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Sample records for behandling af postmenopausal

  1. [Postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    László, Adám

    2004-01-04

    Due to its incidence and clinical consequences osteoporosis followed by vertebral, hip, and forearm fractures represents an outstanding problem of nowadays' health care. Because of its high mortality rate hip fractures are of special interest. The number of fractures caused by postmenopausal osteoporosis increases with age. Costs of examinations and treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and fractures are also increasing and represent a significant amount all over the world. Organization of Osteoporosis Centres in Hungary was founded in 1995 and has been since functioning, however, only the one-sixth of osteoporotic patients are treated. Several risk factors are known in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, first of all the lack of sufficient calcium and vitamin D intake, age, genetic factors, and circumstances known to predispose falling. Estrogen deficiency is the most likely cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteodensitometry by DEXA is the most important method to evaluate osteoporosis, since decrease in bone mineral density strongly correlates with fracture incidence. Physical, radiologic, and laboratory examination are also required at the first visit and during follow-up. The quantity of bone can hardly be influenced after the 35th year of age, thus prevention of osteoporosis has special significance: appropriate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, weight-bearing sports and physical activity can prevent fractures. According to the results from studies fulfilling the criteria of evidence-based medicine, first choice treatment of osteoporosis involves hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates, the tissue specific tibolone, raloxifen and calcitonin. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation are always necessary to be added to any antiporotic treatment. Other combinations of different antiporotic drugs are useless and make the treatment more expensive. Other treatments like massage, physiotherapy, hip-protecting pants, etc. as well as

  2. Postmenopausal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Pronob K.; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is one of the most significant events in a woman's life and brings in a number of physiological changes that affect the life of a woman permanently. There have been a lot of speculations about the symptoms that appear before, during and after the onset of menopause. These symptoms constitute the postmenopausal syndrome; they are impairing to a great extent to the woman and management of these symptoms has become an important field of research lately. This chapter attempts to understand these symptoms, the underlying pathophysiology and the management options available. PMID:26330639

  3. Postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Eastell, Richard; O'Neill, Terence W; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Langdahl, Bente; Reid, Ian R; Gold, Deborah T; Cummings, Steven R

    2016-09-29

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that is characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue. Fractures of the proximal femur, the vertebrae and the distal radius are the most frequent osteoporotic fractures, although most fractures in the elderly are probably at least partly related to bone fragility. The incidence of fractures varies greatly by country, but on average up to 50% of women >50 years of age are at risk of fractures. Fractures severely affect the quality of life of an individual and are becoming a major public health problem owing to the ageing population. Postmenopausal osteoporosis, resulting from oestrogen deficiency, is the most common type of osteoporosis. Oestrogen deficiency results in an increase in bone turnover owing to effects on all types of bone cells. The imbalance in bone formation and resorption has effects on trabecular bone (loss of connectivity) and cortical bone (cortical thinning and porosity). Osteoporosis is diagnosed using bone density measurements of the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Preventive strategies to improve bone health include diet, exercise and abstaining from smoking. Fractures may be prevented by reducing falls in high-risk populations. Several drugs are licensed to reduce fracture risk by slowing down bone resorption (such as bisphosphonates and denosumab) or by stimulating bone formation (such as teriparatide). Improved understanding of the cellular basis for osteoporosis has resulted in new drugs targeted to key pathways, which are under development.

  4. Postmenopausal skin and estrogen.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F

    2012-10-01

    The aging global population continues to drive increasing demand for cosmaceuticals and cosmetic surgery among older men and women. Since the discovery in the 1990s that estrogen receptors are present in skin cells and decline in number from the onset of menopause in women, researchers have explored a number of ways in which estrogen can improve skin condition. Skin is estrogen responsive, and several studies now exist to support the antiaging properties of estrogen replacement therapies in postmenopausal women. Both systemic and topical estrogens appear to have positive effects on hormonal aging, increasing skin collagen content, thickness, elasticity and hydration. Estrogen therapies may also improve wound healing and reduce the incidence of wound complications. This review explores the potential for targeted estrogen replacement as a therapeutic option for long-term skin management in postmenopausal women.

  5. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances.

  6. Management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Frederick T; Kivitz, Alan J; Sands, Earl E

    2003-10-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, reduction in quality of life, and increasing health care costs. It is estimated that 1.5 million women in the United States have one or more osteoporosis-related fractures annually. Fractures may occur at any site, but vertebral fractures are the most common. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated a decreased life expectancy associated with both vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. Once an initial fracture occurs, there is a fivefold increased risk of a second fracture within 1 year. The management of osteoporosis today incorporates multiple modalities of therapy. In addition to early detection, patient education, exercise, and nutritional supplementation, multiple therapeutic agents should be implemented early in an attempt to prevent initial and subsequent fractures. This article reviews currently approved modalities of therapy for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. [Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Chapurlat, Roland; Delmas, Pierre D

    2004-12-15

    The treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis relies on management of some risk factors for fracture, e.g., risk factors for falls, improvement of calcium and vitamin D intake, and on various medications. All elderly women with calcium and vitamin D deficiency should receive calcium and vitamin D supplements. Estrogen replacement therapy should not longer be used to prevent or treat postmenopausal osteoporosis, owing to its poor long-term risk/benefit ratio. Raloxifene, biphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate) are well tolerated compounds with proven anti-fracture efficacy. Teriparatide is a new bone forming agent to treat severe osteoporosis. Strontium ranelate is a new drug also reducing the risk of fractures that should be available soon.

  8. Hypertension in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2012-06-01

    Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men, but cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women.

  9. Clinical Practice. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Black, Dennis M; Rosen, Clifford J

    2016-01-21

    Key Clinical Points Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Fractures and osteoporosis are common, particularly among older women, and hip fractures can be devastating. Treatment is generally recommended in postmenopausal women who have a bone mineral density T score of -2.5 or less, a history of spine or hip fracture, or a Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) score indicating increased fracture risk. Bisphosphonates (generic) and denosumab reduce the risk of hip, nonvertebral, and vertebral fractures; bisphosphonates are commonly used as first-line treatment in women who do not have contraindications. Teriparatide reduces the risk of nonvertebral and vertebral fractures. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures have been reported with treatment but are rare. The benefit-to-risk ratio for osteoporosis treatment is strongly positive for most women with osteoporosis. Because benefits are retained after discontinuation of alendronate or zoledronic acid, drug holidays after 5 years of alendronate therapy or 3 years of zoledronic acid therapy may be considered for patients at lower risk for fracture.

  10. Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women. PMID:22427070

  11. [Therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Keck, E

    2003-12-01

    The therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis is based on a few comprehensible assumptions. High bone resorption should be reduced by treatment with bisphosphonates, raloxifene or seldom with calcitonins. After reduction of high bone turnover and in low bone turnover situations, an osteoinductive combination therapy should be started, inducing collagen type I with parathyroid hormone or fluorides. This collagen can then be mineralized by calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin D metabolites. In addition, bone resorption should be reduced during menopause with estrogens and gestagens, in the case of a receptor-positive breast cancer with tamoxifen, and after menopause with raloxifene or a bisphosphonate. In elderly patients a depletion of vitamin D often induces an osteoporomalacia instead of an osteoporosis. In this situation, mineralization of the osteoid by calcium and vitamin D is sufficient for therapy. A daily osteoporosis gymnastic program is required and physical activity should be enhanced to increase muscle mass because bone adapts to the individual situation.

  12. Novel Therapies for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Leonardo; Bilezikian, John P

    2017-03-01

    Recently discovered mechanisms have assisted in developing new therapies for osteoporosis. New classes of drugs have been developed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Although there have been numerous advances over the past 2 decades, the search for newer therapies continues.

  13. Dyspareunia in postmenopausal women: A critical review

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Alina; Binik, Yitzchak M; Kapuscinski, Anita; Khalifé, Samir

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyspareunia, or pain during sexual intercourse, is among the problems most frequently reported by postmenopausal women. Past literature has almost unanimously attributed dyspareunic pain occurring during or after the menopausal transition to declining estrogen levels and vaginal atrophy. OBJECTIVES: To critically review the literature on the prevalence, risk factors, etiology, clinical presentation and treatment of post-menopausal dyspareunia. The present review also examines the traditional and widely held conceptualization of postmenopausal dyspareunia as a direct symptom of hormonal decline. METHODS: Searches of medical and psychological databases were performed for relevant articles and empirical studies. The methodological quality and outcomes of the studies were systematically reviewed. RESULTS: Available empirical evidence suggests that dyspareunia is common in postmenopausal women, and that it is not highly correlated with menopausal status, estrogen levels or vaginal atrophy. Decreasing levels of endogenous estrogen contribute to the development of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women suffering from vaginal atrophy. Hormonal supplementation is beneficial in alleviating their pain. However, a substantial proportion of treated women do not report relief. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal dyspareunia occurring concurrently with vaginal atrophy is strongly associated with a lack of estrogen in the genital tract. However, a significant percentage of postmenopausal women experience dyspareunic pain that is not caused by hypoestrogenism. It is likely that other types of dyspareunia that occur premenopausally are also occurring in postmenopausal women. Research is needed to adequately address this issue. A change in perspective toward a multiaxial pain-focused approach is proposed for future research concerning dyspareunia in postmenopausal women. PMID:18592062

  14. Estrogen therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A

    2006-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a worldwide problem that results in fractures that lead to disability and high costs to society. Estrogen therapy is frequently utilized for postmenopausal symptoms, but also has proven protective effects on the skeleton. The main action of estrogen at the cellular level is to inhibit the osteoclast by increasing levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG). OPG binds to the receptor activator of NFkB and prevents osteoclast differentiation, activity and survival. Numerous trials have demonstrated the positive effect estrogen has on the improvement of bone mineral density, and lower doses have also proven efficacious with fewer side effects. Both observational and randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the ability of estrogen treatment to prevent fractures. Topics that remain controversial include the appropriate length of estrogen treatment for postmenopausal women and the appropriate follow-up after treatment discontinuation.

  15. Post-Menopausal? Give Exercise a Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163625.html Post-Menopausal? Give Exercise a Try Study participants were fitter, felt better -- ... Feb. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- After menopause, moderate exercise can help women manage hot flashes, become more ...

  16. Denosumab: recent update in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Inês; Branco, Jaime C

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a major concern to public health. Fractures are the major clinical consequence of osteoporosis and are associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Bone strength determinants such as bone mineral density and bone quality parameters are determined by life-long remodeling of skeletal tissue. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) is a cytokine essential for osteoclast differentiation, activation and survival. Denosumab (Prolia®) is a fully human monoclonal antibody for RANKL, which selectively inhibits osteoclastogenesis, being recently approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women at a high or increased risk of fracture by the FDA in the United States and by the European Medicines Agency in Europe since June 2010. FREEDOM, DECIDE and STAND are the phase 3 trials comparing denosumab with placebo and alendronate in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The authors aim to update denosumab role in postmenopausal osteoporosis with a physiopathological review.

  17. Review of postmenopausal osteoporosis pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Stacey L

    2007-06-01

    The degradation of bone tissue leading to osteoporosis is often silent and unrecognized until a postmenopausal woman develops a bone fracture. The costs of medical treatment and subsequent changes in the quality of life of a patient are significant, and avoidance via proper nutrition, exercise, and pharmacologic therapy may be the key to decreasing healthcare costs associated with this disease state. A periodic review of current literature is necessary to update the reader of current therapeutic options for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. A number of medications exist, and new options are ongoing. Clinicians now have access to antiresorptive and anabolic therapy in addition to lifestyle modification as options for patients. This article consists of a review of established guidelines for screening, diagnosis, and pharmacologic modalities and will provide a comprehensive assessment of therapeutic options.

  18. Preventable breast cancer is postmenopausal.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Jan; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence has markedly increased in Western countries for reasons that are not entirely understood. We characterized periodic and age-specific incidence trends of breast cancer in immigrants who migrated from low incidence areas to Sweden. The incidence in immigrants was compared to that in native Swedes and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated, based on the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Age-specific incidence data for low and high incidence populations were obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents IX and NORDCAN. For immigrants from the seven lowest countries/regions 535 breast cancers were identified; the SIRs ranging from 0.45 for Turkish to 0.70 for Greek women. The SIR increased somewhat with the length of stay in Sweden, from 0.55 for stay between 0 and 10 years to 0.59 for a stay of 20+ years. The age-specific incidence curves for these immigrants were superimposable upon the earliest Swedish (year 1960) or Danish (1943) rates. These rates differed from the current Swedish rates by a much lower postmenopausal component. Large incidence differences were also observed between white Californians and immigrants from China and Korea. Our results show that the main difference between high and low incidence areas is in postmenopausal cancer which has increased preferentially during the past century. Immigrants from low risk areas to Sweden show age-specific incidence patterns of Swedes half a century ago. These differences offer opportunities for the identification of factors underlying breast cancer etiology and tools for prevention.

  19. Postmenopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about treatments and symptoms: Symptoms Irregular Menstrual Cycles Missing periods is normal for women going through ... dose birth control pills: When problems with menstrual cycles persist, birth control pills can help regulate periods. ...

  20. A new AF gravitational instanton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Teo, Edward

    2011-09-01

    It has long been conjectured that the Euclidean Schwarzschild and Euclidean Kerr instantons are the only non-trivial asymptotically flat (AF) gravitational instantons. In this Letter, we show that this conjecture is false by explicitly constructing a new two-parameter AF gravitational instanton with a U (1) × U (1) isometry group, using the inverse-scattering method. It has Euler number χ = 3 and Hirzebruch signature τ = 1, and its global topology is CP2 with a circle S1 removed appropriately. Various other properties of this gravitational instanton are also discussed.

  1. Vitamin K₂ therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun

    2014-05-16

    Vitamin K may play an important role in the prevention of fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Menatetrenone is the brand name of a synthetic vitamin K2 that is chemically identical to menaquinone-4. The present review study aimed to clarify the effect of menatetrenone on the skeleton in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, by reviewing the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the literature. RCTs that investigated the effect of menatetrenone on bone mineral density (BMD), measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, were identified by a PubMed search for literature published in English. Eight studies met the criteria for RCTs. Small RCTs showed that menatetrenone monotherapy decreased serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) concentrations, modestly increased lumbar spine BMD, and reduced the incidence of fractures (mainly vertebral fracture), and that combined alendronate and menatetrenone therapy enhanced the decrease in serum ucOC concentrations and further increased femoral neck BMD. This review of the literature revealed positive evidence for the effects of menatetrenone monotherapy on fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Further studies are required to clarify the efficacy of menatetrenone in combination with bisphosphonates against fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  2. Alternative therapies for postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Speroff, Leon

    2005-01-01

    Alternative therapies are being used by postmenopausal women in attempts to treat all of the complaints and medical conditions of the menopause. One-fifth of those who take prescription drugs for these indications also take herbal remedies and/or high-dose vitamins, most often without disclosing the fact to the physician. Although studies of alternative therapies are short-term and rarely focused on safety--let alone efficacy--in the long-term, there are many studies spread over the large number of substances involved. More than 130 studies, including meta-analyses, are reviewed in this article under the headings of phytoestrogens, especially from soy; therapies for hot flushes; and preventives for cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and breast cancer. Special attention is given to the recently recognized daidzein metabolite equol, and for the sake of completeness there are reviews of the unconventional, but not botanical, treatments estriol, transdermal progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. The total picture produced by conscientious review of the studies is bleak overall, but there seems to be good reason to pursue the possibilities inherent in soy protein with phytoestrogens in populations of women who endogenously produce equol.

  3. Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Shazia; Masters-Isarilov, Alina; Salifu, Idoko; Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gupta, Ravi; Brzezinski, Amnon; McFarlane, Samy I

    2015-01-01

    One of the core symptoms of the menopausal transition is sleep disturbance. Peri-menopausal women often complain of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep with frequent nocturnal and early morning awakenings. Factors that may play a role in this type of insomnia include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle. Other common sleep problems in this age group, such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome, can also worsen the sleep quality. Exogenous melatonin use reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age and the menopausal transition. Recently, more potent melatonin analogs (selective melatonin-1 (MT1) and melatonin-2 (MT2) receptor agonists) with prolonged effects and slow-release melatonin preparations have been developed. They were found effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency as well as in reducing sleep latency in insomnia patients. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on the changes in hormonal status to sleep problems among menopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:26512337

  4. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition.

    PubMed

    McCarrey, Anna C; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Prior to the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the 'critical window hypothesis', which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as lower global cognition or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments.

  5. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1 - Records Search AAC-Northern Region, Galena AFS, Campion AFS, Cape Lisburne AFS, Fort Yukon AFS, Indian Mountain AFS, Kotzebue AFS, Murphy Dome AFS, and Tin City AFS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    registered with Defense Technical Information Center should direct requests for copies of this report to: Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station ...Information Center should direct requests for copies of this report to: Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria, Virginia 22314 U’ B...Contract No. F08637 84 C0070. The locations of these installations are shown in Figure 1. INSTALLATION DESCRIPTION Galena AFS * Galena Air Force Station

  6. The role of cytokines in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Brincat, S D; Borg, M; Camilleri, G; Calleja-Agius, J

    2014-08-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a silent systemic progressive disease characterised by a decrease in bone mass per unit volume. This condition compromises the physical strength of the skeleton and increases the susceptibility to fractures on minor trauma. The imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption is known to be responsible for postmenopausal bone loss. Estrogen deficiency contributes to bone loss by increasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow and bone cells. Clinical and molecular evidence indicates that estrogen-regulated cytokines exert regulatory effects on bone turnover implicating their role as being the primary mediators of the accelerated bone loss at menopause. The current perspective on the role and interaction of cytokines such as IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, TNF, IFN-γ and TGF-β in bone loss linked with estrogen deficiency is reviewed. Current treatment options and emerging drug therapies in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis are also evaluated.

  7. Denosumab for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Singer, Andrea; Grauer, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    View the National Osteoporosis Foundation Clinician's Guide Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a major concern to public health. Fractures are the major clinical consequence of osteoporosis and are associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Despite the availability of screening and treatment guidelines, osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment remain low. Health care providers may consult guidelines in the clinical management of their patients with osteoporosis, including those from the National Osteoporosis Foundation, and the new fracture risk assessment tool from the World Health Organization. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly used treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Although these agents are effective in preventing fractures and bone loss, the benefits of treatment may be limited by suboptimal adherence and compliance. Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that targets and inhibits RANK ligand, an essential mediator of bone resorption. In clinical trials in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, denosumab 60 mg given subcutaneously every 6 months was well tolerated and statistically significantly reduced the risk of vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fractures. The introduction of denosumab into clinical practice provides physicians with another option for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, and the twice-yearly dosing regimen has the potential to improve adherence.

  8. Sexuality in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morokoff, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews psychological and biological aspects of effects of menopause on sexuality. Discusses population studies revealing that postmenopausal status is associated with decline in some components of sexual functioning. Notes that little research has examined psychological response to menopause and its effect on sexual functioning. Research on…

  9. [Lifestyle management approaches in postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hiroaki

    2004-11-01

    Of the lifestyle management approaches to postmenopausal osteoporosis recommended, encouraging walking appears to be more relevant than ensuring appropriate nutritional intake in preventing bone loss. The focus of the current lecture is therefore on encouraging exercise, as it is not hard to imagine the physical impact of exercise on bone mineral density. As has long been pointed out, in fact, the initial management of postmenopausal osteoporosis consists in subjecting the bone to a continual physical stress, including exercise. In this regard, aerobic exercise including walking has been widely recommended;however, there is no clear evidence showing aerobic exercise to be superior to other kinds of exercise, while several studies reported on the benefit of combining aerobic exercise with pharmacological treatments in postmenopausal women, including our own series. Physical exercise programs or guidelines aimed at the prophylaxis of postmenopausal osteoporosis that draw on research evidence supporting the benefit of encouraging physical exercise need yet to be put in place as a matter of urgency.

  10. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Tuppurainen, Marjo; Rikkonen, Toni; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka; Kröger, Heikki; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore the association between postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Twenty-year follow-up data from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study cohort were used. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to all women aged 47–56 years, residing in Kuopio Province starting in 1989 until 2009, every 5th year. Register-based information on HT prescriptions was available since 1995. Probable AD cases, based on DSM-IV and National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke–Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria, were identified from the special reimbursement register (1999–2009). The study population included 8,195 women (227 cases of incident AD). Results: Postmenopausal estrogen use was not associated with AD risk in register-based or self-reported data (hazard ratio/95% confidence interval 0.92/0.68–1.2, 0.99/0.75–1.3, respectively). Long-term self-reported postmenopausal HT was associated with reduced AD risk (0.53/0.31–0.91). Similar results were obtained with any dementia diagnosis in the hospital discharge register as an outcome. Conclusions: Our results do not provide strong evidence for a protective association between postmenopausal HT use and AD or dementia, although we observed a reduced AD risk among those with long-term self-reported HT use. PMID:28202700

  11. Chronic kidney disease in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kondo, Kazuoki

    2012-02-01

    Menopause is derived from the Greek words men (month) and pauses (cessation) and means permanent cessation of menstruation after the loss of ovarian activity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has recently been associated with cardiovascular events in several studies. CKD patients have a heavy burden of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in addition to a range of nontraditional risk factors such as inflammation and abnormal metabolism of calcium and phosphate. In this review, the association of CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women is discussed. CKD mineral and bone disorder, characterized by disturbances of calcium/phosphate/parathyroid hormone, bone abnormalities and vascular and soft tissue calcification, is highly prevalent in CKD and is a strong, independent predictor of bone fracture, CVD and death. Estrogen has been shown to: (a) decrease the expression of angiotensin type 1 receptors in vasculature and kidneys; (b) reduce the expression and activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme, and (c) cause the release of angiotensinogen substrate from the liver. However, the degree of activation or suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by estrogen has not been clearly established. Clinical data on the effects of estrogen therapy on bone mineral densities are extremely limited in the ESRD population. CVD is the most common cause of death in postmenopausal women with CKD and many contributing factors have been explored. Future research for prevention of CVD in postmenopausal women with CKD would focus on the biology of vascular calcification as well as bone loss.

  12. Health Information in Somali (af Soomaali): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... af Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Wildfires Wildfires - English Dabka duurka - af Soomaali (Somali) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media Wildfires - English Dabka duurka - af Soomaali (Somali) PDF Healthy ...

  13. Effects of Exercise on Bone Mineral Content in Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta E.; McManis, Beth G.

    1990-01-01

    Study tested the effect of exercise programs on bone mineral content (BMC) and BMC/bone width in 31 postmenopausal women. Subjects were placed in groups with aerobic exercise, aerobics plus upper-body weight training, or no exercise. Results indicate that regular exercise programs positively affect bone mineral maintenance in postmenopausal women.…

  14. Raloxifene trial in postmenopausal woman with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tharoor, Hema; Goyal, Aparna

    2015-10-01

    Raloxifene augmentation in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia has shown promising results. Younger patients diagnosed as treatment-resistant schizophrenia and treated with raloxifene (120 mg/day) have reported significant improvement in symptoms. This case highlights how raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), can play a major role in alleviating positive and negative symptoms in postmenopausal women with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

  15. Serum osteocalcin and total body calcium in normal pre- and postmenopausal women and postmenopausal osteoporotic patients.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, S; Aloia, J F; Gundberg, C M; Yeh, J; Vaswani, A N; Yuen, K; Lo Monte, A F; Ellis, K J; Cohn, S H

    1987-04-01

    Serum osteocalcin was measured in 51 normal pre- and 114 postmenopausal women and in 41 postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. Total body calcium (TBCa) was determined in the same individuals by neutron activation analysis. Many of the perimenopausal nonosteoporotic women had increased serum osteocalcin values, but 15 yr or more after the menopause most of the women had serum osteocalcin levels in the normal range. Comparing normal women before and after menopause, the mean serum osteocalcin levels [7.8 +/- 4.7 (+/- SE) and 10.1 +/- 9.4 ng/mL] were not significantly different; however, the TBCa values (898 +/- 99 and 806 +/- 111 g) were significantly different (P less than 0.001). When the normal postmenopausal women were regrouped according to high vs. low osteocalcin values, TBCa and phosphorus content as well as forearm linear bone density were significantly lower in the high osteocalcin group, even though most of the other variables, including urinary hydroxyproline excretion, serum alkaline phosphatase, age, height, and weight, were not different. Osteoporotic women had a mean serum osteocalcin concentration of 17.4 +/- 8.6 ng/ml and a TBCa of 657 +/- 83 g, both significantly different from the respective values in normal and pre- and postmenopausal women (P less than 0.001 for both variables in comparison to each group). These data suggest that high serum osteocalcin levels, at least on a group basis, are an index of low skeletal mass.

  16. SERMs have substance-specific effects on bone, and these effects are mediated via ERαAF-1 in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Börjesson, Anna E.; Farman, Helen H.; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Engdahl, Cecilia; Antal, Maria Cristina; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Carlsten, Hans; Krust, Andrée; Chambon, Pierre; Sjögren, Klara; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Windahl, Sara H.

    2016-01-01

    The bone-sparing effect of estrogens is mediated primarily via estrogen receptor (ER)α, which stimulates gene transcription through activation function (AF)-1 and AF-2. The role of ERαAF-1 for the estradiol (E2) effects is tissue specific. The selective ER modulators (SERMs) raloxifene (Ral), lasofoxifene (Las), and bazedoxifene (Bza) can be used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. They all reduce the risk for vertebral fractures, whereas Las and partly Bza, but not Ral, reduce the risk for nonvertebral fractures. Here, we have compared the tissue specificity of Ral, Las, and Bza and evaluated the role of ERαAF-1 for the effects of these SERMs, with an emphasis on bone parameters. We treated ovariectomized (OVX) wild-type (WT) mice and OVX mice lacking ERαAF-1 (ERαAF-10) with E2, Ral, Las, or Bza. All three SERMs increased trabecular bone mass in the axial skeleton. In the appendicular skeleton, only Las increased the trabecular bone volume/tissue volume and trabecular number, whereas both Ral and Las increased the cortical bone thickness and strength. However, Ral also increased cortical porosity. The three SERMs had only a minor effect on uterine weight. Notably, all evaluated effects of these SERMs were absent in ovx ERαAF-10 mice. In conclusion, all SERMs had similar effects on axial bone mass. However, the SERMs had slightly different effects on the appendicular skeleton since only Las increased the trabecular bone mass and only Ral increased the cortical porosity. Importantly, all SERM effects require a functional ERαAF-1 in female mice. These results could lead to development of more specific treatments for osteoporosis. PMID:27048997

  17. Physical training increases osteoprotegerin in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Ingrid; Parini, Paolo; Gustafsson, Sven A; Andersson, Göran; Brinck, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether mechanical loading by exercise over a 1-year period in postmenopausal women had an effect on the receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) system or the levels of the Wnt-signaling antagonist sclerostin. A total of 112 postmenopausal were randomized to either sedentary life (controls) or physical activity (training group). Ninety-two women fulfilled the study protocol. The training program consisted of three fast 30-min walks and one or two 1-h aerobic training sessions per week. The effect on the bone mineral density of the hip assessed with dual X-ray absorptiometry was positive as reported earlier. Blood samples were taken from participants at baseline and after 1 year and serum levels of OPG, RANKL and sclerostin were quantified together with the bone metabolism markers C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP). The results were analyzed using an analysis of covariance model using baseline values as the covariate. The training group displayed a clear mean increase of OPG +7.55 pg/ml compared to controls (p = 0.007). The mean changes for RANKL +0.19 pg/ml (square-root transformed data) and sclerostin +0.62 pmol/l were non-significant (p = 0.13 and p = 0.34). The changes in bone turnover markers CTX and BALP showed a tendency to decrease in the training group versus controls but the changes were small and non-significant. Although our study is limited in number of participating women, we have been able to show an OPG-associated, and RANKL- and sclerostin-independent, training-induced inhibition of postmenopausal bone loss.

  18. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: fracture risk and prevention.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, Andrew M; McClung, Michael R; Feldman, Robert G; Wysocki, Susan

    2009-11-01

    In the estrogen-regulated RANK ligand (RANKL)/RANK/osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway, estrogen deficiency favors osteoclast maturation, leading to increased bone resorption compared with bone formation. Treatment of low bone mineral density (BMD) should be based on fracture risk, assessed using the WHO Fracture Risk Algorithm (FRAX(R)). Criteria for treatment are 10-year overall fracture risk ≥ 20% or 10-year hip fracture risk ≥ 3%. Vitamin D supplementation at levels higher than those traditionally recommended may be appropriate for healthy menopausal women. Multiple strategies are needed to effectively manage osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  19. Combined Pharmacologic Therapy in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Gray, Dona L; Martinez, Dorothy S

    2017-03-01

    Antiresorptive agents for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis include selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), bisphosphonates and denoumab. Teriparatide is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved anabolic agent. Synergistic effects of combining teriparatide with an antiresorptive agent have been proposed and studied. This article reviews the trial designs and the outcomes of combination therapies. Results of the combination therapy for teriparatide and bisphosphonates were mixed; while small increases of bone density were observed in the combination therapy of teriparatide and estrogen/SERM and that of teriparatide and denosumab. Those clinical studies were limited by small sample sizes and lack of fracture outcomes.

  20. [Ibandronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Péter

    2008-10-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis affects 7-10% of the population of developed countries. During the past decade, a number of new therapeutical modalities have been made available. Among these, bisphosphonates mean the mainstay of medical treatment. Ibandronate belongs to the amino-bisphosphonate group of these drugs. Amino-bisphosphonates act via the mevalonate metabolic pathway, thus, inhibiting protein prenylation. Several clinical studies have shown a significant reduction in the fracture risk of osteoporotic patients treated with ibandronate. This compound can be administered orally once a month or intravenously once in every 3 months. Longer dosing intervals stimulate patient compliance, and consequently increase efficacy and cost effectiveness.

  1. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer

  2. STBC AF relay for unmanned aircraft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Fumiyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    If a large scale disaster similar to the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011 happens, some areas may be isolated from the communications network. Recently, unmanned aircraft system (UAS) based wireless relay communication has been attracting much attention since it is able to quickly re-establish the connection between isolated areas and the network. However, the channel between ground station (GS) and unmanned aircraft (UA) is unreliable due to UA's swing motion and as consequence, the relay communication quality degrades. In this paper, we introduce space-time block coded (STBC) amplify-and-forward (AF) relay for UAS based wireless relay communication to improve relay communication quality. A group of UAs forms single frequency network (SFN) to perform STBC-AF cooperative relay. In STBC-AF relay, only conjugate operation, block exchange and amplifying are required at UAs. Therefore, STBC-AF relay improves the relay communication quality while alleviating the complexity problem at UAs. It is shown by computer simulation that STBC-AF relay can achieve better throughput performance than conventional AF relay.

  3. Current Situation of Postmenopausal Grandmothers Raising Their Grandchildren

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jang Yong

    2015-01-01

    As the average life expectancy of women increases, the family and social roles of postmenopausal women have become more important. With the growing number of dual-income households, postmenopausal grandmothers occupy a large role in child-rearing. Postmenopausal women mainly experience social changes as a family member along with personal changes. Postmenopausal women face changes in physical and mental aspects due to drastic hormonal changes. Grandmothers sharing the burden of raising children are actually encountering a number of challenges while dealing with hardships to adapt to physical and mental changes at the same time. It is thought to be important to understand the impact of raising grandchildren on physical and mental conditions among grandmothers experiencing hardships between social reality and personal changes from medical perspective based on sociological studies. Focusing mainly on studies on related fields, this study aims to investigate personal and social supports from medical perspective and to device practical measures. PMID:26355272

  4. Review of treatment modalities for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Ronald C; Chesnut, Charles H; Gass, Margery L; Holick, Michael F; Leib, Edward S; Lewiecki, Michael E; Maricic, Michael; Watts, Nelson B

    2005-10-01

    This review summarizes and updates data presented at recent annual Southern Medical Association conferences on postmenopausal osteoporosis. As part of any osteoporosis treatment program, it is important to maintain adequate calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels either through diet or supplementation. Among the available pharmacologic therapies, the bisphosphonates alendronate and risedronate have demonstrated the most robust fracture risk reductions-approximately 40 to 50% reduction in vertebral fracture risk, 30 to 40% in nonvertebral fracture risk, and 40 to 60% in hip fracture risk. Ibandronate, a new bisphosphonate, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing vertebral fracture risk. Salmon calcitonin nasal spray and raloxifene demonstrated significant reductions in vertebral fracture risk in pivotal studies. Teriparatide significantly reduced vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk. Drugs on the horizon include strontium ranelate, which has been shown to reduce vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk, and zoledronic acid, an injectable bisphosphonate that increased bone density with once-yearly administration.

  5. Association between postmenopausal osteoporosis and experimental periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Souzhi; Guo, Jianbin; Huang, Yongling; Yan, Fuhua; Xiao, Yin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) and the pathogenesis of periodontitis, ovariectomized rats were generated and the experimental periodontitis was induced using a silk ligature. The inflammatory factors and bone metabolic markers were measured in the serum and periodontal tissues of ovariectomized rats using an automatic chemistry analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunohistochemistry. The bone mineral density of whole body, pelvis, and spine was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and image analysis. All data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical software. It was found that ovariectomy could upregulate the expression of interleukin- (IL-)6, the receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and downregulate IL-10 expression in periodontal tissues, which resulted in progressive alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. This study indicates that changes of cytokines and bone turnover markers in the periodontal tissues of ovariectomized rats contribute to the damage of periodontal tissues.

  6. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Fionnuala; Walker-Bone, Karen; Tariq, Shema

    2017-01-01

    The widespread availability of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a life-limiting condition to one with near-normal life expectancy. HIV is associated with an increased risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis, with people living with HIV (PLHIV) potentially experiencing these conditions at a younger age than their HIV-negative counterparts. The mechanisms driving bone disease in HIV are complex and include: an increased prevalence of traditional risk factors; other comorbid conditions; and HIV-associated factors such as viral effects, systemic inflammation, and ART-related factors. One-third of PLHIV in the United Kingdom are female, and increasing numbers of women living with HIV (WLHIV) are reaching menopausal age. Oestrogen decline in the context of an elevated background risk of poor bone health results in WLHIV being at greater risk of osteoporosis than women without HIV. European HIV guidelines therefore recommend routine screening of postmenopausal WLHIV using FRAX(©) for clinical risk factors, with or without bone mineral density scanning. Data support the use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis in PLHIV. Additionally, some patients with confirmed osteoporosis may benefit from a switch to an ART agent with a better bone safety profile. However, there remains a notable paucity of data on HIV and menopause, including the impact of hormone replacement therapy on the bone health of WLHIV. In conclusion, it is important that clinicians are aware that postmenopausal WLHIV are a group at particular risk of bone disease, who require proactive screening and advice about preventative measures.

  7. Endometrial study in patients with postmenopausal metrorrhagia

    PubMed Central

    de Merlo, Gaspar González; Mirasol, Esteban González; García, María Teresa Gómez; Parra, Carmen Ángel; Goy, Enrique Iglesias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to devise a strategy to diagnose malign endometrial pathologies (adenocarcinoma or atypical hyperplasia) that minimizes the number of invasive tests done (hysteroscopy, aspiration biopsy or curettage) with no loss of its detection efficiency. Material and methods We retrospectively studied the clinical histories of 779 postmenopausal women at the University Hospital Complex of Albacete, for whom an endometrial study had been done (hysteroscopy, aspiration biopsy or curettage) with a 1-year follow-up between 1 March 2006 and 31 March 2008. Results There were 77 cases of a malignant pathology (66 adenocarcinomas and 11 hyperplasias with atypia); 96.1% had metrorrhagia, and there were only 3 cases of asymptomatic patients (all 3 presented endometrial thickness of > 5 mm: 10, 12 and 15 mm). The sensitivity and specificity of the transvaginal ultrasound, with a 5 mm cut-off point to diagnose a malignant pathology, were 98.4% and 30.1%, respectively; 89.1% and 99.6%, respectively, for aspiration biopsy; 83.9% and 99.1%, respectively, for hysteroscopy without biopsy; and both were 100% for biopsy. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05 and confidence intervals were calculated at 95%. Conclusions In postmenopausal women with metrorrhagia, the first action to take is to do a transvaginal ultrasound, followed by en endometrial study, but only if the endometrium is irregular or endometrial thickness is ≥ 5 mm; in asymptomatic women, the cut-off point should be set at 10 mm. The immediate method of choice is an ambulatory biopsy. PMID:27279854

  8. Melatonin and Female Hormone Secretion in Postmenopausal Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Walecka-Kapica, Ewa; Chojnacki, Jan; Stępień, Agnieszka; Wachowska-Kelly, Patrycja; Klupińska, Grażyna; Chojnacki, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency is considered to be the main cause of increased appetite and increased weight in postmenopausal women. In this period, reduced secretion of melatonin (MEL) was also observed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the secretion of melatonin, 17-β estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in relation to body mass index (BMI) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The study included 90 women divided into three equal groups: group I (control)—women without menstrual disorders, group II—postmenopausal women without change in appetite and body weight, group III—postmenopausal women experiencing increased appetite and weight gain. In each patient, serum melatonin, 17-β-estradiol, FSH and urine a 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) were determined. Compared to the control group, the level of melatonin and estradiol was statistically lower. The FSH level was higher than in the groups of postmenopausal women. No significant correlation was found in all groups between the level of melatonin and the levels of estradiol and FSH. A negative correlation was found between aMT6s excretion and BMI, and a positive correlation between the level of FSH and BMI, mainly in overweight women. The obtained results indicate a significant effect of melatonin deficiency on the process of weight gain in postmenopausal women and justify its use in treatment of these disorders. PMID:25569084

  9. Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity In Postmenopausal Women with Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Naiyer; Singh, Paras Nath; Hossain, Mohd Mobarak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The post-menopausal phase is characterized by a decline in the serum oestrogen and progesterone levels. This phase is also associated with higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy. Aim To explore the relationship between the peripheral motor nerve status and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels through assessment of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) in post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College during 2011-2013. The study included 30 post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy (age: 51.4±7.9) and 30 post-menopausal women without peripheral neuropathy (control) (age: 52.5±4.9). They were compared for MNCV in median, ulnar and common peroneal nerves and serum levels of oestrogen and progesterone estimated through enzyme immunoassays. To study the relationship between hormone levels and MNCV, a stepwise linear regression analysis was done. Results The post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy had significantly lower MNCV and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels as compared to control subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed oestrogen with main effect on MNCV. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that while the post-menopausal age group is at a greater risk of peripheral neuropathy, it is the decline in the serum estrogen levels which is critical in the development of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:28208850

  10. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing; Tang, Dongqi; Ji, Chunyan

    2014-09-10

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components.

  11. AFS Estuaries Section - A Successful Partnership

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuaries Section of the American Fisheries Society offers travel awards to students in support of their attendance and presentations at the AFS meeting. Since 2007, the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories has partnered with the Estuaries Section to sponsor two stude...

  12. Topological ferrimagnetic behaviours of coordination polymers containing manganese(II) chains with mixed azide and carboxylate bridges and alternating F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qin; Liu, Hou-Ting; Qi, Yan; Gao, En-Qing

    2014-08-21

    Two Mn(ii) complexes with azide and a new zwitterionic tetracarboxylate ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-carboxylatopyridinium-1-methylene)benzene (L(1)), {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(OH)2]·12H2O}n () and {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(H2O)2](ClO4)2·6H2O}n (), have been synthesized and characterized crystallographically and magnetically. and contain similar alternating chains constructed by azide and carboxylate bridges. The independent sets of bridges alternate in an ABCCB sequence between adjacent Mn(ii) ions: (EO-N3)2 double bridges (EO = end-on) (denoted as A), [(EO-N3)(OCO)2] triple bridges (denoted as B) and [(EO-N3)(OCO)] double bridges (denoted as C). The alternating chains are interlinked into 2D coordination networks by the tetrapyridinium spacers. Magnetic studies demonstrate that the magnetic coupling through the double EO azide bridges is ferromagnetic and that through mixed azide/carboxylate bridges is antiferromagnetic. The unprecedented F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF coupling sequence along the chain dictates an uncompensated ground spin state (S = 5/2 per Mn5 unit) and leads to one-dimensional topological ferrimagnetism, which features a minimum in the χT versus T plot.

  13. [Intermediate-density lipoproteins and liver lipase in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Halperin, H; Berg, G; Aisemberg, L; Brites, F; Siseles, N; Wikinski, R

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate atherogenic lipoproteins in post-menopause, we studied 73 healthy women, 49 to 65 years old (Post-menopausal Group), with 1 to 10 years of amenorrhea and body mass index below 27 Kg/m2, and 20 young women (Control Group). We have determined plasma cholesterol concentration in the lipoproteins of intermediate density in addition to the classical lipoprotein parameters: total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins by electrophoresis. In 63 women from the Post-menopausal Group and 16 from the Control Group we studied the activity of hepatic lipase. Among these patients we selected at random 25 post-menopausal women and 13 controls to add measurements of triglycerides in the lipoproteins of intermediate density. Table 1 shows that the average plasma concentration of total cholesterol in the Post-menopausal Group was higher than that of the Controls (p < 0.001). The same was found for LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001) and for triglycerides (p < 0.001) whereas the average concentration of HDL-cholesterol did not show significant differences. The Post-menopausal Group had high values of plasma lipoproteins of intermediate density, even with normal phenotypes (Table 2). Cholesterol but also triglycerides (Fig. 1) were responsible for this increase. A triglyceride rich lipoprotein subspecies of intermediate density was predominant in 73% of Post-menopausal women vs 23% of the Controls (p < 0.01, Table 3). No differences in hepatic lipase activity were seen between the two groups (Table 4), and non statistic correlation between the enzyme activity and IDL-triglycerides or HDL-cholesterol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. [Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in the general medical practice (clinical case)].

    PubMed

    Zhdan, V M; Kitura, O Ie; Kitura, Ie M; Babanina, M Iu; Tkachenko, M V

    2013-03-01

    In this article demonstrated a clinical case of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis with compression fractures of (Th(IV)). Indicates the basic risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis, clinic, diagnosis, principles of therapy.

  15. Romosozumab Treatment in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Cosman, Felicia; Crittenden, Daria B; Adachi, Jonathan D; Binkley, Neil; Czerwinski, Edward; Ferrari, Serge; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Lau, Edith; Lewiecki, E Michael; Miyauchi, Akimitsu; Zerbini, Cristiano A F; Milmont, Cassandra E; Chen, Li; Maddox, Judy; Meisner, Paul D; Libanati, Cesar; Grauer, Andreas

    2016-10-20

    Background Romosozumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds sclerostin, increases bone formation and decreases bone resorption. Methods We enrolled 7180 postmenopausal women who had a T score of -2.5 to -3.5 at the total hip or femoral neck. Patients were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous injections of romosozumab (at a dose of 210 mg) or placebo monthly for 12 months; thereafter, patients in each group received denosumab for 12 months, at a dose of 60 mg, administered subcutaneously every 6 months. The coprimary end points were the cumulative incidences of new vertebral fractures at 12 months and 24 months. Secondary end points included clinical (a composite of nonvertebral and symptomatic vertebral) and nonvertebral fractures. Results At 12 months, new vertebral fractures had occurred in 16 of 3321 patients (0.5%) in the romosozumab group, as compared with 59 of 3322 (1.8%) in the placebo group (representing a 73% lower risk with romosozumab; P<0.001). Clinical fractures had occurred in 58 of 3589 patients (1.6%) in the romosozumab group, as compared with 90 of 3591 (2.5%) in the placebo group (a 36% lower risk with romosozumab; P=0.008). Nonvertebral fractures had occurred in 56 of 3589 patients (1.6%) in the romosozumab group and in 75 of 3591 (2.1%) in the placebo group (P=0.10). At 24 months, the rates of vertebral fractures were significantly lower in the romosozumab group than in the placebo group after each group made the transition to denosumab (0.6% [21 of 3325 patients] in the romosozumab group vs. 2.5% [84 of 3327] in the placebo group, a 75% lower risk with romosozumab; P<0.001). Adverse events, including instances of hyperostosis, cardiovascular events, osteoarthritis, and cancer, appeared to be balanced between the groups. One atypical femoral fracture and two cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were observed in the romosozumab group. Conclusions In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, romosozumab was associated with a lower risk of vertebral

  16. AF fixer: new incremental OPC method for optimizing assist feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Gon; Kim, Sang-Wook; Suh, Sung-Soo; Kim, Young-Chang; Lee, Suk-Joo; Choi, Sung-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung; Moon, Joo-Tae; Barnes, Levi D.; Li, Xiaohai; Lugg, Robert M.; Lee, Sooryong; Koo, Kyoil; Do, Munhoe; Amoroso, Frank P.; Painter, Benjamin

    2008-05-01

    Due to shrinking design nodes and to some limitations of scanners, extreme off-axis illumination (OAI) required and its use and implementation of assist features (AF) to solve depth of focus (DOF) problems for isolated features and specific pitch regions is essential. But unfortunately, the strong periodic character of OAI illumination makes AF's print more easily. Present OPC flows generate AFs before OPC, which is also causes some AF printing problems. At present, mask manufacturers must downsize AF's below 30nm to solve this problem. This is challenging and increases mask cost. We report on an AF-fixer tool which is able to check AF printability and correct weak points with minimal cost in terms of DOF after OPC. We have devised an effective algorithm that removes printing AF's. It can not only search for the best non-printing AF condition to meet the DOF spec, but also reports uncorrectable spots, which could be marked as design errors. To limit correction times and to maximize DOF in full-chip correction, a process window (PW) model and incremental OPC method are applied. This AF fixer, which suggests optimum AF in only weak point region, solves AF printing problems economically and accurately.

  17. Denosumab in postmenopausal osteoporosis: what the clinician needs to know.

    PubMed

    Lewiecki, E Michael

    2009-02-01

    Denosumab is a subcutaneously (SC) administered investigational fully human monoclonal antibody to receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL), a cytokine member of the tumor necrosis factor family that is the principal mediator of osteoclastic bone resorption. RANKL stimulates the formation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and other skeletal disorders associated with increased bone remodeling. Denosumab binds RANKL, preventing it from binding to RANK, thereby reducing the formation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts and slowing the rate of bone resorption. Postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD) treated with denosumab have a reduction of bone turnover markers and an increase in BMD that is rapid, sustained, and reversible. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, denosumab reduces the risk of vertebral, hip, and nonvertebral fractures. In postmenopausal women with low BMD randomized to receive denosumab or alendronate, denosumab is associated with a significantly greater increase in BMD and further reduction in bone turnover markers compared with alendronate. In postmenopausal women with low BMD who were previously treated with alendronate, those who switched to denosumab have a significantly greater BMD increase and further reduction in bone turnover markers compared with those continuing alendronate. Denosumab is well tolerated with a favorable safety profile. It is a promising emerging drug for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, offering a long dosing interval of every 6 months and convenient SC dosing, with the potential of improving long-term adherence to therapy compared with current oral treatments.

  18. Experimental techniques for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Swaha; Patra, Arjun; Ahirwar, Bharti

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a silent epidemic, has become a major health hazard, afflicting about 50% of postmenopausal women worldwide and is thought to be a disease with one of the highest incidences in senile people. It is a chronic, progressive condition associated with micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue that results in low bone mass, decreased bone strength that predisposes to an increased risk of fracture. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone formation and increase in bone resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-7 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. In this review article we have made an attempt to collate the various methods and parameters most frequently used for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Pertaining to ovariectomized animal model, this is the most appropriate model for studying the efficacy of different drugs to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. Selection to postmenopausal therapy by women's characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, E; Malin, M; Topo, P

    1993-03-01

    Many surveys have shown that women using postmenopausal hormone therapy have a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases and lower overall mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare past and non-users with current users of hormone therapy in regard to characteristics known to, or assumed to, predict poor subsequent health (indicators). The main data source was a survey in 1989 of a random sample (n = 2000, 86% response rate) of 45-64 year-old Finnish women. Among women with their uterus, after adjusting for age and urbanism, of the 21 indicators studied, 10 suggested a poorer and none a better health prognosis for the non-users than for current users. Many differences were greater among older women, suggesting a cohort effect or long-term users being an especially selected group. Among hysterectomized women, differences between users and non-users were similar or smaller than among women with uteri. The past users were more similar to non-users than current users. Our study suggests that women with a better health prognosis are selected or select themselves for hormone therapy, and that may impede interpretation of observational studies on hormone therapy and health.

  20. Postmenopausal osteoporosis - clinical, biological and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Oana Roxana; Popescu, Mihaela; Novac, Liliana; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Pavel, LaurenŢiu Petrişor; Vicaş, Răzvan Marius; Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in postmenopausal women, affecting the quality of life and increasing the risk for fractures in minor traumas. Changes in the bone microarchitecture causes static changes in the body and affects motility. In this study, we analyzed two groups of women, one with physiological menopause and one with surgically induced menopause. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was suspected based on the clinical symptoms and confirmed by assessing bone mineral density by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Comparing some clinical and biological aspects there was noted that a much higher percentage of women with surgically induced menopause exhibited increases in body mass index, changes in serum lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, serum calcium, magnesemia and osteocalcin. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the histopathological aspects of bone tissue examined from these two groups. In all patients, there was identified a significant reduction in the number of osteocytes and osteoblasts, the expansion of haversian channels, reducing the number of trabecular bone in the cancellous bone with wide areola cavities often full of adipose tissue, non-homogenous demineralization of both the compact bone and the cancellous bone, atrophy and even absence of the endosteal, and the presence of multiple microfractures. Our study showed that early surgically induced menopause more intensely alters the lipid, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism, thus favoring the onset of osteoporosis.

  1. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  2. Hormone therapy and asymmetrical dimethylarginine in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Karkanaki, Artemis; Vavilis, Dimitrios; Traianos, Alexandros; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Women present an estradiol-dependent cardiovascular risk profile. Based on various studies, it was considered that estrogen therapy (ET) in postmenopausal women could probably reduce the higher cardiovascular risk in this group. Assymetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous methylated arginine which inhibits nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by competing with the substrate of NO, L-arginine, leading to endothelial dysfunction and, consequently, to atherosclerosis. Moreover, ADMA has been considered as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It has also been found that hormone therapy (HT), and mainly oral estrogen therapy, lowers ADMA concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women. The effect of estrogens on ADMA levels, although small, is considered important, as physiological variation of ADMA is limited. Nevertheless, larger randomized trials are necessary to establish that estrogens substantially lower ADMA levels and that these changes really reflect improved cardiovascular prognosis in postmenopausal women.

  3. Bazedoxifene: a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, T J

    2010-06-01

    Several new selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are currently under clinical development for the prevention and/or treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, with the goal of optimizing the estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist activity in target tissues. Bazedoxifene is a novel SERM under clinical investigation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Emerging clinical data have shown that bazedoxifene is effective in preventing bone loss and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women, with no evidence of breast or endometrial stimulation. Two large, prospective, international phase 3 studies have been completed. In postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis, bazedoxifene has been shown to preserve bone mineral density and to reduce bone turnover. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, bazedoxifene has demonstrated significant protection against new vertebral fractures and against non-vertebral fractures in women at higher fracture risk. The treatment effects of bazedoxifene were supported by findings from independent re-analyses using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), which showed that bazedoxifene significantly reduced the risk of all clinical and morphometric vertebral fracture and of non-vertebral fracture in women at or above a FRAX-based threshold. Bazedoxifene was generally safe and well tolerated in the phase 3 studies and showed neutral effects on the breast and an excellent endometrial safety profile; such attributes allow for the partnering of bazedoxifene with conjugated estrogens for menopausal symptom relief. Collectively, these results suggest that bazedoxifene may be a promising new therapy for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis as a monotherapy or in combination with conjugated estrogens in menopausal hormone therapy.

  4. [Current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Baranova, I A

    2009-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP) is a disease afflicting every three women above 50 years of age. The sociomedical significance of OP is determined by the development of fracture in minimal injuries resulting in disability and, occasionally, death. The review presents a new management strategy described in the European and Russian guidelines. Particular emphasis is laid on the early identification and treatment of patients at high risk for fractures. The current requirements for drugs used to treat OP are described, by using as an example strontium ranelate, one of the first-line agents for the treatment of postmenopausal OP.

  5. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Risk of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Carcaillon, Laure; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; Oger, Emmanuel; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Elbaz, Alexis; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— The benefit/risk analysis of hormone therapy in postmenopausal women is not straightforward and depends on cardiovascular disease. Evidence supports the safety of transdermal estrogens and the importance of progestogens for thrombotic risk. However, the differential association of oral and transdermal estrogens with stroke remains poorly investigated. Furthermore, there are no data regarding the impact of progestogens. Methods— We set up a nested case–control study of ischemic stroke (IS) within all French women aged 51 to 62 years between 2009 and 2011 without personal history of cardiovascular disease or contraindication to hormone therapy. Participants were identified using the French National Health Insurance database, which includes complete drug claims for the past 3 years and French National hospital data. We identified 3144 hospitalized IS cases who were matched for age and zip code to 12 158 controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results— Compared with nonusers, the adjusted ORs of IS were1.58 (95% CI, 1.01–2.49) in oral estrogen users and 0.83 (0.56–1.24) in transdermal estrogens users (P<0.01). There was no association of IS with use of progesterone (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.49–1.26), pregnanes (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.60–1.67), and nortestosterones (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.62–2.58), whereas norpregnanes increased IS risk (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.05–4.81). Conclusions— Both route of estrogen administration and progestogens were important determinants of IS. Our findings suggest that transdermal estrogens might be the safest option for short-term hormone therapy use. PMID:27256671

  6. Life Satisfaction and Morbidity among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lukkala, Pyry S.; Honkanen, Risto J.; Rauma, Päivi H.; Williams, Lana J.; Quirk, Shae E.; Kröger, Heikki; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between morbidity and global life satisfaction in postmenopausal women taking into account type and number of diseases. Materials and Methods A total of 11,084 women (age range 57–66 years) from a population-based cohort of Finnish women (OSTPRE Study) responded to a postal enquiry in 1999. Life satisfaction was measured with a 4-item scale. Self-reported diseases diagnosed by a physician and categorized according to ICD-10 main classes were used as a measure of morbidity. Enquiry data on health and lifestyle were used as covariates in the multivariate logistic models. Results Morbidity was strongly associated with life dissatisfaction. Every additional disease increased the risk of life dissatisfaction by 21.1% (p < .001). The risk of dissatisfaction was strongest among women with mental disorders (OR = 5.26; 95%CI 3.84–7.20) and neurological disorders (OR = 3.62; 95%CI 2.60–5.02) compared to the healthy (each p < .001). Smoking, physical inactivity and marital status were also associated with life dissatisfaction (each p < .001) but their introduction to the multivariate model did not attenuate the pattern of associations. Conclusions Morbidity and life dissatisfaction have a disease-specific and dose-dependent relationship. Even if women with mental and neurological disorders have the highest risk for life dissatisfaction, monitoring life satisfaction among aging women regardless of disorders should be undertaken in order to intervene the joint adverse effects of poor health and poor well-being. PMID:26799838

  7. Endometrial bleeding in postmenopausal women: with and without hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to present a review of the potential mechanisms involved in the occurrence of endometrial bleeding in postmenopausal women using hormone therapy. Selected literature on the incidence of bleeding in postmenopausal women using estrogen progestogen therapy was reviewed. The incidence of spotting and bleeding in women using continuous-combined hormone therapy was presented. Relevant articles related to the role of angiogenic factors and vasculogenesis in the endometrium, endometrial leukocytes, and endometrial metalloproteinases were used for the review. The cause or etiology of endometrial bleeding with hormone therapy is unknown. Several options are known to alter angiogenesis or be involved in tissue remodeling during normal menstruation. Vascular endothelial growth factor and thrombospondin-1 are proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors that could cause dysfunction in vasculogenesis that could result in blood vessel fragility and bleeding. The role of pericytes in maintaining vessel morphology and integrity is discussed. Endometrial leukocytes and metalloproteinases are involved in normal menstruation, but their role in postmenopausal bleeding is not clear suggesting involvement of mechanisms in the bleeding. There is limited information on clinical investigation into the etiology of postmenopausal bleeding associated with hormone therapy. The major cause of hormone therapy-related bleeding is unknown. Alterations in angiogenic factors that could result in vascular dysfunction and vessel breakdown provide a working hypothesis as to the potential cause of vessel breakdown.

  8. [Effectiveness of intranasal salmon calcitonin treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Kopaliani, M

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clinical efficacy of intranasal salmon calcitonin (Miacalcic, Novartis pharma) treatment in women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. 30 women of the main group with established postmenopausal osteoporosis(T-score < -2,5) were treated with intranasal salmon calcitonin: 200 IU daily for 2 months with subsequent pause of 2 months (3 cycles), 12 months in total. Age matched control group was formed by 25 postmenopausal women with similar clinical status. SOS (speed of sound) of cortical bone was measured in the middle of the tibia by ultrasound densitometer--Sound Scan Compact (Myriad-Israel). Patients of both groups received 500 mg Ca and 200 IU vit.D3 (CaD3 Nycomed) two times daily in the same regimen (two months treatment--two months pause). Our results showed that intranasal treatment with 200 IU daily effectively influence the back pain, reduces bone turnover and significantly increases cortical BMD. Significant changes were not observed in patients of the control group, who received only CaD3 Nycomed, that showed that Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is more effective for prevention of bone lose in postmenopausal women, rather for treatment of established osteoporosis.

  9. Primary ovarian leiomyoma in a postmenopausal woman: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sanverdi, Ilhan; Vural, Fisun; Temizkan, Osman; Temel, Orhan; Ayvaci, Habibe; Gunes, Pembegul

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are benign neoplasms that can develop wherever smooth muscle is present. Primary leiomyomas of the ovary originate from smooth muscle cells of ovarian tissue and are rare, solitary tumors. Approximately 70 cases have been reported. They usually present in premenopausal women. The present case is a report of left ovarian leiomyoma in a postmenopausal woman.

  10. Postmenopausal Motherhood Reloaded: Advanced Age and In Vitro Derived Gametes

    PubMed Central

    Cutas, Daniela; Smajdor, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we look at the implications of an emerging technology for the case in favor of, or against, postmenopausal motherhood. Technologies such as in vitro derived gametes (sperm and eggs derived from nonreproductive cells) have the potential to influence the ways in which reproductive medicine is practiced, and are already bringing new dimensions to debates in this area. We explain what in vitro derived gametes are and how their development may impact on the case of postmenopausal motherhood. We briefly review some of the concerns that postmenopausal motherhood has raised—and the implications that the successful development, and use in reproduction, of artificial gametes might have for such concerns. The concerns addressed include arguments from nature, risks and efficacy, reduced energy of the mother, and maternal life expectancy. We also consider whether the use of in vitro derived gametes to facilitate postmenopausal motherhood would contribute to reinforcing a narrow, geneticized account of reproduction and a pro-reproductive culture that encourages women to produce genetically related offspring at all costs. PMID:26074667

  11. Biochemical Changes in Postmenopausal Women Following a Muscle Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow-Harter, Christine

    1987-01-01

    Twelve postmenopausal women attending a 50 minute exercise class three times a week for eight weeks were compared with 10 controls who maintained sedentary routines. Results showed that the exercise group had higher serum alkaline phosphatase and lower serum calcium than the controls. (Author/CB)

  12. Impact of Phytoestrogens on Serum Lipids in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Terzic, M.; Micic, J.; Dotlic, J.; Maricic, S.; Mihailovic, T.; Knezevic, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of soy- and red clover-derived isoflavones on serum lipid levels in postmenopausal women and to compare the effects to the lipid levels of healthy postmenopausal women without phytoestrogen supplementation. Materials and Methods: Blood levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions were assessed. Measurements were performed before treatment and at 6-month intervals over a period of 18 months. The investigation included 74 healthy postmenopausal women randomized into three groups according to treatment. The first group of 23 patients received soy-derived isoflavones, the second group (26 patients) was given red clover-derived phytoestrogens, while the third control group (25 patients) received no supplements. Results: Mean triglyceride, cholesterol and LDL levels of patients in the control group were significantly higher than in both the soy and the red clover groups (p < 0.001) at all three time points, while mean values did not differ significantly between the soy and the red clover groups. The mean HDL levels of patients in the control group was significantly lower than in both the soy and the red clover groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Phytoestrogen supplementation had a positive metabolic effect on serum lipid levels in postmenopausal women. The impact on serum lipids levels was similar for soy and red clover. PMID:25284841

  13. Mediating Influences on Serum Lipids among Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby

    The purpose of this study was to investigate among postmenopausal women the relationship of dietary fat intake, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and body weight to total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol measures in order to assess the relative influence of each…

  14. Androidal fat dominates in predicting cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive ...

  15. Effects of Yogasanas on osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Motorwala, Zainab S; Kolke, Sona; Panchal, Priyanka Y; Bedekar, Nilima S; Sancheti, Parag K; Shyam, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is commonly encountered by postmenopausal women. There is an increased need for a low cost and efficient treatment alternative to address this population. Aims: To study the effects of integrated yoga on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Settings and Designs: Experimental pre-post study conducted in a community setting. Materials and Methods: 30 females in the age group of 45–62 years suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) score of ≤−2.5 underwent a 6 months fully supervised yoga session. All the participants completed the study. Pretraining and posttraining BMD was calculated. Outcome measure: DEXA score at the lumbar spine. Statistical Analysis: The study was statistically analyzed using paired t-test to see the significance of pretraining and posttraining effects of a yoga session. Results: Improvement in T-score of DEXA scan of −2.55 ± 0.25 at posttraining as compared to a pretraining score of −2.69 ± 0.17. Conclusions: Integrated yoga is a safe mode of physical activity which includes weight bearing as well as not weight bearing asanas, Pranayama, and suryanamaskar, all of which helps induce improvement in BMD in postmenopausal osteoporotic females. PMID:26865770

  16. Risk Assessment for Psychological Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Tamaria, Anuradha; Bharti, Rekha; Sharma, Manjula; Dewan, Rupali; Kapoor, Garima; Aggarwal, Abha; Batra, Achla; Batra, Aruna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Psychological symptoms are common & bothersome in post menopausal women. Hence, screening these women for risk factors for psychological disorders is an important measure to improve their health. Objective: To study the risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women Material & Methods: This was a prospective and observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a North Indian tertiary care hospital. It included a cross-section of 200 postmenopausal women attending gynecology OPD and menopausal clinic. Result: Psychological symptoms were present in 32% postmenopausal women while sleep disturbance and decreased concentration were reported by nearly 34%. Irritability, nervousness and depression were the presenting complaints in 31.5%, 28.5% and 23.5% women respectively. Mild depression was present in 41.5%, whereas 3% women suffered from clinical (moderate to severe) depression. Depression was significantly associated with vasomotor symptoms (p=0.000), past history of depression (p=0.048) and psychosocial stressors (p=0.000). Conclusion: Women during postmenopausal years are at increased risk of psychological disorders; hence assessment of mental health and address of related issues should be an integral part of comprehensive evaluation of these women. PMID:24551665

  17. Coaxially electrospun PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath nanofiber mats with superhydrophobic properties.

    PubMed

    Muthiah, Palanikkumaran; Hsu, Shu-Hau; Sigmund, Wolfgang

    2010-08-03

    This work reports the coaxial electrospinning of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer (AF) and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath nanofiber mats yielding superhydrophobic properties. The coaxial electrospinning configuration allows for the electrospinning of Teflon AF, a nonelectrospinnable polymer, with the help of an electrospinnable PVDF polymer. PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath fibers have been found to a have mean fiber diameter ranging from 400 nm to less than 100 nm. TEM micrographs exhibit a typical core-sheath fiber structure for these fibers, where the sheath fiber coats the core fiber almost thoroughly. Water contact angle measurements by sessile drop method on these core-sheath nanofiber mats exhibited superhydrophobic characteristics with contact angles close to or higher than 150 degrees. Surprisingly, PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF nanofiber mat surface properties were dominated by the fiber dimensions and less influenced by the type of sheath polymer. This suggests that highly fluorinated polymer Teflon AF does not advance the hydrophobicity beyond what surface physics and slightly fluorinated polymer PVDF can achieve. It is concluded that PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath electrospun nanofiber mats may be used in lithium (Li)-air batteries.

  18. Endothelial function in postmenopausal women with nighttime systolic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, Faye S.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; McFetridge-Durdle, Judith; Blumenthal, James A.; Paine, Nicola J.; Sherwood, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hypertension becomes more prevalent in women during their postmenopausal years. Nighttime systolic blood pressure (SBP) is especially predictive of adverse cardiac events and the relationship between rising nighttime SBP and cardiovascular risk increases more rapidly in women compared to men. The reasons for the prognostic significance of nighttime SBP are not completely known, but may involve vascular endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of nighttime SBP and endothelial function, assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and to determine whether postmenopausal women with nighttime hypertension (SBP≥120 mm Hg) evidenced greater endothelial dysfunction compared to women with normal nighttime SBP. Methods One-hundred postmenopausal women (mean age: 65.8 ± 7.5 years, body mass index: 28.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2, hypertension: 47%, coronary artery disease: 51%, mean clinic BP 137 ± 17/67 ± 11 mm Hg, 34 with nighttime hypertension) underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, actigraphy, and brachial artery FMD assessments. Results Multivariate regression models showed that higher nighttime SBP and larger baseline artery diameter were inversely related to FMD. Nighttime SBP and baseline artery diameter accounted for 23% of the variance in FMD. After adjusting for baseline artery diameter, women with nighttime hypertension had lower FMD than women with normal nighttime SBP (2.95%±0.65 vs 5.52%±0.46, p = .002). Conclusions In postmenopausal women, nighttime hypertension was associated with reduced endothelial function. Research examining the therapeutic benefits of treating nighttime hypertension on endothelial function and future cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women is warranted. PMID:25563797

  19. Prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Tella, Sri Harsha; Gallagher, J Christopher

    2014-07-01

    lines of therapy. First OPG was used as a therapy to block RANKL was initially successful but later antibodies against OPG developed and this line of treatment had to be discontinued. The next step was to develop a monoclonal antibody against RANKL and this proved to be highly effective in blocking bone resorption. It led to development of a drug Denosumab that successfully reduces fractures and is now one of the therapeutic options for osteoporosis treatment. On the anabolic side bone biology research showed that osteocytes produces sclerostin an inhibitor of the anabolic WNT signaling pathway. Recent development of a monoclonal antibody against sclerostin has shown remarkable anabolic activity in bone showing large increases in bone density and fracture trials are now underway. The newer treatments for osteoporosis are likely to be based on our understanding of bone biology and the design of new highly specific compounds with fewer side effects. This review summarizes the diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and various available non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies available for its management. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Menopause'.

  20. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  3. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  4. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  5. Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-29

    AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

  6. DDX6 transfers P-TEFb kinase to the AF4/AF4N (AFF1) super elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Mück, Fabian; Bracharz, Silvia; Marschalek, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are both backbones for the assembly of “super elongation complexes” (SECs) that exert 2 distinct functions after the recruitment of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP: (1) initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II gene transcription, and (2) modification of transcribed gene regions by distinct histone methylation patterns. In this study we aimed to investigate one of the initial steps, namely how P-TEFb is transferred from 7SK snRNPs to the SECs. In particular, we were interested in the role of DDX6 that we have recently identified as part of the AF4 complex. DDX6 is an evolutionarily conserved member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family that is known to control miRNA and mRNA biology (translation, storage and degradation). Overexpressed DDX6 is associated with different cancer types and with c-Myc protein overexpression. We could demonstrate that DDX6 binds to 7SK snRNA and causes the release and transfer of P-TEFb to the AF4/AF4N SEC. DDX6 also binds stably to AF4 and AF4N as demonstrated by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. As a consequence, overexpression of either AF4/AF4N or DDX6 resulted in a strong increase of mRNA production (5-6 fold), while their simultaneous expression increased the cellular mRNA production by 11-fold. Conversely, the corresponding knockdown of DDX6 decreased mRNA production by 70%. In conclusion, AF4/AF4N and DDX6 represent key molecules for the elongation process of gene transcription and a model will be proposed for the hand-over process of P-TEFb to SECs. PMID:27679741

  7. Estrogen replacement therapy among postmenopausal women and its effects on signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Nekora-Azak, Aysen; Evlioglu, Gulumser; Ceyhan, Arzu; Keskin, Haluk; Berkman, Sinan; Issever, Halim

    2008-07-01

    The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is about two to five times higher in females than in males. Data for the higher prevalence of TMD in women and prevalence rates peak during the reproductive years and decrease after menopause. This indicated that female sex hormones may play a role in the etiology or maintenance of TMD. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between postmenopausal hormone use and TMD in Turkish postmenopausal women. One hundred-eighty (180), postmenopausal women, aged 42-72 years, were examined both clinically and by questionnaire with regard to the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, general health status and use of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy in the preceding year. Ninety-one (91) postmenopausal women (50.6%) were on hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The remaining 89 (49.4%) postmenopausal women were not on hormone replacement therapy. There was no significant difference found in the signs and symptoms of TMD between postmenopausal women using hormone therapy and those not using postmenopausal hormones. There was no association between the use of postmenopausal hormones and the signs and symptoms of TMD in this study.

  8. Ospemifene for the treatment of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Paton, D M

    2014-05-01

    Ospemifene is a third-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), structurally closely related to toremifene. Clinical studies in postmenopausal women with vulvovaginal atrophy demonstrated that it produced significant improvements in the structure of the vagina and its pH, and significantly reduced dyspareunia, the main complaint of the women treated. Preclinical studies demonstrated that ospemifene, unlike tamoxifen, did not produce DNA adducts, suggesting that it has less carcinogenic potential than tamoxifen. Preclinical and clinical studies showed that ospemifene has an agonist action on bone and reduced the growth of all breast cancer models in animal studies, providing they expressed estrogen receptor-α. Ospemifene had minimal effects on the endometrium of postmenopausal women. Ospemifene 60 mg once a day was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in February 2013 for women with moderate to severe dyspareunia.

  9. Ovarian intratumoral 21-hydroxylase deficiency in a postmenopausal hirsute woman.

    PubMed

    Souto, Selma B; Baptista, Pedro V; Barreto, Filomena; Sousa, Pedro F; Braga, Daniel C; Carvalho, Davide

    2012-12-01

    Virilising ovarian tumours are a rare cause of hyperandrogenism in women, accounting for less than 5% of all ovarian neoplasms. It occurs most often in - and postmenopausal women. We report a case of a 64 year-old woman with signs of virilisation that had started 3 years before. Blood hormone analysis revealed increased levels of testosterone, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. The tetracosactin test revealed 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Radiological imaging demonstrated a nodule in her left ovary. The patient was submitted to bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy, and histopathological examination revealed a luteoma of the left ovary. Postoperative serum testosterone level and 17-hydroxyprogesterone returned to normal levels in one month. Virilism regressed within six months. Our patient also showed an elevation in 17-OHP serum levels. Normalization of 17-OHP after oophorectomy suggests a case of intratumoral 21-hydroxylase deficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first description of ovarian intratumoral 21-hydroxylase deficiency in a postmenopausal woman.

  10. Odanacatib: an emerging novel treatment alternative for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Thomas C; Valenzano, Jonathan P; Verzella, Jessica L; Umland, Elena M

    2015-11-01

    Odanacatib represents a novel treatment option in the approach of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis experience a disturbance in bone remodeling wherein bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Cathepsin K is a lysosomal cysteine protease found primarily in osteoclasts that plays a major role in the breakdown of bone via its collagenase properties. Targeting a new area of pathophysiology, odanacatib inhibits cathepsin K to reduce bone resorption while preserving bone formation. Phase II and III trials have shown efficacy in increasing bone mineral density in the target treatment group. Overall, safety studies have found odanacatib to be well-tolerated and comparable to placebo; however, some imbalances in adverse events have been observed in the Phase III trials. Current and future studies will analyze the long-term ability of odanacatib in preventing bone fracture.

  11. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia in post-menopausal women: pros.

    PubMed

    Iacovazzo, D; De Marinis, L

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of hyperprolactinemia in women peaks during the 3rd-4th decade and then greatly decreases after the menopause. Apart from the effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin can act directly on bone metabolism. Hyperprolactinemia is a recognized cause of secondary osteoporosis, and treatment with dopamine agonists can lead to improved BMD. Moreover, hyperprolactinemia has been linked to weight gain and insulin resistance, which can be ameliorated following medical treatment. Although relatively rare, prolactinomas can be observed in post-menopausal women and are frequently large and invasive; dopamine agonists appear to be as effective in these patients as in younger women to induce reduction of prolactin levels and tumour shrinkage. Here, we review data potentially favouring medical treatment with dopamine agonists in post-menopausal women diagnosed with hyperprolactinemia.

  12. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: the role of immune system cells.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Marzano, Flaviana; Cavallo, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, new evidences of the relationship between immune system and bone have been accumulated both in animal models and in humans affected by bone disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, bone metastasis, periodontitis, and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a subsequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures. The combined effects of estrogen deprivation and raising of FSH production occurring in menopause cause a marked stimulation of bone resorption and a rapid bone loss which is central for the onset of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This review focuses on the role of immune system in postmenopausal osteoporosis and on therapeutic strategies targeting osteoimmunology pathways.

  13. Postmenopausal hormone replacement and cardiovascular disease: incorporating research into practice.

    PubMed

    Chase, Susan K; Youngkin, Ellis Quinn

    2004-01-01

    The long-standing practice of prescribing hormones to postmenopausal women was based in part on the observation that following menopause, women's incidence of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and cerebral vascular accident increased. Recent large-scale research has shown an increase in cardiovascular events for postmenopausal women receiving estrogen replacement in oral form. This article examines research on positive effects of hormone replacement therapy, discusses what is known about the development of cardiovascular disease in women, and evaluates recent research that has shown increased cardiovascular risk in women receiving hormone replacement. It concludes with recommendations for preventing cardiovascular disease in women. This is essential information for nurses, who need to be informed of ways to maintain their own health while serving as sources of health information for the public at large.

  14. Compliance Testing of the Clear AFS Power Plant, Coal-Fired Boiler 1 Clear AFS, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Background On 3 February 1987 Clear AFS requested a permit modification to allow limited burning of waste oil for their power plant shown in Figure 1...The Alaska DEC rescindel Permit to Operate No. 8331-AA003 and issued Permit No. 8731-AA004 (Appendix B) allowing the burning of waste oil. As a...below. 1. Visible Emissions (18 AAC 50.050(a)) Visible emissions, excluding condensed water vapor from an industrial process or fuel burning

  15. Why Do Only Some Women Develop Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    turnover and net bone loss. Fortunately, only 25-30% of post-menopausal women will develop vertebral fractures – the hallmark of post-menopausal...sex steroids results in increased bone turnover and net bone loss. Fortunately, only 25-30% of post- menopausal women will develop vertebral ...achieve. Therefore greater expenditures on reagents, etc have been incurred. Significant changes in use or care of human subjects, vertebrate

  16. Tissue-selective estrogen complexes for postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, Sebastian; Komm, Barry S

    2013-11-01

    Although hormone therapy using estrogens plus progestogens (EPT) is effective for the management of menopausal symptoms (e.g., vasomotor symptoms and vulvar/vaginal atrophy) and prevention/treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, EPT is associated with safety and tolerability concerns. A new alternative to EPT is the tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), which partners a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with one or more estrogens and is designed to treat menopausal symptoms and prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis without the tolerability concerns associated with EPT. The first TSEC to reach advanced clinical development is a combination of the SERM bazedoxifene (BZA) with conjugated estrogens (CE). BZA has been shown to inhibit the stimulatory activity of CE on uterine tissue and breast in vitro and in vivo. In clinical studies, BZA/CE treatment has been associated with significant improvements in menopausal symptoms including hot flushes and vulvar/vaginal atrophy and significant increases in bone mineral density, coupled with reductions in bone turnover marker levels and improvements in sleep and health-related quality of life. Additionally, BZA/CE has been shown to have a neutral effect on endometrial and breast tissue because BZA inhibits the stimulatory effects of estrogens in tissue-selective fashion in these 2 organs. Taken together, results of these preclinical and clinical studies indicate that the benefits of estrogens for treating menopausal symptoms are maintained with BZA/CE without endometrial or breast stimulation, resulting in a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic postmenopausal women.

  17. Clinical use of denosumab for the treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lewiecki, E Michael

    2010-12-01

    Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody with high affinity and specificity for human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), the principal regulator of osteoclastic bone resorption. By binding to RANKL, denosumab prevents it from binding to its receptor on the cell surface of pre-osteoclasts and mature osteoclasts, thereby reducing the formation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. In a large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, denosumab 60 mg administered subcutaneously every 6 months reduced levels of bone turnover markers, increased bone mineral density, and reduced the risk of vertebral fractures, hip fractures, and non-vertebral fractures. There was no significant difference between denosumab and placebo in the overall risk of adverse events or serious adverse events. Denosumab was associated with a significant increase in the risk of eczema and cellulitis, and a significant decrease in the risk of falling and concussions. Denosumab recently received regulatory approval for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at high risk for fracture, with no dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment. Denosumab is a new therapeutic option to reduce fracture risk in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially for those with impaired renal function or with intolerance or poor response to oral therapy.

  18. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Ciechanowska, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The report of the World Health Organization (WHO) of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used 'postmenopausal osteoporosis' and 'whole-body vibration exercise'.

  19. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Ciechanowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The report of the World Health Organization (WHO) of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’. PMID:26327887

  20. An Implicit LU/AF FDTD Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Briley, W. Roger

    2001-01-01

    There has been some recent work to develop two and three-dimensional alternating direction implicit (ADI) FDTD schemes. These ADI schemes are based upon the original ADI concept developed by Peaceman and Rachford and Douglas and Gunn, which is a popular solution method in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These ADI schemes work well and they require solution of a tridiagonal system of equations. A new approach proposed in this paper applies a LU/AF approximate factorization technique from CFD to Maxwell s equations in flux conservative form for one space dimension. The result is a scheme that will retain its unconditional stability in three space dimensions, but does not require the solution of tridiagonal systems. The theory for this new algorithm is outlined in a one-dimensional context for clarity. An extension to two and threedimensional cases is discussed. Results of Fourier analysis are discussed for both stability and dispersion/damping properties of the algorithm. Results are presented for a one-dimensional model problem, and the explicit FDTD algorithm is chosen as a convenient reference for comparison.

  1. Association between Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Depression in Post-Menopausal Women: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Chi Un; Kim, Mi Ran; Min, Jung Ah; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Chang Uk; Lee, Chul; Paik, In Ho

    2010-01-01

    Post-menopausal women experience variable biological and psychological changes. The effect of reduced levels of estrogen can effect on post-menopausal depression. Estrogen triggers physiological responses by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER). Two subtypes of ER, ERa and ERb are now known. We investigated the significance of ERa and ERb polymorphisms and post-menopasal depression in this study. Forty three women with post-menopausal depression and 63 post-menopausal women without depression as normal controls were recruited. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to investigate genotypes of ERa and ERb polymorphisms. Genotypes of PvuII and XbaI polymorphism of ERa receptor were significantly different in patients with post-menopausal depression comparing with controls. Genotypes of ERb did not show association with post-menopausal depression. Our study showed that ERa receptor polymorphism had an association with depression in post-menopausal women. It suggests that investigation of ER genes and their functions might be important for understanding pathophysilogical mechanism of post-menopausal depression. PMID:20927313

  2. Malabsorption of iron as a cause of iron deficiency anemia in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Khansa; Saboor, Muhammad; Qudsia, Fatima; Khosa, Shafi Muhammad; Moinuddin; Usman, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Malabsorption is one of the causes of iron deficiency anemia in postmenopausal women. The main objective of this study was to access the frequency of malabsorption in iron deficient anemic postmenopausal women. Methods: A total of 123 postmenopausal women were enrolled in the study. Of these 123 women, 50 were included as ‘control group’ and 73 patients with comparable severity of anemia were the ‘patient group’. Two tablets of ferrous sulfate (200 mg/tablet) along with one tablet of vitamin C (500 mg) were given to all participants. Serum iron levels were determined on samples collected from all participants before and after the administration of ferrous sulfate. Difference between before and after serum iron levels of normal and patients were compared. Results: No change in serum iron between sample one and sample two represented malabsorption. Out of 73, 5 postmenopausal anemic patients showed no change in their serum iron level after the administration of ferrous sulfate. This study shows that frequency of malabsorption of iron in postmenopausal women is 6.8%. Conclusion: Malabsorption should be considered as a prevalent cause of iron deficiency anemia in postmenopausal women. It should be properly diagnosed and iron response should be monitored properly in postmenopausal women with IDA after oral iron therapy. If a postmenopausal woman does not show any response to oral iron therapy, she should be evaluated for iron loss (blood loss and/or malabsorption). Intravenous route should be used for the administration of iron in these patients. PMID:26101480

  3. Lifetime Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Joan; Vena, John; Brasure, John; Freudenheim, Jo; Graham, Saxon

    2003-01-01

    Examined associations between leisure time and occupational physical activity (PA) across the lifespan and pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. Data on women age 40-85 years indicated that strenuous PA related to reduced breast cancer risk among both pre- and postmenopausal women. The effects were strongest for women active at least 20 years…

  4. The effect of 4-week aerobic exercise program on postural balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Gunendi, Zafer; Ozyemisci-Taskiran, Ozden; Demirsoy, Nesrin

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of submaximal aerobic exercise program on postural balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Twenty-five postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and 28 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis enrolled in this study. Balance ability of all subjects was measured by timed up and go test (TUG), four square step test (FSS), Berg balance scale (BBS) and Kinesthetic ability trainer 3000. After completion of initial measurements of balance, postmenopausal women with osteoporosis attended the submaximal aerobic exercise program on treadmill. At the end of the exercise program, balance tests were repeated. Balance tests of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis were repeated approximately 4-weeks after the initial measurement. There was statistically significant improvement in all balance scores in the postmenopausal women with osteoporosis after exercise training whereas there were no statistically significant differences in the scores of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis who did not exercise. This study showed that a 4-week submaximal aerobic exercise program provided significant improvements in static and dynamic balances in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

  5. Moderate alcohol consumption and 24-hour urinary levels of melatonin in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for...

  6. Cortical porosity exhibits accelerated rate of change in peri- compared with post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Burt, L A; Bhatla, J L; Hanley, D A; Boyd, S K

    2017-01-10

    The rate of change in bone density was not different between peri- and post-menopausal women. Differences in rate of change were observed in bone microarchitecture, specifically cortical porosity (Ct.Po), where peri-menopausal women increased +9% per year compared with the +6% per year for post-menopausal women.

  7. Severely calcified leiomyoma of broad ligament in a postmenopausal woman: Report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Subrata; Mondal, Sajeeb; Mondal, Palash Kr; Raychaudhuri, Gargi; Pradhan, Rajashree; Banerjee, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Calcified broad ligament leiomyoma is a rare benign lesion in postmenopausal age group. It causes diagnostic confusion with solid calcified adnexal mass and large bladder calculi at the pelvic region. Clinical and radiological diagnoses were confirmed by histopathology of the hysterectomy specimen. We hereby present a case of heavily calcified broad ligament fibroid in a postmenopausal woman. PMID:27721644

  8. Tin City AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    GL&bAL CLIMATOLOGY 9 RA14CH T AC NG VERSUS Vi’SIBILITY A .FAT"E S[ PfIC /mAC I .17 TI CITY AFS AK 73-74,77-81 T 1b. 3 19.5 17.S 19.5 19.5...2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER USAFETAC/DS 83017 4. TITLE (d SubtII-)Reised Uniform Summary of Surface 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD...WINDS PART 0 CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY PART F STATION PRESSURE SKYCOVER SEA LEVEL PRESSURE STANDARD 3 -HOUR GROUPS All su-nseri- requiring diurnal

  9. Indian Mountain AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    31 8... . 1B b w., B. 0- r] N I o N.. Ob.. M.., N.. .1 N.-. it% To’p.Wo.- R. .1.__-___ 0 F 322 F *67 F *73 F 60S F *93 F To. 4 .. P , PSYCHROMETRIC...Psychrometrl- summary Surfoc, Worlds Extreme temperature Ceiling versus vis:boloi-; Helative Humidity -Climatological data (over) 20 ABSTRACT ’C- P ,, -1...uSAFETAC A2 4EATR SERVICE/MAC WEATHER CONDITIONS 70173C INDIAN MOUNTAIN AFS AK 73-8? P PEOCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS FROP HOURLY

  10. Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the Sera of Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Females

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Aazam; Abtahi, Shabnam; Ghaderi, Abbas; Samsami Dehaghani, Alamtaj

    2016-01-01

    Background Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity in postmenopausal females. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) play complex roles in normal bone metabolism, and in pathophysiology of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Objectives The aim of this study was to design an analytic cross sectional study in order to further clarify the role of TGF-β1 and IL-18 in osteoporosis of postmenopausal females. Methods A cross sectional study including 65 postmenopausal osteoporotic females as cases and 69 postmenopausal females of similar age without osteoporosis as controls was conducted. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine bone mass density (BMD) of participants and T-scoring was applied to establish whether the patient has osteoporosis or not. Serum TGF-β1 and IL-18 levels were measured by quantitative sandwich Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Serum TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic postmenopausal females than non-osteoporotic individuals (23.8 vs. 15.8 ng/mL; P = 0.009). There was no difference between IL-18 levels in the sera of osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic postmenopausal females in this study. There was a positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and serum level of TGF-β1 (P = 0.04). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that TGF-β1 serum levels is higher in osteoporotic postmenopausal females than non-osteoporotic ones, and probably aberrant increase in TGF-β1 in postmenopausal females can result in uncoupled bone resorption and formation, which leads to osteoporosis. PMID:28123435

  11. Application of FRAX model to Sri Lankan postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lekamwasam, Sarath

    2010-01-01

    The FRAX software developed by the World Health Organization provides a method to estimate fracture probability of old men and women based on their bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical risk factors (CRFs). The validity of 4 selected ethnic-specific FRAX tools in determining prevalent fracture or treatment decisions in a group of postmenopausal women from Sri Lanka was examined. Women with a history of fragility fracture/s and those who were detected to have femoral neck T-score<2.5 were considered eligible for specific osteoporosis treatment. Ten-year all osteoporotic fracture (vertebral and nonvertebral) probability (10y-AOFP) of 481 postmenopausal women were estimated on US Caucasian, US Asian, Japanese, and Chinese FRAX tools, first using CRFs alone and then combining with femoral neck T-scores. At 20% 10y-AOFP, Chinese tool showed a very low sensitivity in detecting prevalent fracture or detecting women needing intervention (1.3%). Sensitivities observed with US Asian and Japanese tools ranged from 33% to 42%, showing their limitations in predicting prevalent fracture in this group of women. The US Caucasian tool, either with CRFs alone or with BMD incorporated, showed a relatively higher sensitivity in detecting fractures or identifying those needing interventions (71% and 76%, respectively). Furthermore, the US Caucasian tool showed a relatively high specificity (ranging from 70% to 87%). In conclusion, this analysis showed the limitations of the current FRAX tools in predicting fractures when applied to a different ethnic group. Until a separate FRAX tool is developed, the US Caucasian tool can be used to predict fractures in Sri Lankan postmenopausal women.

  12. Age at First Childbirth and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangshin

    2017-03-27

    Whether age at first childbirth has an effect on hypertension incidence is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension and to examine whether degree of obesity, measured as body mass index, mediates age at first childbirth-related hypertension in postmenopausal women. This study analyzed 4779 postmenopausal women data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension. Mediation analysis was performed to examine the contribution of body mass index to age at first childbirth-related hypertension. Mean of participants' age at first childbirth and current age were 23.8 and 63.4 years, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 51.1%. Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio, 0.963; 95% confidence interval, 0.930-0.998; P=0.036). Women with age at first childbirth ≤19 years had significantly higher risk of hypertension (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.23; P=0.004) compared with those >19 years. Multivariable-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was significantly lower in women who delivered the first infant at 20 to 24 (45.5%), 25 to 29 (46.1%), and ≥30 (39.9%) years compared with those at ≤19 years (58.4%). Body mass index completely mediated age at first childbirth-hypertension relationship (indirect effect: odds ratio, 0.992; 95% confidence interval, 0.987-0.998; P=0.008). Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with hypertension in postmenopausal women. Body mass index mediated the effects of age at first childbirth on hypertension.

  13. Postmenopausal hormone use impact on emotion processing circuitry.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Tal; Love, Tiffany; Berent-Spillson, Alison; Persad, Carol C; Wang, Heng; Reame, Nancy K; Frey, Kirk A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda R

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence for potential effects of estrogen on emotional processing, several studies of postmenopausal women who began hormone therapy (HT) remote from menopause report no effects of HT on emotional measures. As early HT initiation may preserve brain mechanisms, we examined effects of HT on emotional processing in postmenopausal women who started HT early after menopause. We performed a cross-sectional comparison of 52 postmenopausal women 66±5 years old, including 15 users of conjugated equine estrogen, 20 users of conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, and 17 who never used hormones (NT). All hormone users started therapy within two years of menopause, and received at least 10 years of continuous therapy. Outcomes were fMRI-detected brain activity and behavioral measures during an emotional processing picture rating task. During processing of positive pictures, NT women had greater activation than estrogen treated women in medial prefrontal cortex extending to the anterior cingulate, and more activation than estrogen plus progestin treated women in the insula. During processing of negative pictures, estrogen treated women had higher activation than NT women in the entorhinal cortex. Current compared to past HT users showed greater activation in the hippocampus and higher emotion recognition accuracy of neutral stimuli. Estrogen plus progestin treated women had slower response time than NT women when rating all pictures. In conclusion, hormone use was associated with differences in brain functional responses during emotional processing. These fMRI effects were more prominent than those observed for behavioral measures and involved brain regions implicated in cognitive-emotional integration.

  14. Profiling of plasma metabolites in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Miho; Harada, Sei; Kurihara, Ayako; Fukai, Kota; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Ayano; Okamura, Tomonori; Akiyama, Miki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Asako; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Banno, Kouji; Aoki, Daisuke; Takebayashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of amino acids and other polar metabolites with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women in a lean Asian population. Methods: The participants were 1,422 female residents enrolled in a cohort study from April to August 2012. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III modified for Japanese women. Associations were examined between MetS and 78 metabolites assayed in fasting plasma samples using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Replication analysis was performed to confirm the robustness of the results in a separate population created by random allocation. Results: Analysis was performed for 877 naturally postmenopausal women, including 594 in the original population and 283 in the replication population. The average age, body mass index, and levels of high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of the entire population were 64.6 years, 23.0 kg/m2, 72.1 mg/dL, and 126.1 mg/dL, respectively. There was no significant difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between women with and without MetS. Thirteen metabolites were significantly related to MetS: multiple plasma amino acids were elevated in women with MetS, including branched-chain amino acids, alanine, glutamate, and proline; and alpha-aminoadipate, which is generated by lysine degradation, was also significantly increased. Conclusions: Our large-scale metabolomic profiling indicates that Japanese postmenopausal women with MetS have abnormal polar metabolites, suggesting altered catabolic pathways. These results may help to understand metabolic disturbance, including in persons with normal body mass index and relatively high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and may have clinical utility based on further studies. PMID:27070805

  15. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  16. Circulating Adipokines and Inflammatory Markers and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Cushman, Mary; Xue, Xiaonan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Strickler, Howard D.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; McTiernan, Anne; Kaplan, Robert C.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Snetselaar, Linda; Wang, Dan; Ho, Gloria Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adipokines and inflammation may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer, yet epidemiologic data on their associations with breast cancer risk are limited. Methods: In a case-cohort analysis nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, baseline plasma samples from 875 incident breast cancer case patients and 839 subcohort participants were tested for levels of seven adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatocyte growth factor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and for C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by multivariable Cox modeling that included established breast cancer risk factors and previously measured estradiol and insulin levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The association between plasma CRP levels and breast cancer risk was dependent on hormone therapy (HT) use at baseline (P interaction = .003). In a model that controlled for multiple breast cancer risk factors including body mass index (BMI), estradiol, and insulin, CRP level was positively associated with breast cancer risk among HT nonusers (hazard ratio for high vs low CRP levels = 1.67, 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 2.68, P trend = .029). None of the other adipokines were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Following inclusion of CRP, insulin, and estradiol in a multivariable model, the association of BMI with breast cancer was attenuated by 115%. Conclusion: These data indicate that CRP is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer among HT nonusers. Inflammatory mediators, together with insulin and estrogen, may play a role in the obesity–breast cancer relation. PMID:26185195

  17. [Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Yildirir, Aylin

    2010-03-01

    Women suffer from cardiovascular diseases 10 years later than men, therefore female sex has been considered to be a 'protective factor'. However, the risk in women increases rapidly after menopause and the declining levels of endogenous estrogen is thought to be responsible. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) decreases the severity and intensity of menopausal symptoms and improves women's quality of life. Until the last 10 years, based on the results of observational studies, postmenopausal HRT was thought to protect women against cardiovascular events and decrease the risk of coronary artery disease by 35-50%. However, recent randomized primary and secondary prevention trials did not support the cardioprotective effect of HRT. The different results of observational and randomized controlled trials are discussed to be related to the differences in the study population. The study population in observational and prospective cohort studies included relatively young women at the earlier stages of menopause, whereas studies showing neutral or negative effects of HRT included women older than 50 years old at least 10 years in menopause. Furthermore, the effects of estrogen depend on the state of vascular pathology. In relatively healthy vessels with no or early signs of atherosclerosis, estrogen prevent the development or progression of atherosclerotic lesions, whereas in the presence of established atherosclerotic lesions, estrogen promotes atherosclerosis or may even trigger acute events. Therefore, it is critically important to predict which women can safely receive HRT and which are at increased risk from HRT. Under the light of current knowledge, HRT should not be used for prevention from cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women and the many other preventive strategies, (diet, exercise, blood pressure or cholesterol control) that are proven to be effective but underused, should be kept in mind.

  18. Sclerostin and DKK1 in postmenopausal osteoporosis treated with denosumab.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Davide; Viapiana, Ombretta; Fracassi, Elena; Idolazzi, Luca; Dartizio, Carmela; Povino, Maria Rosaria; Adami, Silvano; Rossini, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    The bone mass benefits of antiresorbers in postmenopausal osteoporosis are limited by the rapid coupling of decreasing bone resorption with bone formation. Wnt signaling is involved in this coupling process during treatment with bisphosphonates, whereas its role during treatment with the anti-receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) antibody denosumab is unknown. The study population includes patients participating in a placebo-controlled trial lasting 36 months: 19 women were on placebo and 24 on subcutaneous 60 mg denosumab every 6 months. All measured parameters (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen [sCTX], serum bone alkaline phosphatase [bAP], Dickkopf-1 [DKK1], and sclerostin) remained unchanged during the observation period in the placebo group. sCTX and bAP were significantly suppressed by denosumab treatment over the entire follow-up. Denosumab treatment was associated with significant (p < 0.05) increases (28% to 32%) in serum sclerostin over the entire study follow-up. Serum DKK1 significantly decreased within the first 6 months with a trend for further continuous decreases, which reached statistical significance (p < 0.05) versus placebo group from the 18th month onward. The changes in DKK1 were significantly and positively related with the changes in sCTX and bAP and negatively with hip bone mineral density (BMD) changes. The changes in sclerostin were significantly and negatively related only with those of bAP. The changes in bone turnover markers associated with denosumab treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with significant increase in sclerostin similar to those seen after long-term treatment with bisphosphonates and significant decrease in DKK1. This latter observation might explain the continuous increase over 5 years in BMD observed during treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with denosumab.

  19. Can a questionnaire predict vitamin D status in postmenopausal women?

    PubMed Central

    Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Hansen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine whether a questionnaire can identify subjects with vitamin D insufficiency (VDI). Design Subjects completed the vitamin D and sun (VIDSUN) questionnaire and we measured their serum 25(OH)D levels. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire to identify VDI (25(OH)D level <50 nmol/L). Setting Clinical Research Unit, University of Wisconsin-Madison Subjects Postmenopausal women Results We recruited 609 postmenopausal women with a mean ± SD age of 61 ± 6 years, of whom 113 (19%) had VDI. Subjects with VDI were more likely to be Black (17% vs. 2%, p<0.001), heavier (BMI 33±7 kg/m2 vs. 29±7 kg/m2, p<0.001) and less likely to tan in the past year (49% vs. 72%, p<0.001), use sunscreen (57% vs. 72%, p<0.001) or report sun exposure in the last three months. They consumed less vitamin D from supplements (86±210 vs. 188±344 IU/day, p=0.003). In logistic regression models, Black race, BMI, suntan within one year, sun exposure in the past three months, sunscreen use and supplemental vitamin D intake were the most useful questions to identify VDI. From these six items, a composite score ≤2.25 demonstrated ≥89% sensitivity but ≤35% specificity for VDI. Conclusion The VIDSUN questionnaire provides an initial tool to identify postmenopausal women at high or low risk of VDI. Existing studies suggest that inclusion of physical activity and triglyceride levels might improve the performance of the VIDSUN questionnaire. PMID:23870503

  20. [Antiestrogen treatment in postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Henriette; Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet; Tuxen, Malgorzata; Kamby, Claus

    2007-09-10

    This review discusses the evidence for endocrine treatment in postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer. First line treatment with non-steroid aromatase inhibitors (AI) yields response rates of 30% and improves progression free survival, but not overall survival, compared to tamoxifen. With second line treatment using steroid AI, estrogen antagonists or selective estrogen receptor modulators prolonged disease stabilisation is achieved in 40% of patients. With third line treatment using steroid AI and estrogen antagonists disease stabilisation is achieved in up to 30% of patients.

  1. Post-menopausal vaginal angiomyofibroblastoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Laiyemo, Raphael; Disu, Stewart; Vijaya, Gopalar; Wise, B

    2005-12-01

    Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMF) is a recently described, rare, benign soft tissue vulvovaginal tumour that occurs mainly but not exclusively in the vulval region of pre-menopausal women (Fletcher et al. in Am J Surg Pathl 16:373; 1992). The first case was diagnosed in 1992. We report a case of a post-menopausal woman with a 2-month history of a rapidly growing painless vaginal tumour and thus drawing the attention of gynaecologist as well as general practitioners to the fact that this rare phenomenon can occur outside the vulva.

  2. Current approach to fracture prevention in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, B; Hirsch, M

    2004-01-01

    The prevention and management of osteoporosis are becoming increasingly prominent concerns as the number of postmenopausal women reaching old age continues to grow. Often the first sign of osteoporosis is a fractured bone. It is important that women with low bone density be identified as early as possible and measures taken to reverse the process. These include proper diet and exercise, supplements of calcium and vitamin D, and in cases with proven osteoporosis, antiresorptive or anabolic agents to improve bone strength. Women should also be cautioned to avoid falling as much as possible.

  3. [Therapeutic concepts in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Leidig-Bruckner, G; Ziegler, R

    1994-11-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is not a well-defined disease, but summarizes women with different severity of changes in bone metabolism and different clinical complaints. The only common feature in women with 'postmenopausal osteoporosis' is the deficiency of estrogen. Postmenopausal women can be subdivided into four groups, according to their risk for fractures: 1. women without evident increase of fracture risk (bone mineral content between 0 and 2 SD of age-related normal range, no known risk factors from history); 2. women with possible increase of fracture risk (bone mineral content between 0 and -2 SD of age-related normal range, with or without known risk factors from history); 3. women with clear increase of fracture risk (bone mineral content below age-related normal range, with or without known risk factors from history); 4. women with already occurred fracture (manifest osteoporosis). Therapeutic intervention in postmenopausal women should be adapted to the risk for fracture. In all four groups a secondary prevention or basic therapy should be performed, focusing on calcium intake, vitamin D supply and sufficient physical activity. Calcium intake should be 1500 mg/day in women without estrogen substitution and 1000 mg in women with estrogen substitution. In patients living mainly inside or with malnutrition, a daily substitution of 500 E. Vitamin D3 is recommended. In group 2, regular control of bone mass is recommended to start additional estrogen replacement therapy, if accelerated loss of bone mass occurs. In group 3, estrogen replacement therapy is recommended urgently and is the therapy of first choice to prevent development of fractures. In group 4 (manifest osteoporosis), therapy should aim on improvement of the patient's symptoms and on increase of bone stability to avoid further fractures. The symptomatic therapy includes pain medications and an intensive physical therapy adapted to the patient's needs. Physical therapy should be performed for

  4. Comparisons of serum sclerostin levels among patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, primary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia.

    PubMed

    Kaji, H; Imanishi, Y; Sugimoto, T; Seino, S

    2011-07-01

    Wnt-β-catenin signaling is important for bone formation. Sclerostin inhibits bone formation mainly by suppressing this signal, and several studies suggest that the suppression of sclerostin expression contributes to the bone anabolic action of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We therefore examined serum sclerostin levels using enzyme-linked immunosolvent assay in 18 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, 9 postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and 7 patients with osteomalacia. Serum levels of sclerostin were significantly lower in the group with pHPT, compared with those with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Moreover, serum sclerostin levels were significantly lower in the group with tumor-induced osteomalacia, but not in the group with osteomalacia without tumor, compared with those with postmenopausal osteoporosis. In patients with pHPT, serum sclerostin levels were significantly and negatively correlated to serum calcium and PTH levels. In patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, serum levels of sclerostin levels were significantly and positively related to serum calcium and creatinine levels. In conclusion, we showed that serum sclerostin levels are decreased presumably through endogenous PTH elevation in postmenopausal women with pHPT, compared with the patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  5. Correlation between bone mineral density and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Tripti; Islam, Najmul; Ahmad, Jamal; Akhtar, Nishat; Beg, Mujahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal osteoporosis affects large fraction of elderly women. Oxidative stress (OS) appears to be involved in its pathogenesis. The scarcity of human studies focusing on the correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and OS in postmenopausal women has prompted us to study on this issue. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study in 95 subjects, between 21–65 years of age, including postmenopausal osteoporotic females (n = 35), healthy postmenopausal females (n = 30) and healthy females in reproductive age group (n = 30). We measured serum antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidant power (TAP). BMD was obtained at lumbar spine and femur neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Osteoporosis was considered when subjects had a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for young adults. Results: Serum GPx, SOD, catalase and TAP level were found significantly lower in osteoporotic postmenopausal group as compared to healthy postmenopausal women and women in healthy reproductive age group healthy reproductive women (P < 0.005). but correlation between BMD and serum antioxidants were not found to be statistically significant (P > 0.005). Conclusion: These findings support that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We did not find any significant association between BMD and serum level of antioxidants (P > 0.05). The failure to detect this association does not preclude the role of OS in osteoporosis because OS is complex and dynamic process. PMID:26180764

  6. HLA-A gene polymorphisms contribute to osteoporosis susceptibility in postmenopausal Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, S M; Guo, H; Yang, H J; Lv, M Q; Zhou, D X

    2015-08-28

    Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mineral density, deterioration in bone microarchitecture, and increased fracture risk and is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. HLA is a complex gene family; previous studies have shown that it plays an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis among Japanese and Greek populations. Prompted by these findings, this study was designed to explore the associations between HLA-A gene polymorphisms and postmenopausal osteoporosis in the Han Chinese population. The polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing method was used for DNA genotyping at the HLA-A locus in 70 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 73 healthy controls. We identified 17 HLA-A alleles in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 20 HLA-A alleles in control subjects. Furthermore, we found that the frequency of the HLA-A* 02:07 allele was significantly higher in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis than in control subjects (P = 0.023), and the relative risk was 4.065 (95% confidence interval = 1.109-14.893). Our study provides supportive evidence for the contribution of HLA-A gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility to postmenopausal osteoporosis and suggests that HLA-A* 02:07 is likely an important genetic risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis in the Han Chinese population.

  7. Aortic hemodynamics and white matter hyperintensities in normotensive postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jill N; Harvey, Ronée E; Zuk, Samantha M; Lundt, Emily S; Lesnick, Timothy G; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Senjem, Matthew L; Shuster, Lynne T; Miller, Virginia M; Jack, Clifford R; Joyner, Michael J; Kantarci, Kejal

    2017-04-07

    Hypertension is associated with development of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in the brain, which are risk factors for mild cognitive impairment. Hormonal shifts at menopause alter vascular function putting women at risk for both hypertension and WMH. Elevations in aortic hemodynamics precede the appearance of clinically defined hypertension but the relationship of aortic hemodynamics to development of WMH in women is not known. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize aortic hemodynamics in relationship to WMH in postmenopausal women. Aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), aortic augmentation index (Alx) and aortic round trip travel time (Aortic T R) by tonometry were examined in 53 postmenopausal women (age 60 ± 2 years). WMH was calculated from fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI using a semi-automated segmentation algorithm. WMH as a fraction of total white matter volume positively associated with aortic systolic BP (regression coefficient = 0.018; p = 0.04) after adjusting for age. In addition, WMH fraction was positively associated with AIx (0.025; p = 0.04), and inversely associated with Aortic T R (-0.015; p = 0.04) after adjusting for age. Our results suggest that assessing aortic hemodynamics may identify individuals at risk for accelerated development of WMH and guide early treatment to reduce WMH burden and cognitive impairment in the future.

  8. Use of SERMs for treatment in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Joann V; Thomas, Semara

    2014-07-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are synthetic non-steroidal agents which have varying estrogen agonist and antagonist activities in different tissues, most likely due to the receptor conformation changes associated with that SERM's binding and the subsequent effect on transcription. Clinical trials aim to differentiate amongst SERMs on selected target tissues for use in postmenopausal women including effects on breast, bone, cardiovascular venous thrombosis risk, endometrium, vagina, vasomotor symptoms, and brain. This paper describes differences in clinical effects on selected target tissues of SERMs that are approved, discontinued or in development. FDA approved SERMs include tamoxifen and toremifene used for prevention and treatment of breast cancer, raloxifene approved for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of invasive breast cancer, and ospemifene approved for treatment of dyspareunia from menopausal vaginal atrophy. The FDA approved first tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC) a pairing of conjugated equine estrogens with the SERM, bazedoxifene. This pairing reduces the risk of endometrial hyperplasia that can occur with the estrogenic component of the TSEC without the need for a progestogen in women with a uterus. It also allows for the estrogenic benefits on relief of hot flashes and prevention of bone loss without stimulating the breast or the endometrium. In clinical practice, the tissue-selective actions of SERMs, alone or paired with estrogens, allow for individualization in meeting the treatment needs of postmenopausal women by providing targeted tissue effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Menopause'.

  9. Eldecalcitol prevents endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal osteoporosis model rats.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Kenichi; Yogo, Kenji; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Takeda, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Aizawa, Ken; Endo, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Postmenopausal women have high incidence of cardiovascular events as estrogen deficiency can cause endothelial dysfunction. Vitamin D is reported to be beneficial on endothelial function, but it remains controversial whether vitamin D is effective for endothelial dysfunction under the treatment for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endothelial protective effect of eldecalcitol (ELD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. ELD (20  ng/kg) was orally administrated five times a week for 4 weeks from 1 day after surgery. After that, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as an indicator of endothelial function was measured by high-resolution ultrasound in the femoral artery of living rats. ELD ameliorated the reduction of FMD in OVX rats. ELD inhibited the increase in NOX4, nitrotyrosine, and p65 and the decrease in dimer/monomer ratio of nitric oxide synthase in OVX rat femoral arteries. ELD also prevented the decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in femoral arteries and cultured endothelial cells. Although PPARγ is known to inhibit osteoblastogenesis, ELD understandably increased bone mineral density of OVX rats without increase in PPARγ in bone marrow. These results suggest that ELD prevented the deterioration of endothelial function under condition of preventing bone loss in OVX rats. This endothelial protective effect of ELD might be exerted through improvement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling, which is mediated by an antioxidative effect through normalization of vascular PPARγ/NF-κB signaling.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of body image dissatisfaction in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Rebecca L; Tinker, Lesley; Liu, Jingmin; Gray, James; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolis, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with one's body image is widespread and can have serious health consequences; however, research about its prevalence and correlates in older women is limited. We analyzed data from 75,256 women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a longitudinal study of postmenopausal women's health. Measures used in the study were collected at baseline and/or the third year of follow-up between 1993 and 2002. The majority of participants (83%) in this study were dissatisfied with their bodies because they perceived themselves as heavier than their ideal. Overall, the multiple and significant correlates of body image dissatisfaction explained 36.2% of the variance in the body image dissatisfaction score, with body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI being the two most important contributors to explaining the variance. The results of this study suggest future research should focus on the utility of interventions to reduce dissatisfaction with body image in postmenopausal women that target either maintenance of a lower BMI through diet and exercise, and/or body acceptance. Further, future research should aim to identify factors in addition to body size that drive body image dissatisfaction.

  11. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. ); Gutai, J.P. ); Powell, J.G. )

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  12. Vitamin D and bone health in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Malabanan, Alan O; Holick, Michael F

    2003-03-01

    Osteoporosis, a disease of increased skeletal fragility, is becoming increasingly common as the U.S. population ages. Adequate vitamin D and calcium intake is the cornerstone of osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Age-related changes in vitamin D and calcium metabolism increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Although longitudinal data have suggested a role of vitamin D intake in modulating bone loss in perimenopausal women, studies of vitamin D and calcium supplementation have failed to support a significant effect of vitamin D and calcium during early menopause. There is a clearer benefit in vitamin D and calcium supplementation in older postmenopausal women. Vitamin D intake between 500 and 800 IU daily, with or without calcium supplementation, has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) in women with a mean age of approximately 63 years. In women older than 65, there is even more benefit with vitamin D intakes of between 800 and 900 IU daily and 1200-1300 mg of calcium daily, with increased bone density, decreased bone turnover, and decreased nonvertebral fractures. The decreases in nonvertebral fractures may also be influenced by vitamin D-mediated decreases in body sway and fall risk. There are insufficient available data supporting a benefit from vitamin D supplementation alone, without calcium, to prevent osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women.

  13. [Clinical practice guideline. Diagnosis and treatment of postmenopausal and perinemopausia].

    PubMed

    Alvarado-García, Alberto; Hernández-Quijano, Tomás; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Negrín-Pérez, Miriam Concepción; Ríos-Castillo, Brendha; Valencia-Pérez, Gregorio Urbano; Vital-Reyes, Víctor Saúl; Basavilvazo-Rodríguez, María Antonia; Torres-Arreola, Laura Pilar; Ortiz-Luna, Guillermo Federico; Sánchez-Aguirre, Fernando; Montaño-Uscanga, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Post-menopause is the period of life where a deep decline occurs in circulating estrogen levels, inducing the appearance of psycho and somatic symptoms. The classification to understand the chronology of reproductive aging in women (known as STRAW) determines the clinical and endocrine changes contemplating menstrual cycles, symptoms, measurements of FSH, LH, inhibin B, anti-Mullerian hormone , and follicular account. The diagnosis of menopause is established by the absence of menstruation for 12 months or more. The most frequent clinical manifestations of the climacteric syndrome transition to menopause are menstrual disorders, vasomotor symptoms (flushes and/or sweats) and genitourinary manifestations. The assessment of women in the peri- or postmenopause aims to develop: cervicovaginal cytology , lipid profile , serum glucose, basal Mammography at least a year before, pelvic ultrasound, urinalysis, serum TSH, Densitometry in patients older than 60 years if there is no recourse can be applied and FRAX. Drug therapy for the treatment of disorders of the transition to menopause or menopause is divided into: hormone therapy (HT) based estrogens and progestin hormone not being the most recommended the serotonin reuptake inhibitors and norepinephrine, clonidine, gabapentin or veralipride.

  14. Overweight, Obesity and Postmenopausal Invasive Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Neuhouser, Marian. L; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Prentice, Ross L.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan; Carty, Cara L.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Caan, Bette J.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Urrutia, Rachel Peragallo; Knudtson, Jennifer; Anderson, Garnet L.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Over ⅔ of U.S. women are overweight or obese, placing them at increased risk for postmenopausal breast cancer. OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations of overweight and obesity with risk of postmenopausal invasive breast cancer after extended follow-up in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Clinical Trial. DESIGN The WHI protocol incorporated measured height and weight, baseline and annual or biennial mammography, and adjudicated breast cancer endpoints. SETTING 40 U.S. clinical centers. PARTICIPANTS n=67,142 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years were enrolled from 1993–1998 with a median of 13 years of follow-up through 2010; 3388 invasive breast cancers were observed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Height and weight were measured at baseline and weight was measured annually thereafter. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history and personal habits (smoking, physical activity). Women underwent annual or biennial mammograms. Breast cancers were verified by medical records reviewed by physician adjudicators. RESULTS Women who were overweight and obese had an increased invasive breast cancer risk vs. normal weight women. Risk was greatest for obesity grades 2+3 (BMI>35.0 kg/m2) (hazard ratio [HR] for invasive breast cancer =1.58, 95% CI 1.40–1.79). BMI ≥ 35.0 kg/m2 was strongly associated with risk for ER+/PR+ breast cancers (HR=1.86 95% CI 1.60–2.17), but was not associated with ER− cancers. Obesity grade 2+3 was also associated with advanced disease including larger tumor size (HR=2.12 95%CI 1.67–2.69). (P=0.02), positive lymph nodes (HR=1.89 95%CI 1.46–2.45), (P=0.06), regional/distant stage (HR=1.94, 95%CI 1.52–2.47) (P=0.05) and deaths after breast cancer (HR=2.11 95%CI 1.57–2.84) (P<0.001). Women with baseline BMI<25.0 kg/m2 who gained >5% of bodyweight over the follow-up period had an increased breast cancer risk (HR=1.36 95% CI 1.1–1.65), but among women already overweight or

  15. Cape Newenham AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    OBSERVATIONS) L P- 14 H~N A A-F S .~ 73-F2 ____ JA&,. ALL WI- LAt E -- .. - - 6 7 0 11 16 17 21 22 27 28- 33 34 *0 41 A7 48 5 .7 * . .3 .4 .4 . 1 . i E...PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 4LL . LAT -E- - 10 1 1 i 7 23 22 ’ 2 3 3 A 40 A 3 5 A7 A • ’ .. 5 .t",5...SCOTT A. APR 03 UNCLASSIFIED USAFETAC/DS-83/019 SBI-AD-EB50 397 F/6 4/2 NL SU 2. lii .0 EM *,*,- Ica L- 11111 1.25 s~w ,r- 1 . 11.6 I MiCRQ OPY

  16. Challenging atrophied perspectives on postmenopausal dyspareunia: a systematic description and synthesis of clinical pain characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kao, Alina; Binik, Yitzchak M; Amsel, Rhonda; Funaro, Deana; Leroux, Nathalie; Khalifé, Samir

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the clinical attributes of postmenopausal dyspareunia. The authors obtained a systematic description of pain symptomatology from 182 postmenopausal dyspareunia sufferers using a structured interview, quantitative sensory testing, a standardized pain measure, and gynecological examination. The authors conducted a cluster analysis to examine whether sufferers could be categorized using clinical pain and gynecological factors. The authors delineated 6 subgroups, each exhibiting distinct combinations of pain and gynecological characteristics. The results support the hypothesis that, similarly to premenopausal dyspareunia, postmenopausal dyspareunia is a heterogeneous condition.

  17. Obesity and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk: Determining the Role of Growth Factor-Induced Aromatase Expression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    cancer cells and preadipocytes were exposed to pooled serum from obese (OB; BMI≥30.0 kg/m2) or normal weight (N; BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) postmenopausal...breast cancer cells to pooled serum samples from obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m2) or lean (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) postmenopausal women. Following serum exposure... obesity in which ERa positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells were exposed to human sera obtained from postmenopausal women and pooled by BMI category . Our

  18. Gingival recession in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    DUNCEA, IOANA; POP, DAN; GEORGESCU, CARMEN

    2013-01-01

    Background The periodontal disease is a complex chronic progressive inflammatory and destructive process of the tooth attachment apparatus: gingiva, alveolar bone, desmodontium, cementum. Systemic osteoporosis has a potential influence on both the periodontal and gingival inflammation indices, on the gingival recession (GR) and teeth mobility. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between the menopause osteoporosis and gingival recession, by studying the correlations between osteoporosis and gingival recession, and between the bone mineral density (BMD) at the level of L1–L4, femur, hip, mandible and gum recession. Materials and methods The present study included a total of 97 postmenopausal patients. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was made based on the WHO definition. The results were expressed as absolute BMD values in g/cm2 and as T score form. We used dual x-ray absortiometry (DXA) measurements in assessing the lumbar column, proximal femur and mandible and we calculated the T scores. The gingival recession, which is an indicator of ligament tissue lysis and apical migration of the periodontal tissue, was measured as the distance between the anatomical tooth neck and the gumline. For the statistical analysis the Medcalc program version 12.3 was used. Results We found statistically significant differences between the two groups of women, with and without osteoporosis, in terms of the distribution of the cases of GR (p=0.003). The only parameter with statistical significance of the differences between the three categories of gingival recessions (absent, moderate, major), was p=0.034 for the femoral neck BMD. There were significant differences between the mean values of lumbar column L1–L4 BMD according to the presence or absence of recession signs. Conclusions 1) The prevalence of moderate and major gingival recession was statistically significantly higher in the group of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. 2) In postmenopausal

  19. Bone Density and Clinical Periodontal Attachment in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Penoni, D C; Fidalgo, T K S; Torres, S R; Varela, V M; Masterson, D; Leão, A T T; Maia, L C

    2017-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and has been considered a risk factor for periodontal disease. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to verify the scientific evidence for the association of periodontal attachment loss with low BMD in postmenopausal women. A systematic search of the literature was performed in databases until August 2016, in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Eligibility criteria included studies that compared clinical attachment loss (CAL) between postmenopausal women with low and normal BMD. Studies using similar methodology, with lower and higher risk of bias, were pooled into 3 different meta-analyses to compare CAL among women with normal BMD, osteoporosis, and osteopenia. In the first meta-analysis, mean CAL was compared among groups. In the other 2 meta-analyses, the mean percentages of sites with CAL ≥4 mm and ≥6 mm were respectively compared among groups. From 792 unique citations, 26 articles were selected for the qualitative synthesis. Eleven of the studies were appraised as presenting low risk of bias, and the association between low BMD and CAL was observed in 10 of these studies. Thirteen cross-sectional articles were included in the meta-analysis for osteoporosis and 9 in the osteopenia analysis. Women with low BMD presented greater mean CAL than those with normal BMD (osteoporosis = 0.34 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-0.49], P < 0.001; osteopenia = 0.07 mm [95% CI, 0.01-0.13], P = 0.02). Only studies with lower risk of bias were available for the analysis of CAL severity. Women with low BMD presented more severe attachment loss, represented as mean percentage of sites with CAL ≥4 mm (osteoporosis = 3.04 [95% CI, 1.23-4.85], P = 0.001; osteopenia = 1.74 [95% CI, 0.36-3.12], P = 0.01) and CAL ≥6 mm (osteoporosis = 5.07 [95% CI, 2.74-7.40], P < 0.001). This systematic review

  20. Prospective assessment of thoracic kyphosis in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Roux, Christian; Fechtenbaum, Jacques; Kolta, Sami; Said-Nahal, Roula; Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2010-02-01

    We attempt to assess quantitatively thoracic kyphosis and its influence on incident fractures and quality of life over three years in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and the effect of strontium ranelate on thoracic kyphosis progression. This study was performed on women with postmenopausal osteoporosis from the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention (SOTI) and Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis (TROPOS) studies. Vertebral fractures were assessed on lateral thoracic radiographs performed at baseline and at three years according to standardized procedure. Kyphosis index (KI, %), was defined as the percentage ratio between the maximum depth of thoracic curvature and the height measured from the T4 to the T12 vertebrae. Baseline characteristics of the 3218 patients (1594 strontium ranelate, 1624 placebo) were mean age 73.3 years, spine bone mineral density (BMD) T-score (L2-4) -3.1, femoral neck T-score -3.0, and KI 25.4%. In the placebo group, patients with the highest baseline KI experienced significantly more vertebral fractures than those with medium KIs [relative risk (RR) = 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.96, p < .001) or the lowest KIs (RR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.32-2.21, p < .001), even after adjusting for the presence of prevalent fractures, age, body mass index (BMI), and BMD. There was no difference in the risk of nonvertebral fractures according to baseline KI. Three-year changes in quality-of-life physical scores reflected significantly better status for patients in the lowest tertile of KI compared with those in the highest at baseline. Over three years, the KI increased for all patients, indicating worsening of thoracic kyphosis, whatever the presence of prevalent or incident vertebral fractures. This KI progression was lower in the strontium ranelate group than in the placebo group. Thoracic kyphosis is a risk factor for vertebral fractures over three years and influences physical capacity changes in postmenopausal women with

  1. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.5: Space Environment Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Hall, T.; Roth, C.; Ling, A.; Ginet, G. P.; Madden, D.

    2010-12-01

    AF-GEOSpace is a graphics-intensive software program with space environment models and applications developed by the Space Weather Center of Excellence at AFRL. The software addresses a wide range of physical domains, e.g., solar disturbance propagation, geomagnetic field and radiation belt configurations, auroral particle precipitation, and ionospheric scintillation. AF-GEOSpace has become a platform for developing and prototyping space weather visualization products. The new AF-GEOSpace Version 2.5 (release scheduled for 2010) expands on the content of Version 2.1 by including modules addressing the following new topics: (1) energetic proton maps for the South Atlantic Anomaly (from Ginet et al. [2007]), (2) GPS scintillation outage simulation tools, (3) magnetopause location determination (Shue et al. [1998]), (4) a plasmasphere model (Global Core Plasma Model, 2009 version based on Gallagher et al. [2000]), (5) a standard ionospheric model (International Reference Ionosphere 2007), (6) the CAMMICE/MICS model of inner magnetosphere plasma population (based on Roeder et al. [2005]), (7) magnetic field models (e.g., Tsyganenko and Sitnov [2005]), and (8) loading and displaying externally-produced 3D gridded data sets within AF-GEOSpace. Improvements to existing Version 2.1 capabilities include: (1) a 2005 update to the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity model of Smart and Shea [2003], (2) a 2005 update to the ionospheric scintillation Wide-Band Model (WBMOD) of Secan and Bussey [1994], and (3) improved magnetic field flux mapping options for the existing set of AF-GEOSpace radiation belt models. A basic review of these new AF-GEOSpace capabilities will be provided. To obtain a copy of the software, please contact the first author.

  2. Use of cone beam computed tomography in identifying postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, C B; Chalub, L L F H; Abreu, M H N G; Barreiros, I D; Amaral, T M P; Kakehasi, A M; Mesquita, R A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to correlate radiometric indices from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Quantitative CBCT indices can be used to screen for women with low BMD.

  3. Bone Density Screening and Re-screening in Postmenopausal Women and Older Men.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Margaret L; Overman, Robert A; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2015-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines universally recommend bone mineral density (BMD) screening to identify osteoporosis in women aged 65 years and older. Risk assessment is recommended to guide BMD screening in postmenopausal women under age 65. Insufficient data are available to inform standard ages to start and stop BMD screening in postmenopausal women. Based on longitudinal studies of incident osteoporosis and fracture in postmenopausal women, an initial BMD test should be ordered for all women aged 65, and the frequency of re-screening should be based on age and BMD T score (more frequent testing for older age and lower T score). Although clinical practice guidelines recommend BMD screening according to risk factors for fracture in postmenopausal women under age 65, no standard approach to risk assessment exists. Minimal evidence is available to guide osteoporosis screening in men, but some experts recommend initiation of BMD screening in men at age 70.

  4. Exemestane Reduces Breast Cancer Risk in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical trial results presented at the 2011 ASCO annual meeting showed that the aromatase inhibitor exemestane—used to treat early and advanced breast cancer—substantially reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women.

  5. [Effects of exercise and sports on bone health in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, Naohisa

    Exercise and sports are an important means of improving bone health in pre- and postmenopausal women. Generally accepted strategies to improve bone health in this population aim to minimize age-related bone loss. In terms of physical activity, those forms that feature high-impact or weight-bearing activity appear to exert positive influences on bone health. Results of recent meta-analyses have shown that high-impact exercise significantly improves bone mineral density(BMD)in pre- and postmenopausal women. Studies have also shown that walking as an exercise therapy for more than 6 months exerts significant and positive effects on femoral neck BMD in peri- and postmenopausal women. Exercise and sports can be strongly recommended as non-pharmacologic interventions for improving bone health in pre- and postmenopausal women.

  6. GPIM AF-M315E Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spores, Ronald A.; Masse, Robert; Kimbrel, Scott; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) will demonstrate an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system. Aerojet-Rocketdyne is responsible for the development of the propulsion system payload. This paper statuses the propulsion system module development, including thruster design and system design; Initial test results for the 1N engineering model thruster are presented. The culmination of this program will be high-performance, green AF-M315E propulsion system technology at TRL 7+, with components demonstrated to TRL 9, ready for direct infusion to a wide range of applications for the space user community.

  7. A Mouse Model to Investigate Postmenopausal Biology as an Etiology of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    morphology (Figure 4A,B), resembling papillo endometrial and serous carcinoma morphology. The addition of p27 (-/-) background often led to lymphoma...Postmenopausal Biology as an Etiology of Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xiangxi (Mike) Xu, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University...NUMBER A Mouse Model to Investigate Postmenopausal Biology as an Etiology of Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0095 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  8. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (P<0.001), LTL (P<0.05), high-density lipoprotein level (P<0.05), and CRF (P<0.001) were higher in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. The body fat percentage (P<0.05) and triglyceride concentration (P<0.05) were lower in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. There were no significant associations between LTL, CVD risk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (P<0.05). When all women were considered (i.e., both pre- and post-menopause), the BMI, percentage of fat, and waist circumference had a negative association with LTL (P<0.05), and estrogen levels were positively associated with LTL (P<0.05). Decreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors. PMID:27419121

  9. Cervical xanthogranuloma in a case of postmenopausal pyometra.

    PubMed

    Singh, Alpana; Vats, Garima; Radhika, A G; Meena, Pragati; Radhakrisnan, Gita

    2016-09-01

    Xanthogranuloma is a non-neoplastic presentation of chronic inflammation commonly seen in gallbladder, kidney and rarely seen in genital organs. Only one case has been reported in cervix. Here, we report a case of 60-year-old postmenopausal lady who presented with history of fever and purulent discharge per-vaginum. On speculum examination, cervix had an ulcer extending from 3 to 5 o'clock position. Uterus was bulky. On probing the ulcer, a 1-cm deep sinus was identified. Ultrasound showed enlarged uterus and fluid collection suggestive of pyometra. Pyometra was drained and cervical biopsy was taken from the ulcerated lesion; histopathology revealed granulomatous inflammation with predominantly xanthous cells suggestive of tuberculosis. High index of clinical suspicion needs to be maintained in abnormal cervix. It is a perplexing and rare entity for a clinician and also a diagnosis of exclusion; only histopathology can help for diagnosis. It mimics like malignancy and chronic infections.

  10. Cervical xanthogranuloma in a case of postmenopausal pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Alpana; Radhika, A G; Meena, Pragati; Radhakrisnan, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Xanthogranuloma is a non-neoplastic presentation of chronic inflammation commonly seen in gallbladder, kidney and rarely seen in genital organs. Only one case has been reported in cervix. Here, we report a case of 60-year-old postmenopausal lady who presented with history of fever and purulent discharge per-vaginum. On speculum examination, cervix had an ulcer extending from 3 to 5 o'clock position. Uterus was bulky. On probing the ulcer, a 1-cm deep sinus was identified. Ultrasound showed enlarged uterus and fluid collection suggestive of pyometra. Pyometra was drained and cervical biopsy was taken from the ulcerated lesion; histopathology revealed granulomatous inflammation with predominantly xanthous cells suggestive of tuberculosis. High index of clinical suspicion needs to be maintained in abnormal cervix. It is a perplexing and rare entity for a clinician and also a diagnosis of exclusion; only histopathology can help for diagnosis. It mimics like malignancy and chronic infections. PMID:27668207

  11. Hypertension in postmenopausal women: how to approach hypertension in menopause.

    PubMed

    Modena, Maria Grazia

    2014-09-01

    During fertile life women are usually normo or hypotensive. Hypertension may appear during pregnancy and this represents a peculiar phenomenon increasing nowadays for delay time of pregnancy. Gestational hypertension appears partially similar to hypertension in the context of metabolic syndrome for a similar condition of increased waste circumference. Parity, for the same pathogenesis, has been reported to be associated to peri and postmenopausal hypertension, not confirmed by our study of parous women with transitional non persistent perimenopausal hypertension. Estrogen's deficiency inducing endothelial dysfunction and increased body mass index are the main cause for hypertension in this phase of life. For these reasons lifestyle modification, diet and endothelial active drugs represent the ideal treatment. Antioxidant agents may have a role in prevention and treatment of hypertension. In conclusion, hypertension in women represents a peculiar constellation of different biological and pathogenic factors, which need a specific gender related approach, independent from the male model.

  12. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcio H; Bruno, Anderson S; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; Santos, Maria Emilia S; Nahas, Eliana A P

    2014-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western countries. NAFLD includes a spectrum ranging from a simple steatosis to a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which is defined by the presence of inflammatory infiltrate, cellular necrosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and fibrosis and cirrhosis that can eventually develop into hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies emphasize the role of insulin resistance, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines in the development and progression of NAFLD. It seems to be independently associated with type II diabetes mellitus, increased triglycerides, decreased HDL-cholesterol, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. These findings are in accordance with the criteria used in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Here, we will discuss the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of NAFLD and the association of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  13. Current controversies in clinical management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kerschan-Schindl, K; Mikosch, P; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Gasser, R W; Dimai, H-P; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A; Dobnig, H; Roschger, P; Preisinger, E; Klaushofer, K; Resch, H; Pietschmann, P

    2014-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a frequent disease in postmenopausal women. Despite the fact that fragility fractures cause many problems - a bio-psycho-social burden for the individual and an economic burden for the society - osteoporosis is still underdiagnosed and undertreated. Controversies exist concerning assessment with different tools for initiating a disease-specific treatment, patient monitoring with bone turnover markers, and treatment duration due to potential side effects in long-term treatment. This manuscript outlines and discusses these controversies and the presented cases, representatives for frequent clinical problems, may give guidance for the clinician in deciding how and how long to treat his/her patient. Re-evaluations of the patients on a regular basis are essential to warrant the necessity of treatment continuation and may improve patients' compliance.

  14. Soy consumption alters endogenous estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Duncan, A M; Wangen, K E; Kurzer, M S

    2000-08-01

    Isoflavones are soy phytoestrogens that have been suggested to be anticarcinogenic. Our previous study in premenopausal women suggested that the mechanisms by which isoflavones exert cancer-preventive effects may involve modulation of estrogen metabolism away from production of potentially carcinogenic metabolites [16alpha-(OH) estrone, 4-(OH) estrone, and 4-(OH) estradiol] (X. Xu et al., Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev., 7: 1101-1108, 1998). To further evaluate this hypothesis, a randomized, cross-over soy isoflavone feeding study was performed in 18 healthy postmenopausal women. The study consisted of three diet periods, each separated by a washout of approximately 3 weeks. Each diet period lasted for 93 days, during which subjects consumed their habitual diets supplemented with soy protein isolate providing 0.1 (control), 1, or 2 mg isoflavones/kg body weight/day (7.1 +/- 1.1, 65 +/- 11, or 132 +/- 22 mg/day). A 72-h urine sample was collected 3 days before the study (baseline) and days 91-93 of each diet period. Urine samples were analyzed for 10 phytoestrogens and 15 endogenous estrogens and their metabolites by a capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Compared with the soy-free baseline and very low isoflavone control diet, consumption of 65 mg isoflavones increased the urinary 2/16alpha-(OH) estrone ratio, and consumption of 65 or 132 mg isoflavones decreased excretion of 4-(OH) estrone. When compared with baseline values, consumption of all three soy diets increased the ratio of 2/4-(OH) estrogens and decreased the ratio of genotoxic: total estrogens. These data suggest that both isoflavones and other soy constituents may exert cancer-preventive effects in postmenopausal women by altering estrogen metabolism away from genotoxic metabolites toward inactive metabolites.

  15. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Sturdee, D W; Panay, N

    2010-12-01

    Unlike hot flushes and night sweats which resolve spontaneously in time, atrophic symptoms affecting the vagina and lower urinary tract are often progressive and frequently require treatment. The prevalence of vaginal dryness increases as a woman advances through the postmenopausal years, causing itching, burning and dyspareunia, and sexual activity is often compromised. But, despite the various safe and effective options, only a minority (about 25% in the Western world and probably considerably less in other areas) will seek medical help. Some of this reluctance is due to the adverse publicity for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) over recent years that has suggested an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke. But, regardless of whether these scares are justified, local treatment of vaginal atrophy is not associated with these possible risks of systemic HRT. Other reasons for the continued suffering in silence may be cultural and an understandable reluctance to discuss such matters, particularly with a male doctor, but the medical profession must also take much of the blame for failing to enquire of all postmenopausal women about the possibility of vaginal atrophic symptoms. Vaginal dryness can be helped by simple lubricants but the best and most logical treatment for urogenital atrophy is to use local estrogen. This is safe, effective and with few contraindications. It is hoped that these guidelines and recommendations, produced to coincide with World Menopause Day 2010, will help to highlight this major cause of distress and reduced quality of life and will encourage women and their medical advisers all over the world to seek and provide help.

  16. Urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal African American women

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a reference range for urine calcium excretion (both 24-hour and fasting) for African American women compared to White women. In addition, the variables that determine urine calcium excretion were identified. Material: Data were analyzed for baseline studies of healthy postmenopausal volunteers who participated in seven separate studies conducted at one site. Methods: Some studies included fasting urine Ca/Cr and others 24-hour urine calcium excretion. 24-hour urine calcium was considered with and without correction for urinary creatinine excretion. Calcium was measured initially by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and more recently by an automated method (ADVIA 2400 Chemistry System). Results: Participants were considered healthy based on history and physical and routine laboratory studies. Those screened who had a history of nephrolithiasis were excluded. A reference range for 24-hour urine calcium and fasting urine calcium/creatinine was developed. Reference intervals of 11 – 197 mg/24-hour urine calcium excretion and of 0.007 – 0.222 of fasting Ca/Cr were found for African American women compared to 21 – 221 mg/24 hours and 0.019 – 0.264 in White women, respectively. Urine creatinine excretion was higher in African Americans consistent with their higher muscle mass. Conclusion: Urine calcium excretion is lower in postmenopausal African American than White women. The reference range developed should be considered in the diagnosis of hypocalciuric states and may also be useful in the diagnosis of hypercalciuria. PMID:26226948

  17. Maximal strength training in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Mosti, Mats P; Kaehler, Nils; Stunes, Astrid K; Hoff, Jan; Syversen, Unni

    2013-10-01

    Current guidelines recommend weight-bearing activities, preferably strength training for improving skeletal health in patients with osteoporosis. What type of strength training that is most beneficial for these patients is not established. Maximal strength training (MST) is known to improve 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD), which are considered as important covariables for skeletal health. Squat exercise MST might serve as an effective intervention for patients with low bone mass. We hypothesized that 12 weeks of squat exercise MST would improve 1RM and RFD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia and that these changes would coincide with improved bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and serum markers of bone metabolism. The participants were randomized to a training group (TG, n = 10) or control group (CG, n = 11). The TG underwent 12 weeks of supervised squat exercise MST, 3 times a week, with emphasis on rapid initiation of the concentric part of the movement. The CG was encouraged to follow current exercise guidelines. Measurements included 1RM, RFD, BMD, BMC, and serum bone metabolism markers; type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX). At posttest, 8 participants remained in each group for statistical analyses. The TG improved the 1RM and RFD by 154 and 52%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMC increased by 2.9 and 4.9%. The ratio of serum P1NP/CTX tended to increase (p = 0.09), indicating stimulation of bone formation. In conclusion, squat exercise MST improved 1RM, RFD, and skeletal properties in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The MST can be implemented as a simple and effective training method for patients with reduced bone mass.

  18. Breast cancer and post-menopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Kenemans, P; Bosman, A

    2003-03-01

    From the introduction of post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) there has been great concern that HRT could possibly increase the risk of breast cancer. Prolonged exposure to endogenous oestrogens undeniably increases the risk of breast cancer. Questions that are important and until now only partly answered, are the following. Are oestrogens tumour promoters, as they induce mitosis, lead to proliferation and, therefore, accelerated growth of clinically occult pre-existing tumours? In addition to this, are they genotoxic mutagenic carcinogens, or could they initiate tumours by way of accumulation of incessant DNA-replication damage mechanism? Opinions vary as to the effect of the addition of a progestogen. There is a multitude of different progestogens which could bind with differing affinity to progesterone receptor PR-A or PR-B, and which have different physiological functions via differential gene regulation. The action of a progestogen on the oestrogen-induced cellular mitotic activity could be synergistic or antagonistic (by different pathways: oestrogen receptor downregulation, activating of metabolic pathways within the breast or stimulation of apoptosis)? Over 60 observational studies and two randomized trials provide evidence that the small but significant increase in risk appears with long-term current post-menopausal hormone use. The addition of a progestogen does not decrease the risk as seen with oestrogens alone and might increase the risk further. It is not clear whether there is a difference in risk with sequentially combined versus continuously combined HRT. Many questions nevertheless still remain. Is the risk increase limited to lean women only? What about risk-modifying factors such as alcohol use and a positive family history for breast cancer? Are tumours detected under HRT less aggressive, is there a better prognosis and is the mortality not increased while morbidity is? And is HRT contraindicated for women with a positive family

  19. Association of Active and Sedentary Behaviors with Postmenopausal Estrogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dallal, Cher M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Matthews, Charles E.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Falk, Roni T.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity may reduce endogenous estrogens but few studies have assessed effects on estrogen metabolism and none have evaluated sedentary behavior in relation to estrogen metabolism. We assessed relationships between accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behavior and 15 urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among postmenopausal controls from a population-based breast cancer case-control study conducted in Poland (2000-2003). Methods Postmenopausal women (N=542) were ages 40 to 72 years and not currently using hormone therapy. Accelerometers, worn for seven days, were used to derive measures of average activity (counts/day) and sedentary behavior (<100 counts/min/day). EM were measured in 12-hour urine samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. EM were analyzed individually, in metabolic pathways (C-2, -4, or -16), and as ratios relative to parent estrogens. Geometric means of EM by tertiles of accelerometer-measures, adjusted for age and body mass, were computed using linear models. Results High activity was associated with lower levels of estrone and estradiol (p-trend=0.01) while increased sedentary time was positively associated with these parent estrogens (p-trend=0.04). Inverse associations were observed between high activity and 2-methoxyestradiol, 4-methoxyestradiol, 17-epiestriol and 16-epiestriol (p-trend=0.03). Sedentary time was positively associated with methylated catechols in the 2- and 4-hydroxylation pathways (p-trend≤0.04). Women in the highest tertile of activity had increased hydroxylation at the C-2, -4, and -16 sites relative to parent estrogens (p-trend≤0.02) while increased sedentary time was associated with a lower 16-pathway:parent estrogen ratio (p-trend=0.01). Conclusions Higher activity was associated with lower urinary estrogens, possibly through increased estrogen hydroxylation and subsequent metabolism, while sedentary behavior may reduce metabolism. PMID:26460631

  20. Resting Heart Rate and Coronary Artery Calcium in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Manson, JoAnn E.; Aragaki, Aaron; Eaton, Charles B.; Hsai, Judith; Phillips, Lawrence; Kuller, Lewis; Trevisan, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To test the hypothesis of a significant association between resting heart rate (RHR) and coronary artery calcium (CAC). Methods This is a cross-sectional study of a subset of women enrolled in the estrogen-alone clinical trial of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We used a longitudinal study that enrolled 998 postmenopausal women with a history of hysterectomy between the ages of 50 and 59 at enrollment at 40 different clinical centers. RHR was measured at enrollment and throughout the study, and CAC was determined approximately 7 years after the baseline clinic visit. Results The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 55 (2.8) years. With adjustment for age and ethnicity, a 10-unit increment in RHR was significantly associated with CAC (SD 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.38), but this was no longer significant after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), income, education, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and hypertension (SD 1.06, 95% CI 0.90-1.25). In a fully adjusted multivariable model, however, there was a significant interaction (p=0.03) between baseline RHR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) for the presence of any CAC. Compared to women with an RHR < 80 beats per minute (BPM) and an SBP < 140 mm Hg, those who had an RHR ≥ 80 BPM and an SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg had 2.66-fold higher odds (1.08-6.57) for the presence of any CAC. Conclusions Compared to those with normal BP and RHR, postmenopausal, hysterectomized women with an elevated SBP and RHR have a significantly higher odds for the presence of calcified coronary artery disease. PMID:21438696

  1. Evaluation of the nutritional status and tumor characteristics in premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Vasiljević, N; Pecelj-Gec, M; Jorga, J; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, D; Branković-Magić, M; Marinković, J; Mitrović, L

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the nutritional status, fat tissue distribution, and tumor characteristics was carried out in patients with primary breast cancer. The patients were classified into two groups according to their menopause: premenopausal and postmenopausal. Breast cancer prevalence was considerably higher in postmenopausal patients (61%). The patients' nutritional status was shown through the body mass index. Based on this indicator, the patients were characterized as nonobese and obese. In the premenopausal group, there was no significant difference between these categories, whereas the number of obese patients was significantly higher (80%) in the postmenopausal group. The analysis of tumor parameters as related to menopause and body size did not yield any significant differences. However, the estrogen receptor content was significantly higher in postmenopausal patients (p < 0.0001). Distribution of fat tissue of the android type was higher in obese postmenopausal women than in premenopausal ones (77%). The investigation showed that the breast cancer incidence odds are 3.5 times higher in obese postmenopausal than in premenopausal patients.

  2. Genital and subjective sexual arousal in postmenopausal women: influence of laboratory-induced hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2002-01-01

    The current study was aimed at comparing genital and subjective sexual arousal in pre- and postmenopausal women and exploring the effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity on these parameters. Seventy-one women (25 young and premenopausal, 25 postmenopausal, and 21 age-matched premenopausal women) participated in two counterbalanced sessions consisting of genital arousal assessment with vaginal photoplethysmography and subjective arousal assessment with self-report questionnaires. SNS activity was enhanced using laboratory-induced hyperventilation. Results demonstrated no significant differences between pre- and postmenopausal women on genital and subjective measures of arousal in response to neutral and erotic films. SNS manipulation increased genital excitement only in young, premenopausal women. These data suggest that prior SNS enhancement can differentiate pre- from postmenopausal genital arousal. Data also revealed significant correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal in older pre- and postmenopausal women, but not in young premenopausal women. These data are the first to directly compare genital-subjective correlations between pre- and postmenopausal women.

  3. Associations between polymorphisms of HLA-B gene and postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, S-M; Zhou, D-X; Liu, M-Y

    2014-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease, which is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis likely develops beginning with genetic risk. This study explored the relationships between polymorphisms of HLA-B gene and postmenopausal osteoporosis in a Chinese Han population. Polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method was used for DNA typing at HLA-B locus in 70 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 73 healthy controls in female Han population of Shaanxi Province, situated in north-western China. We found that 40 HLA-B alleles in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients and control subjects, respectively. Furthermore, the frequency of HLA-B* 3501 allele was significantly higher in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients than in the control group (P = 0.033), and the relative risk was 7.632 (95% CI: 0.927-62.850). Our results suggest that HLA-B* 3501 was likely an important risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis. As different populations have different HLA polymorphisms, further investigation of the relationship of various HLA genes and osteoporosis with larger sample size is still necessary in the future.

  4. Sabiperones A-F, new diterpenoids from Juniperus sabina.

    PubMed

    Janar, Jenis; Nugroho, Alfarius Eko; Wong, Chin Piow; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Kaneda, Toshio; Shirota, Osamu; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Six new diterpenoids, sabiperones A-F (1-6) have been isolated from the aerial part of Juniperus sabina. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques. Sabiperone F showed moderate cell growth inhibitory activities against five human cancer cell lines.

  5. Action of AF64A on rat brain muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Eva, C.; Costa, E.

    1986-03-01

    ICV administration of compound AF64A (ethylcholine mustard aziridium ion) induces a long-term selective cholinergic hypofunction; however, it does not modify the characteristics of muscarinic receptors. In brain muscarinic receptor activation can either stimulate phosphoinositide turnover or inhibit adenylate cyclase. ICV infusion of AF64A (5 nmol/side/2.5 ..mu..l) reduced the hippocampal ACh content 10 or 30 days after the treatment to 75% of the control values. Under these conditions neither in the striatum nor in the frontal cortex ACh levels were decreased. The carbachol dose-dependent stimulation in hippocampal slices differed from that observed in control rats. The carbachol efficacy was increased but its potency was unchanged by AF64A. In contrast, ICV administration of AF64A failed to alter the oxotremorine efficacy or potency in inhibiting the forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat hippocampal membranes. These results suggest the two transducer systems coupled to muscarinic receptors may be differentially regulatable by cholinergic input.

  6. An Empirical Test of Oklahoma's A-F School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Ware, Jordan; Mwavita, Mwarumba; Barnes, Laura L.; Khojasteb, Jam

    2016-01-01

    Oklahoma is one of 16 states electing to use an A-F letter grade as an indicator of school quality. On the surface, letter grades are an attractive policy instrument for school improvement; they are seemingly clear, simple, and easy to interpret. Evidence, however, on the use of letter grades as an instrument to rank and improve schools is scant…

  7. Increased Heart Rate Is Associated With Higher Mortality in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (AF): Results From the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A; Kim, Sunghee; Thomas, Laine; Fonarow, Gregg C; Gersh, Bernard J; Holmqvist, Fredrik; Hylek, Elaine; Kowey, Peter R; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Naccarelli, Gerald; Reiffel, James A; Chang, Paul; Peterson, Eric D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Background Most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) require rate control; however, the optimal target heart rate remains under debate. We aimed to assess rate control and subsequent outcomes among patients with permanent AF. Methods and Results We studied 2812 US outpatients with permanent AF in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation. Resting heart rate was measured longitudinally and used as a time-dependent covariate in multivariable Cox models of all-cause and cause-specific mortality during a median follow-up of 24 months. At baseline, 7.4% (n=207) had resting heart rate <60 beats per minute (bpm), 62% (n=1755) 60 to 79 bpm, 29% (n=817) 80 to 109 bpm, and 1.2% (n=33) ≥110 bpm. Groups did not differ by age, previous cerebrovascular disease, heart failure status, CHA2DS2-VASc scores, renal function, or left ventricular function. There were significant differences in race (P=0.001), sinus node dysfunction (P=0.004), and treatment with calcium-channel blockers (P=0.006) and anticoagulation (P=0.009). In analyses of continuous heart rates, lower heart rate ≤65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.15 per 5-bpm decrease; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P=0.04). Similarly, increasing heart rate >65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.10 per 5-bpm increase; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.15; P<0.0001). This relationship was consistent across endpoints and in a broader sensitivity analysis of permanent and nonpermanent AF patients. Conclusions Among patients with permanent AF, there is a J-shaped relationship between heart rate and mortality. These data support current guideline recommendations, and clinical trials are warranted to determine optimal rate control. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01165710. PMID:26370445

  8. Long-term hormone therapy for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Marjoribanks, Jane; Farquhar, Cindy; Roberts, Helen; Lethaby, Anne; Lee, Jasmine

    2017-01-17

    BACKGROUND: Hormone therapy (HT) is widely provided for control of menopausal symptoms and has been used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and dementia in older women. This is an updated version of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of long-term HT (at least 1 year's duration) on mortality, cardiovascular outcomes, cancer, gallbladder disease, fracture and cognition in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women during and after cessation of treatment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to September 2016: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO. We searched the registers of ongoing trials and reference lists provided in previous studies and systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised double-blinded studies of HT versus placebo, taken for at least 1 year by perimenopausal or postmenopausal women. HT included oestrogens, with or without progestogens, via the oral, transdermal, subcutaneous or intranasal route. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the quality of the evidence by using GRADE methods. MAIN RESULTS: We included 22 studies involving 43,637 women. We derived nearly 70% of the data from two well-conducted studies (HERS 1998; WHI 1998). Most participants were postmenopausal American women with at least some degree of comorbidity, and mean participant age in most studies was over 60 years. None of the studies focused on perimenopausal women.In relatively healthy postmenopausal women (i.e. generally fit, without overt disease), combined continuous HT increased the risk of a coronary event (after 1 year's use

  9. Extracting Uranium from Seawater: Promising AF Series Adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Chris J.; Kuo, L. -J.; Gill, G.; Wood, J. R.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    A new family of high-surface-area polyethylene fiber adsorbents named the AF series was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series adsorbents were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/comonomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154-354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44 M KOH at 80 °C followed by screening at ORNL with sodium-based synthetic aqueous solution, spiked with 8 ppm uranium. The uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170 to 200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/comonomer molar ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through column experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning times at 80 °C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1 and 3 h of KOH conditioning at 80 °C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 1 to 3 h at 80 °C resulted in a 22-27% decrease in uranium adsorption capacity in seawater.

  10. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.

  11. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; ...

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8more » ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.« less

  12. [Very low density lipoproteins and subclasses of intermediate density lipoproteins in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Berg, G; Halperín, H; Siseles, N; Wikinski, R

    1996-01-01

    Post menopausal women present an increase of cardiovascular risk associated with the atherogenic plasma lipoproteins IDL and LDL. Our purpose was to study the composition of VLDL, IDL and the subfractions IDL-1 and IDL-2, and the Lipoprotein Lipase and Hepatic Lipase activities in a group of twelve healthy post menopausal women as compared with eleven fertile controls. The mean values of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were significantly increased in the post menopausal group compared to the controls (p < 0.005 and p < 0.001 respectively). The contribution of the HDL-cholesterol plasma concentration to total cholesterol was lower in the postmenopausal women (p < 0.02) although no one had HDL-cholesterol lower than 35 mg/dl and the mean value was 50 mg/dl. Postmenopausal women had increased concentrations of VLDL, total IDL and IDL-2 compared to controls (p < 0.05, p < 0.005 and p < 0.001 respectively). Plasma concentrations of total IDL was increased in postmenopausal women (33.6 +/- 3.4 vs 22.6 +/- 0.8 mg/dl, p < 0.005). The increase in total IDL was due to IDL-2 (19.9 +/- 1.7 vs 11.5 +/- 0.8 mg/dl, p < 0.001, in postmenopausal women vs controls). The IDL-2 subfraction was 60 +/- 2.6% of total IDL in postmenopausal women and 51 +/- 2.0% in controls (p < 0.02). In postmenopausal women and in controls the ratio triglyceride/protein (which indicates particles size) was significantly higher in IDL-1 than in IDL-2 (p < 0.005 and p < 0.01 respectively), but this ratio did not show differences when VLDL, total IDL and IDL-2 were compared between postmenopausal and control women. Then, the increased plasma concentration of these lipoproteins would show an increased number of particles in the postmenopausal women vs controls. There were no differences in the Lipoprotein Lipase and Hepatic Lipase activities between both groups. Lipoprotein Lipase vs total IDL-triglycerides and IDL-2-triglycerides showed a significant inverse correlation in controls (p < 0.05) but not

  13. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1206 Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal;...

  14. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  15. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  16. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  17. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  18. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  19. Lower resting and total energy expenditure in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Hodson, Leanne; Harnden, Karin; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Real, Belen; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Karpe, Fredrik; Fielding, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    The menopause is accompanied by increased risk of obesity, altered body fat distribution and decreased skeletal muscle mass. The resulting decrease in RMR should be accompanied by a compensatory change in energy balance to avoid weight gain. We aimed to investigate habitual energy intake and expenditure in pre- and postmenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity. We recruited fifty-one healthy Caucasian women, BMI > 18·5 and <35 kg/m(2), aged 35-45 years (premenopausal, n 26) and 55-65 years (postmenopausal, n 25). Energy intake was measured using 3 d diet diaries and dietary fat quality assessed using adipose tissue fatty acid biomarkers. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry, and total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor. Postmenopausal women had lower RMR and TEE and spent significantly less time undertaking moderate exercise than premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women had a tendency for a lower energy intake, and a similar macronutrient intake but a significantly lower adipose tissue n-6:n-3 ratio (24·6 (se 1·6) v. 37·7 (se 3·1); P < 0·001). The main lifestyle determinant of bone mineral density (which was significantly lower in postmenopausal women) was TEE for premenopausal women, and dietary n-6:n-3 ratio for postmenopausal women. The present results suggest that weight maintenance is achieved in the post- compared with premenopausal status through a combination of reduced energy intake and reduced TEE in a regimen that compromises micronutrient intake and has a negative impact on lean tissue mass. However, lower n-6:n-3 fatty acid intake in postmenopausal women is associated with greater bone mineral density.

  20. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Management: A Review of the Evidence to Inform the Development of Quality Indicators.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Annalijn; Yaqub, Ohid; Celia, Claire; Nolte, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to inform the development of quality indicators for postmenopausal osteoporosis management through (a) assessing the evidence for screening and diagnosis of osteoporosis and related risk factors, and for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures; (b) describing current practice for managing postmenopausal osteoporosis in Europe; and (c) highlighting existing gaps in the evidence base and management practices in Europe. Analyses involved a comprehensive review of reviews regarding the screening and diagnosis of osteoporosis and related risk factors and the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures. While this identified a well-developed evidence base on the effects of selected treatments on clinical outcomes of postmenopausal osteoporosis and associated fractures, and on the usefulness of selected simple risk factor assessment tools to identify postmenopausal women who would benefit from further diagnostic assessment, uncertainties remain regarding for example the optimal use of pharmacological interventions for preventive purposes and the effectiveness of population-based screening. We also carried out case study reviews of current practices for managing postmenopausal osteoporosis in England, France, Germany and Spain. We identify a need for the establishment of routine monitoring systems to enable better understanding of contemporary patterns and trends and identify care gaps in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis and associated fractures. Such analyses are crucial to inform targeted strategies and policies to effectively address the burden of osteoporosis and associated fractures, which is sizable and set to increase across Europe. We set out considerations as a starting point for the further development of quality measures for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Europe.

  1. Association between serum level of magnesium and postmenopausal osteoporosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianmao; Mao, Xueli; Ling, Junqi; He, Qun; Quan, Jingjing; Jiang, Hongbo

    2014-06-01

    There are conflicting reports as to the association between serum level of magnesium (Mg) and postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP). The purpose of the present study is to clarify the association between serum level of Mg and postmenopausal OP using a meta-analysis approach. We searched articles indexed in Pubmed and the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD) published as of October 2013 that met our predefined criteria. Seven eligible studies involving 1,349 postmenopausal women from 12 case-control study arms were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that postmenopausal osteoporotic women had a lower serum level of Mg than the healthy controls (standardized mean difference [SMD]=-0.55, 95 % confidence interval [CI]=-0.83 to -0.26). Further subgroup analysis found a similar pattern in Turkey (SMD=-0.66, 95% CI=-0.99 to -0.32) and Belgium (SMD=-0.98, 95% CI=-1.91 to -0.05), but not in China (SMD=0.02, 95% CI=-0.21 to 0.26). And the difference of serum level of Mg between postmenopausal osteoporotic women and healthy controls below the age of 60 years (SMD=-0.61, 95% CI=-1.09 to -0.13) was similar to that among the population over 60 years (SMD=-0.49, 95% CI=-0.80 to -0.18).In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the low serum level of Mg seems to be a risk factor for OP among the postmenopausal women. However, the subgroup analysis found that there was contradiction regarding races and geography, like China and Turkey. Thus, this finding needs further confirmation by trans-regional multicenter study to obtain better understanding of causal relationships between serum Mg and postmenopausal OP.

  2. Carotid intima-media thickness in pre- and postmenopausal women with suspected coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kablak-Ziembicka, Anna; Przewlocki, Tadeusz; Tracz, Wieslawa; Pieniazek, Piotr; Musialek, Piotr; Sokolowski, Andrzej; Drwila, Rafal; Rzeznik, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is an early marker of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to evaluate CIMT value for CAD prediction in pre-and postmenopausal women referred for coronary angiography with angina-like symptoms and a positive result of the treadmill test. The study comprised 321 women referred for coronary angiography with symptoms suggesting CAD. Carotid intima-media thickness was measured in common, bifurcation, and internal carotid artery, and expressed as the mean maximum value. Coronary angiography showed coronary stenosis > or = 50% in 211 (65.7%) women, including 27 with regular menses (47.3 +/- 3.4 years) and 184 postmenopausal (65.8 +/- 7.2 years). Normal coronary arteries were found in 110 women: 17 (47.3 +/- 4.9 years) with regular menses and 93 postmenopausal (64.3 +/- 6.5 years). The highest CIMT values were found in postmenopausal CAD women (1.360 +/- 0.32 mm), as compared to premenopausal with CAD (1.178 +/- 0.36 mm, P = 0.005), pre- (0.860 +/- 0.23 mm, P < 0.001) and postmenopausal (1.022 +/- 0.30 mm, P < 0.001) women without CAD. Carotid intima-media thickness (P < 0.001), hyperlipidemia (P = 0.018), and myocardial infarction (P < 0.001), but not menopause itself or the number of years since menses cessation, were found to be independent CAD predictors. By receiver operating characteristic calculation, the mean maximum CIMT cut-off values discriminating CAD were lower in premenopausal (> or = 0.933 mm) than in postmenopausal women (> or = 1.075 mm; P < 0.05) resulting in similar sensitivity (85.2% and 82.6%) and specificity (70.6% and 69.9%). Carotid intima-media thickness is a strong CAD predictor in both pre- and postmenopausal women, in contrast to the menopausal status.

  3. Identification of miR-194-5p as a potential biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jia; Zhang, Dapeng; Pan, Nanan; Sun, Ning; Wang, Qiujun; Fan, Jingxue; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Wenliang; Jiang, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis is high in postmenopausal women due to altered estrogen levels and continuous calcium loss that occurs with aging. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the development of osteoporosis. These miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers to identify women at a high risk for developing the disease. In this study, whole blood samples were collected from 48 postmenopausal Chinese women with osteopenia or osteoporosis and pooled into six groups according to individual T-scores. A miRNA microarray analysis was performed on pooled blood samples to identify potential miRNA biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Five miRNAs (miR-130b-3p, -151a-3p, -151b, -194-5p, and -590-5p) were identified in the microarray analysis. These dysregulated miRNAs were subjected to a pathway analysis investigating whether they were involved in regulating osteoporosis-related pathways. Among them, only miR-194-5p was enriched in multiple osteoporosis-related pathways. Enhanced miR-194-5p expression in women with osteoporosis was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. For external validation, a significant correlation between the expression of miR-194-5p and T-scores was found in an independent patient collection comprised of 24 postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density, 30 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, and 32 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (p < 0.05). Taken together, the present findings suggest that miR-194-5p may be a viable miRNA biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  4. Strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis during early postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Miriam F

    2006-02-01

    During the perimenopause, both the quantity and quality of bone decline rapidly, resulting in a dramatic increase in the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women. Although many factors are known to be associated with osteoporotic fractures, measures to identify and treat women at risk are underused in clinical practice. Consequently, osteoporosis is frequently not detected until a fracture occurs. Identification of postmenopausal women at high risk of fracture therefore is a priority and is especially important for women in early postmenopause who can benefit from early intervention to maintain or to increase bone mass and, thus, reduce the risk of fracture. Most authorities recommend risk-factor assessment for all postmenopausal women, followed by bone mineral density measurements for women at highest risk (ie, all women aged > or =65 years, postmenopausal women aged <65 years with > or =1 additional risk factors for osteoporosis, and postmenopausal women with fragility fractures). All postmenopausal women can benefit from nonpharmacologic interventions to reduce the risk of fracture, including a balanced diet with adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, regular exercise, measures to prevent falls or to minimize their impact, smoking cessation, and moderation of alcohol intake. Several pharmacologic agents, including the bisphosphonates (eg, alendronate, risedronate, and ibandronate) and the selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, have been shown to increase bone mass, to reduce fracture risk, and to have acceptable side-effect profiles. Women who have discontinued hormone therapy are in particular need of monitoring for fracture risk, in light of the accelerated bone loss and increased risk of fracture that occurs after withdrawal of estrogen treatment.

  5. Prevalence of Ischemia on Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy of Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Daniel Augusto Message; Navarro, Wendy Yasdin Sierraalta; Alexandre, Leonardo Machado; Cestari, Priscila Feitosa; Smanio, Paola Emanuela Poggio

    2013-01-01

    Background In postmenopausal women, the presence of risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) increases. However, the difference in prevalence of ischemia between pre- and postmenopausal women with multiple risk factors for CAD has not been well established. Objectives To compare the prevalence of ischemia on Tc99m-sestamibi myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in pre-and postmenopausal women, and to evaluate whether menopause can be considered an independent risk predictor of ischemia in women with multiple risk factors for CAD. Methods This study retrospectively assessed 500 MPS of pre- and postmenopausal women with multiple risk factors for CAD. Statistical analysis was performed by using Fisher exact test and univariate and multivariate analysis, a p value ≤ 0.05 being considered significant. Results Postmenopausal women represented 55.9% of the sample; 83.3% were hypertensive; 28.9%, diabetic; 32.1%, smokers; 25%, obese; 61.2% had high cholesterol levels; and 34.3% had known CAD. Postmenopausal women were more often hypertensive, diabetic and dyslipidemic, and had lower functional capacity on exercise testing (p = < 0.005). The presence of ischemia on MPS did not significantly differ between the pre- and postmenopausal groups (p = 0.395). The only variable associated with ischemia on MPS was known CAD (p = 0.004). Conclusion The results suggest that, in women with multiple risk factors for CAD, menopause was not an independent predictor of ischemia on MPS. Those data support the idea that the investigation of ischemia via MPS in women with multiple risk factors for CAD should begin prior to menopause. PMID:24217403

  6. Management of postmenopausal osteoporosis and the prevention of fractures.

    PubMed

    Gambacciani, M; Levancini, M

    2014-06-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis affects millions of women, being estrogen deficiency the key factor in the pathogenesis of involutional osteoporosis. Fracture prevention is one of the public health priorities worldwide. Different treatments for osteoporosis are available. The various options are aimed to maintain bone health and decrease the risk of fractures. The majority of these drugs are antiresorptive agents, i.e., drugs that lower bone turnover, inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Dietary sources of calcium intake and vitamin D are ideal, while pharmachological supplements should be used if diet alone cannot provide the recommended daily intake. Bisphosphonates are first-line therapy for patients with established osteoporosis at high risk of fracture. Some serious, but rare, adverse events have been associated with their long-term administration. The monoclonal antibody to RANKL, named denosumab, administered as a 60-mg subcutaneous injection every 6 months, is a valuable option for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women at increased or high risk of fractures, who are unable to take other osteoporosis treatments. Teriparatide (PTH 1-34) is the only available osteoanabolic drugs for osteoporosis treatment at present. Its use is limited to severe osteoporosis because of the high cost of the treatment. In climacteric women, in different stages of menopausal transition, and beyond, hormone replacement therapy at different doses (HRT) rapidly normalizes turnover, preventing and/or treating osteoporosis. HRT is able to preserve and even increase BMD at all skeletal sites, leading to a significant reduction in vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Selective estrogen modulators (SERMs) as raloxifene and bazedoxifene reduce bone turnover and maintains or increases vertebral and femoral BMDs in comparison to placebo and reduces the risk of vertebral and new vertebral fractures, in high risk women. The combination of a SERM with an estrogen has been

  7. Embossed Teflon AF Laminate Membrane Microfluidic Diaphragm Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; Hunt, Brian; White,Victor; Grunthaner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A microfluidic system has been designed to survive spaceflight and to function autonomously on the Martian surface. It manipulates microscopic quantities of liquid water and performs chemical analyses on these samples to assay for the presence of molecules associated with past or present living processes. This technology lies at the core of the Urey Instrument, which is scheduled for inclusion on the Pasteur Payload of the ESA ExoMars rover mission in 2013. Fabrication processes have been developed to make the microfabricated Teflon-AF microfluidic diaphragm pumps capable of surviving extreme temperature excursions before and after exposure to liquid water. Two glass wafers are etched with features and a continuous Teflon membrane is sandwiched between them (see figure). Single valves are constructed using this geometry. The microfabricated devices are then post processed by heating the assembled device while applying pneumatic pressure to force the Teflon diaphragm against the valve seat while it is softened. After cooling the device, the embossed membrane retains this new shape. This solves previous problems with bubble introduction into the fluid flow where deformations of the membrane at the valve seat occurred during device bonding at elevated temperatures (100-150 C). The use of laminated membranes containing commercial Teflon AF 2400 sheet sandwiched between spun Teflon AF 1600 layers performed best, and were less gas permeable than Teflon AF 1600 membranes on their own. Spinning Teflon AF 1600 solution (6 percent in FLOURINERT(Registered TradeMark) FC40 solvent, 3M Company) at 500 rpm for 1.5 seconds, followed by 1,000 rpm for 3 seconds onto Borofloat glass wafers, results in a 10-micron-thick film of extremely smooth Teflon AF. This spinning process is repeated several times on flat, blank, glass wafers in order to gradually build a thick, smooth membrane. After running this process at least five times, the wafer and Teflon coating are heated under vacuum

  8. Avenanthramide supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    During aging, chronic systemic inflammation increases in prevalence and antioxidant balance shifts in favor of oxidant generation. Avenanthramide (AVA) is a group of oat phenolics that have shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capability. The present study investigated whether dietary supplementation of avenanthramides (AVA) in oats would increase antioxidant protection and reduce inflammation after a bout of downhill walking (DW) in postmenopausal women. Women at age of 50–80 years (N = 16) were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion, receiving two cookies made of oat flour providing 9.2 mg AVA or 0.4 mg AVA (control, C) each day for 8 weeks. Before and after the dietary regimen, each group of subjects walked downhill on a treadmill (−9% grade) for 4 bouts of 15 minutes at a speed of 4.0 km/h with 5 minutes rest between sessions. Blood samples were collected at rest, 24 h post-DW, and 48 h post-DW pre- and post-supplementation. Both DW sessions increased plasma creatine kinase activity (P < 0.05). Before supplementation, in vitro neutrophil respiratory burst (NRB) activity was increased at 24 h post-DW (P < 0.05) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was increased 48 h post-DW (P < 0.05). AVA supplementation decreased DW-induced NRB at 24 h (P < 0.05) and CRP level 48 h (P < 0.05). Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β concentration and mononuclear cell nuclear factor (NF) κB binding were suppressed at rest and during post-DW period in AVA but not C group (P < 0.05). Plasma total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were increased in AVA vs. C (P < 0.05), whereas glutathione redox status was elevated 48 h post-DW but not affected by AVA. Thus, chronic AVA supplementation decreased systemic and DW-induced inflammation and increased blood-borne antioxidant defense in postmenopausal women. PMID:24645793

  9. The effect of sequential therapy for postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Shenghan; Lv, Houchen; Wang, Guoqi; Li, Zhirui; Li, Ming; Zhang, Licheng; Tang, Peifu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Osteoporosis, more likely to occur in postmenopausal women, is a chronic condition that usually requires a long-term treatment strategy, but the use of either antiresorptive or anabolic drugs should be limited to 18 to 24 months. Discontinuing antiosteoporosis drugs may result in rapidly declining bone mineral density (BMD). Therefore, many patients are treated with the sequential use of 2 or more drugs. However, whether switching treatment from anabolic to antiresorptive drugs or the reverse could maintain or further increase BMD; and whether the sequential therapy could outperform the monotherapy under the same treatment duration still remains unclear. Nowadays, no firm conclusions were drawn. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from January 1, 1974 until February 1, 2016 to identify all randomized controlled trials for evaluating the effectiveness of sequential therapy of antiresorptive and anabolic drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis women with the BMD changes of lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip as the outcomes. We evaluated the methodological quality and abstracted relevant data according to the Cochrane Handbook. Results: Eight trials involving 1509 patients were included. The pooled data showed that after switching treatment, the alternative drugs maintained the BMD and significantly increased the percentage change in BMD at the lumbar spine (MD, 3.59; 95% CI, 2.26–4.93), femoral neck (MD, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.60–2.27), and total hip (MD, 1.24; 95% CI, −0.12 to 2.60), although change in BMD was not significantly increased at the total hip. The sequential therapy significantly increased BMD from baseline at the lumbar spine (SMD, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.26–0.91), femoral neck (SMD, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06–0.37), and total hip (SMD, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.01–0.56). Conclusions: After switching treatment, sequential therapy further increased BMD. The sequential therapy showed a more significant improvement in BMD

  10. Interaction between Subunits of Heterodimeric Splicing Factor U2AF Is Essential In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, David Z.; Kanaar, Roland; Breger, Kevin S.; Rio, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    The heterodimeric pre-mRNA splicing factor, U2AF (U2 snRNP auxiliary factor), plays a critical role in 3′ splice site selection. Although the U2AF subunits associate in a tight complex, biochemical experiments designed to address the requirement for both subunits in splicing have yielded conflicting results. We have taken a genetic approach to assess the requirement for the Drosophila U2AF heterodimer in vivo. We developed a novel Escherichia coli copurification assay to map the domain on the Drosophila U2AF large subunit (dU2AF50) that interacts with the Drosophila small subunit (dU2AF38). A 28-amino-acid fragment on dU2AF50 that is both necessary and sufficient for interaction with dU2AF38 was identified. Using the copurification assay, we scanned this 28-amino-acid interaction domain for mutations that abrogate heterodimer formation. A collection of these dU2AF50 point mutants was then tested in vivo for genetic complementation of a recessive lethal dU2AF50 allele. A mutation that completely abolished interaction with dU2AF38 was incapable of complementation, whereas dU2AF50 mutations that did not effect heterodimer formation rescued the recessive lethal dU2AF50 allele. Analysis of heterodimer formation in embryo extracts derived from these interaction mutant lines revealed a perfect correlation between the efficiency of subunit association and the ability to complement the dU2AF50 recessive lethal allele. These data indicate that Drosophila U2AF heterodimer formation is essential for viability in vivo, consistent with a requirement for both subunits in splicing in vitro. PMID:9528748

  11. Serum Sclerostin Levels Negatively Correlate with Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Free Estrogen Index in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Faryal S.; Padhi, I. Desmond; Raisz, Lawrence G.; Lorenzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sclerostin is a negative regulator of bone formation. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare serum sclerostin levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and evaluate its relationship to estrogen, TH, bone turnover, and bone mass. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of healthy community-dwelling pre- and postmenopausal women. Intervention(s): There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We compared serum sclerostin levels in pre- and postmenopausal women and correlated sclerostin levels with female sex hormones, calciotropic hormones, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density. Results: Premenopausal women were 26.8 yr old, and postmenopausal women were 56.8 yr old. Postmenopausal women had lower values for estradiol (30 ± 23 vs. 10 ± 4 pg/ml; P < 0.001), estrone (61 ± 24 vs. 29 ± 10 pg/ml; P <0.001), and free estrogen index (FEI) (6 ± 4 vs. 3 ± 2 pmol/nmol; P = 0.008) and significantly lower bone mineral density at all sites compared to premenopausal women, with no significant differences in levels of PTH, 25-hydroxy or 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels. Postmenopausal women had significantly higher serum sclerostin levels (1.16 ± 0.38 ng/ml vs. 0.48 ± 0.15 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Because most of the premenopausal women were on oral contraceptives, subsequent analyses were limited to postmenopausal women. There were significant negative correlations between sclerostin and FEI and sclerostin and PTH in this group. Using multiple regression analysis, both FEI (β = −0.629; P = 0.002) and PTH (β = −0.554; P = 0.004) were found to be independent predictors of sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that serum sclerostin levels are regulated by both estrogens and PTH in postmenopausal women. These findings need to be explored further in larger prospective studies. PMID:20156921

  12. The Role of U2AF1 Mutations in the Pathogenesis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    to U2AF1(WT). We validated several homologous dysregulated junctions (i.e., across species) in MDS patient bone marrow samples that have mutant ...U2AF1(S34F) versus U2AF1(WT). Together, these results suggest that mutant U2AF1 expression contributes to the altered hematopoiesis and pre-mRNA...whether the U2AF1(S34F) mutation alters hematopoiesis in vivo. We will inducibly express wild-type and S34F mutant (resulting from the most common

  13. Characterization of physically vapor deposited AF2400 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Spragge, M.K.; Loomis, G.E.; Rainer, F.; Ward, R.; Thomas, I.M.; Kozlowski, M.R.

    1993-11-01

    Anti-reflective coatings made with Teflon AF2400 had the highest damage thresholds recorded for physical vapor deposited coatings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory damage facility. Physical vapor deposited layers of Teflon AF2400, a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, maintained the bulk optical properties of a high transmittance from 200 nm to 1600 nm, and a low refractive index. In addition, the refractive index can be intentionally reduced by control of two common deposition parameters, deposition rate and substrate temperature. Scanning electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance observations indicated that morphological changes caused the variations in the refractive index rather than compositional changes. The coatings adhered to fused silica and silicon wafers under normal laboratory handling conditions.

  14. Gymnasterkoreaynes A-F, cytotoxic polyacetylenes from Gymnaster koraiensis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun-Ju; Min, Byung-Sun; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Bae, Ki-Hwan

    2002-06-01

    Six new polyacetylenes, gymnasterkoreaynes A-F (1-6), were isolated from the roots of Gymnaster koraiensis, together with 2,9,16-heptadecatrien-4,6-diyn-8-ol (7) and 1,9,16-heptadecatriene-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (8), by bioassay-guided fractionation using the L1210 tumor cell line as a model for cytotoxicity. The structures of compounds 1-6 were established spectroscopically, which included 2D NMR experiments. Gymnasterkoreaynes A-F (1-6) are linear diacetylenes and are structurally related to falcarinol, panaxynol, panaxydiol, and panaxytriol. Of the compounds isolated, gymnasterkoreaynes B (2), C (3), F (6), and 1,9,16-heptadecatrien-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (8) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against L1210 tumor cells with ED(50) values of 0.12-3.3 microg/mL.

  15. Risk of Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer among Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Scott; Burkill, Sarah; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer among Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, considering tumor stage. Methods The Swedish Patient Register identified 19,330 women with MS between 1968 and 2012, matched individually with a cohort of 193,458 without MS. Matching variables were year of birth, sex, region of residence and vital status at the time of diagnosis. The cancer register identified 471 and 5,753 breast cancer cases among the MS and non-MS cohorts, respectively. Cox proportional hazard models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer. Results Overall risk of postmenopausal breast cancer was 13% higher among MS patients compared with women without MS (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26). Stratified analyses showed that the risk was statistically significantly increased in women diagnosed between 1968 and 1980 and those who were diagnosed at age 65 or older age. We observed a non-statistically significant risk only for stage 0–1 postmenopausal breast cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.93–1.48). MS was not associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Conclusion The modest increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in women with MS may be due to surveillance bias, where contact with health services for one disease increases the risk of a second diagnosis being recorded. PMID:27776164

  16. [Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Birkhäuser, Martin

    2012-03-01

    The three modern Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) Raloxifene, Lasoxifene and Bazedoxifene registered in Europe reduce in postmenopausal women with a high risk for osteoporosis the incidence of vertebral fractures by 30 - 50 %, depending on the subgroup they belong to. Solid prospective fracture data for risk reduction in non-vertebral fractures, including the hip, are missing for Raloxifene and Bazedoxifene. However, a post hoc analysis suggests that the risk for non-vertebral fractures is significantly reduced by Raloxfene in women with severe osteoporosis. The simultaneous decrease of the incidence of ER-positive invasive breast cancer in Raloxifene users is highly relevant for clinicians. Unfortunately, Raloxifene and Bazedoxifene are, in the EU and in Switzerland, only labelled for the use in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. SERMs may induce or augment vasomotor symptoms. Therefore, SERMs are not a first line therapy in early postmenopause. Looking at other hormonal options, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) remains the first line therapy for fracture reduction in the peri- and early postmenopause. SERMs are an appropriate choice for the continuation of fracture prevention after an initial HRT, particularly for the prevention of vertebral fractures. SERMs are safe if (as in oral HRT) the slightly increased risk for venous thrombo-embolism is respected. In conclusion, SERMs have today their well established place in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, particularly in women with a simultaneously increased breast cancer risk.

  17. Improved AF Squadron Command Structure for Leadership, Accountability, and Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-20

    of Defense respectively focus on span of control. The concept of span of control was developed in 1922 by Sir Ian Hamilton based on the assumption...For the AF, this means squadrons must be organized across a wing to minimize inconsistency within units as well as across them. A study by Dewar ... Dewar , Robert D., and Simet, Donald P. “A Level Specific Prediction of Spans of Control Examining the Effects of Size, Technology, and

  18. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    the development of green rocket propellants . The Air Force Research Laboratory’s (AFRL) monopropellant, AF-M315E, has been selected for...art rocket fuels and propellants . A known quantity of liquid propellant is placed in a metal U-tube and held isothermally in a preheated mixture of... Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) program. As the propulsion system developed by Aerojet- Rocketdyne for this propellant advances in maturity, studies

  19. Installation Restoration Program. Records Search, Newark AFS, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    plants. In this assignment and all that follow, a part of each was spent in conducting health and environment compliance inspections and audits at mili...OH 434&33 EiLO)( 2 bJATEP SYSTE-M, KTTC𔃻EN TAP, ’DATE: 76-P6-16*’.TI- E: 1304.1, APPEA0AfJCE OF SbmPLE CLEAR, TEA;:, 72 I PFE -ULTS OF ANALYS15 C T

  20. Intestinal obstruction associated with ovarian remnant in postmenopausal female

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ridhima; Gupta, Pushpender

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) is a rare condition, in which the ovarian tissue is inadvertently left behind after difficult oophorectomy. The most common preexisting conditions associated for this complication include endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and prior abdominal surgery as in these conditions, removal of ovarian tissue becomes difficult. This is likely due to the presence of the dense fibrotic adhesions between an ovary and the surrounding structures. This residual ovarian tissue can become functional and cystic. A 56-year-old multigravida postmenopausal female was diagnosed with intestinal obstruction. She had multiple abdominal surgeries in the past, including cholecystectomy, appendectomy, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy. Intraoperatively, extensive adhesions and scarring of bowel wall were present and approximately 15 cm proximal to the terminal ileum, a small bowel mesenteric nodule was present. Histopathology of the mesenteric nodule was consistent with the diagnosis of overian remnant. ORS can be prevented with careful resection of the entire ovarian tissue during the difficulty oophorectomy so that no ovarian tissue is left behind. PMID:28096643

  1. How long should patients take medications for postmenopausal osteoporosis?

    PubMed

    Briot, Karine; Trémollières, Florence; Thomas, Thierry; Roux, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Several medications have proved effective in reducing the fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The optimal duration of use of these medications remains to be established, however. Gains in bone mineral density (BMD) persisted throughout 10 years of treatment with alendronate or 7 years with risedronate. However, proof of long-term protection against fractures was obtained only for shorter treatment periods, 4 years with alendronate and 5 years with risedronate. The persistence of treatment effects after drug discontinuation varies across medications, and further studies are needed before this point can be incorporated into treatment decisions. With raloxifene, the BMD effect observed after 3 and 4 years persisted when the drug was given for 8 years, and the fracture risk reduction was similar after 4 years and after 3 years. The long-term safety profile also was similar, with a significant decrease in the incidence of invasive estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer and a persistent increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis. However, a sharp drop in BMD occurred upon raloxifene discontinuation. Thus, 4 years may be appropriate for anti-resorptive drug therapy. However, the optimal treatment duration should be determined on a case-by-case basis according to the results of regular fracture-risk evaluations.

  2. Mechanisms underlying social inequality in post-menopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    2014-10-01

    This thesis is based on studies conducted in the period 2010-2014 at Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen and at Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York. The results are presented in three scientific papers and a synopsis. The main objective of the thesis was to determine mechanisms underlying social inequality (defined by educational level) in postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) by addressing mediating effects through hormone therapy (HT) use, BMI, lifestyle and reproductive factors. The results of previous studies suggest that the higher risk of postmenopausal BC among women of high socioeconomic position (SEP) may be explained by reproductive factors and health behaviors. Women of higher SEP generally have fewer children and give birth at older ages than women of low SEP, and these factors have been found to affect the risk of BC - probably through altered hormone levels. Adverse effects on BC risk have also been documented for modifiable health behaviors that may affect hormone levels, such as alcohol consumption, high BMI, physical inactivity, and HT use. Alcohol consumption and HT use are likewise more common among women of higher SEP. The analyses were based on the Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort and a subsample of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). The SIC cohort was derived by pooling 6 individual studies from the Copenhagen area including 33,562 women (1,733 BC cases) aged 50-70 years at baseline. The subsample of WHI-OS consisted of two case-cohort studies with measurements of endogenous estradiol (N = 1,601) and insulin (N = 791). Assessment of mediation often relies on comparing multiplicative models with and without the potential mediator. Such approaches provide potentially biased results, because they do not account for mediator-outcome confounding, exposure-dependent mediator-outcome confounding, exposure-mediator interaction and interactions

  3. Benefits and risks of sex hormone replacement in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Seelig, Mildred S; Altura, Burton M; Altura, Bella T

    2004-10-01

    Because cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is far less common in young women than in men, but increases in prevalence in the postmenopausal years to that of men, estrogen repletion therapy (ERT) or combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT), has been widely used to protect against development of both CVD and osteoporosis, and possibly to delay or prevent cognitive loss or Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test the validity of favorable findings in many small-scale studies, and in clinical practice, a large-scale trial: the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was undertaken by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a trial that was prematurely ended because of increased CVD complications, despite some lessening of hip fractures. This paper suggests that the customary high intake of calcium (Ca)-advised to protect against osteoporosis, and the marginal magnesium (Mg) intake in the USA, might well be contributory to the adverse CV effects, that were all thromboembolic in nature. The procoagulant effect of estrogen is intensified by Ca; Mg-which counteracts many steps in the coagulation cascade and inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion-is commonly consumed in sub-optimal amounts. The high American dietary Ca/Mg ratio might also be contributory to the WHI failure to confirm ERT's favorable mental effects. Discussed are mechanisms by which Mg enhances estrogen's central nervous system protective effects. Mg's improvement of cerebral blood flow, which improves brain metabolism, can also enhance removal of the beta amyloid peptide, accumulation of which is implicated in AD.

  4. Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism: the under-recognized value of inhibins.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jasmin L; Salmons, Nabeel; Murphy, Damian J; Gama, Rousseau

    2017-01-01

    We report a 70-year-old female presenting with increased libido and mild but rapid onset virilism. Investigations showed markedly elevated androstenedione and 17 hydroxyprogesterone misdirecting to possible late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia. High serum testosterone and oestrogens with suppressed gonadotrophins, however, indicated an androgen-secreting tumour. A normal dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and elevated inhibins A and B indicated the tumour was ovarian in origin, which was confirmed on pelvic examination and imaging. At laparotomy, a right ovarian sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma was removed, following which the patient developed menopausal vasomotor symptoms and improvement of her virilism. Serum testosterone, oestradiol, inhibins A and B became undetectable, gonadotrophins appropriately increased and 17 hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione normalized. We propose that inhibins may be of diagnostic value and should be included in investigative algorithms of females with virilization and hyperandrogenaemia, especially if postmenopausal. Androgen-secreting tumours must be excluded before raised 17 hydroxyprogesterone concentrations are used to diagnose late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia in females with new-onset virilization.

  5. Current approaches to the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Follin, Sheryl L; Hansen, Laura B

    2003-05-01

    Current approaches to the prevention, detection, treatment, and monitoring of postmenopausal osteoporosis are discussed. In the United States, 44 million men and women ages 50 years or older have low bone mass or osteoporosis. The most devastating consequence of this disease is fractures. The assessment of osteoporosis risk includes determining risk factors, conducting laboratory and physical examinations, and measuring bone density and bone-turnover markers. Once risk has been established, nonpharmacologic strategies, such as exercise, appropriate dietary habits, and discontinuing tobacco and alcohol use, are helpful. Fall prevention and adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D are critical. When pharmacologic therapy is warranted, bisphosphonates have shown the greatest benefit in preventing bone loss and lowering fracture rates. Selective estrogen-receptor modulators and calcitonin are also options for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. Estrogen should not be used for the sole purpose of osteoporosis prevention; however, short-term use is acceptable for women with vasomotor symptoms or in whom the benefits outweigh the risks. Parathyroid hormone may offer another treatment alternative. A variety of pharmacologic options are available for patients with osteoporosis in whom lifestyle modifications have proven insufficient. Bisphosphonates are the mainstay of drug therapy.

  6. Hormone replacement therapy and the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Gambacciani, Marco; Levancini, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Fracture prevention is one of the public health priorities worldwide. Estrogen deficiency is the major factor in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease. Different effective treatments for osteoporosis are available. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at different doses rapidly normalizes turnover, preserves bone mineral density (BMD) at all skeletal sites, leading to a significant, reduction in vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Tibolone, a selective tissue estrogenic activity regulator (STEAR), is effective in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms, vaginal atrophy and prevention/treatment of osteoporosis with a clinical efficacy similar to that of conventional HRT. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as raloxifene and bazedoxifene reduce turnover and maintain or increase vertebral and femoral BMD and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The combination of bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens, defined as tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), is able to reduce climacteric symptoms, reduce bone turnover and preserve BMD. In conclusion, osteoporosis prevention can actually be considered as a major additional benefit in climacteric women who use HRT for treatment of climacteric symptoms. The use of a standard dose of HRT for osteoporosis prevention is based on biology, epidemiology, animal and preclinical data, observational studies and randomized, clinical trials. The antifracture effect of a lower dose HRT or TSEC is supported by the data on BMD and turnover, with compelling scientific evidence.

  7. Update on denosumab in postmenopausal osteoporosis--recent clinical data.

    PubMed

    Muschitz, Christian; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Huber, Johannes; Preisinger, Elisabeth; Kudlacek, Stefan; Resch, Heinrich

    2012-09-01

    Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against the key osteoclastogenic factor RANK ligand, is currently approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Denosumab differs from bisphosphonates in many aspects, for example, its ability to act in the extracellular compartment and its likelihood to be distributed throughout the skeleton. In contrast, bisphosphonates have to be internalized by osteoclasts and are mainly located across bone surfaces. This could explain why patients with osteoporosis, who are already treated with bisphosphonates, might experience further benefit when switching to denosumab. Head-to-head studies revealed that transition to denosumab resulted in a greater increase of bone mineral density (BMD) and a greater reduction of bone turnover than did continued alendronate. Additional analyses of the phase 3 FREEDOM trial demonstrated that fracture reduction was particularly high in cortical bone, such as the wrist. In addition, denosumab treatment for a 5- and 8-year period showed sustained reduction in fracture risk, increase in BMD and continued to be well tolerated. The 7-year extension study of FREEDOM and a phase 3 trial evaluating denosumab for the treatment of male osteoporosis are still ongoing and will provide supportive data in the near future.

  8. Pregnancy in peri- and postmenopausal women: challenges in management.

    PubMed

    Tower, Clare

    2009-12-01

    Pregnancy in peri- and postmenopausal women is associated with an increased risk of complications and represents several challenges in terms of clinical management. Women in these age groups typically fall into one of two distinct groups, those who have conceived following assisted reproductive techniques, using ovum donation and those who have conceived spontaneously. While both have age in common, they differ in terms of additional risk factors. Recipients of assisted reproductive technologies have pregnancy risks associated with that treatment, but are at lower risks of a fetus affected by aneuploidy. Furthermore, they have been rigorously screened for medical complications, but are more likely to be primiparous and have multiple pregnancies. In contrast, women conceiving spontaneously are more likely to be of high parity and have additional medical complications such as obesity, hypertension or diabetes. In addition to the increased risk of antenatal complications such as miscarriage, ectopic pregnancies, gestational diabetes and hypertension, these women have a high risk of unexplained stillbirth. They also have a very high rate of Caesarean section. All these risk factors interact to modify clinical management. However, there are no randomized trials available to guide clinical management, thus decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis.

  9. Influence of Fructooligosaccharide on Pharmacokinetics of Isoflavones in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Techatoei, Sujitra; Rojanasthein, Noppamas; Manorot, Maleeya; Sangdee, Chaichan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to determine the influence of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on the pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women. The study was a fixed-sequence, two-phase, crossover study. Twelve subjects received a single oral dose of 300 mL of a soy beverage. Blood samples were collected before the dose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, and 32 h after the administration of the soy beverage. After a washout period of at least 1 week, subjects were assigned to receive oral doses of FOS, 5 g each time, twice a day (after breakfast and dinner) for 14 days, followed by a single oral dose of the same soy beverage on the next day. Blood samples were then collected at the same time points mentioned previously. Plasma isoflavone concentrations were determined by HPLC. Continuous oral administrations of FOS followed by a single oral administration of soy beverage caused significant increases in Cmax, AUC0–32, and AUC0–∞ of genistein and AUC0–32 of daidzein, comparing to those obtained following a single oral dose of soy beverage alone. Other pharmacokinetic parameters (Tmax and t1/2 of both aglycones and AUC0–∞ of daidzein) between both regimens were not significantly different. PMID:22611432

  10. Genomic functions of U2AF in constitutive and regulated splicing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tongbin; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The U2AF heterodimer is generally accepted to play a vital role in defining functional 3' splice sites in pre-mRNA splicing. Given prevalent mutations in U2AF, particularly in the U2AF1 gene (which encodes for the U2AF35 subunit) in blood disorders and other human cancers, there are renewed interests in these classic splicing factors to further understand their regulatory functions in RNA metabolism in both physiological and disease settings. We recently reported that U2AF has a maximal capacity to directly bind ˜88% of functional 3' splice sites in the human genome and that numerous U2AF binding events also occur in various exonic and intronic locations, thus providing additional mechanisms for the regulation of alternative splicing besides their traditional role in titrating weak splice sites in the cell. These findings, coupled with the existence of multiple related proteins to both U2AF65 and U2AF35, beg a series of questions on the universal role of U2AF in functional 3' splice site definition, their binding specificities in vivo, potential mechanisms to bypass their requirement for certain intron removal events, contribution of splicing-independent functions of U2AF to important cellular functions, and the mechanism for U2AF mutations to invoke specific diseases in humans.

  11. Durable Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Spontaneous Wrinkling of Teflon AF.

    PubMed

    Scarratt, Liam R J; Hoatson, Ben S; Wood, Elliot S; Hawkett, Brian S; Neto, Chiara

    2016-03-01

    We report the fabrication of both single-scale and hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces, created by exploiting the spontaneous wrinkling of a rigid Teflon AF film on two types of shrinkable plastic substrates. Sub-100 nm to micrometric wrinkles were reproducibly generated by this simple process, with remarkable control over the size and hierarchy. Hierarchical Teflon AF wrinkled surfaces showed extremely high water repellence (contact angle 172°) and very low contact angle hysteresis (2°), resulting in droplets rolling off the surface at tilt angles lower than 5°. The wrinkling process intimately binds the Teflon AF layer with its substrate, making these surfaces mechanically robust, as revealed by macroscale and nanoscale wear tests: hardness values were close to that of commercial optical lenses and aluminum films, resistance to scratch was comparable to commercial hydrophobic coatings, and damage by extensive sonication did not significantly affect water repellence. By this fabrication method the size of the wrinkles can be reproducibly tuned from the nanoscale to the microscale, across the whole surface in one step; the fabrication procedure is extremely rapid, requiring only 2 min of thermal annealing to produce the desired topography, and uses inexpensive materials. The very low roll-off angles achieved in the hierarchical surfaces offer a potentially up-scalable alternative as self-cleaning and drag-reducing coatings.

  12. Wild-Type U2AF1 Antagonizes the Splicing Program Characteristic of U2AF1-Mutant Tumors and Is Required for Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Dennis Liang; Motowski, Hayley; Chatrikhi, Rakesh; Gao, Shaojian; Kielkopf, Clara L.; Varmus, Harold

    2016-01-01

    We have asked how the common S34F mutation in the splicing factor U2AF1 regulates alternative splicing in lung cancer, and why wild-type U2AF1 is retained in cancers with this mutation. A human lung epithelial cell line was genetically modified so that U2AF1S34F is expressed from one of the two endogenous U2AF1 loci. By altering levels of mutant or wild-type U2AF1 in this cell line and by analyzing published data on human lung adenocarcinomas, we show that S34F-associated changes in alternative splicing are proportional to the ratio of S34F:wild-type gene products and not to absolute levels of either the mutant or wild-type factor. Preferential recognition of specific 3′ splice sites in S34F-expressing cells is largely explained by differential in vitro RNA-binding affinities of mutant versus wild-type U2AF1 for those same 3′ splice sites. Finally, we show that lung adenocarcinoma cell lines bearing U2AF1 mutations do not require the mutant protein for growth in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, wild-type U2AF1 is required for survival, regardless of whether cells carry the U2AF1S34F allele. Our results provide mechanistic explanations of the magnitude of splicing changes observed in U2AF1-mutant cells and why tumors harboring U2AF1 mutations always retain an expressed copy of the wild-type allele. PMID:27776121

  13. Alternative splicing of U2AF1 reveals a shared repression mechanism for duplicated exons

    PubMed Central

    Kralovicova, Jana; Vorechovsky, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The auxiliary factor of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U2AF) facilitates branch point (BP) recognition and formation of lariat introns. The gene for the 35-kD subunit of U2AF gives rise to two protein isoforms (termed U2AF35a and U2AF35b) that are encoded by alternatively spliced exons 3 and Ab, respectively. The splicing recognition sequences of exon 3 are less favorable than exon Ab, yet U2AF35a expression is higher than U2AF35b across tissues. We show that U2AF35b repression is facilitated by weak, closely spaced BPs next to a long polypyrimidine tract of exon Ab. Each BP lacked canonical uridines at position -2 relative to the BP adenines, with efficient U2 base-pairing interactions predicted only for shifted registers reminiscent of programmed ribosomal frameshifting. The BP cluster was compensated by interactions involving unpaired cytosines in an upstream, EvoFold-predicted stem loop (termed ESL) that binds FUBP1/2. Exon Ab inclusion correlated with predicted free energies of mutant ESLs, suggesting that the ESL operates as a conserved rheostat between long inverted repeats upstream of each exon. The isoform-specific U2AF35 expression was U2AF65-dependent, required interactions between the U2AF-homology motif (UHM) and the α6 helix of U2AF35, and was fine-tuned by exon Ab/3 variants. Finally, we identify tandem homologous exons regulated by U2AF and show that their preferential responses to U2AF65-related proteins and SRSF3 are associated with unpaired pre-mRNA segments upstream of U2AF-repressed 3′ss. These results provide new insights into tissue-specific subfunctionalization of duplicated exons in vertebrate evolution and expand the repertoire of exon repression mechanisms that control alternative splicing. PMID:27566151

  14. Legumain Regulates Differentiation Fate of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Is Altered in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Abbas; Qanie, Diyako; Andersen, Thomas L; Zhang, Yuxi; Chen, Li; Postert, Benno; Parsons, Stuart; Ditzel, Nicholas; Khosla, Sundeep; Johansen, Harald Thidemann; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; Abdallah, Basem M; Hesselson, Daniel; Solberg, Rigmor; Kassem, Moustapha

    2017-02-14

    Secreted factors are a key component of stem cell niche and their dysregulation compromises stem cell function. Legumain is a secreted cysteine protease involved in diverse biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that legumain regulates lineage commitment of human bone marrow stromal cells and that its expression level and cellular localization are altered in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. As shown by genetic and pharmacological manipulation, legumain inhibited osteoblast (OB) differentiation and in vivo bone formation through degradation of the bone matrix protein fibronectin. In addition, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of legumain activity led to precocious OB differentiation and increased vertebral mineralization in zebrafish. Finally, we show that localized increased expression of legumain in bone marrow adipocytes was inversely correlated with adjacent trabecular bone mass in a cohort of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our data suggest that altered proteolytic activity of legumain in the bone microenvironment contributes to decreased bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  15. [Decrease of labor absenteeism associated with hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Blümel, J E; Sáez, L; Roncagliolo, M E; Tacla, X; Brandt, A

    1995-08-01

    Absenteeism affects efficiency and costs of health care. Most of health workers are middle age women, whose climacteric symptoms may reduce their work capacity working at a public hospital in Santiago during 1992. Fifty-eight percent were postmenopausal and 34.8% of these were receiving hormone replacement therapy. Global absenteeism rate was 17.1 days/year. These figures were 14.8 days/year for premenopausal and 17.8 days/year for postmenopausal women (NS). Among the latter, those women receiving hormone replacement therapy had a significantly lower absenteeism rate (9.4 days/year compared to 20.4 days/year among those not receiving hormones). Osteoarticular diseases were responsible for 44.3% and psychiatric diseases for 18.1% of sick leaves. No differences in absenteeism were observed between different professional levels. We conclude that hormone replacement therapy is associated with a better working capacity in postmenopausal women.

  16. Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism of ovarian origin: A clinicopathologic study of five cases

    PubMed Central

    Ajith, S.; Beena, George; Mathew, Nitu Mariam; Omana, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    In postmenopausal women presenting with virilization and elevated testosterone levels, laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered after exclusion of adrenal causes. A clinicopathological study was conducted among those women who presented with features of hyperandrogenism in our postmenopausal clinic over a period of 2 years. Relevant past medical and surgical histories were elicited. Basic hormonal evaluation and radiological imaging were done. Laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done. Six weeks postoperatively, serum testosterone was undetectable with significant clinical improvement. There was no recurrence of symptoms during the follow-up period of 2 years. Treatment of postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenism and virilization with laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is effective if she has no pronounced ovarian enlargement or adrenal tumor on imaging. An extensive endocrine testing and a detailed search for metastatic disease may be unnecessary. PMID:28096644

  17. Physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer: proposed biologic mechanisms and areas for future research.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Heather K; Friedenreich, Christine M; Brockton, Nigel T; Millikan, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Convincing evidence now supports a probable preventive role for physical activity in postmenopausal breast cancer. The mechanisms by which long-term physical activity affect risk, however, remain unclear. The aims of this review were to propose a biological model whereby long-term physical activity lowers postmenopausal breast cancer risk and to highlight gaps in the epidemiologic literature. To address the second aim, we summarized epidemiologic literature on 10 proposed biomarkers, namely, body mass index (BMI), estrogens, androgens, sex hormone binding globulin, leptin, adiponectin, markers of insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein, in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk and physical activity, respectively. Associations were deemed "convincing," "probable," "possible," or "hypothesized" using set criteria. Our proposed biological model illustrated the co-occurrence of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, and chronic inflammation influencing cancer risk through interrelated mechanisms. The most convincing epidemiologic evidence supported associations between postmenopausal breast cancer risk and BMI, estrogens, and androgens, respectively. In relation to physical activity, associations were most convincing for BMI, estrone, insulin resistance, and C-reactive protein. Only BMI and estrone were convincingly (or probably) associated with both postmenopausal breast cancer risk and physical activity. There is a need for prospective cohort studies relating the proposed biomarkers to cancer risk and for long-term exercise randomized controlled trials comparing biomarker changes over time, specifically in postmenopausal women. Future etiologic studies should consider interactions among biomarkers, whereas exercise trials should explore exercise effects independently of weight loss, different exercise prescriptions, and effects on central adiposity.

  18. Correlation of the Lipid Profile, BMI and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bijelic, Radojka; Balaban, Jagoda; Milicevic, Snjezana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To the reduction of bone density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women contribute elevated lipid parameters and Body Mass Index (BMI). Goal: The goal of our study was to determine the correlation between lipid parameters, BMI and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Material and methods: The study was carried out by matched type between experimental group and controls. The experimental group consisted of 100 females at postmenopausal age, in which by the DEXA method was diagnosed osteoporosis at the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Center of RS during 2015-2016, while the control group consisted of 100 females in a postmenopausal age but without diagnosed osteoporosis. The groups were matched by age (± 2 years). To all participants of the study were carried out biochemical analysis of blood, or the analysis of the lipid profile that included total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and HDL cholesterol, and was determined the values of BMI and waist circumference (WC). Results: Analysis of the data of our research shows that by the univariate logistic regression the values of lipid parameters total cholesterol (p=0.000), LDL (p=0.005) and TG (p=0.033) were significantly associated with osteoporosis, while in multivariate logistic model only total cholesterol (p= 0.018) was found as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. BMI values were not statistically significantly associated with osteoporosis (p=0.727). Conclusion: On the decrease in bone mineral density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women influence many risk factors whose identification has the aim to develop more effective prevention of this disease in the elderly. PMID:28144189

  19. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Increases the Risk of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis by Stimulating Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Haiqing; Guan, Qingbo; Zhao, Jiajun; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to observe the changes in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women, to research the relationship between FSH and postmenopausal osteoporosis, and to observe the effects of FSH on osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells. Methods We analyzed 248 postmenopausal women with normal bone metabolism. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to detect serum FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure forearm BMD. Then, we analyzed the age-related changes in serum FSH, LH and E2. Additionally, FSH serum concentrations were compared between a group of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and a control group. Osteoclasts were induced from RAW264.7 cells in vitro by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), and these cells were treated with 0, 5, 10, and 20 ng/ml FSH. After the osteoclasts matured, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was used to identify osteoclasts, and the mRNA expression levels of genes involved in osteoclastic phenotypes and function, such as receptor activator of NF-κB (Rank), Trap, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp-9) and Cathepsin K, were detected in different groups using real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Results 1. FSH serum concentrations in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis increased notably compared with the control group. 2. RANKL induced RAW264.7 cell differentiation into mature osteoclasts in vitro. 3. FSH increased mRNA expression of genes involved in osteoclastic phenotypes and function, such as Rank, Trap, Mmp-9 and Cathepsin K, in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions The circulating concentration of FSH may play an important role in the acceleration of bone loss in postmenopausal women. FSH increases osteoclastogenesis in vitro. PMID:26241313

  20. Over-the-counter treatments and perineal hygiene in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Martin, Deanna K.; Brousseau, E. Christine; Yip, Sallis O.; Fried, Terri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this descriptive study was to quantify the personal hygiene habits/practices and over-the-counter (OTC) products used by postmenopausal women. Specifically, we were interested in any product that would contact the vulva or vagina. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women seeking routine gynecologic care. We developed questionnaire of personal hygiene habits/practices and OTC products used by women that would contact the vulva or vagina. We recruited postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care from two separate gynecology practices. Descriptive statistics were performed as appropriate to characterize the frequency of reported treatments and practices. Results The questionnaire on OTC treatments and perineal hygiene was completed by 114 postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight women (50.9%) reported using at least one OTC vulvovaginal treatment in the last three months, including barrier treatments, topical anesthetics, powders, and antifungals. Women often used more than one OTC product. Thirty-seven women (32.5%) reported the use of two or more OTC products. Powders were used by 34 women (29.8%). Talcum powder was the most commonly used powder (76.5%, n/N = 26/34). Nine (7.9%) postmenopausal women reported douching in the last three months. Conclusions We found that over half of postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care have used an OTC product for vulvovaginal symptoms in the last three months and 1/3 of women use 2 or more products. Because the use of OTC products is so common, our study highlights the need for detailed history inquiry about OTC product use and perineal hygiene practices. PMID:23880795

  1. Sympathetic nerve hyperactivity of essential hypertension is lower in postmenopausal women than men.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, A J; Burns, J; Mackintosh, A F; Mary, D A S G

    2008-08-01

    Sympathetic activation has been associated with the development and complications of hypertension. While the prevalence of hypertension and its cardiovascular risks in women are found to be less than in men and tend to become similar to men after the menopause, there have been no data on the level of sympathetic activation in postmenopausal women relative to men. Therefore, we planned to find out whether muscle sympathetic nerve hyperactivity of essential hypertension (EHT) in postmenopausal women is different from that in matched men. We quantified muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) as mean frequency of single units (s-MSNA) and multiunit bursts (b-MSNA) in 21 postmenopausal women with EHT (W-EHT) relative to 21 matched men with EHT (M-EHT), in comparison to two control groups of 21 normal women (W-NC) and 21 men (M-NC), respectively. The EHT groups had greater MSNA indices than NC groups. W-EHT had lower (P<0.05) s-MSNA (63+/-22.7 impulses per 100 cardiac beats) than M-EHT (78+/-11.2 impulses per 100 cardiac beats). W-NC had lower (P<0.05) s-MSNA (53+/-12.4 impulses per 100 cardiac beats) than M-NC (65+/-16.3 impulses per 100 cardiac beats). Similar results were obtained for b-MSNA. Postmenopausal women with EHT had lower level of central sympathetic hyperactivity than men. Similarly, normal postmenopausal women had lower MSNA than men. These findings suggest that postmenopausal women continue to have a lower sympathetic nerve activity than men even after the development of EHT, and that this could have implications for gender-specific management of hypertension.

  2. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: a clinician's message for patients.

    PubMed

    Speroff, Leon

    2004-08-01

    The Women's Health Initiative agrees with some but not all case-control and cohort studies that current use of postmenopausal estrogen-progestin therapy is associated with a small increase in the risk of breast cancer. It is not known whether this is because of new tumor growth or an effect of hormonal therapy on preexisting tumors. Many studies indicate that women who develop breast cancer while using postmenopausal hormone therapy have a reduced risk of dying from breast cancer; this is consistent with an effect on preexisting tumors so that tumors appear at a less virulent and aggressive stage.

  3. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: considerations in prevention and treatment: (women's health series).

    PubMed

    Sanders, Suzanne; Geraci, Stephen A

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis, the most common human bone disease, affects 8 million American women and has significant morbidity and mortality. Screening is important in older women and younger postmenopausal women with additional risk factors for osteoporosis/fracture. Preventive measures include avoiding smoking, excessive alcohol/caffeine intake, and falls in addition to maintaining adequate calcium/vitamin D intake and exercise. Estrogen/hormone therapy may be considered in some patients. Various medications have proven efficacy in treating postmenopausal osteoporosis; however, potential adverse effects such as hypocalcemia, worsening of renal impairment, and osteonecrosis of the jaw must be considered. The optimal duration of therapy requires further investigation.

  4. Portrait representation of postmenopausal women's experiences of living with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Pakgohar, Minoo; Hamid, Tengku-Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Vahid-Dastjerdi, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the meaning of the experiences of community-dwelling postmenopausal women who were born and grew up in a Muslim country when drawing a picture about their lived experiences of urinary incontinence. Hermeneutic phenomenology underpinned the study's interpretive research approach. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted in two sessions with nine postmenopausal women. The participants were asked to draw a picture about their lived experiences of urinary incontinence in a self-portrait. Three themes emerged to illuminate the meaning of urinary incontinence, including "disruption of normal functioning," "self-imposed restrictions," and "feeling of despair." Discussion of these themes was presented, and practice and research implications were suggested.

  5. The influence of BMI and predictors of disordered eating and life satisfaction on postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia F; Silva, Elsa; Gomes, A Rui

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare eating behaviors, body satisfaction, exercise, and life satisfaction between normal-weight and overweight postmenopausal women and to examine the predictors of disordered eating and life satisfaction among postmenopausal women (n = 294). The overweight group had more eating disordered behavior, more body dissatisfaction, and lower physical quality of life. The increase of age predicted less disordered eating. Higher BMI, the perception of an ideal weight lower than the current one, lower body satisfaction, and physical quality of life predicted disordered eating. Higher body satisfaction, less psychosocial discomfort, and a greater degree of sexual symptom discomfort predicted life satisfaction.

  6. Construct Validation of the Dietary Inflammatory Index among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Tabung, Fred K.; Steck, Susan E.; Zhang, Jiajia; Ma, Yunsheng; Liese, Angela D.; Agalliu, Ilir; Hingle, Melanie; Hou, Lifang; Hurley, Thomas G.; Jiao, Li; Martin, Lisa W.; Millen, Amy E.; Park, Hannah L.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Shikany, James M.; Shivappa, Nitin; Ockene, Judith K.; Hebert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Many dietary factors have either pro- or anti-inflammatory properties. We previously developed a dietary inflammatory index (DII) to assess the inflammatory potential of diet. In this study we conducted a construct validation of the DII based on data from a food frequency questionnaire and three inflammatory biomarkers in a subsample of 2,567 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods We used multiple linear and logistic regression models, controlling for potential confounders, to test whether baseline DII predicted concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNFα-R2), or an overall biomarker score combining all three inflammatory biomarkers. Results The DII was associated with the four biomarkers with beta estimates (95%CI) comparing the highest with lowest DII quintiles as follows: IL-6: 1.26 (1.15, 1.38), Ptrend<0.0001; TNFα-R2: 81.43 (19.15, 143.71), Ptrend=0.004; dichotomized hs-CRP (odds ratio for higher versus lower hs-CRP): 1.30 (0.97, 1.67), Ptrend=0.34); and the combined inflammatory biomarker score: 0.26 (0.12, 0.40), Ptrend=0.0001. Conclusion The DII was significantly associated with inflammatory biomarkers. Construct validity of the DII indicates its utility for assessing the inflammatory potential of diet and for expanding its use to include associations with common chronic diseases in future studies. PMID:25900255

  7. Relationships Between Dog Ownership and Physical Activity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Volpe, Stella Lucia; Howard, Barbara V.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positive associations between dog ownership and physical activity in older adults have been previously reported. Purpose The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between dog ownership and physical activity measures in a well-characterized, diverse sample of postmenopausal women. Methods Analyses included 36,984 dog owners (mean age: 61.5 yrs), and 115,645 non-dog owners (mean age: 63.9 yrs) enrolled in a clinical trial or the observational study of the Women’s Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations between dog ownership and physical activity, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Owning a dog was associated with a higher likelihood of walking ≥150 min/wk (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10–1.17) and a lower likelihood of being sedentary ≥8 hr/day (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83–0.89) as compared to not owning a dog. However, dog owners were less likely to meet ≥7.5 MET-hr/wk of total physical activity as compared to non-dog owners (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.07). Conclusions Dog ownership is associated with increased physical activity in older women, particularly among women living alone. Health promotion efforts aimed at older adults should highlight the benefits of regular dog walking for both dog owners and non-dog owners. PMID:25449694

  8. Plasma Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations and Immune Function in Postmenopausal Women☆

    PubMed Central

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjodin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; McTiernan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 μg/mL PHA-TLP per 50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. PMID:24721136

  9. Molecular disease map of bone characterizing the postmenopausal osteoporosis phenotype.

    PubMed

    Jemtland, Rune; Holden, Marit; Reppe, Sjur; Olstad, Ole K; Reinholt, Finn P; Gautvik, Vigdis T; Refvem, Hilde; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Houston, Brian; Gautvik, Kaare M

    2011-08-01

    Genome-wide gene expressions in bone biopsies from patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy controls were profiled, to identify osteoporosis candidate genes. All osteoporotic patients (n = 27) in an unbiased cohort of Norwegian women presented with bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores of less than -2.5 SD and one or more confirmed low-energy fracture(s). A validation group (n = 18) had clinical and laboratory parameters intermediate to the control (n = 39) and osteoporosis groups. RNA from iliac crest bone biopsies were analyzed by Affymetrix microarrays and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Differentially expressed genes in osteoporosis versus control groups were identified using the Bayesian ANOVA for microarrays (BAMarray) method, whereas the R-package Limma (Linear Models for Microarray Data) was used to determine whether these transcripts were explained by disease, age, body mass index (BMI), or combinations thereof. Laboratory tests showed normal ranges for the cohort. A total of 609 transcripts were differentially expressed in osteoporotic patients relative to controls; 256 transcripts were confirmed for disease when controlling for age or BMI. Most of the osteoporosis susceptibility genes (80%) also were confirmed to be regulated in the same direction in the validation group. Furthermore, 217 of 256 transcripts were correlated with BMD (adjusted for age and BMI) at various skeletal sites (|r| > 0.2, p < .05). Among the most distinctly expressed genes were Wnt antagonists DKK1 and SOST, the transcription factor SOX4, and the bone matrix proteins MMP13 and MEPE, all reduced in osteoporosis versus control groups. Our results identify potential osteoporosis susceptibility candidate genes adjusted for confounding factors (ie, age and BMI) with or without a significant correlation with BMD.

  10. AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

  11. The Advancing State of AF-M315E Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert; Spores, Ronald A.; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The culmination of twenty years of applied research in hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN)-based monopropellants, the NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will achieve the first on-orbit demonstration of an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system by the end of 2015. Following an contextual overview of the completed flight design of the GPIM propellant storage and feed system, results of first operation of a flight-representative heavyweight 20-N engineering model thruster (to be conducted in mid-2014) are presented with performance comparisons to prior lab model (heavyweight) test articles.

  12. RX-26-AY/AF rifle bullet tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    A series of rifle bullet tests was performed on two explosives, RX-26-AY and RX-26-AF, using the Pantex version of the Picatinny Arsenal Test (PA-2). With the exception of one test, both explosives displayed a relatively low sensitivity to bullet impact. However, a marked difference was noted in the average burn time duration between the two types of explosives being tested. A minor modification was made on the rifle barrel used at the test site in order to improve the sighting procedure.

  13. Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels Are Associated with the Presence of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Seung Joo; Heo, Jin Young; Yun, Bo Hyon; Jung, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Menopause is a natural aging process causing estrogen deficiency, accelerating atherogenic processes including dyslipidemia. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also high in postmenopausal women, and it is known to elevate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we are to study on the associations in between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and prevalence of CVD in postmenopausal women who have normal thyroid function. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 247 Korean postmenopausal women who visited the health promotion center from January, 2007 to December, 2009. Postmenopausal women with normal serum TSH were included in the study. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Results In multiple linear regression analysis, serum TSH was associated with serum triglyceride (TG) (β = 0.146, P = 0.023). In multiple logistic regression analysis, increasing age and serum TSH were associated with an increased risk of coronary atherosclerosis in euthyroid postmenopausal women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.107 [1.024-1.197], P = 0.011 and OR = 1.303 [1.024-1.658], P = 0.031, respectively). Conclusions It revealed that significant predictor of serum TSH was serum TG, and increasing age and TSH were found to have associations with an increased risk of coronary atherosclerosis in euthyroid postmenopausal women. Screening and assessing risks for CVD in healthy postmenopausal women would be helpful before atherosclerosis develops. PMID:28119894

  14. Roles of microRNA-221/222 in type 2 diabetic patients with post-menopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, M Y; Pan, S R; Qiu, A Y

    2016-07-14

    The aim of the research was to examine the expression level of microRNA221/222 (miR-221/222) in the serum of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are also diagnosed with post-menopausal breast cancer. We aimed to evaluate the differences in microRNA expression in patients with T2DM alone, patients with post-menopausal breast cancer alone, and patients with both T2DM and post-menopausal breast cancer. We selected 20 cases from a healthy control group, 30 cases from the group of patients with T2DM and obesity, 30 cases from the group of the patients with post-menopausal breast cancer, and 30 cases from the group of patients with both T2DM and post-menopausal breast cancer. The expression of miR-221/222 in the serum of the patients with post-menopausal breast cancer was higher than that of T2DM patients (P < 0.05), but lower than that of the T2DM patients who were also positive for post-menopausal breast cancer (P < 0.05); the expression of miR-221/222 in the serum of the T2DM patients was higher than that of the healthy controls (P < 0.05). BMI, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, and TG were positively correlated with the relative expression of miR-221/222 in the serum (P < 0.01). In conclusion, miR-221/222 participates in insulin resistance; the combination of miR- 221/222 and estrogen contributes to incidence of T2DM with post-menopausal breast cancer complications. MiR-221/222 may participate in the occurrence and progression of T2DM with post-menopausal breast cancer via down-regulation of CAVl.

  15. NMR study of the AF-SC-SC-AF phased transition in a pnictide superconductor LaFeAsO1-xHx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Sakurai, Ryosuke; Iimura, Soushi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    We have performed 75As and 1H NMR measurements in LaFeAsO1xHx, an isomorphic compound of LaFeAsO1xFx. LaFeAsO1xHx is an electron doped system, and O2- can be replaced with H- up to x = 0.5. LaFeAsO1xHx is known for having double superconducting (SC) domes on H doping. Recently, we discovered that a new antiferromagnetic (AF) phase follows the double SC domes on further H doping, forming a symmetric AF-SC-SC-AF phase alignment in the electronic phase diagram Unlike the AF ordering in the lightly H-doped regime, the AF ordering in the highly H-doped regime is attributed to the nesting between electron pockets. In the conference, we will show the data of both NMR spectra and the relaxation rate 1/T1 in the whole doping region. We will discuss the difference of electronic states between the lightly H-doped AF-SC phases and highly H-doped SC-AF phases. This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid (Grant No. KAKENHI 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan.

  16. How to decide intervention thresholds based on FRAX in central south Chinese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhimin; Ou, Yangna; Sheng, Zhifeng; Liao, Eryuan

    2014-03-01

    The FRAX tool has been used to determine possible thresholds for therapeutic intervention; however, there are no FRAX-based intervention thresholds available for China, we proposed that the 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture of about 4.0 and 1.3%, respectively, may be acceptable intervention thresholds for central south Chinese postmenopausal women.

  17. Evaluation of the association between osteoporosis and postural balance in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Plapler, Pérola Grinberg; de Souza Meirelles, Eduardo; Marcolino, Flora Maria D'Andrea; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andrea

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis has been increasing, as have fractures resulting from falls. Postural balance was evaluated in postmenopausal women with and without lumbar osteoporosis. One hundred and twenty-six postmenopausal women aged 55-65 years were evaluated and separated into two groups according to the bone mineral density values of their lumbar spine: the osteoporosis group and the control group, paired by age (P = 0.219) and physical activity (P = 0.611). There was no difference between the groups (P = 0.139) regarding falls reported in the previous 12 months. Functional mobility was evaluated through the Timed Up and Go Test. Postural balance was evaluated using a portable force platform in standard standing position, with eyes open and closed, for 60s. Muscle strength was evaluated through an isokinetic dynamometer. This study shows that there is no difference in knee muscle strength and functional mobility (P = 0.121), postural balance with eyes open [mediolateral displacement (P = 0.286) and mean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) (P = 0.173)] and with eyes closed [mediolateral displacement (P = 0.163), and the mean velocity of displacement of the COP (P = 0.09)] in both groups. Subjects reporting falls had greater mediolateral displacement (P = 0.028) in both groups. Postmenopausal women aged between 55 and 65 years do not present changes in postural balance irrespective of lumbar osteoporosis. Greater COP mediolateral displacement is related to the occurrence of falls in postmenopausal women in the previous year.

  18. Does raloxifene treatment influence back pain and disability among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis?

    PubMed

    Papadokostakis, Georgios; Katonis, Pavlos; Damilakis, John; Hadjipavlou, Alexander

    2005-12-01

    Clinical studies have suggested that postmenopausal women on estrogen replacement treatment are more likely to experience back pain and related disability compared to women who do not take estrogens. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator has estrogen-like effects on bone tissue, and antagonize the action of estrogens on endometrium and breast tissue. It is unknown if the treatment of osteoporosis with raloxifene has estrogen-like or opposite effects on back pain and functional capacity among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. A total of 120 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and chronic back pain were randomized to receive raloxifene 60 mg with 1,000 mg calcium, and 800 IU vitamin D daily or 1,000 mg calcium and 800 IU vitamin D daily. Pain intensity and pain-related disability were measured before treatment at 6 months and after 1 year. Repeated measures of ANOVA, did not reveal statistically significant differences over time, on pain intensity and disability scores, between groups studied. There was a trend in pain intensity changes during the follow-up period, but the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. It seems that treatment with raloxifene does not influence back pain and disability among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Raloxifene may have estrogenic agonist effects on nociceptive processing in the central nervous system.

  19. Association of Lipid Accumulation Product with Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Namazi Shabestari, Alireza; Asadi, Mojgan; Jouyandeh, Zahra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-06-01

    The lipid accumulation product is a novel, safe and inexpensive index of central lipid over accumulation based on waist circumference and fasting concentration of circulating triglycerides. This study was designed to investigate the ability of lipid accumulation product to predict Cardio-metabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women. In this Cross-sectional study, 264 postmenopausal women by using convenience sampling method were selected from menopause clinic in Tehran. Cardio-metabolic risk factors were measured, and lipid accumulation product (waist-58×triglycerides [nmol/L]) was calculated. Optimal cut-off point of lipid accumulation product for predicting metabolic syndrome was estimated by ROC (Receiver-operating characteristic) curve analysis. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 41.2% of subjects. Optimal cut-off point of lipid accumulation product for predicting metabolic syndrome was 47.63 (sensitivity:75%; specificity:77.9%). High lipid accumulation product increases risk of all Cardio-metabolic risk factors except overweight, high Total Cholesterol, high Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and high Fasting Blood Sugar in postmenopausal women. Our findings show that lipid accumulation product is associated with metabolic syndrome and some Cardio-metabolic risk factors Also lipid accumulation product may have been a useful tool for predicting cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome risk in postmenopausal women.

  20. Association of circulating dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 levels with osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Baek, K H; Lee, S-Y; Ahn, S H; Lee, S H; Koh, J-M; Rhee, Y; Kim, C H; Kim, D-Y; Kang, M-I; Kim, B-J; Min, Y-K

    2017-03-01

    Postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture (OF) had higher plasma dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) levels than those without. Furthermore, higher plasma DPP4 levels were significantly associated with higher bone turnover and a higher prevalence of OF. These results indicated that DPP4 may be associated with OF by mediating bone turnover rate.

  1. Uric acid and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic women: the link lies within the fat.

    PubMed

    Pirro, M; Mannarino, M R; Bianconi, V; De Vuono, S; Sahebkar, A; Bagaglia, F; Franceschini, L; Scarponi, A M; Mannarino, E; Merriman, T

    2017-03-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial. Fat accumulation is linked to SUA and BMD, thus possibly explaining the mixed results. We found that adiposity drives part of the association between SUA and BMD in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  2. Low appendicular muscle mass is correlated with femoral neck bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background After menopause, rapid bone mass loss occurs in response to hypoestrogenism. Several studies suggest that muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD) are positively associated in postmenopausal women. Therefore, it may be assumed that postmenopausal low appendicular muscle mass (aMM) can increase BMD loss in a short period of time. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess relationship of aMM with femoral neck BMD in postmenopausal women. Methods Prospective, controlled clinical Trial including 64 women aged 45-70 years, who had not had their last menstruation for at least one year. Subjects were divided into two groups: low aMM (n = 32), and normal aMM (n-32). Femoral neck BMD and muscle mass were measured by DXA at baseline and after twelve months. Pairwise and independent t tests were used for data analysis. Results Baseline weight, BMI and muscle mass (total and appendicular) significantly differ between groups (p < 0.05). After twelve months, femoral neck BMD was significantly lower in the group with low aMM, whereas no significant difference was observed in the group with normal aMM (p < 0.05). Conclusion In postmenopausal women, low appendicular muscle mass is associated negatively with femoral neck BMD in a short period of time. PMID:21981859

  3. Evaluation of trait and state anxiety levels in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramos PhD, Mónica; Silvestri Tomassoni, Roberto; Guerrero-López, José Benjamín; Salinas, Margus

    2017-02-16

    Our objective was to evaluate levels of trait and state anxiety in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women and to explore the relation of hormonal therapy to levels of anxiety. Peri- (n = 63) and postmenopausal (n = 236) women were evaluated between March and September 2013. The assessed variables were menopausal status, anxiety (using the state and trait anxiety inventory), and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Use of psychotropic medications and hormone therapy was also ascertained. The mean age of the participants was 51.9 years, ranging from 31 to 69 years. The mean state anxiety scores, as well as the mean trait anxiety scores, were higher in perimenopausal than postmenopausal women. High state anxiety (above the 75th percentile), but not high trait anxiety, was related to perimenopausal status. Anxiety levels appeared to be higher among perimenopausal than postmenopausal women, as also occurs with depressive symptoms. Anxiety state provides data about recent anxiety symptoms in women; however, anxiety trait could be present in some women before perimenopause. Our findings suggest that perimenopause is a period with increased anxiety levels in some women.

  4. Effect of metabolic syndrome on sexual function in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Otunctemur, Alper; Dursun, Murat; Ozbek, Emin; Sahin, Suleyman; Besiroglu, Huseyin; Koklu, Ismail; Polat, Emre Can; Erkoc, Mustafa; Danis, Eyyup; Bozkurt, Muammer

    2015-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a prevalent and multidimensional disorder related to many biological, psychological, and social determinants. The authors assessed the effect of one of the many factors affect sexual function-metabolic syndrome-on female sexual function. They equally divided 400 women participants among 4 groups: (a) premenopausal with metabolic syndrome, (b) premenopausal without metabolic syndrome, (c) postmenopausal with metabolic syndrome, and (d) postmenopausal without metabolic syndrome. The authors used the Female Sexual Function Index to assess women's sexual function. Female sexual dysfunction was found more often in both pre- and postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (p =.001). Overall Female Sexual Function Index score and satisfaction, pain, and desire domain scores independently of the menopause status showed statistically significant differences across women with metabolic syndrome in comparison with participants with no metabolic syndrome (p <.05). The authors also evaluated the associations among 5 components of metabolic syndrome and Female Sexual Function Index scores. Higher fasting glucose levels were significantly associated with the Female Sexual Function Index score (p <.05). This study shows that sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in pre- and postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Weight Lifted in Strength Training Predicts Bone Change in Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussler, Ellen C.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.; Houtkooper, Linda B.; Metcalfe, Lauve L.; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G.; Harris, Robin B.; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between weight lifted in one year of progressive strength training and change in bone mineral density (BMD) among calcium-supplemented, postmenopausal women. BMD was measured at baseline and after one year. Evidence of a linear relationship between BMD change and total and exercise-specific weight lifted during the 1-year…

  6. The future of postmenopausal hormone therapy: It's time to move forward.

    PubMed

    Speroff, Leon

    2007-05-20

    There are good reasons why the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy is at a contemporary low level. But an analysis of these factors provides explanations that offer a basis for appropriate and renewed use. A more optimistic position is supported by an up-to-date appraisal of clinical studies.

  7. Acupuncture to Treat Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, A. G.; Pires, G. N.; Andersen, M. L.; Tufik, S.; Hachul, H.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders are commonly observed among postmenopausal women, with negative effects on their quality of life. The search for complementary therapies for sleep disorders during postmenopausal period is of high importance, and acupuncture stands out as an appropriate possibility. The present review intended to systematically evaluate the available literature, compiling studies that have employed acupuncture as treatment to sleep disorders in postmenopausal women. A bibliographic search was performed in PubMed/Medline and Scopus. Articles which had acupuncture as intervention, sleep related measurements as outcomes, and postmenopausal women as target population were included and evaluated according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool and to the STRICTA guidelines. Out of 89 search results, 12 articles composed our final sample. A high heterogeneity was observed among these articles, which prevented us from performing a meta-analysis. Selected articles did not present high risk of bias and had a satisfactory compliance rate with STRICTA guidelines. In general, these studies presented improvements in sleep-related variables. Despite the overall positive effects, acupuncture still cannot be stated as a reliable treatment for sleep-related complaints, not due to inefficacy, but rather limited evidence. Nevertheless, results are promising and new comprehensive and controlled studies in the field are encouraged. PMID:26366181

  8. Risk profiles for weight gain among postmenopausal women: A classification and regression tree analysis approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Risk factors for obesity and weight gain are typically evaluated individually while "adjusting for" the influence of other confounding factors, and few studies, if any, have created risk profiles by clustering risk factors. We identified subgroups of postmenopausal women homogeneous in their cluster...

  9. Protein intake and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men age 50 and older.

    PubMed

    Fung, T T; Meyer, H E; Willett, W C; Feskanich, D

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we followed postmenopausal women and men aged 50 and above for up to 32 years and found no evidence that higher protein intake increased the risk of hip fracture. Protein intake from specific sources was inversely associated with risk, but these associations appeared to differ by gender.

  10. Neck circumference has possibility as a predictor for metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Satomi; Miyake, Takashi; Harada, Toshihide; Ishizaki, Fumiko; Ikeda, Hiromi; Nitta, Yumiko; Iida, Tadayuki; Chikamura, Chiho; Tamura, Noriko; Nitta, Kohsaku; Miyaguchi, Hideki

    2014-12-01

    Subcutaneous fat depots play an important role in regulating metabolic profile in Japanese postmenopausal women. We investigated the possibility of neck circumference (NC) as a surrogate marker for metabolic disease risk estimates in Japanese postmenopausal women. We examined the association of NC with several markers of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis in 64 healthy postmenopausal women aged 63.6 ± 7.1 years in community-based samples in Japan. As a result, NC was significantly associated with indices of whole body obesity and visceral fat accumulation, such as body mass index (BMI) and Waist circumference (WC). In the analysis of biomarkers for insulin resistance, NC was positively correlated to HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R) and leptin. In addition, an increase in triglycerides (TG) and a decrease in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were also associated with NC. Interestingly, NC was also associated with atherosclerosis-related indices. The measurement of NC is an easy, inexpensive and reproducible method for assessment of obesity, and a possible predictor to identify the risk for future metabolic diseases in Japanese postmenopausal women.

  11. Breast cancer after hormone replacement therapy--does prognosis differ in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women?

    PubMed

    Baumgärtner, A K; Häusler, A; Seifert-Klauss, V; Schuster, T; Schwarz-Boeger, U; Kiechle, M

    2011-10-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been associated with higher incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but it is unclear if breast cancers developing after HRT use have different prognosis. 1053 women with hormone receptor positive non-metastasized breast cancer were analyzed in a retrospective trial, stratifying by HRT use before diagnosis. Postmenopausal HRT users had significantly more early tumor stages (p<0.001). HRT in postmenopausal patients was associated with longer time to progression (TTP) (HR 0.81, 95%CI 0.55-1.19, p=0.28) and overall survival (OS) (HR 0.68, 95%CI 0.45-1.02, p=0.059). Perimenopausal HRT users showed shorter TTP and OS (HR 1.99, 95%CI 0.57-6.91, p=0.28 and HR 4.59, 95%CI 0.91-23.25, p=0.06 respectively). Higher BMI was significantly associated with poorer prognosis in perimenopausal women only (TTP: HR=1.16; OS: HR=1.31). In this retrospective analysis postmenopausal HRT users seemed to have a better breast cancer prognosis. For perimenopausal HRT users however, a trend towards worse prognosis was found.

  12. Anemia in postmenopausal women: dietary inadequacy or non-dietary factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postmenopausal women are disproportionately affected by anemia, and the prevalence in females > 65 years of age in the United States is approximately 10%. The manifestation of anemia in older populations is associated with dietary inadequacy, blood loss, genetics, alterations in bioavailability, ren...

  13. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  14. Raloxifene protects against seizures and neurodegeneration in a mouse model mimicking epilepsy in postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Pottoo, F H; Bhowmik, M; Vohora, D

    2014-12-18

    Epilepsy in menopausal women presents several challenges in the treatment including an increased risk of seizures due to hormone replacement therapy. We investigated the hypothesis if raloxifene, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, could be employed to prevent behavioural seizures and morphological alterations in a mouse model mimicking epilepsy in postmenopausal women. Female mice were made ovotoxic by treatment with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) to mimic a postmenopausal state. They were then subjected to kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures and neurotoxicity, as assessed by microscopic examination of hippocampus, relevant to human temporal lobe epilepsy. VCD administration (for 15days followed by a drug-free period of 30days) induced ovotoxicity in mice as evidenced by reduced number of primary ovarian follicles. This was accompanied by a 62.4% reduction in serum oestradiol levels. The bone mineral density of ovotoxic mice, however, remained unaffected. Raloxifene (8mg/kg) reduced the seizure severity score in both normal and ovotoxic mice and protected against degeneration induced by KA in the CA3, CA1 sub-fields and hilus of the DG. Hippocampal TGF-β3 levels were not affected by any of the treatments. We show the potential protective role of raloxifene in preventing seizures and neuronal damage in a mouse model mimicking epilepsy in postmenopausal women which was found unrelated to hippocampal TGF-β3. Raloxifene might represent a novel therapeutic option for postmenopausal temporal lobe epileptic woman.

  15. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in Palestinian postmenopausal osteoporosis and normal women.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Smoom, Riham; Bader, Khaldoun; Darwish, Hisham

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the association of vitamin D and bone markers with the development osteoporosis in Palestinian postmenopausal women. Even though vitamin D deficiency was very high for the recruited subjects, it was not associated with osteoporosis except for bones of the hip. Age and obesity were the strongest determining factors of the disease.

  16. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  17. Subantimicrobial Dose Doxycycline Effects on Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jeffrey B.; Stoner, Julie A.; Nummikoski, Pirkka V.; Reinhardt, Richard A.; Goren, Arthur D.; Wolff, Mark S.; Lee, Hsi-ming; Lynch, James C.; Valente, Robert; Golub, Lorne M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Determine efficacy of two-year continuous subantimicrobial dose doxycycline (SDD; 20 mg bid) on alveolar bone in postmenopausal osteopenic, estrogen-deficient women undergoing periodontal maintenance in a two-year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: 128 subjects randomized to SDD or placebo (n=64 each). Posterior vertical bite-wings taken at baseline, one and two years for alveolar bone density (ABD), using radiographic absorptiometry (RA) and computer-assisted densitometric image analysis (CADIA), and alveolar bone height (ABH). Statistical analyses utilized Generalized Estimating Equations; primary analyses were intent-to-treat (ITT). Results presented as SDD versus placebo. Results: Under ITT, there was no statistically-significant effect of SDD on ABD loss (RA: p=0.8; CADIA: p=0.2) or ABH loss (p=0.2). Most sites (81−95%) were inactive. For subgroup analyses, mean CADIA was higher with SDD for non-smokers (p=0.05) and baseline probing depths ≥ 5 mm (p =0.003). SDD was associated with 29% lower odds of more progressive ABH loss in women > 5 years postmenopausal (p=0.05) and 36% lower among protocol-adherent subjects (p =0.03). Conclusion: In postmenopausal osteopenic women with periodontitis, SDD did not differ overall from placebo. Based on exploratory subgroup analyses, additional research is needed to determine the usefulness of SDD in non-smokers, subjects > 5 years postmenopausal and in deeper pockets. PMID:17716313

  18. Acute effects of calcium supplements on blood pressure: randomised, crossover trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Billington, E O; Bristow, S M; Gamble, G D; de Kwant, J A; Stewart, A; Mihov, B V; Horne, A M; Reid, I R

    2017-01-01

    Calcium supplements appear to increase cardiovascular risk, but the mechanism is unknown. We investigated the acute effects of calcium supplements on blood pressure in postmenopausal women. The reduction in systolic blood pressure was smaller after calcium compared with the placebo in the hours following dosing.

  19. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D cutoffs for functional bone measures in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, D Y; Jee, J H; Cho, Y Y; Jang, J Y; Yu, T Y; Kim, T H; Hong, Y J; Hong, W-J; Jin, S-M; Hur, K Y; Kim, J H; Kim, S W; Chung, J H; Lee, M K; Min, Y-K

    2017-04-01

    This study sought to determine the minimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration required to maintain bone health in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. A serum 25(OH)D concentration of 20 ng/mL rather than 30 ng/mL was appropriate for bone health.

  20. An unusual case of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding: retention of fetal bone.

    PubMed

    Sahinoglu, Zeki; Kuyumcuoglu, Umur

    2003-01-01

    Retention of intrauterine fetal bones is a rare finding in patient suffering from abnormal uterine bleeding or secondary infertility. Detailed patient history, pelvic ultrasonography and hysteroscopy are diagnostic tools. Here, we describe a case of postmenopausal persistent uterine bleeding and pelvic pain caused by prolonged retention of fetal bones after a midtrimester abortion 17 years ago.

  1. Preventive effects of phytoestrogens against postmenopausal osteoporosis as compared to the available therapeutic choices: An overview.

    PubMed

    Al-Anazi, Abdullah Foraih; Qureshi, Viquar Fatima; Javaid, Khalida; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2011-07-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been rampantly used to recompense for the bone loss, but the procedure is coupled with severe adverse effects. Hence, there is a boost in the production of newer synthetic products to ward off the effects of menopause-related osteoporosis. As of today, there are several prescription products available for the treatment of postmenopause osteoporosis; most of these are estrogenic agents and combination products. Nevertheless, in view of the lack of effect and/or toxicity of these products, majority of the postmenopausal women are now fascinated by highly publicized natural products. This is an offshoot of the generalized consensus that these products are more effective and free from any adverse effects. Recently, certain plant-derived natural products, mostly phytoestrogens (isoflavones, lignans, coumestanes, stilbenes, flavonoids) and many more novel estrogen-like compounds in plants have been immensely used to prevent menopause-related depletion in bone mineral density (BMD). Although, a number of papers are published on menopause-related general symptoms, sexual dysfunction, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, colon, and breast cancers, there is paucity of literature on the accompanying osteoporosis and its treatment. In view of the controversies on synthetic hormones and drugs and drift of a major population of patients toward natural drugs, it was found worthwhile to investigate if these drugs are suitable to be used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Preparation of this paper is an attempt to review the (a) epidemiology of postmenopausal osteoporosis, (b) treatment modalities of postmenopausal osteoporosis by hormones and synthetic drugs and the associated drawbacks and adverse effects, and (c) prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis by phytoestrogens, their drawbacks and toxicity

  2. AFS men and women differ most in their lifestyle choices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connelly, N.A.; Brown, T.L.; Hardiman, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society sponsored a survey to examine the career development choices of men and women and how they might differ by gender. A random sample of 700 men and 700 women was selected from the AFS membership database. The survey was mailed out in October 2004 and 991 questionnaires were returned for an adjusted response rate of 71%. Some differences exist between men and women in the areas of interest development, education, and employment, but the substantive differences occur in lifestyle choices. Women with a fisheries career are less likely to be married than men, even when age is controlled for, and women who are married are more likely to have dual-career considerations than their male counterparts. Among respondents without dependents in their home during their professional career, twice as many women as men think having children will adversely affect their career. For those with dependents, more than twice as many women as men said they had to put their career "on hold" because of their dependents. While AFS members do not represent all members of the fisheries profession, their experiences shed substantial light on the lifestyle choices likely faced by most members of the profession.

  3. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  4. Siglec-15 is a potential therapeutic target for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Yusuke; Takahata, Masahiko; Mikuni, Shintaro; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Hamano, Hiroki; Angata, Takashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Kinjo, Masataka; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2015-02-01

    organization of osteoclasts in both RANKL and TNF-α induced osteoclastogenesis. The present findings indicate that Siglec-15 is involved in estrogen deficiency-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and is thus a potential therapeutic target for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  5. Postmenopausal vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun Jung

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the serum ferritin status between the postmenopausal vegetarians and non-vegetarians and to identify the relation of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in postmenopausal women. The two study groups consisted of postmenopausal vegetarians (n=59) who maintained a vegetarian diet for over 20 years and age-matched non-vegetarian controls (n=48). Anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, serum metabolic syndrome-related parameters, and serum ferritin level between the two groups were compared. The vegetarians exhibited significantly lower weight (p<0.01), body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), percentage of body fat (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.01), SBP (p<0.001), DBP (p<0.001), and fasting glucose (p<0.05). According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for MetS applying Korean guidelines for waist circumference, the prevalence of MetS was lower in vegetarians (33.9 %) than in non-vegetarians (47.9 %). Vegetarians had significantly lower serum level of ferritin (p<0.01) than non-vegetarians. In the correlation analysis, serum ferritin was positively related to fasting glucose (r=0.264, p<0.01), triglycerides (r=0.232, p<0.05), and the NCEP score (r=0.214, p<0.05) and negatively related to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r=-0.225, p<0.05) after adjusting for BMI, lifestyle, and dietary factors (animal protein, animal fat, and dietary fiber intake). In conclusion, postmenopausal vegetarians had lower MetS presence and a lower serum ferritin level compared to non-vegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk of MetS in postmenopausal women.

  6. Simvastatin Effect on Calcium and Silicon Plasma Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Horecka, Anna; Hordyjewska, Anna; Blicharski, Tomasz; Kocot, Joanna; Żelazowska, Renata; Lewandowska, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2016-05-01

    Postmenopausal women more often suffered from knee osteoarthritis and its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Calcium and silicon are significant elements involved in bone and joint metabolism, especially in older people. Cardiovascular diseases are common worldwide and simvastatin is the most prescribed drug in such population of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin administration on calcium and silicon concentration in the plasma of postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Sixty postmenopausal mild hypercholesterolemic women (mean age 61.4 years, range 54-68) were enrolled. Thirty patients received simvastatin (20 or 40 mg/day) for at least 1 year before being enrolled (simvastatin "+" group). Control group consists of remaining 30 women (simvastatin "-"group). Silicon and calcium concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Plasma simvastatin level was determined 3 h after the drug administration using HPLC-UV-Vis. Calcium but not silicon level was significantly lower in patients receiving simvastatin in comparison with non-statin group (1.91 ± 0.32 vs. 2.33 ± 0.19 mmol/l, p < 0.05). A weak but significant positive correlation between plasma silicon and simvastatin levels (r = 0.3, p < 0.05) was observed; this may be due to the fact that simvastatin contains silicon dioxide as an inactive ingredient. The mean simvastatin concentration was 9.02 ng/ml. All hypotheses were verified at the significance level of p < 0.05. A statistically significant decrease in the plasma calcium concentration of postmenopausal women, treated with simvastatin suggests that simvastatin may play a role in calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Positive correlation of simvastatin concentration with silicon level in the plasma suggests that both might prompt the positive effect of osteoarthritis treatment.

  7. Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Female Members and Non-members of the Elderly Support Association

    PubMed Central

    Shirvani, Mina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in postmenopausal members and non-members of the elderly support association in Borujen city, Iran. Methods This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study being applied to the participants were postmenopausal women of over 55 years. Thus, 40 postmenopausal members of the elderly support association of Borujen city and 40 non-members were randomly selected. The 36 item short-form health survey (SF-36), with the 4 psychological, social, physical-movement, and environmental domains, was completed. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results The mean total score of QOL of member of the association was significantly greater than non-members. Student's t-test showed a significant relationship between QOL and membership of the association (P < 0.05). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the mean QOL of postmenopausal women, according to membership and marital status (P < 0.01), housing (P < 0.01), and underlying disease (P < 0.01), was statistically significant. Conclusions According to the results, supportive measures, such as increasing the participation of the elderly in public life through proper preparations to join them and membership in peer groups such as support associations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can be greatly effective in improving QOL. The results showed that the QOL of the participants was at a moderate level and membership in support associations for the elderly was effected on the QOL in postmenopausal women. Moreover, considering the importance of the elderly in the community. PMID:28119895

  8. GABA+ levels in postmenopausal women with mild-to-moderate depression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhensong; Zhang, Aiying; Zhao, Bin; Gan, Jie; Wang, Guangbin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Gong, Tao; Liu, Wen; Edden, Richard A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: It is increasingly being recognized that alterations of the GABAergic system are implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed to explore in vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and posterior-cingulate cortex (PCC) of postmenopausal women with depression using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Nineteen postmenopausal women with depression and thirteen healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent 1H-MRS of the ACC/mPFC and PCC using the “MEGA Point Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence” (MEGA-PRESS) technique. The severity of depression was assessed by 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Quantification of MRS data was performed using Gannet program. Differences of GABA+ levels from patients and controls were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the linear associations between GABA+ levels and HAMD scores, as well as estrogen levels. Results: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were detected in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression compared to healthy controls (P = 0.002). No significant correlations were found between 17-HAMD/14-HAMA and GABA+ levels, either in ACC/mPFC (P = 0.486; r = 0.170/P = 0.814; r = −0.058) or PCC (P = 0.887; r = 0.035/ P = 0.987; r = −0.004) in the patients; there is also no significant correlation between GABA+ levels and estrogen levels in patients group (ACC/mPFC: P = 0.629, r = −0.018; PCC: P = 0.861, r = 0.043). Conclusion: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were found in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression, suggesting that the dysfunction of the GABAergic system may also be involved in the pathogenesis of depression in postmenopausal women. PMID:27684829

  9. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Luminal B Subtype Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sanggeun; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Sanghwa; Kim, Jee Ye; Kim, Seung Il

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, there is limited information on the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with insulin resistance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between insulin resistance and clinicopathological factors in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients without diabetes. We assessed 760 patients with breast cancer treated between 2012 and 2014. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics between patients with and without insulin resistance using univariate and multivariate analyses, including after stratification by menopausal status. Insulin resistance was defined according to the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Of 760 patients, 26.4% had insulin resistance. Age, menopausal status, body mass index, tumor size, histologic grade, Ki-67 expression, and breast cancer subtype significantly differed according to the presence of insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis revealed that postmenopausal status and obesity were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In postmenopausal women, older age, obesity, larger tumor size, advanced stage, and high proliferative luminal B subtype were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In contrast, in premenopausal patients, only obesity was related to insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis indicated that insulin resistance was independently correlated with obesity, larger tumor size, and the luminal B/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative subtype in postmenopausal but not premenopausal patients. Insulin resistance was significantly associated with larger tumors and proliferative luminal B subtype breast cancer in postmenopausal women only. These findings suggest that insulin resistance could mechanistically induce tumor progression and might be a good prognostic factor, and that it could represent a therapeutic target in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. PMID:26945364

  10. Coexistence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease risk factors in apparently healthy, untreated postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Massé, Priscilla G; Tranchant, Carole C; Dosy, Juliana; Donovan, Sharon M

    2005-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether apparently healthy, untreated postmenopausal women at risk of osteoporosis relative to nonmenopausal women are concomitantly at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of various aspects of lifestyle, personality, body shape and composition, and blood chemistry. Two homogeneous groups of 30 women having reached menopause for 3-5 years and 30 nonmenopausal controls, all non-estrogen users without apparent CVD risk factors, were compared in a cross-sectional design. Data related to physical activity, dietary intakes, personality type, anthropometry, and skinfold-thickness were collected. Plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and serum lipids were measured and used as biochemical predictors of osteoporosis and CVD, respectively. Compared to nonmenopausal controls, postmenopausal women were at greater risk of bone loss given their lower plasma IGF-1, lower physical activity level, and even given their higher serum lipids, as recent literature suggests. Moreover, their dietary calcium intake fulfilled only 70% of the current recommendation, which may reduce protection against osteoporosis and CVD (particularly hypertension) as well. The two groups did not differ regarding energy intake, body weight and frame size, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio (WHR). However, postmenopausal subjects had more adipose tissue and differed in terms of lifestyle factors (lower dietary lipids and greater alcohol consumption). While neither group was at particular risk of CVD according to waist circumference, WHR, and serum triglycerides, postmenopausal women were at risk according to percent body adiposity and serum cholesterol. This study shows that several risk factors for osteoporosis and CVD can coexist in apparently healthy postmenopausal women after a few years of natural menopause. It emphasizes the need for a timely screening that would stress both heart and bone risk factors.

  11. Association Between Insulin Resistance and Luminal B Subtype Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sanggeun; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Sanghwa; Kim, Jee Ye; Kim, Seung Il

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there is limited information on the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with insulin resistance. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between insulin resistance and clinicopathological factors in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients without diabetes. We assessed 760 patients with breast cancer treated between 2012 and 2014. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics between patients with and without insulin resistance using univariate and multivariate analyses, including after stratification by menopausal status. Insulin resistance was defined according to the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Of 760 patients, 26.4% had insulin resistance. Age, menopausal status, body mass index, tumor size, histologic grade, Ki-67 expression, and breast cancer subtype significantly differed according to the presence of insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis revealed that postmenopausal status and obesity were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In postmenopausal women, older age, obesity, larger tumor size, advanced stage, and high proliferative luminal B subtype were significantly associated with insulin resistance. In contrast, in premenopausal patients, only obesity was related to insulin resistance. Multivariate analysis indicated that insulin resistance was independently correlated with obesity, larger tumor size, and the luminal B/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative subtype in postmenopausal but not premenopausal patients. Insulin resistance was significantly associated with larger tumors and proliferative luminal B subtype breast cancer in postmenopausal women only. These findings suggest that insulin resistance could mechanistically induce tumor progression and might be a good prognostic factor, and that it could represent a therapeutic target in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer.

  12. Association of serum Dkk-1 levels with β-catenin in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Xu, Xiao-juan; Shen, Lin; Yang, Yan-ping; Zhu, Rui; Shuai, Bo; Zhu, Xi-Wen; Li, Cheng-gang; Ma, Chen; Lv, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Wnt signaling plays an important role in the bone development and remodeling. The Wnt antagonist Dkk-1 is a potent inhibitor of bone formation. The aims of this study were firstly to compare the serum Dkk-1 levels in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients with age-matched healthy controls, and secondly, to assess the possible relationship between Dkk-1 and β-catenin, sclerostin, or bone turnover markers [CTX, PINP, N-MID-OT and 25(OH)D] in the setting of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A total of 350 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 150 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled, and the serum levels of Dkk-1, β-catenin, sclerostin, OPG, and RANKL were detected by ELISA, and bone turnover markers [CTX, PINP, N-MID-OT and 25(OH)D] were measured by Roche electrochemiluminescence system in two groups. Serum Dkk-1 levels were significantly higher in postmenopausal osteoporosis group than in control group (P<0.001). Univariate analyses revealed that serum Dkk-1 levels were weakly negatively correlated to β-catenin (r=-0.161, P=0.003) and OPG (r=-0.106, P=0.047), while multiple regression analysis showed a negative correlation between serum Dkk-1 levels with β-catenin (β=-0.165, P=0.009) and BMD (β=-0.139, P=0.027), and a positive correlation between serum Dkk-1 levels and CTX (β=0.122, P=0.040) in postmenopausal osteoporosis group. No similar correlations ware observed in control group. The results provided evidence for the role of Dkk-1 in bone metabolism and demonstrated the link of Dkk-1 and Wnt/β-catenin in some ways.

  13. Alternative Dosing of Exemestane Before Surgery in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage 0-II Estrogen Positive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-17

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  14. Disturbed MEK/ERK signaling increases osteoclast activity via the Hedgehog-Gli pathway in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojie; Jie, Qiang; Zhang, Hongyang; Zhao, Yantao; Lin, Yangjing; Du, Junjie; Shi, Jun; Wang, Long; Guo, Kai; Li, Yong; Wang, Chunhui; Gao, Bo; Huang, Qiang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Liu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2016-11-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a worldwide health problem and is characterized by increased and activated osteoclasts. However, the mechanism by which osteoclasts are dysregulated in postmenopausal osteoporosis is not fully understood. In this study, we found that the Hedgehog-Gli pathway was upregulated in postmenopausal osteoporotic osteoclasts and that 17β-estradiol both inhibited osteoclastogenesis and induced osteoclast apoptosis by downregulating Hedgehog-Gli signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Hedgehog-Gli pathway was negatively regulated by MEK/ERK signaling and that this effect was Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)-dependent and was partially blocked by an anti-SHH antibody. Moreover, we found that the stimulatory effect of Hedgehog signaling on osteoclastogenesis and the inhibitory effect on osteoclast apoptosis were dependent on the Gli family of transcription factors. The pathways and molecules that contribute to the regulation of osteoclastogenesis and apoptosis represent potential new strategies for designing molecular drugs for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  15. The Influence of Menopausal Status and Postmenopausal Use of Hormone Therapy on Presentation of Major Depression in Women

    PubMed Central

    Kornstein, Susan G.; Young, Elizabeth A.; Harvey, Annie T.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Barkin, Jennifer L.; Thase, Michael E.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Rush, A. John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in depression characteristics among premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women with major depressive disorder. This study also evaluated these differences between postmenopausal women with major depressive disorder who are taking and not taking hormone therapy. Methods: Analyses conducted with data from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study focused on female outpatients with non-psychotic major depressive disorder seeking treatment in 41 primary or psychiatric care settings across the United States. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were compared among women not taking hormone therapy who were premenopausal (N=950), perimenopausal (N=380), or postmenopausal (N=562). These comparisons were also made between postmenopausal women (n=768) taking (N=171) or not taking (N=562) hormone therapy. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical baseline differences, premenopausal women were more likely to present with irritability than either peri- or postmenopausal women, and were more likely to have decreased appetite and less likely to have early morning insomnia than perimenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were more likely to have suicidal ideation and poorer physical functioning than either of the other groups, and were more likely to have sympathetic arousal and gastrointestinal symptoms than premenopausal women. After adjusting for baseline differences, postmenopausal women taking hormone therapy had better physical functioning, fewer melancholic features, less sympathetic arousal, and more lack of involvement in activities than women not taking hormone therapy. Conclusions: Menopausal status and postmenopausal use of hormone therapy may influence the clinical presentation of major depressive episodes in women. PMID:20616669

  16. A Conditional Role of U2AF in Splicing of Introns with Unconventional Polypyrimidine Tracts▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Vinod; Singh, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    Recognition of polypyrimidine (Py) tracts typically present between the branch point and the 3′ splice site by the large subunit of the essential splicing factor U2AF is a key early step in pre-mRNA splicing. Diverse intronic sequence arrangements exist, however, including 3′ splice sites lacking recognizable Py tracts, which raises the question of how general the requirement for U2AF is for various intron architectures. Our analysis of fission yeast introns in vivo has unexpectedly revealed that whereas introns lacking Py tracts altogether remain dependent on both subunits of U2AF, introns with long Py tracts, unconventionally positioned upstream of branch points, are unaffected by U2AF inactivation. Nevertheless, mutation of these Py tracts causes strong dependence on the large subunit U2AF59. We also find that Py tract diversity influences the requirement for the conserved C-terminal domain of U2AF59 (RNA recognition motif 3), which has been implicated in protein-protein interactions with other splicing factors. Together, these results suggest that in addition to Py tract binding by U2AF, supplementary mechanisms of U2AF recruitment and 3′ splice site identification exist to accommodate diverse intron architectures, which have gone unappreciated in biochemical studies of model pre-mRNAs. PMID:17709389

  17. Evaluation of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The atoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been extensively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005 and in commercial pistachio orchards from 2008 to 2011. AF36 was a...

  18. Seladoeflavones A-F, six novel flavonoids from Selaginella doederleinii.

    PubMed

    Zou, ZhenXing; Xu, KangPing; Xu, PingSheng; Li, XiaoMin; Cheng, Fei; Li, Jing; Yu, Xia; Cao, DongSheng; Li, Dan; Zeng, Wei; Zhang, GuoGang; Tan, GuiShan

    2017-01-01

    Six new flavonoids, seladoeflavones A-F (1-6), were isolated from the whole herbs of Selaginella doederleinii, together with one known flavonoid (7). Their structures including absolute configuration were characterized on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including NMR, HRMS, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD). All compounds consist of an aryl substituent at the C-3' position of naringenin or apigenin skeletons, and compounds 1 and 6 were identified as R configurations, which are uncommonly encountered in nature. A possible biosynthetic pathway was postulated. In addition, bioassay of the isolates revealed that 5-7 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines NCI-H460, A549, and K562 in vitro with IC50 values ranging from 8.17 to 18.66μM.

  19. Optimised secure transmission through untrusted AF relays using link adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    A new transmission scheme is presented for a two-hop relay network including two AF relays, considering physical layer security where relays are not able to detect signal with an acceptable bit error rate (BER) but the combined received signal is detected with an acceptable BER at the final receiver. It is assumed that there is no direct path between the transmitter and the receiver (relay network without diversity). Adaptive modulation and coding is utilised at the transmitter and transmission powers of the transmitter and of the relays are continuously adapted provisioning individual average power constraint for each node. Numerical evaluations show that an acceptable performance degradation is seen by the proposed secure relaying scheme compared to the optimum relay selection scheme without security constraint.

  20. Automation under suspicion--case flight AF-447 Air France.

    PubMed

    Martins, Edgard; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The probes allow the pilot to control the aircraft speed was essential to the balance of the flight. Opinions of experts who claim that "the design of the plane would have exercised a not inconsiderable role in the occurrence of a disaster." These messages revealed a series of important operating errors in a zone of turbulence, "making the plane uncontrollable, leading to a rapid depressurization device, according to these reports. A lawsuit in Toulouse and in Brazil aims to recognition of the liability of Air France and Airbus not insignificant role in the design and operation of the aircraft in the event of catastrophe. Opinions are taken from senior pilots that no commercial aviation training for certain situations abnormal flight that, if realized, could have influenced the pilots of the AF-447 to remove the plane's fatal dive show what experiments performed in simulators for military pilots, who are permanently subject to critical flight situations.

  1. The leukemogenic CALM/AF10 fusion protein alters the subcellular localization of the lymphoid regulator Ikaros.

    PubMed

    Greif, P A; Tizazu, B; Krause, A; Kremmer, E; Bohlander, S K

    2008-05-01

    The t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation leads to the fusion of the CALM and AF10 genes. This translocation can be found as the sole cytogenetic abnormality in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia and in malignant lymphomas. The expression of CALM/AF10 in primary murine bone marrow cells results in the development of an aggressive leukemia in a murine bone marrow transplantation model. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the lymphoid regulator Ikaros as an AF10 interacting protein. Interestingly, Ikaros is required for normal development of lymphocytes, and aberrant expression of Ikaros has been found in leukemia. In a murine model, the expression of a dominant negative isoform of Ikaros causes leukemias and lymphomas. The Ikaros interaction domain of AF10 was mapped to the leucine zipper domain of AF10, which is required for malignant transformation both by the CALM/AF10 and the MLL/AF10 fusion proteins. The interaction between AF10 and Ikaros was confirmed by GST pull down and co-immunoprecipitation. Coexpression of CALM/AF10 but not of AF10 alters the subcellular localization of Ikaros in murine fibroblasts. The transcriptional repressor activity of Ikaros is reduced by AF10. These results suggest that CALM/AF10 might interfere with normal Ikaros function, and thereby block lymphoid differentiation in CALM/AF10 positive leukemias.

  2. Expression of MLL-AF4 or AF4-MLL fusions does not impact the efficiency of DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Julio; Herrero, Ana B; Bursen, Aldeheid; González, Federico; Marschalek, Rolf; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Menendez, Pablo

    2016-05-24

    The most frequent rearrangement of the human MLL gene fuses MLL to AF4 resulting in high-risk infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). MLL fusions are also hallmark oncogenic events in secondary acute myeloid leukemia. They are a direct consequence of mis-repaired DNA double strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) due to defects in the DNA damage response associated with exposure to topoisomerase-II poisons such as etoposide. It has been suggested that MLL fusions render cells susceptible to additional chromosomal damage upon exposure to etoposide. Conversely, the genome-wide mutational landscape in MLL-rearranged infant B-ALL has been reported silent. Thus, whether MLL fusions compromise the recognition and/or repair of DNA damage remains unanswered. Here, the fusion proteins MLL-AF4 (MA4) and AF4-MLL (A4M) were CRISPR/Cas9-genome edited in the AAVS1 locus of HEK293 cells as a model to study MLL fusion-mediated DNA-DSB formation/repair. Repair kinetics of etoposide- and ionizing radiation-induced DSBs was identical in WT, MA4- and A4M-expressing cells, as revealed by flow cytometry, by immunoblot for γH2AX and by comet assay. Accordingly, no differences were observed between WT, MA4- and A4M-expressing cells in the presence of master proteins involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ; i.e.KU86, KU70), alternative-NHEJ (Alt-NHEJ; i.e.LigIIIa, WRN and PARP1), and homologous recombination (HR, i.e.RAD51). Moreover, functional assays revealed identical NHEJ and HR efficiency irrespective of the genotype. Treatment with etoposide consistently induced cell cycle arrest in S/G2/M independent of MA4/A4M expression, revealing a proper activation of the DNA damage checkpoints. Collectively, expression of MA4 or A4M does neither influence DNA signaling nor DNA-DSB repair.

  3. Mutant U2AF1 Expression Alters Hematopoiesis and Pre-mRNA Splicing In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; Ley, James N.; White, Brian S.; Kim, Sanghyun; Tibbitts, Justin; Shao, Jin; Ndonwi, Matthew; Wadugu, Brian; Duncavage, Eric J.; Okeyo-Owuor, Theresa; Liu, Tuoen; Griffith, Malachi; McGrath, Sean; Magrini, Vincent; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O’Laughlin, Michelle; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Heterozygous somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene U2AF1 occur in ~11% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the most common adult myeloid malignancy. It is unclear how these mutations contribute to disease. We examined in vivo hematopoietic consequences of the most common U2AF1 mutation using a doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse model. Mice expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F) display altered hematopoiesis and changes in pre-mRNA splicing in hematopoietic progenitor cells by whole transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Integration with human RNA-seq datasets determined that common mutant U2AF1-induced splicing alterations are enriched in RNA processing genes, ribosomal genes, and recurrently-mutated MDS and acute myeloid leukemia-associated genes. These findings support the hypothesis that mutant U2AF1 alters downstream gene isoform expression, thereby contributing to abnormal hematopoiesis in MDS patients. PMID:25965570

  4. The identification of GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394; the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas; Elster, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Søren Møller; Poda, Suresh Babu; Loechel, Frosty; Volbracht, Christiane; Klewe, Ib Vestergaard; David, Laurent; Watson, Stephen P

    2014-11-15

    The identification of the novel and selective GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394, the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function, is described. Structure activity relationships and syntheses based around AF64394 are reported.

  5. ROK AFS, Kwandae-ri, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-15

    KlmANCAF RI KCREA/kC, AFS K-6 1-54 AL L STATION STATION NAME YEARS MONTH PERCEfNT G ’F C., YS , 1Th VPR IC Lc AT CSP-F PIC P H-C F FRCf. CAILY C4SV...DS 301 iq WTIONS Op THIS pOrn AM OIomr ATA PRrCESSIN;G C[ S!CN ETAC, LSAF SURFACE WINDS AS#-EVILLE9 N. C. 28E01 PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND...NNW VAREIL F -3.4 7.4 5.4 .7 _ 1.0 TOTAL NUMBER OF OISERVATIONS 146 1210 WS j 0--S (0. SO) SSIeo.. KDSTIO,. oP TIN PORN AN O.S.OC. I [~. [ATA

  6. Phentolamine mesylate in postmenopausal women with female sexual arousal disorder: a psychophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Lopez, Marcela; Lipezker, Mirtha; Lara, Claudia; Ramírez, Abraham; Rampazzo, Claudia; Hurtado de Mendoza, María T; Lowrey, Fred; Loehr, Lean A; Lammers, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential of phentolamine as a treatment of postmenopausal women with female arousal disorder (FSAD). Vaginal photoplethismography and a subjective questionnaire were used. Forty one women were enrolled and four treatments were tested: vaginal solutions 5 mg and 40 mg and an oral tablet each of 40 mg of phentolamine and placebo. Physiological readings were significantly different from placebo in the women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with 40 mg of phentolamine in vaginal solution (p = 0.0186). Subjective reports also were significantly different from placebo with the vaginal solution 40 mg and the oral tablet of 40 mg of phentolamine among hormone replacement users. No significant differences were found among women not receiving HRT. Results indicate that phentolamine may show promise as treatment for FSAD in estrogenized postmenopausal women.

  7. Risedronate’s Role in Reducing Hip Fracture in Postmenopausal Women with Established Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Brian J.; Das, Shyamal

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant concern for postmenopausal women and is a critical factor in hip fracture. Examining evidence for osteoporosis medications in hip fracture is important for optimizing treatment. Purpose Review risedronate’s role for hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Methods A literature search was conducted using Medline and Web of Science. The search was limited using the terms “risedronate” and “hip fracture,” and to studies that included women. Similar articles linked to the search and pertinent articles in bibliographies were also examined. Results Risedronate has demonstrated efficacy and cost effectiveness for hip fracture, but may not be beneficial for patients with low fracture risk. Risedronate is generally well tolerated, but may cause side effects in some patient populations. Conclusion Risedronate has benefit for hip fracture, but patients should be carefully screened to determine the appropriateness of risedronate before starting treatment. PMID:22267947

  8. Predictors of weight variation and weight gain in peri- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    This research encompasses a community sample of 497 women in peri- and post-menopause and uses structural equation modelling to investigate the structural models of weight variation and weight gain. Variables such as body shape concerns, depression, stress and life events are explored. Weight gain (from pre-menopause to current menopausal status) was observed in 69 per cent of participants. The predictors of weight gain were lower education level (β = -.146, p = .017), less or no physical exercise (β = -.111, p = .021), having a recent psychological problem (β = .191, p < .001), transition from peri- to post-menopause (β = .147, p = .013) and more frequent body shape concerns (β = .313, p < .001). Prevention of weight gain in pre-menopause is recommended; risk groups should be targeted considering the predictors of weight increase.

  9. Nursing perspectives on fulvestrant for the treatment of postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Litsas, Georgia

    2011-12-01

    Fulvestrant is an estrogen receptor antagonist indicated for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in postmenopausal women with disease progression following antiestrogen therapy. Fulvestrant has a different mechanism of action than other hormonal therapies, including aromatase inhibitors and tamoxifen. In clinical trials of postmenopausal women with MBC, fulvestrant was effective and well tolerated compared to anastrozole after failure of tamoxifen. The monthly injection regimen of fulvestrant provides nurses with an additional opportunity to improve patient adherence to hormonal therapy, reinforce patient education, and monitor side effects. Several ongoing trials will elucidate the role of fulvestrant in the treatment of MBC. Issues that are being addressed in those trials include alternative doses and schedules, efficacy and safety in other patient populations, and the development of novel treatment combinations. This article provides oncology nurses with the knowledge needed to educate patients on the use of fulvestrant, to effectively administer this medication, and to prevent and manage potential side effects.

  10. Once-yearly zoledronic acid in the prevention of osteoporotic bone fractures in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Vlachou, Sophia; Galapi, Fotini; Papadimitriou, Dimitra; Papadias, K

    2008-01-01

    Zoledronic acid is a nitrogen-containing, third-generation bisphosphonate that has recently been approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis as an annual intravenous infusion. Zoledronic acid is an antiresorptive agent which has a high affinity for mineralized bone and especially for sites of high bone turnover. Zoledronic acid is excreted by the kidney without further metabolism. Zoledronic acid administered as a 5 mg intravenous infusion annually increases bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck by 6.7% and 5.1% respectively and reduces the incidence of new vertebral and hip fractures by 70% and 41% respectively in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Most common side effects are post-dose fever, flu-like symptoms, myalgia, arthralgia, and headache which usually occur in the first 3 days after infusion and are self-limited. Rare adverse effects include renal dysfunction, hypocalcemia, atrial fibrillation, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:18982915

  11. Effects of danazol on mineral homeostasis in normal postmenopausal women: preliminary communication.

    PubMed Central

    Purdie, D W; Hay, A; Abbas, S K

    1987-01-01

    The effects of danazol on calcium homeostasis in normal postmenopausal women was examined in a 14-day study utilizing a dosage of 800 mg per day. Danazol caused significant falls in plasma ionized calcium and in the fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio, indicating inhibition of bone resorption. Retention of phosphate was also observed as expected with this anabolic agent. The plasma total alkaline phosphatase was also depressed by the drug, which had no effect on hepatocellular function as measured by plasma AST. Certain effects induced by treatment with danazol were still apparent two weeks after cessation of treatment. The drug was well tolerated and androgenic side effects were not seen. It is suggested that the minimal dose regimen of danazol which exerts a calcium-sharing effect should be identified, and that this regimen should be considered for use in a prospective study of the effects of danazol on bone mineral content in the postmenopause. PMID:3694613

  12. Low level laser can be a novel adjuvant method for orthodontic tooth movement on postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yijia; Cao, Zhensheng; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Xiaomei; Chen, Yuxue; Chen, Yangxi

    2011-04-01

    Osteoporosis, a pathological state commonly saw on postmenopausal women, has shown to affect jaw bone and the periodontium. While more and more adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment for a beautiful smile, the current strategy has not work well for extraction space closure in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and concurrent bisphosphates taken. A new and non-invasive method is hoped to make a beginning. There are ample evidences showing low level laser has favorable effects on pain relief and wound healing procedure of hard and soft tissue. These effects are due to its ability to stimulate cell metabolism, angiogenesis, bone formation and osteoclastogenesis. The hypothesis we proposed herein is that low level laser may be a valuable adjuvant method for protecting and facilitating orthodontic tooth movement on this kind of patients.

  13. [Tri-dimensional omics analysis on effect of zhuanggu zhitong capsule against experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Ping; Zeng, Ying; Lei, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Min; Liu, Hui-Ping; Mo, Xin-Min

    2014-08-01

    To propose the new concept of multidimensional omics, and define that the multidimensional omics is a proper method for studying the material base and mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds. Zhuanggu Zhitong capsule was taken for example to study its effect against experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis. From the perspective of chemi-omics, genomics and proteomics of TCM, it systematically interpreted the efficacious materials and mechanisms of Zhuanggu Zhitong capsule in preventing and treating experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis, while taking the lead in designing a three dimensional form to intuitively exhibit the results of the multidimensional omics study. This study provides a new idea and solution for studies on the efficacious materials and mechanisms of TCM compounds.

  14. 2013 Up-date of the consensus statement of the Spanish Menopause Society on postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Nicolás; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; Villero, José; Baró, Francesc; Calaf, Joaquim; Cancelo, Ma Jesús; Coronado, Pluvio; Estévez, Antonio; Fernández-Moya, Jose M; González, Silvia; Llaneza, Plácido; Neyro, Jose Luis; del Pino, Javier; Rodríguez, Esteban; Ruiz, Elena; Cano, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a major female health problem that increases morbidity, mortality and healthcare system costs. Considering that gynecologists are the primary health practitioners involved in the treatment of women with osteoporosis in our country, a panel of experts from the Spanish Menopause Society met to establish a set of criteria and procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease based on the best available evidence and according to the model proposed by the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system to elaborate clinical practice guidelines and to classify the quality of the evidence and the strength of the recommendations. These recommendations should be a reference to gynecologist and other health professionals involved in the treatment of postmenopausal women.

  15. Animal models for glucocorticoid-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis: An updated review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhida; Ren, Hui; Shen, Gengyang; Qiu, Ting; Liang, De; Yang, Zhidong; Yao, Zhensong; Tang, Jingjing; Jiang, Xiaobing; Wei, Qiushi

    2016-12-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis is a severe osteoporosis, with high risk of major osteoporotic fractures. This severe osteoporosis urges more extensive and deeper basic study, in which suitable animal models are indispensable. However, no relevant review is available introducing this model systematically. Based on the recent studies on GI-PMOP, this brief review introduces the GI-PMOP animal model in terms of its establishment, evaluation of bone mass and discuss its molecular mechanism. Rat, rabbit and sheep with their respective merits were chosen. Both direct and indirect evaluation of bone mass help to understand the bone metabolism under different intervention. The crucial signaling pathways, miRNAs, osteogenic- or adipogenic- related factors and estrogen level may be the predominant contributors to the development of glucocorticoid-induced postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. Nighttime Blood Pressure Dipping in Postmenopausal Women With Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background Blunted nighttime blood pressure (BP) dipping is prognostic of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This relationship may be stronger among women than men. The present study hypothesized that coronary artery disease (CAD) and advancing age would be associated with reduced BP dipping in postmenopausal women. The effects of daytime physical activity and nighttime sleep quality on BP dipping were also examined. Methods 54 postmenopausal women with CAD (≥50% occlusion of at least one major coronary vessel) and 48 age-matched (range 50–80 years) postmenopausal women without CAD (non-CAD) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring and actigraphic evaluations of daytime physical activity and nighttime sleep efficiency. Results Women with CAD evidenced higher nighttime systolic BP (SBP) (P = 0.05) and blunted SBP dipping (P = 0.017), blunted diastolic BP (DBP) dipping (P = 0.047), and blunted pulse pressure dipping (P = 0.01), compared to non-CAD women. Multivariable regression models showed that the presence of CAD, age, daytime physical activity, and nighttime sleep efficiency were independently related to the magnitude of SBP dipping, together accounting for 25% of its variability. DBP dipping showed similar associations. Conclusions For postmenopausal women, the presence of CAD and advancing age are accompanied by blunted nighttime BP dipping, which may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Lifestyle changes that increase daytime physical activity and improve nighttime sleep quality may help improve cardiovascular risk by enhancing nighttime BP dipping. American Journal of Hypertension, advance online publication 12 July 2012. doi:10.1038/ajh.2012.95 PMID:22785406

  17. [Postmenopausal osteoporosis. Role of vitamin K in the prevention of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Malinova, M

    2013-01-01

    Low vitamin K1 intake and low plasma vitamin K1 levels are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased osteoporotic fracture risk in postmenopausal women. Despite the lack of a significant change or the occurrence of only a modest increase in bone mineral density, high-dose vitamin K(1) supplementation improved indices of bone strength in the femoral neck and reduced the incidence of clinical fractures.

  18. Inflammation as a contributing factor among postmenopausal Saudi women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Aziz, Ibrahim; Yakout, Sobhy; Aljohani, Naji J; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Amer, Osama E; Sheshah, Eman; Younis, Ghaida Zakaria; Al-Badr, Fahad Badr M

    2017-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important metabolic bone disease characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the postmenopausal period. Recently, the most prevalent form of clinically significant osteopenia and osteoporosis involves various inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between proinflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) with bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal Saudi women with and without osteoporosis. A total of 200 postmenopausal Saudi women ≥50 years old, 100 with osteoporosis and 100 without osteoporosis (control) were recruited under the supervision of qualified physicians in King Salman Hospital and King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined using Luminex xMAP technology. N-telopeptides of collagen type I (NTx) was assessed using ELISA, 25(OH) vitamin D and osteocalcin were determined using electrochemiluminescence, serum calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were measured by a chemical analyzer. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, NTx, and PTH levels in women with osteoporosis were significantly higher than controls. Although IL-4 and osteocalcin were significantly lower than controls. IL-1β and TNF-α were positively associated with NTx in osteoporosis women. TNF-α, IL-6, and TNF-α were positively correlated with IL-lβ in both groups. A significant negative correlation between osteocalcin and IL-1β in healthy women and women with osteoporosis were observed. Findings of the present study implicate a role for cytokine pattern-mediated inflammation in patients with osteoporosis.

  19. Effects of total bilirubin on the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women without potential liver disease.

    PubMed

    Bian, Lu-Qin; Li, Rong-Zhen; Zhang, Zheng-Yun; Jin, Yan-Ji; Kang, Hyung-Wook; Fang, Zhen-Zhu; Park, Youn-Soo; Choi, Yoon-Ho

    2013-11-01

    It is still uncertain whether total bilirubin per se is a risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and no study has so far examined this important issue. This study was designed to assess the sheer effects of total bilirubin on the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women without potential liver disease. In the present study, postmenopausal female subjects without potential liver disease (n = 918) who underwent measurement of bone mineral density were enrolled. Correlation and logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between total bilirubin and other variables. As a result, subjects with osteoporosis had a significantly lower total bilirubin level (P = 0.005). A 0.1 mg/dl increase in total bilirubin was associated with reduced odds ratio of the risk by 38 % for osteoporosis [OR 0.62 (95 % CI 0.52-0.88), P = 0.012] after adjustment for several variables. Total bilirubin was independently associated with BMD [coefficient = 0.41, 95 % CI (0.35-0.47), P < 0.001 for lumbar spine and coefficient = 0.44, 95 % CI (0.36-0.48), P < 0.001 for femur neck]. A positive correlation could be observed with significant difference between total bilirubin and z-score (r = 0.33, P < 0.001 for lumbar spine and r = 0.37, P < 0.001 for femur neck) and total bilirubin was positively correlated with serum calcium (r = 0.13, P < 0.001) as well. Therefore, this study demonstrates an independent inverse association between total bilirubin and the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women without potential liver disease. Total bilirubin would be useful as a provisional new risk factor of osteoporosis in such a population.

  20. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and its relation to climacteric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Idun Berenice Villalobos

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study To compare fibromyalgia prevalence in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and its relation to the climacteric symptoms. Material and methods Two hundred and nine women were studied, who attended the gynecology consultation at the hospital. They were divided in two groups: group I (premenopausal, n = 113) and group II (postmenopausal, n = 96). In all of them, climacteric symptoms and fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria were investigated; for the latter, the evaluations were done according to the 1990 and 2010 criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. Results When groups I and II were compared, no differences were found in somatometry, medicament consumption and associated diseases. When analyzing the general group, the fibromyalgia prevalence was greater in the postmenopausal women. However, when comparing the groups according to climacteric symptoms, in group I, 29% of symptomatic women had fibromyalgia, while only 4% of asymptomatic ones (p < 0.002). In group II, 15.7% of symptomatic women, and 2.5% of asymptomatic ones had fibromyalgia (p < 0.02). In group I, the more common painful points were the lower back (45.5%), neck (35.7%), and upper back (32.1%). The more frequent symptoms were non-restful sleep (49%), followed by fatigue and cognitive symptoms (42% for each one). In group II, the more common painful points were the lower back (42%), neck (40%) and upper back (38.5%). The more frequent symptoms were fatigue (69.6%), cognitive symptoms (59.3%) and non-restful sleep (57%). Conclusions In premenopausal women, fibromyalgia was related to the presence of climacteric symptoms and in postmenopausal women – to their absence. PMID:26327850

  1. Baseline observations from the POSSIBLE EU® study: characteristics of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Cyrus; Roux, Christian; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Guillemin, Francis; Jonsson, Bengt; Ortolani, Sergio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Horne, Rob; Kakad, Shilpa; Shepherd, Susan; Möller, Gerd; Marciniak, Anne; Martinez, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Summary Prospective Observational Scientific Study Investigating Bone Loss Experience in Europe (POSSIBLE EU®) is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study that utilises physician- and patient-reported measures to describe the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women on bone loss therapies. We report the study design and baseline characteristics of 3,402 women recruited from general practice across five European countries. Purpose The POSSIBLE EU® is a study describing the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications. Methods Between 2005 and 2008, general practitioners enrolled postmenopausal women initiating, switching or continuing treatment with bone loss treatment in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Patients and physicians completed questionnaires at study entry and at 3-month intervals, for 1 year. Results Of 3,402 women enrolled (mean age 68.2 years [SD] 9.83), 96% were diagnosed with low bone mass; 55% of these using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Most women (92%) had comorbidities. Mean minimum T score (hip or spine) at diagnosis was −2.7 (SD 0.89; median −2.7 [interquartile range, −3.2, −2.2]) indicating low bone mineral density. Almost 40% of the women had prior fractures in adulthood, mostly non-vertebral, non-hip in nature, 30% of whom had at least two fractures and more than half experienced moderate/severe pain or fatigue. Bisphosphonates were the most common type of bone loss treatment prescribed in the 12 months preceding the study. Conclusions POSSIBLE EU® characterises postmenopausal women with low bone mass, exhibiting a high rate of prevalent fracture, substantial bone fragility and overall comorbidity burden. Clinical strategies for managing osteoporosis in this population varied across the five participating European countries, reflecting their different guidelines, regulations and standards of care. PMID:21258637

  2. Postmenopausal Symptoms in Female Veterans with Type 2 Diabetes: Glucose Control and Symptom Severity

    PubMed Central

    Krein, Sarah L.; Reame, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: While type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common condition of midlife women, few studies have examined its influence on the symptom features of menopause. To explore this relationship, we conducted a study of symptom patterns of diabetic patients using a random sample of female veterans receiving care in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare system. Methods: A cross-sectional comparison was conducted with three groups of postmenopausal respondents (ages 45–60 years) to a mailed national survey who also consented to clinical data access: no diabetes (n=90), diabetes with better glucose control (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]≤7%, n=135) and diabetes with worse glucose control (HbA1c>7%, n=102). Results: Respondents, on average, were obese (body mass index: 33.9±0.4 kg/m2), 11.30±0.2 years postmenopause, with more than one chronic illness. Despite higher body mass index and increased comorbidities in women with diabetes compared with nondiabetic women, measures of mental health (anxiety, depressed mood, stress) were similar across groups. The pattern of menopause symptoms did not differ by group. Muscle aches/joint pain was the most prevalent symptom (78.6%), followed by vasomotor symptoms (74.4%). Respondents with elevated HbA1c demonstrated higher total menopausal symptom severity scores (DM-HbA1c>7: 15.4±0.8 vs. DM-HbA1c≤7%: 12.2±0.8 vs. No diabetes: 12.3±0.8; p=0.006) than the other two groups. Conclusions: In postmenopausal female veterans with diabetes, glucose control is associated with the severity of those symptoms commonly attributed to menopause. Joint pain is an important part of the postmenopausal symptom complex in this population. PMID:25938989

  3. Recreational physical activity and leisure-time sitting in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Janet S; Gapstur, Susan M; Campbell, Peter T; Gaudet, Mia M; Patel, Alpa V

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiologic evidence supports an inverse association between physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer. Whether associations exist for moderate activities, such as walking, and whether associations differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status, body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), adult weight gain, or use of postmenopausal hormones (PMH) is unclear. The relation between time spent sitting and breast cancer also is unclear. Among 73,615 postmenopausal women in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, 4,760 women were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1992 and 2009. Extended Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) of breast cancer in relation to total recreational physical activity, walking, and leisure-time sitting. Differences in associations by ER status, BMI, weight gain, and PMH use were also evaluated. The most active women (those reporting >42 MET-hours/week physical activity) experienced 25% lower risk of breast cancer than the least active [0-<7 MET-hours/week; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-0.89; Ptrend = 0.01]. Forty-seven percent of women reported walking as their only recreational activity; among these women, a 14% lower risk was observed for ≥7 hours/week relative to ≤3 hours/week of walking (95% CI, 0.75-0.98). Associations did not differ by ER status, BMI, weight gain, or PMH use. Sitting time was not associated with risk. These results support an inverse association between physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer that does not differ by ER status, BMI, weight gain, or PMH use. The finding of a lower risk associated with ≥7 hours/week of walking may be of public health interest.

  4. Effects of obesity and hormone therapy on surgically-confirmed fibroids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Eva M; Balkwill, Angela; Reeves, Gillian; Green, Jane; Beral, Dame Valerie; Coffey, Kate

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between body mass index (BMI), use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), and incidence of uterine fibroids in postmenopausal women, 610,604 postmenopausal women without prior hysterectomy or diagnosis of fibroids were followed as part of a large United Kingdom prospective cohort study. We used Cox regression models to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs) of surgically-confirmed fibroids (defined as a hospital admission with uterine fibroids as a primary diagnosis with a related surgical procedure), in relation to BMI and use of HT. During an average of 11.4 years of follow-up, 3561 women were admitted to hospital with surgically-confirmed fibroids. Five-year incidence rates decreased with age, from 0.50% (1 in 200 women) at age 50-54, to 0.11% (1 in 1000 women) at age 75-79. The 5-year rate in postmenopausal women aged 50-54 was about a quarter that seen in premenopausal women of the same age (1 in 200 vs. 1 in 50). Compared with normal weight women, obese women had a RR of surgically-detected fibroids of 1.46 (95% CI 1.33-1.59; p < 0.0001). HT use was associated with a RR of 2.33 (95% CI 2.18-2.49; p < 0.0001) in ever versus never users. When we analysed HT use and BMI together, obese vs. normal weight never users had a RR of 2.00 (95% CI 1.77-2.26): the highest risks were seen in women who were obese and had ever used HT, RR = 3.30 (95% CI 2.88-3.79). Uterine fibroids continue to occur in postmenopausal women; obesity and hormone therapy use are important modifiable risk factors.

  5. Vitamin K nutritional status and undercarboxylated osteocalcin in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Takada, Tetsuya; Sato, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is an index of vitamin K nutritional status in treatment-naive postmenopausal osteoporotic women. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the association between vitamin K nutritional status and serum ucOC concentrations in postmenopausal osteoporotic women taking bisphosphonates. Eighty-six postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (age range: 47-90 years) initiated bisphosphonate treatment. Vitamin K nutritional status was evaluated using a simple vitamin K-intake questionnaire and serum ucOC concentrations were measured after 6 months of treatment. The patients were divided into two groups according to the simple vitamin K-intake questionnaire score: a low vitamin K-intake (score <40) group (n=67) and a normal vitamin K-intake (score >=40) group (n=19). There were no significant differences between the groups in baseline parameters including age, height, body weight, body mass index, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX), and changes in serum ALP and urinary NTX concentrations during the 6-month treatment period. However, the mean serum ucOC concentration after 6 months of treatment was significantly higher in the low vitamin K-intake group (2.79 ng/mL) than in the normal vitamin K-intake group (2.20 ng/mL). These results suggest that 78% of postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with bisphosphonates may have vitamin K deficiency as indicated by low vitamin K-intake and high serum ucOC concentrations, despite having a similar reduction in bone turnover to women who have normal vitamin K-intake.

  6. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer: a contrary thought.

    PubMed

    Speroff, Leon

    2008-01-01

    The most important unanswered question regarding postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer is whether hormone therapy initiates the growth of new breast cancers or whether the epidemiologic data reflect a hormonal impact on preexisting tumors. In this perspective I review the evidence favoring hormonal effects on preexisting tumors and suggest that exposure to combined estrogen and progestin is beneficial, causing greater differentiation and earlier detection of breast cancers.

  7. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer. A clinician's view.

    PubMed

    Speroff, Leon

    2004-09-24

    Reports from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and the Million Women Study have indicated that postmenopausal hormone therapy increases the risk of breast cancer. At this point in time, it is not certain whether these data reflect a small increase in risk or an impact of hormone therapy on pre-existing tumors. The purpose of this review is to provide an analysis of the epidemiologic data that can help the clinician inform patients and assist patients in their decision-making.

  8. Urinary Melatonin in Relation to Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk According to Melatonin 1 Receptor Status.

    PubMed

    Devore, Elizabeth E; Warner, Erica T; Eliassen, A Heather; Brown, Susan B; Beck, Andrew H; Hankinson, Susan E; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2017-03-01

    Background: Urinary melatonin levels have been associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but this association might vary according to tumor melatonin 1 receptor (MT1R) expression.Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study among 1,354 postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study, who were cancer free when they provided first-morning spot urine samples in 2000 to 2002; urine samples were assayed for 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s, a major metabolite of melatonin). Five-hundred fifty-five of these women developed breast cancer before May 31, 2012, and were matched to 799 control subjects. In a subset of cases, immunohistochemistry was used to determine MT1R status of tumor tissue. We used multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of breast cancer [with 95% confidence intervals (CI)] across quartiles of creatinine-standardized urinary aMT6s level, including by MT1R subtype.Results: Higher urinary melatonin levels were suggestively associated with a lower overall risk of breast cancer (multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.61-0.99, comparing quartile 4 vs. quartile 1; Ptrend = 0.08); this association was similar for invasive vs. in situ tumors (Pheterogeneity = 0.12). There was no evidence that associations differed according to MT1R status of the tumor (e.g., Pheterogeneity for overall breast cancer = 0.88).Conclusions: Higher urinary melatonin levels were associated with reduced breast cancer risk in this cohort of postmenopausal women, and the association was not modified by MT1R subtype.Impact: Urinary melatonin levels appear to predict the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. However, future research should evaluate these associations with longer-term follow-up and among premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 413-9. ©2016 AACR.

  9. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and mammographic density in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ahn, Jiin; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Yun, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Min-Jung; Suh, Byung-Seong; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR) with mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to evaluate these associations in pre- and postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was performed in 73,974 adult women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination that included a mammogram between 2011 and 2013 (mean age 42.6 years). MetS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. IR was assessed with the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dense breast were estimated using logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders. In premenopausal women, MetS and all its components except waist circumference were associated with dense breast. After adjustment for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) for dense breast in women with MetS compared with those without MetS was 1.22 (1.06-1.39). In postmenopausal women, however, there was positive but non-significant association between MetS and dense breast. In both pre- and postmenopausal women, high blood glucose and IR were positively associated with dense breast. The OR (95% CI) for dense breast between the highest and lowest quartiles of HOMA-IR was 1.29 (1.20-1.39) for premenopausal women and 1.44 (1.05-1.97) for postmenopausal women. In a large sample of Korean women, MetS and IR were associated with mammographic dense breast, demonstrating that IR, a potentially modifiable risk factor, may increase breast cancer risk, possibly through high mammographic density.

  10. The relationship between bilateral oophorectomy and plasma hormone levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Shafrir, Amy L; Rice, Megan; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather; Tworoger, Shelley S; Narod, Steven A

    2015-02-01

    Oophorectomy prior to natural menopause reduces breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether timing of oophorectomy (during premenopause vs. postmenopause) or hysterectomy was associated with hormone levels, specifically estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and prolactin, using data from the Nurses' Health Study. We included 2,251 postmenopausal women not using hormones who provided blood samples in 1989-1990 and/or 2000-2002, and who were controls in various nested case-control studies. We used multivariate linear mixed-effects models to assess geometric mean hormone levels by surgery status. Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with 25% lower testosterone levels versus women with natural menopause (20.8 vs. 15.5 ng/dL) (P < 0.0001) with no effect of timing of surgery (P = 0.80). SHBG levels were lower among women with a premenopausal oophorectomy (52.2 nmol/L) versus those with natural menopause (58.1 nmol/L) or a postmenopausal oophorectomy (62.0 nmol/L) (P = 0.02). There was no significant association of oophorectomy with estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, DHEAS, or prolactin levels (P ≥ 0.23). A simple hysterectomy was associated with a significant 8% lower testosterone (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower DHEAS (P = 0.02) levels compared with women with natural menopause but not with other hormone levels. Although limited by small numbers, our findings suggest no differential influence of timing of surgery on sex hormone levels. The reduction of testosterone levels in women with oophorectomy or hysterectomy suggests a possible role of this hormone in postmenopausal breast cancer development.

  11. Osteoporosis in experimental postmenopausal polyarthritis: the relative contributions of estrogen deficiency and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Caroline; Islander, Ulrika; Erlandsson, Malin; Verdrengh, Margareta; Ohlsson, Claes; Carlsten, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Generalized osteoporosis in postmenopausal rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is caused both by estrogen deficiency and by the inflammatory disease. The relative importance of each of these factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model of osteoporosis in postmenopausal RA, and to evaluate the relative importance and mechanisms of menopause and arthritis-related osteoporosis. To mimic postmenopausal RA, DBA/1 mice were ovariectomized, followed by the induction of type II collagen-induced arthritis. After the mice had been killed, paws were collected for histology, one femur for bone mineral density (BMD) and sera for analyses of markers of bone resorption (RatLaps; type I collagen cross-links, bone formation (osteocalcin) and cartilage destruction (cartilage oligomeric matrix protein), and for the evaluation of antigen-specific and innate immune responsiveness. Ovariectomized mice displayed more severe arthritis than sham-operated controls. At termination of the experiment, arthritic control mice and non-arthritic ovariectomized mice displayed trabecular bone losses of 26% and 22%, respectively. Ovariectomized mice with arthritis had as much as 58% decrease in trabecular BMD. Interestingly, cortical BMD was decreased by arthritis but was not affected by hormonal status. In addition, markers of bone resorption and cartilage destruction were increased in arthritic mice, whereas markers of bone formation were increased in ovariectomized mice. This study demonstrates that the loss of endogenous estrogen and inflammation contribute additively and equally to osteoporosis in experimental postmenopausal polyarthritis. Markers of bone remodeling and bone marrow lymphocyte phenotypes indicate different mechanisms for the development of osteoporosis caused by ovariectomy and arthritis in this model. PMID:15987485

  12. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Nourozi, Mansoreh; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Hanachi, Parichehr

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG) and control (CG). Individuals in the SG (n = 34) received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl) and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl) per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23) received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3). The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month) using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL) questionnaire. Results: A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05) years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031), while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical). Conclusion: Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms. PMID:26175764

  13. Priming effect of misoprostol on estrogen pretreated cervix in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Rusen; Kafkasli, Ayse; Burak, Feza; Germen, Aysegul Tezcan

    2005-07-01

    Misoprostol, which is a prostaglandin E1 analogue, is effectively used in cervical priming in women both for labor induction and for gynecological procedures. Although its efficacy is well documented in reproductive age women, during postmenopausal period this efficacy is limited probably due to estrogen deficit. Our objective is to evaluate if estrogen deficit in postmenopausal women is important for the effect of misoprostol on cervical ripening before diagnostic procedures. In this study, 45 patients were randomly allocated to estrogen or placebo group. The study group received local estrogen cream and other group received chlindamycine phosphate cream as placebo. The patients were given oral misoprostol 24 and 12 hours before the procedure for uterine cavity evaluation. Cervix was dilated by using Heagar dilator up to 6 mm. Data were analyzed by Student t-test, Mann-Whitney's U-test, chi-square test and paired samples t-test where appropriate. Basal cervical widths for the estrogen and placebo groups were 4.4 +/- 0.7 and 3.7 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively (p < 0.01). Mean time required for dilatation of cervix was 44.4 +/- 16.2 seconds for the estrogen group and 61.4 +/- 18.3 seconds for the placebo group (p < 0.01). As a conclusion, misoprostol treatment alone is not effective to get cervical priming in postmenopausal women, and as shown in our study, pretreatment with local estrogen overcome the failure. To get a beneficial effect of misoprostol on cervical ripening, estrogenic activity is necessary and when pretreated with local estrogen, misoprostol ameliorates cervical priming in postmenopausal women.

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected postmenopausal Hispanic and African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Stein, E. M.; McMahon, D. J.; Shu, A.; Zhang, C. A.; Ferris, D. C.; Colon, I.; Dobkin, J. F.; Hammer, S. M.; Shane, E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We evaluated vitamin D status in HIV+ and HIV− postmenopausal African-American (AA) and Hispanic women. Most women (74–78%) had insufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels, regardless of HIV status. 25OHD was lower in AA women and women lacking supplement use, providing support for screening and supplementation. Among HIV+ women, 25OHD was associated with current CD4 but not type of antiretroviral therapy. Introduction To evaluate vitamin D status and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in HIV-infected (HIV+) postmenopausal minority women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 89 HIV+ and 95 HIV− postmenopausal women (33% AA and 67% Hispanic) underwent assessment of 25OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The prevalence of low 25OHD did not differ by HIV status; the majority of both HIV+ and HIV− women (74–78%) had insufficient levels (<30 ng/ml). Regardless of HIV status, 25OHD was significantly lower in AA subjects, and higher in subjects who used both calcium and multi-vitamins. In HIV+ women on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 25OHD was directly associated with current CD4 count (r= 0.32; p<0.01) independent of age, ethnicity, BMI, or history of AIDS-defining illness. No association was observed between 1,25(OH)2D and CD4 count or between serum 25OHD, 1,25(OH)2D or PTH and type of ART. Conclusions In postmenopausal minority women, vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent and associated with AA race and lack of supplement use, as well as lower current CD4 cell count. These results provide support for screening and repletion of vitamin D in HIV+ patients. PMID:20585939

  15. Inflammation as a contributing factor among postmenopausal Saudi women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Aziz, Ibrahim; Yakout, Sobhy; Aljohani, Naji J.; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Amer, Osama E.; Sheshah, Eman; Younis, Ghaida Zakaria; Al-Badr, Fahad Badr M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important metabolic bone disease characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the postmenopausal period. Recently, the most prevalent form of clinically significant osteopenia and osteoporosis involves various inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between proinflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) with bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal Saudi women with and without osteoporosis. A total of 200 postmenopausal Saudi women ≥50 years old, 100 with osteoporosis and 100 without osteoporosis (control) were recruited under the supervision of qualified physicians in King Salman Hospital and King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined using Luminex xMAP technology. N-telopeptides of collagen type I (NTx) was assessed using ELISA, 25(OH) vitamin D and osteocalcin were determined using electrochemiluminescence, serum calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were measured by a chemical analyzer. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, NTx, and PTH levels in women with osteoporosis were significantly higher than controls. Although IL-4 and osteocalcin were significantly lower than controls. IL-1β and TNF-α were positively associated with NTx in osteoporosis women. TNF-α, IL-6, and TNF-α were positively correlated with IL-lβ in both groups. A significant negative correlation between osteocalcin and IL-1β in healthy women and women with osteoporosis were observed. Findings of the present study implicate a role for cytokine pattern-mediated inflammation in patients with osteoporosis. PMID:28121926

  16. Effects of aglycone genistein in a rat experimental model of postmenopausal metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bitto, Alessandra; Altavilla, Domenica; Bonaiuto, Antonio; Polito, Francesca; Minutoli, Letteria; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Giuliani, Daniela; Guarini, Salvatore; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Squadrito, Francesco

    2009-03-01

    Genistein aglycone, a soy derived isoflavone, has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. We therefore investigated its effects in an experimental model of postmenopausal metabolic syndrome. Female spontaneously hypertensive obese rats (SHROB, n=40), a genetic model of syndrome X, and age-matched Wistar Kyoto (WKY, n=40) rats were used. A group of SHROB (n=20) and WKY (n=20) animals were ovariectomized (OVX). Four weeks after surgery all animals were randomized to receive either genistein (54 mg/human equivalent dose/day for 4 weeks), or vehicle. Body weight, food intake, systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate, plasma glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, and uterine weights were studied. Furthermore, we investigated acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation of aortic rings as well as NG-L-arginine (L-NMA: 10-100 mM) induced vasoconstriction in phenylephrine-precontracted aortic segments. Liver expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA and gamma (PPARG was also assessed. OVX animals had a slight increase in SBP, body weight, insulin resistance, and plasma cholesterol. OVX-SHROB rats showed also impaired endothelial responses, blunted L-NMA induced contraction (L-NMA 100 mM, WKY=2.2+/-0.3 g/mg tissue; OVX-SHROB=1.1+/-0.4 g/mg tissue). Genistein treatment decreased SBP and plasma lipids, ameliorated endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, increased HDL cholesterol, and enhanced liver expression of PPARA and PPARG. Our data suggest that genistein is effective in ameliorating cardiovascular profiles in an experimental model of postmenopausal metabolic syndrome, attenuating the features of this disease. The effects of genistein are likely mediated by PPARA and PPARG receptors. This evidence would support the rationale for some pilot clinical trials using genistein in postmenopausal women affected by metabolic

  17. The VSQ: a questionnaire to measure vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Yip, Sallis O.; Wedderburn, Terri S.; Martin, Deanna K.; Li, Fang-Yong; Choi, Jennifer N.; Kenton, Kimberly S.; Fried, Terri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a vulvovaginal symptoms questionnaire (VSQ) to study symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual-impact of vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods We developed questionnaire focused on vulvovaginal symptoms based on modifications to the Skindex-16, a validated questionnaire to measure the impact of skin disease. We then recruited postmenopausal women seeking routine gynecologic care to test the psychometric properties of the VSQ. Test-retest reliability was assessed 2 to 4 weeks after their initial recruitment and measured utilizing intra-class coefficients. Four distinct a priori scales of the VSQ were developed: symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual-impact. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the four a priori scales by evaluating the goodness-of-fit of a final confirmatory factor analysis model. The internal consistency of the scales was assessed through the calculation of Cronbach’s α coefficient. Results The VSQ is a 21-item written questionnaire with four scales, symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual impact. One hundred twenty postmenopausal women participated in the psychometric validation of the VSQ. The test-retest reliability the four scales measured by intra-class coefficients were 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.65 for symptoms, emotions, life-impact and sexual-impact. The goodness-of –fit of the confirmatory factor response model was confirmed. Cronbach’s α coefficients were 0.76, 0.87, 0.83, and 0.82 for the scales. Conclusion The VSQ is a reliable and internal consistent instrument to measure vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. PMID:23481118

  18. Risk Profiles for Weight Gain among Postmenopausal Women: A Classification and Regression Tree Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Yon; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Fenton, Jenifer; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Hursting, Stephen D.; Chang, Shine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Risk factors for obesity and weight gain are typically evaluated individually while “adjusting for” the influence of other confounding factors, and few studies, if any, have created risk profiles by clustering risk factors. We identified subgroups of postmenopausal women homogeneous in their clustered modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for gaining ≥ 3% weight. Methods This study included 612 postmenopausal women 50–79 years old, enrolled in an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study between February 1995 and July 1998. Classification and regression tree and stepwise regression models were built and compared. Results Of 27 selected variables, the factors significantly related to ≥ 3% weight gain were weight change in the past 2 years, age at menopause, dietary fiber, fat, alcohol intake, and smoking. In women younger than 65 years, less than 4 kg weight change in the past 2 years sufficiently reduced risk of ≥ 3% weight gain. Different combinations of risk factors related to weight gain were reported for subgroups of women: women 65 years or older (essential factor: < 9.8 g/day dietary factor), African Americans (essential factor: currently smoking), and white women (essential factor: ≥ 5 kg weight change for the past 2 years). Conclusions Our findings suggest specific characteristics for particular subgroups of postmenopausal women that may be useful for identifying those at risk for weight gain. The study results may be useful for targeting efforts to promote strategies to reduce the risk of obesity and weight gain in subgroups of postmenopausal women and maximize the effect of weight control by decreasing obesity-relevant adverse health outcomes. PMID:25822239

  19. Genetic Background, Adipocytokines, and Metabolic Disorders in Postmenopausal Overweight and Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Mosor, Maria; Przysławski, Juliusz; Bogacz, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between the genetic background, adipocytokines, and metabolic state in postmenopausal women has not yet been fully described. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PPAR gamma-2 (Pro12Ala, C1431T) and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) polymorphisms and serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, visfatin, and resistin) and metabolic disorders in 176 postmenopausal women with increased body mass (BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2)). The distributions of selected alleles and genotype frequencies were determined with the PCR-RFLP method. The bioimpedance method was used to determine nutritional status, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were applied to determine serum concentrations of adipocytokines. Viscerally obese postmenopausal women had higher body mass, body fat content, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, uric acid, and HOMA-IR and a higher prevalence of the Ala12 allele. In models based on cytokine concentration, higher body mass and glucose concentration (visfatin model, p = 0.008) and higher insulin and triglyceride levels (resistin model, p = 0.002) were observed in visceral fat deposition and this was potentiated by the presence of the T1431 allele. In resistin models, co-existence of Ala12/X polymorphisms with the T1431 allele was associated with higher resistin and triglyceride concentrations (p = 0.045). In postmenopausal women, metabolic parameters are mainly determined by the distribution of body fat, but Ala12/X polymorphism may increase the metabolic disorders and this effect can be enhanced by the T1431 allele.

  20. Awareness of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Indian women: An evaluation of Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale

    PubMed Central

    Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Behera, Prateek; Aggarwal, Sameer; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Sen, Mitali

    2016-01-01

    Context: The level of awareness about osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who are the common sufferers. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the level of awareness in postmenopausal women using the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS). Settings and Design: Osteoporosis has emerged as a common health problem in geriatric population. A proactive role needs to be played for preventing its consequences. Before initiating any preventive measures, an evaluation of awareness level of the target population is necessary. The questionnaire-based study design was used for this study. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire (OHBS)-based study in 100 postmenopausal women in Chandigarh was conducted. The bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in each case by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of the participants were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate any correlation between the various components of the OHBS and the BMD. Results: No statistically significant difference was noted in the seven component parameters of OHBS among the normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic women suggesting that the health belief regarding susceptibility is not much different between the three groups of the study population. A statistically significant difference between the mean BMI of normal and osteoporotic population was noted. Conclusions: The results show that there is a great deficit in the awareness level of postmenopausal Indian women regarding osteoporosis. Most of the women were unaware of the condition and the means to prevent it. The study emphasizes that health care professionals have lot of ground to cover to decrease the incidence of osteoporosis and its associated health problem. PMID:28096642

  1. Adiponectin as a Protective Factor Against the Progression Toward Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Hossein; Raeisi, Alireza; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Ostovar, Afshin; Assadi, Majid; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Vahdat, Katayoun; Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj

    2015-08-01

    Serum adiponectin levels have been suggested to be predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in diverse populations. However, the relationship between circulating adiponectin levels and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women has not been investigated.A total of 382 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in a prospective cohort study were followed for 5.8 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to the criteria set out by the American Diabetes Association. Adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA.Of 195 women who did not have diabetes at baseline and who were reexamined in the second phase of the study for diabetic status, 35 subjects (17.9%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus during the 5.8 years follow-up period. The women with type 2 diabetes had lower adiponectin levels than the healthy postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analysis showed that, after adjustments were made for age, cardiovascular risk factors, OPG, and hs-CRP levels, higher baseline adiponectin levels were associated with a lower relative risk (RR) of having type 2 (RR = 0.07, confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.66, P = 0.021).Higher baseline adiponectin levels functioned as a predictor of a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus among postmenopausal women during a 5.8 years follow-up study. Therefore, it is suggested that elevated adiponectin levels may offer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus after the menopause.

  2. Incorporating bazedoxifene into the treatment paradigm for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohta, H; Solanki, J

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis-related fractures in Asian countries is steadily increasing. Optimizing osteoporosis treatment is especially important in Japan, where the rate of aging is increasing rapidlyelderly population is increasing rapidly and life expectancy is among the longest in the world. There are several therapies currently available in Japan for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, each with a unique risk/benefit profile. A novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, bazedoxifene (BZA), was recently approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Japan. Results from a 2-year, phase 2 trial in postmenopausal Japanese women showed that BZA significantly improved lumbar spine and total hip bone mineral density compared with placebo, while maintaining endometrial and breast safety, consistent with results from 2 global, phase 3 trials including a 2-year osteoporosis prevention study and a 3-year osteoporosis treatment study. In the pivotal 3-year treatment study, BZA significantly reduced the incidence of new vertebral fractures compared with placebo; in a post hoc analysis of a subgroup of women at higher risk of fractures, BZA significantly reduced the risk of nonvertebral fractures compared with placebo and raloxifene. A 2-year extension of the 3-year treatment study demonstrated the sustained efficacy of BZA over 5 years of treatment. BZA was generally safe and well tolerated in these studies. In a "super-aging" society such as Japan, long-term treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis is a considerable need. BZA may be considered as a first choice for younger women anticipating long-term treatment, and also an appropriate option for older women who are unable or unwilling to take bisphosphonates.

  3. Osteoporosis Patient Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire in postmenopausal women intermittently treated with oral bisphosphonates: the BRAVO study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ki Won; Kim, Deog-Yoon; Lee, Yil-Seob; Kang, Moo Il

    2012-05-01

    The Osteoporosis Patient Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (OPSAT-Q) is a psychometric measure of patient satisfaction with bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis. The study was a multicenter, nationwide, cross-sectional, patient-reported outcome study conducted to evaluate treatment satisfaction and quality of life using the OPSAT-Q in patients receiving oral bisphosphonate therapy. This study enrolled postmenopausal women from 43 hospitals and 112 clinics who had intermittently taken oral bisphosphonates for treatment of osteoporosis. 4,220 postmenopausal Korean women with a mean age of 65.3 years and a mean body mass index of 22.9 kg/m(2) participated in the study. All items within each subscale domain were more highly correlated with their hypothesized subscale domain relative to the other subscale domains, and all 16 items were significantly correlated with an overall composite satisfaction score (CSS). All scores showed acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha >0.70, range 0.88-0.91). Comparisons of OPSAT-Q scores were made between selective subgroups of participants: monthly versus weekly administration, years of taking bisphosphonates, smoking habitus, acid-related medication and comorbid conditions. Mean OPSAT-Q subscale domains and CSS were higher for users of monthly bisphosphonates, with shorter duration, non-smokers, and non-users of acid-related medication. Mean OPSAT-Q subscale domain scores of side-effects were high for absence of comorbid conditions. The OPSAT-Q demonstrated acceptable measurement properties, including validity and reliability of subscale domains and CSS, in oriental women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women intermittently using oral bisphosphonate therapy reported increased satisfaction with monthly administration, with shorter duration, non-smokers, non-users of acid-related medication, and an absence of comorbid conditions.

  4. Potential implications of adjuvant endocrine therapy for the oral health of postmenopausal women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, L. Susan; Havens, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Current adjuvant treatment modalities for breast cancer that express the estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor include adjuvant anti-estrogen therapies, and tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Bone, including the jaw, is an endocrine-sensitive organ, as are other oral structures. This review examines the potential links between adjuvant anti-estrogen treatments in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer and oral health. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the Web of Knowledge was conducted using combinations of key terms “breast,” “cancer,” “neoplasm,” “Tamoxifen,” “Aromatase Inhibitor,” “chemotherapy,” “hormone therapy,” “alveolar bone loss,” “postmenopausal bone loss,” “estrogen,” “SERM,” “hormone replacement therapy,” and “quality of life.” We selected articles published in peer-reviewed journals in the English. The authors found no studies reporting on periodontal diseases, alveolar bone loss, oral health, or oral health-related quality of life in association with anti-estrogen breast cancer treatments in postmenopausal women. Periodontal diseases, alveolar bone density, tooth loss, and conditions of the soft tissues of the mouth have all been associated with menopausal status supporting the hypothesis that the soft tissues and bone of the oral cavity could be negatively affected by anti-estrogen therapy. As a conclusion, the impact of adjuvant endocrine breast cancer therapy on the oral health of postmenopausal women is undefined. The structures of the oral cavity are influenced by estrogen; therefore, anti-estrogen therapies may carry the risk of oral toxicities. Oral health care for breast cancer patients is an important but understudied aspect of cancer survivorship. PMID:22986813

  5. Endometrial pathology in postmenopausal tamoxifen treatment: comparison between gynaecologically symptomatic and asymptomatic breast cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, I; Perel, E; Flex, D; Tepper, R; Altaras, M M; Cordoba, M; Beyth, Y

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate whether endometrial pathology is more likely to be diagnosed in gynaecologically symptomatic rather than in gynaecologically asymptomatic postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment; and to evaluate the possible influence of various clinical factors on the incidence of endometrial pathology. METHODS: Endometrial histological findings, transvaginal ultrasonographic endometrial thickness, demographic characteristics, health habits, and risk factors for endometrial cancer were compared between 14 gynaecologically symptomatic (group I) and 224 gynaecologically asymptomatic (group II) postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 28.6% of the study population had endometrial pathology. The incidence of overall positive endometrial histological findings was significantly higher in group I than in group II (92.9% v 24.6%, p < 0.0001). Atrophic endometrium was more common in group II than in group I (75.3% v 7.1%, p < 0.0001). Most other endometrial pathology was significantly more common in group I than in group II (endometrial hyperplasia, 35.7% v 5.6%, p < 0.0001; endometrial polyps, 35.7% v 13.4%, p < 0.0111; endometrial carcinoma, 21.5% v 0.9%, p < 0.0001). Endometrial pathology appeared considerably later in the gynaecologically asymptomatic patients than in gynaecologically symptomatic patients (p = 0.0002). Vaginal bleeding or spotting occurred exclusively in group I. The incidence of endometrial pathology in the entire study population was consistent with that reported elsewhere, and higher than that reported for healthy postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial pathology is more likely to be diagnosed in gynaecologically symptomatic postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment, and after a shorter duration of time, than in gynaecologically asymptomatic patients. PMID:10474520

  6. Association of LRP5 gene polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Miao; Wang, Yonglan; Wang, Wenxing; Yang, Jun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xiuzhen

    2014-01-01

    This study was to explore the association of low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 5 (LRP5) gene polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers and glycometabolism in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or osteoporosis (OP) in Shanghai. 354 unrelated Han Chinese post-menopausal women were recruited from Shanghai and divided into 4 groups: OP group (n=90), T2DM group (n=96), T2DM + OP group (n=90) and control group (n=78). The LRP5 genotypes were determined by DNA sequencing. The BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bone transformation indicators and glycometabolism index (HbA1c and Fasting insulin) were also detected. The association of LRP5 polymorphism with BMD, bone turnover markers and glycometabolism was evaluated. Result showed that, In OP group, the BMD of L2-4 was higher in patients with rs3736228 CC genotype than those with CT/TT genotypes (P<0.05). After adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI) and years of menopause, rs3736228 polymorphism was still associated with BMD of L2-4 (P<0.01). In the control group, HbA1c was significantly higher in patients with rs3736228 CC genotype than those with CT/TT genotypes (P<0.05), but no significant difference was found after adjustment for BMI, age and years of menopause (P>0.05). Thus, LRP5 gene is an impressionable gene in postmenopausal women with OP in Shanghai. T2DM patients have a high BMD when compared with controls, which may be related to BMI and fasting insulin (FINS). LRP5 genotype is not an impressionable gene in postmenopausal women with T2DM in Shanghai. PMID:24482712

  7. Fecal Bacterial Community Changes Associated with Isoflavone Metabolites in Postmenopausal Women after Soy Bar Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Armstrong, Arthur; Clavijo, Andrea P.; Martin, Berdine R.; Barnes, Stephen; Weaver, Connie M.

    2014-01-01

    Soy isoflavones and their metabolism by intestinal microbiota have gained attention because of potential health benefits, such as the alleviation of estrogen/hormone-related conditions in postmenopausal women, associated with some of these compounds. However, overall changes in gut bacterial community structure and composition in response to addition of soy isoflavones to diets and their association with excreted isoflavone metabolites in postmenopausal women has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine fecal bacterial community changes in 17 postmenopausal women after a week of diet supplementation with soy bars containing isoflavones, and to determine correlations between microbial community changes and excreted isoflavone metabolites. Using DGGE profiles of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes (V3 region) to compare microbial communities in fecal samples collected one week before and one week during soy supplementation revealed significant differences (ANOSIM p<0.03) before and after soy supplementation in all subjects. However, between subjects comparisons showed high inter-individual variation that resulted in clustering of profiles by subjects. Urinary excretion of isoflavone (daidzein) metabolites indicated four subjects were equol producers and all subjects produced O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA). Comparison of relative proportions of 16S rRNA genes from 454 pyrosequencing of the last fecal samples of each treatment session revealed significant increases in average proportions of Bifidobacterium after soy consumption, and Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium were significantly greater in equol vs non-S-(-)equol producers. This is the first in vivo study using pyrosequencing to characterize significant differences in fecal community structure and composition in postmenopausal women after a week of soy diet-supplementation, and relate these changes to differences in soy isoflavones and isoflavone metabolites. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00244907

  8. Hormone treatment gives no benefit against cognitive changes caused by acute sleep deprivation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Karakorpi, Maija; Alhola, Paula; Urrila, Anna Sofia; Kylmälä, Mervi; Portin, Raija; Kalleinen, Nea; Polo-Kantola, Päivi

    2006-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether hormone therapy (HT) gives any benefit against the possible impairment of cognitive performance when challenged by acute sleep deprivation. Twenty postmenopausal women volunteered (age range 59-72 years, mean=64.4 years, SD=4.4): 10 HT users and 10 nonusers. Eleven young women served as a control group for the cognitive age effect (age range 20-26 years, mean age 23.1 years, SD=1.6). The subjects spent four consecutive nights at the sleep laboratory and were exposed to acute sleep deprivation of 40 h. Measures of attention (reaction speed and vigilance), alertness, and mood were administered every 2 h during the daytime and every hour during the sleep deprivation night. Postmenopausal women performed slower than young controls, whereas young controls made more errors. In HT users, the recovery night did not fully restore the performance in the simple and two-choice reaction time tasks, but in nonusers it did so. Sleep deprivation had a detrimental, yet reversible effect on vigilance in all groups. In all groups, sleepiness started to increase after 15 h of sleep deprivation and remained elevated in the morning after the recovery night. Prolonged wakefulness or HT had no effect on mood. In conclusion, sleep deprivation impaired cognitive performance in postmenopausal as well as young women. Postmenopausal women kept up their performance at the expense of reaction speed and young women at the expense of accuracy. One night was not enough for HT users to recover from sleep deprivation. Thus, HT gave no benefit in maintaining the attention and alertness during sleep deprivation.

  9. Decreased Renal Function Is a Risk Factor for Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Cho, Si Hyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Decreased renal function is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Our study was planned to verify the association of decreased renal function and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 251 Korean postmenopausal women who visited the health promotion center for a routine health checkup. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was used to show renal function, which was estimated by calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formulas. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Results Women with reduced eGFR (< 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2) had significantly higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) than women with normal eGFR (≥ 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2). The eGFR was negatively correlated with baPWV (r = -0.352, P < 0.001), significantly. The eGFR was lower in women with coronary atherosclerosis than in normal control women, markedly. Reduced eGFR was significantly associated with the presence of coronary atherosclerosis (odds ratio [OR] = 7.528, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.728-20.772, P < 0.001). Conclusions Decreased eGFR was closely associated with increased arterial stiffness and coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Evaluating subclinical atherosclerosis by screening the renal function in postmenopausal women may be helpful screening high risk group and considering starting menopausal hormone therapy before atherosclerosis development. PMID:28119897

  10. Hormone and metabolic factors associated with leptin mRNA expression in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Martha E; Malacara, Juan M; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia G; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A

    2004-06-01

    Recent information has extended leptin's action, beyond the control of appetite, to various sites of metabolic regulation. To better understand leptin's role we studied its production in subcutaneous and visceral fat compartments before and after menopause. During elective abdominal surgery, biopsies of subcutaneous and omental tissues were taken from 20 women at pre- (BMI 28.4 +/- 4.5 kg/m2) and 10 at postmenopause (BMI 30.6 +/- 7.7 kg/m2). In both groups serum leptin levels were similar, and highly correlated with BMI. In subcutaneous adipose tissue, leptin mRNA expression was significantly higher in pre- than in postmenopausal women (50.4 +/- 20.5 amol/microg total RNA versus 34.5 +/- 24.9 amol/microg total RNA, respectively). Leptin mRNA expression in subcutaneous tissue was independently correlated with fasting glucose (R = 0.89, P < 0.006) at premenopause, and with serum estradiol (R = 0.77, P < 0.04) at postmenopause. Leptin mRNA expression in visceral fat was correlated with DHEAS (R = 0.86, P < 0.001), at premenopause. These results indicate that in both compartments, leptin production is sensitive to different but overlapping stimuli, conveying information about energy availability to central and peripheral sites under different conditions of estrogen exposure.

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TUBERCULOSIS AND FEMALE HORMONE LEVELS IN POST-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Gulru; Senol, Gunes; Anar, Ceyda; Meral, Ali Riza; Tuzel, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infection controlled by T-lymphocyte. After menopause, T-lymphocyte cells counts increase suggesting a possible link between T-lymphocyte cell counts and estrogen and progesterone levels. In this study we compared post-menopausal women with and without TB to determine any differences in estrogen and progesterone levels between the two groups. The study group consisted of 38 post-menapausal women hospitalized for TB at Dr Suat Seren Chest Diseases and Surgery Training and Research Hospital for Tuberculosis, in Izmir, Turkey. The control group consisted of 30 post-menopausal women without TB. Both groups were selected from patients without immunosuppressive diseases or malignancies in whom PPD testing was not contraindicated. The mean progesterone level in the control group was 0.3896 ± 0.2014 ng/ml and in the study group was 0.3607 ± 0.3006 ng/ml (p = 0.638). The mean estrogen level in the control group was 18.9873 ± 6.5332 pg/ml and in the study group was 26.2768 ± 14.3418 pg/ml; the difference was significant (p = 0.007). The body mass index in the study group was significantly (p = 0.034) lower than in the study group. In post-menopausal women, the mean estrogen level was significantly higher in participants with TB than those without TB.

  12. Relation of skinfold thickness and visceral fat with the endothelial function in Mexican postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Ana Mirna Fino; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between skinfolds and visceral fat with vascular reactivity according to body weight, fat distribution and time since menopause in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In postmenopausal women, tricipital, suprailiac and subscapular skinfolds as well as blood pressure were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Brachial artery Doppler ultrasound at baseline and after the hyperemic stimulus was done and Doppler parameters were assessed. For statistical analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis, as well as Student t were used. Results Sixty-six postmenopausal women were studied; age was 54.5 ± 7.4 years. Skinfold thickness was related with subcutaneous and visceral fat. In all groups, the arterial diameter increased after the hyperemic stimulus among 6.5% and 9% of women. The pulsatility index decreased in the whole group and in those with BMI ≤ 27, WHR ≤ 0.85 and time since menopause ≤ 10 years. Negative correlations were observed between the percentage of change in arterial dilatation and the subscapular skinfold and subcutaneous fat in the whole group and in the subgroups with BMI > 27 and WHR > 0.85. Conclusions Skinfolds are indirectly related with visceral fat, and skinfold thickness permit to conclude about impact in endothelial environment. PMID:26327895

  13. Hormone therapy at early post-menopause increases cognitive control-related prefrontal activity

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Romuald; Météreau, Elise; Thomas, Julie; Pugeat, Michel; Qu, Chen; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Clinical data have been equivocal and controversial as to the benefits to the brain and cognition of hormone therapy (HT) in postmenopausal women. Recent reevaluation of the role of estrogens proposed that HT may effectively prevent the deleterious effects of aging on cognition, and reduces the risks of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, if initiated early at the beginning of menopause. Yet, little is known about the effects of HT on brain activation related to cognitive control, the ability to make flexible decisions in relation to internal goals. Here, we used fMRI to directly test for a modulation of sequential 17β estradiol (2 mg/day) plus oral progesterone (100 mg/day) on task switching-related brain activity in women at early postmenopause. The results showed that HT enhanced dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment during task switching. Between-subjects correlation analyses revealed that women who engaged more the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed higher task switching performance after HT administration. These results suggest that HT, when taken early at the beginning of postmenopause, may have beneficial effect on cognitive control prefrontal mechanisms. Together, these findings demonstrate that HT can prevent the appearance of reduced prefrontal cortex activity, a neurophysiological measure observed both in healthy aging and early dementia. PMID:28322310

  14. The Effects of Tualang Honey on Bone Metabolism of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Effendy, Nadia; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamad, Isa Naina; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration with a consequent increase in bone fragility can be associated with various stimuli such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Postmenopausal women are more prone to osteoporosis due to reduction in estrogen which may further lead to elevation of oxidative stress and lipid accumulation which will promote osteoblasts apoptosis. Proinflammatory cytokines are elevated following estrogen deficiency. These cytokines are important determinants of osteoclasts differentiation and its bone resorption activity. The main treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis is estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Despite its effectiveness, ERT, however, can cause many adverse effects. Therefore, alternative treatment that is rich in antioxidant and can exert an anti-inflammatory effect can be given to replace the conventional ERT. Tualang honey is one of the best options available as it contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as a free radical scavenger, reducing the oxidative stress level as well as inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine. This will result in survival of osteoblasts, reduced osteoclastogenic activity, and consequently, reduce bone loss. Hence, Tualang honey can be used as an alternative treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with minimal side effects. PMID:22973408

  15. Impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy on cardiovascular events and cancer: pooled data from clinical trials.

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, E.; McPherson, K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer from published clinical trials that studied other outcomes of postmenopausal hormone therapy as some surveys have suggested that it may decrease the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and increase the incidence of hormone dependent cancers. DESIGN: Trials that compared hormone therapy with placebo, no therapy, or vitamins and minerals in comparable groups of postmenopausal women and reported cardiovascular or cancer outcomes were searched from the literature. SUBJECTS: 22 trials with 4124 women were identified. In each group, the numbers of women with cardiovascular and cancer events were summed and divided by the numbers of women originally allocated to the groups. RESULTS: Data on cardiovascular events and cancer were usually given incidentally, either as a reason for dropping out of a study or in a list of adverse effects. The calculated odds ratios for women taking hormones versus those not taking hormones was 1.39 (95% confidence interval 0.48 to 3.95) for cardiovascular events without pulmonary embolus and deep vein thrombosis and 1.64 (0.55 to 4.18) with them. It is unlikely that such results would have occurred if the true odds ratio were 0.7 or less. For cancers, the numbers of reported events were too low for a useful conclusion. CONCLUSIONS: The results of these pooled data do not support the notion that postmenopausal hormone therapy prevents cardiovascular events. PMID:9251544

  16. [Association between cardiovascular risk and lycopene consumption in pre- and post-menopausal women].

    PubMed

    Torresani, María Elena

    2009-06-01

    This work aimed at assessing association between cardiovascular risk (CVR) and lycopene intake in pre- and post-menopausal women, as well as its correlation with LDL-C and HDL-C values and waist circumference (WC). A transversal design of comparison and correlation was carried out for independent samples. A 316 women (40-65 y) sample attending nutritional consultation at a Research Foundation for Endocrino Metabollic Diseases in Buenos Aires city (2005-2007) was randomized according to biological stage (35.8% premenopausal and 64.2% postmenopausal women). CVR was obtained based on Framingham Score and lycopene intake (source food and all lycopene containing food) according to weekly consumption frequency (mg/d and weekly/servings). Association between variables was calculated with the Student Test, Fisher Test and Pearson Correlation Coefficient (alpha significance level: 0.05). At both biological stages and for each CVR category, an inverse relationship was observed with lycopene intake, but only in premenopausal women with low CVR (Category III), lycopene intake was significantly greater than in those women who had moderate CVR (Category II). There was a significant correlation in postmenopausal women between LDL-C values and lycopene intake supplied by source food. However, in both biological stages a significant correlation was found between LDL-C values and all lycopene containing food consumption. No significant correlation was found between lycopene intake, HDL-C values and WC. These findings point out the relevances of a preventive nutritional approach at woman's different biological stages.

  17. Efficacy and safety of risedronate sodium in treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuming; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Deng, Xiuling; Chen, Lulu

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of risedronate sodium in treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, one-year randomized, double blind clinical trial was performed among 54 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The changes were compared in bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism markers and adverse events after 12 months oral administration of risedronate sodium. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptionmetry (DEXA) and bone turnover marker was detected. The results showed that there was a significant increase in BMD of the lumbar spine (3.29% +/- 1.18%, 4.51% +/- 1.64% respectively) after 6 and 12 months in the risedronate treatment group versus placebo control group (-0.62% +/- 0.24%, 0.48% +/- 0.18% respectively). Bone turnover was decreased to a stable nadir over 6 and 12 months for resorption markers [N-Telopeptide (NTx), P < 0.05] and over 12 months for formation marker (ALP, P < 0.05; BGP, P < 0.05). The safety profile of risedronate sodium was similar to that of placebo. There were no trends toward increased frequency of any adverse experience except for gastrointestinal symptoms (7.1%), rash (7.1%) and hematuria (3.6%), which were usually mild, transient, and resolved with continued treatment. It was concluded that risedronate was an efficacious and safe drug in treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  18. Fall prevention in postmenopausal women: the role of Pilates exercise training.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Amat, A; Cruz-Díaz, D; Pérez-López, F R

    2016-06-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a major public health concern for postmenopausal women. Fear of falling, impairments in gait and postural control, and changes in body composition have been identified as important risk factors for falling. Physical exercise is an important tool in fall prevention and management. The Pilates method is a non-impact activity that can be adapted to different physical conditions and health status and is recommended for various populations. In postmenopausal women, it has been deemed an effective way to improve some fall-related physical and psychological aspects, such as postural and dynamic balance. In addition, some physical capacities, such as flexibility, personal autonomy, mobility, and functional ability have also shown to benefit from Pilates interventions involving women in their second half of life, as well as certain psychological aspects including fear of falling, depressive status, and quality of life. Pilates exercise has shown effectively to prevent falls in postmenopausal women by improving their balance, physical and psychological functioning, and independence. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations.

  19. Usual dietary isoflavone intake is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Goodman-Gruen, D; Kritz-Silverstein, D

    2001-04-01

    Intervention data suggest a cardioprotective role for supplemental isoflavones; however, few studies have examined the cardiovascular disease (CVD) benefit of usual dietary isoflavone intake. This cross-sectional study examined the association between usual dietary isoflavone intake and CVD risk factors, including lipids and lipoproteins, body mass index (BMI) and fat distribution, blood pressure, glucose and insulin. Subjects were postmenopausal women (n = 208) aged 45-74 y, who attended screening and baseline visits for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examining the effects of isoflavone use. At screening, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were measured, and demographic, behavioral and menopausal characteristics were assessed. One month later, dietary intake over the past year was assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were obtained, and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was administered. Isoflavone consumption did not vary by age, exercise, smoking, education or years postmenopausal. Women with high genistein intake had a significantly lower BMI (P-trend = 0.05), waist circumference (P-trend = 0.05) and fasting insulin (P-trend = 0.07) than those with no daily genistein consumption. In adjusted analyses, genistein, daidzein and total isoflavone intake were each positively associated with HDL cholesterol (P = 0.05) and inversely associated with postchallenge insulin (P = 0.05). These data suggest a protective role for dietary soy intake against CVD in postmenopausal women.

  20. Safety and effectiveness of teriparatide vs alendronate in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a prospective non randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Caggiari, Gianfilippo; Leali, Paolo Tranquilli; Mosele, Giulia Raffaella; Puddu, Leonardo; Badessi, Francesca; Doria, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the safety and effectiveness of teriparatide and alendronate in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis at high risk of fracture; it was a double-blinded and it was done by examining the comparisons between teriparatide 20 μg/day and alendronate 10 mg/day. Safety and effectiveness analyses were based on data from 355 woman with a mean age of 68 years. Two groups (A and B) with T-score ≤-2.5 at bone mineral density were analyzed and 3 or more vertebral fractures on radiograph. Group A: was treated with teriparatide 20 μg/day and composed from 182 women, in post-menopausal age, without a history of cancer. Group B: was treated with alendronate 10 mg/day composed from 173 women, postmenopausal age, with previous history of cancer (non-active during the study). Clinical evaluations were on bone turnover markers (alkaline phosphatase, procollagene type 1 N-terminal propeptide, and N-telopeptide cross-links), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and health-related quality of life (HrQoL). Safety was assessed by reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The results of this study imply that teriparatide comparated with alendronate has a favorable safety profile and is effective in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture.

  1. Parathyroid hormone, calcium, and sodium bridging between osteoporosis and hypertension in postmenopausal Korean women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Soo; Choi, Soo Beom; Rhee, Yumie; Chung, Jai Won; Choi, Eui-Young; Kim, Deok Won

    2015-05-01

    The coexistence of osteoporosis and hypertension, which are considered distinct diseases, has been widely reported. In addition, daily intake of calcium and sodium, as well as parathyroid hormone levels (PTH), is known to be associated with osteoporosis and hypertension. This study aimed to determine the association of low calcium intake, high sodium intake, and PTH levels with osteoporosis and hypertension in postmenopausal Korean women. Data for postmenopausal Korean women aged 50 years or older were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Osteoporosis was diagnosed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, while hypertension was diagnosed using blood pressure data. The odds ratios for osteoporosis and hypertension were calculated using logistic regression analysis for quartiles of the daily calcium intake, daily sodium intake, and PTH levels. Women with hypertension had a high coexistence of osteoporosis (43.6 vs. 36.5 %; P = 0.022), and vice versa (21.1 vs. 16.6 %; P = 0.022). PTH was significantly associated with osteoporosis and hypertension, and a high intake of calcium was strongly correlated with a low incidence of osteoporosis. This is the first study to report the characteristics of postmenopausal Korean women who have high dietary sodium intake and low dietary calcium intake, in association with the incidence of osteoporosis and hypertension. Osteoporosis and hypertension were strongly associated with each other, and PTH appears to be a key mediator of both diseases, suggesting a possible pathogenic link.

  2. Epidemiological burden of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Italy from 2010 to 2020: estimations from a disease model.

    PubMed

    Piscitelli, P; Brandi, M; Cawston, H; Gauthier, A; Kanis, J A; Compston, J; Borgström, F; Cooper, C; McCloskey, E

    2014-11-01

    The article describes the adaptation of a model to estimate the burden of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women aged 50 years and over in Italy between 2010 and 2020. For this purpose, a validated postmenopausal osteoporosis disease model developed for Sweden was adapted to Italy. For each year of the study, the 'incident cohort' (women experiencing a first osteoporotic fracture) was identified and run through a Markov model using 1-year cycles until 2020. Health states were based on the number of fractures and deaths. Fracture by site (hip, clinical vertebral, non-hip non-vertebral) was tracked for each health state. Transition probabilities reflected fracture site-specific risk of death and subsequent fractures. Model inputs specific to Italy included population size and life tables from 1970 to 2020, incidence of hip fracture and BMD by age in the general population (mean and standard deviation). The model estimated that the number of postmenopausal osteoporotic women would increase from 3.3 million to 3.7 million between 2010 and 2020 (+14.3%). Assuming unchanged incidence rates by age group over time, the model predicted the overall number of osteoporotic fractures to increase from 285.0 to 335.8 thousand fractures between 2010 and 2020 (+17.8%). The estimated expected increases in hip, vertebral and non-hip non-vertebral fractures were 22.3, 17.2 and 16.3%, respectively. Due to demographic changes, the burden of fractures is expected to increase markedly by 2020.

  3. Multidisciplinary Overview of Vaginal Atrophy and Associated Genitourinary Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Irwin; Dicks, Brian; Kim, Noel N; Hartzell, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal atrophy, which may affect up to 45% of postmenopausal women, is often associated with one or more urinary symptoms, including urgency, increased frequency, nocturia, dysuria, incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infection. Aims To provide an overview of the current literature regarding cellular and clinical aspects of vaginal atrophy and response to treatment with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Methods PubMed searches through February 2012 were conducted using the terms “vaginal atrophy,” “atrophic vaginitis,” and “vulvovaginal atrophy.” Expert opinion was based on review of the relevant scientific and medical literature. Main Outcome Measure Genitourinary symptoms and treatment of vaginal atrophy from peer-reviewed published literature. Results Typically, a diagnosis of vaginal atrophy is made based on patient-reported symptoms, including genitourinary symptoms, and an examination that reveals signs of the disorder; however, many women are hesitant to report vaginal-related symptoms, primarily because of embarrassment. Conclusions Physicians in various disciplines are encouraged to initiate open discussions about vulvovaginal health with postmenopausal women, including recommended treatment options. Goldstein I, Dicks B, Kim NN, and Hartzell R. Multidisciplinary overview of vaginal atrophy and associated genitourinary symptoms in postmenopausal women. Sex Med 2013;1:44–53. PMID:25356287

  4. Screening for osteoporosis among post-menopausal women in community pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Barris Blundell, Damià; Rodríguez Zarzuelo, Carmen; Sabio Sánchez, Belén; Gutiérrez álvarez, José Luis; Navarro Visa, Elena; Muñoz Valdés, Oscar; Garrido Jiménez, Belén; Gómez, Rocío Sánchez

    Objectives To identify postmenopausal women with risk of osteoporosis through quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUI) and to value the medical intervention after the determination of the bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study developed in a community pharmacy. During the month of June of 2005 the community pharmacy enrolled postmenopausal women into the study. Women in treatment with calcium, vitamin D, hormone replacement therapy, estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin or biphosphonates were considered criteria for exclusion. To all the women that consent to participate, the pharmacist measured BMD with the device Sahara Hologic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer at right calcaneus. Following the World Health Organization, women were classified as osteoporotic if their T-Score was less than -2.5 and as osteopenic if their T-Score ranged between -2.5 and -1.0. Results Of the 100 women screened, 11 (11%) presented risk of osteoporosis and 61 (61%) of osteopenia. The 18.5% postmenopausal women with body mass index lesser than 30 presented risk of osteoporosis and the 63.0% osteopenia. Conclusions The QUI constitutes a useful tool in community pharmacy for the screening of osteoporosis and it supposes a greater integration of the community pharmacy within the health care. PMID:25247006

  5. Absorption and bioeffects of an isoflavone-based supplementation in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Silvia; Bartolini, Elisa; Ottanelli, Silva; Masi, Laura; Romani, Annalisa; Tanini, Annalisa; Vignolini, Pamela; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of isoflavones rich diets can improve several postmenopausal complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the absorption and the efficacy of isoflavonic supplementation in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. 36 postmenopausal women received 75 mg/day of isoflavones in the form of tablets, for six months. 21 subjects concluded the treatment. Plasmatic and urinary samples were collected before and after the treatment, along with a dietary interview. Isoflavones were determined in biological samples and in commercial administered supplements by a HPLC/DAD system. Results showed the presence of genistein (from 0.043 to 1.820 micromol/L) in plasma samples, and of genistein (from 2.486 to 20.363 micromol/24h) and daidzein (from 11.106 to 98.091 micromol/24h) in the urines of the treated women. In the 21 completers the Greene Climateric scale value for hot flushes changed from 3 to 1 or 0. No changes of the endometrial thickness and of the breast tissue were detected. The analysis of the supplement content in the tablets was in agreement with what declared by the producer. Administration of isoflavone supplements produced a decrease of symptoms in this cohort of postmenopausal women monitored for isoflavone absorption. PMID:22461255

  6. Anastrozole Use in Early Stage Breast Cancer of Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Monica; Jha, Gautam; Potter, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The majority of breast cancers express the estrogen receptor and depend on estradiol (E2) for their growth. Hormonal therapy aims at depriving estrogen signaling either by using selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM)—that interfere with the binding of E2 to its receptor (ER)—or aromatase inhibitors (AI)—that block the aromatase-dependent synthesis of E2. While SERMs are recommended for both pre- and post-menopausal patients, AIs are indicated only for post-menopausal patients. For the past 20 years, the SERM tamoxifen has been considered the “gold standard” for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancers. However, tamoxifen’s role is now challenged by third generation AIs, such as anastrozole, which exhibit greater efficacy in the adjuvant setting in several recently reported trials. This review will focus on anastrozole’s mechanism of action, dosing, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical applications. It will briefly discuss the clinical trials that determined anastrozole’s efficacy in the treatment of advanced breast cancer (ABC) and in the neoadjuvant setting. Finally, it will present the clinical trials that established anastrozole as a frontline agent in the treatment of post-menopausal women with hormone receptor positive early breast cancer. PMID:19794821

  7. Altered Brain Connectivity in Early Postmenopausal Women with Subjective Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Jennifer N.; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Albert, Kimberly; Melo, Alyssa; Boyd, Brian; Dumas, Julie; Woodward, Neil; McDonald, Brenna C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Park, Joon H.; Naylor, Magdalena; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive changes after menopause are a common complaint, especially as the loss of estradiol at menopause has been hypothesized to contribute to the higher rates of dementia in women. To explore the neural processes related to subjective cognitive complaints, this study examined resting state functional connectivity in 31 postmenopausal women (aged 50–60) in relationship to cognitive complaints following menopause. A cognitive complaint index was calculated using responses to a 120-item questionnaire. Seed regions were identified for resting state brain networks important for higher-order cognitive processes and for areas that have shown differences in volume and functional activity associated with cognitive complaints in prior studies. Results indicated a positive correlation between the executive control network and cognitive complaint score, weaker negative functional connectivity within the frontal cortex, and stronger positive connectivity within the right middle temporal gyrus in postmenopausal women who report more cognitive complaints. While longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis, these data are consistent with previous findings suggesting that high levels of cognitive complaints may reflect changes in brain connectivity and may be a potential marker for the risk of late-life cognitive dysfunction in postmenopausal women with otherwise normal cognitive performance. PMID:27721740

  8. The Effect of Support Group Method on Quality of Life in Post-menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yazdkhasti, M; Keshavarz, M; Khoei, ES Merghaati; Hosseini, AF; ESmaeilzadeh, S; Pebdani, M Amiri; Jafarzadeh, H

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life in post-menopausal women and menopausal symptoms are closely related concepts. Influence health education policy in order to promote health and adopt a menopause lifestyle requires alternative strategies, including health training programs with community – based interventions. The current study aims to survey the effects of support groups on quality of life of post-menopausal women. Methods: A blind field trial (2010) was conducted at Saadatmandii Clinical Center (Robat Karim, Iran). 110 women were selected randomly divided into test and control groups (consisting of 55 ones). Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL) was used for evaluation of life quality before and three months after intervention; there was no intervention in the control group. Data were analyzed by using SPSS/16. Qualitative variables were analyzed using chi-square tests and quantitative variables were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon test, paired T-test and independent t-test. Results: There was significant difference between vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, sexual aspects and life quality of this group pf women (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the quality of life of women in control group. Conclusion: According to the results method of support group can lead to improved quality of life for post-menopausal ones and it can be appropriate healthcare policy to promote health and improve life quality of this group of women. PMID:23304680

  9. Visfatin correlates with hot flashes in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome: effects of genistein.

    PubMed

    Bitto, Alessandra; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Alibrandi, Angela; D'Anna, Rosario; Corrado, Francesco; Atteritano, Marco; Minutoli, Letteria; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    During menopause, an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and central obesity seems to increase hot flashes (HFs). Visfatin is an inflammatory adipokine secreted by visceral fat. We investigated visfatin levels and its relationship with hot flash number and BMI, in postmenopausal women with MetS. We also evaluated the effect of genistein, an isoflavone effective in reducing HFs, on visfatin levels and HFs after 1 year of treatment. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein (n = 60), daily for 1 year. As main outcome measures, hot flashes number and circulating visfatin levels were evaluated. Visfatin significantly correlated with BMI and HFs number in women with MetS at basal. After 6 and 12 months, our results indicate a strong correlation and a significant effect of genistein in reducing both HFs and visfatin in women with MetS. The present study suggests that visfatin plays a role in the vasomotor symptoms, at least in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Genistein may reduce HFs decreasing the circulating levels of this inflammatory adipokine.

  10. Effect of Red Clover Isoflavones over Skin, Appendages, and Mucosal Status in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lipovac, Markus; Chedraui, Peter; Gruenhut, Christine; Gocan, Anca; Kurz, Christine; Neuber, Benedikt; Imhof, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of red clover extract (RCE) isoflavones over subjective status of skin, appendages, and several mucosal sites. Method. Postmenopausal women (n = 109) were randomly assigned to receive either two daily capsules of the active compound (80 mg RCE, Group A) or placebo of equal appearance (Group B) for a 90-day period. After a washout period of 7 days, medication was crossed over and taken for 90 days more. Subjective improvement of skin, appendages, and several mucosal site status was assessed for each studied group at 90 and 187 days using a visual analogue scale (VAS). In addition, libido, tiredness, and urinary, sleep, and mood complaints were also evaluated. Results. Women after RCE intervention (both groups) reported better subjective improvement of scalp hair and skin status, libido, mood, sleep, and tiredness. Improvement of urinary complaints, nail, body hair, and mucosa (oral, nasal, and ocular) status did not differ between treatment phases (intra- and intergroup). Overall satisfaction with treatment was reported higher after RCE intervention (both groups) as compared to placebo. Conclusion. RCE supplementation exerted a subject improvement of scalp hair and skin status as well as libido, mood, sleep, and tiredness in postmenopausal women. PMID:22135679

  11. Curcumin ingestion and exercise training improve vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Miyaki, Asako; Tanabe, Yoko; Sugawara, Jun; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji

    2012-10-01

    Vascular endothelial function is declines with aging and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle modification, particularly aerobic exercise and dietary adjustment, has a favorable effect on vascular aging. Curcumin is a major component of turmeric with known anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. We investigated the effects of curcumin ingestion and aerobic exercise training on flow-mediated dilation as an indicator endothelial function in postmenopausal women. A total of 32 postmenopausal women were assigned to 3 groups: control, exercise, and curcumin groups. The curcumin group ingested curcumin orally for 8 weeks. The exercise group underwent moderate aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks. Before and after each intervention, flow-mediated dilation was measured. No difference in baseline flow-mediated dilation or other key dependent variables were detected among the groups. Flow-mediated dilation increased significantly and equally in the curcumin and exercise groups, whereas no changes were observed in the control group. Our results indicated that curcumin ingestion and aerobic exercise training can increase flow-mediated dilation in postmenopausal women, suggesting that both can potentially improve the age-related decline in endothelial function.

  12. Safety and effectiveness of teriparatide vs alendronate in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a prospective non randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Caggiari, Gianfilippo; Leali, Paolo Tranquilli; Mosele, Giulia Raffaella; Puddu, Leonardo; Badessi, Francesca; Doria, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this work we study the safety and effectiveness of teriparatide and alendronate in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis at high risk of fracture; it was a double-blinded and it was done by examining the comparisons between teriparatide 20 μg/day and alendronate 10 mg/day. Safety and effectiveness analyses were based on data from 355 woman with a mean age of 68 years. Two groups (A and B) with T-score ≤–2.5 at bone mineral density were analyzed and 3 or more vertebral fractures on radiograph. Group A: was treated with teriparatide 20 μg/day and composed from 182 women, in post-menopausal age, without a history of cancer. Group B: was treated with alendronate 10 mg/day composed from 173 women, postmenopausal age, with previous history of cancer (non-active during the study). Clinical evaluations were on bone turnover markers (alkaline phosphatase, procollagene type 1 N-terminal propeptide, and N-telopeptide cross-links), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and health-related quality of life (HrQoL). Safety was assessed by reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The results of this study imply that teriparatide comparated with alendronate has a favorable safety profile and is effective in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture. PMID:28228782

  13. The utility of endometrial thickness measurement in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial fluid.

    PubMed

    Seckin, B; Ozgu-Erdinc, A S; Dogan, M; Turker, M; Cicek, M N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of sonographic endometrium thickness measurement in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial fluid collection. Fifty-two asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial fluid, who underwent endometrial sampling were evaluated. Histopathological findings revealed that 25 (48.1%) women had insufficient tissue, 20 (38.4%) had atrophic endometrium and 7 (13.5%) had endometrial polyps. No case of malignancy was found. There was no statistically significant difference between the various histopathological categories (insufficient tissue, atrophic endometrium and polyp) with regard to the mean single-layer endometrial thickness (1.54 ± 0.87, 2.04 ± 1.76 and 1.79 ± 0.69 mm, respectively, p = 0.436). Out of 44 patients with endometrial thickness of less than 3 mm, 38 (86.4%) had atrophic changes or insufficient tissue and 6 (13.6%) had endometrial polyps. In conclusion, if the endometrial thickness is 3 mm or less, endometrial sampling is not necessary in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial fluid.

  14. Usefulness of the monkey model to investigate the role soy in postmenopausal women's health.

    PubMed

    Appt, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    Some of the important health issues for postmenopausal women include cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, breast cancer, and relief of menopausal symptoms. Ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) have many strengths as models for research in this area including a close phylogenetic relationship to humans, similarities in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and coronary artery anatomy, similar skeletal anatomical and morphological characteristics, mammary glands with similar pathophysiological characteristics, and a 28-day menstrual cycle with similar hormonal fluctuations. Monkeys (macaques) also experience declining ovarian function and irregular menstrual cycles (natural menopause) when they approach 24 to 29 yr of age. However, because of their very short life span after natural menopause, ovariectomized macaques are used to model postmenopausal women. The cynomolgus monkey model has been useful in defining the potential cardiovascular benefits of soy foods and soy supplements; however, it remains unclear whether the observations are generalizable to all women or only to those who, like cynomolgus monkeys, convert the soy isoflavone daidzein to the metabolite equol. Particularly important has been the use of the cynomolgus monkey model to understand the effects of soy on breast health. There is evidence from a cynomolgus monkey trial to suggest that soy/soy phytoestrogens have no estrogen agonist effects for breast. Finally, soy/soy phytoestrogens do not appear to be an adequate alternative to postmenopausal hormone therapy. Nevertheless, important attributes of soy have been identified, and it may have potential as a complementary component to hormone therapy.

  15. Overweight and obese perimenopausal and postmenopausal women exhibit increased abnormal mammary epithelial cytology.

    PubMed

    Seewaldt, Victoria L; Goldenberg, Vanessa; Jones, Lee W; Peace, Charlotte; Broadwater, Gloria; Scott, Victoria; Bean, Gregory R; Wilke, Lee Gravit; Zalles, Carola M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2007-03-01

    High body mass index (BMI >or= 25 kg/m2) is associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, few studies have explored associations between BMI and direct measures on target tissue. Epithelial cytology was assessed in 62 high-risk perimenopausal and postmenopausal women using random periareolar fine needle aspiration. Masood cytology index scores were significantly higher among women with BMIs >or=25 kg/m2 than in women with BMIs <25 kg/m2 (13.9 +/- 0.42 versus 12.7 +/- 0.29 kg/m2; P = 0.017). Overweight or obese women also had significantly higher random periareolar fine needle aspiration epithelial cell counts compared with those who were normal weight (1,230 +/- 272 versus 521 +/- 185; P = 0.028). These data suggest that overweight in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women is associated with direct cytologic abnormalities within the breast. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine if this potential biomarker is responsive to changes in body weight resulting from diet and/or exercise interventions.

  16. Establishing reference intervals for bone turnover markers in healthy postmenopausal women in a nonfasting state.

    PubMed

    Gossiel, Fatma; Finigan, Judith; Jacques, Richard; Reid, David; Felsenberg, D; Roux, Christian; Glueer, Claus; Eastell, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In order to interpret bone turnover markers (BTMs), we need to establish healthy reference intervals. It is difficult to establish reference intervals for older women because they commonly suffer from diseases or take medications that affect bone turnover. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify diseases and drugs that have a substantial effect on BTMs; (2) to establish reference intervals for premenopausal and postmenopausal women; and (3) to examine the effects of other factors on BTMs in healthy postmenopausal women. We studied women aged 30-39 years (n=258) and women aged 55-79 years (n=2419) from a five-European centre population-based study. We obtained a nonfasting serum and second morning void urine samples at a single baseline visit. BTMs were measured using automated immunoassay analysers. BTMs were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency and chronic kidney disease. Three or more BTMs were higher in women who were osteoporotic and at least two BTMs were lower in women who were oestrogen replete, taking osteoporosis treatments or having diseases known to affect bone turnover. These were used as exclusion criteria for selecting the populations for the reference intervals. The reference intervals for BTMs were higher in postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Levels of BTMs were not dependent on geographical location and increased with age.

  17. Effect of Red Clover Isoflavones over Skin, Appendages, and Mucosal Status in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Lipovac, Markus; Chedraui, Peter; Gruenhut, Christine; Gocan, Anca; Kurz, Christine; Neuber, Benedikt; Imhof, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of red clover extract (RCE) isoflavones over subjective status of skin, appendages, and several mucosal sites. Method. Postmenopausal women (n = 109) were randomly assigned to receive either two daily capsules of the active compound (80 mg RCE, Group A) or placebo of equal appearance (Group B) for a 90-day period. After a washout period of 7 days, medication was crossed over and taken for 90 days more. Subjective improvement of skin, appendages, and several mucosal site status was assessed for each studied group at 90 and 187 days using a visual analogue scale (VAS). In addition, libido, tiredness, and urinary, sleep, and mood complaints were also evaluated. Results. Women after RCE intervention (both groups) reported better subjective improvement of scalp hair and skin status, libido, mood, sleep, and tiredness. Improvement of urinary complaints, nail, body hair, and mucosa (oral, nasal, and ocular) status did not differ between treatment phases (intra- and intergroup). Overall satisfaction with treatment was reported higher after RCE intervention (both groups) as compared to placebo. Conclusion. RCE supplementation exerted a subject improvement of scalp hair and skin status as well as libido, mood, sleep, and tiredness in postmenopausal women.

  18. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie; Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Halldin, Krister; Åkesson, Agneta

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  19. Relationship between estrogen receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and postmenopausal osteoporosis of the spine in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Shang, D P; Lian, H Y; Fu, D P; Wu, J; Hou, S S; Lu, J M

    2016-06-03

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants of the estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1) at rs2234693 and rs9340799, as well as to investigate the relationship between ESR gene polymorphisms and postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP) of the spine in Chinese women. We recruited 198 postmenopausal women with OP and 276 healthy women between May 2012 and September 2015 in Zhongshan Hospital. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae in all subjects. In addition, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism based analysis was conducted to identify the genotypes of ESR1. The distribution of ESR1 in the osteoporosis group and the control group was determined; the relationship between ESR polymorphisms and BMD was analyzed. The distributions of BMD were: TT < TC < CC, GG < AG < AA. The TT, TTGG, and TCGG genotypes were found to be lower as compared to the other genotypes. Stratified analysis suggested that the TT genotype and the combined genotypes TTGG and TCGG were significantly higher in the OP group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Therefore, ESR1 polymorphisms at rs2234693 and rs9340799 may be associated with OP, and could be used as markers to screen those with high risks to postmenopausal OP in Chinese women.

  20. Factors associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a case-control study of Belgrade women.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, Anita; Gledovic, Zorana; Vujasinovic-Stupar, Nada

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors related to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in Belgrade. A case-control study was conducted during 2006-2007. The study group consisted of 100 newly diagnosed osteoporosis patients and 100 age-matched controls (± 2 years). The inclusion criteria for the case group were newly diagnosed osteoporosis confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and being menopausal (at least 2 years of amenorrhea). The inclusion criteria for the control group were postmenopausal women with confirmed normal bone mineral density of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All study participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. The following factors were significantly independently related to osteoporosis: low body weight (P < 0.001), thin constitution in childhood (P = 0.002), history of previous fracture (P = 0.033), menopause at age <47 years (P < 0.001), family history of fracture (P = 0.005), and less frequent consumption of cheese (P = 0.027) and fish (P = 0.020). The majority of factors identified may be modifiable and could be influenced to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  1. EFFECT OF STATINS ON ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN LEVELS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN TREATED WITH ESTRADIOL

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Alison; Chaikittisilpa, Sukanya; Mirzaei, Roshanak; Wang, Jun; Mack, Wendy J.; Hodis, Howard N.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A considerable number of postmenopausal women who receive estrogen therapy (ET) are also treated for hypercholesterolemia with cholesterol-lowering statins. Statins and steroid hormones can compete for the same steroid-metabolizing enzymes. We investigated whether long-term administration of statins had an effect on serum estrogen and androgen levels in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving oral ET. Methods A subgroup analysis from the Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, was performed. A total of 222 women were randomized to receive either placebo or 1 mg of oral micronized E2 daily for 2 years. In both the placebo and treatment groups, participants with LDL-cholesterol levels >160 mg/dL were treated with statins. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and every 6 months during the trial. Serum levels of DHEA, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone and E2 were measured by RIA. Results Among 86 placebo- and 90 estradiol-treated subjects with baseline and on-trial hormone measurements, no significant differences were observed between the statin-free and statin-treated groups in mean changes from baseline to on-trial levels in any of the androgens or estrogens, whether or not the postmenopausal women were treated with estrogen. Conclusion The results suggest that ET and statins can be used simultaneously with no deleterious effects on circulating hormone levels. PMID:20450412

  2. Effects of raloxifene on lipid and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroko; Okada, Yosuke; Kishikawa, Hirofumi; Inokuchi, Nobuo; Sugimoto, Hidekatsu; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that bone quality is poorer and fracture risk is higher in patients with diabetes, even those with normal bone mineral density. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of raloxifene on lipid, bone, and glucose metabolism in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects (144 postmenopausal women aged less than 80 years with type 2 diabetes) were randomly assigned into three groups: no medication, alfacalcidol 1 μg/day, or raloxifene hydrochloride 60 mg/day. The primary endpoint was the change in LDL-C at 6 months. Raloxifene significantly decreased the levels of bone metabolism markers NTX and BAP at 6 months in patients with diabetes. The primary endpoint, LDL-C at 6 months, was significantly lower in the raloxifene group than in the other two groups. However, percent changes in HDL-C were not significantly different among the three groups. Although glucose metabolism was unaffected, homocysteine, a bone quality marker, was significantly decreased at 6 months in the raloxifene group. The percent improvement in LDL-C did not correlate with percent improvement in any bone metabolism or bone quality markers. Raloxifene, unlike estrogen, improved LDL-C and decreased homocysteine, indicating that raloxifene can potentially improve LDL-C as well as bone quality in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Hospitalizations in patients with atrial fibrillation: an analysis from ROCKET AF

    PubMed Central

    DeVore, Adam D.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Breithardt, Guenter; Hacke, Werner; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The high costs associated with treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) are primarily due to hospital care, but there are limited data to understand the reasons for and predictors of hospitalization in patients with AF. Methods and results The ROCKET AF trial compared rivaroxaban with warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in AF. We described the frequency of and reasons for hospitalization during study follow-up and utilized Cox proportional hazards models to assess for baseline characteristics associated with all-cause hospitalization. Of 14 171 patients, 14% were hospitalized at least once. Of 2614 total hospitalizations, 41% were cardiovascular including 4% for AF; of the remaining, 12% were for bleeding. Compared with patients not hospitalized, hospitalized patients were older (74 vs. 72 years), and more frequently had diabetes (46 vs. 39%), prior MI (23 vs. 16%), and paroxysmal AF (19 vs. 17%), but less frequently had prior transient ischaemic attack/stroke (49 vs. 56%). After multivariable adjustment, lung disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–1.66], diabetes [1.22, (1.11–1.34)], prior MI [1.27, (1.13–1.42)], and renal dysfunction [HR 1.07 per 5 unit GFR < 65 mL/min, (1.04–1.10)] were associated with increased hospitalization risk. Treatment assignment was not associated with differential rates of hospitalization. Conclusion Nearly 1 in 7 of the moderate-to-high-risk patients with AF enrolled in this trial was hospitalized within 2 years, and both AF and bleeding were rare causes of hospitalization. Further research is needed to determine whether care pathways directed at comorbid conditions among AF patients could reduce the need for and costs associated with hospitalization. PMID:27174904

  4. Strontium ranelate: a novel treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis: a review of safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Blake, Glen M; Fogelman, Ignac

    2006-01-01

    Strontium ranelate is a new orally administered agent for the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis that reduces the risk of vertebral and hip fractures. Evidence for the safety and efficacy of strontium ranelate comes from two large multinational trials, the SOTI (Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention) and TROPOS (Treatment Of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis) studies. The SOTI study evaluated vertebral fracture prevention in 1649 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 69 y. The subjects all had at least one previous vertebral fracture and a low spine bone mineral density (BMD) (equivalent to a Hologic spine T-score below -1.9). The strontium ranelate group had a 41% lower risk of a new vertebral fracture than the placebo group over the three-year study period (relative risk [RR] = 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-0.73; p < 0.001). The TROPOS study evaluated non-vertebral fracture prevention in 5091 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 77 y. The subjects were aged 74 y and over (or 70-74 y with one additional risk factor) and a low femoral neck BMD (equivalent to an NHANES III [Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey] T-score below -2.2). Over the three-year study period there was a 16% reduction in all non-vertebral fractures (RR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.702-0.995; p = 0.04) and a 19% reduction at the principal sites for non-vertebral fractures. The TROPOS study was not powered to investigate hip fracture risk. However, in a high risk group of women aged 74 y and over and with an NHANES III femoral neck T-score less than -2.4 there was a 36% reduction in hip fracture risk (RR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.412-0.997; p = 0.046). The overall incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly from placebo and were generally mild and transient, the most common being nausea and diarrhea. Strontium ranelate is a useful addition to the range of anti-fracture treatments available for treating postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and is the

  5. Risedronate once monthly: a potential new regimen for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Moro-Álvarez, María J; Díaz-Curiel, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis increases susceptibility to low-trauma fractures due to reduced bone volume and microarchitectural deterioration. Daily nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates have shown antifracture efficacy in many studies and are the most commonly prescribed treatment for women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, optimal efficacy is often not achieved due to poor patient adherence to medication. Current dosing schedules are often inconvenient or impractical for patients. Poor adherence increases risk of fracture, which itself increases morbidity, healthcare costs and, potentially, mortality. Although weekly rather than daily dosing of bisphosphonates has improved adherence, significant problems remain. Efforts to reduce dosing frequency as a possible means for further improving adherence (compliance and persistence), and therefore treatment outcomes, are ongoing. Risedronate, a third-generation bisphosphonate, has been shown in multiple clinical trials to reduce fracture risk and improve bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Risedronate has a specific structure and set of characteristics that enable less frequent dosing. This paper reviews the structure of risedronate, and how this translates into high antiresorptive potency, favorable bone binding, persistence in bone, and good tolerability that permits less frequent dosing. The paper also reviews the clinical evidence for risedronate, demonstrating the viability of less frequent dosing, with its potential benefits for patient convenience and adherence to therapy. Two equivalence or non-inferiority bridging studies have demonstrated the option of novel risedronate dosing regimens. These studies are reviewed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of two different monthly regimens of risedronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: 75 mg on 2 consecutive days a month and 150 mg once a month. Data for oral risedronate 150 mg once a month are limited to 1 year

  6. Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women and Their Spouses: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadalizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh; Rezaei, Nazanin; Hakimi, Sevil; Montazeri, Ali; Taheri, Safoura; Taghinejad, Hamid; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most women spend more than one-third of their lives after menopause. Due to physiologic changes in that period, menopause can cause a series of symptoms such as vasomotor symptoms, psychologic problems, and sexual dysfunction, which can affect the women’s quality of life (QoL) and other family members, especially their spouse. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the association between the QoL of postmenopausal women and their husbands. Patients and Methods: This descriptive-inferential cross-sectional study was conducted according to the census of 2006 in Iran. A total of 400 postmenopausal women aging 50 to 59 years and their spouses in 80 cluster heads of Ilam City residents were selected and studied in collaboration with the Statistical Center of Iran. The required data were gathered using the short-form health survey (SF-36) questionnaire and demographic questionnaire developed by the researcher-trained interviewers. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 through Kruskal Wallis test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and correlation. Results: The participants’ mean age was 54.2 ± 2.8 years for women and 61.1 ± 6.1 years for their spouses. More than half of the women (57%) and about one-third of men (32.8%) were illiterate. The employed educated women aging 50 to 54 years had a higher mean score of SF-36 domains. The difference in education was significant in all domains except for mental health. There was a significant difference in age in all domains except in general health. The mean score of all domains of QoL was significantly less in the illiterate men than in the literate ones (P < 0.05). The results of the present study showed a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between the couples’ QoL, vasomotor symptoms, and aging. Spearman test showed a significant positive correlation in all domains of QoL between postmenopausal women and their spouses (correlation coefficient, 0.48-0.63). Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study

  7. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Results Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254–3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007–1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. Conclusion The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose

  8. The Inhibition of Inflammasome by Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Juliana I.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Carrão, Daniel B.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Berretta, Andresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis extracts have gained the attention of consumers and researchers due to their unique chemical compositions and functional properties such as its anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was described a complex that is also important in inflammatory processes, named inflammasome. The inflammasomes are a large molecular platform formed in the cell cytosol in response to stress signals, toxins, and microbial infections. Once activated, the inflammasome induces caspase-1, which in turn induces the processing of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. So, to understand inflammasomes regulation becomes crucial to treat several disorders including autoinflammatory diseases. Since green propolis extracts are able to regulate inflammatory pathways, this work purpose was to investigate if this extract could also act on inflammasomes regulation. First, the extract was characterized and it demonstrated the presence of important compounds, especially Artepillin C. This extract was effective in reducing the IL-1β secretion in mouse macrophages and this reduction was correlated with a decrease in activation of the protease caspase-1. Furthermore, we found that the extract at a concentration of 30 μg/mL was not toxic to the cells even after a 18-hour treatment. Altogether, these data indicate that Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF) extract has a role in regulating the inflammasomes. PMID:23690844

  9. Flacourtosides A-F, phenolic glycosides isolated from Flacourtia ramontchi.

    PubMed

    Bourjot, Mélanie; Leyssen, Pieter; Eydoux, Cécilia; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Canard, Bruno; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Guéritte, Françoise; Litaudon, Marc

    2012-04-27

    In an effort to identify novel inhibitors of chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus replication, a systematic study with 820 ethyl acetate extracts of madagascan plants was performed in a virus-cell-based assay for CHIKV, and a DENV NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) assay. The extract obtained from the stem bark of Flacourtia ramontchi was selected for its significant activity in both assays. Six new phenolic glycosides, named flacourtosides A-F (1-6), phenolic glycosides itoside H, xylosmin, scolochinenoside D, and poliothrysoside, and betulinic acid 3β-caffeate were obtained using the bioassay-guided isolation process. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Even though several extracts and fractions showed significant selective antiviral activity in the CHIKV virus-cell-based assay, none of the purified compounds did. However, in the DENV RNA polymerase assay, significant inhibition was observed with betulinic acid 3β-caffeate (IC(50) = 0.85 ± 0.1 μM) and to a lesser extent for the flacourtosides A and E (1 and 5, respectively), and scolochinenoside D (IC(50) values ~10 μM).

  10. [Comparative study of the urinary excretion of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    José Ramón, Vielma; Mora Mora, Marylú; Marino Alarcón, Oscar; Hernández, Gladys; Josefina Linares, Ledy; Urdaneta Romero, Haideé; Arévalo González, Evelia

    2012-03-01

    In order to compare the possible relationship between urinary concentrations of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in serum and urine of postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis, we selected 45 postmenopausal women over 47 years of age, divided into two groups: group I clinically healthy postmenopausal women and group II postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, without chronic kidney and hepatic diseases or diabetes mellitus. We determined the boron (B), phosphorus (P), total calcium (Ca) and total magnesium (Mg) in the urine of two hours, by atomic emission spectroscopy with induction-coupled plasma (ICPA-ES). Total calcium and total magnesium in serum were determined by atomic flame absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and inorganic phosphorus in serum, and creatinine in serum and urine, by molecular absorption spectrometry. The preliminary results suggest the existence of a significant difference (p < 0.05) in boron and phosphorus concentrations in the urine of two hours between the groups. The model of linear regression analysis used showed a relationship between urinary concentrations of boron/creatinine index and calcium/ creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphorus/creatinine indexes in the urine of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  11. Habitual cocoa intake reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women regardless of intake frequency: a randomized parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Ryota; Natsume, Midori; Nakazato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is substantially higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. Daily cocoa intake has been shown to reduce central arterial stiffness in health adults, regardless of age; however, the effect of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. A total of 26 postmenopausal women (mean age ± standard deviation 64±12 years) were randomly assigned to two groups with different cocoa-intake frequencies: one group ingested 17 g of cocoa once daily except on Sundays (every-day group, n=13), and the other ingested 17 g of cocoa twice daily every other day (every-other-day group, n=13). These intake regimens were maintained in both groups for 12 weeks. Carotid–femoral pulse-wave velocity and femoral–ankle pulse-wave velocity were measured in both groups at baseline and again at the end of the 12-week study period. Compared to baseline, both pulse-wave velocities had significantly decreased after the 12-week study period in both groups (P<0.05). However, no significant difference in degree of change was observed between the two groups. Although this study did not include a sedentary control group, these results suggest that regardless of frequency, habitual cocoa intake reduces central and peripheral arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. PMID:27881914

  12. Evidence of association of vitamin D receptor Apa I gene polymorphism with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Umit; Solak, Mustafa; Kavuncu, Vural; Ozdemir, Mujgan; Cakir, Tuncay; Yildiz, Handan; Evcik, Deniz

    2009-10-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) was the first candidate gene to be studied in relation to osteoporosis, and most attention has focused on polymorphisms situated near the 3' flank of VDR. The aim of this study was to investigate the association about VDR gene Apa I polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We studied a total of 136 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 56.36 +/- 10.29 years. Among them, a total of 75 had osteoporosis, 37 had osteopenia, and 24 had normal BMD. Venous blood samples were obtained for evaluation of bone metabolism and genotyping. The VDR Apa I genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. BMDs at the lumbar spine and hip were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Postmenopausal women with aa genotype had significantly lower BMD values (grams per centimeter square) at lumbar spines compared to persons with AA genotype. Also, postmenopausal women with AA genotype had significantly higher serum Ca level than the subjects with aa genotype. In conclusion, our result may indicate that VDR Apa I gene polymorphism may be responsible for a important part of the heritable component of lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, possibly related to impaired calcium absorption from the bowel.

  13. Biomarkers of vascular function in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women of similar age: effect of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Seidelin, Kaare; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Overby, Nickie Neumann; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-04-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function; however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched premenopausal and postmenopausal women before and after 12 wk of exercise training. Thirteen premenopausal and 10 recently postmenopausal [1.6 ± 0.3 (means ± SE) years after final menstrual period] women only separated by 3 yr (48 ± 1 vs. 51 ± 1 yr) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the postmenopausal women compared with the premenopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), as well as plasma and skeletal muscle endothelin-1. The vasodilator prostacyclin tended (P = 0.061) to be higher in plasma with training in the postmenopausal women only. These findings demonstrate that already within the first years after menopause, several biomarkers of vascular function are adversely altered, indicating that these biomarker changes are more related to hormonal changes than aging. Exercise training appears to have a positive impact on vascular function, as indicated by a marked improvement in the biomarker profile, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  14. Influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Torres, Vanessa Braga; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse Melo; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Matias de Barros, Alef Cavalcanti; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho; Micussi, Maria Thereza de Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study with a sample of 100 postmenopausal women, aged between 45 and 65 years, divided into three groups according to menopausal stage: hysterectomized and early and late postmenopause. Patients were assessed for sociodemographic and gyneco-obstetric factors and subjected to a muscle strength test and perineometry. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and multiple regression were applied. [Results] The results showed homogeneity in sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. There was no difference in pelvic floor muscle function among the three groups. Type of delivery, parity and physical activity level showed no influence on muscle function. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level had no influence on pelvic floor muscle pressure in postmenopausal women. One hypothesis to explain these results is the fact that the decline in muscle function in postmenopausal women is related to the female aging process. PMID:27134366

  15. The Role of Ovarian Sex Steroids in Metabolic Homeostasis, Obesity, and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Obese postmenopausal women have an increased risk of breast cancer and are likely to have a worse prognosis than nonobese postmenopausal women. The cessation of ovarian function after menopause results in withdrawal of ovarian sex steroid hormones, estrogen, and progesterone. Accumulating evidence suggests that the withdrawal of estrogen and progesterone causes homeostasis imbalances, including decreases in insulin sensitivity and leptin secretion and changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, resulting in a total reduction in energy expenditure. Together with a decrease in physical activity and consumption of a high fat diet, these factors significantly contribute to obesity in postmenopausal women. Obesity may contribute to breast cancer development through several mechanisms. Obesity causes localized inflammation, an increase in local estrogen production, and changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, obese women have a higher risk of insulin insensitivity, and an increase in insulin and other growth factor secretion. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the molecular actions of estrogen and progesterone and their contributions to cellular metabolism, obesity, inflammation, and postmenopausal breast cancer. We also discuss how modifications of estrogen and progesterone actions might be used as a therapeutic approach for obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer. PMID:25866757

  16. Habitual cocoa intake reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women regardless of intake frequency: a randomized parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Ryota; Natsume, Midori; Nakazato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is substantially higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. Daily cocoa intake has been shown to reduce central arterial stiffness in health adults, regardless of age; however, the effect of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. A total of 26 postmenopausal women (mean age ± standard deviation 64±12 years) were randomly assigned to two groups with different cocoa-intake frequencies: one group ingested 17 g of cocoa once daily except on Sundays (every-day group, n=13), and the other ingested 17 g of cocoa twice daily every other day (every-other-day group, n=13). These intake regimens were maintained in both groups for 12 weeks. Carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity and femoral-ankle pulse-wave velocity were measured in both groups at baseline and again at the end of the 12-week study period. Compared to baseline, both pulse-wave velocities had significantly decreased after the 12-week study period in both groups (P<0.05). However, no significant difference in degree of change was observed between the two groups. Although this study did not include a sedentary control group, these results suggest that regardless of frequency, habitual cocoa intake reduces central and peripheral arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

  17. High-resolution micropatterned Teflon AF substrates for biocompatible nanofluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Czolkos, Ilja; Hakonen, Bodil; Orwar, Owe; Jesorka, Aldo

    2012-02-14

    We describe a general photolithography-based process for the microfabrication of surface-supported Teflon AF structures. Teflon AF patterns primarily benefit from superior optical properties such as very low autofluorescence and a low refractive index. The process ensures that the Teflon AF patterns remain strongly hydrophobic in order to allow rapid lipid monolayer spreading and generates a characteristic edge morphology which assists directed cell growth along the structured surfaces. We provide application examples, demonstrating the well-controlled mixing of lipid films on Teflon AF structures and showing how the patterned surfaces can be used as biocompatible growth-directing substrates for cell culture. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells develop in a guided fashion along the sides of the microstructures, selectively avoiding to grow over the patterned areas.

  18. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-27

    dynamic response • Waterhammer effect Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Hydroxyethylhydrazinium Nitrate ...Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HEHN) (HAN) [ ]-NO3 + [ ]HOCH2CH2N2H4 [ ]-+[ ]NH3OH NO3 AF-M315E

  19. Air Sampling of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Arnold AFS, Tennessee.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    DIBENZOFURANS, AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ARNOLD AFS TN ISAAC ATKINS, JR., CAPTAIN, USAF, BSC January 1987 D I ~ELECTE FINAL REPORT 0Wfl D LU...NO 11. TITLE (Include Security ClassificatiOtl) Air Sampling of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated ... Biphenyls at Arnold AFS TN (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Captaiq Isaac Atkins, Jr. 13a. TYP OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month

  20. Services Officer Utilization Field (AFS 62XX and Equivalent-Grade Civilians).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    CHART le~ -- Sq ,.. O. pt’*. q UNITED STATES AIR FORCE cv, Lfl o D SERVICES OFFICER UTILIZATION FIELD (AFS 62XX AND EQUIVALENT-GRADE CIVILLANS) AFPT 90...Administration From January through Ma’ch 1985, job inventories were administered to all elicible AFSC 62XX nfficer: in the continental United States ... PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED t, , . . . .. .. . . . . , . . . . . . , . _". ... , I! . . $ IJSTRIBIJTION FOR AFS( u-)XX OSR AND SUPPORTING

  1. AF-M315E Propulsion System Advances and Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert K.; Allen, May; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Spores, Ronald A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Schneider, Steven J.; Vasek, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Even as for the GR-1 awaits its first on-orbit demonstration on the planned 2017 launch of NASA's Green Propulsion Infusion Mission (GPIM) program, ongoing efforts continue to advance the technical state-of-the-art through improvements in the performance, life capability, and affordability of both Aerojet Rocketdyne's 1-N-class GR-1 and 20-N-class GR-22 green monopropellant thrusters. Hot-fire testing of a design upgrade of the GR-22 thruster successfully demonstrated resolution of a life-limiting thermo-structural issue encountered during prototype testing on the GPIM program, yielding both an approximately 2x increase in demonstrating life capability, as well as fundamental insights relating to how ionic liquid thrusters operate, thruster scaling, and operational factors affecting catalyst bed life. Further, a number of producibility improvements, related to both materials and processes and promising up to 50% unit cost reduction, have been identified through a comprehensive Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) assessment activity recently completed at Aerojet Rocketdyne. Focused specifically on the GR-1 but applicable to the common-core architecture of both thrusters, ongoing laboratory (heavyweight) thruster testing being conducted under a Space Act Agreement at NASA Glenn Research Center has already validated a number of these proposed manufacturability upgrades, additionally achieving a greater than 40% increase in thruster life. In parallel with technical advancements relevant to conventional large spacecraft, a joint effort between NASA and Aerojet Rocketdyne is underway to prepare 1-U CubeSat AF-M315E propulsion module for first flight demonstration in 2018.

  2. Mutant U2AF1-expressing cells are sensitive to pharmacological modulation of the spliceosome

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; White, Brian S.; Tripathi, Manorama; Tapia, Roberto; Ley, James N.; Ndonwi, Matthew; Kim, Sanghyun; Shao, Jin; Carver, Alexa; Saez, Borja; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Lagisetti, Chandraiah; Webb, Thomas R.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic mutations in spliceosome genes are detectable in ∼50% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We hypothesize that cells harbouring spliceosome gene mutations have increased sensitivity to pharmacological perturbation of the spliceosome. We focus on mutant U2AF1 and utilize sudemycin compounds that modulate pre-mRNA splicing. We find that haematopoietic cells expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F), including primary patient cells, have an increased sensitivity to in vitro sudemycin treatment relative to controls. In vivo sudemycin treatment of U2AF1(S34F) transgenic mice alters splicing and reverts haematopoietic progenitor cell expansion induced by mutant U2AF1 expression. The splicing effects of sudemycin and U2AF1(S34F) can be cumulative in cells exposed to both perturbations—drug and mutation—compared with cells exposed to either alone. These cumulative effects may result in downstream phenotypic consequences in sudemycin-treated mutant cells. Taken together, these data suggest a potential for treating haematological cancers harbouring U2AF1 mutations with pre-mRNA splicing modulators like sudemycins. PMID:28067246

  3. Nicotine improves AF64A-induced spatial memory deficits in Morris water maze in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuo; Furukawa, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Tsuneo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2010-01-18

    Ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) is a neurotoxic derivative of choline that produces not only long-term presynaptic cholinergic deficits, but also various memory deficits in rats similar to some characteristics observed in Alzheimer's disease patients. This study investigated whether nicotine (NCT) administration attenuated spatial learning deficits induced by intracerebroventricular AF64A treatment. AF64A (6 nmol/6 microl)-or saline (SAL)-treated rats were trained in Morris water maze task. NCT (0.025-0.25mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected 5 min before the training every day. The results showed that moderate dose (0.10mg/kg) of NCT attenuated AF64A-induced prolongation of escape latency. Furthermore, NCT dose-dependently recovered the AF64A-induced decrease of time spent in the target quadrant in the probe test. These results suggest that NCT improves AF64A-induced spatial memory deficits, and thus it is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of memory deficits in dementia.

  4. Oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yao; Jost, Carsten; Mumme, Jan; Wang, Kaijun; Linke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system, the effect of microaeration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated under batch conditions and in the UASS with AF system. Aeration intensities of 0-431mL O2/gvs were conducted as pretreatment under batch conditions. Aeration pretreatment obviously enhanced anaerobic digestion and an aeration intensity of 431mL O2/gvs increased the methane yield by 82.2%. Aeration intensities of 0-355mL O2/gvs were conducted in the process liquor circulation of the UASS with AF system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) of UASS and AF reactors kept around 1.39±0.27 and 0.99±0.38mg/L, respectively. pH was relatively stable around 7.11±0.04. Volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration in UASS reactor were higher than those in AF reactor. Methane yield of the whole system was almost stable at 85±7mL/gvs as aeration intensity increased step by step. The UASS with AF system showed good oxygen tolerance capacity.

  5. Pharmacologic management of bone-related complications and bone metastases in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Denise A

    2016-01-01

    There is a high risk for bone loss and skeletal-related events, including bone metastases, in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Both the disease itself and its therapeutic treatments can negatively impact bone, resulting in decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone loss. These negative effects on the bone can significantly impact morbidity and mortality. Effective management and minimization of bone-related complications in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remain essential. This review discusses the current understanding of molecular and biological mechanisms involved in bone turnover and metastases, increased risk for bone-related complications from breast cancer and breast cancer therapy, and current and emerging treatment strategies for managing bone metastases and bone turnover in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. PMID:27217795

  6. Serum concentrations of selected endogenous estrogen and estrogen metabolites in pre- and post-menopausal Chinese women with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gao, W; Zeng, C; Cai, D; Liu, B; Li, Y; Wen, X; Chen, Y

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether serum levels of selected endogenous estrogens and their metabolites are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis in pre- and post-menopausal women with osteoarthritis. Sixty-four patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, 48 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the knee, and 48 healthy women were included in this study. Serum concentrations of estradiol and estrogen metabolites, such as 2- hydroxyestrone, 2-hydroxyestradiol, and 16α-hydroxyestrone, were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results show that the serum concentrations of free estradiol and total 2-hydroxyestrone were significantly lower in pre-menopausal women with OA compared to the levels detected in the control groups (RA and healthy women). While serum concentrations of free and total estradiol in post-menopausal women with OA was significantly decreased compared to those of the control groups, the level of total 2-hydroxyestradiol significantly increased in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, the total 2-hydroxyestrone concentration positively correlated with the total estradiol level in pre-menopausal women with OA. In addition, the total 2- hydroxyestradiol level positively correlated with free and total estradiol levels in post-menopausal women with OA. In conclusion, estradiol and estrogen metabolites, including 2-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestradiol, were found in the sera of pre- and post-menopausal women with OA. Except for free and total estradiol deficiency, a decreased serum level of total 2- hydroxyestrone in pre-menopausal women and an increased total 2-hydroxyestradiol level in post-menopausal women with OA may also correlate with the pathogenesis of female OA.

  7. High Levels of Serum DPP-4 Activity Are Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase 4/CD26 (DPP-4) is a widely expressed cell surface serine protease. DPP-4 inhibitors, one of common anti-diabetic agents play a protective role in bone metabolism in recent studies. A soluble form of DPP-4 is found in serum, and exhibits DPP-4 enzymatic activity. However, the physiological role of serum or soluble DPP-4 and its relationship with DPP-4 enzymatic function remain poorly understood. The aims of current study were to determine the association between serum DPP-4 activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Methods We recruited data and serum samples from 124 consecutive healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. We divided study subjects into obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m2) postmenopausal women and examined the correlation between serum DPP-4 activity and clinical variables in each groups. Results A total of 124 postmenopausal women was enrolled, with a mean age of 59.9±7.1 years. The mean BMI of the study patients was 24.4±2.8 kg/m2. Regarding bone turnover markers, serum DPP-4 activity was positively correlated with serum calcium concentrations, intact parathyroid hormone, and serum C-telopeptide levels in all of the study subjects. However, there was no association between serum DPP-4 activity and BMD in the spine or femoral neck in all of the study subjects. Serum DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated (R=−0.288, P=0.038) with BMD of the spine in obese postmenopausal women. Conclusion This study demonstrated for the first time that serum soluble DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated with BMD in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26676330

  8. Impact of Estrogen Therapy on Lymphocyte Homeostasis and the Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Flora; Rivera, Andrea; Park, Byung; Messerle-Forbes, Marci; Jensen, Jeffrey T.; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that changes in levels of ovarian steroids modulate severity of autoimmune disease and immune function in young adult women. These observations suggest that the loss of ovarian steroids associated with menopause could affect the age-related decline in immune function, known as immune senescence. Therefore, in this study, we determined the impact of menopause and estrogen therapy (ET) on lymphocyte subset frequency as well as the immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine in three different groups: 1) young adult women (regular menstrual cycles, not on hormonal contraception); 2) post-menopausal (at least 2 years) women who are not receiving any form of hormone therapy (HT) and 3) post-menopausal hysterectomized women receiving ET. Although the numbers of circulating CD4 and CD20 B cells were reduced in the post-menopausal group receiving ET, we also detected a better preservation of naïve B cells, decreased CD4 T cell inflammatory cytokine production, and slightly lower circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Following vaccination, young adult women generated more robust antibody and T cell responses than both post-menopausal groups. Despite similar vaccine responses between the two post-menopausal groups, we observed a direct correlation between plasma 17β estradiol (E2) levels and fold increase in IgG titers within the ET group. These findings suggest that ET affects immune homeostasis and that higher plasma E2 levels may enhance humoral responses in post-menopausal women. PMID:26859566

  9. The effectiveness of conization treatment for post-menopausal women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, XIAODONG; FENG, YAN; WANG, XINYU; WAN, XIAOYUN; XIE, XING; LU, WEIGUO

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of conization in the diagnosis and treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in post-menopausal women. A total of 101 post-menopausal patients who were diagnosed with high-grade lesion CIN by biopsy and in whom conization was used as the primary treatment were examined and 202 pre-menopausal patients were studied as the controls. Clinical and pathological data including symptoms, cytological examination and HPV DNA test results before and after conization treatment were analyzed. Both the cytological abnormalities (57.9 vs. 58.5%, P=0.260) and the positive rate of the HPV DNA test (89.5 vs. 86.4%, P=0.812) did not show a significant difference between the post- and pre-menopausal group. The rate of satisfactory colposcopy was significantly lower in post-menopausal patients compared with pre-menosausal patients (23.2 vs. 68.9%, P<0.001). Post-menopausal patients presented a significantly lower diagnostic consistency between colpscopy-directed biopsy and conization (46.4 vs. 68.9%, P=0.004), and a significantly higher positive margin rate of conization (20.8 vs. 10.9%, P=0.020). A total of 10 of the 101 post-menopausal and 2 of the 202 pre-menopausal women were diagnosed with invasive cancer by conization and underwent further treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that conization, as a conservative primary treatment, is not suitable for post-menopausal women with high-grade lesion CIN due to the lower rate of satisfactory colposcopy, lower consistency of diagnosis between colposcopy-directed biopsy and conization, and a higher positive margin of conization. PMID:23251264

  10. Recognition of the 3' splice site RNA by the U2AF heterodimer involves a dynamic population shift.

    PubMed

    Voith von Voithenberg, Lena; Sánchez-Rico, Carolina; Kang, Hyun-Seo; Madl, Tobias; Zanier, Katia; Barth, Anders; Warner, Lisa R; Sattler, Michael; Lamb, Don C

    2016-11-15

    An essential early step in the assembly of human spliceosomes onto pre-mRNA involves the recognition of regulatory RNA cis elements in the 3' splice site by the U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF). The large (U2AF65) and small (U2AF35) subunits of the U2AF heterodimer contact the polypyrimidine tract (Py-tract) and the AG-dinucleotide, respectively. The tandem RNA recognition motif domains (RRM1,2) of U2AF65 adopt closed/inactive and open/active conformations in the free form and when bound to bona fide Py-tract RNA ligands. To investigate the molecular mechanism and dynamics of 3' splice site recognition by U2AF65 and the role of U2AF35 in the U2AF heterodimer, we have combined single-pair FRET and NMR experiments. In the absence of RNA, the RRM1,2 domain arrangement is highly dynamic on a submillisecond time scale, switching between closed and open conformations. The addition of Py-tract RNA ligands with increasing binding affinity (strength) gradually shifts the equilibrium toward an open conformation. Notably, the protein-RNA complex is rigid in the presence of a strong Py-tract but exhibits internal motion with weak Py-tracts. Surprisingly, the presence of U2AF35, whose UHM domain interacts with U2AF65 RRM1, increases the population of the open arrangement of U2AF65 RRM1,2 in the absence and presence of a weak Py-tract. These data indicate that the U2AF heterodimer promotes spliceosome assembly by a dynamic population shift toward the open conformation of U2AF65 to facilitate the recognition of weak Py-tracts at the 3' splice site. The structure and RNA binding of the heterodimer was unaffected by cancer-linked myelodysplastic syndrome mutants.

  11. Long-term hormone replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, P A; Longnecker, M P; Storer, B E; Mittendorf, R; Baron, J; Clapp, R W; Bogdan, G; Willett, W C

    1995-10-15

    Despite extensive study, concerns remain about a possible association between long-term postmenopausal hormone treatment--particularly use of combination preparations--and risk of breast cancer. The authors evaluated the use of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy in relation to breast cancer risk in a large multicenter, population-based case-control study. Women with a new diagnosis of breast cancer were identified through statewide tumor registries in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire. Controls were randomly selected from population lists in each state. For this analysis of postmenopausal women, data were available from 3,130 breast cancer cases and 3,698 controls interviewed between 1989 and 1991. Replacement hormone use was not associated with breast cancer risk in women who had ever undergone this treatment (relative risk (RR) = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.18). Among women who had used replacement hormones for 15 years or more, there was no clear increase in risk, although the small sample size did not preclude the possibility of a modest association (RR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.87-1.43). Risk among women using progestins in combination with estrogens was similar to that in women using estrogens alone. Risk did not vary according to type of menopause, family history of breast cancer, history of benign breast disease, or alcohol intake. These results are consistent with the majority of reports which find no overall increased risk associated with the use of replacement hormones. However, in contrast to several other studies, this study did not find long-term use to be associated with increased risk. These results also do not support a hypothesized effect of combined progestin and estrogen use on the risk of breast cancer.

  12. Tibial cartilage volume change in healthy postmenopausal women: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wluka, A; Wolfe, R; Davis, S; Stuckey, S; Cicuttini, F

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the amount of joint cartilage in healthy postmenopausal women is stable or changes over time, and whether oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT) influences this. Design: A cohort study in healthy postmenopausal women without knee pain, initially selected on the basis of having either used ERT long term (more than five years) or never having used ERT. Methods: 81 women (42 taking ERT and 39 non-users) had baseline knee radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the dominant knee; 57 of these (70%) were followed with repeat MRI approximately 2.5 years later. Knee cartilage volume was measured at baseline and at follow up. Risk factors assessed at baseline, including ERT use, were tested for their association with change in knee cartilage volume over time. Results: 29 subjects who were initially taking ERT and 28 non-users at baseline completed the study. Total tibial articular cartilage decreased, on average, by (mean (SD)) 2.4 (3.2)% per year (95% confidence interval for mean, 1.5% to 3.2%). Average annual reduction in medial and lateral tibial cartilage was 2.4 (3.6)% (1.4% to 3.3%) and 2.3 (4.2)% (1.2% to 3.4%), respectively. No association between ERT and the rate of reduction in cartilage volume was shown. Conclusions: Mean tibial cartilage volume loss in healthy postmenopausal women is between 1.5% and 3.2% a year. Whether this rate of change is similar throughout adult life or in men will require further investigation. PMID:15020341

  13. Personalizing Aspirin Use for Targeted Breast Cancer Chemoprevention Among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bardia, Aditya; Keenan, Tanya E.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Lazovich, DeAnn; Wang, Alice H.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine M.; Limburg, Paul J.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Cerhan, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To better understand the potential risk/benefit ratio for targeted chemoprevention, we evaluated the association of aspirin and other NSAIDs with incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer for risk subgroups defined by selected non-modifiable or difficult-to-modify breast cancer risk factors. Patients and Methods Postmenopausal women with no history of cancer on July 1, 1992 (N=26,580) were prospectively followed through December 31, 2005 for breast cancer incidence (N=1581). Risk subgroups were defined on family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, age at menopause, parity/age at first live birth, history of benign breast disease, and body mass index (BMI). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for other breast cancer risk factors were estimated using Cox models. Results Aspirin use was associated with a lower incidence of breast cancer for women with family history of breast cancer (HR=0.62 for 6+ per week vs. never use; 95%CI 0.41-0.93) and personal history of benign breast disease (HR=0.69; 95%CI 0.50-0.95), but not for women in higher risk subgroups for age at menarche, age at menopause, parity/age at first live birth or BMI. In contrast, inverse associations with aspirin use were observed in all lower risk subgroups. NSAID use had no association with breast cancer incidence. Conclusion Based on their increased risk of breast cancer, postmenopausal women with a family history of breast cancer or a history of benign breast disease could potentially be targeted for aspirin chemoprevention studies. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26678006

  14. Primary care use of FRAX: absolute fracture risk assessment in postmenopausal women and older men.

    PubMed

    Siris, Ethel S; Baim, Sanford; Nattiv, Aurelia

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis-related fractures (low-trauma or fragility fractures) cause substantial disability, health care costs, and mortality among postmenopausal women and older men. Epidemiologic studies indicate that at least half the population burden of osteoporosis-related fractures affects persons with osteopenia (low bone density), who comprise a larger segment of the population than those with osteoporosis. The public health burden of fractures will fail to decrease unless the subset of patients with low bone density who are at increased risk for fracture are identified and treated. Risk stratification for medically appropriate and cost-effective treatment is facilitated by the World Health Organization (WHO) FRAX algorithm, which uses clinical risk factors, bone mineral density, and country-specific fracture and mortality data to quantify a patient's 10-year probability of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture. Included risk factors comprise femoral neck bone mineral density, prior fractures, parental hip fracture history, age, gender, body mass index, ethnicity, smoking, alcohol use, glucocorticoid use, rheumatoid arthritis, and secondary osteoporosis. FRAX was developed by the WHO to be applicable to both postmenopausal women and men aged 40 to 90 years; the National Osteoporosis Foundation Clinician's Guide focuses on its utility in postmenopausal women and men aged >50 years. It is validated to be used in untreated patients only. The current National Osteoporosis Foundation Guide recommends treating patients with FRAX 10-year risk scores of > or = 3% for hip fracture or > or = 20% for major osteoporotic fracture, to reduce their fracture risk. Additional risk factors such as frequent falls, not represented in FRAX, warrant individual clinical judgment. FRAX has the potential to demystify fracture risk assessment in primary care for patients with low bone density, directing clinical fracture prevention strategies to those who can benefit most.

  15. Sexual Function and Exercise in Postmenopausal Women Residing in Chalous and Nowshahr, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masomeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The sexual function of menopausal women is influenced by several factors. Objectives We aimed to investigate the association between exercise and sexual function among postmenopausal women residing in Northern Iran. Patients and Methods Using a multistage, randomized sampling method, 405 postmenopausal women, aged 40 to 65 years, were recruited to participate in this population-based, cross-sectional study. The female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire and a researcher-designed questionnaire were completed by every subject. Results Overall, 61% of the women reported having experienced sexual dysfunction, and 53.6% reported that they had not performed any kind of exercise within the last 6 months; among those who did exercise, the most common form was walking (79.8%). The FSFI total scores (P = 0.013), as well as the scores in the lubrication (P = 0.007) and pain (P < 0.001) domains, were significantly lower for the women who performed exercises other than walking compared to those who only walked or who did not exercise at all. The frequency of weekly exercise had a positive correlation with the scores in the lubrication (r = 0.18, P = 0.014) and orgasm (r = 0.146, P = 0.045) domains. The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the chances of reduced sexual desire were decreased by 80.2% (P = 0.044) with every unit increase in the frequency of weekly exercise. Conclusions More frequent exercise will improve the sexual function of post-menopausal women. PMID:27437131

  16. Uterine peristalsis and junctional zone: correlation with age and postmenopausal status.

    PubMed

    Kiguchi, Kayo; Kido, Aki; Kataoka, Masako; Shitano, Fuki; Fujimoto, Koji; Himoto, Yuki; Moribata, Yusaku; Kurata, Yasuhisa; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori

    2017-02-01

    Background Although age-related change of junctional zone (JZ) of the uterus has been known, there has been no previous systematic study of age-related changes of uterine peristalsis that is observed as the wave conduction of the thickest or darkest area within the JZ. Purpose To examine the age-related changes of uterine peristalsis in pre and postmenopausal women using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine the correlation between peristalsis and JZ on T2-weighted (T2W) imaging. Material and Methods Cine MRI analysis was performed in 64 premenopausal volunteers and in 43 postmenopausal women. The peristaltic frequency, JZ detectability, and JZ thickness were evaluated and compared between the two groups. In the premenopausal group, the correlations between age and each item was examined. In the postmenopausal group, the number of years after menopause was used instead of age. The correlation between peristaltic frequency and JZ detectability or thickness was also analyzed. Results Peristaltic frequency and JZ detectability significantly differed between the two groups, while JZ thickness did not. Peristaltic frequency did not vary significantly with age before menopause and no peristalsis was observed after menopause. JZ detectability did not change significantly with age or number of years after menopause, while JZ thickness significantly increased with age before menopause, but did not vary after menopause. A significant moderate correlation was observed between JZ detectability and peristaltic frequency, but not between JZ thickness and peristaltic frequency. Conclusion Uterine peristalsis frequency did not change significantly according to age, but observed peristalsis on MRI significantly decreased after menopause.

  17. Chocolate-candy consumption and three-year weight gain among postmenopausal U.S. women

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buijsse, Brian; Wang, Lu; Allison, Matthew A.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley; Waring, Molly E.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Martin, Lisa W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater chocolate-candy intake is associated with more weight gain in postmenopausal women. DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective cohort study involving 107,243 post-menopausal American women aged 50–79 years (mean=60.7) at enrolment in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), with three-year follow up. Chocolate-candy consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and body weight was measured. Linear mixed models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, anthropomorphic and behavioral variables, were used to test our main hypotheses. RESULTS Compared to women who ate a 1 oz (~28 g) serving of chocolate candy <1 per month, those who ate this amount 1 per month to <1 per week, 1 per week to < 3 per week and ≥3 per week showed greater three-year prospective weight gains (kg) of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.85), 0.95 (0.84, 1.06) and 1.40 (1.27, 1.53), respectively, (p for linear trend<0.0001). Each additional 1 oz/day was associated with a greater three-year weight gain (kg) of 0.92 (0.80, 1.05). The weight gain in each chocolate-candy intake level increased as BMI increased above the normal range (18.5–25 kg/m2), and as age decreased. CONCLUSIONS Greater chocolate-candy intake was associated with greater prospective weight gain in this cohort of post-menopausal women. PMID:25644711

  18. Analysis of estrogens and androgens in postmenopausal serum and plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingqing; Bottalico, Lisa; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A

    2015-07-01

    Liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry-based methodology has evolved to the point where accurate analyses of trace levels of estrogens and androgens in postmenopausal serum and plasma can be accomplished with high precision and accuracy. A suite of derivatization procedures has been developed, which together with modern mass spectrometry instrumentation provide investigators with robust and sensitive methodology. Pre-ionized derivatives are proving to be useful as they are not subject to suppression of the electrospray signal. Postmenopausal women with elevated plasma or serum estrogens are thought to be at increased risk for breast and endometrial cancer. Therefore, significant advances in risk assessment should be possible now that reliable methodology is available. It is also possible to conduct analyses of multiple estrogens in plasma or serum. Laboratories that are currently employing liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology can now readily implement this strategy. This will help conserve important plasma and serum samples available in Biobanks, as it will be possible to conduct high sensitivity analyses using low initial sample volumes. Reported levels of both conjugated and non-conjugated estrogen metabolites are close to the limits of sensitivity of many assays to date, urging caution in the interpretation of these low values. The analysis of serum androgen precursors in postmenopausal women has not been conducted routinely in the past using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology. Integration of serum androgen levels into the panel of metabolites analyzed could provide additional information for assessing cancer risk and should be included in the future.

  19. Aspirin and serum estrogens in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Catherine; Wang, Ching-Yun; Xiao, Liren; McTiernan, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest a reduced risk of breast cancer among women who use aspirin. A plausible mechanism is through aspirin's effect on estrogens, possibly mediated through interference with estrogen synthesis via reduction in inflammation, which is increased in adipose tissues, including breast. In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated the effects of six-month administration of 325 mg/day aspirin on serum estrogens (estradiol, estrone, free estradiol, and bioavailable estradiol) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in 144 healthy postmenopausal women. Eligible participants, recruited 2005-2007, were not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, including aspirin >2 times/week or menopausal hormone therapy, and had a Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) mammographic density classification of 2, 3, or 4. The intervention effects (intent-to-treat) were evaluated by differences in the geometric mean outcome changes at six months between aspirin and placebo groups using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Participants were a mean 59.4 (SD, 5.4) years of age, with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.4 (SD, 5.4) kg/m(2). Between baseline and six months, none of the serum estrogens or SHBG changed substantially and there were no differences between groups. Stratifying by BMI did not change results. In conclusion, a single daily administration of 325 mg of aspirin for six months had no effect on serum estrogens or SHBG in postmenopausal women. Larger doses or longer duration of aspirin administration may be needed to affect circulating estrogens. Alternately, if aspirin influences breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, it may do so through direct breast tissue effects, or through pathways other than estrogens.

  20. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy and risk of acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Oskarsson, Viktor; Orsini, Nicola; Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several case reports have suggested that women’s use of exogenous sex hormones is associated with acute pancreatitis; however, relevant epidemiologic data are sparse. We examined the association between postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy and risk of acute pancreatitis. Methods: We conducted a prospective study involving 31 494 postmenopausal women (aged 48–83 yr) from the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire in 1997 assessing their use of hormone replacement therapy. We linked the cohort to the hospital-based Swedish National Patient Register to determine hospital admissions for acute pancreatitis through 2010. Relative risks (RRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Over a total follow-up of 389 456 person-years, we identified 237 cases of incident acute pancreatitis. The age-standardized incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were 71 cases among women who had ever used hormone replacement therapy and 52 cases among women who had never used such hormones. Among ever users of hormone replacement therapy, the multivariable-adjusted RR of acute pancreatitis was 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–2.05) compared with never users. The risk did not differ by current or past use, but it seemed to be higher among women who used systemic therapy (RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.38–2.66) and among those with duration of therapy of more than 10 years (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.11–3.17). Interpretation: Use of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy was associated with increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Physicians should consider this potential increase in risk when prescribing such therapy. PMID:24468693

  1. The importance of urinary calcium in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Miguel Angel Ochoa-Hortal; Cano-García, María del Carmen; Arrabal-Martín, Miguel; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Calcium stones are associated with osteoporosis and manifested mainly by elevated fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the presence of abnormal metabolism of calcium and calciuria in women with osteoporotic fracture with no previously known renal lithiasis compared to women without osteoporosis and without renal lithiasis. Methods: In total, 87 women were included in the study. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 with 55 postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture and without renal lithiasis; and Group 2 with 32 postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and without history of renal lithiasis. The following parameters of phospho-calcium metabolism were analyzed: calciuria 24-hour, oxaluria 24-hour, uricosuria 24-hour, and citraturia 24-hour. The presence of hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, and hypocitraturia was compared between groups. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: The mean age was 70.1 ± 13.8 in Group 1 and 56.7 ± 6.4 in Group 2 (p = 0.0001). Women in Group 1 had higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.05) and fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (p < 0.05). The percentage of patients with hypercalciuria in Group 1 (40%) was higher compared to Group 2 (18.8%) and statistically significant (p = 0.04). There were no statistically significant differences in the percentage of hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, and hypocitraturia between groups. This study has its limitations including its cross-sectional nature at a unique centre and its low number of patients. Conclusion: The determination of urinary calcium and fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture without renal lithiasis may facilitate individualization of medical therapy and decreasing lithogenic risk. PMID:26085877

  2. Soda consumption and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Teresa T; Arasaratnam, Meredith H; Grodstein, Francine; Katz, Jeffrey N; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Feskanich, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Background: The frequency of soda consumption remains high in the United States. Soda consumption has been associated with poor bone health in children, but few studies have examined this relation in adults, and to our knowledge, no study has examined the relation of soda consumption with risk of hip fractures. Objective: We examined the association of soda, including specific types of soda, and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Design: An analysis was conducted in postmenopausal women from the Nurses’ Health Study cohort (n = 73,572). Diet was assessed at baseline by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and updated approximately every 4 y. In ≤30 y of follow-up, we identified 1873 incident hip fractures. We computed RRs for hip fractures by the amount of soda consumption by using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: In multivariable models, each additional serving of total soda per day was associated with a significant 14% increased risk of hip fracture (RR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.23). The attributable risk in our cohort for total soda consumption was 12.5%. Risk was significantly elevated in consumers of both regular soda (RR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.38) and diet soda (RR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21) and also did not significantly differ between colas and noncolas or sodas with or without caffeine. The association between soda and hip fractures did not differ by body mass index or diagnosis of diabetes. Conclusion: Increased soda consumption of all types may be associated with increased risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women; however, a clear mechanism was not apparent on the basis of these observational data. PMID:25099544

  3. Wrist bone mineral density utility in diagnosing hip osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar-Sadat, Bina; Ghavami, Mostafa; Toopchizadeh, Vahideh; Ghahvechi Akbari, Masood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a common bone disease that increases with age. Wrist bone mineral density (BMD) has significant correlation with other skeletal sites and it could be used as a diagnostic method for osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of wrist BMD in diagnosing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 99 postmenopausal women with mean age of 57 ± 6.9 (range 50–76) years were evaluated. BMD of nondominant wrist, lumbar spine (L2–L4) and femur bone using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) device as well as lateral lumbosacral X-ray for degenerative joint disease (DJD) evaluation were measured. Mean T-score of wrist was lower than hip and lumbar area. Results: Osteopenia and osteoporosis were observed in 40.4% and 59.6% in the wrist, 38.4% and 24.2% in the hip and 36.4% and 49.5% in lumbar-spine BMD measurements, respectively. There was positive correlation between wrist BMD with hip BMD (r = 0.468,p < 0.001) and lumbar BMD (r = 0.322, p = 0.001). DJD due to lumbosacral X-ray was reported in 84 cases (84.8%) including mild DJD in 45 (53.5%), moderate DJD in 33 (39.3%) and severe DJD in 6 (7.2%). Conclusions: Our results showed that wrist BMD has better accuracy than lumbar BMD in diagnosing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:28203357

  4. Comparative effects of dried plum and dried apple on bone in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Chai, Sheau C; Saadat, Raz L; Payton, Mark E; Brummel-Smith, Kenneth; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2011-09-01

    Aside from existing drug therapies, certain lifestyle and nutritional factors are known to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Among the nutritional factors, dried plum or prunes (Prunus domestica L.) is the most effective fruit in both preventing and reversing bone loss. The objective of the present study was to examine the extent to which dried plum reverses bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. We recruited 236 women, 1-10 years postmenopausal, not on hormone replacement therapy or any other prescribed medication known to influence bone metabolism. Qualified participants (n 160) were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups: dried plum (100 g/d) or dried apple (comparative control). Participants received 500 mg Ca plus 400 IU (10 μg) vitamin D daily. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine, forearm, hip and whole body was assessed at baseline and at the end of the study using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to assess bone biomarkers. Physical activity recall and 1-week FFQ were obtained at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to examine physical activity and dietary confounders as potential covariates. Dried plum significantly increased BMD of ulna and spine in comparison with dried apple. In comparison with corresponding baseline values, only dried plum significantly decreased serum levels of bone turnover markers including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b. The findings of the present study confirmed the ability of dried plum in improving BMD in postmenopausal women in part due to suppressing the rate of bone turnover.

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Dash, Chiranjeev; Kim, Bang Hyun; Hicks, Jennifer C.; Makambi, Kepher; Hagberg, James M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women. Pooled baseline data on 170 African- American women from two exercise trials were examined. Metabolic syndrome was defined as at least three of the following: abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and high triglycerides. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) was determined using the Bruce treadmill protocol and categorized as: Very Low (VLCRF < 18 mL·kg−1 ·min−1), Low (LCRF = 18.0 – 22.0 mL·kg−1 ·min−1), and Moderate (MCRF > 22.0 mL·kg−1 ·min−1). Associations of metabolic syndrome with cardiorespiratory fitness were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and linear regression. VO2peak was significantly lower in the VLCRF compared to the MCRF group. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL among overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women. In fully adjusted models, higher waist circumference and triglycerides were associated with lower VO2peak levels (P < 0.01) and higher HDL-C was associated with higher VO2peak levels (P = 0.03). Overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women with very low cardiorespiratory fitness are more likely to have metabolic syndrome, higher body mass index, and unhealthier levels of certain metabolic syndrome components than women with moderate cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26837934

  6. Association between Leukocyte Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Regular Exercise in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu Kyung; Kim, Da Eun; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that habitual exercise can improve skeletal mitochondrial function; however, to date, the association between exercise and mitochondrial function in peripheral leukocytes has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between regular exercise and mitochondrial function by measuring leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in postmenopausal women. Methods This cross-sectional study included 144 relatively healthy, non-diabetic, non-smoking, postmenopausal women. Clinical parameters, including anthropometric measurements and cardio-metabolic parameters, were assessed. Regular exercise was defined as at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous-intensity activity, over a duration of at least 6 months. Leukocyte mtDNA copy numbers were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, and these were normalized to the β-globin copy number to give the relative mtDNA copy number. Results The mtDNA copy number of peripheral leukocytes was significantly greater in the exercise group (1.33±0.02) than in the no exercise group (1.05±0.02, P<0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that regular exercise was independently associated with mtDNA copy number (β=0.25, P<0.01) after adjusting for the variables age, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance value, and levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and homocysteine. Conclusion Regular exercise is associated with greater leukocyte mtDNA copy number in postmenopausal women. PMID:27900071

  7. Cost-effectiveness of bazedoxifene versus raloxifene in the treatment of postmenopausal women in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Darbà, Josep; Pérez-Álvarez, Nuria; Kaskens, Lisette; Holgado-Pérez, Susana; Racketa, Jill; Rejas, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of bazedoxifene and raloxifene for prevention of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures among postmenopausal Spanish women aged 55–82 years with established osteoporosis and a high fracture risk. Methods A Markov model was developed to represent the transition of a cohort of postmenopausal osteoporotic women through different health states, ie, patients free of fractures, patients with vertebral or nonvertebral fractures, and patients recovered from a fracture. Efficacy data for bazedoxifene were obtained from the Osteoporosis Study. The perspective of the Spanish National Health Service was chosen with a time horizon of 27 years. Costs were reported in 2010 Euros. Deterministic results were presented as expected cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), and probabilistic results were represented in cost-effectiveness planes. Results In deterministic analysis, the expected cost per patient was higher in the raloxifene cohort (€13,881) than in the bazedoxifene cohort (€13,436). QALYs gained were slightly higher in the bazedoxifene cohort (14.56 versus 14.54). Results from probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that bazedoxifene has a slightly higher probability of being cost-effective for all threshold values independent of the maximum that the National Health Service is willing to pay per additional QALY. Conclusion Bazedoxifene was shown to be a cost-effective treatment option for the prevention of fractures in Spanish women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and a high fracture risk. When comparing bazedoxifene with raloxifene, it may be concluded that the former is the dominant strategy. PMID:23882153

  8. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Is Associated with Serum Chemerin and Irisin but Not with Apolipoprotein M Levels

    PubMed Central

    Çağlayan, Emel Kıyak; Göçmen, Ayşe Yeşim; Polat, Muhammed Fevzi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the levels of chemerin, irisin and apolipoprotein M (apoM) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods The study included 88 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Based on World Health Organization criteria, women with a T-score of ≤ –2.5 were defined as osteoporotic. In this case-control study, postmenopausal women with T-score > –1 were selected as controls (n = 88) and case-matched in a 1:1 ratio based on age (within 2 years) and body mass index (BMI) (within 1.0 kg/m2). ApoM, irisin and chemerin levels were determined by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results There were no significant differences in age, BMI, parity, cholesterol and apoM levels between the two groups. C-reactive protein levels were significantly increased in women with osteoporosis. Serum chemerin levels (240.1 ± 46.1 vs. 261.5 ± 50.8 ng/mL) were significantly lower in the women with osteoporosis, as compared to the controls (P = 0.004). Serum irisin levels were also decreased in women with osteoporosis (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.007). Conclusion In the present study, osteoporosis was associated with decreased levels of circulating chemerin and irisin. These findings suggested that adipokines might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. PMID:27617241

  9. Risk of Mortality According to Body Mass Index and Body Composition Among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Nicholas, J. Skye; Ernst, Kacey C.; Hu, Chengcheng; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Cauley, Jane A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Caan, Bette; Roe, Denise J.; Chen, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, often defined as a body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) of 30 or higher, has been associated with mortality, but age-related body composition changes can be masked by stable BMI. A subset of Women's Health Initiative participants (postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years) enrolled between 1993 and 1998 who had received dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans for estimation of total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM) (n = 10,525) were followed for 13.6 (standard deviation, 4.6) years to test associations between BMI, body composition, and incident mortality. Overall, BMI ≥35 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.82), while TBF and LBM were not. However, an interaction between age and body composition (P < 0.001) necessitated age stratification. Among women aged 50–59 years, higher %TBF increased risk of death (HR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.38, 4.34) and higher %LBM decreased risk of death (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.74), despite broad-ranging BMIs (16.4–69.1). However, the relationships were reversed among women aged 70–79 years (P < 0.05). BMI did not adequately capture mortality risk in this sample of postmenopausal women. Our data suggest the clinical utility of evaluating body composition by age group to more robustly assess mortality risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:26350478

  10. The epidemiology and management of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a viewpoint from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has an aging population, with an associated increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is of particular concern because it leads to an increased risk of fractures, with subsequent negative impacts on health in older women. In recent years, efforts have been made to better understand the epidemiology of osteoporosis in Brazil, and to manage both direct and indirect costs to the Brazilian health care system. The reported prevalence of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women in Brazil varies from 15% to 33%, depending on the study methodology and the use of bone densitometry data or self-reporting by participants. A diagnosis of osteoporosis can be made on the basis of fractures occurring without significant trauma or on the basis of low bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. To reduce the risk of osteoporosis, all postmenopausal women should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle, which includes physical activity and a balanced diet. Smoking and alcohol use should also be addressed. Special attention should be given to interventions to reduce the risk of falls, especially among older women. Calcium intake should be encouraged, preferably through diet. The decision to recommend calcium supplementation should be made individually because there is concern about a possible increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with this treatment. Brazilian women obtain a minimal amount of vitamin D from their diet, and supplementation is warranted in women with little exposure to solar ultraviolet-B radiation. For women diagnosed with osteoporosis, some form of pharmacologic therapy should be initiated. Compliance with treatment should be monitored, and the treatment period should be individualized for each patient. The Brazilian government provides medication for osteoporosis through the public health system free of charge, but without proper epidemiological knowledge, the implementation of public

  11. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Jones, Rena R; Anderson, Kristin E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cerhan, James R; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Weyer, Peter J; Ward, Mary H

    2015-07-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potential human carcinogens. We evaluated the association of nitrate and nitrite ingestion with postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Among 28,555 postmenopausal women, we identified 315 incident epithelial ovarian cancers from 1986 to 2010. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using food frequency questionnaire data. Drinking water source at home was obtained in a 1989 follow-up survey. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels for Iowa public water utilities were linked to residences and average levels were computed based on each woman's duration at the residence. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested interactions of nitrate with TTHMs and dietary factors known to influence NOC formation. Ovarian cancer risk was 2.03 times higher (CI = 1.22-3.38, ptrend  = 0.003) in the highest quartile (≥2.98 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤0.47 mg/L; reference) of NO3 -N in public water, regardless of TTHM levels. Risk among private well users was also elevated (HR = 1.53, CI = 0.93-2.54) compared with the same reference group. Associations were stronger when vitamin C intake was postmenopausal women.

  12. Current and emerging pharmacologic therapies for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lewiecki, E Michael

    2009-10-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an asymptomatic skeletal disease that is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life-socially, emotionally, and financially. Considering the growing burden of osteoporotic fractures worldwide, there remains an ongoing need for progress in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, identification of individuals at high fracture risk, and treatment to prevent fractures. Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is recommended as baseline therapy for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Available pharmacological agents for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis may not be appropriate for all women. Oral bisphosphonates are generally considered first-line therapy for patients with osteoporosis, but their use may be limited by gastrointestinal side effects. Other agents include hormone therapy, the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) raloxifene, salmon calcitonin, teriparatide (human recombinant parathyroid hormone), and strontium ranelate (in some countries). Factors that may contribute to poor compliance and persistence with current osteoporosis therapies include drug intolerance, complexity of dosing regimens, and poor understanding of the relative benefit and risk with treatment. Emerging therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis include novel SERMs (bazedoxifene, lasofoxifene, ospemifene, arzoxifene) and denosumab. Because SERMs can display mixed functional estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist activity depending on the target tissue, they may confer beneficial effects on bone with limited stimulation of other tissues (e.g., breast, endometrium). Clinical investigation of these promising new agents is ongoing to evaluate efficacy and safety, with the goal of developing effective strategies to maximize long-term tolerance, compliance, and persistence with therapy.

  13. A randomized trial of vaginal misoprostol for cervical priming before hysteroscopy in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Anita; Divyakumar; Priyambada, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To perform hysteroscopy the cervix needs to be dilated and in nullipara and postmenopausal women this is sometimes difficult. Well-known, entry-related complications during hysteroscopy include cervical tear, creation of false tract, bleeding, uterine perforation, scarring, and subsequent anatomical stenosis. Materials and Methods: This study was done to investigate the priming effect of vaginal misoprostol on cervical dilatation in postmenopausal women, before hysteroscopy, to prevent such complications. Two hundred micrograms of misoprostol was inserted into the vagina at least 12 hours before the procedure and the control group did not receive any cervical priming agent. Pre-procedural dilatation, additional dilatation required, and time taken for dilatation was noted in each case. Observations: The study showed a significant difference between the study group (7.7 ± 1.7 mm) and the control group (4.5 ± 1.8 mm) in terms of pre-procedural cervical width and the number of women requiring a dditional dilatation (7 / 25 versus 22 / 25), and hence, the time required for dilatation (4.7 ± 8 seconds versus 20.6 ± 9.3 seconds). Conclusion: The pre-procedural cervical width was significantly more in the study group as compared to that in the control group. We found significant differences between the study and control groups with respect to the number of women who required cervical dilatation. To conclude, this study helps derive a conclusion that vaginal misoprostol as a cervical priming agent in postmenopausal women appears to be safe, effective, and inexpensive, with mild side effects. PMID:21897735

  14. Factors that characterize bone health with aging in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Shota; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Nakamura, Yukio; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Kamimura, Mikio; Nonaka, Kiichi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    The exponential increase in the incidence of fragility fractures in older people is attributed to attenuation of both bone strength and neuromuscular function. Decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) does not entirely explain this increase. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age on various parameters related to bone health with aging, and to identify combinations of factors that collectively express the bone metabolic state in healthy postmenopausal women. Height, weight, and grip strength were measured in 135 healthy postmenopausal volunteer women. Hip BMD, biomechanical indices derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT), cross-sectional areas of muscle and fat of the proximal thigh, and various biochemical markers of bone metabolism were measured. A smaller group of factors explanatory for bone health was identified using factor analysis and each was newly named. As a result, the factors bone mass, bone turnover, bone structure, and muscle strength had the greatest explanatory power for assessing the bone health of healthy postmenopausal women. Whereas dual X-ray absorptiometry parameters only loaded on the factor bone mass, QCT parameters loaded on both the factors bone mass and bone structure. Most bone turnover markers loaded on the factor bone turnover, but deoxypyridinoline loaded on both bone turnover and muscle strength. Age was negatively correlated with bone mass (r = -0.49, p < 0.001) and muscle strength (r = -0.67, p < 0.001). We conclude that aging is associated as much with muscle weakening as with low BMD. More attention should be paid to the effects of muscle weakening during aging in assessments of bone health.

  15. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Adams-Campbell, L L; Dash, C; Kim, B H; Hicks, J; Makambi, K; Hagberg, J

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women. Pooled baseline data on 170 African-American women from 2 exercise trials were examined. Metabolic syndrome was defined as at least 3 of the following: abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and high triglycerides. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) was determined using the Bruce treadmill protocol and categorized as: Very Low (VLCRF<18 mL·kg(-1) min(-1)), Low (LCRF=18.0-220-22-22.0 mL·kg(-1) min(-1)), and Moderate (MCRF>22.0 mL·kg(-1) min(-1)). Associations of metabolic syndrome with cardiorespiratory fitness were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and linear regression. VO2peak was significantly lower in the VLCRF compared to the MCRF group. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL among overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women. In fully adjusted models, higher waist circumference and triglycerides were associated with lower VO2peak levels (P<0.01) and higher HDL-C was associated with higher VO2peak levels (P=0.03). Overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women with very low cardiorespiratory fitness are more likely to have metabolic syndrome, higher body mass index, and unhealthier levels of certain metabolic syndrome components than women with moderate cardiorespiratory fitness.

  16. Association Between Serum Levels of Testosterone and Estradiol With Meibomian Gland Assessments in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Ablamowicz, Anna F.; Nichols, Jason J.; Nichols, Kelly K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this analysis were to determine if there is an association between serum levels of testosterone and estradiol with meibomian gland (MG) morphology and lipid layer thickness. Methods The data used for this analysis were collected from postmenopausal women with and without dry eye disease. Meibography was used to assess MG dropout on the central two-thirds of the eyelid and biomicroscopy was used for assessing MG expressibility and meibum quality. Venous blood samples were drawn for serum hormone level analysis. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlations were used for statistical analysis. Results One hundred ninety-eight postmenopausal women with an average age of 61.2 (±9.1) years were included in this analysis. Testosterone levels showed significant differences between MG dropout grades 1 and 4 (P = 0.002) and grades 2 and 4 (P = 0.01), whereas estradiol levels were different based on MG dropout (P = 0.53). No significant correlations were found between testosterone (r = 0.10, P = 0.17) or estradiol (r = 0.05, P = 0.45) and lipid layer thickness. Conclusions Testosterone levels were increased with MG dropout, which was significant between the mild and severe dropout groups, whereas no significant differences were found with estradiol and any MG assessment. Although the literature suggests an association of serum hormone levels and pathogenesis of dry eye disease in postmenopausal women, analysis of active sex steroid precursors and local tissue hormone levels may prove more useful. PMID:26830366

  17. Effects of fluoxetine and melatonin on mood, sleep quality and body mass index in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chojnacki, C; Walecka-Kapica, E; Klupinska, G; Pawlowicz, M; Blonska, A; Chojnacki, J

    2015-10-01

    Frequent mood and sleep disorders and increased appetite leading to obesity are observed in postmenopausal women. Due to the limitations of hormone replacement therapy the researchers look for other treatment regimes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluoxetine and melatonin in the treatment of these disorders. The study included 64 overweight postmenopausal women, aged 54 - 65 years, with increased appetite. They were randomly assigned in 2 groups. In group I (n = 30) fluoxetine (20 mg in the morning) and placebo (in the evening) were administered for 24 weeks. Group II (n = 34) received fluoxetine (20 mg in the morning) and melatonin (5 mg in the evening) in the same period of time. Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HARS), Beck depression scale (BDI), the insomnia severity index (ISI) and body mass index (BMI) were used to assess the health status and the treatment efficacy. After 24 weeks, comparable and statistically significant reduction in the level of anxiety and depression was obtained in both groups. In group I, the ISI decreased from 14.9 ± 2.5 points to 10.9 ± 1.9 points (P < 0.05) and in group II from 15.8 ± 2.4 points to 7.7 ± 1.5 points (P < 0.001). In group I no reduction in BMI was achieved whereas in group II this index decreased from 30.9 ± 3.1 to 26.3 ± 3.2 (P < 0.05). We conclude that combined administration of fluoxetine and melatonin was useful option to treat mood, sleep and appetite disorders in postmenopausal women.

  18. Neuromuscular adaptations to water-based concurrent training in postmenopausal women: effects of intrasession exercise sequence.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Stephanie S; Alberton, Cristine L; Bagatini, Natália C; Zaffari, Paula; Cadore, Eduardo L; Radaelli, Régis; Baroni, Bruno M; Lanferdini, Fábio J; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Pinto, Ronei S; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Kruel, Luiz Fernando M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of different exercise sequences on the neuromuscular adaptations induced by water-based concurrent training in postmenopausal women. Twenty-one healthy postmenopausal women (57.14 ± 2.43 years) were randomly placed into two water-based concurrent training groups: resistance training prior to (RA, n = 10) or after (AR, n = 11) aerobic training. Subjects performed resistance and aerobic training twice a week over 12 weeks, performing both exercise types in the same training session. Upper (elbow flexors) and lower-body (knee extensors) one-repetition maximal test (1RM) and peak torque (PT) (knee extensors) were evaluated. The muscle thickness (MT) of upper (biceps brachii) and lower-body (vastus lateralis) was determined by ultrasonography. Moreover, the maximal and submaximal (neuromuscular economy) electromyographic activity (EMG) of lower-body (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) was measured. Both RA and AR groups increased the upper- and lower-body 1RM and PT, while the lower-body 1RM increases observed in the RA was greater than AR (34.62 ± 13.51 vs. 14.16 ± 13.68 %). RA and AR showed similar MT increases in upper- and lower-body muscles evaluated. In addition, significant improvements in the maximal and submaximal EMG of lower-body muscles in both RA and AR were found, with no differences between groups. Both exercise sequences in water-based concurrent training presented relevant improvements to promote health and physical fitness in postmenopausal women. However, the exercise sequence resistance-aerobic optimizes the strength gains in lower limbs.

  19. Isoflavone Soy Protein Supplementation and Atherosclerosis Progression in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hodis, Howard N.; Mack, Wendy J.; Kono, Naoko; Azen, Stanley P.; Shoupe, Donna; Hwang-Levine, Juliana; Petitti, Diana; Whitfield-Maxwell, Lora; Yan, Mingzhu; Franke, Adrian A.; Selzer, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that dietary intake of soy may be cardioprotective, use of isoflavone soy protein (ISP) supplementation as a primary preventive therapy remains unexplored. We determined whether ISP reduces subclinical atherosclerosis assessed as carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 350 postmenopausal women 45–92 years of age without diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were randomized to 2 evenly divided daily doses of 25 g soy protein containing 91 mg aglycon isoflavone equivalents or placebo for 2.7-years. Results Overall, mean (95% confidence interval) CIMT progression rate was 4.77(3.39–6.16) μm/year in the ISP group and 5.68(4.30–7.06) μm/year in the placebo group. Although CIMT progression was reduced on average by 16% in the ISP group relative to the placebo group, this treatment effect was not statistically significant (p=0.36). Among the subgroup of women who were randomized within 5 years of menopause, ISP participants had on average a 68% lower CIMT progression rate than placebo participants 2.16(−1.10–5.43) vs. 6.79(3.56–10.01) μm/year, p=0.05). ISP supplementation had a null effect on women who were >5 years beyond menopause when randomized. There were no major adverse events from ISP supplementation. Conclusion ISP supplementation did not significantly reduce subclinical atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women. Subgroup analysis suggest that ISP supplementation may reduce subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy young (median age, 53 years) women at low-risk for CVD who were <5 years postmenopausal. These first trial results of their kind warrant further investigation. PMID:21903957

  20. Cost-effectiveness of bazedoxifene compared with raloxifene in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Hiligsmann, Mickael; Ben Sedrine, Wafa; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2013-04-01

    Bazedoxifene is a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. In addition to the therapeutic value of a new agent, evaluation of the cost-effectiveness compared with relevant alternative treatment(s) is an important consideration to facilitate healthcare decision making. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of bazedoxifene compared with raloxifene for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The cost-effectiveness of treatment for 3 years with bazedoxifene was compared with raloxifene using an updated version of a previously validated Markov microsimulation model. Analyses were conducted from a Belgian healthcare payer perspective and, the base-case population was women (aged 70 years) with bone mineral density T-score ≤ -2.5. The effects of bazedoxifene and raloxifene on fracture risk were derived from the 3-year results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study, including postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The cost-effectiveness analysis based on efficacy data from the overall clinical trial indicated that bazedoxifene and raloxifene were equally cost-effective. When the results were examined based on the subgroup analysis of women at higher risk of fractures, bazedoxifene was dominant (lower cost for higher effectiveness) compared with raloxifene in most of the simulations. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results, which were largely independent of starting age of treatment, fracture risk, cost, and disutility. In addition, when the cost of raloxifene was reduced by one-half or when incorporating the raloxifene effects on reducing breast cancer, bazedoxifene remained cost-effective, at a threshold of €35,000 per quality-adjusted life-years gained, in 85% and 68% of the simulations, respectively. Under the assumption of improved antifracture efficacy of bazedoxifene over raloxifene in women with high risk of fractures

  1. The epidemiology and management of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a viewpoint from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has an aging population, with an associated increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is of particular concern because it leads to an increased risk of fractures, with subsequent negative impacts on health in older women. In recent years, efforts have been made to better understand the epidemiology of osteoporosis in Brazil, and to manage both direct and indirect costs to the Brazilian health care system. The reported prevalence of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women in Brazil varies from 15% to 33%, depending on the study methodology and the use of bone densitometry data or self-reporting by participants. A diagnosis of osteoporosis can be made on the basis of fractures occurring without significant trauma or on the basis of low bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. To reduce the risk of osteoporosis, all postmenopausal women should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle, which includes physical activity and a balanced diet. Smoking and alcohol use should also be addressed. Special attention should be given to interventions to reduce the risk of falls, especially among older women. Calcium intake should be encouraged, preferably through diet. The decision to recommend calcium supplementation should be made individually because there is concern about a possible increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with this treatment. Brazilian women obtain a minimal amount of vitamin D from their diet, and supplementation is warranted in women with little exposure to solar ultraviolet-B radiation. For women diagnosed with osteoporosis, some form of pharmacologic therapy should be initiated. Compliance with treatment should be monitored, and the treatment period should be individualized for each patient. The Brazilian government provides medication for osteoporosis through the public health system free of charge, but without proper epidemiological knowledge, the implementation of public

  2. Insights into the epidemiology of postmenopausal osteoporosis: the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca D; Mysiw, W Jerry

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis and its associated increased risk for fragility fracture is one of the most disabling consequences of aging in women. To successfully reduce the public health burden of this pervasive disease, it is necessary to develop strategies that permit the earlier identification of women at risk for fracture and ensure that preventive interventions to reduce the risk for fracture are both safe and effective. The Women's Health Initiative offers the unprecedented opportunity to systematically address both of these issues. Eleven clinically available risk factors (age, race/ethnicity, self-reported health, weight, height, physical activity, parental hip fracture, fracture history after age 54, current smoking, corticosteroid use, and history of treated diabetes), have been identified to predict 5-year hip fracture risk in white women. Two of these factors (age and fracture history) also predict risk for total fractures in women irrespective of race-ethnicity. Biomarkers including low vitamin D or bioavailable testosterone and/or high cystatin C, pro-inflammatory cytokines, osteoprotegerin and sex hormone-binding globulin also predict risk for hip fracture independent of clinical risk factors. Two cornerstones of therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis-postmenopausal hormone therapy and calcium plus vitamin D supplementation- were rigorously studied. Estrogen with or without a progestin was effective at preventing bone loss and reducing risk for hip, clinical vertebral and total fractures but the balance of risks and benefits failed to show an overall benefit of taking estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin as a preventive strategy for skeletal health. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation also demonstrated a small but significant favorable effect on hip bone density but in contrast, the modest effect did not translate into a significant reduction in the risk of fractures in intent-to-treat analyses. Data such as these have helped to lay a foundation for the

  3. Lack of Dehydroepiandrosterone Effect on a Combined Endurance and Resistance Exercise Program in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Igwebuike, Ada; Irving, Brian A.; Bigelow, Maureen L.; Short, Kevin R.; McConnell, Joseph P.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2008-01-01

    Context: Recent studies disputed the widely promoted anti-aging effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation; however, conflicting data exist on whether physiological DHEA supplementation enhances exercise training effects on body composition, physical performance, and cardiometabolic risk in healthy postmenopausal women. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 wk of DHEA supplementation (50 mg/d) in postmenopausal women enhances exercise-related changes in body composition, physical performance, and cardiometabolic risk. Design and Setting: This study was a 12-wk randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and took place at the Mayo Clinic General Clinical Research Center (Rochester, MN). Participants: Thirty-one sedentary, postmenopausal, Caucasian women (mean ± sem age 64.6 ± 1.0 yr) completed the study. Intervention: Participants were randomized to one of two 12-wk interventions: 1) exercise training plus 50 mg/d of DHEA (n = 17), or 2) exercise training plus placebo (n = 14). The exercise intervention consisted of both endurance (4 d/wk) and resistance (3 d/wk) exercise components. Main Outcome Measures: The main outcomes were measures of body composition, physical performance, and measures of cardiometabolic risk. Results: DHEA treatment with exercise resulted in increases in circulating sulfated DHEA (650%), total testosterone (100%), estradiol (165%), estrone (85%), and IGF-I (30%) (all P ≤ 0.05, for all within and between treatment comparisons). Although exercise training alone significantly improved physical performance, body composition, and insulin sensitivity, administration of DHEA provided no additional benefits. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of combined endurance and resistance training significantly improved body composition, physical performance, insulin sensitivity, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particle number and size, whereas DHEA had no additional benefits. PMID:18029465

  4. Investigating the association of lactation history and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Stendell-Hollis, Nicole R; Thompson, Patricia A; Thomson, Cynthia A; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Ray, Roberta M; Chlebowski, Rowan T

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged lactation (≥24 mo) has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. This research examined this association in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Hormone Trial (HT) and Observational Study (OS). This retrospective cohort analysis included 69,358 predominantly overweight (65.4%), white (83.2%) postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Women in the HT were randomized to 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen (CEE), 0.625 CEE + 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA), or placebo. OS participants had no restrictions on hormone use. Lactation history was assessed via WHI Reproductive History Questionnaire. Most women breastfed at least 1 mo (58.0%); 35.4% breastfed 1-2 children; and 6.5% stated having breastfed ≥24mo. Women in the HT-CEE who breastfed their first child between 20-24 yr of age demonstrated a nonsignificant decreased risk of breast cancer (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38, 1.01). OS participants who reported CEE/MPA hormone use and age of first breastfeeding ≥30 yr showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer (HR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.41). Risk was increased if age of last breastfeeding was ≥35yr (HR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.14). This research did not demonstrate a significantly decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in women who breastfed for ≥24 mo during their lifetime.

  5. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  6. Systematic review of raloxifene in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia)

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Hamaya, Etsuro; Sato, Masayo; Graham-Clarke, Peita; Flynn, Jennifer A; Burge, Russel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the literature describing the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of raloxifene for postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia). Materials and methods Medline via PubMed and Embase was systematically searched using prespecified terms. Retrieved publications were screened and included if they described randomized controlled trials or observational studies of postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia treated with raloxifene and reported one or more outcome measures (change in bone mineral density [BMD]; fracture incidence; change in bone-turnover markers, hip structural geometry, or blood–lipid profile; occurrence of adverse events; and change in quality of life or pain). Excluded publications were case studies, editorials, letters to the editor, narrative reviews, or publications from non-peer-reviewed journals; multidrug, multicountry, or multidisease studies with no drug-, country-, or disease-level analysis; or studies of participants on dialysis. Results Of the 292 publications retrieved, 15 publications (seven randomized controlled trials, eight observational studies) were included for review. Overall findings were statistically significant increases in BMD of the lumbar spine (nine publications), but not the hip region (eight publications), a low incidence of vertebral fracture (three publications), decreases in markers of bone turnover (eleven publications), improved hip structural geometry (two publications), improved blood–lipid profiles (five publications), a low incidence of hot flushes, leg cramps, venous thromboembolism, and stroke (12 publications), and improved quality of life and pain relief (one publication). Conclusion Findings support raloxifene for reducing vertebral fracture risk by improving BMD and reducing bone turnover in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia. Careful consideration of fracture risk and the risk–benefit profile

  7. Strontium ranelate: a review of its use in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Deeks, Emma D; Dhillon, Sohita

    2010-04-16

    This is a review of the pharmacology of strontium ranelate (Protelos, Protos, Protaxos, Bivalos, Osseor), and its efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Strontium ranelate is a divalent strontium salt of ranelic acid that is capable of increasing bone formation and reducing bone resorption, thereby uncoupling and rebalancing bone turnover in favour of bone formation. The drug is effective in reducing the risk of fractures, including both vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, according to data from two large, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trials of 5 years' duration, and reduced the risk of hip fracture in high-risk patients in a post hoc analysis of one trial. Moreover, data from patients who continued to receive the drug during the 3-year extension phases of these trials indicate that strontium ranelate continues to provide protection against new vertebral fractures and nonvertebral fractures for up to 8 years of therapy. It also improves bone mineral density at numerous sites and both increases markers of bone formation and decreases markers of bone resorption. Strontium ranelate is administered orally as a suspension and is generally well tolerated. The nature of adverse events was generally similar regardless of treatment duration in clinical trials, with the most commonly reported being nausea and diarrhoea over 5 years of treatment, and memory loss and diarrhoea during longer-term treatment. Although an increased risk of venous thromboembolism was associated with strontium ranelate relative to placebo over 5 years of treatment in a pooled analysis of clinical trials, postmarketing data have not confirmed this finding. Overall, the clinical data available suggest that strontium ranelate is an effective and generally well tolerated option for the first-line treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  8. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Jones, Rena R.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cerhan, James R.; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Weyer, Peter J.; Ward, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potential human carcinogens. We evaluated the association of nitrate and nitrite ingestion with postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Among 28,555 postmenopausal women, we identified 315 incident epithelial ovarian cancers from 1986 to 2010. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using food frequency questionnaire data. Drinking water source at home was obtained in a 1989 follow-up survey. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels for Iowa public water utilities were linked to residences and average levels were computed based on each woman’s duration at the residence. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested interactions of nitrate with TTHMs and dietary factors known to influence NOC formation. Ovarian cancer risk was 2.03 times higher (CI=1.22–3.38, ptrend=0.003) in the highest quartile (≥2.98 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤0.47 mg/L; reference) of NO3-N in public water, regardless of TTHM levels. Risk among private well users was also elevated (HR=1.53, CI=0.93–2.54) compared with the same reference group. Associations were stronger when vitamin C intake was postmenopausal women. PMID:25430487

  9. Treatments for post-menopausal osteoporotic women, what's new? How can we manage long-term treatment?

    PubMed

    Herrero, Soledad; Pico, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Since the mid-1980s, postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) has been considered a serious public health concern because of the associated fractures. Pharmacological therapies that effectively reduce the number of fractures by improving bone mass have been and are being developed continuously. Most current agents inhibit bone loss by reducing bone resorption, but emerging therapies may increase bone mass by stimulating bone formation. Furthermore, nowadays, the most representative pharmaceuticals have been prescribed long enough to include the reporting of some adverse effects. This review discusses osteoporotic drugs that are approved or are under investigation for the treatment of post-menopausal women (PMW), paying particular attention to long-term treatments.

  10. Premenopausal and postmenopausal differences in bone microstructure and mechanical competence in Chinese-American and white women.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marcella D; Liu, X Sherry; Zhou, Bin; Agarwal, Shivani; Liu, George; McMahon, Donald J; Bilezikian, John P; Guo, X Edward

    2013-06-01

    Compared to white women, premenopausal Chinese-American women have more plate-like trabecular (Tb) bone. It is unclear whether these findings are relevant to postmenopausal women and if there are racial differences in the deterioration of bone microarchitecture with aging. We applied individual trabecula segmentation and finite element analysis to high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography images in premenopausal and postmenopausal Chinese-American and white women to quantify within-race age-related differences in Tb plate-versus-rod microarchitecture and bone stiffness. Race-menopause status interactions were assessed. Comparisons between races within menopause status were adjusted for age, height and weight. Comparisons between premenopausal and postmenopausal women were adjusted for height and weight. Adjusted analyses at the radius indicated that premenopausal Chinese-Americans had a higher plate bone volume fraction (pBV/TV), Tb plate-to-rod ratio (P-R ratio), and greater plate-plate junction densities (P-P Junc.D) versus white women (all p < 0.01), resulting in 27% higher Tb stiffness (p < 0.05). Greater cortical thickness and density (Ct.Th and Dcort) and more Tb plates led to 19% greater whole bone stiffness (p < 0.05). Postmenopausal Chinese-Americans had similar pBV/TV and P-P Junc.D, yet a higher P-R ratio versus white women. Postmenopausal Chinese-American versus white women had greater Ct.Th, Dcort, and relatively intact Tb plates, resulting in similar Tb stiffness but 12% greater whole bone stiffness (p < 0.05). In both races, Ct.Th and Dcort were lower in postmenopausal versus premenopausal women and there were no differences between races. Tb plate parameters were also lower in postmenopausal versus premenopausal women, but age-related differences in pBV/TV, P-R ratio, and P-P Junc D were greater (p < 0.05) in Chinese-Americans versus white women. There are advantages in cortical and Tb bone in premenopausal

  11. Quarterly intravenous injection of ibandronate to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sambrook, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic condition that generally requires long-term therapy for fracture risk reduction to become apparent. Although the bisphosphonates have made a major contribution to how clinicians manage osteoporosis, compliance with therapy has generally been less in the real-world setting than seen in clinical trials. Less-frequently administered dosage regimens or nonoral routes may enhance compliance and so maximize the therapeutic benefit of bisphosphonates. Ibandronate is a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, whose high potency allows it to be administered orally or intravenously with extended dosing intervals. This paper will review the role of intravenous ibandronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  12. BFH-OST, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Lin, JiSheng; Zhang, XiaoDong; Meng, Qian; Wang, BingQiang; Fei, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in a Han Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST). Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST) based on age, body weight, height, and history of fracture after the age of 45 years. The BFH-OST index (cutoff =9.1), which performed better than OSTA, had a sensitivity of 73.6% and a specificity of 72.7% for identifying osteoporosis, with an area under the receiver operating

  13. Dietary lignan intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by estrogen and progesterone receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Touillaud, Marina S.; Thiébaut, Anne C. M.; Fournier, Agnès; Niravong, Maryvonne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies conducted in Asian populations have suggested that high consumption of soy-based foods that are rich in isoflavone phytoestrogens is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. However, the potential associations of other dietary phytoestrogens — i.e., the lignans or their bioactive metabolites, the enterolignans — with the risk of breast cancer are unclear. Methods We prospectively examined associations between the risk of postmenopausal invasive breast cancer and dietary intakes of four plant lignans (pinoresinol, lariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol, and matairesinol) and estimated exposure to two enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone), as measured with a selfadministered diet history questionnaire, among 58 049 postmenopausal French women who were not taking soy isoflavone supplements. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Analyses were further stratified by the combined estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status of the tumors. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results During 383 425 person-years of follow-up (median follow-up, 7.7 years), 1469 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Compared with women in the lowest intake quartiles, those in the highest quartile of total lignan intake (>1395 μg/day) had a reduced risk of breast cancer (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71 to 0.95, Ptrend = .02, 376 versus 411 cases per 100 000 person-years), as did those in the highest quartile of lariciresinol intake (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.71 to 0.95, Ptrend = .01). The inverse associations between phytoestrogen intakes and postmenopausal breast cancer risk were limited to ER- and PR-positive disease (e.g., RR for highest versus lowest quartiles of total plant lignan intake = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.88, Ptrend = .01, 174 versus 214 cases per 100 000 person-years, and RR for highest versus lowest quartiles of total enterolignan level = 0.77, 95% CI = 0

  14. Hormone replacement therapy for preventing cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Rafael Gabriel; Sanchez Gomez, Luis Maria; Carmona, Loreto; Figuls, Marta Roqué i; Cosp, Xavier Bonfill

    2014-01-01

    Background There is apparently compelling evidence, from observational studies, that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may have benefits in reducing cardiovascular events in post-menopausal women. However, these observational data are subject to biases and confounding and require support from formally designed randomised controlled trials of the effects of HRT on cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives To assess the effects of HRT for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in post-menopausal women. Search methods We searched MEDLINE (1998 to December 2002)), EMBASE (1998 to December 2002), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR) (Issue 4 2002), the National Research Register (1998 to present), ClinicalTrials.gov (1998 to present), and the database of Spanish Clinical Trials (1998 to present) and reference lists of articles. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing HRT with controls (placebo or no treatment) with a minimum follow up of 6 months for treating or preventing cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women with or without cardiovascular disease. Data collection and analysis Three independent reviewers extracted information from the articles, solving discrepancies by consensus. All outcomes studied were dichotomous. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each study and plotted. Random effects meta-analysis was used in efficacy outcomes (cardiovascular events) and fixed-effects meta-analysis in variables regarding side effects (deep venous thrombosis). Main results No protective effect of HRT was seen for any of the cardiovascular outcomes assessed: all cause mortality, cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, venous thromboemboli or stroke. Higher risks of venous thromboembolic events (Relative risk (RR) 2.15, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.86), pulmonary embolus (RR 2.15, 95% CI 1.41 to 3.28), and stroke (RR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.89) was found in those randomised to HRT compared with placebo. No

  15. Internet-delivered applied relaxation for vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women: lessons from a failed trial.

    PubMed

    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta; Holm, Anna-Clara Spetz; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per; Nedstrand, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Internet-delivered therapies have a short history and promising results have been shown for several health problems, particularly for psychiatric conditions. This study was a first attempt to evaluate whether Internet-delivered applied relaxation for hot flushes in postmenopausal women may be useful. Due to a high drop-out rate the study was prematurely terminated after inclusion of approximately two thirds of calculated women. The Internet-delivered applied relaxation must probably be modified for such populations and settings before it can be used further. This article will discuss the benefits and pitfalls to learn in order to meet the challenges of future studies. Clinical trial registration number: NCT01245907.

  16. Association of Uric Acid with Metabolic Syndrome in Men, Premenopausal Women and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongqiang; Chen, Shanying; Shao, Xiaofei; Guo, Jia; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Aiqun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in men, premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,834 community-based Southern Chinese participants from June to October 2012. Sex-specific SUA quartiles were used as follows: <345, 345–<400, 400–<468, ≥468 µmol/L in males; and <248, 248–<288, 288–<328, ≥328 µmol/L in females. MS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) Criteria. The association between SUA and MS was then analyzed using the STATA software. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA levels was 2.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 4.34, p = 0.002) in men after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.06 (95% CI, 1.64 to 5.70, p < 0.001). The OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.45 (95% CI, 1.38 to 8.64, p = 0.008) and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.16 to 3.37, p = 0.08) in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.42 (95% CI, 1.15 to 10.18, p = 0.03) and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.05 to 3.33, p = 0.03) in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Higher SUA levels are positively associated with the presence of MS in males and females. Higher SUA levels had a higher risk of having MS in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal

  17. Analysis of estrogens in serum and plasma from postmenopausal women: past present, and future.

    PubMed

    Blair, Ian A

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the selection of women who are at high breast cancer risk for treatment with chemoprevention agents leads to an enhanced benefit/risk ratio. However, further efforts to implement this strategy will require the development of new models to predict the breast cancer risk of particular individuals. Postmenopausal women with elevated plasma or serum estrogens are at increased risk for breast cancer. Therefore, the roles of various enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of estrogens in postmenopausal women have been reviewed in detail. In addition, the potential genotoxic and/or proliferative effects of the different estrogen metabolites as risk factors in the etiology of breast cancer have been examined. Unfortunately, much of the current bioanalytical methodology employed for the analysis of plasma and serum estrogens has proved to be problematic. Major advances in risk assessment would be possible if reliable methodology were available to quantify estradiol and its major metabolites in the plasma or serum of postmenopausal women. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with radioimmunoassay (RIA) currently provides the most sensitive and best validated immunoassay method for the analysis of estrone and estradiol in serum samples from postmenopausal women. However, inter-individual differences in specificity observed with many other immunoassays have caused significant problems when interpreting epidemiologic studies of breast cancer. It is almost impossible to overcome the inherent assay problems involved in using RIA-based methodology, particularly for multiple estrogens. For reliable measurements of multiple estrogens in plasma or serum, it will be necessary to employ stable isotope dilution methodology in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Extremely high sensitivity can be obtained with pre-ionized estrogen derivatives when employed in combination with a modern triple quadrupole

  18. Chronic vulvar pain in a cohort of post-menopausal women: Atrophy or Vulvodynia?

    PubMed Central

    Mitro, Susanna D.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Randolph, John F.; Reed, Barbara D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although postmenopausal vulvar pain is frequently attributed to vaginal atrophy, such symptoms may be due to vulvodynia, a chronic vulvar pain condition. Given the limited research on vulvodynia in postmenopausal women, the objective of this study was to provide preliminary population-based data on the associations of vaginal symptoms, serum hormone levels and hormone use with chronic vulvar pain in a multiethnic sample of post-menopausal women. Methods We used data from 371 participants at the Michigan site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) who participated in the 13th follow-up visit. Women completed a validated screening instrument for vulvodynia and provided information on additional vaginal symptoms as well as demographic characteristics, and hormone use by questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained to assess hormone levels. We compared women who screened positive for vulvodynia and women with past or short-duration vulvar pain to women without vulvar pain, using Chi-squared and Fisher’s Exact tests. Relative odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for age, body mass index, and race/ethnicity. Results Current chronic vulvar pain consistent with vulvodynia was reported by 4.0 % of women, while 13.7 % reported past but not current chronic vulvar pain or short-duration vulvar pain symptoms. One quarter of women who reported current chronic vulvar pain did not report vaginal dryness. Women with current chronic and with past/short duration vulvar pain symptoms were more likely to have used hormones during the preceding year than women without vulvar pain symptoms (13.3 %, 17.6 %, 2.0 %, respectively; p < .01). Increased relative odds of current vulvar pain symptoms were associated with each log unit decrease in serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, estradiol and testosterone levels at the previous year’s visit. Conclusion Some women who experience chronic

  19. Efficacy and safety of risedronate 150 mg once a month in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Rackoff, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Fragility fractures that occur as a result of osteoporosis are frequently associated with chronic pain and decreased quality of life as well as significant morbidity and mortality. Fracture reduction, however, is often less than optimal due to poor compliance with medications. Studies have demonstrated that risedronate, a heterocyclic nitrogen containing bisphosphonate can reduce vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fracture incidence in postmenopausal women, in men, and in subsets of older patients at great risk of falls and fragility. The mechanism, efficacy, dosing options, and tolerability of risedronate are reviewed. PMID:19503783

  20. Visceral adipose tissue is an independent correlate of glucose disposal in older obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brochu, M; Starling, R D; Tchernof, A; Matthews, D E; Garcia-Rubi, E; Poehlman, E T

    2000-07-01

    Older obese postmenopausal women have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Increased abdominal obesity may contribute to these comorbidities. There is considerable controversy, however, regarding the effects of visceral adipose tissue as a singular predictor of insulin resistance compared to the other constituents of adiposity. To address this issue, we examined the independent association of regional adiposity and total fat mass with glucose disposal in obese older postmenopausal women. A secondary objective examined the association between glucose disposal with markers of skeletal muscle fat content (muscle attenuation) and physical activity levels. We studied 44 healthy obese postmenopausal women between 50 and 71 yr of age (mean +/- SD, 56.5 +/- 5.3 yr). The rate of glucose disposal was measured using the euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Visceral and sc adipose tissue areas and midthigh muscle attenuation were measured from computed tomography. Fat mass and lean body mass were estimated from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Peak VO2 was measured from a treadmill test to volitional fatigue. Physical activity energy expenditure was measured from indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water. Pearson correlations indicated that glucose disposal was inversely related to visceral adipose tissue area (r = -0.40; P < 0.01), but not to sc adipose tissue area (r = 0.17), total fat mass (r = 0.05), midthigh muscle attenuation (r = 0.01), peak VO2 (r = -0.22), or physical activity energy expenditure (r = -0.01). The significant association persisted after adjusting visceral adipose tissue for fat mass and abdominal sc adipose tissue levels (r = -0.45; P < 0.005; in both cases). Additional analyses matched two groups of women for fat mass, but with different visceral adipose tissue levels. Results showed that obese women with high visceral adipose tissue levels (283 +/- 59 vs. 137 +/- 24 cm2; P < 0.0001) had a lower glucose

  1. Recurrent pyometra and xanthogranulomatous salpingitis: A rare pathologic association in a postmenopausal lady.

    PubMed

    Gami, Neha; Mundhra, Rajlaxmi; Guleria, Kiran; Arora, Vinod Kumar; Garg, Shipra

    2014-07-01

    Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is a rare, non-neoplastic variant of chronic inflammation. Of the 15 reported cases of Xanthogranulomatous endometritis, majority (60%) were accompanied by endometrial carcinoma. We herein report a case of a postmenopausal woman presenting with recurrent pyometra who was suspected to be case of cervical tuberculosis and treated for the same. Inspite of antitubercular therapy, she had cervical stenosis and developed recurrent pyometra over the next 2 years requiring repeated drainage. She then underwent hysterectomy and was found to have co-existent Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS) on histopathological examination. Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is a rare pathological diagnosis that gynecologists need to be aware of while managing such patients.

  2. Recurrent pyometra and xanthogranulomatous salpingitis: A rare pathologic association in a postmenopausal lady

    PubMed Central

    Gami, Neha; Mundhra, Rajlaxmi; Guleria, Kiran; Arora, Vinod Kumar; Garg, Shipra

    2014-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is a rare, non-neoplastic variant of chronic inflammation. Of the 15 reported cases of Xanthogranulomatous endometritis, majority (60%) were accompanied by endometrial carcinoma. We herein report a case of a postmenopausal woman presenting with recurrent pyometra who was suspected to be case of cervical tuberculosis and treated for the same. Inspite of antitubercular therapy, she had cervical stenosis and developed recurrent pyometra over the next 2 years requiring repeated drainage. She then underwent hysterectomy and was found to have co-existent Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS) on histopathological examination. Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is a rare pathological diagnosis that gynecologists need to be aware of while managing such patients. PMID:25317003

  3. Pyometra presenting in conjunction with bowel cancer in a post-menopausal women: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Soleymani majd, Hooman; Watermeyer, Sean; Ismail, Lamiese

    2008-01-01

    This case describes a 71 year old, post-menopausal woman who developed vaginal discharge. This complaint ultimately led to the discovery of bowel cancer in conjunction with a large sterile pyometra. The pyometra was not due to genital malignancy. The most likely conclusion is that the pyometra may have arisen as an inflammatory response to the adjacent bowel pathology. This case report highlights the need for clinicians to consider non-gynaecological cancer as a possible cause for otherwise unexplained pyometra. PMID:18606021

  4. Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk Factors with Nocturnal Enuresis in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Patrick; McCool, F. Dennis; Hale, Lauren; Stone, Katie; Eaton, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in women increases significantly after menopause. However, identifying at-risk women in this population is difficult because they tend to underreport symptoms and their complaints may differ from those traditionally associated with OSA. We investigated whether OSA risk factors are associated with the presence of a “non-traditional” complaint such as nocturnal enuresis in postmenopausal women. Methods A cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women ages 50–79, who participated in the Women Health Initiative Observational and Clinical Trial Studies (1993–2005) at 40 Clinical Centers in the United States, was performed. Multiple variable logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the association of OSA risk factors with nocturnal enuresis. Results A cohort of 2,789 women (1.7%) reported having nocturnal enuresis. Obesity (Odds ratio (OR)=2.29, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.00–2.62), snoring (OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.74–2.32), poor sleep quality (OR=1.70, 95% CI 1.52–1.91), sleep fragmentation (OR=2.44, 95% CI 2.14–2.79), daytime sleepiness (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.33–1.68), and hypertension (OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.01–1.26) were associated with nocturnal enuresis. Each additional OSA risk factor in a predefined OSA score significantly increased the odds of having nocturnal enuresis in a dose-response fashion (OR=1.38, 2.00, 2.80, 3.87, 5.10, and 7.02 for scores of 1–6, respectively) compared to no risk factors. Conclusion OSA risk factors are associated with nocturnal enuresis in postmenopausal women. Mechanisms relating nocturnal enuresis to OSA may include apnea-associated changes of intra-thoracic pressure leading to increased urine output. Questioning at-risk postmenopausal women presenting with nocturnal enuresis about other OSA risk factors should be considered. PMID:26325085

  5. Normochromic normocytic anemia in a postmenopausal woman with severe osteoporosis treated with intermittent parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Anastasilakis, Athanasios D; Savvides, Mattheos; Polyzos, Stergios A; Georgopoulos, Christos; Delaroudis, Sideris

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent exogenous parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent osteoanabolic agent used for the treatment of severe osteoporosis. Two molecules of recombinant PTH are commercially available: the full-length PTH (PTH 1-84) and teriparatide (PTH 1-34). We present the first report of PTH-induced mild, asymptomatic, normochromic normocytic anemia in a postmenopausal woman treated sequentially with PTH 1-84 and PTH 1-34. Anemia was more pronounced with PTH 1-84 compared to PTH 1-34 and was reversed with each regimen discontinuation. We suggest monitoring of hematocrit and hemoglobin in PTH-treated patients, especially when PTH 1-84 is used.

  6. Association of Vitamin D Deficiency and Thyroid Function in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Niafar, Mitra; Pourafkari, Leili; Aminmozaffari, Saina; Nader, Nader D.

    2016-01-01

    Pupose: Although there are reports of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in immune-mediated hypothyroidism, an association between VitD and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels has yet to be shown. We aim to examine VitD and TSH levels among postmenopausal women, as both conditions are more prevalent in elderly women. Methods: The clinic records of postmenopausal women during their routine maintenance visits were reviewed. All patients were examined for the symptoms related to thyroid function and osteoporosis. Participants were divided into three subgroups according to their TSH levels (below <0.5 mIU/L, 0.51-4.0 mIU/L and >4.0 mIU/L). Patient characteristics and VitD levels were compared between these subgroups. Multivariate linear regression model was constructed using serum VitD and serum TSH as the dependent variables to identify factors independently associated with these laboratory values. Results: Two-hundred and nighty nine postmenopausal women were included. Average age was 62.2±7.5 years old. VitD was insufficient (10-30 ng/mL) in 12.0% and deficient (<10 ng/mL) in 60.9% of the participants. In 11.3%, TSH was low and in 7.6% of women, TSH was high, while the remaining 80.1%, had normal TSH levels. Subjects with low TSH had significantly higher VitD concentrations (34.2±29.1 ng/mL) compared to the other two groups (P-value: 0.039). In multivariate regression analysis, TSH was not a contributing factor, as age was the only significant predictor of VitD levels. Meanwhile, no predictor (including age and VitD) was identified for TSH levels in linear regression analysis. Conclusion: Age was the only independent predictor of serum VitD in this study population. Though suppressed TSH was associated with higher VitD levels, the association was not linear between TSH and VitD in postmenopausal women. PMID:28101471

  7. Vulvovaginal symptoms prevalence in postmenopausal women and relationship to other menopausal symptoms and pelvic floor disorders

    PubMed Central

    EREKSON, Elisabeth A.; LI, Fang-Yong; MARTIN, Deanna K.; FRIED, Terri R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The primary objective of this study was to utilize the Vulvovaginal Symptom Questionnaire (VSQ) to estimate the prevalence and examine the emotional, life style and sexual impact of vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods We administered the VSQ questionnaire, a previous validated instrument to 358 postmenopausal women recruited from primary care physician offices and local senior centers. The first 7 questions of the VSQ comprise the symptom subscale (itching, burning, hurting, irritation, dryness, discharge and odor). Women who answered “Yes” to any of the first 7 symptom questions were considered to have vulvovaginal symptoms. Results Two hundred seventy nine women were recruited from primary care offices and 79 women were recruited from senior centers. One hundred eighty-three post-menopausal women (51.1%; 95% CI 45.9%, 56.3%) reported at least one vulvovaginal symptom. The most common symptom was being dry 35.8% (n/N = 128/358). Ten percent of women (n/N = 38/358) reported ≥ 5 symptoms and 6% of women reported all 7 symptoms in the last week. For women reporting ≥ 1vulvovaginal symptoms, 40.4% (n/N = 74/183) reported emotional impact (Yes to ≥ 1 out of 4 emotional impact subscale items) and 32.8% (n/N = 60/183) reported life style impact (Yes to ≥ 1 out of 5 life impact subscale items) from these symptoms. For sexually active women reporting vulvovaginal symptoms, 75.3% (n/N = 67/89) reported sexual impact (Yes to ≥ 1 out of 4 sexual impact subscale items). Vulvovaginal symptoms were associated with increased co-occurrence of specific pelvic floor disorders, including pelvic organ prolapse (p=0.001), anal incontinence to solid stool (p=0.001), urinary frequency (p=0.02), urgency urinary incontinence (p=0.001), and dysuria (p<0.001). Conclusion Vulvovaginal symptoms are common and present in over 50% of postmenopausal women. Sizeable proportions of women with vulvovaginal symptoms report emotional, life style and sexual

  8. Association of genetic polymorphisms of GALNT3 and VDR with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guorong; Yang, Junhua; Zheng, Xun; Zhu, Jiahua; Shi, Wangqing; Chen, Aimin; Chen, Guoxian; Zhou, Fangye

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of genetic polymorphisms of GALNT3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR) with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women was investigated. A total of 1,212 cases of postmenopausal patients diagnosed with osteoporosis (observation group) and 404 cases of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis (control group) were selected. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar vertebrae L2–4, proximal femoral neck and total hip, and classifications were made. TaqMan genotyping technology was employed to examine tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (tagSNP) of GALNT3 and VDR and the correlation of tagSNP with bone turnover markers (BTMs) and serum calcium and phosphorous levels was analyzed. The multiple logistic regression analysis was used to screen risk factors for osteoporosis. A comparison of age and menopause time of the two groups, yielded no statistical significance difference (P>0.05). BMD and T values of the lumbar vertebrae, femoral neck and total hip in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). A comparison of the degree of osteoporosis, yielded statistically significant differences (P<0.05). The proportion of tagSNP of 5 loci in GALNT3 and 3 loci in VDR in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the differences were of statistical significance (P<0.05). Levels of 25-OHD3, β-CTX, P1NP and serum calcium in the observation group were lower than those in the control group and the level of serum phosphorus in the observation group was higher than that in the control group, and all of these results were statistically significant (P<0.05). The result of the correlation analysis revealed that rs1425000 and rs757343 were negatively correlated with BTM and serum calcium and phosphorus levels (P<0.05). The result of the regression analysis revealed that 8 tagSNPs were

  9. Vulvar Abscess Caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in a Postmenopausal Woman

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Soo Ah; Heo, Gyeong-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the vulva can present a complex differential to the gynecologist, ranging from superficial skin infections to lifethreatening necrotizing fasciitis. Recognition and timely treatment remain universal to skin and soft-tissue infections as the subcutaneous anatomy of the vulva can facilitate rapid spread to other tissues with significant morbidity and mortality. Employing a multidisciplinary team approach to care for vulvar cellulitis and abscess can guide treatment from antibiotic therapies to more aggressive surgical debridement. In this report, we describe a case of vulvar abscess caused by Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a postmenopausal woman with underlying diseases of bronchiectasis and atelectasis. PMID:27617247

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of gait in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There's lack in the literature respecting changes in the trunk and hip angles, and power profile of the lower extremities in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Therefore, this study aimed to examine gait characteristics of that population, and find out which characteristics may be predictors to BMD. This may provide suitable interventions for subjects with osteoporosis. Methods Seventeen healthy postmenopausal women and seventeen with low BMD engaged in this study. Dual X-ray Absorbiometry measured BMD at lumber (L2–4) and femoral neck. Qualysis gait analysis system assessed the gait pattern of each subject. Results Compared to healthy peers, women with low BMD showed less trunk rotation (p = 0.02), hip adduction (p = 0.005) and extension moments (p = 0.008). They showed less hip power generation during early stance (H1S) (p = 0.000), and swing phase (H3S) (p = 0.005), and less hip power absorption (H2S) (p = 0.005). They also, showed less knee power absorption during terminal swing (K4S) (p = 0.002), and ankle power generation at push off (A2S) (p = 0.000). The ability of the gait variables to discriminate between subjects with or without osteopenia was (0.72%, p = 0.016) for trunk rotation, (78%, p = 0.0004) for hip adductor moment, (76%, p = 0.0013) for hip extensor moment, (87%, p < 0.0001) for H1S, (79%, p = 0.0001) for H2S, (77%, p = 0.0008) H3S, (81%, p = 0.0001) for K4S, and (93%, p < 0.0001) for A2S. Conclusion Less power generation at the hip and ankle as well as, less power absorption at the hip and knee, may suggest that postmenopausal women with low BMD showed less propulsion, and stability during walking. Trunk rotation, hip adduction and extension moments, H1S, H2S, H3S, K4S, and A2S are significant predictors for low bone mass in the postmenopausal women. PMID:24720866

  11. [Etidronate and calcitonin to PTH (1-84) in postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Luis Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is now a major health problem. The advancement of knowledge on the role preferred cellular osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts in bone tissue, the biochemical activity and gene expression, interaction with physical activity, diet and nutritional measures, as well as various currently available drugs are disclosed in interaction with clinical studies of etidronate and calcitonin, parathyroid hormone and recombinant 1-84. It is concluded in relation to its activity at eighteen months of the administration and its assessment by bone mineral density, biochemical markers and production of fractures.

  12. Torsion of Collision Tumor: Dermoid Cyst and Fibrothecoma with Postmenopausal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    The term collision tumor refers to the coexistence of two adjacent but histological distinct tumors with no histological admixture at the interface. Collision tumors involving ovaries are extremely rare. A collision tumor composed of a dermoid cyst and fibrothecoma is extremely rare in menopausal women. The mechanism of the development of collision tumor is uncertain. During clinical evaluation, differentiation of characters of these ovarian tumors is important to decide appropriate treatment strategies and for good prognosis. We report an unusual clinical manifestation of the torsion of a dermoid cyst and fibrothecoma in the right ovary with postmenopausal bleeding.

  13. Melatonin effects on luteinizing hormone in postmenopausal women: a pilot clinical trial NCT00288262

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F; Kline, Lawrence E; Shadan, Farhad F; Dawson, Arthur; Poceta, J Steven; Elliott, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    Background In many mammals, the duration of the nocturnal melatonin elevation regulates seasonal changes in reproductive hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH). Melatonin's effects on human reproductive endocrinology are uncertain. It is thought that the same hypothalamic pulse generator may both trigger the pulsatile release of GnRH and LH and also cause hot flashes. Thus, if melatonin suppressed this pulse generator in postmenopausal women, it might moderate hot flashes. This clinical trial tested the hypothesis that melatonin could suppress LH and relieve hot flashes. Methods Twenty postmenopausal women troubled by hot flashes underwent one week of baseline observation followed by 4 weeks of a randomized controlled trial of melatonin or matched placebo. The three randomized treatments were melatonin 0.5 mg 2.5–3 hours before bedtime, melatonin 0.5 mg upon morning awakening, or placebo capsules. Twelve of the women were admitted to the GCRC at baseline and at the end of randomized treatment for 24-hour sampling of blood for LH. Morning urine samples were collected twice weekly to measure LH excretion. Subjective responses measured throughout baseline and treatment included sleep and hot flash logs, the CESD and QIDS depression self-ratings, and the SAFTEE physical symptom inventory. Results Urinary LH tended to increase from baseline to the end of treatment. Contrasts among the 3 randomized groups were statistically marginal, but there was relative suppression combining the groups given melatonin as contrasted to the placebo group (p < 0.01 one-tailed, Mann-Whitney U = 14.) Similar but not significant results were seen in blood LH. There were no significant contrasts among groups in hot flashes, sleep, depression, or side-effect measures and no significant adverse effects of any sort. Conclusion The data are consistent with the hypothesis that melatonin suppresses LH in postmenopausal women. An effect related to the duration of nocturnal melatonin elevation

  14. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-10) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-10 males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-10 mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis. PMID:28057769

  15. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1.

    PubMed

    Farman, H H; Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-02-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-1(0)) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-1(0) males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-1(0) mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis.

  16. The binding of (3H)AF-DX 384 to rat ileal smooth muscle muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Entzeroth, M.; Mayer, N. )

    1991-01-01

    The tritiated cardioselective muscarinic antagonist AF-DX 384 (5,11-dihydro-11-(2-(-(8-dipropylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl-ethyl-amino-carbonyl)-6H-pyrido (2,3-b) (1,4)benzodiazepin-6-one) was used to label muscarinic receptors in the rat ileum. Saturation binding to membrane suspensions revealed a high affinity binding site with a Kd of 9.2 nM. The maximal number of binding sites labeled in this tissue (Bmax) is 237 fmol/mg protein. The association and dissociation kinetics were well represented by single exponential reactions, and the dissociation constant obtained from the ratio of rate constants was in agreement with that derived from saturation experiments. Specific binding was inhibited by muscarinic antagonists with a rank order of potencies of atropine (pKi: 8.80) greater than 4-DAMP (pKi: 8.23) = AF-DX 384 (pKi: 8.20) greater than AF-DX 116 (pKi: 7.09) = hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pKi: 6.97) greater than pirenzepine (pKi: 6.49) and is consistent with the interaction of (3H)AF-DX 384 with muscarinic receptors of the M2 subtype. It can be concluded that (3H)AF-DX 384 can be used to selectively label M2 muscarinic receptors in heterogeneous receptor populations.

  17. [AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].

    PubMed

    Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

    2014-06-01

    The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park.

  18. A simple web-based tool to compare freshwater fish data collected using AFS standard methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Rahr, Matt; Torrey, Yuta T.; Cate, Averill

    2016-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recently published Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes. Enlisting the expertise of 284 scientists from 107 organizations throughout Canada, Mexico, and the United States, this text was developed to facilitate comparisons of fish data across regions or time. Here we describe a user-friendly web tool that automates among-sample comparisons in individual fish condition, population length-frequency distributions, and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data collected using AFS standard methods. Currently, the web tool (1) provides instantaneous summaries of almost 4,000 data sets of condition, length frequency, and CPUE of common freshwater fishes collected using standard gears in 43 states and provinces; (2) is easily appended with new standardized field data to update subsequent queries and summaries; (3) compares fish data from a particular water body with continent, ecoregion, and state data summaries; and (4) provides additional information about AFS standard fish sampling including benefits, ongoing validation studies, and opportunities to comment on specific methods. The web tool—programmed in a PHP-based Drupal framework—was supported by several AFS Sections, agencies, and universities and is freely available from the AFS website and fisheriesstandardsampling.org. With widespread use, the online tool could become an important resource for fisheries biologists.

  19. Low strain, long life creep fatigue of AF2-1DA and INCO 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakker, A. B.; Cowles, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two aircraft turbine disk alloys, GATORIZED AF2-DA and INCO 718 were evaluated for their low strain long life creep-fatigue behavior. Static (tensile and creep rupture) and cyclic properties of both alloys were characterized. The cntrolled strain LCF tests were conducted at 760 C (1400 F) and 649 C (1200 F) for AF2-1DA and INCO 718, respectively. Hold times were varied for tensile, compressive and tensile/compressive strain dwell (relaxation) tests. Stress (creep) hold behavior of AF2-1DA was also evaluated. Generally, INCO 718 exhibited more pronounced reduction in cyclic life due to hold than AF2-1DA. The percent reduction in life for both alloys for strain dwell tests was greater at low strain ranges (longer life regime). Changing hold time from 0 to 0.5, 2.0 and 15.0 min. resulted in corresponding reductions in life. The continuous cycle and cyclic/dwell initiation failure mechanism was predominantly transgranular for AF2-1DA and intergranular for INCO 718.

  20. GLA-AF, an emulsion-free vaccine adjuvant for pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Christopher H; Roque, Richard; Perrone, Lucy A; Rininger, Joseph A; Bowen, Richard; Reed, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing threat from Influenza necessitates the development of new vaccine and adjuvant technologies that can maximize vaccine immunogenicity, shorten production cycles, and increase global vaccine supply. Currently, the most successful adjuvants for Influenza vaccines are squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions. These adjuvants enhance seroprotective antibody titers to homologous and heterologous strains of virus, and augment a significant dose sparing activity that could improve vaccine manufacturing capacity. As an alternative to an emulsion, we tested a simple lipid-based aqueous formulation containing a synthetic TLR4 ligand (GLA-AF) for its ability to enhance protection against H5N1 infection. GLA-AF was very effective in adjuvanting recombinant H5 hemagglutinin antigen (rH5) in mice and was as potent as the stable emulsion, SE. Both adjuvants induced similar antibody titers using a sub-microgram dose of rH5, and both conferred complete protection against a highly pathogenic H5N1 challenge. However, GLA-AF was the superior adjuvant in ferrets. GLA-AF stimulated a broader antibody response than SE after both the prime and boost immunization with rH5, and ferrets were better protected against homologous and heterologous strains of H5N1 virus. Thus, GLA-AF is a potent emulsion-free adjuvant that warrants consideration for pandemic influenza vaccine development.

  1. Potential Approaches to Enhance the Effects of Estrogen on Senescent Blood Vessels and Postmenopausal Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in postmenopausal than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular protective effects of estrogen. Vascular estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and a transmembrane estrogen-binding protein GPR30 have been described. Also, experimental studies have demonstrated vasodilator effects of estrogen on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle and extracellular matrix. However, randomized clinical trials have not supported vascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), possibly due to the subjects' advanced age and age-related changes in estrogen synthesis and metabolic pathways, the vascular ERs number, distribution and integrity, and the post-ER vascular signaling pathways. Current MHT includes natural estrogens such as conjugated equine estrogen, as well as synthetic and semi-synthetic estrogens. New estrogenic formulations and hormone combinations have been developed. Phytoestrogens is being promoted as an alternative MHT. Specific ER modulators (SERMs), and selective agonists for ERα such as PPT, ERβ such as DPN, and GPR30 such as G1 are being evaluated. In order to enhance the vascular effectiveness of MHT, its type, dose, route of administration and timing may need to be customized depending on the subject's age and pre-existing CVD. Also, the potential interaction of estrogen with progesterone and testosterone on vascular function may need to be considered in order to maximize the vascular benefits of MHT on senescent blood vessels and postmenopausal CVD. PMID:20210774

  2. Diets and hormonal levels in postmenopausal women with or without breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Hämäläinen, Esa; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The role of diet in breast cancer (BC) risk is unclear. Fiber could reduce BC risk, through the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens. We examined the relationship between diet and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with or without BC. Thirty-one postmenopausal women (10 omnivores, 11 vegetarians, and 10 BC omnivores) were recruited. Dietary records (5 days) and hormone levels (3 days) were evaluated on 4 occasions over 1 yr. Vegetarians showed a lower fat/fiber ratio, a higher intake of total and cereal fiber (g/d)/body weight (kg), a significantly lower level of plasma estrone-sulfate, estradiol, free-estradiol, free-testosterone, and ring D oxygenated estrogens, and a significantly higher level of sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. Fiber was consumed in slightly larger amounts by omnivores than by BC subjects. Omnivores had significantly lower plasma testosterone and estrone-sulfate but higher sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. No difference was found for the urinary 16-oxygenated estrogens. However, the 2-MeO-E1/2-OH-E1 ratio was significantly lower in omnivores than in BC group. This ratio is positively associated with the fat/fiber ratio. In conclusion, testosterone may contribute to causing alterations in the levels of catechol estrogens and 16-oxygenated estrogens. The fat/fiber ratio appears to be useful in evaluating dietary effects on estrogen metabolism.

  3. Homocysteine, circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal vegetarian women and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Su, Ta-Chen; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Wang, Jung-Der; Torng, Pao-Ling; Chang, Sue-Joan; Chen, Chen-Fang; Liau, Chiau-Suong

    2006-02-01

    Since the adoption of vegetarian diets as a healthy lifestyle has become popular, the cardiovascular effects of long-term vegetarianism need to be explored. The present study aimed to compare the presence and severity of carotid atherosclerosis (CA), and the blood levels of Vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) between 57 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians and 61 age-matched omnivores. Carotid atherosclerosis, as measured by ultrasound, was found to be of no significant difference between the two groups. Yet, fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Vitamin B12 were significantly lower, while Hcy and sVCAM-1 were higher in the vegetarians as comparing with the omnivores. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the level of Vitamin B12 was negatively associated with the level of Hcy. Vegetarianism itself and Hcy level were significantly associated with sVCAM-1 level in univariate analysis; however, after adjustment for covariates, we identified age but not vegetarianism as the determinant of sVCAM-1 level. Multiple linear regression analysis identified age and systolic blood pressure, but not vegetarianism, as determinants of common carotid artery IMT. In conclusion, there was no significant difference in CA between apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians and omnivores. The findings of elevated Hcy in vegetarians indicate the importance of prevention of Vitamin B12 deficiency.

  4. Superficial Angiomyxoma of the Vulva in a Postmenopausal Woman: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Han, Myoungseok; Bae, Jong Woon; Park, Jung-Woo; Oh, So Ra; Kim, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxomas (SAMs) are rare benign cutaneous tumors that involve the subcutaneous layer. They are commonly located in the trunk, lower limbs and head or neck of women of reproductive age. SAMs in the vulva of postmenopausal women are especially rare case. Herein, we report a vulvar SAM in a postmenopausal 60-year-old woman. The patient presented with a palpable cutaneous mass in the right labium majora that had appeared 3 months earlier. The mass was slow growing and approximately 5 cm in size and resembled a soft tissue malignancy. It appeared as a well-defined multilocular cystic mass in magnetic resonance images. The preoperative diagnosis was a benign cystic lesion such as an epidermoid cyst. Grossly, the completely excised mass was 6 × 5 cm in size and well circumscribed with a multilocular outer surface, a yellowish-gray gelatinous cut surface, and a smooth rubbery inner surface. Histologic review revealed that the mass contained small to moderate amount of cellular angiomyxoid nodules and bland-looking spindle-shaped to ovoid cells without atypia. Neutrophil infiltration, which is a diagnostic feature of SAMs, was observed. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of CD34, but not of estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or desmin in the SAM. The patient has been followed up for 12 months without recurrence. PMID:28119899

  5. Risk Assessment Tools for Osteoporosis Screening in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Carolyn J

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are common in postmenopausal women. Tools are available to estimate the risk of low bone mineral density (BMD) or fracture. This systematic review retrieved articles that evaluated osteoporosis risk assessment tools among postmenopausal women in North America. For identifying BMD T-score ≤-2.5, most studies of the Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation tool (SCORE) and Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI) reported sensitivity ≥90 %. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was usually <0.75 for SCORE and ≥0.75 for ORAI. Among women 50-64 years old, a Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) threshold ≥9.3 % had a sensitivity of 33 % for identifying BMD T-score ≤-2.5 and 26 % for predicting major osteoporotic fracture (MOF). For predicting MOF, sensitivity was higher for SCORE and Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool equation (OST), and higher in women ≥65 years old. For predicting BMD T-score ≤-2.5 in women ≥65 years old, the sensitivities of SCORE; ORAI; and Age, Body Size, No Estrogen (ABONE) were very high. No optimal osteoporosis risk assessment tool is available for identifying low BMD and MOF risk.

  6. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use

    PubMed Central

    Boucetta, Kenza Qiraouani; Charrouf, Zoubida; Derouiche, Abdelfattah; Rahali, Younes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Material and methods Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30) and the control group olive oil (n = 30). Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days’ period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and water content of the epidermis (WCE) on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60) of oils treatment. Results The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023) and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001). The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01) and a significant increase in WCE (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and application of argan oil have improved the skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity. PMID:26327867

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone intra vaginal administration for the management of postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F

    2015-01-01

    The effects of intravaginal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for the management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy are reviewed. A literature search related to vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal atrophy, atrophic vaginitis, estrogen, dehydroepiandrosterone, vulvar itching, burning, dryness, dyspareunia, and libido was performed. Relevant articles addressing the incidence, management, and outcome of DHEA therapy were identified and used for this Expert Opinion. DHEA compared to a placebo is an effective treatment improving symptoms of vaginal atrophy: dyspareunia, burning, itching, and dryness. Objective parameters of vaginal atrophy, specifically pH, vaginal maturation index (VMI), and investigator-evaluated changes in the vagina: moisture, epithelia integrity and color were improved compared to baseline and placebo. There were significant improvements in libido and dyspareunia with the intravaginal use of DHEA that contribute to improved quality of life for postmenopausal women. Dehydroepiandrosterone administered intravaginally on a daily basis is an effective treatment for symptoms, and signs of vulvovaginal atrophy along with libido in postmenopausal women. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'.

  8. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Oxidative Stress in Postmenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A.; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Castrejón-Delgado, Lizett; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana Karen; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral hormone therapy (HT) on oxidative stress (OS) in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out. We formed four groups of 25 women each; healthy (HW) and MetS women (MSW) were assigned to HT (1 mg/day of estradiol valerate plus 5 mg/10 day of medroxiprogesterone) or placebo. We measured plasma lipoperoxides, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, total plasma antioxidant status and uric acid, as OS markers. Alternative cut-off values of each parameter were defined and a stress score (SS) ranging from 0 to 7 was used as total OS. MetS was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Participants were seen at baseline, 3 and 6 months. After 6 months, MetS decreased in MSW-HT (48%), their triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) improved; in the other groups no difference was found. SS in MSW-HT decreased (3.8 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.3, p < 0.05) and OS was also reduced (44%), this effect was evident since 3 mo. HW-HT with high OS also decreased (40%). In placebo groups there was no change. Our findings suggest that HT improve lipids and OS associated to MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:27563883

  9. Association of ESR1 and C6orf97 gene polymorphism with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lianmei; Xia, Weibo; Nie, Min; Sun, Yue; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Jing; He, Shuli; Xu, Ling

    2014-05-01

    The estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and Chromosome 6 Open Reading Frame 97 (C6orf97) gene polymorphisms were earlier reported to be associated with osteoporosis in the European cohort. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with bone mineral density (BMD), fracture, vertebral fracture, bone turnover or 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in 1,753 randomly selected postmenopausal women in China. Vertebral fracture, BMD of lumbar spine (2-4), femoral neck and total hip were measured respectively. Serum N-terminal procollagen of type 1 collagen (P1NP), β-isomerized type I collagen C-telopeptide breakdown products (β-CTX) and 25(OH)D3 were also determined. Binary logistic regression revealed significant associations between fracture risk with rs1999805 (P=0.041, OR 1.633, 95%CI 1.020-2.616) and rs6929137 (P=0.005, OR 1.932, 95%CI 1.226-3.045) in recessive model. Significant association was also observed between vertebral fracture risk and rs1038304 (P=0.039, OR 0.549, 95%CI 0.311-0.969) in recessive model. Liner regression analyses showed that only the CC group of rs4870044 was significantly associated with total hip in dominant model (P=0.034). Our findings suggest that ESR1 and C6orf97 gene polymorphism is associated with fracture and vertebral fracture risk in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  10. Clinical performance of seven prescreening tools for osteoporosis in Iranian postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Keshtkar, Abbas; Tabatabaie, Omidreza; Matin, Nassim; Mohammadi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Khashayar, Patricia; Asadi, Mojgan

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate seven prescreening osteoporosis models in postmenopausal Iranian women. This study was performed on 8644 postmenopausal women who have been referred for bone mineral densitometry (BMD) in BMD center of Shariati hospital in Tehran between 2001 and 2011. Diagnostic properties of seven prescreening instruments were evaluated. With regard to area under curve (AUC), these models have low accuracy (AUC ≤ 0.65). Considering only femoral neck or total femur area, these models had low accuracy but were more sensitive. Except for three models with sensitivities of ≤65 % in both osteoporosis and fracture threshold, other models were around 70 % sensitive. However, these models were not considered clinically useful regarding their positive predictive values (PPV) especially in BMDs ≤02.5. With regard to different measures of diagnostic property, none of these models were good screening tools for osteoporosis or fracture threshold. Although some of them are sensitive, considering other measures such as PPV indicates that they are not completely useful for clinical use. Attempts should be made for developing newer prescreening methods and calibration of the existing models with regard to the studied population.

  11. What is the influence of hormone therapy on homocysteine and crp levels in postmenopausal women?

    PubMed Central

    Lakryc, Eli Marcelo; Machado, Rogério Bonassi; Soares, José Maria; Fernandes, César Eduardo; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of estrogen therapy and estrogen-progestin therapy on homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In total, 99 postmenopausal women were included in this double-blind, randomized clinical trial and divided into three groups: Group A used estrogen therapy alone (2.0 mg of 17β-estradiol), Group B received estrogen-progestin therapy (2.0 mg of 17 β-estradiol +1.0 mg of norethisterone acetate) and Group C received a placebo (control). The length of treatment was six months. Serum measurements of homocysteine and C-reactive protein were carried out prior to the onset of treatment and following six months of therapy. RESULTS: After six months of treatment, there was a 20.7% reduction in homocysteine levels and a 100.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels in the group of women who used estrogen therapy. With respect to the estrogen-progestin group, there was a 12.2% decrease in homocysteine levels and a 93.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that hormone therapy (unopposed estrogen or estrogen associated with progestin) may have a positive influence on decreasing cardiovascular risk due to a significant reduction in homocysteine levels. PMID:25789519

  12. Simplified Tai Chi Resistance Training versus Traditional Tai Chi in Slowing Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huiru; Yu, Bo; Chen, Wenhua; Lu, Yingzhi; Yu, Dinghai

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study examined whether simplified Tai Chi resistance training is superior to traditional Tai Chi in slowing bone loss in postmenopausal women. Methods. This prospective trial included 119 postmenopausal women (age: 52–65 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to participate in a traditional Tai Chi program (TTC, n = 40), a simplified Tai Chi resistance training program (TCRT, n = 40), or a blank control group (routine activity, n = 39). The TTC involved traditional Yang Style Tai Chi. The primary outcome was the change of lumbar bone mass density (L2–L4) at 12 months over the baseline. Femoral neck and Ward's triangle were also measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. The L2–L4 density was significantly lower at 12 months in comparison to the baseline in the blank control group. In both the TCRT and TTC groups, the L2–L4 density was comparable to the baseline. There was a trend for less bone loss in the TCRT than in the TTC group. Similar findings were observed with femoral neck and Ward's triangle. Conclusion. Simplified Tai Chi resistance training could slow bone loss in menopausal women. The results also suggested, but did not confirm, superiority to traditional Tai Chi. PMID:26136808

  13. Aerobic exercise training increases plasma Klotho levels and reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Miyaki, Asako; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Ra, Song-Gyu; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Satoshi; Maeda, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The Klotho gene is a suppressor of the aging phenomena, and the secretion as well as the circulation of Klotho proteins decrease with aging. Although habitual exercise has antiaging effects (e.g., a decrease in arterial stiffness), the relationship between Klotho and habitual exercise remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of habitual exercise on Klotho, with a particular focus on arterial stiffness. First, we examined the correlation between plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance and β-stiffness index) or aerobic exercise capacity [oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (VT)] in 69 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) by conducting a cross-sectional study. Second, we tested the effects of aerobic exercise training on plasma Klotho concentrations and arterial stiffness. A total of 19 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) were divided into two groups: control group and exercise group. The exercise group completed 12 wk of moderate aerobic exercise training. In the cross-sectional study, plasma Klotho concentrations positively correlated with carotid artery compliance and VT and negatively correlated with the β-stiffness index. In the interventional study, aerobic exercise training increased plasma Klotho concentrations and carotid artery compliance and decreased the β-stiffness index. Moreover, the changes in plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness were found to be correlated. These results suggest a possible role for secreted Klotho in the exercise-induced modulation of arterial stiffness.

  14. A randomized trial of estrogen or raloxifene during postmenopausal weight loss: Adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Van Pelt, R.E.; Gozansky, W.S.; Wolfe, P.; Kittelson, J.M.; Jankowski, C.M.; Schwartz, R.S.; Kohrt, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT) attenuates abdominal fat gain after menopause, but whether HT improves abdominal fat loss during weight loss is unknown. We hypothesized that HT or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (raloxifene) would augment reductions in abdominal visceral fat during weight loss when compared to placebo, potentially increasing improvements in glucose tolerance and lipid profile. Design and Methods Healthy postmenopausal women (n=119; age 50–70y) underwent a 6-month weight loss (primarily exercise) intervention with randomization to raloxifene (60mg/d), HT (conjugated estrogens, 0.625mg/d), or placebo. We measured changes in total and abdominal (visceral and subcutaneous) fat mass, lipid profile, and fasting and post-challenge glucose and insulin. Results Neither HT nor raloxifene augmented loss of total or abdominal fat mass during exercise-induced weight loss when compared with placebo. Weight loss-induced improvements in risk factors were similar among the three groups, except for a greater reduction in fasted glucose in the HT group (difference in change [95%CI] from placebo; −0.40 [−0.76, −0.05]) and greater reductions in LDL (−0.36 [−0.63, −0.09]) and increases in HDL (0.15 [0.07, 0.24]) in both treatment groups. Conclusions Postmenopausal HT and raloxifene did not increase abdominal fat loss during weight loss, but did improve some cardiometabolic outcomes. PMID:24311443

  15. Huge uterine fibroid in a postmenopausal woman associated with polycythaemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Abdul Ghaffar, Nor Aliza; Ismail, M Pazudin; Nik Mahmood, N M Zaki; Daud, Khurshiah; Abu Dzarr, G A

    2008-06-20

    Uterine fibroid or leiomyoma is the commonest benign uterine tumour. Its occurrence in the postmenopausal age group is rare and if enlargement of the fibroid noted during this time, the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma is provisional until proven otherwise. A case of a postmenopausal woman with a huge uterine fibroid associated with polycythaemia is presented whereby the mass was noted to increase in size within 2 years. The patient was otherwise well except for the growing uterine mass. She had venesection done to treat her polycythaemia and later underwent surgery for total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophoorectomy. The histopathology report confirmed leiomyoma of uterus with no evidence of sarcomatous changes. It was suggested that large uterine myoma may cause secondary polycythaemia by three postulated mechanisms, i.e. presence of hypoxia suggesting shunting within the tumour, second, the uterine fibroid was compressing the ureters resulting in inappropriate excessive production of erythropoietin by the kidneys, and third, the tumour itself may have been producing the erythropoietin.

  16. A serum metabolomics-based profile in low bone mineral density postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Takeshi; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sato, Yuiko; Koboyashi, Tami; Katsuyama, Eri; Kanagawa, Hiroya; Miyamoto, Hiroya; Mori, Tomoaki; Yoshida, Shigeyuki; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Morita, Mayu; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Tando, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Kana; Tsuji, Takashi; Funayama, Atsushi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2017-02-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized as a metabolic disorder of bone tissue, and various metabolic markers are now available to support its diagnosis and evaluate treatment effects. Substances produced as end products of metabolomic activities are the correlated factors to the biological or metabolic status, and thus, metabolites are considered highly sensitive markers of particular pathological states, including osteoporosis. Here we undertook comprehensive serum metabolomics analysis in postmenopausal women with or without low bone mineral density (low BMD vs controls) for the first time using capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry. Among the metabolites tested, 57 were detected in sera. Levels of hydroxyproline, Gly-Gly and cystine, differed significantly between groups, with Gly-Gly and cystine significantly lower in the low BMD group and hydroxyproline, a reported marker of osteoporosis, significantly higher. Levels of TRACP5b, a bone resorption marker, were significantly higher in the low BMD group, supporting the study's validity. Taken together, our findings represent novel metabolomic profiling in low BMD in postmenopausal women.

  17. Association between osteoprotegerin genetic variants and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengbin; Huang, Xiaoxing; Miao, Jinhao; Guo, Long; Tao, Degang

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of osteoprotegerin gene (OPG) with bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. A total of 338 Chinese postmenopausal women with primary osteoporosis and 367 healthy controls were enrolled. The lumbar spine (L₂₋₄), total hip and femoral neck hip of BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). OPG genetic variants were genotyped through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), created restriction site-PCR (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. In this study, the g.18861A>G and g.25548C>T SNPs were detected and our data suggested that the significant differences of spine BMD, femoral neck hip BMD and total hip BMD were found among different g.18861A>G genotype, subjects with the AA genotype were significantly higher than those of AG and GG genotypes (p < 0.05). The g.25548C>T variant was not significantly associated with spine BMD, femoral neck hip BMD and total hip BMD (p > 0.05), while almost reached at the significant level in total hip BMD (p = 0.061). These findings suggeste that OPG gene variants are related to BMD and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  18. Low Bone Mass is Associated with Stroke in Chinese Postmenopausal Women: The Chongqing Osteoporosis Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Liu, Dong; Li, Rui; Zhou, Shiming; Cui, Min; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Huadong

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of low bone mass with the risk of stroke and death in community residents of China. This study was based on the follow-up data acquired from 5,136 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older between July 2006 and June 2011. Baseline and the follow-up bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. The association of BMD and risk of stroke and death was further evaluated by Cox proportional hazard analysis. During the follow-up, 148 subjects (2.9%) sustained prospective stroke, and 261 subjects (5.1%) died. After adjustments for age and BMI, our results indicated that neck BMD and osteoporosis were independent predictors of stroke (HR for neck BMD = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.21-1.62; HR for osteoporosis = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.47-3.58) and were also associated with increased risk of death (HR for neck BMD = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.24-1.71; HR for osteoporosis = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.21-2.97). Our results also suggest that low neck BMD and osteoporosis are associated with significantly elevated risk of stroke and death in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  19. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Morillas-Ruiz, J. M.; Delgado-Alarcon, J. M.; Rubio-Perez, J. M.; Albaladejo Oton, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil) separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD. PMID:25136625

  20. Effects of Isoflavones on the Skin of Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Accorsi-Neto, Alfeu; Haidar, Mauro; Simões, Ricardo; Simões, Manuel; Soares-Jr, José; Baracat, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of isoflavones on the skin of postmenopausal women. DESIGN: A prospective study was performed with 30 postmenopausal women before and immediately after the end of treatment with 100 mg/day of an isoflavones-rich, concentrated soy extract for six months. A skin punch was performed in the gluteal region for sample collection before and immediately after the treatment program. Morphometric determination of epidermal thickness, the papillary index (wrinkling), and the amount of dermal elastic and collagen fibers was assessed. In addition, the number of blood vessels in the sample was also evaluated. The paired Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: Isoflavone treatment resulted in a 9.46% increase in the thickness of the epidermis in 23 patients. In addition, the papillary index was reduced in 21 women. The papillary index was inversely proportional to skin wrinkling, i.e., there were a large number of papillae after treatment. The amount of collagen in the dermis was increased in 25 women (86.2%). In 22 women (75.8%) we observed that the number of elastic fibers increased. The number of dermal blood vessels was significantly increased in 21 women. CONCLUSION: Our data show that the use of a concentrated, isoflavone-rich soy extract during six consecutive months caused significant increases in epithelial thickness, the number of elastic and collagen fibers, as well as the blood vessels. PMID:19578653

  1. Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fuxia; Nieman, David C; Sha, Wei; Xie, Guoxiang; Qiu, Yunping; Jia, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Ten postmenopausal women (age 55.6 ± 0.8 years, BMI 24.6 ± 1.1 kg/m²) ingested 25 g/day milled chia seed during a 7-week period, with six plasma samples collected for measurement of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Subjects operated as their own controls with overnight fasted blood samples taken at baseline (average of two samples), and then after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 weeks supplementation. Plasma ALA increased significantly after one week supplementation and was 138 % above baseline levels by the end of the study (overall time effect, P < 0.001). EPA increased 30 % above baseline (overall time effect, P = 0.019) and was correlated across time with ALA (r = 0.84, P = 0.02). No significant change in plasma DPA levels was measured (overall time effect, P = 0.067). Plasma DHA decreased slightly by the end of the study (overall time effect, P = 0.030) and was not correlated with change in ALA. In conclusion, ingestion of 25 g/day milled chia seeds for seven weeks by postmenopausal women resulted in significant increases in plasma ALA and EPA but not DPA and DHA.

  2. Postmenopausal hormone therapy is not associated with risk of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jacqueline; Jackson, John W; Grodstein, Francine; Blacker, Deborah; Weuve, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of postmenopausal hormone therapy with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia has been controversial. Given continued interest in the role of hormone therapy in chronic disease prevention and the emergence of more prospective studies, we conducted a systematic review to identify all epidemiologic studies meeting prespecified criteria reporting on postmenopausal hormone therapy use and risk of Alzheimer's disease or dementia. A systematic search of Medline and Embase through December 31, 2012, returned 15 articles meeting our criteria. Our meta-analysis of any versus never use did not support the hypothesis that hormone therapy reduces risk of Alzheimer's disease (summary estimate = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.66, 1.16). Exclusion of trial findings did not change this estimate. There were not enough all-cause dementia results for a separate meta-analysis, but when we combined all-cause dementia results (n = 3) with Alzheimer's disease results (n = 7), the summary estimate remained null (summary estimate = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.26). The limited explorations of timing of use-both duration and early initiation-did not yield consistent findings. Our findings support current recommendations that hormone therapy should not be used for dementia prevention. We discuss trends in hormone therapy research that could explain our novel findings and highlight areas where additional data are needed.

  3. Utility of two methodologies in the clinical assessment of oral dryness in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Chengappa, Rachita Kodandera; Narayanan, Veena S.; Khan, Asim M.; Rakaraddi, Mangala P.; Puttaswamy, Kavitha A.; Puttabuddi, Jaishankar H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the oral dryness in postmenopausal women and to correlate the salivary flow rate determined by sialometry with the clinical oral dryness score (CODS) obtained from Challacombe Scale. To correlate between subjective and objective oral dryness and relationship of salivary flow rate with that of the duration of menopause. Materials and Methods: Sixty postmenopausal women were questioned regarding their oral dryness status and the duration of menopause. Patients complaining of xerostomia formed the case group and rest formed the control group. CODS was assessed based on the 10 features of oral dryness. Unstimulated whole salivary (UWS) flow rate was assessed by sialometry for 5 min. Results: Highly significant negative correlation was observed between UWS and CODS (r = −0.651), low negative correlation was noted between the duration of menopause and UWS flow rates (r = −0.159), and no significant correlation was found between subjective oral dryness with that of UWS flow rates (P = 0.0964). There was no statistically significant difference between case and control group with regard to CODS (P = 0.525). Conclusion: A good correlation of CODS with sialometry scores indicates that CODS can be utilized for semiquantitative assessment of oral dryness. It appears that UWS has poor correlation with duration of menopause. Xerostomia and UWS were not significantly related. PMID:27721638

  4. The beneficial effects of massage therapy for insomnia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hachul, H; Oliveira, D S; Bittencourt, L R A; Andersen, M L; Tufik, S

    2014-06-01

    With increases life expectancy, the incidence of undesirable manifestations of menopause has increased as well. The effects of lost ovarian function include progressive decrease in estradiol secretion, trophic changes in the breast, vasomotor symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Insomnia, which has physiological consequences and can result in a loss of quality of life, is prevalent in women after menopause. Hormone therapy has been widely used to reduce menopausal symptoms, but its use in recent years has been questioned because of the reported risks of cardiovascular events and increased incidence of tumors. This controversy has generated significant interest in non-hormonal treatments among both physicians and patients. Our previous research has shown a positive effect of massage therapy on menopausal symptoms. We explored the hypothesis that massage therapy would produce beneficial effects in postmenopau