, we employ data from surveys of households and communities to document the impacts of P. uninodis on Viti Levu. We then identify three management approaches-chemical controls, cultural controls, and switching from taro to another staple crop-and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of each. We find strong arguments for pursuing chemical control, which derives a net present value of monetised benefits of about FJ$139,500 per hectare over 50 yr, or >FJ$21 for each FJ$1 spent. Still, any of the three management options is more efficient than no management, even without any attempt to quantify the benefits to biodiversity or forest protection, underscoring the value of actively managing this invasive alien species.

  7. Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera) gut transcriptome analysis: expression of RNA interference-related genes.

    PubMed

    Swevers, L; Huvenne, H; Menschaert, G; Kontogiannatos, D; Kourti, A; Pauchet, Y; ffrench-Constant, R; Smagghe, G

    2013-12-01

    In the search for new methods of pest control, the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) is being explored. Because the gut is the first barrier for the uptake of double-stranded (ds)RNA, pyrosequencing of the gut transcriptome is a powerful tool for obtaining the necessary sequences for specific dsRNA-mediated pest control. In the present study, a dataset representing the gut transcriptome of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata) was generated and analysed for the presence of RNAi-related genes. Almost all selected genes that were implicated in silencing efficiency at different levels in the RNAi pathway (core machinery, associated intracellular factors, dsRNA uptake, antiviral RNAi, nucleases), which uses different types of small RNA (small interfering RNA, microRNA and piwi-RNA), were expressed in the CPB gut. Although the database is of lower quality, the majority of the RNAi genes are also found to be present in the gut transcriptome of the tobacco hornworm [TH; Manduca sexta (19 out of 35 genes analysed)]. The high quality of the CPB transcriptome database will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies regarding the gut and RNAi. PMID:24580832

  8. Geographic variation in cannibalism in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mitchell; Hossain, Kazi; Zabierek, Kristina; Collie, Karyn; Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Whalon, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Cannibalism can have a large effect on population growth and survival in stressful environments, possibly including those created by insecticide use. In this study, we collected Colorado potato beetles from three isolated areas in the northeastern United States known for high levels of resistance to neonicotinoids. We measured resistance to imidacloprid in each of those populations, a laboratory susceptible population, and in hybrids between the three field populations and the laboratory susceptible population. We fed neonates eggs from resistant dams fed either imidacloprid-treated or untreated foliage to determine whether cannibals are exposed to toxins sequestered in eggs. We measured egg cannibalism by hatchlings within the clutch in each population and hybrids, and examined how fecundity and several variables associated with egg development varied among populations and with cannibalism, to see which traits might enhance or reduce cannibalism. Cannibalism varied significantly among populations, accounting for most of the variation in hatching success. Variability in egg development time and hatch rate in the absence of cannibalism in some populations affected rates of cannibalism. Resistance varied significantly among the field populations but was not related to cannibalism. Neonates fed eggs from dams on treated foliage showed signs of intoxication or death. Cannibalism appears to be part of a varying life history strategy in this species, with some populations laying larger and more cannibalistic clutches and the New York population laying smaller clutches with higher hatching success owing to reduced cannibalism. PMID:24472202

  9. Irresistible bouquet of death—how are burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorus) attracted by carcasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinová, B.; Podskalská, H.; Růžička, J.; Hoskovec, M.

    2009-08-01

    Chemical composition of volatiles emitted from fresh mouse carcasses (laboratory mice, Mus musculus) was studied using solid sample injection technique (solid-phase micro-extraction), two-dimensional gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometric detection and gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection. Electroantennography (EAG) and laboratory olfactometric behavioural observations were used to study the antennal sensitivity to identified infochemicals and their attractiveness for burying beetles Nicrophorus vespillo and Nicrophorus vespilloides (Silphidae: Nicrophorinae). Chemical analysis showed that immediately after death, emitted volatiles did not differ from those emitted by a living organism. However, in the course of time, sulphur-containing chemicals, specifically methanethiol, methyl thiolacetate, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulphide appear. EAG measurements revealed antennal sensitivity to these compounds. Behavioural tests in laboratory olfactometer showed that dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulphide are highly attractive to both studied species. The data suggest that sulphur-containing chemicals are involved in mediating the fresh carcass attractiveness for N. vespillo and N. vespilloides.

  10. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) 4. Two new genera, Austrocyphon and Tasmanocyphon.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The related new genera Austrocyphon and Tasmanocyphon are erected for 42 small Australian marsh beetles resembling members of the genus Cyphon Paykull in habitus. They are distinguished from Cyphon. Only males are known of most species but for two of them larvae and pupae are also available. Austrocyphon species occur in all Australian Federal States, and one species is Australasian and shared with Papua New Guinea. The following species are included: Austrocyphon acaciae sp. n., A. aculeatus sp. n., A. acustropicus sp. n., A. adelaidae (Blackburn), A. asper sp. n., A. bidens sp. n., A. bifidus sp. n., A. charon sp. n., A. crinitus (Klausnitzer), A. curvispina, sp. n., A. deserticola sp. n., A. doctus (Lea), A. enigmaticus sp. n., A. excisus sp. n., A. fenestratus (Blackburn), A. flagellifer sp. n., A. furcatus sp. n., A. hamatus sp. n., A. harpago sp. n., A. leptophallus sp. n., A. linguatus sp. n., A. lobatus sp. n., A. neptunus sp. n., A. noctua sp. n., A. ovensensis (Blackburn), A. papilio sp. n., A. perdoctus sp. n., A. pictus (Blackburn), A. quadridens sp. n., A. quinquespinosus sp. n., A. robustus sp. n., A. setifer sp. n., A. spiculifer sp. n., A. stylatus sp. n., A. stylifer sp. n., A. submersus sp. n., A. tinea sp. n., A. tomweiri sp. n., A. tribulator sp. n., A. tropicus sp. n., A. unguiculatus sp. n., A. wattsi sp. n.Tasmanocyphon is endemic to Tasmania, and only the adult male is known. The genus is monotypic, including only T. heideae, sp. n.

  11. Locomotion and attachment of leaf beetle larvae Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zurek, Daniel B.; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Voigt, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    While adult green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula use tarsal adhesive setae to attach to and walk on smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings, larvae apply different devices for similar purposes: pretarsal adhesive pads on thoracic legs and a retractable pygopod at the 10th abdominal segment. Both are soft smooth structures and capable of wet adhesion. We studied attachment ability of different larval instars, considering the relationship between body weight and real contact area between attachment devices and the substrate. Larval gait patterns were analysed using high-speed video recordings. Instead of the tripod gait of adults, larvae walked by swinging contralateral legs simultaneously while adhering by the pygopod. Attachment ability of larval instars was measured by centrifugation on a spinning drum, revealing that attachment force decreases relative to weight. Contributions of different attachment devices to total attachment ability were investigated by selective disabling of organs by covering them with melted wax. Despite their smaller overall contact area, tarsal pads contributed to a larger extent to total attachment ability, probably because of their distributed spacing. Furthermore, we observed different behaviour in adults and larvae when centrifuged: while adults gradually slipped outward on the centrifuge drum surface, larvae stayed at the initial position until sudden detachment. PMID:25657837

  12. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens—eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.

  13. Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera) gut transcriptome analysis: expression of RNA interference-related genes.

    PubMed

    Swevers, L; Huvenne, H; Menschaert, G; Kontogiannatos, D; Kourti, A; Pauchet, Y; ffrench-Constant, R; Smagghe, G

    2013-12-01

    In the search for new methods of pest control, the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) is being explored. Because the gut is the first barrier for the uptake of double-stranded (ds)RNA, pyrosequencing of the gut transcriptome is a powerful tool for obtaining the necessary sequences for specific dsRNA-mediated pest control. In the present study, a dataset representing the gut transcriptome of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata) was generated and analysed for the presence of RNAi-related genes. Almost all selected genes that were implicated in silencing efficiency at different levels in the RNAi pathway (core machinery, associated intracellular factors, dsRNA uptake, antiviral RNAi, nucleases), which uses different types of small RNA (small interfering RNA, microRNA and piwi-RNA), were expressed in the CPB gut. Although the database is of lower quality, the majority of the RNAi genes are also found to be present in the gut transcriptome of the tobacco hornworm [TH; Manduca sexta (19 out of 35 genes analysed)]. The high quality of the CPB transcriptome database will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies regarding the gut and RNAi.

  14. Digestive proteinases of the larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Oppert, B; Walters, P; Zuercher, M

    2006-04-01

    Digestion in the larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte), was studied to identify new control methods for this pest of stored grains and grain products. The physiological pH of the larval gut, as measured with extracts in water, was approximately 6.1, and the pH for optimal hydrolysis of casein by gut extracts was 6.2 when buffers were reducing. However, under non-reducing conditions, hydrolysis of casein and synthetic serine proteinase substrates was optimal in alkaline buffer. Three major proteinase activities were observed in zymograms using casein or gelatin. Caseinolytic activity of C. angustus gut extracts was inhibited by inhibitors that target aspartic and serine proteinase classes, with minor inhibition by a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. In particular, soybean trypsin and trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitors were most effective in reducing the in vitro caseinolytic activity of gut extracts. Based on these data, further studies are suggested on the effects of dietary soybean inhibitors of serine proteinases, singly and in combination with aspartic and cysteine proteinase inhibitors, on C. angustus larvae. Results from these studies can be used to develop new control strategies to prevent damage to grains and stored products by C. angustus and similar coleopteran pests.

  15. Effects of Decompression Treatment for Controlling the Powderpost Beetle, Lyctus africanus Lesne, (Coleoptera: Lyctinae)

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Kazushi; Hiraku, Tatsuya; Fujimoto, Izumi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of decompression treatment as a non-destructive method to control larvae of the powderpost beetle, Lyctus africanus Lesne, was evaluated in the laboratory using various combinations of two pressure levels, 1.1 kPa and 40 kPa, and three temperature levels, 20, 25, and 40 °C. Larval mortality generally depended on weight reduction while decreases in the oxygen level had relatively little effect. The lower pressure, 1.1 kPa, significantly affected mortality, and no larvae survived after 12 h of this pressure treatment, at 25 °C. The average body weight was reduced with treatment time and temperature, and the reduction rate at 25 °C was higher than that at the lower temperature, 20 °C. Effects on larvae of the higher pressure treatment, 40 kPa, with a CO2 gas purge, were tested to determine the feasibility of decompression treatment in the manufacturing process. Although higher pressure resulted in low mortality, the body weight was dramatically decreased using the CO2 purge. These results present important information on the possibility of using decompression treatment for wood products. PMID:27429007

  16. Surprising longhorned beetle (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) richness along an Italian alpine valley

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Mauro; Priore, Cristiana; Tattoni, Clara; Lencioni, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we report about 88 longhorned beetles (Cerambycidae) species found in 6929 hectares and distributed along an altitudinal gradient of 1500 m of an Italian alpine valley (Val Genova, central-eastern Italian Alps). The species richness, result merging data from sixty years (1947–2007) of entomological surveys, corresponds to the 32% of the Italian cerambycid fauna confirming the high richness/surface ratio, probably unique in the Alps. The effect of thirteen environmental variables was tested on the species richness, but only the elevation resulted able to affect it. The species richness decrease with altitude not gradually, but experience a strong step above 1700 m a.s.l.. The highest species richness (average values of 42 species) was recorded at the lowest and mid elevations (between 800 and 1600 m a.s.l.). The species turnover along the altitudinal gradient is low suggesting moderate habitat turnover along the valley. One of the eighty-eight observed species, Tragosoma depsarium,is classified near threatened by the IUCN. Our data suggest that the wilderness of the valley close to the suitable management of grasslands and forests, help to support high level of cerambycids diversity. This biodiversity is good indicators of health of the wood saproxylic assemblages, as well an important food source for many vertebrate predators. PMID:22859870

  17. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens--eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.

  18. An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion)

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex. PMID:25061349

  19. Biological and chemical control of the Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2003-08-01

    The efficacy of chemical and biological control agents against larvae of the Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Arrow), in turfgrass under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions were determined. In field trials where insecticides were applied preventively against eggs and young larvae, the molt-accelerating compound halofenozide and the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were ineffective, whereas another neonicotinoid, clothianidin, provided 62-93% control. In greenhouse experiments against third instars in pots, the carbamate insecticide carbaryl was ineffective, whereas the organophosphate trichlorfon provided 71-83% control. In laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments, the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and Steinernema glaseri Steiner (not tested in the field) were ineffective against third instars, whereas S. scarabaei Stock & Koppenhöfer provided excellent control. In microplot field experiments at a rate of 2.5 x 10(9) infective juveniles per ha, H. bacteriophora provided 12-33% control and S. scarabaei 71-86% control. Combinations of S. scarabaei and imidacloprid did not provide more control of third instars compared with S. scarabaei alone. PMID:14503577

  20. The New World whirligig beetles of the genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae, Gyrininae, Dineutini).

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Grey T; Miller, Kelly B

    2015-01-01

    All New World members of the whirligig beetle genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 are treated. The New World Dineutus are found to be composed of 18 species and 6 subspecies: one species, Dineutusmexicanus Ochs, 1925, stat. n. is elevated from subspecies to species rank, and the subspecies Dineutuscarolinusmutchleri Ochs, 1925, syn. n. is synonymized here with the typical form. Lectotypes are designated for Dineutusdiscolor Aubé, 1838, Dineutesmetallicus Aubé, 1838, Dineutussolitarius Aubé, 1838, Dineutesanalis Régimbart, 1883, and Gyrinuslongimanus Olivier, 1795. Each taxonomic unit is provided with a taxonomic history, type locality, diagnosis, distribution, habitat information, and a discussion section. The aedeagus and male mesotarsal claws are illustrated, and dorsal and ventral habitus images of both sexes, for each species and subspecies are provided. General distribution maps are provided for all taxonimc units. A key to the genera of New World Gyrinidae, as well as all the New World Dineutus species is provided. General Dineutus anatomy as well as a clarification of homology and anatomical terms is included.

  1. The New World whirligig beetles of the genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae, Gyrininae, Dineutini)

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Grey T.; Miller, Kelly B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All New World members of the whirligig beetle genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 are treated. The New World Dineutus are found to be composed of 18 species and 6 subspecies: one species, Dineutus mexicanus Ochs, 1925, stat. n. is elevated from subspecies to species rank, and the subspecies Dineutus carolinus mutchleri Ochs, 1925, syn. n. is synonymized here with the typical form. Lectotypes are designated for Dineutus discolor Aubé, 1838, Dineutes metallicus Aubé, 1838, Dineutus solitarius Aubé, 1838, Dineutes analis Régimbart, 1883, and Gyrinus longimanus Olivier, 1795. Each taxonomic unit is provided with a taxonomic history, type locality, diagnosis, distribution, habitat information, and a discussion section. The aedeagus and male mesotarsal claws are illustrated, and dorsal and ventral habitus images of both sexes, for each species and subspecies are provided. General distribution maps are provided for all taxonimc units. A key to the genera of New World Gyrinidae, as well as all the New World Dineutus species is provided. General Dineutus anatomy as well as a clarification of homology and anatomical terms is included. PMID:25685002

  2. A synopsis of the scolytine ambrosia beetles of Thailand (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Beaver, R A; Sittichaya, W; Liu, L-Y

    2014-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of the scolytine ambrosia beetles of Thailand is summarised to provide a basis for future studies of the fauna and its economic importance in forestry, timber production and crop tree plantations. A checklist of the fauna is provided with information on local and world distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. Six faunal elements based on geographical distribution, and the host tree and altitudinal preferences of species are discussed. One hundred and sixty-one species are recorded from Thailand, 67 of them for the first time. The following new synonym is proposed: Euwallacea wallacei (Blandford) (= Xyleborus barbatomorphus Schedl n.syn.). The following new combinations are given: Ambrosiophilus cristatulus (Schedl), Ambrosiophilus latisulcatus (Eggers), Beaverium dihingensis (Eggers), Beaverium lantanae (Eggers) and Immanus desectus (Eggers) are transferred from their present position in Ambrosiodmus; Ancipitis depressus (Eggers) and Ancipitis punctatissimus (Eichhoff) are transferred from Leptoxyleborus; Cyclorhipidion armipenne (Schedl), Cyclorhipidion inarmatum (Eggers), Euwallacea semiermis (Schedl), Fortiborus macropterus (Schedl), Microperus nudibrevis (Schedl) and Wallacellus minutus (Blandford) are transferred from Xyleborus. PMID:25544343

  3. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Managing the Papuana uninodis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Taro Beetle in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Daigneault, A

    2014-10-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) plays a prominent role in the economies and cultures of Pacific Island countries such as Fiji. Unfortunately, taro is highly susceptible to invasion from taro beetles, which burrow into the corms and weaken the plants, rendering them unmarkable and prone to rot. Papuana uninodis Prell, an invasive alien species that is native to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, was first reported on Viti Levu (Fiji's largest island) in 1984. Since that time, taro production on Viti Levu has fallen substantially. In this paper, we employ data from surveys of households and communities to document the impacts of P. uninodis on Viti Levu. We then identify three management approaches-chemical controls, cultural controls, and switching from taro to another staple crop-and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of each. We find strong arguments for pursuing chemical control, which derives a net present value of monetised benefits of about FJ$139,500 per hectare over 50 yr, or >FJ$21 for each FJ$1 spent. Still, any of the three management options is more efficient than no management, even without any attempt to quantify the benefits to biodiversity or forest protection, underscoring the value of actively managing this invasive alien species. PMID:26309277

  4. Biological and chemical control of the Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2003-08-01

    The efficacy of chemical and biological control agents against larvae of the Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Arrow), in turfgrass under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions were determined. In field trials where insecticides were applied preventively against eggs and young larvae, the molt-accelerating compound halofenozide and the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were ineffective, whereas another neonicotinoid, clothianidin, provided 62-93% control. In greenhouse experiments against third instars in pots, the carbamate insecticide carbaryl was ineffective, whereas the organophosphate trichlorfon provided 71-83% control. In laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments, the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and Steinernema glaseri Steiner (not tested in the field) were ineffective against third instars, whereas S. scarabaei Stock & Koppenhöfer provided excellent control. In microplot field experiments at a rate of 2.5 x 10(9) infective juveniles per ha, H. bacteriophora provided 12-33% control and S. scarabaei 71-86% control. Combinations of S. scarabaei and imidacloprid did not provide more control of third instars compared with S. scarabaei alone.

  5. Local mechanical properties of the head articulation cuticle in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Barbakadze, N; Enders, S; Gorb, S; Arzt, E

    2006-02-01

    Insect exoskeleton (cuticle) has a broad range of mechanical properties depending on the function of a particular structure of the skeleton. Structure and mechanical properties of the specialised cuticle of insect joints remain largely unknown to date. We used scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain information about the material structure of the gula plate, the head part of the head-to-neck articulation system in the beetle Pachnoda marginata. The surface of this cuticle appears rather smooth in SEM. The fibers of the exocuticle are partly oriented almost perpendicular to the surface, which is rather unusual for arthropod cuticle. Nanoindentation experiments were performed to determine the local mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) of the gula material. To understand the effect of desiccation and the influence of an outer wax layer on the mechanical behavior of the material, the samples were tested in fresh, dry and chemically treated (lipid extraction in organic solvents) conditions. Nanoindentation results were found to be strongly influenced by desiccation but only slightly by lipid extraction. Decreasing water content ( approximately 15-20% of the cuticle mass) led to an increase in hardness (from 0.1 to 0.49 GPa) and elastic modulus (from 1.5 to 7.5 GPa). The lipid extraction caused a slight further hardening (to 0.52 GPa) as well as stiffening (to 7.7 GPa) of the material. The results are discussed in relation to the mechanical function of the gula plate. PMID:16449566

  6. Geographic variation in cannibalism in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mitchell; Hossain, Kazi; Zabierek, Kristina; Collie, Karyn; Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Whalon, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Cannibalism can have a large effect on population growth and survival in stressful environments, possibly including those created by insecticide use. In this study, we collected Colorado potato beetles from three isolated areas in the northeastern United States known for high levels of resistance to neonicotinoids. We measured resistance to imidacloprid in each of those populations, a laboratory susceptible population, and in hybrids between the three field populations and the laboratory susceptible population. We fed neonates eggs from resistant dams fed either imidacloprid-treated or untreated foliage to determine whether cannibals are exposed to toxins sequestered in eggs. We measured egg cannibalism by hatchlings within the clutch in each population and hybrids, and examined how fecundity and several variables associated with egg development varied among populations and with cannibalism, to see which traits might enhance or reduce cannibalism. Cannibalism varied significantly among populations, accounting for most of the variation in hatching success. Variability in egg development time and hatch rate in the absence of cannibalism in some populations affected rates of cannibalism. Resistance varied significantly among the field populations but was not related to cannibalism. Neonates fed eggs from dams on treated foliage showed signs of intoxication or death. Cannibalism appears to be part of a varying life history strategy in this species, with some populations laying larger and more cannibalistic clutches and the New York population laying smaller clutches with higher hatching success owing to reduced cannibalism.

  7. Phylogenetic diversification patterns and divergence times in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalinae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Harpalinae is a species rich clade of carabid beetles with many unusual morphological forms and ecological interactions. How this diversity evolved has been difficult to reconstruct, perhaps because harpalines underwent a rapid burst of diversification early in their evolutionary history. Here we investigate the tempo of evolution in harpalines using molecular divergence dating techniques and explore the rates of lineage accumulation in harpalines and their sister group. Results According to molecular divergence date estimates, harpalines originated in the mid Cretaceous but did not diversify extensively until the late Cretaceous or early Paleogene about 32 million years after their origin. In a relatively small window of time, harpalines underwent rapid speciation. Harpalines have a relative high net diversification rate and increased cladogenesis in some regions of the clade. We did not see a significant decrease in diversification rate through time in the MCCR test, but a model of diversification with two shift points to lower diversification rates fit the harpaline lineage accumulation through time the best. Conclusions Our results indicate harpalines are significantly more diverse and have higher diversification than their sistergroup. Instead of an immediate burst of explosive diversification, harpalines may have had a long "fuse" before major lineages diversified during the early Paleogene when other taxa such as mammals, birds, and some flowering plants were also rapidly diversifying. PMID:20799952

  8. Sterol limitation in a pollen-fed omnivorous lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Pilorget, Lucia; Buckner, James; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional constraints of non-prey foods for entomophagous arthropods are seldom investigated, yet are crucial to understanding their nutritional ecology and function within natural and managed environments. We investigated whether pollen from five maize hybrids was of variable quality for the lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata, whether suitability of these pollens was related with their sterol profiles, and how augmenting sterols (beta-sitosterol, cholesterol, or ergosterol) affected the fitness and performance of C. maculata. Preimaginal survival, development rates, the duration of the pre-oviposition period, post-mortem adult dry weight, adult hind tibial length, sex ratio, fecundity, cohort generation time (T(c)), net replacement rate (R(0)) and intrinsic rate of increase (r) were measured. Individual sterols in the pollens were quantified using GC-MS. Pollens were of variable suitability for C. maculata; the development rate was positively correlated with the amount of 24-methylene-cholesterol and r was positively correlated with episterol and 24-methylene-lophenol found in the pollens. Performance of C. maculata was entirely unaffected by augmenting pollen meals with sterols. This research shows that pollens clearly vary in their sterol contents intraspecifically, which affects their suitability for omnivores that rely on pollen. However, sterols appear to be only one of the limiting nutrients in pollens.

  9. Phylogeny of minute carabid beetles and their relatives based upon DNA sequence data (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechitae)

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, David R.; Ober, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The phylogeny of ground beetles of supertribe Trechitae is inferred using DNA sequences of genes that code for 28S ribosomal RNA, 18S ribosomal RNA, and wingless. Within the outgroups, austral psydrines are inferred to be monophyletic, and separate from the three genera of true Psydrina (Psydrus, Nomius, Laccocenus); the austral psydrines are formally removed from Psydrini and are treated herein as their own tribe, Moriomorphini Sloane. All three genes place Gehringia with Psydrina. Trechitae is inferred to be monophyletic, and sister to Patrobini. Within trechites, evidence is presented that Tasmanitachoides is not a tachyine, but is instead a member of Trechini. Perileptus is a member of subtribe Trechodina. Against Erwin’s hypothesis of anillines as a polyphyletic lineage derived from the tachyine genus Paratachys, the anillines sampled are monophyletic, and not related to Paratachys. Zolini, Pogonini, Tachyina, and Xystosomina are all monophyletic, with the latter two being sister groups. The relationships of the subtribe Bembidiina were studied in greater detail. Phrypeus is only distantly related to Bembidion, and there is no evidence from sequence data that it belongs within Bembidiina. Three groups that have been recently considered to be outside of the large genus Bembidion are shown to be derived members of Bembidion, related to subgroups: Cillenus is related to the Ocydromus complex of Bembidion, Zecillenus is related to the New Zealand subgenus Zeplataphus, and Hydrium is close to subgenus Metallina. The relationships among major lineages of Trechitae are not, however, resolved with these data. PMID:22379388

  10. Sterol limitation in a pollen-fed omnivorous lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Pilorget, Lucia; Buckner, James; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional constraints of non-prey foods for entomophagous arthropods are seldom investigated, yet are crucial to understanding their nutritional ecology and function within natural and managed environments. We investigated whether pollen from five maize hybrids was of variable quality for the lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata, whether suitability of these pollens was related with their sterol profiles, and how augmenting sterols (beta-sitosterol, cholesterol, or ergosterol) affected the fitness and performance of C. maculata. Preimaginal survival, development rates, the duration of the pre-oviposition period, post-mortem adult dry weight, adult hind tibial length, sex ratio, fecundity, cohort generation time (T(c)), net replacement rate (R(0)) and intrinsic rate of increase (r) were measured. Individual sterols in the pollens were quantified using GC-MS. Pollens were of variable suitability for C. maculata; the development rate was positively correlated with the amount of 24-methylene-cholesterol and r was positively correlated with episterol and 24-methylene-lophenol found in the pollens. Performance of C. maculata was entirely unaffected by augmenting pollen meals with sterols. This research shows that pollens clearly vary in their sterol contents intraspecifically, which affects their suitability for omnivores that rely on pollen. However, sterols appear to be only one of the limiting nutrients in pollens. PMID:19772860

  11. Effects of Decompression Treatment for Controlling the Powderpost Beetle, Lyctus africanus Lesne, (Coleoptera: Lyctinae).

    PubMed

    Nakai, Kazushi; Hiraku, Tatsuya; Fujimoto, Izumi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of decompression treatment as a non-destructive method to control larvae of the powderpost beetle, Lyctus africanus Lesne, was evaluated in the laboratory using various combinations of two pressure levels, 1.1 kPa and 40 kPa, and three temperature levels, 20, 25, and 40 °C. Larval mortality generally depended on weight reduction while decreases in the oxygen level had relatively little effect. The lower pressure, 1.1 kPa, significantly affected mortality, and no larvae survived after 12 h of this pressure treatment, at 25 °C. The average body weight was reduced with treatment time and temperature, and the reduction rate at 25 °C was higher than that at the lower temperature, 20 °C. Effects on larvae of the higher pressure treatment, 40 kPa, with a CO₂ gas purge, were tested to determine the feasibility of decompression treatment in the manufacturing process. Although higher pressure resulted in low mortality, the body weight was dramatically decreased using the CO₂ purge. These results present important information on the possibility of using decompression treatment for wood products. PMID:27429007

  12. Relationships between plant diversity and the abundance and α-diversity of predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a mature Asian temperate forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Bai, Fan; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2013-01-01

    A positive relationship between plant diversity and both abundance and diversity of predatory arthropods is postulated by the Enemies Hypothesis, a central ecological top-down control hypothesis. It has been supported by experimental studies and investigations of agricultural and grassland ecosystems, while evidence from more complex mature forest ecosystems is limited. Our study was conducted on Changbai Mountain in one of the last remaining large pristine temperate forest environments in China. We used predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as target taxon to establish the relationship between phytodiversity and their activity abundance and diversity. Results showed that elevation was the only variable included in both models predicting carabid activity abundance and α-diversity. Shrub diversity was negatively and herb diversity positively correlated with beetle abundance, while shrub diversity was positively correlated with beetle α-diversity. Within the different forest types, a negative relationship between plant diversity and carabid activity abundance was observed, which stands in direct contrast to the Enemies Hypothesis. Furthermore, plant species density did not predict carabid α-diversity. In addition, the density of herbs, which is commonly believed to influence carabid movement, had little impact on the beetle activity abundance recorded on Changbai Mountain. Our study indicates that in a relatively large and heterogeneous mature forest area, relationships between plant and carabid diversity are driven by variations in environmental factors linked with altitudinal change. In addition, traditional top-down control theories that are suitable in explaining diversity patterns in ecosystems of low diversity appear to play a much less pronounced role in highly complex forest ecosystems.

  13. Mass, temperature and metabolic effects on discontinuous gas exchange cycles in eucalyptus-boring beetles (Coleoptera: cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Chappell, M A; Rogowitz, G L

    2000-12-01

    Ventilatory accommodation of changing metabolic rates is a relatively little-studied aspect of the discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) that occur in a wide variety of terrestrial arthropods. We used correlation analysis of resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured as the rate of CO(2) emission; V(CO2)) and several components of the DGC to examine accommodation to both temperature-induced changes and individual variation in RMR in two wood-boring beetles (Phorocantha recurva and P. semipunctata; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). At low to moderate ambient temperatures (T(a); 10-20 degrees C), Phorocantha spp. displayed a characteristic DGC with relatively brief but pronounced open (O) phase bursts of CO(2) emission separated by longer periods of low V(CO2), the flutter (F) phase. However, the V(CO2) never fell to zero, and we could not reliably differentiate a typical closed (C) phase from the F phase. Accordingly, we pooled the C and F phases for analysis as the C+F phase. At higher T(a) (30 degrees C), the duration of the combined C+F phase was greatly reduced. There were no differences between the two species or between males and females in either RMR or characteristics of the DGC. We found large variation in the major DGC components (cycle frequency, durations and emission volumes of the O and C+F phases); much of this variation was significantly repeatable. Accommodation of temperature-induced RMR changes was almost entirely due to changes in frequency (primarily in the C+F phase), as has been found in several other discontinuously ventilating arthropods. Frequency changes also contributed to accommodation at constant T(a), but modulation of emission volumes (during both O and C+F phases) played a larger role in this case. The DGC is often viewed as a water conservation mechanism, on the basis that respiratory evaporation is minimal during the C and F phases. This hypothesis assumes that the F phase is primarily convective (because of a reduction in tracheal P(O2

  14. Efficacy of imidacloprid, trunk-injected into Acer platanoides, for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Lewis, Phillip A; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-12-01

    Feeding experiments with Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) in a quarantine laboratory were used to assess the effectiveness of imidacloprid in reducing adult fecundity and survival. The beetles were fed twigs and leaves cut between June-September 2010 from Norway maples (Acer platanoides L.) in the beetle-infested area of Worcester, MA. Treated trees had been trunk-injected once with imidacloprid in spring 2010 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service operational eradication program. The 21 d LC50 value for adult beetles feeding on twig bark from imidacloprid-injected trees was 1.3 ppm. Adult reproductive output and survival were significantly reduced when beetles fed on twig bark or leaves from treated trees. However, results varied widely, with many twig samples having no detectable imidacloprid and little effect on the beetles. When twigs with > 1 ppm imidacloprid in the bark were fed to mated beetles, the number of larvae produced was reduced by 94% and median adult survival was reduced to 14 d. For twigs with < 1 ppm imidacloprid, 68% of reproductively mature mated beetles survived 21 d and 56% of unmated recently eclosed beetles survived 42 d. For twigs with < 1 ppm, beetles ingested an average of 30 nanograms of imidacloprid per day. Bark consumption was reduced at higher imidacloprid levels (> 1 ppm). When given a choice of control twigs and twigs from injected trees, beetles did not show a strong preference.

  15. Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fossen, Erlend I.; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Nilsson, Anders N.; Bergsten, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of Hydrobius arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes and Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus being sympatric. Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the Hydrobius fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes from Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular

  16. Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae).

    PubMed

    Fossen, Erlend I; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Nilsson, Anders N; Bergsten, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of Hydrobius arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes and Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus being sympatric. Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the Hydrobius fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes from Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular evidence

  17. Bio-inspired approach of the fluorescence emission properties in the scarabaeid beetle Hoplia coerulea (Coleoptera): Modeling by transfer-matrix optical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Berthier, Serge; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    2012-12-01

    Scales of the scarabaeid beetle Hoplia coerulea (Coleoptera) contain fluorescent molecules embedded in a multilayer structure. The consequence of this source confinement is a modification of the fluorescence properties, i.e., an enhancement or inhibition of the emission of certain wavelengths. In this work, we propose a bio-inspired approach to this problem. In other words, we use numerical simulations based on the one-dimensional transfer-matrix formalism to investigate the influence of a Hoplia-like system on emission characteristics and, from the results, we deduce potential technical applications. We reveal that depending on the choice of some parameters (layer thickness, dielectric constant, and position of the emitting source in the structure), it is possible to enhance or inhibit the fluorescence emission for certain wavelengths. This observation could be of great interest to design new optical devices in the field of optoelectronic, solar cells, biosensors, etc.

  18. Revision of the genus Stictospora and description of Stictospora villani, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Actinocephalidae) from larvae of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Hays, Joanna; Clopton, Richard E; Cappaert, David L; Smitley, David R

    2004-12-01

    Stictospora villani n. sp. is described from larvae of the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from southern Michigan. Stictospora villani is distinguished from known species of the genus by differences in gamont size and by structural details of the epimerite. In general, S. villani is smaller than other known species of the genus and possesses an epimerite with a margin of 20-24 sympetalous, pendulate, narrowly to very narrowly elliptoid lamina. Previously described species are characterized by epimerites with notably fewer marginal lamina. A heretofore unrecognized protistan is diagnosed from the coelomic fat bodies and tentatively placed within the Neogregarinorida. We conclude that previous workers have mistaken this neogregarine for the gametocyst and oocyst of Stictospora, which are described in this study for the first time. The generic diagnosis of Stictospora is revised to encompass the epimeritic variation of its constituent species and to correctly reflect the morphology of the oocyst.

  19. Thermal development of Cephalonomia tarsalis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoid of the saw-toothed stored product beetles of the genus Oryzaephilus sp. (Coleoptera: Sylvanidae).

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, Panagiotis A; Kontodimas, Dimitrios C

    2016-02-01

    The effect of temperature on the development and survival of Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), larval ectoparasitoid of beetles of Oryzaephilus sp. (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) was studied in the laboratory. Durations of the development of the egg, larva and pupa were measured in eight constant temperatures (15, 17.5, 20, 25, 30, 32.5, 35 and 37.5°C) parasitizing larvae of the saw-toothed beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). The duration of development was decreased with temperature increase within the range 17.5-32.5°C. Survival was higher when immatures were exposed to medium temperatures (20-30°C) compared with those lived in a more extreme temperature regime (<20 and >30°C). Wasps failed to complete their development at 15 and 37.5°C. Thermal parameters (upper, lower and optimum developmental threshold, thermal constant) were estimated by fitting the linear and a non-linear (Logan I) model to our data. Upper and lower developmental thresholds ranged between 35.1-37.0°C and 13.2-13.8°C, respectively. The optimum temperature for development was estimated between 33.6°C and 34.6°C. Tests for developmental rate isomorphy (DRI) showed that change in the average proportion of time spent in each developmental stage was marginally significant, proving that development of C. tarsalis is probably incompatible with DRI. However, this conclusion is questionable given that lower developmental thresholds did not differ significantly among various developmental stages (bootstrap test). Thermal constant for total development was calculated 212.4 degree-days. Our results are discussed not only on the basis of thermal biology, but also of improving the efficiency of C. tarsalis as biocontrol agent.

  20. Thermal development of Cephalonomia tarsalis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoid of the saw-toothed stored product beetles of the genus Oryzaephilus sp. (Coleoptera: Sylvanidae).

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, Panagiotis A; Kontodimas, Dimitrios C

    2016-02-01

    The effect of temperature on the development and survival of Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), larval ectoparasitoid of beetles of Oryzaephilus sp. (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) was studied in the laboratory. Durations of the development of the egg, larva and pupa were measured in eight constant temperatures (15, 17.5, 20, 25, 30, 32.5, 35 and 37.5°C) parasitizing larvae of the saw-toothed beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). The duration of development was decreased with temperature increase within the range 17.5-32.5°C. Survival was higher when immatures were exposed to medium temperatures (20-30°C) compared with those lived in a more extreme temperature regime (<20 and >30°C). Wasps failed to complete their development at 15 and 37.5°C. Thermal parameters (upper, lower and optimum developmental threshold, thermal constant) were estimated by fitting the linear and a non-linear (Logan I) model to our data. Upper and lower developmental thresholds ranged between 35.1-37.0°C and 13.2-13.8°C, respectively. The optimum temperature for development was estimated between 33.6°C and 34.6°C. Tests for developmental rate isomorphy (DRI) showed that change in the average proportion of time spent in each developmental stage was marginally significant, proving that development of C. tarsalis is probably incompatible with DRI. However, this conclusion is questionable given that lower developmental thresholds did not differ significantly among various developmental stages (bootstrap test). Thermal constant for total development was calculated 212.4 degree-days. Our results are discussed not only on the basis of thermal biology, but also of improving the efficiency of C. tarsalis as biocontrol agent. PMID:26857981

  1. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the essential oil from seven common spices, Anethum graveolens, Cuminum cyminum, Illicium verum, Myristica fragrans, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum and Trachyspermum ammi was isolated and its insecticidal, oviposition, egg hatching and developmental inhibitory activities were determined against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger apparatus. These essential oils caused death of adults and larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis when fumigated. The 24-h LC(50) values against the adults of the insect were 8.9 mul, 10.8 mul, 11.0 mul, 12.5 mul, 13.6 mul, 14.8 mul and 15.6 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils respectively. On the other hand, against larval stage these values were 6.4 mul, 7.9 mul, 8.9 mul, 11.1 mul, 11.7 mul, 12.2 mul and 13.5 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi respectively. These essential oils reduced the oviposition potential, egg hatching rate, pupal formation and emergence of adults of F(1) progeny of the insect when fumigated with sublethal concentrations. These essential oils also caused chronic toxicity as the fumigated insects caused less damage to the stored grains. The essential oil of N. sativa was found most effective against all the different stages of the Callosobruchus chinensis followed by A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils. All the responses were found concentration-dependent. The toxic and developmental inhibitory effects may be due to suffocation and inhibition of various biosynthetic processes of the insects at different developmental stages. PMID:18270466

  2. Sublethal effects of insecticide seed treatments on two nearctic lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Michaud, J P; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Predatory insects often feed on plants or use plant products to supplement their diet, creating a potential route of exposure to systemic insecticides used as seed treatments. This study examined whether chlorantraniliprole or thiamethoxam might negatively impact Coleomegilla maculata and Hippodamia convergens when the beetles consumed the extrafloral nectar of sunflowers grown from treated seed. We reared both species on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella and then switched adult H. convergens to a diet of greenbugs, Schizaphis graminum, in order to induce oviposition in this species. Excised sunflower stems, either treated or control and refreshed every 48 h, were provided throughout larval development, or for the first week of adult life. Exposure of C. maculata larvae to chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam applied as seed treatments delayed adult emergence by prolonging the pupal period. When adults were exposed, thiamethoxam reduced the preoviposition period compared to chlorantraniliprole, whereas the latter treatment cause females to produce fewer clutches during the observation period. Larvae of C. maculata did not appear to obtain sufficient hydration from the sunflower stems and their subsequent fecundity and fertility were compromised in comparison to the adult exposure experiment where larvae received supplemental water during development. Exposure of H. convergens larvae to thiamethoxam skewed the sex ratio in favor of females; both materials reduced the egg viability of resulting adults and increased the period required for eclosion. Exposure of H. convergens adults to chlorantraniliprole reduced egg eclosion times compared to thiamethoxam and exposure to both insecticides reduced pupation times in progeny. The results indicate that both insecticides have negative, sublethal impacts on the biology of these predators when they feed on extrafloral nectar of sunflower plants grown from treated seed.

  3. Carabid beetle diversity and distribution in Boston Harbor Islands national park area (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Robert L.; Rykken, Jessica; Farrell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As part of an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in Boston Harbor Islands national park area, an inventory of carabid beetles on 13 islands was conducted. Intensive sampling on ten of the islands, using an assortment of passive traps and limited hand collecting, resulted in the capture of 6,194 specimens, comprising 128 species. Among these species were seven new state records for Massachusetts (Acupalpus nanellus, Amara aulica, Amara bifrons, Apenes lucidulus, Bradycellus tantillus, Harpalus rubripes and Laemostenus terricola terricola—the last also a new country record; in passing we report also new state records for Harpalus rubripes from New York and Pennsylvania, Amara ovata from Pennsylvania, and the first mainland New York records for Asaphidion curtum). For most islands, there was a clear relationship between species richness and island area. Two islands, however, Calf and Grape, had far more species than their relatively small size would predict. Freshwater marshes on these islands, along with a suite of hygrophilous species, suggested that habitat diversity plays an important role in island species richness. Introduced species (18) comprised 14.0% of the total observed species richness, compared to 5.5% (17 out of 306 species) documented for Rhode Island. We surmise that the higher proportion of introduced species on the islands is, in part, due to a higher proportion of disturbed and open habitats as well as high rates of human traffic. We predict that more active sampling in specialized habitats would bring the total carabid fauna of the Boston Harbor Islands closer to that of Rhode Island or eastern Massachusetts in richness and composition; however, isolation, human disturbance and traffic, and limited habitat diversity all contribute to reducing the species pool on the islands relative to that on the mainland. PMID:22371673

  4. Sublethal effects of insecticide seed treatments on two nearctic lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Gontijo, Pablo Costa; Michaud, J P; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Predatory insects often feed on plants or use plant products to supplement their diet, creating a potential route of exposure to systemic insecticides used as seed treatments. This study examined whether chlorantraniliprole or thiamethoxam might negatively impact Coleomegilla maculata and Hippodamia convergens when the beetles consumed the extrafloral nectar of sunflowers grown from treated seed. We reared both species on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella and then switched adult H. convergens to a diet of greenbugs, Schizaphis graminum, in order to induce oviposition in this species. Excised sunflower stems, either treated or control and refreshed every 48 h, were provided throughout larval development, or for the first week of adult life. Exposure of C. maculata larvae to chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam applied as seed treatments delayed adult emergence by prolonging the pupal period. When adults were exposed, thiamethoxam reduced the preoviposition period compared to chlorantraniliprole, whereas the latter treatment cause females to produce fewer clutches during the observation period. Larvae of C. maculata did not appear to obtain sufficient hydration from the sunflower stems and their subsequent fecundity and fertility were compromised in comparison to the adult exposure experiment where larvae received supplemental water during development. Exposure of H. convergens larvae to thiamethoxam skewed the sex ratio in favor of females; both materials reduced the egg viability of resulting adults and increased the period required for eclosion. Exposure of H. convergens adults to chlorantraniliprole reduced egg eclosion times compared to thiamethoxam and exposure to both insecticides reduced pupation times in progeny. The results indicate that both insecticides have negative, sublethal impacts on the biology of these predators when they feed on extrafloral nectar of sunflower plants grown from treated seed. PMID:25902962

  5. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens--eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future. PMID:27000261

  6. A cell line derived from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Goodman, Cynthia L; Stanley, David; Ringbauer, Joseph A; Beeman, Richard W; Silver, Kristopher; Park, Yoonseong

    2012-08-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a model organism for agricultural and medical research and its complete genome is sequenced. We established a continuously replicating T. castaneum cell line to complement existing physiological, genetic, and genomic research tools. We set up trial cell cultures from egg, pupa, and adult stages as tissue sources and incubated them in six separate cell culture media to determine the optimal combination of tissue source and medium for cell replication. Our most promising culture was generated by co-culturing adult (∼75 %) and pupal tissues in EX-CELL 420 medium containing 9 % FBS. Our new cell culture is designated BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 (TcA) and it has been subcultured more than 90 times. Amplification of genomic DNA with species-specific primers yielded DNA fragments of the expected sizes and with sequences identical to those from the published Tribolium genome. Additionally, we characterized this line using DNA fingerprinting (DAF-PCR) and compared it with three other coleopteran cell lines and its conspecific pupae to confirm identity. Its doubling time is 155.2 hr. Early passages consisted of attached cells and vesicles in suspension, whereas later passages consisted primarily of attached, spherical cells. Similar to other established cell lines, the ploidy of TcA cells was variable, ranging from 20 chromosomes/cell (diploid) to above 30 chromosomes/cell. TcA cells withstood incubation at 40°C for 1 h with no decrease in viability. We recorded increased levels of one heat shock protein (43 kDa) and of the hsp68a transcript following exposure to 40°C. Taken together, this represents the first report of a continuously replicating T. castaneum cell line. We expect the BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 line will become a useful tool in Tribolium research.

  7. Green leaf volatiles as antiaggregants for the mountain pine beetle,Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Wilson, I M; Borden, J H; Gries, R; Gries, G

    1996-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that green leaf volatiles act as antiaggregants for the mountain pine beetle (MPB),Dendroctonus ponderosac Hopkins. In coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis MPB antennae responded to 30 ng doses of all six-carbon green leaf alcohols tested [1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, (E)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol], but not to the aldehydes, hexanal or (E)-2-hexenal, or to alcohol or aldehyde homologues with more or fewer than six carbon atoms. In field trapping experiments a blend of green leaf alcohols [1-hexanol, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, (E)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol] effectively disrupted the response to attractive semiochemicals; a blend of the aldehydes hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal was inactive. The two best disruptants. (E)-2-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, reduced catches of both sexes to levels not significantly different from catches in unbaited control traps. They also reduced the attack on trees baited with attractive MBP pheromones to a level not significantly different from that on unbaited control trees. Neither of the clerid predators captured,Enoclerus sphegeus (F.) norThanasimus undatulus (Say), was repelled by green leaf volatiles. Our results suggest that green leaf alcohols are promising disruptants which may be used to supplement the antiaggregation pheromone, verbenone, in protecting single high-value trees as well as carefully selected stands with low-level populations of MPBs.

  8. Cold tolerance and supercooling capacity in overwintering adults of elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Soudi, Sh; Moharramipour, S

    2011-12-01

    Elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Muller) is one of the key pests of elm trees all over the world, and survives winter in reproductive diapause in sheltered locations. Seasonal variation of whole body supercooling points (SCPs), LT50 (temperature at which 50% of the test individuals die) and survival rate after exposure to subzero temperatures were determined in field collected adults during October 2008 to May 2009 and October 2009 to May 2010. The SCP of adults decreased significantly from October (median=-13.8°C) to January (median=-20.7°C) in first year, relatively similar results was observed in the second year. The lowest LT50 was observed in overwintering adults collected in January (-16.81°C) in the first year and December (-15.59°C) in the second year. Mortality at -15°C for 24 h was >70% in early autumn in both years whereas it decreased to lower than 45% in early winter, the highest mortality (100%) was observed in adults collected in May in both years. Cold acclimated adults (30 d, 5°C) in November 2008 exhibited significantly higher SCP (-12.21±0.64°C) than nonacclimated adults (-15.57±1.35°C). A 30-d exposure to 5°C caused >20% mortality in November, while <9% mortality was observed in adults collected in December and January 2008. Overwintering adults died upon freezing and the lower lethal temperatures were within the range of SCP, indicating that X. luteola is a freeze intolerant insect.

  9. Rediscovery and uncertain future of high-elevation Haleakala carabid beetles (Coleoptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Gillespie, Rosemary G.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Liebherr, James K.

    2005-01-01

    Recent biotic surveys in subalpine shrubland on Haleakala¯ Volcano, Maui, Hawai‘i, have resulted in rediscovery of several species of carabid beetles previously known only from their nineteenth-century type specimens. Blackburnia lenta (Sharp), described from specimens collected just below Haleakala¯ summit in 1894, was found at lower elevational sites ranging from 2,400 to 2,750 m. Mecyclothorax rusticus Sharp, last seen in 1896, and M. nubicola (Blackburn), collected only in 1878, were also rediscovered in that vicinity. Recent collections of B. lenta contradict the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s previous classification of this species as one likely to be extinct. Nevertheless, B. lenta’s known distribution comprises only 145 ha within an elevational zone that is bounded above and below by unicolonial populations of the invasive alien Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr). The known recent collections of M. rusticus and M. nubicola also occurred outside the distributional range of the Argentine ant. Mature eggs held in the lateral oviducts of B. lenta females averaged 1.4 the volume of the largest eggs previously reported among 13 species of Blackburnia. We hypothesize that the giant eggs of B. lenta result from selective forces favoring large, well-nourished developing and hatched first-instar larvae, consistent with a patchy distribution of suitable microhabitat and prey in the subalpine Haleakala¯ landscape. The specialized life history of B. lenta, and coincidence of distributional limits of the three rediscovered carabid species with range limits of the Argentine ant populations suggest that all would be jeopardized by future distributional expansion of Argentine ant. These intersecting phenomena compel us to conclude that B. lenta, M. nubicola, and M. rusticus are appropriate candidates for I.U.C.N. threatened species designation, pending further studies of their geographic ranges and historical trends in abundance.

  10. Characterization of two unrelated satellite DNA families in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Lorite, Pedro; Torres, M Isabel; Palomeque, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, family Chrysomelidae),a phytophagous insect, which feeds preferably on potatoes, constitutes a serious pest of this crop and causes extensive damage to tomatoes and egg plants. It has a remarkable ability to develop resistance quickly against insecticides and shows a diversified and flexible life history. Consequently, the control of this pest has become difficult, requiring the development of new alternative biotechnology-based strategies. Such strategies require a thorough knowledge of the beetle’s genome,including the repetitive DNA. Satellite DNA (stDNA), composed of long arrays of tandemly arranged repeat units, constitutes the major component of heterochromatin and is located mainly in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. We have studied two different unrelated satellite-DNA families of which the consensus sequences were 295 and 109bp in length, named LEDE-I and LEDE-II, respectively.Both were AT-rich (70.8% and 71.6%, respectively). Predictive models of sequence-dependent DNA bending and the study of electrophoretic mobility on non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels have shown that the DNA was curved in both satellite-DNA families. Among other features, the chromosome localization of both stDNAs has been studied. In situ hybridization performed on meiotic and mitoticnuclei showed chromosomes, including the X chromosome, with zero, one, or two stDNAs. In recent years, it has been proposed that the repetitive DNA may play a key role in biological diversification processes. This is the first molecular and cytogenetic study conducted on L. decemlineata repetitive DNA and specifically on stDNA, which is one of the important constituents of eukaryotic genomes.

  11. Host tree influences on longicorn beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) attack in subtropical Corymbia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Nahrung, Helen F; Smith, Timothy E; Wiegand, Aaron N; Lawson, Simon A; Debuse, Valerie J

    2014-02-01

    Phoracantha longicorn beetles are endemic to Australia, and some species have become significant pests of eucalypts worldwide, yet little is known about their host plant interactions and factors influencing tree susceptibility in Australia. Here, we investigate the host relationships of Phoracantha solida (Blackburn, 1894) on four eucalypt taxa (one pure species and three hybrid families), examining feeding site physical characteristics including phloem thickness, density, and moisture content, and host tree factors such as diameter, height, growth, taper, and survival. We also determine the cardinal and vertical (within-tree) and horizontal (between-tree) spatial distribution of borers. Fewer than 10% of P. solida attacks were recorded from the pure species (Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegate (Hook)), and this taxon also showed the highest survival, phloem thickness, relative growth rate, and bark:wood area. For the two most susceptible taxa, borer severity was negatively correlated with moisture content, and positively related to phloem density. Borers were nonrandomly and nonuniformly distributed within trees, and were statistically aggregated in 32% of plots. More attacks were situated on the northern side of the tree than the other aspects, and most larvae fed within the lower 50 cm of the bole, with attack height positively correlated with severity. Trees with borers had more dead neighbors, and more bored neighbors, than trees without borers, while within plots, borer incidence and severity were positively correlated. Because the more susceptible taxa overlapped with less susceptible taxa for several physical tree factors, the role of primary and secondary chemistries in determining host suitability needs to be investigated. Nevertheless, taxon, moisture content, phloem density, tree size, and mortality of neighboring trees appeared the most important physical characteristics influencing host suitability for P. solida at this site.

  12. Characterization of two unrelated satellite DNA families in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Lorite, Pedro; Torres, M Isabel; Palomeque, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, family Chrysomelidae),a phytophagous insect, which feeds preferably on potatoes, constitutes a serious pest of this crop and causes extensive damage to tomatoes and egg plants. It has a remarkable ability to develop resistance quickly against insecticides and shows a diversified and flexible life history. Consequently, the control of this pest has become difficult, requiring the development of new alternative biotechnology-based strategies. Such strategies require a thorough knowledge of the beetle’s genome,including the repetitive DNA. Satellite DNA (stDNA), composed of long arrays of tandemly arranged repeat units, constitutes the major component of heterochromatin and is located mainly in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. We have studied two different unrelated satellite-DNA families of which the consensus sequences were 295 and 109bp in length, named LEDE-I and LEDE-II, respectively.Both were AT-rich (70.8% and 71.6%, respectively). Predictive models of sequence-dependent DNA bending and the study of electrophoretic mobility on non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels have shown that the DNA was curved in both satellite-DNA families. Among other features, the chromosome localization of both stDNAs has been studied. In situ hybridization performed on meiotic and mitoticnuclei showed chromosomes, including the X chromosome, with zero, one, or two stDNAs. In recent years, it has been proposed that the repetitive DNA may play a key role in biological diversification processes. This is the first molecular and cytogenetic study conducted on L. decemlineata repetitive DNA and specifically on stDNA, which is one of the important constituents of eukaryotic genomes. PMID:23448367

  13. The mitochondrial genome of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and a phylogenetic analysis of the Polyphaga (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Niu, Fang-Fang; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Su; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (GenBank accession No. KR108208). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Harmonia. The current length with partitial A + T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 16,387 bp. All the typical genes were sequenced except the trnI and trnQ. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, there is no re-arrangement in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Five, five and three protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, TA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the protein-coding genes supported that the Scirtidae is a basal lineage of Polyphaga. The Harmonia and the Coccinella form a sister lineage. The monophyly of Staphyliniformia, Scarabaeiformia and Cucujiformia was supported. The Buprestidae was found to be a sister group to the Bostrichiformia. PMID:26057015

  14. The mitochondrial genome of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and a phylogenetic analysis of the Polyphaga (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Niu, Fang-Fang; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Su; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (GenBank accession No. KR108208). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Harmonia. The current length with partitial A + T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 16,387 bp. All the typical genes were sequenced except the trnI and trnQ. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, there is no re-arrangement in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Five, five and three protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, TA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the protein-coding genes supported that the Scirtidae is a basal lineage of Polyphaga. The Harmonia and the Coccinella form a sister lineage. The monophyly of Staphyliniformia, Scarabaeiformia and Cucujiformia was supported. The Buprestidae was found to be a sister group to the Bostrichiformia.

  15. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium–Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known independent evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symb...

  16. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Koivula, Matti J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  17. [Sampling optimization for tropical invertebrates: an example using dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Paris, José Rafael; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Rodríguez, Jon Paul

    2013-03-01

    The development of efficient sampling protocols is an essential prerequisite to evaluate and identify priority conservation areas. There are f ew protocols for fauna inventory and monitoring in wide geographical scales for the tropics, where the complexity of communities and high biodiversity levels, make the implementation of efficient protocols more difficult. We proposed here a simple strategy to optimize the capture of dung beetles, applied to sampling with baited traps and generalizable to other sampling methods. We analyzed data from eight transects sampled between 2006-2008 withthe aim to develop an uniform sampling design, that allows to confidently estimate species richness, abundance and composition at wide geographical scales. We examined four characteristics of any sampling design that affect the effectiveness of the sampling effort: the number of traps, sampling duration, type and proportion of bait, and spatial arrangement of the traps along transects. We used species accumulation curves, rank-abundance plots, indicator species analysis, and multivariate correlograms. We captured 40 337 individuals (115 species/morphospecies of 23 genera). Most species were attracted by both dung and carrion, but two thirds had greater relative abundance in traps baited with human dung. Different aspects of the sampling design influenced each diversity attribute in different ways. To obtain reliable richness estimates, the number of traps was the most important aspect. Accurate abundance estimates were obtained when the sampling period was increased, while the spatial arrangement of traps was determinant to capture the species composition pattern. An optimum sampling strategy for accurate estimates of richness, abundance and diversity should: (1) set 50-70 traps to maximize the number of species detected, (2) get samples during 48-72 hours and set trap groups along the transect to reliably estimate species abundance, (3) set traps in groups of at least 10 traps to

  18. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Koivula, Matti J

    2011-01-01

    Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in 'natural' conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as 'indicators' - a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and 'ecosystem health'. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in 'natural' conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because they are diverse

  19. [Estimation of the sampling cover for dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabacinae) in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Noriega, Jorge Ari; Camero, Edgar R; Arias-Buriticá, Jorge; Pardo-Locarno, Luis Carlos; Mauricio Montes, José; Acevedo, Aldemar A; Esparza, Andrea; Murcia Ordóñez, Betselene; Garcia, Hector; Solís, Cesil

    2015-03-01

    The promotion of biodiversity conservation strategies must address the lack of information and the difficulty of identifying knowledge gaps that may facilitate our knowledge of different taxonomic groups. Dung beetles constitute one of those groups, despite having been proposed as an efficient bioindicator of environmental disturbance processes. In this work, we aimed to prepare a diagnosis on the state of knowledge of the subfamily Scarabaeinae, focusing on the cover sampling degree of this group in Colombia, with the purpose of identifying high-priority areas that will allow the completion of a national inventory. The work consisted of a bibliographical compilation using 12 referential databases and the examination of specimens deposited in 26 national collections. A total of 16 940 individuals were examined, finding registers for 232 species from 386 localities. The respective distribution cover maps were presented, and the cover at a national level was 10.62%. A historical analysis demonstrated a proliferation in the number of studies for the last three decades; nevertheless, a great proportion of unpublished works persists, resulting in only 64 sampled localities with published records. The localities with the greatest sampling efforts were RN La Planada, Lloro, AUN Los Estoraques, PNN Tinigua and Mariquita. Registries for all departments were available, and the best sampled ones were Cundinamarca, Antioquia, Valle del Cauca and Boyaca. The ecosystems with the greatest number of publications are the Andean pre mountain humid forest, followed by the Andean mountain humid forest and the Pacific humid forest. Other ecosystems with few studies included mangroves, desert zones, natural savannahs, palm swamps, paramos, flooding forests and agroforestry systems. The biogeographic region with the greatest number of localities was the Andean region, followed by Choco-Magdalenense and Amazonia. Our results showed that high levels of subsampling persist and that some

  20. Potential Cooperations between Odorant-Binding Proteins of the Scarab Beetle Holotrichia oblita Faldermann (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Guan, Li; Zhong, Tao; Li, Kebin; Yin, Jiao; Cao, Yazhong

    2013-01-01

    It was previously thought that the odorant binding proteins (OBPs) in the sensillum lymph might serve as carriers, which could carry lipophilic odorant molecules to olfactory receptors. In this study, two novel OBP genes of the scarab beetle Holotrichia oblita were screened using an antennal cDNA library. The full cDNA of HoblOBP3 and HoblOBP4 was cloned using reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. Homology modeling of both OBPs was performed using SWISS-MODEL on-line tools. Next, the two OBPs were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni ion affinity chromatography. The ligand-binding properties of HoblOBP3 and HoblOBP4 in 42 ligands respectively were measured using the fluorescence probe N-phenyl-naphthylamine (1-NPN). The results obtained from competitive binding assays demonstrated that HoblOBP4 showed a broader range of binding affinities to the test compounds, while HoblOBP3 displays more specific binding affinity. Furthermore, other OBPs and CSPs were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni ion affinity chromatography. Binding curves were measured for binary mixtures of OBPs and CSPs using 1-NPN, and the Scatchard plots exhibited “J”-like nonlinear correlation trends in some samples. In addition, competitive binding assays of the HoblOBP1 and HoblOBP2 mixtures and of the HoblOBP2 and HoblOBP4 mixtures with representative compounds unexpectedly demonstrated good affinity, which revealed extreme differences that were only obtained using the individual proteins. In the immunocytochemical analysis, colocalization of HoblOBP1 and HoblOBP2, and of HoblOBP2 and HoblOBP4, was detected in the sensilla basiconica and sensilla placodea, respectively. All of these results suggested that HoblOBP1 and HoblOBP2, as well as HoblOBP2 and HoblOBP4, may serve as heterodimers in the sensillum lymph. PMID:24376847

  1. Resistant potato selections contain leptine and inhibit development of the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, J H; Balbyshev, N F; Lafta, A M; Casper, H; Tian, X; Sagredo, B

    2001-10-01

    We recently described a new source of host-plant resistance to the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), in a tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) selection, ND2858-1. This genotype, and selected backcross progeny, had little damage while check cultivars were defoliated in open-choice field assays. To further characterize the observed deterrence, we determined foliar glycoalkaloids and conducted no-choice assays with ND2858-1 backcross progeny genotypes (ND4382-n). Development of neonate L. decemlineata in detached leaf assays on resistant progeny genotypes was delayed and larval weight gain after 4 d was inhibited by 75% relative to larval development and weight gain on susceptible genotypes. Inhibition of larval development in detached leaf assays with the selected progeny genotypes was equivalent to that of high-leptine genotypes of S. chacoense Bitter. Foliar glycoalkaloids of resistant genotypes included low levels of leptines I and II. The unlikely nature of this cross and the presence of leptine in this and resistant progeny selections cast doubt on the recorded pedigree. Molecular analyses were conducted by restriction fragment-length polymorphism and amplified fragment-length polymorphisms. Both methods established a high degree of relatedness to S. tuberososum and S. chacoense but not to S. fendleri. We conclude that ND2858-1 did not originate from a cross with S. fendleri, but is likely derived from S. chacoense. Oviposition and larval survival were reduced when adult L. decemlineata were placed in cages with resistant genotypes; an effect that was enhanced by inclusion of Perillus bioculatus F. Therefore, the nonpreference previously observed in open-choice field defoliation assays is also associated with antibiotic effects on L. decemlineata. The resistance may be caused by leptines, but is greater than would be expected by the leptine content. This source of host plant resistance could be a cost-effective management strategy

  2. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization.

  3. Evaluation of strawberry sap beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) use of habitats surrounding strawberry plantings as food resources and overwintering sites.

    PubMed

    Loughner, Rebecca L; Loeb, Gregory M; Demchak, Kathleen; Schloemann, Sonia

    2007-10-01

    The matrix of strawberry and alternate host crops, wooded areas, and uncultivated sections that comprises a farm landscape provides not only food resources but also habitat in both a spatial and temporal context. Reports of the strawberry sap beetle as a pest in strawberry in the northeastern United States have increased along with a trend to produce a wider diversity of fruit crops on individual farms. The three objectives of this study focused on determining which, if any, habitats outside strawberry plantings are important to consider when developing control strategies for strawberry sap beetles. First, sampling of wooded areas and multiple crops showed that strawberry sap beetles overwinter not only in wooded areas but also in blueberry and raspberry. No overwintering beetles were found in strawberry. Second, up to a 70-fold increase in mean number of strawberry sap beetles in a no-choice food source experiment indicated that considerable reproduction can occur on blueberry, cherry, raspberry, and strawberry. Third, sampling summer-bearing raspberry, peach, blueberry, and cherry in 2004 and 2005 confirmed that beetles were present, often in high densities (0.1-108.5 strawberry sap beetles/m(2)), in commercial fields with fruit or vegetable material on the ground. In summary, the beetles are able to feed, complete development, and overwinter in habitats other than strawberry. An effective integrated pest management program to control strawberry sap beetles will need to consider the type of habitat surrounding strawberry fields.

  4. Testing the performance of a fragment of the COI gene to identify western Palaearctic stag beetle species (Coleoptera, Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Karen; Thomaes, Arno; Antonini, Gloria; Zilioli, Michele; De Gelas, Koen; Harvey, Deborah; Solano, Emanuela; Audisio, Paolo; McKeown, Niall; Shaw, Paul; Minetti, Robert; Bartolozzi, Luca; Mergeay, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomy of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) remains challenging, mainly due to the sexual dimorphism and the strong allometry in males. Such conjecture confounds taxonomic based conservation efforts that are urgently needed due to numerous threats to stag beetle biodiversity. Molecular tools could help solve the problem of identification of the different recognized taxa in the “Lucanus cervus complex” and in some related Palaearctic species. We investigated the potential use of a 670 bp region at the 3’ end of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) for barcoding purposes (different from the standard COI barcoding region). Well resolved species and subspecies were L. tetraodon, L. cervusakbesianus, L. c. laticornis, as well as the two eastern Asian outgroup taxa L. formosanus and L. hermani. Conversely, certain taxa could not be distinguished from each other based on K2P-distances and tree topologies: L. c. fabiani / L. (P.) barbarossa, L. c. judaicus / an unknown Lucanus species, L. c. cervus / L. c. turcicus / L. c. pentaphyllus / L. (P.) macrophyllus / L. ibericus. The relative roles of phenotypic plasticity, recurrent hybridisation and incomplete lineage sorting underlying taxonomic and phylogenetic discordances are discussed. PMID:24453554

  5. Notes on the Reproductive Ecology and Description of the Preimaginal Morphology of Elaphrus sugai Nakane, the Most Endangered Species of Elaphrus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Ground Beetle Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the basic life-history of endangered species is the first important step in the conservation of such species. This study examined the reproductive ecology and the preimaginal morphology of the endangered ground beetle Elaphrus sugai Nakane (Coleoptera: Carabidae); currently, the Watarase wetland of the central Kanto Plain, Japan is the only confirmed locality of this beetle species. Laboratory rearing of reproductive adults collected in early April revealed that females can lay more than 131 eggs. Eggs were laid in mud, without an egg chamber. Larvae reached adulthood when fed a diet of mealworms, indicating that E. sugai larvae are insect larvae feeders. An earthworm diet, the optimal diet for larvae of a congeneric species (E. punctatus Motschulsky), was lethal to E. sugai larvae. The egg stage was 3–4 days in duration under a 16L8D cycle (22°C). The duration from hatching to adult eclosion was 23–42 days at various temperatures simulating those of the reproductive period. Larval morphology was similar to that of consubgeneric species described previously. The pupa is unusual, in that the setae on the abdominal tergites are long (twice as long as those of the abdominal segment) and have somewhat “coiled” apices. Finally, the current endangered status of E. sugai was compared to that of E. viridis Horn, which has been regarded as the most endangered species of the genus worldwide. PMID:27415755

  6. Notes on the Reproductive Ecology and Description of the Preimaginal Morphology of Elaphrus sugai Nakane, the Most Endangered Species of Elaphrus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Ground Beetle Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the basic life-history of endangered species is the first important step in the conservation of such species. This study examined the reproductive ecology and the preimaginal morphology of the endangered ground beetle Elaphrus sugai Nakane (Coleoptera: Carabidae); currently, the Watarase wetland of the central Kanto Plain, Japan is the only confirmed locality of this beetle species. Laboratory rearing of reproductive adults collected in early April revealed that females can lay more than 131 eggs. Eggs were laid in mud, without an egg chamber. Larvae reached adulthood when fed a diet of mealworms, indicating that E. sugai larvae are insect larvae feeders. An earthworm diet, the optimal diet for larvae of a congeneric species (E. punctatus Motschulsky), was lethal to E. sugai larvae. The egg stage was 3-4 days in duration under a 16L8D cycle (22°C). The duration from hatching to adult eclosion was 23-42 days at various temperatures simulating those of the reproductive period. Larval morphology was similar to that of consubgeneric species described previously. The pupa is unusual, in that the setae on the abdominal tergites are long (twice as long as those of the abdominal segment) and have somewhat "coiled" apices. Finally, the current endangered status of E. sugai was compared to that of E. viridis Horn, which has been regarded as the most endangered species of the genus worldwide.

  7. Notes on the Reproductive Ecology and Description of the Preimaginal Morphology of Elaphrus sugai Nakane, the Most Endangered Species of Elaphrus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Ground Beetle Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the basic life-history of endangered species is the first important step in the conservation of such species. This study examined the reproductive ecology and the preimaginal morphology of the endangered ground beetle Elaphrus sugai Nakane (Coleoptera: Carabidae); currently, the Watarase wetland of the central Kanto Plain, Japan is the only confirmed locality of this beetle species. Laboratory rearing of reproductive adults collected in early April revealed that females can lay more than 131 eggs. Eggs were laid in mud, without an egg chamber. Larvae reached adulthood when fed a diet of mealworms, indicating that E. sugai larvae are insect larvae feeders. An earthworm diet, the optimal diet for larvae of a congeneric species (E. punctatus Motschulsky), was lethal to E. sugai larvae. The egg stage was 3-4 days in duration under a 16L8D cycle (22°C). The duration from hatching to adult eclosion was 23-42 days at various temperatures simulating those of the reproductive period. Larval morphology was similar to that of consubgeneric species described previously. The pupa is unusual, in that the setae on the abdominal tergites are long (twice as long as those of the abdominal segment) and have somewhat "coiled" apices. Finally, the current endangered status of E. sugai was compared to that of E. viridis Horn, which has been regarded as the most endangered species of the genus worldwide. PMID:27415755

  8. Phylogeny of Japanese stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) inferred from 16S mtrRNA gene sequences, with reference to the evolution of sexual dimorphism of mandibles.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio

    2005-12-01

    As a first step in reconstructing the phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), phylogenetic relationships among the major members of Japanese stag beetles were explored by analyzing a sequence of 1030 nucleotides from the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. A total of 20 species and three additional subspecies representing 13 genera were examined to provide basic information on the phylogeny of world Lucanidae. The resultant phylogenetic tree indicates that the family Lucanidae is monophyletic, and contains two major lineages: one consists of the genera Platycerus, Aesalus, Ceruchus, and Nicagus, and the other includes Dorcus, Rhaetulus, Prosopocoilus, Aegus, Neolucanus, Prismognathus, Lucanus, Figulus, and Nigidius. Generic members of the latter lineage are further divided into the following four sublineages: i) Figulus and Nigidius; ii) Prismognathus and Lucanus; iii) Aegus and Neolucanus; and iv) Dorcus, Rhaetulus, and Prosopocoilus. These molecular phylogenetic relationships are used as a basis for a preliminary exploration of the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the shape of the mandible. The results of this investigation suggest that strong sexual dimorphism with well-developed mandibles in males evolved independently at least twice, once in the genus Aegus and once in the ancestor of the Lucanus-Prismognathus and Dorcus-Rhaetulus-Prosopocoilus clades. Alternatively, it is possible that sexual dimorphism of mandibles has undergone secondary loss in the genera Figulus and Nigidius. PMID:16462103

  9. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai‘i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax

  10. Incidence of male-killing Rickettsia spp. (alpha-proteobacteria) in the ten-spot ladybird beetle Adalia decempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    von der Schulenburg, J H; Habig, M; Sloggett, J J; Webberley, K M; Bertrand, D; Hurst, G D; Majerus, M E

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of endosymbiotic bacteria that kill male host offspring during embryogenesis and their frequencies in certain groups of host taxa suggest that the evolution of male killing and the subsequent spread of male-killing symbionts are primarily determined by host life history characteristics. We studied the 10-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia decempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), in which male killing has not been recorded previously, to test this hypothesis, and we also assessed the evolution of the male killer identified by DNA sequence analysis. Our results show that A. decempunctata harbors male-killing Rickettsia (alpha-proteobacteria). Male-killing bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia have previously been reported only for the congeneric two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. Phylogenetic analysis of Rickettsia DNA sequences isolated from different populations of the two host species revealed a single origin of male killing in the genus Rickettsia. The data also indicated possible horizontal transfer of symbionts between host species. In addition, A. bipunctata is known to bear at least four different male-killing symbionts in its geographic range two of which coexist in the two locations from which A. decempunctata specimens were obtained for the present study. Since only a single male-killing taxon was found in A. decempunctata, we assume that the two closely related ladybird beetle species must differ in the number and/or geographic distribution of male killers. We discuss the importance of these findings to our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of symbiotic associations between male-killing bacteria and their insect hosts.

  11. Checklist of tortoise beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Colombia with new data and description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Borowiec, Lech; Świętojańska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new tortoise beetle species, Cyrtonota abrili, is described from the Antioquia and Caldas departments in Colombia. New faunistic data are provided for 87 species, including 16 new additions to the country’s fauna. A checklist of the known 238 species of tortoise beetles recorded from Colombia is given. PMID:26448702

  12. Ethanol-injection induces attacks by ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) on a variety of tree species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles have become serious pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Injecting Magnolia virginiana L. with ethanol has reliably induced attacks by exotic ambrosia beetles to facilitate research on their biology and management. In the current study, ethanol-injection was tested on a vari...

  13. Cloning and characterization of an MRNA encoding an insulin receptor from the horned scarab beetle Onthophagus nigriventris (Coleoptera: scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insulin signaling pathway has been implicated in the control of insect polyphenisms for some caste-forming insects and potentially has a role in horn dimorphisms in beetles. Males of the sexually dimorphic dung beetle Onthophagus nigriventris develop a magnificent thoracic horn up to twice the l...

  14. [Ecological description of the ground beetle population (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in northern taiga meadows of Arkhangel'sk Region].

    PubMed

    Filippov, B Iu; Zezin, I S

    2006-01-01

    Species composition and ecological structure of ground beetle population was studied in northern taiga meadows of the Arkhangelsk Region. Meadows in the northern forest zone proved to harbor 91 ground beetle species. Carabid complexes formed in the intrazonal biocenoses of the northern forest zone can be as rich as the topical groups of the family in the southern forest zone by the number of species and ecological diversity. Ecological properties of the fauna and ground beetle population proved similar in different parts of the forest zone. The proportion of stenobiotic meadow species proved to decrease while that of ecologically plastic ones increased from south to north. The proportion of the genus Harpalus decreased in the ground beetle population while the number of Amara species remained unaltered and their abundance increased. The changes in the species composition caused no transformation of the ecological structure of ground beetle population since they are limited to a single life form or guild.

  15. Effects of Chitin and Contact Insecticide Complexes on Rove Beetles in Commercial Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Balog, A.; Ferencz, L.; Hartel, T.

    2011-01-01

    A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility. PMID:21870981

  16. Effects of chitin and contact insecticide complexes on rove beetles in commercial orchards.

    PubMed

    Balog, A; Ferencz, L; Hartel, T

    2011-01-01

    A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility.

  17. Effects of chitin and contact insecticide complexes on rove beetles in commercial orchards.

    PubMed

    Balog, A; Ferencz, L; Hartel, T

    2011-01-01

    A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility. PMID:21870981

  18. Field-scale dispersal of Aphodius dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in response to avermectin treatments on pastured cattle.

    PubMed

    Webb, L; Beaumont, D J; Nager, R G; McCracken, D I

    2010-04-01

    Very few studies have examined, at the field scale, the potential for faecal residues in the dung of avermectin-treated cattle to affect dung-breeding insects. The current study examined populations of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Aphodius) using pitfall traps baited with dung from untreated cattle on 26 fields across eight farms in southwest Scotland. The fields were grazed either by untreated cattle or by cattle treated with an avermectin product, i.e. doramectin or ivermectin. During the two-year study, significantly more beetles were trapped in fields grazed by treated cattle (n=9377 beetles) than in fields where cattle remained untreated (n=2483 beetles). Additional trials showed that beetles preferentially colonised dung of untreated versus doramectin-treated cattle. This may explain the higher captures of beetles in traps baited with dung of untreated cattle, which were located in fields of treated cattle. Given that Aphodius beetles avoided dung of treated cattle in the current study, the potential harmful effects of avermectin residues in cattle dung could be reduced through livestock management practices that maximise the availability of dung from untreated livestock in areas where avermectins are being used.

  19. Population trends and flight behavior of the American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae), on Block Island, RI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raithel, C.J.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Prospero, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus, was monitored on Block Island, RI, USA, from 1991-2003 using mark-recapture population estimates of adults collected in pitfall traps. Populations increased through time, especially after 1994 when a program was initiated that provided carrion for beetle production. Beetle captures increased with increasing temperature and dew point, and decreased with increasing wind speed. Short distance movement was not related to wind direction, while longer distance flights tended to be downwind. Although many individuals flew considerable distances along transects, most recaptures were in traps near the point of release. These behaviors probably have counterbalancing effects on population estimates.

  20. Antibothrus morimotoi Sasaji, an Old World cocoon-forming beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinelloidea: Bothrideridae) newly established in North America.

    PubMed

    Mcelrath, Thomas C; Androw, Robert A; Mchugh, Joseph V

    2016-01-01

    Antibothrus morimotoi Sasaji, a cocoon-forming beetle (Coccinelloidea: Bothrideridae) native to the Palearctic region, is newly reported from North America. In 2013 and 2015, several series of specimens were collected during an ongoing USDA/APHIS/PPQ exotic bark beetle survey in Franklin County, Ohio, U.S.A. This is the first confirmed record of the species and genus in the New World. The capture of these specimens suggests that the beetle is established in the greater Columbus, Ohio, metropolitan  area. PMID:27615843

  1. Seasonal flight activity and distribution of metallic woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) collected in North Carolina and Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metallic wood boring insects (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) species are responsible for high levels of host plant injury to deciduous shade and flowering trees in commercial nurseries, urban forests, and managed landscapes. Ornamental plant producers in the southeastern U.S. have ranked borers, includin...

  2. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported. PMID:27470760

  3. [Life cycles of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe in the Eastern Sayan].

    PubMed

    Khobrakova, L Ts; Sharova, I Kh

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics and demographic structure was studied in 15 dominant ground beetle species in the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe belts of the Eastern Sayan (Okinskoe Plateau). Life cycles of the dominant ground beetle species were classified by developmental time, seasonal dynamics, and intrapopulation groups with different reproduction timing. The strategies of carabid life cycles adapted to severe mountain conditions of the Eastern Sayan were revealed.

  4. Possible living fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini).

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (Chanealtica cuevas, Chanealtica ellimon, and Chanealtica maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby, 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne, 1958, Psylliodes Berthold, 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein, 2010. Remarkably, based on the available characters, among all the flea beetles, Chanealtica is mostly similar to an extinct genus Psyllototus. A discussion of diversity and function of the hind leg in flea beetles is provided.

  5. Possible living fossil in Bolivia: A new genus of flea beetles with modified hind legs (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini)

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus (Chanealtica) with three new species (Chanealtica cuevas, Chanealtica ellimon, and Chanealtica maxi) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is compared with Aphthonoides Jacoby, 1885, Argopistes Motschulsky, 1860, Metroserrapha Bechyne, 1958, Psylliodes Berthold, 1827 and Psyllototus Nadein, 2010. Remarkably, based on the available characters, among all the flea beetles, Chanealtica is mostly similar to an extinct genus Psyllototus. A discussion of diversity and function of the hind leg in flea beetles is provided. PMID:27408546

  6. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults during early host colonization.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Caitlin; Robert, Jeanne A; Bonnett, Tiffany R; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle), structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton), and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction. PMID:25360753

  7. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults during early host colonization.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Caitlin; Robert, Jeanne A; Bonnett, Tiffany R; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle), structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton), and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20), including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  8. Microsclerotia of Metarhizium brunneum F52 Applied in Hydromulch for Control of Asian Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Goble, Tarryn A; Hajek, Ann E; Jackson, Mark A; Gardescu, Sana

    2015-04-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) is able to produce environmentally persistent microsclerotia (hyphal aggregates). Microsclerotia of strain F52 produced as granules and incorporated into hydromulch (hydro-seeding straw, water, and a natural glue) provides a novel mycoinsecticide that could be sprayed onto urban, forest, or orchard trees. We tested this formulation against adult Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) using three substrates (moistened bark, dry bark, absorbent bench liner) sprayed with a low rate (9 microsclerotia granules/cm2) of hydromulch. Median survival times of beetles continuously exposed to sprayed moist bark or absorbent liner were 17.5 and 19.5 d, respectively. Beetles exposed to sprayed dry bark, which had a lower measured water activity, lived significantly longer. When moist bark pieces were sprayed with increased rates of microsclerotia granules in hydromulch, 50% died by 12.5 d at the highest application rate, significantly sooner than beetles exposed to lower application rates (16.5-17.5 d). To measure fecundity effects, hydromulch with or without microsclerotia was sprayed onto small logs and pairs of beetles were exposed for a 2-wk oviposition period in containers with 98 or 66% relative humidity. At 98% humidity, oviposition in the logs was highest for controls (18.3±1.4 viable offspring per female) versus 3.9±0.8 for beetles exposed to microsclerotia. At 66% humidity, fecundities of controls and beetles exposed to microsclerotia were not significantly different. This article presents the first evaluation of M. brunneum microsclerotia in hydromulch applied for control of an arboreal insect pest.

  9. Microsclerotia of Metarhizium brunneum F52 Applied in Hydromulch for Control of Asian Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Goble, Tarryn A; Hajek, Ann E; Jackson, Mark A; Gardescu, Sana

    2015-04-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) is able to produce environmentally persistent microsclerotia (hyphal aggregates). Microsclerotia of strain F52 produced as granules and incorporated into hydromulch (hydro-seeding straw, water, and a natural glue) provides a novel mycoinsecticide that could be sprayed onto urban, forest, or orchard trees. We tested this formulation against adult Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) using three substrates (moistened bark, dry bark, absorbent bench liner) sprayed with a low rate (9 microsclerotia granules/cm2) of hydromulch. Median survival times of beetles continuously exposed to sprayed moist bark or absorbent liner were 17.5 and 19.5 d, respectively. Beetles exposed to sprayed dry bark, which had a lower measured water activity, lived significantly longer. When moist bark pieces were sprayed with increased rates of microsclerotia granules in hydromulch, 50% died by 12.5 d at the highest application rate, significantly sooner than beetles exposed to lower application rates (16.5-17.5 d). To measure fecundity effects, hydromulch with or without microsclerotia was sprayed onto small logs and pairs of beetles were exposed for a 2-wk oviposition period in containers with 98 or 66% relative humidity. At 98% humidity, oviposition in the logs was highest for controls (18.3±1.4 viable offspring per female) versus 3.9±0.8 for beetles exposed to microsclerotia. At 66% humidity, fecundities of controls and beetles exposed to microsclerotia were not significantly different. This article presents the first evaluation of M. brunneum microsclerotia in hydromulch applied for control of an arboreal insect pest. PMID:26470154

  10. Functional morphology of the copulatory organs of a reed beetle and a shining leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Donaciinae, Criocerinae) using X-ray micro-computed tomography *

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Uhl, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For more than 100 years it has been known that the sclerotised median lobe of beetles harbours a membranous structure (the "internal sac" or "endophallus") which is everted during copula inside the female genital tract. In order to explore the functional role of this structure and those associated with it, we cryofixed copulating pairs of Donacia semicuprea and Lilioceris lilii and studied the relative position of the elements of the copulatory apparatus of males and females by micro-computer-tomography. We found that the everted endophallus fills the lumen of the bursa copulatrix completely. Our data suggest that in Lilioceris lilii the tip of the sclerotised distal part of the ejaculatory duct, the flagellum, is positioned exactly over the opening of the spermathecal duct inside the bursa copulatrix. The mouth of the bursa copulatrix in Donacia semicuprea is armed with a strong muscle ring, and the whole wall of the bursa is covered externally with a layer of muscle fibres. These morphological differences correspond with differences in mating behaviour: In reed beetles (Donaciinae), females seemingly can control mating to a higher degree than in lily beetles (Lilioceris spp.). PMID:26798321

  11. Functional morphology of the copulatory organs of a reed beetle and a shining leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Donaciinae, Criocerinae) using X-ray micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Michael; Uhl, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    For more than 100 years it has been known that the sclerotised median lobe of beetles harbours a membranous structure (the "internal sac" or "endophallus") which is everted during copula inside the female genital tract. In order to explore the functional role of this structure and those associated with it, we cryofixed copulating pairs of Donacia semicuprea and Lilioceris lilii and studied the relative position of the elements of the copulatory apparatus of males and females by micro-computer-tomography. We found that the everted endophallus fills the lumen of the bursa copulatrix completely. Our data suggest that in Lilioceris lilii the tip of the sclerotised distal part of the ejaculatory duct, the flagellum, is positioned exactly over the opening of the spermathecal duct inside the bursa copulatrix. The mouth of the bursa copulatrix in Donacia semicuprea is armed with a strong muscle ring, and the whole wall of the bursa is covered externally with a layer of muscle fibres. These morphological differences correspond with differences in mating behaviour: In reed beetles (Donaciinae), females seemingly can control mating to a higher degree than in lily beetles (Lilioceris spp.). PMID:26798321

  12. Dusky sap beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and other kernel damaging insects in Bt and non-Bt sweet corn in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Dowd, P F

    2000-12-01

    Bt and non-Bt sweet corn hybrids (Rogers 'Empire' Bt and non-Bt, respectively) were compared for distribution of kernel damaging insect pests in central Illinois in 1998 and 1999. The occurrence and damage by caterpillars [primarily Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] were reduced by at least 80% in each year for the Bt compared with the non-Bt hybrid. However, the incidence of sap beetle adults (primarily Carpophilus lugubris Murray) was higher, and larvae, lower for the Bt versus non-Bt in 1999. The incidence of ears with more than five kernels damaged by sap beetles was higher for the Bt compared with non-Bt hybrid in 1998 (13.8 versus 5.5%), but nearly equivalent in 1999 (15.3 versus 15.1%, respectively). Distribution of predators on plants (primarily Coccinelidae) and harvested ears (primarily Orius spp.) were not significantly different on Bt versus non-Bt hybrids. Ears with husks flush with the ear tip or with ear tips exposed had significantly higher sap beetle damage for both hybrids, and the Bt hybrids had significantly higher incidence of exposed ear tips in both years. Sap beetle numbers determined by scouting were often proportional to numbers of beetles captured in baited traps, increasing and decreasing at about the same time. However, values determined with traps were typically less variable than when scouted, and time of sampling was typically four times more rapid for each trap than for each 10 plant scout sample when measured in 1999. PMID:11142303

  13. A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D

    2014-04-29

    A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.

  14. A unique midgut-associated bacterial community hosted by the cave beetle Cansiliella servadeii (Coleoptera: Leptodirini) reveals parallel phylogenetic divergences from universal gut-specific ancestors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cansiliella servadeii (Coleoptera) is an endemic troglobite living in deep carbonate caves in North-Eastern Italy. The beetle constantly moves and browses in its preferred habitat (consisting in flowing water and moonmilk, a soft speleothem colonized by microorganisms) self-preens to convey material from elytra, legs, and antennae towards the mouth. We investigated its inner and outer microbiota using microscopy and DNA-based approaches. Results Abundant microbial cell masses were observed on the external appendages. Cansiliella’s midgut is fully colonized by live microbes and culture-independent analyses yielded nearly 30 different 16S phylotypes that have no overlap with the community composition of the moonmilk. Many of the lineages, dominated by Gram positive groups, share very low similarity to database sequences. However for most cases, notwithstanding their very limited relatedness with existing records, phylotypes could be assigned to bacterial clades that had been retrieved from insect or other animals’ digestive traits. Conclusions Results suggest a history of remote separation from a common ancestor that harboured a set of gut-specific bacteria whose functions are supposedly critical for host physiology. The phylogenetic and coevolutionary implications of the parallel occurrences of these prokaryotic guilds appear to apply throughout a broad spectrum of animal diversity. Their persistence and conservation underlies a possibly critical role of precise bacterial assemblages in animal-bacteria interactions. PMID:23758657

  15. Knockout of a transgene by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in the sawfly, Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera) and the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, M; Yatomi, J; Sumitani, M; Takasu, Y; Sekiné, K; Niimi, T; Sezutsu, H

    2016-02-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are efficient tools for targeted genome editing and have been utilized in a number of insects. Here, we demonstrate the gene disruption (knockout) caused by TALENs targeting a transgene, 3xP3-driven enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), that is integrated in the genome of two species, the sawfly Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera) and the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera). Messenger RNAs of TALENs targeting the sequences adjacent to the chromophore region were microinjected into the eggs/embryos of each species. In At. rosae, when microinjection was performed at the posterior end of eggs, 15% of G(0) individuals showed a somatic mosaic phenotype for eye EGFP fluorescence. Three-quarters of the somatic mosaics produced EGFP-negative G(1) progeny. When eggs were injected at the anterior end, 63% of the G(0) individuals showed somatic mosaicism, and 17% of them produced EGFP-negative G(1) progeny. In H. axyridis, 25% of posterior-injected and 8% of anterior-injected G(0) individuals produced EGFP-negative G(1) progeny. In both species, the EGFP-negative progeny retained the EGFP gene, and various deletions were detected in the target sequences, indicating that gene disruption was successfully induced. Finally, for both species, 18-21% of G(0) founders produced gene knockout progeny sufficient for establishing knockout strains. PMID:26496859

  16. Taxonomy, host-plant associations and phylogeny of African Crotalaria-feeding seed beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae): the Conicobruchus strangulatus (Fåhraeus) species group.

    PubMed

    Le Ru, Bruno P; Delobel, Alex; György, Zoltán; Genson, Gwenaëlle; Kergoat, Gael J

    2014-12-15

    A small group of six morphologically related seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) belonging to the Conicobruchus genus is reviewed. Species in this group for which host-plants are known feed on various species of Crotalaria (Fabaceae, Crotalarieae). Here we provide diagnoses and a dichotomous key for all six species. The following synonymies are proposed: Conicobruchus cicatricosus (Fåhraeus, 1839) (= Bruchus cicatricosus pallidioripennis Pic, 1941) syn. nov.; Conicobruchus strangulatus (Fåhraeus, 1839) (= Bruchus hargreavesi Pic, 1933) syn. nov. The corresponding Conicobruchus strangulatus species group is hereby designated. New host-plant data are also included, which correspond to the results of recent collections of legume pods in East Africa. In addition we carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses on a representative sampling of Conicobruchus species (including the six species of interest). The latter allow us to assess the monophyly of the group of interest and to unravel their evolutionary relationships. Molecular phylogenetic analyses also indicate that at least two lineages of Conicobruchus successfully shifted toward Crotalarieae during the course of their diversification. 

  17. On the identity of the fossil aquatic beetles from the Tertiary localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, Fikáček; Hájek, Jiří; Schmied, Heiko

    2011-01-28

    This study focuses on the fossil beetles assigned previously to the family Hydrophilidae described from the localities in the southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben: Brunstatt (France, Alsace) and Kleinkems (Germany, Baden-Württemberg) (both dated ca. to Eocene-Oligocene boundary, 34 Ma). The identity of Escheria convexa Förster, 1891 is fixed by the designation of its neotype, the species is redescribed, illustrated, transferred from the hydrophilid genus Hydrobius Leach, 1815 to the genus Copelatus Erichson, 1832 (Coleoptera: Adephaga: Dytiscidae) and compared with other fossil representatives of Copelatus. The identity of the remaining three species, Hydrobius crassipunctatus (Förster, 1891), Hydrobius dimidiatus (Förster, 1891) and Hydrobius punctulatus (Förster, 1891),is briefly evaluated on the basis of the original descriptions and illustrations only, because their types were lost or destroyed during World War II; all three species are removed from the fossil record of the Hydrophiloidea and placed into Polyphagaincertae sedis. The geology and stratigraphy of Brunnstatt and Kleinkems are discussed briefly.

  18. [Photoperiod-temperature interaction--a new form of seasonal control of growth and development in insects and in particular carabid beetle, Amara communis (coleoptera: carabidae)].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, E B; Kipiatkov, V E; Balashov, C V; Kucherov, D A

    2011-01-01

    Amara communis larvae are found to develop significantly faster and have higher growth rate at short-day (12 h) as compared to long-day (22 h) photoperiods under all temperatures (16, 18, 20 and 22 degrees C) used. The coefficient of linear regression of larval development rate on temperature was significantly higher at short days than at long days. At that thermal developmental thresholds appeared similar at both photoperiods. Body weight of young beetles reared under different photoperiods was just the same. Thus, the photoperiodic effect does not simply accelerate or retard insect development, but modifies their thermal reaction norm. Under short days larval development becomes faster and more temperature dependent, which ensures the timely completion of the development at the end of summer. The analysis of data from literature allowed us to find photoperiodic modification of thermal requirements for development in 5 insect orders--Orthoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera. Modification may result in significant changes in the slope of the regression line and hence in the sum of degree-days and thermal developmental threshold. Consequently, during summer under the influence of changing day-length the thermal requirements for development in many insects gradually vary, which may have adaptive significance. Thus, the photoperiodic modification of thermal reaction norm acts as a specific form of seasonal control of insect development.

  19. Inventory of the carabid beetle fauna of the Gaoligong Mountains, western Yunnan Province, China: species of the tribe Zabrini (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, David H.; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. PMID:24899831

  20. Deep supercooling, vitrification and limited survival to -100{degrees}C in the Alaskan beetle Cucujus clavipes puniceus (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Sformo, T; Walters, K; Jeannet, K; Wowk, B; Fahy, G M; Barnes, B M; Duman, J G

    2010-02-01

    Larvae of the freeze-avoiding beetle Cucujus clavipes puniceus (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) in Alaska have mean supercooling points in winter of -35 to -42 degrees C, with the lowest supercooling point recorded for an individual of -58 degrees C. We previously noted that some larvae did not freeze when cooled to -80 degrees C, and we speculated that these larvae vitrified. Here we present evidence through differential scanning calorimetry that C. c. puniceus larvae transition into a glass-like state at temperatures<-58 degrees C and can avoid freezing to at least -150 degrees C. This novel finding adds vitrification to the list of insect overwintering strategies. While overwintering beneath the bark of fallen trees, C. c. puniceus larvae may experience low ambient temperatures of around -40 degrees C (and lower) when microhabitat is un-insulated because of low snow cover. Decreasing temperatures in winter are correlated with loss of body water from summer high levels near 2.0 to winter lows near 0.4 mg mg(-1) dry mass and concomitant increases in glycerol concentrations (4-6 mol l(-1)) and thermal hysteresis. Finally, we provide direct evidence that Cucujus from Wiseman, Alaska, survive temperatures to -100 degrees C.

  1. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Panigaj, Ľubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader. PMID:24899863

  2. Genetic variation in the effect of monoamines on female mating receptivity and oviposition in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Female mate choice after mating is a strong force in sexual selection and could lead to coevolution of mating traits between the sexes. How females of different genotypes respond to substances in the male ejaculate should be mediated by females’ mate choices. Monoamines regulate animal physiology and behavior, including the post-mating behavior of females of the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). This study examined differences in females’ response to four monoamines (dopamine, octopamine, tyramine, serotonin) between strains from different populations of C. chinensis. Results Injection with either octopamine or tyramine, two kinds of monoamines significantly reduced female receptivity in two strains with low remating frequencies. None of the four monoamines reduced female receptivity in one strain with high remating frequencies. However, all monoamines reduced it in another strain with high remating frequencies. Oviposition was activated by tyramine on days 1–5 or by serotonin on days 4 and 5 in the two strains with low remating frequencies, but only on day 1 or day 4 in the strains with high remating frequencies. Conclusion These differences in female response to monoamines, especially tyramine and serotonin, correspond with results of previous studies. They indicate differences in female response to male substances that reduce receptivity and activate oviposition. These findings suggest relationships between the differences in female response to male substances among populations and mutations in the pathways of monoamine biosynthesis or transmission, which in turn determine female mate choice in response to male substances. PMID:25098756

  3. Knockout of a transgene by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in the sawfly, Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera) and the ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, M; Yatomi, J; Sumitani, M; Takasu, Y; Sekiné, K; Niimi, T; Sezutsu, H

    2016-02-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are efficient tools for targeted genome editing and have been utilized in a number of insects. Here, we demonstrate the gene disruption (knockout) caused by TALENs targeting a transgene, 3xP3-driven enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), that is integrated in the genome of two species, the sawfly Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera) and the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera). Messenger RNAs of TALENs targeting the sequences adjacent to the chromophore region were microinjected into the eggs/embryos of each species. In At. rosae, when microinjection was performed at the posterior end of eggs, 15% of G(0) individuals showed a somatic mosaic phenotype for eye EGFP fluorescence. Three-quarters of the somatic mosaics produced EGFP-negative G(1) progeny. When eggs were injected at the anterior end, 63% of the G(0) individuals showed somatic mosaicism, and 17% of them produced EGFP-negative G(1) progeny. In H. axyridis, 25% of posterior-injected and 8% of anterior-injected G(0) individuals produced EGFP-negative G(1) progeny. In both species, the EGFP-negative progeny retained the EGFP gene, and various deletions were detected in the target sequences, indicating that gene disruption was successfully induced. Finally, for both species, 18-21% of G(0) founders produced gene knockout progeny sufficient for establishing knockout strains.

  4. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader. PMID:24899863

  5. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  6. The push-pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Nancy E; Mehmel, Constance J; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Wood, David L; Erbilgin, Nadir; Owen, Donald R

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in two studies. The first was conducted on replicated 4.04-ha plots in lodgepole pine stands (California, 2008) and the second on 0.81-ha plots in whitebark pine stands (Washington, 2010). In both studies, D. ponderosae population levels were moderate to severe. The treatments were 1) push-only (D. ponderosae antiaggregant semiochemicals alone); 2) push-pull (D. ponderosae antiaggregants plus perimeter traps placed at regular intervals, baited with four-component D. ponderosae aggregation pheromone); and 3) untreated controls. We installed monitoring traps baited with two-component D. ponderosae lures inside each plot to assess effect of treatments on beetle flight. In California, fewer beetles were collected in push-pull treated plots than in control plots, but push-only did not have a significant effect on trap catch. Both treatments significantly reduced the rate of mass and strip attacks by D. ponderosae, but the difference in attack rates between push-pull and push-only was not significant. In Washington, both push-pull and push-only treatments significantly reduced numbers of beetles caught in traps. Differences between attack rates in treated and control plots in Washington were not significant, but the push-only treatment reduced attack rates by 30% compared with both the control and push-pull treatment. We conclude that, at these spatial scales and beetle densities, push-only may be preferable for mitigating D. ponderosae attack because it is much less expensive, simpler, and adding trap-out does not appear to improve efficacy. PMID:23321106

  7. How Does Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Diversity Vary Along a Rainy Season in a Tropical Dry Forest?

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Samuel M. A.; Evangelista, Lucas A.; Reis-Júni