Science.gov

Sample records for behandlung eines kindes

  1. [Homöopathisch-phytotherapeutische Behandlung des Reizdarmsyndroms mit Magen-Darm-Entoxin N®: Eine Anwendungsbeobachtung].

    PubMed

    Märtens, Diane; Range, Natasha; Günnewich, Nils; Gruber, Nicola; Schmidt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Hintergrund: In dieser Anwendungsbeobachtung wird zum ersten Mal die Behandlung des Reizdarmsyndroms (RDS) mit einem homöopathisch-phytotherapeutischen Komplexpräparat beschrieben. Methodik: Ziel der 6-wöchigen Therapie mit dem Magen-Darm-Entoxin N® war die Reduzierung der RDS-Symptomatik sowie die Verbesserung der Lebensqualität. Zielkriterien waren die Veränderungen in der Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) und der Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Quality-of-Life Scale (IBS-QoL). Die Patient/innen (N = 41; Alter 44,0 ± 15,74 Jahre) wurden zu gleichen Teilen in einer Hausarztpraxis (N = 20) und einer Heilpraktikerpraxis (N = 21) rekrutiert. Ergebnisse: Der IBS-QoL-Score verringerte sich signifikant (prä: 35,9 ± 16,3; post: 20,1 ± 13,4; t = 8,504; p < 0,001). Die Effektstärke betrug 1,34 (Cohens d). Der IBS-SSS-Score verringerte sich ebenfalls signifikant (prä: 239,4 ± 83,4; post: 123,7 ± 80,9; t = 7,825; p < 0,001) mit einer Effektstärke von d = 1,24. Die Neben- und Wechselwirkungen waren minimal und signifikante Unterschiede zwischen beiden Praxen wurden nicht gefunden. Schlussfolgerungen: Magen-Darm-Entoxin N® ist eine sichere und sinnvolle Therapieoption bei der Behandlung des RDS. Allerdings sollten randomisierte kontrollierte Studien folgen, um die Spezifizität der Ergebnisse dieser Anwendungsbeobachtung zu stützen. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. [COPD und Klangtherapie: Pilotstudie zur Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung mit Körpertambura bei COPD-Patienten].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Bernhard; Schmidt, Stefan; Hartwig, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Erkrankungen der Atemorgane treten mit steigendem Alter öfter auf, nehmen weltweit zu und sind häufige Ursachen für Morbidität und Mortalität. In dieser Pilotstudie wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob eine einmalige 10-minütige Behandlung mit einer Körpertambura eine signifikante und effektive Verbesserung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten mit chronisch-obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung (COPD; GOLD-Stadium A oder B) erbringen kann. Patienten und Methoden: 54 Probanden konnten je zur Hälfte in eine Behandlungsgruppe (Körpertambura) und eine aktive Kontrollgruppe (Atemtherapie) randomisiert werden. Eine Bestimmung der Lungenfunktionsmessparameter «Einsekundenkapazität» (FEV1) und «inspiratorische Vitalkapazität» (IVC) zu den Zeitpunkten T1 (Baseline), T2 (direkt nach Behandlung) und als Follow-up etwa 3 Wochen nach T1 (T3). Ergebnisse: Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte sich der Kontrollgruppe in beiden Werten signifikant überlegen. Die Zeit-×-Gruppe-Interaktion (Varianzanalyse) ergab p = 0,001 (FEV1) bzw. p = 0,04 (IVC). Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte bei beiden Werten eine Verbesserung von klinischer Relevanz. Schlussfolgerung: Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Klangbehandlung mittels einer Körpertambura - neben den schulmedizinischen, leitliniengerechten Therapien - eine zusätzliche, nebenwirkungsarme, aber durchaus klinisch wirksame Option für die Behandlung von COPD-Patienten darstellen kann, um deren Lebensqualität zu stabilisieren und zu verbessern. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  3. Kindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Students readily see kindness as a mark of the good teacher. Yet the concept of kindness is singularly silent in accounts of teaching excellence, student satisfaction or professional values. It seems to have little place in a world driven by competitive individualism. In this article, the author discusses kindness, which extends beyond the private…

  4. EIN Software Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interuniversity Communications Council (EDUCOM), Boston, MA.

    The EIN (Educational Information Network) is a non-profit operation which coordinates the sharing of educational computing resources. It is administered by EDUCOM and funded jointly by the U. S. Office of Education and the National Science Foundation. EIN maintains a group of contact personnel at member institutions to serve as a liaison between…

  5. Datenkompression, Prozessoptimierung, Aerodynamik: Eine Tour Durch die Skalen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Wolfgang; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    Enorm gestiegene Rechnerkapazitäten ermutigen zu einer immer genaueren Erschließung komplexer Prozesse in Natur- und Ingenieurwissenschaften durch numerische Simulation. Die Mathematik als Schnittstelle zwischen realer und digitaler Welt liefert einerseits die Grundlagen zur Formulierung notwendigerweise vereinfachter Modelle der Realität. Andererseits bietet sie aber auch die methodischen Grundlagen für den Entwurf effizienter Algorithmen, die aus solchen Modellen quantitative Information gewinnen können. Eine zentrale Herausforderung liegt dabei in der Tatsache, dass reale Prozesse meist durch relevante Anteile auf einer riesigen Spannweite von Längenskalen getrieben werden. Die Entwicklung mathematischer Methoden zur Behandlung von Mehrskaligkeit ist daher von wesentlicher Bedeutung. In diesem Artikel wird dies anhand jüngster Entwicklungen in ganz unterschiedlichen Anwendungsbereichen erklärt und illustriert, auch um deutlich zu machen, wieviele "Fliegen“ man mit einer "mathematischen Klappe“ schlagen kann. Insbesondere werden grundlegende, auf Waveletzerlegung beruhende Prinzipien zunächst im Rahmen der Bildkompression und -kodierung auf weitgehend elementare Weise erklärt. Es wird dann aufgezeigt, dass diese Konzepte in ganz ähnlicher Weise bei der Datenanalyse im Zusammenhang mit verfahrenstechnischen Anwendungen, bei großskaligen Optimierungsproblemen der Prozessindustrie sowie bei komplexen Strömungsproblemen wie in aerodynamischen Anwendungen zum Tragen kommen. Stabile Zerlegungen in Anteile unterschiedlicher Längenskalen eröffnen dabei einen Zugang zu adaptiven Lösungskonzepten, die in der Lage sind, automatisch Rechnerresourcen dort zu plazieren, wo sie zu einer ökonomischen Realisierung der gewünschten Lösungsqualität, etwa in Form von Genauigkeitstoleranzen, benötigt werden.

  6. Two Kinds of Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Two Kinds of Stroke Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table ... minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ...

  7. Ein Kredit für Weihnachtsbaumkugeln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutsch, Sina

    Eine Mathematikerin aus dem DFG-Forschungszentrum Matheon arbeitet an Methoden zur dreidimensionalen Visualisierung. Sie hat die Geschäftsidee, Weihnachtsbaumkugeln mit bewegten Hologrammen herzustellen, die sich individuell gestalten lassen, und plant eine Existenzgründung. Aus einem öffentlichen Förderprogramm erhält sie ein günstiges Darlehen in Höhe von 50 000 Euro. Für die Startphase ihres Unternehmens benötigt sie jedoch den vierfachen Betrag.

  8. [Qualitätsmessung bei der Behandlung von Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Entwicklungsstörungen - Eine Machbarkeitsstudie am Beispiel ADHS].

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Marta; Borusiak, Peter; Hameister, Karin A; Geraedts, Max

    2017-04-03

    The question of a possible presence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is raised with increasing frequency in pediatric practice. There are guidelines and expert recommendations for diagnostic approaches. But there are no instruments available to evaluate the structural, process and outcome quality. In this pilot study, a set of quality indicators on the treatment quality of ADHD was analyzed in terms of their feasibility in tertiary referral centers.A set of 39 quality indicators (QI) on ADHD developed in advance in a multistage procedure was assessed at 9 tertiary referral centers, with a focus on process verifiability and feasibility. QI values were calculated as ratios for individual centers as well as across centers, followed by an explorative analysis to assess feasibility under due consideration of possible influencing factors.QI assessment is possible but highly complex and expensive in practice. Calculated QI values showed a high degree of heterogeneity between facilities as well as between institutions, which was mainly due to a lack of standardization in the documentation of required data.Basically, it is possible to assess the quality of ADHD treatment via QIs. The approach described here in assessing QIs may be also applied to other types of developmental disorders.

  9. Different Kinds of Birthmarks

    MedlinePlus

    ... this type of birthmark. The different kinds are: Salmon patches A salmon patch on a person’s forehead 4 . These marks ... flat and kind of pink or red (like salmon). If you get them on your face, people ...

  10. EIN Software Catalog; Entries, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interuniversity Communications Council (EDUCOM), Boston, MA.

    The EIN (Educational Information Network) is a non-profit operation which coordinates the sharing of educational computing resources. It is administered by EDUCOM and funded jointly by the U. S. Office of Education and the National Science Foundation. EIN maintains a group of contact personnel at member institutions to serve as a liaison between…

  11. EIN Software Catalog; Entries, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interuniversity Communications Council (EDUCOM), Boston, MA.

    The EIN (Educational Information Network) is a non-profit operation which coordinates the sharing of educational computing resources. It is administered by EDUCOM and funded by the U. S. Office of Education and the National Science Foundation. EIN maintains a group of contact personnel at member institutions to serve as a liaison between the…

  12. EIN Software Catalog; Entries, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interuniversity Communications Council (EDUCOM), Boston, MA.

    The EIN (Educational Information Network) is a non-profit operation which coordinates the sharing of educational computing resources. It is administered by EDUCOM and funded jointly by the U. S. Office of Education and the National Science Foundation. EIN maintains a group of contact personnel at member institutions to serve as a liaison between…

  13. Kindness in a Jar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitin, Phyllis

    2001-01-01

    Describes a strategy whereby kindergarten children recorded acts of kindness on slips of paper and put the slips into a "Kindness Jar." Found that children used slips of paper recording the acts as tokens of appreciation for their friends, to recognize instances of conflict resolution, to report on collaboration, and to emphasize teamwork. (KB)

  14. City-Management - Eine Erfolgsstory?!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuron, Irene

    2002-03-01

    Seit geraumer Zeit wird das Thema Innenstadt kontrovers diskutiert. Neben dem Niedergang der City und der Konkurrenz zur "Grünen Wiese" werden zugleich die europäische urbane Stadt heraufbeschworen und zahlreiche Aktivitäten zur (Re-)Vitalisierung unternommen. Von privaten Initiativen, Händlergemeinschaften über public-private-partnership-Projekte, wie z.B. Ab in die Mitte" in Nordrhein-Westfalen, bis zum städtischen City-Manager und Landesförderung für Innenstadtprojekte reicht das Repertoire. City-Management ist dabei ein wesentliches Instrument. Wie City-Management in Deutschland aussieht und wie es sich entwickelt, zeigt der folgende Beitrag.

  15. Two Kinds of Electron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    In the 1930s physicists were confronted by two conflicting values for the charge of the electron as measured with great precision by two different methods. Could it be that there are two kinds of (negative) electrons, differing in charge by a fraction of a percent? The experiments were reconciled when a small systematic error in one of the…

  16. Two Kinds of Electron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    In the 1930s physicists were confronted by two conflicting values for the charge of the electron as measured with great precision by two different methods. Could it be that there are two kinds of (negative) electrons, differing in charge by a fraction of a percent? The experiments were reconciled when a small systematic error in one of the…

  17. Can Kindness Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    There's no doubt that children's home environments have a huge impact on the kind of people they become. But so do their educational environments. A number of schools are beginning to realize it's worth it to spend the time on "soft" skills such as empathy. Even forgetting the recent scary headlines about bullying, teachers know that a classroom…

  18. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the...

  19. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the...

  20. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the...

  1. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the...

  2. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the...

  3. Creating a culture of kindness.

    PubMed

    Mace, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Although known for being kind, nurses understand that the culture of nursing and the nature of our fast-paced stressful work make kindness difficult. Where does kindness come from? How does being a Christian make a difference in bringing kindness to nursing culture?

  4. Teaching Repayment of Parents' Kindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bum Jung; Sung, Kyu-taik

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a Buddhist Sutra about the deep kindness of mothers and ways of repaying mothers' kindness. The Sutra has been used to teach children about mothers' kindness and the obligation to repay to their mothers in their old age. It contains discourses about 10 types of kindness that a mother bestows on her child and how to repay…

  5. Teaching Repayment of Parents' Kindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bum Jung; Sung, Kyu-taik

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a Buddhist Sutra about the deep kindness of mothers and ways of repaying mothers' kindness. The Sutra has been used to teach children about mothers' kindness and the obligation to repay to their mothers in their old age. It contains discourses about 10 types of kindness that a mother bestows on her child and how to repay…

  6. HAPPY PEOPLE BECOME HAPPIER THROUGH KINDNESS: A COUNTING KINDNESSES INTERVENTION.

    PubMed

    Otake, Keiko; Shimai, Satoshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko; Otsui, Kanako; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2006-09-01

    We examined the relationship between the character strength of kindness and subjective happiness (Study 1), and the effects of a counting kindnesses intervention on subjective happiness (Study 2). In Study 1, participants were 175 Japanese undergraduate students and in Study 2, participants were 119 Japanese women (71 in the intervention group and 48 in the control group). Results showed that: (a) Happy people scored higher on their motivation to perform, and their recognition and enactment of kind behaviors. (b) Happy people have more happy memories in daily life in terms of both quantity and quality. (c) Subjective happiness was increased simply by counting one's own acts of kindness for one week. (d) Happy people became more kind and grateful through the counting kindnesses intervention. Discussion centers on the importance of kindness in producing subjective happiness.

  7. Kindness in the Art Classroom: Kind Thoughts on Stephen Rowland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article is a response to Stephen Rowland's article, "Kindness," which appeared in "London Review of Education," November 2009. Much to my amazement, Stephen Rowland's article was the only one I found when I did a global database search on "kindness in education". I had thought that I would find reams of information in the databases on the…

  8. Rudolf Clausius. Ein Versuch, ihn zu verstehen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpf, Hans-Georg

    Es wird dargelegt, daß Clausius' Originalarbeiten über die Begründung des zweiten Hauptsatzes schwerlich vom Standpunkt konventioneller Lehrbücher verstanden werden können. Vielmehr erweist sich eine mit einem quasi-ökonomischen Modell arbeitende Denkweise als Schlüssel zum Verständnis.Translated AbstractRudolf Clausius. An Attempt to Understand HimIt is shown that Clausius' original papers on the foundation of the Second Law can scarcely be understood from the view-point of conventional textbooks. But reasoning with the aid of a quasi-economic model turns out to be the key of comprehension.

  9. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  10. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  11. Automatisierte VHDL-Code-Generierung eines Delta-Sigma Modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilka, R.; Ostermann, T.

    2006-09-01

    Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird eine automatische Generierung des VHDL-Codes eines Delta-Sigma Modulators präsentiert. Die Koeffizientenmultiplikation wird hierbei durch Bit-Serielle-Addition durchgeführt. Mit Hilfe zweier neuer Matlab Funktionen wird der Systementwurf durch die bekannte Delta-Sigma Toolbox von R. Schreier erweitert und direkt synthesefähiger VHDL Code erzeugt.

  12. EIN3 and SOS2 synergistically modulate plant salt tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Ruidang; Wang, Juan; Yang, Dexin; Zhang, Haiwen; Zhang, Zhijin; Huang, Rongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis and the ethylene signaling pathway regulate plant salt tolerance by activating the expression of downstream target genes such as those related to ROS and Na+/K+ homeostasis. The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway regulates Na+/K+ homeostasis in Arabidopsis under salt stress. However, the connection between these two pathways is unclear. Through genetic screening, we identified two sos2 alleles as salt sensitive mutants in the ein3-1 background. Neither Ethylene-Insensitive 2 (EIN2) nor EIN3 changed the expression patterns of SOS genes including SOS1, SOS2, SOS3 and SOS3-like Calcium Binding Protein 8 (SCaBP8), but SOS2 activated the expression of one target gene of EIN3, Ethylene and Salt-inducible ERF 1 (ESE1). Moreover, Ser/Thr protein kinase SOS2 phosphorylated EIN3 in vitro mainly at the S325 site and weakly at the S35, T42 and S606 sites. EIN3 S325A mutation reduced its transcriptional activating activity on ESE1 promoter:GUS in a transient GUS assay, and impaired its ability to rescue ein3-1 salt hypersensitivity. Furthermore, SOS2 activated salt-responsive ESE1 target gene expression under salt stress. Therefore, EIN3-SOS2 might link the ethylene signaling pathway and the SOS pathway in Arabidopsis salt responses. PMID:28300216

  13. Eine FPAA-Architektur zur rekonfigurierbaren Instantiierung von zeitkontinuierlichen Analogfiltern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Manoli, Y.

    2005-05-01

    Im Folgenden wird eine neue Methodik von FPAAs (Field Programmable Analog Arrays) gezeigt, die speziell für die Instantiierung von zeitkontinuierlichen (continuous-time, CT) Analogfiltern in Hardware entwickelt wurde. Die Chiptopologie beinhaltet 17 digital konfigurierbare analoge Blöcke (configurable analog blocks, CABs), die durch ein hexagonales Netzwerk miteinander verbunden sind. Jeder CAB ist aus einstellbaren Gm-C Integratoren aufgebaut, welche das analoge Signal sowohl formen und seinen Weg durch die Matrix festlegen, gleichzeitig aber auch die Grundbausteine für zeitkontinuierliche Hochfrequenzfilter darstellen. Intelligente Pufferspeicher für die Ein-/Ausgänge (IO-buffer) garantieren die Rekonfigurierung der Matrix mit minimaler Störung des kontinuierlichen Analogsignals. Die Architektur wird als Hardwareplattform für beliebige Schaltungen, welche aus einer gegebenen Anzahl an Gm-C-Zellen bestehen, eingeführt und verifiziert bevor eine exemplarische Instantiierung eines Butterworth Filters 4. Ordnung in Biquad Anordnung gezeigt wird.

  14. [Are Mental Disorders Natural Kinds?].

    PubMed

    Flórez Quintero, Daian Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    A problem for both philosophers of Psychiatry and Psychiatrists within the domain of nosology is to determine which could be the more appropriate model to classify mental illnesses. Such an endeavor also requires questioning the very nature of mental illness. While trying to cope with the philosophical challenges of such a task, Peter Zachar purports to show that the nosological work in Psychiatry should not adhere to the model of natural kinds. He even considers that it is mistaken to treat mental disorders as natural kinds. Nonetheless, Zachar's view on the existence of natural kinds-even in domains where there is little room for doubting about their existence, like Chemistry-is very unstable. In 2001 he holds that there are no natural kinds, but in 2008 he argues that his objections to the model of natural kinds are more the manifestation of his skepticism against a tradition. Although the problem of the existence of natural kinds shall not be dealt with in this article, a brief description on how deflated is Zachar's view on this matter in 2008 is presented, with the central part of the article devoted to reconstruct and examine his rationale for the thesis that mental disorders are not natural kinds. In the critical section of this paper, it is suggested that, although Zachar's thesis may be right, the arguments he gives to support it are quite flawed.

  15. Nagelbefall kann bei Patienten mit Psoriasis auf eine Enthesiopathie hinweisen.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-González, Maria; Joven, Beatriz Esther; Sánchez, Julio; Andrés-Esteban, Eva María; Vanaclocha-Sebastián, Francisco; Romero, Pablo Ortiz; Díaz, Raquel Rivera

    2016-11-01

    Obwohl subklinische Enthesiopathie ein gut etabliertes diagnostisches Merkmal der Psoriasisarthritis (PsA) ist, wird sie häufig übersehen, da viele Patienten asymptomatisch sind. Gäbe es klinische Hinweise auf das Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie, würde dies den Klinikern die Möglichkeit eröffnen, eine PsA frühzeitig zu diagnostizieren. Es wurde eine monozentrische prospektive Studie mit insgesamt 90 Psoriasis-Patienten durchgeführt, um mittels Ultraschall das Vorliegen von Enthesenanomalien zu untersuchen und eine Korrelation mit dem Befall der Nägel festzustellen. Enthesenanomalien wurden bei 23 Patienten (25,5 %) gefunden, von denen 19 (82,6 %) Nagelbefall aufwiesen. Bei 4 Patienten waren die Nägel nicht betroffen. Enthesiopathie lag bei 31,1 % (19/61) der Patienten mit Onychopathie vor, von den Patienten ohne Nagelbefall litten nur 13,8 % (4/29) an Enthesiopathie (p = 0,07). Zwischen dem Target-NAPSI-Score und dem Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie bestand eine signifikante Korrelation. Eine signifikante Korrelation bestand darüber hinaus auch zwischen dem Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie und der Anzahl der betroffenen Nägel (p = 0,035). Klinische Belege für eine Onychopathie können der Schlüssel für die frühe Diagnose einer Enthesiopathie bei Psoriasis-Patienten sein. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Analyse von Oszillatoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Harry; Mathis, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Die Analyse nichtlinearer dynamischer Schaltungen ist bis heute eine herausfordernde Aufgabe, da nur selten analytische Lösungen angegeben werden können. Daher wurden eine Vielzahl von Methoden entwickelt, um eine qualitative oder quantitative Näherung für die Lösungen der Netzwerkgleichung zu erhalten. Oftmals wird beispielsweise eine Kleinsignalanalyse mit Hilfe einer Taylorreihe in einem Arbeitspunkt durchgeführt, die nach den Gliedern erster Ordnung abgebrochen wird. Allerdings ist diese Linearisierung nur in der Nähe des stabilen Arbeitspunktes für hyperbolische Systeme gültig. Besonders für die Analyse des dynamischen Verhaltens von Oszillatoren treten jedoch nicht-hyperbolische Systeme auf, sodass diese Methode nicht angewendet werden kann Mathis(2000). Carleman hat gezeigt, dass nichtlineare Differentialgleichungen mit polynomiellen Nichtlinearitäten in ein unendliches System von linearen Differentialgleichungen transformiert werden können Carleman(1932). Wird das unendlichdimensionale Gleichungssystem für numerische Zwecke abgebrochen, kann bei Oszillatoren der Übergang in eine stationäre Schwingung (Grenzzyklus) nicht wiedergegeben werden.

    In diesem Beitrag wird eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Untersuchung von Oszillatoren vorgestellt, die auch dann anwendbar ist, wenn die Nichtlinearitäten keinen Polynomen entsprechen. Anstelle einer linearen Näherung um einen Arbeitspunkt, erfolgt mit Hilfe der Carleman Linearisierung eine Approximation auf einem vorgegebenen Gebiet. Da es jedoch mit der selbstkonsistenten Technik nicht möglich ist, das stationäre Verhalten von Oszillatoren zu beschreiben, wird die Berechnung einer Poincaré-Abbildung durchgeführt. Mit dieser ist eine anschließende Analyse des Oszillators möglich.

  17. Transrapid und Rad-Schiene-Hochgeschwindigkeitsbahn: Ein gesamtheitlicher Systemvergleich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schach, R.; Jehle, P.; Naumann, R.

    Der Transrapid bietet im Hochgeschwindigkeitsbereich eine sehr interessante Alternative. Über Vor-und Nachteile des Transrapid im Vergleich mit konventionellen Rad-Schiene-Systemen, im Hochgeschwindigkeitsbereich auf Strecken zwischen 150 und 800 Kilometernund als peer-to-peer-Verbindung im Kurzstreckenbereich, wurden viele einze lne Aspekte behandelt, darunter sachliche wie politische Statements. Ein Systemvergleich muß aber alle technischen, wirtschaftlichen und ökologischen Faktoren einschließen.

  18. The KIND Workshop Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirch, Willow Ann

    The National Association for Humane and Environmental Education (NAHEE) produces this workshop guide which offers a scripted workshop with handouts for elementary educators interested in sharing curriculum-based activities dedicated to helping young people develop values of kindness and respect toward people, animals, and the Earth. This guide…

  19. A Different Kind of Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Edmund L.

    2000-01-01

    According to one principal, an attention-getting fourth-grader's quick wit, creative excuses, and impish pranks demonstrated a high degree of thinking. Although the student's intellectual prowess defied testing and he was never viewed as a "smart" kid, he had a special kind of intelligence not often appreciated in school. (MLH)

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of Kindness at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binfet, John-Tyler; Passmore, Holli-Anne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine kindergarten to 12th grade teachers' (N = 257) perceptions of school kindness. Teachers were asked to define kindness, provide examples of kindness they had done and received, identify key agents of kindness, and rate the quality of kind acts within their schools. Findings indicate that teachers define and…

  1. Simulation eines rekonfigurierbaren Gm-C filter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrici, F.; Becker, J.; Manoli, Y.

    2007-06-01

    Es wird ein Gm-C Filter für den Einsatz in rekonfigurierbaren Analogfiltern (FPAAs) präsentiert. Das Filter ist auf den Einsatz in FPAAs mit hexagonalem Grid und auf den Verzicht auf Transmissiongates optimiert. Trotzdem können nicht nur die Parameter der instanziierten Filter geändert werden, sondern auch ihre Struktur. Beim Design des digital programmierbaren Transkonduktors musste auf die hohe Anzahl parallel geschalteter, gleichartiger Transkonduktoren und ihre parasitären Kapazitäten Rücksicht genommen werden. Ein FPAA mit 49 Gm-Zellen erreicht in Simulationen in einem 130 nm 1.2 V CMOS Prozess eine maximale Bandbreite von 164 MHz. Die Verzerrung beträgt weniger als -70 dB bei einem 50m V @1 MHz Signal.

  2. Ein routine-integrierbares Planungswerkzeug zur operativen Rekonstruktion der Orbita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Melanie; Schulze, Dirk; Voss, Pit Jakob; Deserno, Thomas M.

    Bei Frakturen des Orbitabodens kann ein Titangitter zur Rekonstruktion operativ eingesetzt werden. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Planungswerkzeug entwickelt, welches mit Hilfe eines aktiven Konturmodells die Orbita in CT Daten segmentiert, ihr Volumen berechnet und visualisiert. Neben den technischen Integrationsstufen der Funktions- und Präsentationsintegration, welche durch den Einsatz des Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) erreicht werden, sowie der Daten-, und Kontextintegration ist vor allem die Stabilität der eingesetzten Algorithmik für die Routine-Integrierbarkeit wichtig. Erste Stabilitätsuntersuchungen basieren auf 3 von 100 zufällig ausgewählten CT-Datensätzen, wobei das Volumen mit je 50 verschiedenen Startpunkten berechnet wurde. Die so ermittelten Variationskoeffizienten liegen deutlich unterhalb der kritischen 5 % Schwelle.

  3. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  4. Mol-Gastronomie Käsefondue: eine kolloidale Schmelze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilgis, Thomas A.

    2004-11-01

    An Weihnachten oder zum Jahreswechsel kommt gern das Fonduegeschirr zum Einsatz, weil sich damit viele hungrige Gäste unterhaltsam sättigen lassen. Käsefondues sind allerdings eine physikalisch anspruchsvolle Angelegenheit. Die Kunst besteht darin, die viskoelastische Käseschmelze während des Genusses homogen zu halten.

  5. A Progenitor Candidate for SN 2017ein in NGC 3938

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fox, Ori D.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Milisavljevic, Dan; Smith, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    We report the identification of a progenitor candidate for the Type Ic SN 2017ein in NGC 3938 (ATel #10434, #10481) in archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on 2007 December 11 UT in bands F555W and F814W, as part of program GO-10877 (PI: A.V. Filippenko).

  6. The "Kind Intentions Program": Educator Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannock, Michelle T.

    2009-01-01

    The "Kind Intentions Program" (KIP) was developed in a childcare facility in an effort to encourage children to engage in kind acts. In addition to support for displays of kindness, the programme encourages children to engage in perspective taking skills as they observe the actions of those around them. This study involved the identification of…

  7. Kindness in Pedagogical Practice and Academic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue; Rowland, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the argument that kindness in teaching is both commonplace yet unremarked and that, moreover, it is subversive of neo-liberal values. In arguing for the value of attending to kindness, we reject the dichotomy between emotion and reason and the associated gendered binaries. We distinguish kindness from "due care" and acts that…

  8. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each. When...

  9. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each. When...

  10. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each. When...

  11. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each. When...

  12. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each. When...

  13. What Must Be Taught about Writing: Five Kinds of Knowledge and Five Kinds of Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeff, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Students need to develop five kinds of knowledge to be successful in any kind of specific reading or writing task. These kinds of knowledge can be developed through five different kinds of composing that lead to deep understanding of how texts are constructed with specific content to create particular effects and meaning. Following this process…

  14. Ein Unscented Kalman Filter zur Schätzung von Schaltungsnichtidealitäten eines zeitkontinuierlichen Sigma-Delta Wandlers mit impliziter Dezimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhmann, A.; Keller, M.; Maurer, M.; Ortmanns, M.; Manoli, Y.

    2008-05-01

    Nichtidealitäten einer Schaltung, wie z.B. nicht ideale Charakteristik des Operationsverstärkers und Streuungen in den Filterkoeffizienten, sind dahingehend bekannt die Effizienz von zeitkontinuierlichen Sigma-Delta Wandlern in drastischer Weise zu reduzieren. Daher stellt diese Veröffentlichung eine mögliche Methode vor, um die genannten Nichtidealitäten durch eine Schätzung mit Hilfe eines Unscented Kalman Filters zu bestimmen und in einem möglichen weiteren Schritt zu korrigieren. Des Weiteren kann durch eine leichte Modifikation des vorgestellten Algorithmus auch gleichzeitig eine implizite Dezimation des Ausgangssignals durchgeführt werden. Hierdurch wird die Gesamteffizienz des vorgestellten Ansatzes gesteigert, da kein zusätzlicher Dezimationsfilter mehr benötigt wird. Simulationsergebnisse des Filteralgorithmus zeigen die prinzipielle Funktion des Algorithmus.

  15. Synthese von analogen Filtern auf einer rekonfigurierbaren Hardware-Architektur mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendelenburg, S.; Becker, J.; Henrici, F.; Manoli, Y.

    2008-05-01

    Rekonfigurierbare Analog-Arrays (FPAAs) sind der Versuch, die Vorteile der aus der digitalen Welt bekannten FPGAs (Flexibilität, Entwurfsgeschwindigkeit) auch für analoge Anwendungen verfügbar zu machen. Aufgrund der Vielfalt der analogen Schaltungstechnik ist die Abbildung von vorgegebenen Schaltungskonzepten auf eine FPAA-Architektur nicht immer einfach lösbar. Diese Arbeit stellt einen neuen Ansatz für die Synthese von Filtern auf einer FPAA-Architektur für zeitkontinuierliche Analogfilter mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus (GA) vor. Anhand eines Matlab-Modells des FPAA, das eine gute übereinstimmung mit Simulationen des FPAA auf Transistorebene aufweist, wurde gezeigt, dass eine große Vielzahl verschiedener Filterstrukturen auf dieser Architektur dargestellt werden kann. Daraufhin wurde ein Genetischer Algorithmus entwickelt, der es erlaubt, aus einer gegebenen Filterspezifikation Konfigurationsdatensätze zu synthetisieren, die den gewünschten Filter auf die FPAA-Architektur abbilden.

  16. Apple EIN3 BINDING F-box 1 inhibits the activity of three apple EIN3-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Tacken, Emma J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Wang, Yen-Yi; Putterill, Jo; Schaffer, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Fruit ripening in Malus× domestica (apple) is controlled by ethylene. Work in model species has shown that following the detection of ethylene, the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) transcription factor is stabilized, leading to an increase in transcript accumulation of ethylene-responsive genes, such as POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1). In the absence of ethylene, the EIN3 BINDING F-box (EBF) proteins rapidly degrade EIN3 via the ubiquitination/SCF (Skp, Cullin, F-Box) proteasome pathway. In this study, we aim to identify and characterize the apple EBF genes, and test their activity against apple EIN3-like proteins (EILs). Methodology The apple genome sequence was mined for EBF-like genes. The expression of EBF-like genes was measured during fruit development. Using a transient assay in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, the activity of three apple EILs was tested against the PG1 promoter, with and without ethylene and EBF1. Principal results Four EBF-like genes in apple were identified and grouped into two sub-clades. Sub-clade I genes had constant expression over fruit development while sub-clade II genes increased in expression at ripening. EBF1 was shown to reduce the transactivation of the apple PG1 promoter by the EIL1, EIL2 and EIL3 transcription factors in the presence of ethylene. Conclusions The apple EBF1 gene identified here is likely to be a functionally conserved EBF orthologue, modulating EIL activity in apples. The activity of EBF1 suggests that it is not specific to a single EIL, instead acting as a global regulator of apple EIL transcription factors. PMID:23585922

  17. The Young Learner: Encouraging Kindness in Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1988-01-01

    Contains two motivational tools, a Kind Award and a Pass-It-On poem, which are designed to encourage children to be kind to animals. Includes examples on how to use the tools, and reproducible masters to be used in both instances. (TW)

  18. Online Literacy Is a Lesser Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Web skimming may be a kind of literacy but it's not the kind that matters most. In this article, the author contends that web skimming indicates a decline of literacy. The author discusses research conducted by Jakob Nielsen, a Web researcher, on how users skim web pages. He shows how the web is damaging the right way to read.

  19. What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders?

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Zachar, P; Craver, C

    2011-06-01

    This essay explores four answers to the question 'What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders?' Essentialist kinds are classes whose members share an essence from which their defining features arise. Although elegant and appropriate for some physical (e.g. atomic elements) and medical (e.g. Mendelian disorders) phenomena, this model is inappropriate for psychiatric disorders, which are multi-factorial and 'fuzzy'. Socially constructed kinds are classes whose members are defined by the cultural context in which they arise. This model excludes the importance of shared physiological mechanisms by which the same disorder could be identified across different cultures. Advocates of practical kinds put off metaphysical questions about 'reality' and focus on defining classes that are useful. Practical kinds models for psychiatric disorders, implicit in the DSM nosologies, do not require that diagnoses be grounded in shared causal processes. If psychiatry seeks to tie disorders to etiology and underlying mechanisms, a model first proposed for biological species, mechanistic property cluster (MPC) kinds, can provide a useful framework. MPC kinds are defined not in terms of essences but in terms of complex, mutually reinforcing networks of causal mechanisms. We argue that psychiatric disorders are objectively grounded features of the causal structure of the mind/brain. MPC kinds are fuzzy sets defined by mechanisms at multiple levels that act and interact to produce the key features of the kind. Like species, psychiatric disorders are populations with central paradigmatic and more marginal members. The MPC view is the best current answer to 'What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders?'

  20. Not-so Random Acts of Kindness: A Guide to Intentional Kindness in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binfet, John-Tyler

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about random acts of kindness- acts performed spontaneously and often to strangers. The topic of kindness and the benefits arising from performing kind acts holds both empirical and applied interest in the fields of education and psychology. Encouraging students to reflect upon and perform intentional acts of kindness…

  1. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  2. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  3. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  4. Korobov polynomials of the first kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgy, D. V.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, T.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study Korobov polynomials of the first kind from the viewpoint of umbral calculus and give new identities for them, associated with special polynomials which are derived from umbral calculus. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  5. Assoziativspeicher und eine erste Skizze von Konrad Zuse aus dem Jahre 1943

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldschmidt, Klaus

    In dem Beitrag wird eine Handskizze von Konrad Zuse aus dem Jahre 1943 eines assoziativen Speichers in Relaistechnik diskutiert. Die Diskussion ist eingebettet in die Grundlagen des assoziativen Speicherproblems. Zum Schluss des Beitrages werden einige Vorschläge zu MOSRealisierung der Zuse-Schaltung unterbreitet.

  6. Bifurkationsanalyse eines LC Tank VCOs unter Berücksichtigung der variablen Kapazität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, J.-K.; Zorn, C.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    In dieser Arbeit präsentieren wir einen neuartigen Ansatz für den systematischen Entwurf von integrierten LC Tank VCO-Schaltungen basierend auf dem Andronov Hopf Theorem und der Störungstheorie. Der Ansatz ermöglicht es, eine Abschätzung des resultierenden Abstimmbereichs, eine Stabilitätsanalyse und eine Berechnung der Amplitude des VCOs im Vorfeld des eigentlichen Entwurfs durchzuführen. Des Weiteren erlaubt die vorgestellte Methode eine Optimierung des VCOs hinsichtlich der in den Spezifikationen geforderte Amplitude und eine Minimierung der höheren Harmonischen. Mit Hilfe eines ladungsbasierten MOS-Modells ist es möglich die spannungsabhängige Kapazität der Varaktortransistoren durch einen analytischen Ausdruck zu beschreiben. Auf Basis dieses analytischen Ausdrucks wird die amplitudenabhängige Großsignalkapazität des VCOs in Abhängigkeit von Designparametern und der Tuningspannung modelliert. Die Gültigkeit der vorgestellte Entwurfsmethode wird anhand eines Beispielentwurfes eines 2.4 GHz VCO unter Verwendung einer 0.25 μm HF-CMOS Technologie verifiziert.

  7. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) gene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Bie, B B; Pan, J S; He, H L; Yang, X Q; Zhao, J L; Cai, R

    2013-10-07

    The plant gaseous hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) is a key transcription factor involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To gain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the full-length cDNA encoding EIN3 (designated as CsEIN3) was cloned from cucumber for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full length of CsEIN3 was 2560 bp, with an open reading frame of 1908 bp encoding 635 amino acids. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsEIN3 has high homology with other plant EIN3/EIL proteins that were derived from a common ancestor during evolution, and CsEIN3 was grouped into a cluster along with melon. Homology modeling demonstrated that CsEIN3 has a highly similar structure to the specific DNA-binding domain contained in EIN3/EIL proteins. Based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, we found that CsEIN3 was constitutively expressed in all organs examined, and was increased during flower development and maturation in both male and female flowers. Our results suggest that CsEIN3 is involved in processes of flower development. In conclusion, this study will provide the basis for further study on the role of EIN3 in relevant biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  8. What kind of research in psychoanalytic science?

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Robert S

    2009-02-01

    The kind of science that psychoanalysis is (can be), and the kind of research appropriate to it, qualitative and/or quantitative, have been divisive issues from the very inception of the discipline. I explore in detail the complexity of these issues, definitional and semantic, as well as methodological and substantive. A plea is made for the application of qualitative (idiographic)and quantitative (nomothetic) research methods, each to the extent that is appropriate, separately or in conjunction, across the entire spectrum of research domains in psychoanalysis, empirical, clinical, conceptual, historical, and interdisciplinary.

  9. Natural Kinds and Concepts of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fano, Vincenzo

    A classification of different levels between experience and theories of mathematical physics is outlined. Moving from these distinctions it is possible to detect four kinds of kinds, from natural ones to abstract ones of theoretical physics. Then it is argued that the interpretation of physics as an increasingly better understanding of essences, which descends from Kripke's and Putnam's theory of reference, is not very plausible. On the other side it is possible to single out a structural analogy between the perceptual notion of object and that of theoretical physics based on the correspondence between the notions of similarity and invariance.

  10. Korobov polynomials of the third kind and of the fourth kind.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taekyun; Kim, Dae San

    2015-01-01

    The first degenerate version of the Bernoulli polynomials of the second kind appeared in the paper by Korobov (Math Notes 2:77-19, 1996; Proceedings of the IV international conference modern problems of number theory and its applications, pp 40-49, 2001). In this paper, we study two degenerate versions of the Bernoulli polynomials of the second kind which will be called Korobov polynomials of third kind and of the fourth kind. Some properties, identities, recurrence relations and connections with other polynomials are investigated by using umbral calculus.

  11. Diversity in Classrooms: Teaching Kindness through Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieman, Barry B.; Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of folktales from India to teach kindness to kindergarten and primary school children. Notes that the "King of the Banyan Deer Tale" is particularly effective in early childhood, whereas the "Dooth Tale" is effective with older children. Supplemental activities are briefly described, such as food preparation, games and music, and…

  12. Diversity in Classrooms: Teaching Kindness through Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieman, Barry B.; Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of folktales from India to teach kindness to kindergarten and primary school children. Notes that the "King of the Banyan Deer Tale" is particularly effective in early childhood, whereas the "Dooth Tale" is effective with older children. Supplemental activities are briefly described, such as food preparation, games and music, and…

  13. Methodological Encounters with the Phenomenal Kind

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Block’s well-known distinction between phenomenal consciousness and access consciousness has generated a large philosophical literature about putative conceptual connections between the two. The scientific literature about whether they come apart in any actual cases is rather smaller. Empirical evidence gathered to date has not settled the issue. Some put this down to a fundamental methodological obstacle to the empirical study of the relation between phenomenal consciousness and access consciousness. Block (2007) has drawn attention to the methodological puzzle and attempted to answer it. While the evidence Block points to is relevant and important, this paper puts forward a more systematic framework for addressing the puzzle. To give it a label, the approach is to study phenomenal consciousness as a natural kind. The approach allows consciousness studies to move beyond initial means of identifying instances of the kind like verbal report, and to find its underlying nature. It is well-recognised that facts about an underlying kind may allow identification of instances of the kind that do not match the initial means of identification (cp. non-liquid samples of water). This paper shows that the same method can be deployed to investigate phenomenal consciousness independently of access consciousness. PMID:22654148

  14. What Kind of Memory Supports Visual Marking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong; Wang, Stephanie W.

    2004-01-01

    In visual search tasks, if a set of items is presented for 1 s before another set of new items (containing the target) is added, search can be restricted to the new set. The process that eliminates old items from search is visual marking. This study investigates the kind of memory that distinguishes the old items from the new items during search.…

  15. Addiction is Not a Natural Kind

    PubMed Central

    Pober, Jeremy Michael

    2013-01-01

    I argue that addiction is not an appropriate category to support generalizations for the purposes of scientific prediction. That is, addiction is not a natural kind. I discuss the Homeostatic Property Cluster (HPC) theory of kinds, according to which members of a kind share a cluster of properties generated by a common mechanism or set of mechanisms. Leading accounts of addiction in literature fail to offer a mechanism that explains addiction across substances. I discuss popular variants of the disease conception and demonstrate that at least one class of substances that fails to confirm a major prediction of each account. When no mechanism can be found to explain the occurrence of the relevant properties in members of a category, the HPC view suggests that we revise our categories. I discuss options offered by the HPC view, including category revision and category replacement. I then conclude that talk of addiction as a prediction-supporting category should be replaced with categories such as “S-addiction” and “T-addiction,” where S and T are substances or sets of substances of abuse, as these categories are genuine natural kinds. PMID:24109458

  16. A new kind of gear measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhaolong, Zhang; Tongnian, Huang; Shanglian, Huang; Deyuan, Kang; Hong, Wang; Rongan, Duan; Lu, Xu

    1997-07-01

    A new method of gear measurement is introduced in this paper. It is based on the traditional gear single-flank measurement, but it uses a special master gear with three kinds of measuring tooth and a tranmission tooth. The first kind of measurement tooth has a projective involute which is used as a reference. When it is engaged in mesh with the tooth of the workpiece, the deviation of transmission reflects the involute profile error of the workpiece. When a projective helix on the second kind of measurement tooth is meshed with the tooth of the workpiece the lead error can be obtained. Because the third kind of measurement tooth is the same as that used by a traditional single-flank tester, the tangential composite error can be easily obtained. The transmission tooth - whose thickness is reduced - is used to make the contact ratio less than one. When the new master gear is meshed with the workpiece for several turns the pitch error of the latter can be measured. Experimental results using equipment based on the new technique have shown that the method is feasible and efficient.

  17. Identifying Kinds of Reasoning in Collective Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, AnnaMarie; Singletary, Laura M.; Smith, Ryan C.; Wagner, Patty Anne; Francisco, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    We combine Peirce's rule, case, and result with Toulmin's data, claim, and warrant to differentiate between deductive, inductive, abductive, and analogical reasoning within collective argumentation. In this theoretical article, we illustrate these kinds of reasoning in episodes of collective argumentation using examples from one…

  18. [KIND Worksheet Packet: Wild Animals (Junior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, East Haddam, CT.

    This packet is the junior part of a series of worksheet packets available at both junior (grades 3-4) and senior (grades 5-6) levels that covers a variety of humane and environmental topics. Each packet includes 10 worksheets, all of which originally appeared in past issues of the annual teaching magazine "KIND (Kids in Nature's Defense)…

  19. [KIND Worksheet Packet: Wild Animals (Senior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, East Haddam, CT.

    This packet is the senior part of a series of worksheet packets available at both junior (grades 3-4) and senior (grades 5-6) levels that covers a variety of humane and environmental topics. Each packet includes 10 worksheets, all of which originally appeared in past issues of the annual teaching magazine "KIND (Kids in Nature's Defense)…

  20. Understanding Natural Kinds: A Developmental Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Markman, Ellen M.

    A study investigated how young children understand natural kind terms by examining how 3- and 4-year-olds rely on category membership to draw inductive inferences about objects. One hundred four children (53 girls and 51 boys) from six preschools in California and Michigan participated in the study. The children were shown 10 sets of pictures of…

  1. Polynomial Asymptotes of the Second Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This note uses the analytic notion of asymptotic functions to study when a function is asymptotic to a polynomial function. Along with associated existence and uniqueness results, this kind of asymptotic behaviour is related to the type of asymptote that was recently defined in a more geometric way. Applications are given to rational functions and…

  2. Polynomial Asymptotes of the Second Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This note uses the analytic notion of asymptotic functions to study when a function is asymptotic to a polynomial function. Along with associated existence and uniqueness results, this kind of asymptotic behaviour is related to the type of asymptote that was recently defined in a more geometric way. Applications are given to rational functions and…

  3. Identifying Kinds of Reasoning in Collective Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, AnnaMarie; Singletary, Laura M.; Smith, Ryan C.; Wagner, Patty Anne; Francisco, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    We combine Peirce's rule, case, and result with Toulmin's data, claim, and warrant to differentiate between deductive, inductive, abductive, and analogical reasoning within collective argumentation. In this theoretical article, we illustrate these kinds of reasoning in episodes of collective argumentation using examples from one…

  4. Bilingualism as a Kind of Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulk, Aafke; Unsworth, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In her very interesting Keynote Article, Johanne Paradis gives a clear overview of recent research at the interface of bilingual development and child language disorders, and highlights its theoretical and clinical implications. She raises the challenging question of "whether bilingualism can be viewed as a kind of "therapy" for SLI." At first…

  5. Evidence for a Distinct Kind of Noun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Nancy N.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the spontaneous speech of four children and their parents for use of determiners with NP-type nouns and count nouns. Found that the parents made a clear distinction between the two kinds of nouns, omitting determiners with the NP-type nouns but not with the count nouns. The children all made the same distinction by four years of age. (HTH)

  6. Recognizing Different Kinds of "Head Starts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich; D'warte, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The authors consider how the National Early Literacy Panel's decision to focus on identifying precursors to "conventional" literacy skills shaped the questions asked, conclusions drawn, and take-home message of the panel's 2008 report. They suggest that this approach may keep the field of literacy research from seeing and valuing other kinds of…

  7. What Kind of Discourse? Thinking It through.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfitt, Matthew

    Composition instructors are particularly interested in the fact that hypertext, as the mode of discourse that computers promote and prefer, introduces a new problematic for those concerned with teaching critical thinking. What kind of discourse is hypertext, and to what extent does it encourage, enable and demand critical thinking? The issue is…

  8. Ein Organic Computing Ansatz zur Steuerung einer sechsbeinigen Laufmaschine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auf, Adam El Sayed; Larionova, Svetlana; Mösch, Florian; Litza, Marek; Jakimovski, Bojan; Maehle, Erik

    Obwohl die Rechengeschwindigkeit von Computern und die Komplexität unserer Systeme ständig zunimmt, sind die heutigen Laufmaschinen nicht in der Lage, sich mit den Fähigkeiten von Landtieren wie zum Beispiel Insekten zu messen. Das Verständnis biologischer Konzepte und das Lernen von der Natur könnten zur Verbesserung der heutigen Maschinen beitragen und sie ein wenig “lebensähnlicher“ machen. Dieser Artikel stellt einen Kontrollarchitekturansatz basierend auf “Organic Computing“-Prinzipien vor, der die Nutzung von Dezentralisierung und Selbstorganisation an einer sechsbeinigen Laufmaschine demonstriert. Die vorliegende Arbeit erklärt die elementaren Mechanismen für das gerade Laufen, das Kurvenlaufen sowie das Drehen auf der Stelle und den Umgang mit strukturellen körperlichen Änderungen wie einer Beinamputation und stellt die Ergebnisse experimenteller Versuche vor.

  9. Measuring Kindness at School: Psychometric Properties of a School Kindness Scale for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binfet, John Tyler; Gadermann, Anne M.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to create and validate a brief measure to assess students' perceptions of kindness in school. Participants included 1,753 students in Grades 4 to 8 attending public schools in a large school district in southern British Columbia. The School Kindness Scale (SKS) demonstrated a unidimensional factor structure and adequate…

  10. Evolutionstheorie als Geschichtstheorie - Ein neuer Ansatz historischer Institutionenforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Werden und Vergehen kennzeichnen die Natur. Dass Einzelwesen geboren werden, reifen, altern und sterben, lernen schon Kinder. Dass auch Arten, einschließlich der des Menschen, entstehen und vergehen, gerät während der Schulzeit ins Blickfeld. Erwachsene begreifen dann, dass Individuen gleichsam die Träger und "Realisatoren“ des Bauplans einer Art sind: Als solche werden sie gezeugt, als solche tragen sie ihre Art während der eigenen Lebensspanne, als solche geben viele den ihnen eingeschriebenen Bauplan an Nachfolger weiter, und all dies leistend wirken Einzelwesen wie "Durchlaufposten“ ihrer Art. Diese besteht zwar nie ohne ihre Individuen; doch meist kommt es auf kein einzelnes Lebewesen als solches an, um dessen Art fortbestehen zu lassen. Zu verdanken ist der Wandel einer Art mancherlei Veränderungen (z. B. Variationen, Rekombinationen) bei der Weitergabe des Bauplans von Individuum zu Individuum, desgleichen den Besonderheiten einer je konkreten Realisierung des allgemeinen Bauplans einer Art unter spezifischen Umständen. Durchsetzungskraft, weitere Verbreitung und somit Dauerhaftigkeit ("Mutation“) erlangt solcher Wandel dann, wenn die bei der Weitergabe unterlaufenen Veränderungen und die von der Umwelt oder der ökologischen Nische einem Individuum oder einer Gruppe von Individuen aufgezwungenen Variationen ihrerseits Weitergabevorteile bei der Reproduktion des Bauplans eröffnen. Die individueller Veränderung geschuldete Ausnahme mag dann nach einigen Generationen sogar der Normalfall geworden sein. Umwelt ist dabei alles, was ein Individuum oder eine Art umgibt. Die "ökologische Nische“ ist hingegen jener Teil der Umwelt, welcher für das Individuum oder die Art unmittelbar wichtig ist, vor allem weil aus ihr die nötigen Ressourcen bezogen werden oder in ihr die Auseinandersetzung mit Konkurrenten zu bestehen ist.

  11. Software evolution. What kind of evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Carbonell, J. J.; Parets-Llorca, J.

    2001-06-01

    Most Software Systems capable of adapting to the environment or of performing some kind of adaptive activity (such as pattern learning, behavior simulations and the like) use concepts and models from Biology. Nevertheless, such approaches are based on the Modern Synthesis, i.e., Darwinism plus Mendelism, and this implies preadaptive mutations in, and subsequent selection of the better adapted individuals. These pre-adaptive changes usually do not produce the desired effect, are virtually useless and require some kind of backtracking for the system to obtain profit from adaptation. It is our contention that an evolutionary approach in Software Systems development cannot be based on pre-adaptive mutations, but rather on post-adaptive ones, that is, anticipatory mutations and modifications (Lamarkism). A novel way of understanding evolution in Software Systems based on applied Lamarkism is presented and a framework that allows the incorporation of modifications according to the necessities of the system and the will of the modeller is proposed.

  12. Supernatural beliefs, natural kinds, and conceptual structure.

    PubMed

    Walker, S J

    1992-11-01

    This article presents cross-cultural evidence in support of the notion that adults' natural kind concepts are theory based but may be informed by knowledge/belief systems other than the biological. Three groups of subjects from western Nigeria--rural, urban, and elite--participated in the study. Subjects heard stories describing alterations of appearance; that is, one natural kind was made to resemble another in both ritual and nonritual contexts. Subjects then were required to judge the identity of the altered item and to give an explanation for the category judgment. It was predicted that subjects would make more nonpreservation-of-identity category judgments supported by supernatural explanations in the ritual contexts and that subjects' use of supernatural explanations would reflect the extent of their engagement with the supernatural. The first prediction was borne out; the second prediction was only partially supported. Discussion of the results emphasizes the importance of exploring the role of sociocultural factors in conceptual structure.

  13. Loving-kindness meditation increases social connectedness.

    PubMed

    Hutcherson, Cendri A; Seppala, Emma M; Gross, James J

    2008-10-01

    The need for social connection is a fundamental human motive, and it is increasingly clear that feeling socially connected confers mental and physical health benefits. However, in many cultures, societal changes are leading to growing social distrust and alienation. Can feelings of social connection and positivity toward others be increased? Is it possible to self-generate these feelings? In this study, the authors used a brief loving-kindness meditation exercise to examine whether social connection could be created toward strangers in a controlled laboratory context. Compared with a closely matched control task, even just a few minutes of loving-kindness meditation increased feelings of social connection and positivity toward novel individuals on both explicit and implicit levels. These results suggest that this easily implemented technique may help to increase positive social emotions and decrease social isolation. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Infinitely many kinds of quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2008-01-01

    We define the ability of a quantum channel to simulate another by means of suitable encoding and decoding operations. While classical channels have only two equivalence classes under simulation (channels with non-vanishing capacity and those with vanishing capacity), we show that there are an uncountable infinity of different equivalence classes of quantum channels using the example of the quantum erasure channel. Our results also imply a kind of 'Matthew principle' for error correction on certain channels.

  15. Kind of images in printed photo books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fageth, Reiner; Schütz, Peter; Wagner, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the usage of images in tangible products as a function of its origin, coming from digital still cameras (DSC) or mobile devices. It is also shown, that pictures from mobile devices are mainly used to complete story telling in photo books, they are currently not a driver for generating this kind of high value products. Images taken from mobile devices generate to a great extent only prints mainly ordered via kiosk systems.

  16. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or kind...

  17. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or kind...

  18. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or kind...

  19. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or kind...

  20. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or kind...

  1. The Arabidopsis EIN2 restricts organ growth by retarding cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guanping; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The growth of plant organ to its characteristic size is a fundamental developmental process, but the mechanism is still poorly understood. Plant hormones play a great role in organ size control by modulating cell division and/or cell expansion. ETHYLENE INSENSITVE 2 (EIN2) was first identified by a genetic screen for ethylene insensitivity and is regarded as a central component of ethylene signaling, but its role in cell growth has not been reported. Here we demonstrate that changed expression of EIN2 led to abnormity of cell expansion by morphological and cytological analyses of EIN2 loss-of-function mutants and the overexpressing transgenic plant. Our findings suggest that EIN2 controls final organ size by restricting cell expansion. PMID:26039475

  2. Berechnung der auftretenden lokalen Kräfte auf der magnetischen Beschichtung eines magnetischen Rasterkraftmikroskops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisner, T.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    Die numerische Berechnung entstehender Kraftwirkungen auf Körper aufgrund magnetischer Wechselwirkungen zwischen diesen, ist in Bezug auf die mechanische Deformation dieser Körper ein noch nicht vollständig gelöstes Problem. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Vergleich vorhandener Kraftberechnungsmethoden hinsichtlich der totalen Kraft anhand eines analytisch berechenbaren Beispiels vorgestellt, sowie Unterschiede der lokalen Kraftdichten dieser Methoden in Anwendung auf die magnetische Beschichtung eines magnetischen Rasterkraftmikroskops aufgezeigt. Due to magnetic interactions between magnetic field inducing bodies, force effects occur on the materials. The numerical computation of those occuring forces with respect to a subsequent structural analysis of a deformable material is still a topic of interest in research. In this paper a comparison between several existent force calculation methods regarding the total force is given for an example with two magnetic cubes. Furthermore, differences are shown concerning the local force densities on the magnetic coating of a magnetic force microscope.

  3. Ein Framework für echtzeitfähige Ethernet-Netzwerke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopatka, Frank

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird die Entwicklung eines formalen Framewoks vorgestellt, mit dessen Hilfe zwischen der Kompatibilität zum verbreiteten baumförmigen Standard-Ethernet und der Einhaltung von Echtzeitanforderungen einer automatisierten Anlage variiert werden kann. Damit kann bereits vor der Auswahl einer bestimmten Technologie eine Schedule der Echtzeit-Übertragungen offline kalkuliert und simuliert werden, sobald die Anforderungen der Geräte im industriellen Echtzeit-Netzwerk bekannt sind.

  4. Two distinct EIN2 genes cooperatively regulate ethylene signaling in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Kana; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Nakagawa, Tomomi

    2013-09-01

    Leguminous plants establish a mutualistic symbiosis with bacteria, collectively referred to as rhizobia. Host plants positively and negatively regulate the symbiotic processes to keep the symbiosis at an appropriate level. Although the plant hormone ethylene is known as a negative regulator of symbiotic processes, the molecular mechanisms of ethylene signaling remain unresolved, especially in the model plant Lotus japonicus. Here, we identified two genes, LjEIN2-1 and LjEIN2-2, from L. japonicus. These genes share moderate similarity in their amino acid sequences, are located on different chromosomes and are composed of different numbers of exons. Suppression of either LjEIN2-1 or LjEIN2-2 expression significantly promoted the root growth of transformed plants on plates containing 1-amino-cyclopropane-carboxylic acid (ACC), the biosynthetic precursor of ethylene. Simultaneous suppression of both LjEIN2-1 and LjEIN2-2 markedly increased the ethylene insensitivity of transgenic roots and resulted in an increased nodulation phenotype. These results indicate that LjEIN2-1 and LjEIN2-2 concertedly regulate ethylene signaling in L. japonicus. We also observed that Nod factor (NF) induced the expression of the ethylene-responsive gene LjACO2, and simultaneous treatment with NF and ACC markedly increases its transcript level compared with either NF or ACC alone. Because LjACO2 encodes ACC oxidase, which is a key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, this result suggests the existence of an NF-triggered negative feedback mechanism through ethylene signaling.

  5. Nitric oxide regulates dark-induced leaf senescence through EIN2 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yun-Han; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2012-08-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)-deficient mutant nos1/noa1 exhibited an early leaf senescence phenotype. ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2 (EIN2) was previously reported to function as a positive regulator of ethylene-induced senescence. The aim of this study was to address the question of how NO interacts with ethylene to regulate leaf senescence by characterizing the double mutant ein2-1 nos1/noa1 (Arabidopsis thaliana). Double mutant analysis revealed that the nos1/noa1-mediated, dark-induced early senescence phenotype was suppressed by mutations in EIN2, suggesting that EIN2 is involved in nitric oxide signaling in the regulation of leaf senescence. The results showed that chlorophyll degradation in the double mutant leaves was significantly delayed. In addition, nos1/noa1-mediated impairment in photochemical efficiency and integrity of thylakoid membranes was reverted by EIN2 mutations. The rapid upregulation of the known senescence marker genes in the nos1/noa1 mutant was severely inhibited in the double mutant during leaf senescence. Interestingly, the response of dark-grown nos1/noa1 mutant seedlings to ethylene was similar to that of wild type seedlings. Taken together, our findings suggest that EIN2 is involved in the regulation of early leaf senescence caused by NO deficiency, but NO deficiency caused by NOS1/NOA1 mutations does not affect ethylene signaling. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or... the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  7. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or... the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  8. Studying the teaching of kindness: A conceptual model for evaluating kindness education programs in schools.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Deanna M; deBlois, Madeleine; Dominguez, Violeta; Walsh, Michele E

    2016-10-01

    Recent research suggests that school-based kindness education programs may benefit the learning and social-emotional development of youth and may improve school climate and school safety outcomes. However, how and to what extent kindness education programming influences positive outcomes in schools is poorly understood, and such programs are difficult to evaluate in the absence of a conceptual model for studying their effectiveness. In partnership with Kind Campus, a widely adopted school-based kindness education program that uses a bottom-up program framework, a methodology called concept mapping was used to develop a conceptual model for evaluating school-based kindness education programs from the input of 123 middle school students and approximately 150 educators, school professionals, and academic scholars. From the basis of this model, recommendations for processes and outcomes that would be useful to assess in evaluations of kindness education programs are made, and areas where additional instrument development may be necessary are highlighted. The utility of the concept mapping method as an initial step in evaluating other grassroots or non-traditional educational programming is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Two kinds of physician-assisted death.

    PubMed

    den Hartogh, Govert

    2017-08-23

    I argue that the concept 'physician-assisted suicide' covers two procedures that should be distinguished: giving someone access to humane means to end his own life, and taking co-responsibility for the safe and effective execution of that plan. In the first section I explain the distinction, in the following sections I show why it is important. To begin with I argue that we should expect the laws that permit these two kinds of 'assistance' to be different in their justificatory structure. Laws that permit giving access only presuppose that the right to self-determination implies a right to suicide, but laws that permit doctors to take co-responsibility may have to appeal to a principle of mercy or beneficence. Actually this difference in justificatory structure can to some extent be found in existing regulatory systems, though far from consistently. Finally I argue that if one recognizes a right to suicide, as Oregon and other American states implicitly do, and as the European Court of Human Rights has recently done explicitly, one is committed to permit the first kind of 'assistance' under some conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Children's Reasoning about Physics within and across Ontological Kinds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Gail D.; Phillips, Ann T.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined reasoning about physics principles within and across ontological kinds among 5- and 7-year-olds and adults. Found that all age groups tended to appropriately generalize what they learned across ontological kinds. Children assumed that principles learned with reference to one ontological kind were more likely to apply within that kind than…

  11. Kindness in a Curriculum for Peace: Beyond "Random Acts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Edyth

    2005-01-01

    Kindness is doing things for others, motivated by a true sense of concern and not merely a sense of duty or obligation. Kindness makes life a little better for us. We are all familiar with "random acts of kindness." The question that challenges educators for peace is "How can we make acts of kindness not 'random' but…

  12. Children's Reasoning about Physics within and across Ontological Kinds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Gail D.; Phillips, Ann T.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined reasoning about physics principles within and across ontological kinds among 5- and 7-year-olds and adults. Found that all age groups tended to appropriately generalize what they learned across ontological kinds. Children assumed that principles learned with reference to one ontological kind were more likely to apply within that kind than…

  13. Innovative BI-Lösungen als Basis für eine erfolgreiche Transformation zu Utility 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillipp, Daniel; Ebert, Sebastian

    Für eine erfolgreiche Transformation, vom reinen Energieversorger hin zum Energiedienstleister, werden innovative Business-Intelligence-Lösungen notwendig sein und eine zentrale Rolle einnehmen. Dabei ist es zunächst essenziell, die Herausforderungen zu kennen und ihnen mit geeigneten Analysen zu begegnen. Die Basis hierzu bildet eine abgestimmte und auf die strategischen Unternehmensziele ausgerichtete Architektur und Vorgehensweise. Zwei Beispiele veranschaulichen, wie ein gesamtheitlicher Ansatz, auch bei Datenvielfalt und hoher Komplexität, operative Prozesse optimiert, und fortgeschrittene Analysen zukünftig einen Beitrag zum Unternehmenserfolg liefern können.

  14. Prediction of coexistent carcinomas risks by subjective EIN diagnosis and comparison with WHO classification in endometrial hyperplasias.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Feng; Liao, Ying-Yang; Peng, Ning-Fu; Li, Le-Qun; Xie, Shu-Rui; Wang, Run-Bang

    2012-12-15

    Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) classification is proposed as a new diagnostic system to resolve the limitations of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in routine practice. Our aim was to find out whether EIN classification excels the WHO classification regarding the accurate prediction of coexisting endometrial carcinomas (EC) in biopsy specimens. We retrospectively re-classified 139 WHO-classified endometrial hyperplasia (EH) cases by subjective EIN diagnosis and compared the incidence of coexisting carcinomas using two classification systems by re-evaluating biopsy and corresponding hysterectomy specimens. Of 139 WHO-classified hyperplasia cases, 36 and 103 were classified as benign and EIN cases, respectively. Forty of 93 cases with atypical EH had EC at hysterectomy as compared with 2/46 cases without atypical EH, while EC was detected in 42/103 cases with EIN, and in 0 of 36 cases without EIN. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for atypical EH vs. non-atypical EH in biopsy specimen was 95.2%, 45.4%, 43.0% and 95.7%, respectively. For EIN vs. benign, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 37.1%. The incidence of coexisting carcinomas in EIN cases was similar to that in atypical EH cases. However, regarding the exclusion of coexisting carcinomas, EIN criteria of benign lesions excelled the WHO criteria of non-atypical EH/CH.

  15. WIMP miracle of the second kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikinheimo, Matti; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2017-07-01

    We study dark matter production in scenarios where a scale invariant hidden sector interacts with the Standard Model degrees of freedom via a Higgs portal λ Φ†Φ s2 . If the hidden sector is very weakly coupled to the SM but exhibits strong interactions within its own particle species, the dark matter abundance may arise as a result of a dark freeze-out occurring in the hidden sector. Because of scale invariance, the free parameters in the hidden sector are determined, and the dark matter candidate exhibits a "WIMP miracle of the second kind." Demonstrating the predictive power of scale invariance, we carry out a thorough analysis of dark matter production in several benchmark scenarios where the hidden sector contains either a scalar, fermion (sterile neutrino), or vector dark matter and discuss the observational consequences of these scenarios.

  16. Rekonfigurationstechniken und Anwendungsgebiete für ein programmierbares Gm-C Analog-Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Henrici, F.; Manoli, Y.

    2006-09-01

    FPAAs (Field Programmable Analog Arrays) erlauben es, analoge Signalübertragungsfunktionen auf Hardware abzubilden, die von veränderbaren digitalen Konfigurationsdaten abhängen. Sowohl für das Design von Filterstrukturen auf Systemebene als auch für die genaue Simulation ihrer analogen Übertragungsfunktion auf Transistorebene ist es dabei notwendig, die entsprechenden Konfigurationsdaten einzugeben bevor die Phasen/Betragsanalyse durchgeführt werden kann. Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt ein graphisches Entwurfsprogramm zur Instantiierung von analogen Filtern für ein FPAA mit 17 gm-C Blöcken vor. Es wird über erste Simulationsergebnisse berichtet, die die Machbarkeit mit Eckfrequenzen bis zu hundert Mhz bestätigen. Simulierte Übertragungsfunktionen von grundlegenden Bausteinen werden mit der Theorie verglichen und zu einer exemplarischen Instantiierung eines Butterworth-Filters der vierten Ordnung weitergeführt.

  17. Eine Beziehung seit 650 Jahren: Universität Wien und Kloster Melk - Katalog zur Sonderausstellung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckmüller, Ernst; Niederkorn-Bruck, Meta; Beck, Paul G.; Deibl, Jakob; Deibl, Johannes; Denk, Ulrike; Ellegast, Burkard; Floßmann, Gerhard; Glaßner, Gottfried; Kalteis, Bernadette; Kowarik, Wilfried; Rotheneder, Martin

    2015-04-01

    University of Vienna was founded in 1365 and celebrates its 650 anniversary in 2015. Due to the university's anniversary, the Benedictine abbey of Melk, Austria presents an exhibition, depicting six and half centuries of university history and collaboration between the university as well as the abbey in all disciplines present at medieval universities. The publication describes the historic frame work as well as case-by-case descriptions of displayed manuscripts, prints and artifacts. Die Universität Wien wurde 1365 gegründet und feiert 2015 ihr 650jähriges Bestehen. Aus Anlass dieses Jubiläums präsentiert das Benediktiner Stift Melk eine Ausstellung, in der sechseinhalb Jahrhunderte Universistaetsgeschichte aufgearbeitet werden, sowie die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Universität und Abtei auf allen Themenbereichen, die an mittelalterlichen Universitäten angeboten wurden. Die Publikation bietet eine historische Zusammenfassung sowie eine Detailbeschreibung der ausgestellten Handschriften, Drucke sowie Gegenstände.

  18. What kind of consciousness is minimal?

    PubMed

    Kotchoubey, Boris; Vogel, Dominik; Lang, Simone; Müller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    A comparison between unitary and non-unitary views on minimal consciousness. First, unitary (all-or-none) and non-unitary (gradual or continuous) models of consciousness are defined as they have been developed in both philosophy and neurophysiology. Then, the implications of these ideas to the notion the minimally conscious state (MCS) are discussed. Review and analysis of theoretical conceptions and empirical data. Both kinds of models are compatible with the actual definitions of MCS. Although unitary views may seem to contradict the description of the MCS in 'Neurology' 2002, the apparent contradiction can easily be solved. Most recent data, particularly those obtained using fMRI and concerning learning, emotional responsiveness and pain and suffering, speak for non-unitary models. Most evidence speaks for non-unitary models of minimal consciousness. If these models are correct, patients with MCS may have, in addition to temporal fluctuations, a lower level of consciousness compared with fully conscious individuals. A still lower level could characterize patients diagnosed as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS). From this point of view, therefore, the difference between UWS and MCS is gradual rather than qualitative. However, due to methodological limitations of the available studies, the evidence for non-unitary models cannot be regarded as definite.

  19. What kind of discipline is psychoanalysis?

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Current controversies involving clinical, conceptual and empirical research shed light on how psychoanalysis confronts its nature and its future. Some relevant debates in which Wallerstein, Green, Hoffman, Eagle and Wolitzky, Safran, Stern, Blass and Carmeli, and Panksepp have participated are examined regarding the characteristics of their argumentation. Agreements and disagreements are explored to find ways that could have allowed the discussion to progress. Two foci are highlighted in these debates: (a) whether a clinical common ground exists in psychoanalysis and what kind of procedure could contribute to further clarification; (b) complementation of in-clinical and extra-clinical evidence. Both aspects are scrutinized: the possibility of complementing diverse methodologies, and the nature of the shared clinical evidence examined in clinical discussion groups such as those promoted by the IPA Clinical Observation Committee. The importance of triangulation and consilience is brought to bear regarding their contribution to the robustness of psychoanalysis. So as to strengthen a critical perspective that enhances the discipline's argumentative field, psychoanalysis should take into account arguments from different sources according to their specific merits. By doing this, psychoanalysis increases its relevance within the current interdisciplinary dialogue.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis Provides a Preliminary Regulation Route of the Ethylene Signal Transduction Component, SlEIN2, during Tomato Ripening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Heng; Yuan, Xin-Yu; Meng, Lan-Huan; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene is crucial in climacteric fruit ripening. The ethylene signal pathway regulates several physiological alterations such as softening, carotenoid accumulation and sugar level reduction, and production of volatile compounds. All these physiological processes are controlled by numerous genes and their expression simultaneously changes at the onset of ripening. Ethylene insensitive 2 (EIN2) is a key component for ethylene signal transduction, and its mutation causes ethylene insensitivity. In tomato, silencing SlEIN2 resulted in a non-ripening phenotype and low ethylene production. RNA sequencing of SlEIN2-silenced and wild type tomato, and differential gene expression analyses, indicated that silencing SlEIN2 caused changes in more than 4,000 genes, including those related to photosynthesis, defense, and secondary metabolism. The relative expression level of 28 genes covering ripening-associated transcription factors, ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene signal pathway, chlorophyll binding proteins, lycopene and aroma biosynthesis, and defense pathway, showed that SlEIN2 influences ripening inhibitor (RIN) in a feedback loop, thus controlling the expression of several other genes. SlEIN2 regulates many aspects of fruit ripening, and is a key factor in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. Silencing SlEIN2 ultimately results in lycopene biosynthesis inhibition, which is the reason why tomato does not turn red, and this gene also affects the expression of several defense-associated genes. Although SlEIN2-silenced and green wild type fruits are similar in appearance, their metabolism is significantly different at the molecular level.

  1. KIND Clubs: A Humane Education Innovation That's Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Patty

    1990-01-01

    The Kids in Nature's Defense (KIND) Club and the "adopt" a teacher program are described. The importance of animals and the environment is emphasized. Information on how to start a KIND Club is provided. (KR)

  2. KIND Clubs: A Humane Education Innovation That's Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Patty

    1990-01-01

    The Kids in Nature's Defense (KIND) Club and the "adopt" a teacher program are described. The importance of animals and the environment is emphasized. Information on how to start a KIND Club is provided. (KR)

  3. EIN3 interferes with the sulfur deficiency signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana through direct interaction with the SLIM1 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Sulfur deficiency in plants leads to metabolic reprogramming through changes of gene expression. SLIM1 is so far the only characterized transcription factor associated strictly with sulfur deficiency stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. It belongs to the same protein family as EIN3, a major positive switch of ethylene signaling pathway. It binds to the specific cis sequence called UPE-box. Here we show that SLIM1 interacts with UPE-box as a homodimer. Interestingly, the same region of the protein is used for heterodimerization with EIN3; however, the heterodimer is not able to recognize UPE-box. Expression of several SLIM1-dependent genes is enhanced in sulfur deficiency grown Arabidopsis ein3-1 seedlings (with mutated EIN3 protein). This implies a possible regulatory mechanism of ethylene in sulfur metabolism through direct EIN3-SLIM1 interaction.

  4. Natural kinds in evolution and systematics: metaphysical and epistemological considerations.

    PubMed

    Brigandt, Ingo

    2009-06-01

    Despite the traditional focus on metaphysical issues in discussions of natural kinds in biology, epistemological considerations are at least as important. By revisiting the debate as to whether taxa are kinds or individuals, I argue that both accounts are metaphysically compatible, but that one or the other approach can be pragmatically preferable depending on the epistemic context. Recent objections against construing species as homeostatic property cluster kinds are also addressed. The second part of the paper broadens the perspective by considering homologues as another example of natural kinds, comparing them with analogues as functionally defined kinds. Given that there are various types of natural kinds, I discuss the different theoretical purposes served by diverse kind concepts, suggesting that there is no clear-cut distinction between natural kinds and other kinds, such as functional kinds. Rather than attempting to offer a unique metaphysical account of 'natural' kind, a more fruitful approach consists in the epistemological study of how different natural kind concepts are employed in scientific reasoning.

  5. 25 CFR 168.7 - Kind of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kind of livestock. 168.7 Section 168.7 Indians BUREAU OF... LANDS AREA § 168.7 Kind of livestock. Unless determined otherwise by the Area Director for conservation purposes, the Hopi Tribe may determine, subject to the authorized carrying capacity, the kind of...

  6. What kind of computation is intelligence. A framework for integrating different kinds of expertise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekaran, B.

    1989-01-01

    The view that the deliberative aspect of intelligent behavior is a distinct type of algorithm; in particular, a goal-seeking exploratory process using qualitative representations of knowledge and inference is elaborated. There are other kinds of algorithms that also embody expertise in domains. The different types of expertise and how they can and should be integrated to give full account of expert behavior are discussed.

  7. Levels and kinds of explanation: lessons from neuropsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Sam

    2014-01-01

    I use an example from neuropsychiatry, namely delusional misidentification, to show a distinction between levels of explanation and kinds of explanation. Building on a pragmatic view of explanation, different kinds of explanation arise because we have different kinds of explanatory concerns. One important kind of explanatory concern involves asking a certain kind of “why” question. Answering such questions provides a personal explanation, namely, renders intelligible the beliefs and actions of other persons. I use contrasting theories of delusional misidentification to highlight how different facts about the phenomenon that is being explained impose constraints on the availability of personal explanation. PMID:24808882

  8. Separation anxiety: An analysis of ethylene-induced cleavage of EIN2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since the discovery of the CTR1 protein kinase and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized EIN2 protein nearly 20 y ago, plant biologists have wondered how these proteins respectively serve as negative and positive regulators of ethylene-mediated signal transduction in plants. Now with the publicat...

  9. New paradigm in ethylene signaling: EIN2, the central regulator of the signaling pathway, interacts directly with the upstream receptors.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Melanie M A; Groth, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The membrane protein ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), which is supposed to act between the soluble serine/threonine kinase CTR1 and the EIN3/EIL family of transcription factors, is a central and most critical element of the ethylene signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. In a recent study, we have identified that EIN2 interacts tightly with all members of the Arabidopsis ethylene receptor family - proteins that mark the starting point of the signaling pathway. Our studies show consistently that the kinase domain of the receptors is essential for the formation of the EIN2-receptor complex. Furthermore, mutational analysis demonstrates that phosphorylation is a key mechanism in controlling the interaction of EIN2 and the ethylene receptors. Interaction studies in the presence of the ethylene agonist cyanide revealed a causal link between hormone binding and complex formation. In the presence of the plant hormone agonist the auto-kinase activity of the receptors is inhibited and the non-phosphorylated kinase domain of the receptors binds tightly to the carboxyl-terminal domain of EIN2. In the absence of cyanide inhibition of the auto-kinase activity is relieved and complex formation with the phosphorylated kinase domain of the receptors is reduced. Our data suggest a novel model on the integration of EIN2 in the ethylene signaling pathway.

  10. ORA59 and EIN3 interaction couples jasmonate-ethylene synergistic action to antagonistic salicylic acid regulation of PDF expression.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang; Jiang, Jishan; Wang, Changquan; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2017-02-07

    Hormonal crosstalk is central for tailoring plant responses to the nature of challenges encountered. The role of antagonism between the two major defense hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), and modulation of this interplay by ethylene (ET) in favor of JA signaling pathway in plant stress responses is well recognized, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show the opposing function of two transcription factors, ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) and EIN3-Like1 (EIL1), in SA-mediated suppression and JA-mediated activation of PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2). This functional duality is mediated via their effect on protein, not transcript levels of the PDF1.2 transcriptional activator octadecanoid-responsive arabidopsis59 (ORA59). Specifically, JA induces ORA59 protein levels independently of EIN3/EIL1, whereas SA reduces the protein levels dependently of EIN3/EIL1. Co-infiltration assays revealed nuclear co-localization of ORA59 and EIN3, and split-luciferase together with yeast-two-hybrid assays established their physical interaction. The functional ramification of the physical interaction is EIN3-dependent degradation of ORA59 by the 26S proteasome. These findings allude to SA-responsive reduction of ORA59 levels mediated by EIN3 binding to and targeting of ORA59 for degradation, thus nominating ORA59 pool as a coordination node for the antagonistic function of ET/JA and SA.

  11. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  12. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  13. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  14. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  15. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  16. Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Kathryn E; Bardi, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to establish the effects of acts of kindness and acts of novelty on life satisfaction. Participants aged 18-60 took part on a voluntary basis. They were randomly assigned to perform either acts of kindness, acts of novelty, or no acts on a daily basis for 10 days. Their life satisfaction was measured before and after the 10-day experiment. As expected, performing acts of kindness or acts of novelty resulted in an increase in life satisfaction.

  17. Kinds of access: different methods for report reveal different kinds of metacognitive access

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    In experimental investigations of consciousness, participants are asked to reflect upon their own experiences by issuing reports about them in different ways. For this reason, a participant needs some access to the content of her own conscious experience in order to report. In such experiments, the reports typically consist of some variety of ratings of confidence or direct descriptions of one's own experiences. Whereas different methods of reporting are typically used interchangeably, recent experiments indicate that different results are obtained with different kinds of reporting. We argue that there is not only a theoretical, but also an empirical difference between different methods of reporting. We hypothesize that differences in the sensitivity of different scales may reveal that different types of access are used to issue direct reports about experiences and metacognitive reports about the classification process. PMID:22492747

  18. "Hochleistern über die Schulter geschaut" - Konzeption eines Lehrvideos zur Vermittlung von Problemlösekompetenz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujath, Bertold; Schwill, Andreas

    Leistungsstarke Problemlöser zeigen ein deutlich anderes Vorgehen beim Bearbeiten von typischen Informatikproblemen als schwächere Problemlöser, das hat eine Vergleichsstudie mit Hoch- und Niedrigleistern ergeben. Auffällig war das Fehlen informatikspezifischer Herangehensweisen bei der Problembearbeitung durch Niedrigleister, obwohl die dazu notwendigen Werkzeuge wie etwa Baumstrukturen oder Rekursion durchaus bekannt waren. Aber auch viele allgemeine Empfehlungen der Problemlöseforschung, wie etwa das Zerlegen eines Problems in Teilprobleme oder das Durchführen einer Problemanalyse vor der eigentlichen Bearbeitung, bleiben bei schwachen Problemlösern unbeachtet. Die Frage, wie nun die deutlich effizienteren Strategien der Hochleister didaktisch aufgearbeitet werden können, um sie an Niedrigleister zu vermitteln, soll im vorliegen Beitrag anhand der Konzeption eines Lehrvideos beantwortet werden.

  19. 7 CFR 54.1006 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Poultry Products § 54.1006 Kind of service. Certification of Sanitary Design and Fabrication of Equipment Used in the Slaughter, Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products service under... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind of service. 54.1006 Section 54.1006...

  20. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (PIK) Program § 1435.503 In-kind payments. (a) CCC will, through such methods as CCC deems appropriate, make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC will use its inventory in making an in-kind payment based on the following priority: (1) CCC-owned...

  1. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (PIK) Program § 1435.503 In-kind payments. (a) CCC will, through such methods as CCC deems appropriate, make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC will use its inventory in making an in-kind payment based on the following priority: (1) CCC-owned...

  2. Knowledge of Natural Kinds in Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Katy; Smith, Edward E.; Grossman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    We examined the semantic impairment for natural kinds in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) using an inductive reasoning paradigm. To learn about the relationships between natural kind exemplars and how these are distinguished from manufactured artifacts, subjects judged the strength of arguments such as…

  3. Knowledge of Natural Kinds in Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Katy; Smith, Edward E.; Grossman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    We examined the semantic impairment for natural kinds in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) using an inductive reasoning paradigm. To learn about the relationships between natural kind exemplars and how these are distinguished from manufactured artifacts, subjects judged the strength of arguments such as…

  4. Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The vision of natural kinds that is most common in the modern philosophy of biology, particularly with respect to the question whether species and other taxa are natural kinds, is based on a revision of the notion by Mill in "A System of Logic." However, there was another conception that Whewell had previously captured well, which taxonomists have…

  5. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other appropriate...

  6. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other appropriate...

  7. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other appropriate...

  8. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other appropriate...

  9. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other appropriate...

  10. Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The vision of natural kinds that is most common in the modern philosophy of biology, particularly with respect to the question whether species and other taxa are natural kinds, is based on a revision of the notion by Mill in "A System of Logic." However, there was another conception that Whewell had previously captured well, which taxonomists have…

  11. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  12. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  13. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  14. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  15. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  16. 10 CFR 603.1275 - In-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false In-kind contributions. 603.1275 Section 603.1275 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1275 In-kind contributions. The value of non-cash contributions made by a...

  17. 10 CFR 603.1275 - In-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false In-kind contributions. 603.1275 Section 603.1275 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1275 In-kind contributions. The value of non-cash contributions made by a...

  18. 10 CFR 603.1275 - In-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false In-kind contributions. 603.1275 Section 603.1275 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1275 In-kind contributions. The value of non-cash contributions made by a...

  19. 10 CFR 603.1275 - In-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false In-kind contributions. 603.1275 Section 603.1275 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1275 In-kind contributions. The value of non-cash contributions made by a...

  20. 10 CFR 603.1275 - In-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false In-kind contributions. 603.1275 Section 603.1275 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1275 In-kind contributions. The value of non-cash contributions made by a...

  1. Transcriptome Analysis Provides a Preliminary Regulation Route of the Ethylene Signal Transduction Component, SlEIN2, during Tomato Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Heng; Yuan, Xin-Yu; Meng, Lan-Huan; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene is crucial in climacteric fruit ripening. The ethylene signal pathway regulates several physiological alterations such as softening, carotenoid accumulation and sugar level reduction, and production of volatile compounds. All these physiological processes are controlled by numerous genes and their expression simultaneously changes at the onset of ripening. Ethylene insensitive 2 (EIN2) is a key component for ethylene signal transduction, and its mutation causes ethylene insensitivity. In tomato, silencing SlEIN2 resulted in a non-ripening phenotype and low ethylene production. RNA sequencing of SlEIN2-silenced and wild type tomato, and differential gene expression analyses, indicated that silencing SlEIN2 caused changes in more than 4,000 genes, including those related to photosynthesis, defense, and secondary metabolism. The relative expression level of 28 genes covering ripening-associated transcription factors, ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene signal pathway, chlorophyll binding proteins, lycopene and aroma biosynthesis, and defense pathway, showed that SlEIN2 influences ripening inhibitor (RIN) in a feedback loop, thus controlling the expression of several other genes. SlEIN2 regulates many aspects of fruit ripening, and is a key factor in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. Silencing SlEIN2 ultimately results in lycopene biosynthesis inhibition, which is the reason why tomato does not turn red, and this gene also affects the expression of several defense-associated genes. Although SlEIN2-silenced and green wild type fruits are similar in appearance, their metabolism is significantly different at the molecular level. PMID:27973616

  2. Ein mobiler und offener Kernspintomograph: Kernspintomographie für Medizin und Materialforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümich, Bernhard; Kölker, Christian; Casanova, Federico; Perlo, Juan; Felder, Jörg

    2005-09-01

    An der RWTH Aachen wurde der erste offene und mobile Kernspintomograph entwickelt. Anders als die normalerweise riesigen und unbeweglichen Geräte besitzt er keine enge Magnetröhre. So kann er auch in große Untersuchungsobjekte hinein schauen, ohne dass diese zerstört werden müssen. Wie eine Lupe erfasst er dabei ein begrenztes Volumen um den Aufsatzpunkt herum. Neben der Medizin ermöglicht der offene Tomograph viele neue Anwendungsgebiete, vor allem in der Materialprüfung und Qualitätskontrolle. Der Aachener Prototyp kann auch das Fließprofil und die Geschwindigkeitsverteilung strömender Flüssigkeiten sichtbar machen. Sein offenes Prinzip erforderte neue technische Komponenten und modifizierte bildgebende Verfahren. Die Messzeit pro Bild kann heute schon unter einer Viertelstunde liegen.

  3. Die chronische venöse Insuffizienz - Eine Zusammenfassung der Pathophysiologie, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    PubMed

    Santler, Bettina; Goerge, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Die chronische Venenerkrankung ist eine weit verbreitete Krankheit, die in späteren Stadien mit einer Vielzahl an Symptomen, aber auch Komplikationen wie dem Ulcus cruris, einhergeht. Dies wiederum hat weitreichende Auswirkungen auf die Lebensqualität der Patienten wie auch auf das Gesundheitssystem. Für die Diagnostik der chronischen Venenerkrankungen steht eine Auswahl an Verfahren zur Verfügung, wobei sich die farbkodierte Duplexsonographie als Goldstandard etabliert hat. Im Bereich der Therapie kam es in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu großen Fortschritten, sodass heute auch Alternativen zum klassischen Stripping durch die endoluminalen Verfahren zur Verfügung stehen. Die Wahl der Therapieoption ist jedoch weiterhin stark abhängig von mehreren Faktoren, unter anderem von den anatomischen Gegebenheiten und dem Krankheitsstadium. Im folgenden Artikel werden die Anatomie und Pathophysiologie, sowie die aktuellen Standards der Diagnostik und Therapie zusammengefasst. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Variationeller Ansatz für eine integrierte Segmentierung und nicht-lineare Registrierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Ehrhardt, Jan; Handels, Heinz

    Vierdimensionale tomographische Bilddaten ermöglichen neuartige Therapie- und Diagnoseverfahren in der medizinischen Praxis. Voraussetzung dafür sind oft die räumlich-zeitliche Segmentierung anatomischer Strukturen in den 4D- Daten und die Bestimmung ihrer dynamischen Eigenschaften durch Schätzung der 3D-Bewegungsfelder mittels nicht-linearer Registrierungsverfahren. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, mit dem sich Level-Set-Segmentierung und diffusive, nicht-lineare Registrierung unter Berücksichtigung ihrer wechelseitigen Abhängigkeiten integriert lösen lassen. Die Aufgabe wird als Energieminimierung formuliert und ein variationelles Lösungsverfahren angegeben. Anschließend wird der Ansatz an Phantom- und CT-Patientendaten am Beispiel der Leber validiert.

  5. From cutting nature and its joints to measuring it: new kinds and new kinds of people in biology.

    PubMed

    McOuat, G

    2001-12-01

    In the received version of the development of science, natural kinds are established in the preliminary stages (natural history) and made more precise by measurement (exact science). By examining the move from nineteenth- to twentieth-century biology, this paper unpacks the notion of species as 'natural kinds' and grounds for discourse, questioning received notions about both kinds and species. Life sciences in the nineteenth century established several 'monster-barring' techniques to block disputes about the precise definition of species. Counterintuitively, precision and definition brought dispute and disrupted exchange. Thus, any attempt to add precision was doomed to failure. By intervening and measuring, the new experimental biology dislocated the established links between natural kinds and kinds of people and institutions. New kinds were built in new places. They were made to measure from the very start. This paper ends by claiming that there was no long-standing 'species problem' in the history of biology. That problem is a later construction of the 'modern synthesis', well after the disruption of 'kinds' and kinds of people. Only then would definitions and precision matter. A new, non-linguistic, take on the incommensurability thesis is hinted at. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Toolmanagement - Werkzeuge und Prozesse als Schlüssel für eine effiziente Produktion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enßle, Magnus

    In Bezug auf die Fertigungskosten nehmen die Werkzeugkosten mit 3% einen sehr kleinen und daher vermeintlich unwichtigen Posten ein. HoheKosten ergeben sich aber meist indirekt durch Maschinenstillstandszeiten wegen fehlender oder falscher Werkzeuge, wegen ineffektiven Rüstvorgängen, umständlicher Werkzeuglogistik, unnötig hoher Bestände, unabgestimmter Abläufe, nicht aktueller Fertigungsunterlagen sowie mangelhafter Informationsflüsse zwischen Planung, Vorbereitung und Ausführung in der Fertigung [1].

  7. Ustekinumab in der Therapie der Pustulosis palmoplantaris - Eine Fallserie mit neun Patienten.

    PubMed

    Buder, Valeska; Herberger, Katharina; Jacobi, Arnd; Augustin, Matthias; Radtke, Marc Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Die Pustulosis palmoplantaris ist eine chronisch entzündliche Hauterkrankung, die mit bedeutenden Einschränkungen der Lebensqualität und der Belastbarkeit einhergeht. Aufgrund von Zulassungsbeschränkungen und einem häufig therapierefraktären Verlauf sind die Behandlungsmöglichkeiten limitiert. Nach zuvor frustranen Therapien erhielten 9 Patienten mit Pustulosis palmoplantaris nach Ausschluss einer latenten Tuberkulose Ustekinumab (45 mg Ustekinumab bei < 100 kg Körpergewicht [KG], 90 mg Ustekinumab > 100 kg KG) in Woche 0, 4, 12 und 24. Reguläre Visiten erfolgten nach 4 und 12 Wochen, im weiteren Verlauf alle 12 Wochen. Das Durchschnittsalter bei Therapiebeginn betrug 48 Jahre. Drei Patienten waren männlich. Bei n  =  4 Patienten (44,4 %) wurde eine Verbesserung um 75 % des Palmoplantar-Psoriasis-Area-Severity-Index (PPPASI) erreicht. Insgesamt verbesserte sich der PPPASI nach 24 Wochen durchschnittlich um 71,6 %. Eine komplette Abheilung zeigte sich bei n  =  2 Patienten nach 24 Wochen. Bis auf lokale Injektionsreaktionen und leichte Infekte wurden keine unerwünschten Wirkungen beobachtet. Die Fallserie ist ein weiterer Beleg für die Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit von Ustekinumab in der Therapie der Pustulosis palmoplantaris. Zur Beurteilung der Langzeitwirkung und -sicherheit sowie der Wirksamkeit einer intermittierenden Therapie sind kontrollierte Studiendaten sowie Beobachtungen im Rahmen von Patientenregistern notwendig. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pax2 expression in simultaneously diagnosed WHO and EIN classification systems.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Amy K; Quick, Charles M; Jeffus, Susanne K

    2015-01-01

    PAX2 has been cited as a technically robust biomarker which nicely delineates precancerous lesions of the endometrium when the endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) classification scheme is used. Its utility in distinguishing between atypical and nonatypical hyperplasia when applied within the 1994 World Health Organization classification system is questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAX2 in a side by side comparison of its staining patterns in a series of endometrial samples that were classified using both systems. A total of 108 precancerous endometrial cases were identified, of which 30 cases were deemed nonhyperplastic by consensus agreement and 11 cases lost the tissue of interest on deeper sections. The remaining 67 cases were categorized according to the 1994 World Health Organization criteria and EIN scheme by 2 gynecologic pathologists. PAX2 staining was scored in lesional tissue as normal or altered (lost, increased, or decreased) compared with nonlesional background. The most common pattern of alteration was complete loss of nuclear PAX2 staining (86.3%) followed by decreased staining (11.3%) and markedly increased staining (2.3%). PAX2 alterations correlated well with EIN diagnoses (33/36, 92%) compared with benign hyperplasia (2/13, 15%) but were less useful when the 1994 World Health Organization classification system was applied (PAX2 alteration in 22/25 (88%) of atypical hyperplasia cases versus 16/25 (64%) of nonatypical hyperplasia cases). Forty-five percent of follow-up hysterectomies with a previous PAX2-altered biopsy case harbored adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, PAX2 may be a helpful adjunct stain and training tool when the features of atypical hyperplasia/EIN are in question.

  9. Antikollisionssystem PRORETA - Integrierte Lösung für ein unfallvermeidendes Fahrzeug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isermann, Rolf; Bender, Eva; Bruder, Ralph; Darms, Michael; Schorn, Matthias; Stählin, Ulrich; Winner, Hermann

    Dank einer zunehmenden Verbreitung von aktiven und passiven Sicherheitssystemen in Kraftfahrzeugen konnte die Zahl der Verkehrstoten in den letzten Jahren stetig gesenkt werden. Bei der Bearbeitung des Projekts PRORETA wurde mit der Entwicklung eines elektronischen Fahrerassistenzsystems zur Unfallvermeidung das Ziel verfolgt, durch Notbremsen und Notausweichen Unfälle zu vermeiden. Das System wurde an der TU Darmstadt in Kooperation mit der Continental AG entwickelt. Im Folgenden werden die Grundlagen des Systems, Fahrversuche und Ergebnisse einer ergonomischen Studie dargestellt.

  10. Unsere Sonne - ein rätselhafter Stern? Erkenntnisse und Spekulationen der Astrophysik.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribbin, J.

    This book is a German translation, by A. Ehlers, of the English original "Blinded by the light. The secret life of the Sun", published in 1991. Contents: 1. Vorgeschichte. 2. Quelle gewaltiger Energien. 3. Im Innern der Sonne. 4. Zuwenig Geister. 5. Ein verrückter Gedanke. 6. Die atmende Sonne. 7. Die zitternde Sonne. 8. Das Große und das Kleine. 9. Der Beitrag der Supernova.

  11. Die histologischen Typen der lymphomatoiden Papulose - Ein Vorschlag für die Vereinfachung des Buchstabenchaos.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Werner; Mitteldorf, Christina; Karai, Laszlo J; Robson, Alistair

    2017-04-01

    Die lymphomatoide Papulose (LYP) ist klinisch durch rezidivierende papulonoduläre Läsionen charakterisiert. Im Gegensatz zu dieser stereotypen klinischen Präsentation zeigt die Erkrankung ein breites histologisches Spektrum mit verschiedenen Infiltratmustern, unterschiedlichen Tumorzellgrößen und variablen Phänotypen. Die revidierte WHO-Klassifikation 2016 umfasst die histologischen LYP-Typen A bis E und einen sechsten Typ, dem eine spezielle Mutation zugrunde liegt. Darüber hinaus werden jedoch immer wieder neue Typen vorgeschlagen, wobei sich die Ausweitung nicht ausschließlich auf histologische Muster bezieht, sondern sich auch auf klinische und genetische Aspekte ausdehnt. Dies führt zu einer Ausweitung der alphabetischen Liste mit zunehmender Komplexität der Terminologie und kann anstelle eines vereinfachten diagnostischen Zugangs zur Verwirrung führen. Zudem kann es zu Überschneidungen unterschiedlicher Typen kommen. Diese Entwicklung wirft die Frage auf, wie die Terminologie der lymphomatoiden Papulose vereinfacht werden kann, ohne dabei auf die histologischen Besonderheiten zu verzichten. Wir schlagen daher einen praktischen Zugang zur Terminologie der lymphomatoide Papulosen vor, welcher sich ausschließlich auf deskriptive Begriffe beschränkt und nicht auf einer alphabetischen Bezeichnung der LYP-Typen beruht. Unser Vorschlag soll einen praktikablen und benutzerfreundlichen Zugang zur Terminologie der lymphomatoiden Papulose ermöglichen und damit den diagnostischen Prozess sowie die Kommunikation zwischen Klinikern und Pathologen vereinfachen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Untersuchung der Richtwirkung der Einkopplung von ebenen Wellen in eine Leitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdowski, M.; Vick, R.

    2013-07-01

    Elektrische Leitungen und Kabel stellen häufig die Haupteinfallstore für elektromagnetische Felder in die daran angeschlossenen Geräte und Systeme dar. Für die Einkopplung einer ebenen Welle kann der in eine Leitung eingekoppelte Strom unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen mit Hilfe der Leitungstheorie sehr effizient bestimmt werden. Er hängt dabei von den Abmessungen der Leitung, den Leitungsabschlüssen sowie der Amplitude, der Wellenlänge und der Einfallsrichtung der ebenen Welle ab. In dieser Arbeit wird die Abhängigkeit der Einkopplung von der Einfallsrichtung näher untersucht. Dazu werden Richtdiagramme der Einkopplung berechnet, dargestellt und hinsichtlich der mittleren und maximalen Einkopplung über alle Einfallsrichtungen und Polarisationen ausgewertet. Die Ergebnisse werden genutzt, um die maximale Direktivität der Einkopplung in eine Leitung zu bestimmen. Fasst man die Einkopplung externer Felder in eine Leitung als einen Störfestigkeitstest auf, so kann die maximale Direktivität benutzt werden, um einen Vergleich zwischen unterschiedlichen Messumgebungen wie Absorberhallen und Modenverwirbelungskammern herzustellen.

  13. Conceptual and linguistic representations of kinds and classes

    PubMed Central

    Prasada, Sandeep; Hennefield, Laura; Otap, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that our conceptual systems provide two formally distinct ways of representing categories by investigating the manner in which lexical nominals (e.g., tree, picnic table) and phrasal nominals (e.g., black bird, birds that like rice) are interpreted. Four experiments found that lexical nominals may be mapped onto kind representations whereas phrasal nominals map onto class representations but not kind representations. Experiment 1 found that phrasal nominals, unlike lexical nominals, are mapped onto categories whose members need not be of a single kind. Experiments 2 and 3 found that categories named by lexical nominals enter into both class inclusion and kind hierarchies and thus support both class inclusion (is a) and kind specification (kind of) relations, whereas phrasal nominals map onto class representations which support only class inclusion relations. Experiment 4 showed that the two types of nominals represent hierarchical relations in different ways. Phrasal nominals (e.g., white bear) are mapped onto classes that have criteria of membership in addition to those specified by the class picked out by the head noun of the phrase (e.g., bear). In contrast, lexical nominals (e.g., polar bear) specify one way to meet the criteria specified by the more general kind concept (e.g., bear). Implications for the language-conceptual system interface, representation of hierarchical relations, lexicalization, and theories of conceptual combination are discussed. PMID:22671567

  14. How Natural a Kind Is “Eukaryote?”

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, W. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Systematics balances uneasily between realism and nominalism, uncommitted as to whether biological taxa are discoveries or inventions. If the former, they might be taken as natural kinds. I briefly review some philosophers’ concepts of natural kinds and then argue that several of these apply well enough to “eukaryote.” Although there are some sticky issues around genomic chimerism and when eukaryotes first appeared, if we allow for degrees in the naturalness of kinds, existing eukaryotes rank highly, higher than prokaryotes. Most biologists feel this intuitively: All I attempt to do here is provide some conceptual justification. PMID:24890508

  15. 32 CFR 37.1300 - In-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1300 In-kind contributions. The value of non-cash contributions made by a recipient or non-Federal third parties toward cost...

  16. 7 CFR 160.61 - Kinds of certificates issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Certificates and Reports § 160.61 Kinds of certificates issued. A certificate...

  17. 7 CFR 160.61 - Kinds of certificates issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Certificates and Reports § 160.61 Kinds of certificates issued. A certificate...

  18. 22 CFR 19.11-1 - Kinds of survivor benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11-1 Kinds of survivor benefits. If a... spouse and does not subsequently become entitled to leave a survivor annuity under these...

  19. The Interplay of Chromatin Landscape and DNA-Binding Context Suggests Distinct Modes of EIN3 Regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zemlyanskaya, Elena V.; Levitsky, Victor G.; Oshchepkov, Dmitry Y.; Grosse, Ivo; Mironova, Victoria V.

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene regulates numerous developmental processes and stress responses. Ethylene signaling proceeds via a linear pathway, which activates transcription factor (TF) EIN3, a primary transcriptional regulator of ethylene response. EIN3 influences gene expression upon binding to a specific sequence in gene promoters. This interaction, however, might be considerably affected by additional co-factors. In this work, we perform whole genome bioinformatics study to identify the impact of epigenetic factors in EIN3 functioning. The analysis of publicly available ChIP-Seq data on EIN3 binding in Arabidopsis thaliana showed bimodality of distribution of EIN3 binding regions (EBRs) in gene promoters. Besides a sharp peak in close proximity to transcription start site, which is a common binding region for a wide variety of TFs, we found an additional extended peak in the distal promoter region. We characterized all EBRs with respect to the epigenetic status appealing to previously published genome-wide map of nine chromatin states in A. thaliana. We found that the implicit distal peak was associated with a specific chromatin state (referred to as chromatin state 4 in the primary source), which was just poorly represented in the pronounced proximal peak. Intriguingly, EBRs corresponding to this chromatin state 4 were significantly associated with ethylene response, unlike the others representing the overwhelming majority of EBRs related to the explicit proximal peak. Moreover, we found that specific EIN3 binding sequences predicted with previously described model were enriched in the EBRs mapped to the chromatin state 4, but not to the rest ones. These results allow us to conclude that the interplay of genetic and epigenetic factors might cause the distinct modes of EIN3 regulation. PMID:28119721

  20. BOLD signal and functional connectivity associated with loving kindness meditation.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2014-05-01

    Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as "may all beings be happy," to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation. We next used a relatively novel approach, the intrinsic connectivity distribution of functional connectivity, to identify regions that differ in intrinsic connectivity between groups, and then used a data-driven approach to seed-based connectivity analysis to identify which connections differ between groups. Our findings suggest group differences in brain regions involved in self-related processing and mind wandering, emotional processing, inner speech, and memory. Meditators showed overall reduced BOLD signal and intrinsic connectivity during loving kindness as compared to novices, more specifically in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), a finding that is consistent with our prior work and other recent neuroimaging studies of meditation. Furthermore, meditators showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and the left inferior frontal gyrus, whereas novices showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and other cortical midline regions of the default mode network, the bilateral posterior insula lobe, and the bilateral parahippocampus/hippocampus. These novel findings suggest that loving kindness meditation involves a present-centered, selfless focus for meditators as compared to novices.

  1. BOLD signal and functional connectivity associated with loving kindness meditation

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2014-01-01

    Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as “may all beings be happy,” to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation. We next used a relatively novel approach, the intrinsic connectivity distribution of functional connectivity, to identify regions that differ in intrinsic connectivity between groups, and then used a data-driven approach to seed-based connectivity analysis to identify which connections differ between groups. Our findings suggest group differences in brain regions involved in self-related processing and mind wandering, emotional processing, inner speech, and memory. Meditators showed overall reduced BOLD signal and intrinsic connectivity during loving kindness as compared to novices, more specifically in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), a finding that is consistent with our prior work and other recent neuroimaging studies of meditation. Furthermore, meditators showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and the left inferior frontal gyrus, whereas novices showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and other cortical midline regions of the default mode network, the bilateral posterior insula lobe, and the bilateral parahippocampus/hippocampus. These novel findings suggest that loving kindness meditation involves a present-centered, selfless focus for meditators as compared to novices. PMID:24944863

  2. ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE5 encodes a 5'-->3' exoribonuclease required for regulation of the EIN3-targeting F-box proteins EBF1/2.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Gabriela; Guo, Hongwei; Gregory, Brian D; Nourizadeh, Saeid D; Aguilar-Henonin, Laura; Li, Hongjiang; An, Fengying; Guzman, Plinio; Ecker, Joseph R

    2006-09-05

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant growth regulator that controls a multitude of developmental and stress responses. Recently, the levels of Arabidopsis EIN3 protein, a key transcription factor mediating ethylene-regulated gene expression, have been demonstrated to increase in response to the presence of ethylene gas. Furthermore, in the absence of ethylene, EIN3 is quickly degraded through a ubiquitin/proteasome pathway mediated by two F-box proteins, EBF1 and EBF2. Here we report the identification of ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE5 as the 5'-->3' exoribonuclease XRN4. Specifically, we demonstrate that EIN5 is a component of the ethylene signal transduction cascade acting downstream of CTR1 that is required for ethylene-mediated gene expression changes. Furthermore, we find that the ethylene insensitivity of ein5 mutant plants is a consequence of the over-accumulation of EBF1 and EBF2 mRNAs resulting in the under-accumulation of EIN3 even in the presence of ethylene gas. Together, our results suggest that the role of EIN5 in ethylene perception is to antagonize the negative feedback regulation on EIN3 by promoting EBF1 and EBF2 mRNA decay, which consequently allows the accumulation of EIN3 protein to trigger the ethylene response.

  3. EIN2-dependent regulation of acetylation of histone H3K14 and non-canonical histone H3K23 in ethylene signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Qi, Bin; Wang, Likai; Zhao, Bo; Rode, Siddharth; Riggan, Nathaniel D.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Qiao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene gas is essential for many developmental processes and stress responses in plants. EIN2 plays a key role in ethylene signalling but its function remains enigmatic. Here, we show that ethylene specifically elevates acetylation of histone H3K14 and the non-canonical acetylation of H3K23 in etiolated seedlings. The up-regulation of these two histone marks positively correlates with ethylene-regulated transcription activation, and the elevation requires EIN2. Both EIN2 and EIN3 interact with a SANT domain protein named EIN2 nuclear associated protein 1 (ENAP1), overexpression of which results in elevation of histone acetylation and enhanced ethylene-inducible gene expression in an EIN2-dependent manner. On the basis of these findings we propose a model where, in the presence of ethylene, the EIN2 C terminus contributes to downstream signalling via the elevation of acetylation at H3K14 and H3K23. ENAP1 may potentially mediate ethylene-induced histone acetylation via its interactions with EIN2 C terminus. PMID:27694846

  4. Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia (EIN) in endometrial biopsy specimens categorized by the 1994 World Health Organization classification for endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Chao; Song, Wen-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Our study is to determine the presence of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) in endometrial biopsy specimens classified by the 1994 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for endometrial hyperplasia. Endometrial biopsy specimens that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) were examined and categorized by the WHO 1994 criteria and for the presence of EIN as defined by the International Endometrial Collaborative Group. β-catenin expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. A total of 474 cases of HE stained endometrial biopsy tissues were reviewed. There were 379 cases of simple endometrial hyperplasia, 16 with simple atypical endometrial hyperplasia, 48 with complex endometrial hyperplasia, and 31 with complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Among the 474 endometrial hyperplasia cases, there were 46 (9.7%) that were classified as EIN. Of these 46 cases, 11(2.9%) were classified as simple endometrial hyperplasia, 1 (6.3%) as simple atypical endometrial hyperplasia, 6 (12.5%) as complex endometrial hyperplasia, and 28 (90.3%) as complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia. EIN was associated with a higher rate of β-catenin positivity than endometrium classified as benign hyperplasia (72% vs. 22.5%, respectively, P < 0.001), but a lower rate than endometrial adenocarcinoma (72% vs. 96.2%, respectively, P < 0.001). In benign endometrial hyperplasia, high β-catenin expression was noted in the cell membranes, whereas in EIN and endometrial adenocarcinoma high expression was noted in the cytoplasm. In conclusion, EIN is more accurate than the WHO classification for the diagnosis of precancerous lesions of the endometrium.

  5. Kindness in Australia: an empirical critique of moral decline sociology.

    PubMed

    Habibis, Daphne; Hookway, Nicholas; Vreugdenhil, Anthea

    2016-09-01

    A new sociological agenda is emerging that interrogates how morality can be established in the absence of the moral certainties of the past but there is a shortage of empirical work on this topic. This article establishes a theoretical framework for the empirical analysis of everyday morality drawing on the work of theorists including Ahmed, Bauman and Taylor. It uses the Australian Survey of Social Attitudes to assess the state and shape of contemporary moralities by asking how kind are Australians, how is its expression socially distributed, and what are the motivations for kindness. The findings demonstrate that Australians exhibit a strong attachment and commitment to kindness as a moral value that is primarily motivated by interiorized sources of moral authority. We argue these findings support the work of theorists such as Ahmed and Taylor who argue authenticity and embodied emotion are legitimate sources of morality in today's secular societies. The research also provides new evidence that generational changes are shaping understandings and practices of kindness in unexpected ways. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  6. Different Kinds of Knowing: Generating Qualitative Data through Mobile Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyndsay; Durrheim, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, it is proposed that when an interviewer participates interactively in an interview creating a largely unrehearsed conversation, a different form of (intersubjective) knowledge can be produced. This kind of knowledge can be particularly useful in the research of elusive "social facts," such as subtle and ongoing…

  7. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind..., make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC... sugar held in storage by the processor; (2) CCC-owned sugar held in storage by any other processor in...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind..., make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC... sugar held in storage by the processor; (2) CCC-owned sugar held in storage by any other processor in...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind..., make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC... sugar held in storage by the processor; (2) CCC-owned sugar held in storage by any other processor in...

  10. Different Kinds of Knowing: Generating Qualitative Data through Mobile Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyndsay; Durrheim, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, it is proposed that when an interviewer participates interactively in an interview creating a largely unrehearsed conversation, a different form of (intersubjective) knowledge can be produced. This kind of knowledge can be particularly useful in the research of elusive "social facts," such as subtle and ongoing…

  11. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  12. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  13. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  14. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  15. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  16. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a... standards. Class, grade, and other quality may be determined under said standards for meat of cattle,...

  17. 7 CFR 54.1006 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Governing the Certification of... and Poultry Products § 54.1006 Kind of service. Certification of Sanitary Design and Fabrication of...

  18. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a... identification, upon request by the applicant, of the class, grade, or other quality of products under applicable...

  19. Exploring Human Kindness through the Pedagogy of Aikido.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawdy, Paul

    This paper considers the origins of kindness in relation to the martial art known as Aikido. It also attempts to discover the underlying constitutional elements of Aikido's pedagogy of self learning, learning about others, and instructional practices that promote interpersonal relatedness. A teacher and four students of the Aikido Dojo were…

  20. Design Principles for Online Instruction: A New Kind of Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toporski, Neil; Foley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    In the 1900s, distance education attempted to mimic the traditional classroom lecture via the transmission of live or "canned" broadcasts, regardless of the technologies used: satellite, television, film, or radio. These kinds of media predisposed distance education (DE) to closely adhere to the lecture (sit and absorb) model, where…

  1. Infants' Ability To Use Object Kind Information for Object Individuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Carey, Susan; Welch, Jenny

    1999-01-01

    Adult and 10- and 12-month olds participated in two experiments to determine reliance of infants on object-kind information in solving problems of object individuation. Findings converge with those of object-first hypothesis of developmental course of object individuation. Findings suggest that young infants may represent one concept as criteria…

  2. The 3 Kinds of School Safety since 9/11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrow, John

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the three kinds of school safety: (1) physical; (2) emotional; and (3) intellectual, and details how to determine if a school is safe. Excellence in schools demands that schools be physically, emotionally, and intellectually safe for students, while "good enough" schools are simply physically safe. Here, the…

  3. Movie Review: "It's Kind of a Funny Story"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Frankie

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal disconnections, social withdrawal, and loneliness are often precursors to depression and suicidal ideation. In the film "It's Kind of a Funny Story", the plot describes a protagonist who has become so relationally desolate among family, friends, and peers that he has taken delight in the thought of ending his life. The main character…

  4. Sickly Americans, Kindly Portuguese, and Lithuanian Couch Potatoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    Of 27 countries in a World Health Organization survey, American children report the most physical complaints, Portuguese children are most kind to one another, and Lithuanians watch more TV. U.S. and Czech teens are great dieters. Northern Irish, Scottish, and Finnish youngsters love computer games. (MLH)

  5. Engagement and Kindness in Digitally Mediated Learning with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramp, Andy; Lamond, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of designing online learning led by the principle of direct and meaningful participant engagement. It considers the notion of kindness as a crucial value contributing to pedagogy and the development of meaningful learning relationships. The paper challenges the "delivery" approach to online learning,…

  6. Movie Review: "It's Kind of a Funny Story"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Frankie

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal disconnections, social withdrawal, and loneliness are often precursors to depression and suicidal ideation. In the film "It's Kind of a Funny Story", the plot describes a protagonist who has become so relationally desolate among family, friends, and peers that he has taken delight in the thought of ending his life. The main character…

  7. What Kind of Learning Environment Do Newly Qualified Teachers Create?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Tarja; Kaikkonen, Pauli

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of recent studies, language teaching has educational, cultural, and social objectives. The purpose of this study was firstly to investigate whether the new objectives of foreign language learning and teaching are put into effect, and secondly to examine what kind of learning environments teachers create. The main research data…

  8. What Kind of Learning Environment Do Newly Qualified Teachers Create?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Tarja; Kaikkonen, Pauli

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of recent studies, language teaching has educational, cultural, and social objectives. The purpose of this study was firstly to investigate whether the new objectives of foreign language learning and teaching are put into effect, and secondly to examine what kind of learning environments teachers create. The main research data…

  9. Engagement and Kindness in Digitally Mediated Learning with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramp, Andy; Lamond, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of designing online learning led by the principle of direct and meaningful participant engagement. It considers the notion of kindness as a crucial value contributing to pedagogy and the development of meaningful learning relationships. The paper challenges the "delivery" approach to online learning,…

  10. [Identification of 16 kinds of mineral drugs with fluorescence spectra].

    PubMed

    Li, F; Yue, J; Li, J

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, 8 groups 16 kinds of mineral drugs were identified by fluorescence spectra. The results showed that the fluorescence spectra method in identifying mineral drugs is not only exact, sensitive, but also using little experimental materials and better repealability. This method can specially be used to identify the mineral drugs which have similar natrues and difficult to be distinguished from thim.

  11. Children's reasoning about physics within and across ontological kinds.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Gail D; Phillips, Ann T; Gelman, Susan A

    2003-08-01

    Reasoning about seven physics principles within and across ontological kinds was examined among 188 5- and 7-year-olds and 59 adults. Individuals in all age groups tended to appropriately generalize what they learned across ontological kinds. However, children also showed sensitivity to ontological kind in their projections: when learning principles with reference to people they were more likely to assume that the principles apply to another person than to an inanimate object, and when learning with reference to an inanimate object they were more likely to assume that the principles apply to another inanimate object than to a person. Five-year-olds, but not 7-year-olds, projected concepts learned about people to a greater extent than principles learned about inanimate objects, closely paralleling the findings of Carey for the biological domain (Carey, S. (1985). Conceptual change in childhood. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). Results from a separate sample of 22 5-year-olds suggest that the primary findings cannot be explained by response perseveration. The present findings indicate that children understand physics principles that apply to both animate and inanimate objects, but distinguish between these ontological kinds.

  12. Sickly Americans, Kindly Portuguese, and Lithuanian Couch Potatoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    Of 27 countries in a World Health Organization survey, American children report the most physical complaints, Portuguese children are most kind to one another, and Lithuanians watch more TV. U.S. and Czech teens are great dieters. Northern Irish, Scottish, and Finnish youngsters love computer games. (MLH)

  13. Robots and Rodents: Children's Inferences about Living and Nonliving Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jipson, Jennifer L.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    This study tests the firm distinction children are said to make between living and nonliving kinds. Three, 4-, and 5-year-old children and adults reasoned about whether items that varied on 3 dimensions (alive, face, behavior) had a range of properties (biological, psychological, perceptual, artifact, novel, proper names). Findings demonstrate…

  14. EIN3 and ORE1 Accelerate Degreening during Ethylene-Mediated Leaf Senescence by Directly Activating Chlorophyll Catabolic Genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Kai; Li, Zhongpeng; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Junyi; Wu, Shouxin; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Shan; Gao, Jiong; Ren, Guodong; Kuai, Benke; Zhou, Xin

    2015-07-01

    Degreening, caused by chlorophyll degradation, is the most obvious symptom of senescing leaves. Chlorophyll degradation can be triggered by endogenous and environmental cues, and ethylene is one of the major inducers. ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) is a key transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway. It was previously reported that EIN3, miR164, and a NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factor ORE1/NAC2 constitute a regulatory network mediating leaf senescence. However, how this network regulates chlorophyll degradation at molecular level is not yet elucidated. Here we report a feed-forward regulation of chlorophyll degradation that involves EIN3, ORE1, and chlorophyll catabolic genes (CCGs). Gene expression analysis showed that the induction of three major CCGs, NYE1, NYC1 and PAO, by ethylene was largely repressed in ein3 eil1 double mutant. Dual-luciferase assay revealed that EIN3 significantly enhanced the promoter activity of NYE1, NYC1 and PAO in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Furthermore, Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated that EIN3 could directly bind to NYE1, NYC1 and PAO promoters. These results reveal that EIN3 functions as a positive regulator of CCG expression during ethylene-mediated chlorophyll degradation. Interestingly, ORE1, a senescence regulator which is a downstream target of EIN3, could also activate the expression of NYE1, NYC1 and PAO by directly binding to their promoters in EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. In addition, EIN3 and ORE1 promoted NYE1 and NYC1 transcriptions in an additive manner. These results suggest that ORE1 is also involved in the direct regulation of CCG transcription. Moreover, ORE1 activated the expression of ACS2, a major ethylene biosynthesis gene, and subsequently promoted ethylene production. Collectively, our work reveals that EIN3, ORE1 and CCGs constitute a coherent feed-forward loop involving in the robust regulation of ethylene-mediated chlorophyll degradation

  15. Arabidopsis thaliana responses to mechanical stimulation do not require ETR1 or EIN2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. A.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Plants exposed to repetitive touch or wind are generally shorter and stockier than sheltered plants. These mechanostimulus-induced developmental changes are termed thigmomorphogenesis and may confer resistance to subsequent stresses. An early response of Arabidopsis thaliana to touch or wind is the up-regulation of TCH (touch) gene expression. The signal transduction pathway that leads to mechanostimulus responses is not well defined. A role for ethylene has been proposed based on the observation that mechanostimulation of plants leads to ethylene evolution and exogenous ethylene leads to thigmomorphogenetic-like changes. To determine whether ethylene has a role in plant responses to mechanostimulation, we assessed the ability of two ethylene-insensitive mutants, etr1-3 and ein2-1, to undergo thigmomorphogenesis and TCH gene up-regulation of expression. The ethylene-insensitive mutants responded to wind similarly to the wild type, with a delay in flowering, decrease in inflorescence elongation rate, shorter mature primary inflorescences, more rosette paraclades, and appropriate TCH gene expression changes. Also, wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis responded to vibrational stimulation, with an increase in hypocotyl elongation and up-regulation of TCH gene expression. We conclude that the ETR1 and EIN2 protein functions are not required for the developmental and molecular responses to mechanical stimulation.

  16. Arabidopsis thaliana responses to mechanical stimulation do not require ETR1 or EIN2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. A.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Plants exposed to repetitive touch or wind are generally shorter and stockier than sheltered plants. These mechanostimulus-induced developmental changes are termed thigmomorphogenesis and may confer resistance to subsequent stresses. An early response of Arabidopsis thaliana to touch or wind is the up-regulation of TCH (touch) gene expression. The signal transduction pathway that leads to mechanostimulus responses is not well defined. A role for ethylene has been proposed based on the observation that mechanostimulation of plants leads to ethylene evolution and exogenous ethylene leads to thigmomorphogenetic-like changes. To determine whether ethylene has a role in plant responses to mechanostimulation, we assessed the ability of two ethylene-insensitive mutants, etr1-3 and ein2-1, to undergo thigmomorphogenesis and TCH gene up-regulation of expression. The ethylene-insensitive mutants responded to wind similarly to the wild type, with a delay in flowering, decrease in inflorescence elongation rate, shorter mature primary inflorescences, more rosette paraclades, and appropriate TCH gene expression changes. Also, wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis responded to vibrational stimulation, with an increase in hypocotyl elongation and up-regulation of TCH gene expression. We conclude that the ETR1 and EIN2 protein functions are not required for the developmental and molecular responses to mechanical stimulation.

  17. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  18. Estimating design costs for first-of-a-kind projects

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    Modern scientific facilities are often outcomes of projects that are first-of-a-kind, that is, minimal historical data are available for project costs and schedules. However, at Fermilab, there was an opportunity to execute two similar projects consecutively. In this paper, a comparative study of the design costs for these two projects is presented using earned value methodology. This study provides some insights into how to estimate the cost of a replicated project.

  19. Plagued by kindness: contagious sympathy in Shakespearean drama.

    PubMed

    Langley, Eric

    2011-12-01

    This article considers Shakespeare's metaphors of transmission, contagion and infection in the light of period plague tracts, medical treatises and plague time literature. The author demonstrates how period conceptions of disease are predicated upon a notion of sympathetic transference and, consequently, how kindness, likeness and communication between characters in Shakespearean drama are complicated and fraught with period specific anxiety. This article situates Shakespearean literary texts within a precise historical and medical moment, considering how scientific conceptions contaminate dramatic text.

  20. Micropump based on electroosmosis of the second kind.

    PubMed

    Mishchuk, Nataliya A; Heldal, Trond; Volden, Tormod; Auerswald, Janko; Knapp, Helmut

    2009-10-01

    A microfluidic pump based on electroosmosis of the second kind was designed and fabricated. Experimental results using DC and AC voltages showed a close to second-order relationship between flow and voltage, in good agreement with theory. The experimental flow rates were considerably lower than the predicted maximum for the micropumps, which can be attributed to the hydrodynamic resistance of the channel network. This also indicates that higher flow velocities are obtainable for modified pump designs.

  1. On approximating the modified Bessel function of the second kind.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Hang; Chu, Yu-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In the article, we prove that the double inequalities [Formula: see text] hold for all [Formula: see text] if and only if [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] if [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the modified Bessel function of the second kind. As applications, we provide bounds for [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] and present the necessary and sufficient condition such that the function [Formula: see text] is strictly increasing (decreasing) on [Formula: see text].

  2. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    PubMed

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  3. CTR1 phosphorylates the central regulator EIN2 to control ethylene hormone signaling from the ER membrane to the nucleus in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Chuanli; Yoon, Gyeong Mee; Shemansky, Jennifer Marie; Lin, David Y; Ying, Z Irene; Chang, Jianhong; Garrett, Wesley M; Kessenbrock, Mareike; Groth, Georg; Tucker, Mark L; Cooper, Bret; Kieber, Joseph J; Chang, Caren

    2012-11-20

    The gaseous phytohormone ethylene C(2)H(4) mediates numerous aspects of growth and development. Genetic analysis has identified a number of critical elements in ethylene signaling, but how these elements interact biochemically to transduce the signal from the ethylene receptor complex at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to transcription factors in the nucleus is unknown. To close this gap in our understanding of the ethylene signaling pathway, the challenge has been to identify the target of the CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) Raf-like protein kinase, as well as the molecular events surrounding ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), an ER membrane-localized Nramp homolog that positively regulates ethylene responses. Here we demonstrate that CTR1 interacts with and directly phosphorylates the cytosolic C-terminal domain of EIN2. Mutations that block the EIN2 phosphorylation sites result in constitutive nuclear localization of the EIN2 C terminus, concomitant with constitutive activation of ethylene responses in Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that phosphorylation of EIN2 by CTR1 prevents EIN2 from signaling in the absence of ethylene, whereas inhibition of CTR1 upon ethylene perception is a signal for cleavage and nuclear localization of the EIN2 C terminus, allowing the ethylene signal to reach the downstream transcription factors. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ethylene signal transduction.

  4. Inzidenz von bullösen Autoimmunerkrankungen in Serbien: eine retrospektive Studie über 20 Jahre.

    PubMed

    Milinković, Mirjana; Janković, Slavenka; Medenica, Ljiljana; Nikolić, Miloš; Reljić, Vesna; Popadić, Svetlana; Janković, Janko

    2016-10-01

    Die meisten früheren Arbeiten zu den klinisch-epidemiologischen Merkmalen von bullösen Autoimmunerkrankungen (AIBD) konzentrierten sich vor allem auf eine einzige Krankheitsentität oder nur eine Krankheitsgruppe; nur in wenigen Studien wurde die Inzidenz verschiedener AIBD untersucht. Bei der vorliegenden Studie war es unser Ziel, das gesamte Spektrum der AIBD zu betrachten, die Inzidenz der häufigsten AIBD zu ermitteln und die zeitlichen Trends ihres Auftretens in Zentralserbien über einen Zeitraum von 20 Jahren zu untersuchen. Wir rekrutierten retrospektiv 1161 AIBD-Fälle, die in Zentralserbien von Januar 1991 bis Dezember 2010 neu diagnostiziert wurden. Die Diagnose stützte sich auf eine strikte klinische, histologische und immunhistologische Beurteilung. Folgende Inzidenzraten wurden für die einzelnen Erkrankungen ermittelt: 4,35 pro eine Million Einwohner/Jahr (pME/Jahr) für Pemphigus, 4,47 pME/Jahr für Pemphigoid, 1,42 pME/Jahr für Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), 0,25 pME/Jahr IgA-Dermatose und 0,08 pME/Jahr für Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Im betrachteten Zeitraum stieg die altersbereinigte Inzidenzrate für Pemphigus und insbesondere für Pemphigoid signifikant an, während sie für DH, allerdings nicht signifikant, abnahm. Unsere Studie befasst sich zum ersten Mal mit den Inzidenzraten des gesamten Spektrums der AIBD in Serbien und untersucht die zeitlichen Trends ihres Auftretens über einen Zeitraum von 20 Jahren. Nach unserem besten Wissen wurde ein ähnlicher Befund wie der unsere, dass nämlich die Inzidenzraten von Pemphigus und Pemphigoid vergleichbar sind, bisher noch nicht publiziert. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. AtMYB44 regulates resistance to the green peach aphid and diamondback moth by activating EIN2-affected defences in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lü, B-B; Li, X-J; Sun, W-W; Li, L; Gao, R; Zhu, Q; Tian, S-M; Fu, M-Q; Yu, H-L; Tang, X-M; Zhang, C-L; Dong, H-S

    2013-09-01

    Recently we showed that the transcription activator AtMYB44 regulates expression of EIN2, a gene essential for ethylene signalling and insect resistance, in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). To link the transactivation with insect resistance, we investigated the wild-type and atmyb44 mutant plants, genetically Complemented atmyb44 (Catmyb44) and AtMYB44-Overexpression Transgenic Arabidopsis (MYB44OTA). We found that AtMYB44 played a critical role in Arabidopsis resistance to the phloem-feeding generalist green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) and leaf-chewing specialist caterpillar diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.). AtMYB44 was required not only for the development of constitutive resistance but also for the induction of resistance by both herbivorous insects. Levels of constitutive and herbivore-induced resistance were consistent with corresponding amounts of the AtMYB44 protein constitutively produced in MYB44OTA and induced by herbivory in Catmyb44. In both cases, AtMYB44 promoted EIN2 expression to a greater extent in MYB44OTA than in Catmyb44. However, AtMYB44-promoted EIN2 expression was arrested with reduced resistance levels in the EIN2-deficient Arabidopsis mutant ein2-1 and the MYB44OTA ein2-1 hybrid. In the different plant genotypes, only MYB44OTA constitutively displayed phloem-based defences, which are specific to phloem-feeding insects, and robust expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, which are the secondary plant metabolites known as deterrents to generalist herbivores. Phloem-based defences and glucosinolate-related gene expression were not detected in ein2-1 and MYB44OTA ein2-1. These results establish a genetic connection between the regulatory role of AtMYB44 in EIN2 expression and the development of Arabidopsis resistance to insects.

  6. [The role of the family in childhood and adolescent binge eating - a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Tetzlaff, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Fragestellung: Während der Einfluss der Familie bei Anorexia Nervosa und Bulimia Nervosa im Kindes- und Jugendalter belegt ist und bereits in Übersichtsarbeiten zusammengefasst wurde, liegen derzeit wenige Befunde zum Zusammenhang zu Essanfällen ohne kompensatorische Verhaltensweisen vor. Ziel dieser systematischen Übersichtsarbeit ist es daher, familiäre Einflussfaktoren auf die Entstehung und Aufrechterhaltung von Essanfällen zu beschreiben. Methodik: Eine systematische Datenbanksuche für Studien zum Zusammenhang von familiären Faktoren und Essanfällen wurde durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: Die eingeschlossenen Studien zeigten einheitlich, dass eine unsichere Bindung des Kindes, eine geringere Familienfunktionalität und geringere emotionale Unterstützung mit Essanfällen querschnittlich assoziiert sind, elterliche Arbeitslosigkeit sowie elterliche Depressionen retrospektive Korrelate darstellen und weniger Familienmahlzeiten und häufige kritische Kommentare über Figur und Gewicht innerhalb der Familie variable Risikofaktoren für Essanfälle sind. Inkonsistente Befunde fanden sich hingegen bezüglich der Familienstrukturen, dem Vorliegen elterlicher Essstörungen und Diäthalten sowie dem Erkennen von Essanfällen beim eigenen Kind. Geschlechterunterschiede hinsichtlich familiärer Beziehungen und gewichtsbezogener Stigmatisierung wurden identifiziert. Schlussfolgerungen: Ebenso wie bei anderen Essstörungen im Kindes- und Jugendalter spielen familiäre Einflussfaktoren auch bei Essanfällen eine wichtige Rolle. Daher könnten eine Diagnostik familiärer Einflüsse und familientherapeutische Interventionen in der Behandlung von Essanfällen im Kindes- und Jugendalter hilfreich sein. Mithilfe von prospektiven Studiendesigns könnten die divergierenden Ergebnisse aufgeklärt werden.

  7. Soil mycoflora from the Dead Sea Oases of Ein Gedi and Einot Zuqim (Israel).

    PubMed

    Steiman, R; Guiraud, P; Sage, L; Seigle-Murandi, F

    1997-10-01

    Samples were taken from the top 10 cm of soils from 24 points in the Ein Gedi area. Among 329 isolates, 142 species were identified: 11 genera of ascomycetes, one genus of coelomycetes, 28 genera of hyphomycetes, 7 genera of zygomycetes and one yeast, in addition to some unidentified basidiomycetes. The hyphomycetes were represented by 17 dematiaceous, 9 mucedinaceous and two tuberculariaceous. Melanconiaceous and stilbellaceous genera were not found. Two new varieties of Microascus recently described were reisolated. No strict thermophiles or halophiles were obtained. There is apparently no very characteristic or specific fungal flora of the Dead Sea Oases although it was different from that found in the desert soil surrounding this area.

  8. A kind of small hydrogen maser for time-keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhai, Z. C.; Lin, C. F.; He, J. W.; Huang, H. X.; Lu, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    A kind of small hydrogen maser standard for timekeeping is being developed at Shanghai Observatory. The maser employs a cylindrical capacitively loaded cavity construction, resulting in significant size and weight reduction compared to a traditional hydrogen maser. The Q of the compact cavity is electronically enhanced by a suitable positive feedback into the cavity to enable sustained maser oscillation. The long-term stability of the maser is improved by a cavity frequency stabilization servo-system. The design and development of the maser, as well as photographs of the new maser system during the construction phase are described.

  9. Composited dual summability methods of the new kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caner, Aysun; Başar, Feyzi

    2012-08-01

    Following Section 4.8 of Başsar [Summability Theory and Its Applications, Bentham Science Publishers, e-books, Monographs, İstanbul-2012, ISBN: 978-1-60805-252-3], we define the duality relation of the new kind between a pair of infinite matrices. Our focus is the dual summability methods derived by the Euler means of order r. By means of a strongly regular triangle matrix C = (cnk), we obtain the composited matrices. The main purpose of this study is to give some inclusion theorems concerning the composited and original dual summability methods defined by the Euler means of order r.

  10. Test chips for custom ICs - Six kinds of test structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Griswold, T. W.; Pina, C. A.; Timoc, C.

    1982-01-01

    Microelectronic test chips contain a number of test structures that are used for a variety of purposes in fabricating integrated circuits. For convenience, their use is divided into six groups: layout-rule evaluating, process-parameter extraction, device-parameter extraction, circuit-parameter extraction, initial-fabrication failure analysis, and reliability failure analysis. A given test structure can be used to gather information in a number of these groups. Examples are given here of the kinds of parameters that can be obtained in each of these groups. A table is included summarizing various device failures common to bulk CMOS and indicating failure mechanisms appearing after wafer fabrication and after stress.

  11. Reforming the culture of healthcare: the case for intelligent kindness.

    PubMed

    Campling, Penelope

    2015-02-01

    There has been increasing interest in the culture of healthcare in the light of the two reports by Robert Francis into the care at Mid Staffordshire. This editorial encourages a comprehensive exploration of the conditions that promote a benign caring culture and make outbreaks of cruel neglect and abuse of patients less likely. Creating and sustaining such a culture is dependent on being honest and realistic about the forces that threaten to undermine it. The editorial argues that being able to confidently articulate the positive values that should define healthcare culture is particularly important at this time. The case is made for a conscious focus on the concept of intelligent kindness.

  12. Comparison of different kinds of compact crossflow heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemens, Werner

    1988-03-01

    A computer program for the calculation of compact heat exchangers for gas turbines was developed. The most important coefficients, pressure drops, and effectiveness of different kinds of exchangers were calculated as a function of Mach number, the dimensions of the exchanger, and the compactness. From the aerothermodynamic point of view, the plate exchanger is best, closely followed by the lancet heat exchanger. The ribs of the plate version have no significant effect on the characteristics, but are required for stiffness and uniform channel height. The tube heat exchanger can only compete as far as the transferable heat is concerned.

  13. Comparison of different kinds of compact cross flow heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemens, Werner

    1986-09-01

    A computer program for the calculation of compact heat exchangers for gas turbines was developed. The most important coefficients, pressure drops, and effectiveness of different kinds of exchangers were calculated as a function of Mach number, the dimensions of the exchanger, and the compactness. From the aerothermodynamic point of view, the plate exchanger is best, closely followed by the lancet heat exchanger. The ribs of the plate version have no significant effect on the characteristics, but are required for stiffness and uniform channel height. The tube heat exchanger can only compete as far as the transferable heat is concerned.

  14. Triality of conformal extensions of three kinds of special relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Hanying; Zhou Bin; Tian Yu; Xu Zhan

    2007-01-15

    The conformal extensions of three kinds of special relativity with ISO(1,3)/SO(1,4)/SO(2,3) invariance on Mink/dS/AdS space, respectively, are realized on an SO(2,4)/Z{sub 2} invariant projective null cone [N] as the (projective) boundary of the 5-d AdS space. The relations among the conformal Mink/dS/AdS spaces, the motions of light signals and the conformal field theories on them can be given. Thus, there should be a triality for these conformal issues and the conjectured AdS/CFT correspondence.

  15. Simple formulas for Stirling numbers of the second kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, A. A.; Ho, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    For large values of k, especially those closer to n, the expression for S(n, k), the Stirling numbers (of the second kind) can become quite cumbersome to deal with. In this paper, we obtained simple formulas for S(n, n - r) for small values of r. Our formulas contain only a combination of r combinatorial terms. As a consequence, our results revealed the fact that our values of S(n, n - r) are indeed far lower than the upper bounds given by Rennie and Dobson.

  16. Simulations of "tunnelling of the 3rd kind"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Zong-Gang; Saffin, Paul M.; Tognarelli, Paul; Tranberg, Anders

    2017-07-01

    We consider the phenomenon of "tunnelling of the 3rd kind" [1], whereby a magnetic field may traverse a classically impenetrable barrier by pair creation of unimpeded quantum fermions. These propagate through the barrier and generate a magnetic field on the other side. We study this numerically using quantum fermions coupled to a classical Higgs-gauge system, where we set up a magnetic field outside a box shielded by two superconducting barriers. We examine the magnitude of the internal magnetic field, and find agreement with existing perturbative results within a factor of two.

  17. Loving-Kindness and Compassion Meditation: Potential for Psychological Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Grossman, Paul; Hinton, Devon E.

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness-based meditation interventions have become increasingly popular in contemporary psychology. Other closely related meditation practices include loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and compassion meditation (CM), exercises oriented toward enhancing unconditional, positive emotional states of kindness and compassion. This article provides a review of the background, the techniques, and the empirical contemporary literature of LKM and CM. The literature suggests that LKM and CM are associated with an increase in positive affect and a decrease in negative affect. Preliminary findings from neuroendocrine studies indicate that CM may reduce stress-induced subjective distress and immune response. Neuroimaging studies suggest that LKM and CM may enhance activation of brain areas that are involved in emotional processing and empathy. Finally, preliminary intervention studies support application of these strategies in clinical populations. It is concluded that, when combined with empirically supported treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, LKM and CM may provide potentially useful strategies for targeting a variety of different psychological problems that involve interpersonal processes, such as social anxiety, marital conflict, anger, and coping with the strains of long-term caregiving. PMID:21840289

  18. Influence of Different Kinds of Music on Walking in Children.

    PubMed

    Reychler, Gregory; Fabre, Justine; Lux, Amandine; Caty, Gilles; Pieters, Thierry; Liistro, Giuseppe

    2016-10-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different kinds of music on submaximal performance and exercise tolerance in healthy children by means of the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) and to explore the influence of gender. Cross-over study. Ninety-seven children performed 6MWT in four conditions (without music, with their preferred music, with slow and with fast music). Distance, cardio-respiratory parameters, perceived exertion rate, and amount of dyspnea were measured. Walked distance depended on the kind of music (p = .022). To listen to fast music promoted a longer distance when compared with slow music. Walked distance was not influenced by gender (p = .721) and there was no interaction between music and gender for walked distances (p = .069). The other parameters were not modified by music and gender. Music influences submaximal performances without modifying exercise tolerance in healthy children. Music does modify submaximal performance in children. © 2016 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  19. The Spanish in-kind contribution to ESO - Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bilbao, L.; Ballester, P.

    2011-11-01

    Ever since entering ESO in 2006, Spain has made an in-kind contribution invarious fields. In the Pipeline Systems Department (PSD), this contribution hasbeen made to a number of projects, in particular to the CPL (Common Pipeline Library), to the pipelines of the instruments ISAAC, SofI and FORS, and to theintegration of the pipeline for the new VISTA telescope into the DFS (Data FlowSystem) at Paranal. Some of these projects started with the VLT a decade ago, and have experiencedan evolution since, as a consequence of standardization processes, of thesearch of elements in common and, especially in the last couple of years, ofthe efforts to provide the astronomy community with 'science-ready' dataproducts. At the same time, the PSD faces new challenges today, as the dramatic increase in the data volume of the Paranal Observatory since the start of operations of VISTA, or the needs of the pipelines of the future instruments of the E-ELT. In the latter, more concretely, the current status of the CPL is being analyzed, with the goal of establishing the necessary changes to meet those future needs.In this article we introduce briefly these projects and detail the Spanish in-kind contribution to them.

  20. A new kind of spectropolarimeter for atmospheric sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jia; Zhou, Feng; Li, Huan; Zhao, Haibo

    2014-11-01

    A new kind of polarization modulation is presented in this paper-sinusoidal polarization modulation. It can acquire the full linear polarization information of targets. The large advantage of this modulation is that it is very compact and with low mass and there is no moving parts in it. Moreover the demodulation algorithm is not only simple but also with high precision. It's especially suitable for spaceborne atmosphere detecting sensor, providing a new kind of polarization modulation for it. After the incident lights passing through the modulator, it is modulated into sinusoidal with amplitude scaling with the degree of linear polarization and phase scaling with the angle of linear polarization. With a dedicated algorithm, the degree and angle of linear polarization can be acquired directly while traditional polarization modulation methods need I-Q-U-V parameters of the Stokes vector for further calculation. In this paper, theoretical and simulation analysis on spectral modulation are presented, the results of analysis point out the feasibility of this technology in theory.

  1. Loving-kindness and compassion meditation: potential for psychological interventions.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Grossman, Paul; Hinton, Devon E

    2011-11-01

    Mindfulness-based meditation interventions have become increasingly popular in contemporary psychology. Other closely related meditation practices include loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and compassion meditation (CM), exercises oriented toward enhancing unconditional, positive emotional states of kindness and compassion. This article provides a review of the background, the techniques, and the empirical contemporary literature of LKM and CM. The literature suggests that LKM and CM are associated with an increase in positive affect and a decrease in negative affect. Preliminary findings from neuroendocrine studies indicate that CM may reduce stress-induced subjective distress and immune response. Neuroimaging studies suggest that LKM and CM may enhance activation of brain areas that are involved in emotional processing and empathy. Finally, preliminary intervention studies support application of these strategies in clinical populations. It is concluded that, when combined with empirically supported treatments, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, LKM and CM may provide potentially useful strategies for targeting a variety of different psychological problems that involve interpersonal processes, such as depression, social anxiety, marital conflict, anger, and coping with the strains of long-term caregiving.

  2. A new kind of uncertainty for a new kind of modernity? Expertise in an age of risk.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, A.

    2009-04-01

    Modernity is not what it used to be (see for example Giddens 1991, Beck 1992, Bauman 2000, Luhman 2005). It has, so the sociologists tell us, mutated in order to thrive in a new age of risk and uncertainty. Some might say that it is not quite thriving yet. Whereas old modernity relied on experts to evaluate the problems opposing society and devise solutions for them - savoir pour prevoir, prevoir pour pouvoir - new modernity can no longer indulge in such straightforwardness. The hazards facing us have become so undeniably complex and in multiple ways produced by the very social activities they threaten, that uncontroversial fixes based on indisputable evidence can no longer be assumed. What role for expertise, then, in this increasingly complicated social landscape? As a starting point for thinking about this question, the paper sets out to explore the concept of uncertainty. After all, when it comes to hazards, this is what experts are expected to handle. Has it mutated as well? Does it make sense to speak of a new kind of uncertainty for a new kind of modernity? In its first modernity setting, uncertainty was what had to be transformed into some sort of certainty (see for example Latour 1999). In the case of the inherent uncertainties related to hazards and risk this task was accomplished with the emergence of probability theory and actuarial science (see for example Hacking 1979, 1990). Expertise in old modernity thus acquired a lot of its straightforwardness from its belief in uncomplicating uncertainty by transforming it into certainty. So, why is it still complicated? A crucial point in Latour's argument is that expertise works by reducing complexity in order to amplify facts (certainties). This requires a sense of direction and an agreement as to what is deemed important. Markets, for example, possess this. So do scientific communities and political institutions. But do the combined constituencies implicated by the complex risks facing society possess it

  3. Small modular reactor: First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) and Nth-of-a-Kind (NOAK) Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Boldon, Lauren M.; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-08-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) refer to any reactor design in which the electricity generated is less than 300 MWe. Often medium sized reactors with power less than 700 MWe are also grouped into this category. Internationally, the development of a variety of designs for SMRs is booming with many designs approaching maturity and even in or nearing the licensing stage. It is for this reason that a generalized yet comprehensive economic model for first of a kind (FOAK) through nth of a kind (NOAK) SMRs based upon rated power, plant configuration, and the fiscal environment was developed. In the model, a particular project’s feasibility is assessed with regards to market conditions and by commonly utilized capital budgeting techniques, such as the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), Payback, and more importantly, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for comparison to other energy production technologies. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of changing debt, equity, interest rate, and conditions on the LCOE.

  4. Combating terrorism - a response in kind. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, T.

    1987-05-13

    Outside of armed conflicts representing nations with forces in uniforms, another kind of war has emerged waged by terrorists. For the past twenty years terrorists have waged war against nations for a variety of reasons. No rules of war govern their conduct nor do they observe any. Methods of combatting terrorism vary from nation to nation. Few nations agree totally on how to combat this form of lawlessness. This essay examines one approach and suggests another. President Reagan's ultimate decision to bomb Libya is examined through a discussion of the events, repercussions of these events, and world opinion of these events that preceded his decision. A harsher, more-controlled and personal approach to combatting terrorism is suggested and discussed.

  5. Generation 1.5--a different kind of millennial student.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Emily J

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to so-called "millennial students" in recent years, particularly regarding their relationship to technology, learning, and communication. Less notice has been taken of another kind of millennial student increasingly represented in our classrooms --those who were born in another country, but received a significant amount of their schooling here. Often referred to as Generation 1.5 because they have language characteristics in common with first- and second-generation immigrants, these bilingual students are a valuable resource for the physician assistant (PA) profession. However, just as teaching native-born millennial students may require some adjustment of instructional methods, Generation 1.5 students will require PA educators to pay closer attention to some aspects of teaching and learning. This article will discuss some of the particular challenges that Generation 1.5 students face and will argue that these challenges can be met in ways that are likely to help other nontraditional students as well.

  6. Superluminal Neutrinos: The Good Kind of Science Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucibella, Michael

    2012-03-01

    After OPERA released results indicating neutrinos were traveling faster than the speed of light, a number of vocal of scientists said that they shouldn't have prematurely engaged in ``science by press release.'' However, controversial claims like this, if handled right, can actually be a boon to science. Getting the public interested in cutting edge physics is notoriously difficult, but the public is always interested in hearing about a controversy. The press conference and following debate becomes a great teaching moment that offers the public a unique opportunity to get an inside and have an in-depth look at how science works. Scientists willing to publicly engage in this kind of civil controversy are important because when other scientific controversies arise, ones with major public policy implications, the public starts out with a better understanding of how science works, and scientists have better practice managing questions from the public.

  7. A kind of fast shutter for Z pinch diagnosis device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Xinjun; Sun, Tieping; Mao, Wentin

    2016-09-01

    A kind of fast shutter for protecting the diagnosis devices in Z pinch experiments is introduced in this paper. The shutter is composed of a pulling rod, a magnetic core, and a solenoid. Different from the traditional coils which were used at the voltage of 220 V, the solenoid we used must endure the high voltage of 5-10 kV and the deformation which maybe caused by the 5-10 T intense magnetic field. A creative configuration for the solenoid is developed including the winding guide, insulating sleeve, and stainless-steel sleeve. The experimental results show that the configuration of the solenoid is effective. The velocity of the valve is nearly 19 m/s and the time jitter of the shutdown is within 75 μs.

  8. Loving kindness: the essential Buddhist contribution to primary care.

    PubMed

    Aung, S K H

    1996-04-01

    Loving kindness (metta), a traditional Buddhist concept, implies acting with compassion toward all sentient beings, with an awareness and appreciation of the natural world. The giving of metta, an integral part of Buddhist medicine, has the potential to enhance modern primary health care. Metta must be given with selflessness (saydana), compassion (karuna), and sympathetic joy (mudita). For the believer, Gautama Siddhartha, the Buddha, is the Supreme Healer. His ancient but timeless message of metta is alive and well today, The Dalai Lama being it key proponent. The Buddhist system features several techniques, such as the Noble Eight-Fold-Path and the metta meditations, to keep physicians moving toward metta. One does not have to be a Buddhist to practice metta, or more humane medicine, and the notion of "tender loving care" is spreading in biomedical circles.

  9. Spectrum of Volterra integral operator of the second kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amangaliyeva, Meiramkul; Jenaliyev, Muvasharkhan; Ergaliev, Madi; Ramazanov, Murat

    2016-08-01

    The article addresses the singular Volterra integral equation of the second kind, which has the 'incompressible' kernel. It is shown that the corresponding homogeneous equation on |λ| ≥ exp{|arg λ|}, arg λ ∈ [-π,π] has a continuous spectrum, and the multiplicity of the characteristic numbers grows with increasing |λ|. We use the Carleman-Vekua regularization method. We introduce the characteristic integral equation. We prove that the initial integral equation has eigen-functions, the multiplicity of which depends on the value of the spectral parameter λ. We prove the solvability theorem of the nonhomogeneous equation in a case when the right-hand side of the equation belongs to a certain class.

  10. Metasynthetic Madness: What Kind of Monster Have We Created?

    PubMed

    Thorne, Sally

    2017-01-01

    From its origins in the 1990s, the qualitative health research metasynthesis project represented a methodological maneuver to capitalize on a growing investment in qualitatively derived study reports to create an interactive dialogue among them that would surface expanded insights about complex human phenomena. However, newer forms positioning themselves as qualitative metasynthesis but representing a much more technical and theoretically superficial form of scholarly enterprise have begun to appear in the health research literature. It seems imperative that we think through the implications of this trend and determine whether it is to be afforded the credibility of being a form of qualitative scholarship and, if so, what kind of scholarship it represents. As the standardization trend in synthesis research marches forward, we will need clarity and a strong sense of purpose if we are to preserve the essence of what the qualitative metasynthesis project was intended to be all about. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. New Kind of Magnetic Reconnection in Neutral Sheet Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Alex; Coppi, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    Neutral Sheet configurations are relatively simple models of the plasma and field configuration found in space physics that lend themselves to investigate the onset of relevant reconnection processes. In weakly collisional regimes these are shown to be intrinsically different from those occurring in plasma current sheets where the magnetic field is sheared but does not vanish. Considering an inhomogenous electron temperature profile with finite curvature at the center of the sheet, and anisotropic thermal conductivities one of the two kinds of mode that can produce magnetic reconnection is localized over a layer that remains significant when the macroscopic scale distances involved are very large as is the case in space and astrophysics. This mode lends itself to produce high-energy particle populations through a realistic combination of mode-particle resonances. Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E. and the N.S.F.

  12. RCN1-regulated phosphatase activity and EIN2 modulate hypocotyl gravitropism by a mechanism that does not require ethylene signaling.

    PubMed

    Muday, Gloria K; Brady, Shari R; Argueso, Cristiana; Deruère, Jean; Kieber, Joseph J; DeLong, Alison

    2006-08-01

    The roots curl in naphthylphthalamic acid1 (rcn1) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has altered auxin transport, gravitropism, and ethylene response, providing an opportunity to analyze the interplay between ethylene and auxin in control of seedling growth. Roots of rcn1 seedlings were previously shown to have altered auxin transport, growth, and gravitropism, while rcn1 hypocotyl elongation exhibited enhanced ethylene response. We have characterized auxin transport and gravitropism phenotypes of rcn1 hypocotyls and have explored the roles of auxin and ethylene in controlling these phenotypes. As in roots, auxin transport is increased in etiolated rcn1 hypocotyls. Hypocotyl gravity response is accelerated, although overall elongation is reduced, in etiolated rcn1 hypocotyls. Etiolated, but not light grown, rcn1 seedlings also overproduce ethylene, and mutations conferring ethylene insensitivity restore normal hypocotyl elongation to rcn1. Auxin transport is unaffected by treatment with the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid in etiolated hypocotyls of wild-type and rcn1 seedlings. Surprisingly, the ethylene insensitive2-1 (ein2-1) and ein2-5 mutations dramatically reduce gravitropic bending in hypocotyls. However, the ethylene resistant1-3 (etr1-3) mutation does not significantly affect hypocotyl gravity response. Furthermore, neither the etr1 nor the ein2 mutation abrogates the accelerated gravitropism observed in rcn1 hypocotyls, indicating that both wild-type gravity response and enhanced gravity response in rcn1 do not require an intact ethylene-signaling pathway. We therefore conclude that the RCN1 protein affects overall hypocotyl elongation via negative regulation of ethylene synthesis in etiolated seedlings, and that RCN1 and EIN2 modulate hypocotyl gravitropism and ethylene responses through independent pathways.

  13. Activation of HLS1 by Mechanical Stress via Ethylene-Stabilized EIN3 Is Crucial for Seedling Soil Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xing; Li, Yanli; Pan, Ying; Zhong, Shangwei

    2016-01-01

    The seeds of terrestrial flowering plants often start their life cycle in subterranean darkness. To protect the fragile apical meristematic tissues and cotyledons from mechanical injuries during soil penetration, dicotyledonous seedlings form an elegant apical hook at the top of the hypocotyl. The apical hook has been considered as an adaption structure to the subterranean environment. However, the role of the apical hook in seedling emergence and the molecular mechanism of apical hook formation under real-life conditions remain highly speculative. Here, we find that HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1), a critical gene in apical hook formation in Arabidopsis thaliana, is required for seedling emergence from the soil. When grown under soil, hls1 mutant exhibits severe emergence defects. By contrast, HLS1 overexpression in the hls1 background fully restores emergence defects and displays better emergence capacity than that of WT. Our results indicate that HLS1 transcription is stimulated in response to the mechanical stress of soil cover, which is dependent on the function of the transcription factors ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) and EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIL1). Soil-conferred mechanical stress activates the ethylene signaling pathway to stabilize EIN3 by repressing the activity of the F-box proteins EBF1 and EBF2. These combined results reveal a signaling pathway in which plant seedlings transduce the mechanical pressure of soil cover to correctly modulate apical hook formation during soil emergence. PMID:27822221

  14. Activation of HLS1 by Mechanical Stress via Ethylene-Stabilized EIN3 Is Crucial for Seedling Soil Emergence.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xing; Li, Yanli; Pan, Ying; Zhong, Shangwei

    2016-01-01

    The seeds of terrestrial flowering plants often start their life cycle in subterranean darkness. To protect the fragile apical meristematic tissues and cotyledons from mechanical injuries during soil penetration, dicotyledonous seedlings form an elegant apical hook at the top of the hypocotyl. The apical hook has been considered as an adaption structure to the subterranean environment. However, the role of the apical hook in seedling emergence and the molecular mechanism of apical hook formation under real-life conditions remain highly speculative. Here, we find that HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1), a critical gene in apical hook formation in Arabidopsis thaliana, is required for seedling emergence from the soil. When grown under soil, hls1 mutant exhibits severe emergence defects. By contrast, HLS1 overexpression in the hls1 background fully restores emergence defects and displays better emergence capacity than that of WT. Our results indicate that HLS1 transcription is stimulated in response to the mechanical stress of soil cover, which is dependent on the function of the transcription factors ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) and EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIL1). Soil-conferred mechanical stress activates the ethylene signaling pathway to stabilize EIN3 by repressing the activity of the F-box proteins EBF1 and EBF2. These combined results reveal a signaling pathway in which plant seedlings transduce the mechanical pressure of soil cover to correctly modulate apical hook formation during soil emergence.

  15. Einstein's idealism and a new kind of space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, M. A.

    In 1935, Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen made an attempt to imagine quantum experimental nonsense or some impossible experiment (EPR-experiment) in order to justify their local realism in physics. However, in the mid-1960s, John Bell showed that it is possible to realize this kind of nonsense in laboratory. Today, when EPR-refutation of local realism is routine in modern experimental physics (Clauser and Freedman [1972]; Aspect, Dalibard and Roger [1982]; Zeilinger et al. [1998]), we must; nevertheless, remark that Albert Einstein was not always a realist. As is known, in his Special Relativitz A. Einstein introduced some pure idealistic principle which K. Godel developed in famous "Remark about the relationship between Relativity theorz and Idealistic Philosophy" (1949). Kurt Godel for the first time showed an existence of special-relativistic solipsism, assuming that objective simultaneity in experimental science "loses its objective meaning". Correspondingly, there is only subjective simultaneity, that is provable by calculations with the finite velocity of light and astronomical observations. In particular, this space solipsism means that when we observe the sun, we can see only what happend on Sun 8.33 minutes ago; in other words, we percieve only certain sensations or a certain collections of ideas of the past, but not the present. Similarly, when astronomers observe galaxies estimated to be two billion light years from the Earth, they see these galaxies as they were two billion light years ago not as they are Now. Thus, in accordance with this, we may await that in this context for some pairs of astronomical objects we cannot prove they exist NOW. Moreover, this new kind of space research could be connected with introduction of the Cognitive Dark Matter, or, what is associated with manifold of the large-scale events of the Universe as a whole which are realizing Now, beyond consciousness of the observers-humans. Because we cannot know

  16. Verbesserte Ausbildung für neue Betriebsleiter und -ingenieure - eine wichtige Investition in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franta, Oliver

    Bedingt durch die Globalisierung und die damit einhergehende Verschärfung des Wettbewerbs befinden sich die Produktionsbetriebe der chemischen Industrie in stetigem Wandel. Für Betriebsleiter und Betriebsingenieure werden damit Fähigkeiten wie Kostenmanagement, Sozial- und Organisationskompetenz, Führungsqualifikationen und unternehmerisches Handeln immer wichtiger. Neben den Anforderungsprofilen bei Neueinstellungen ist dies auch bei der Fortbildung zu berücksichtigen. Das Trainingsprogramm der Evonik Degussa wurde daher durch die Konzeption neuer Seminare und die Anpassung bestehender Weiterbildungsmaßnahmen weiterentwickelt. Neben Vorträgen und Fallbeispielen sind ebenfalls die Durchführung von Planspielen sowie das Kennenlernen eines Produktionsbetriebes einer anderen Organisationseinheit enthalten. Ziel ist es vor allem die unternehmerische Orientierung neuer Betriebsleiter und -ingenieure zu fördern, die Innovationsgeschwindigkeit zu erhöhen und durch Kenntnis und Nutzung bereits anderweitig entwickelter Lösungen und Methoden die Produktivität zu steigern. Die Produktionsmeister werden aufgrund der Bedeutung dieser Funktion für die Führung der Mitarbeiter und bei der Umsetzung von Veränderungsprojekten in das Ausbildungsprogramm einbezogen. Der Erfolg des Trainingsprogramms zeigt sich an den Teilnehmerzahlen und den ausgesprochen positiven Rückmeldungen.

  17. Schönheit und andere Provokationen - Eine neue evolutionsbiologische Theorie der Kunst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Thomas

    Die Evolution hat viele spektakuläre Phänomene hervorgebracht - von der Eleganz des Vogelflugs über die gigantischen Körper der Dinosaurier und die farbenprächtige Vielfalt der Korallenriffe bis hin zu ihrem jüngsten Geniestreich - der menschlichen Kunst. Die schönen Künste - Malerei, Bildhauerei und Architektur, Theater, Tanz, Oper und Filmkunst, Musik und Literatur - Produkte der Evolution? Diese Vorstellung mutet vielen Menschen fremd an, aber wie könnte es anders sein? Denn wenn Charles Darwin recht hat, dann sind nicht nur die körperlichen Merkmale der Menschen als Antworten auf die Erfordernisse des Lebens entstanden, sondern auch ihre geistigen Fähigkeiten und Verhaltensweisen. Im Jahr 1859 hatte er auf den letzten Seiten seines berühmten Buches über die Entstehung der Arten eine kühne Prophezeiung gemacht: Durch die Evolutionstheorie werde es "zu einer bemerkenswerten Revolution in der Naturwissenschaft kommen […]. Die Psychologie wird auf die neue Grundlage gestellt, dass jede geistige Kraft und Fähigkeit notwendigerweise durch graduelle Übergänge erworben wird“ (Darwin 1859, S. 484, 488; Junker 2008).

  18. Structure of the NPr:EIN(Ntr) Complex: Mechanism for Specificity in Paralogous Phosphotransferase Systems.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Madeleine; Stanley, Ann Marie; Wang, Guangshun; Botos, Istvan; Schwieters, Charles D; Buchanan, Susan K; Peterkofsky, Alan; Tjandra, Nico

    2016-12-06

    Paralogous enzymes arise from gene duplication events that confer a novel function, although it is unclear how cross-reaction between the original and duplicate protein interaction network is minimized. We investigated HPr:EI(sugar) and NPr:EI(Ntr), the initial complexes of paralogous phosphorylation cascades involved in sugar import and nitrogen regulation in bacteria, respectively. Although the HPr:EI(sugar) interaction has been well characterized, involving multiple complexes and transient interactions, the exact nature of the NPr:EI(Ntr) complex was unknown. We set out to identify the key features of the interaction by performing binding assays and elucidating the structure of NPr in complex with the phosphorylation domain of EI(Ntr) (EIN(Ntr)), using a hybrid approach involving X-ray, homology, and sparse nuclear magnetic resonance. We found that the overall fold and active-site structure of the two complexes are conserved in order to maintain productive phosphorylation, however, the interface surface potential differs between the two complexes, which prevents cross-reaction.

  19. Nahal Ein Gev II, a Late Natufian Community at the Sea of Galilee

    PubMed Central

    Grosman, Leore; Munro, Natalie D.; Abadi, Itay; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Shaham, Dana; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    The Natufian culture is of great importance as a starting point to investigate the dynamics of the transition to agriculture. Given its chronological position at the threshold of the Neolithic (ca. 12,000 years ago) and its geographic setting in the productive Jordan Valley, the site of Nahal Ein Gev II (NEG II) reveals aspects of the Late Natufian adaptations and its implications for the transition to agriculture. The size of the site, the thick archaeological deposits, invested architecture and multiple occupation sub-phases reveal a large, sedentary community at least on par with Early Natufian camps in the Mediterranean zone. Although the NEG II lithic tool kit completely lacks attributes typical of succeeding Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) assemblages, the artistic style is more closely related to the early PPNA world, despite clear roots in Early Natufian tradition. The site does not conform to current perceptions of the Late Natufians as a largely mobile population coping with reduced resource productivity caused by the Younger Dryas. Instead, the faunal and architectural data suggest that the sedentary populations of the Early Natufian did not revert back to a nomadic way of life in the Late Natufian in the Jordan Valley. NEG II encapsulates cultural characteristics typical of both Natufian and PPNA traditions and thus bridges the crossroads between Late Paleolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers. PMID:26815363

  20. Ein Entscheidungsmodell zur Weitergabe persönlicher Daten im Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiblmaier, Horst

    In den vergangenen zwei Jahrzehnten wandelte sich das Internet von einer Spielwiese für technikbegeisterte Computerspezialisten zu einem vielseitig einsetzbaren weltweiten Netzwerk für Privatpersonen und Unternehmen. Maßgeblichen Anteil daran besaß die rasante Entwicklung des World Wide Web (WWW), das, durch die Möglichkeit multimediale Inhalte zu vermitteln, für einen großen Teil der Bevölkerung industrialisierter Länder zu einem wesentlichen Bestandteil des täglichen Lebens wurde. Dass diese Entwicklung noch lange nicht abgeschlossen ist, zeigt die derzeitige Diskussion zum Thema Web 2.0 bzw. 3.0. Waren es in den letzten Jahren die hohen Umsatzzuwächse im E-Commerce und multimedial gestaltete Webseiten in Kombination mit aufwändigen Applikationen, die für ständig steigende Nutzerzahlen im World Wide Web sorgten, so wird dieser Innovationsschub nunmehr durch eine Vielzahl von Anwendungen fortgesetzt, die sich durch die zunehmende Vernetzung der Nutzer untereinander auszeichnen.

  1. What kind of time for a Time Machine?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Marina; Buccheri, Rosolino

    2013-09-01

    The linear, unstructured, parameter t used in the equations of mechanics, in spite of its great aptness in describing the nature's laws, does not fit with the unidirectional flow of time tssubjectively experienced by humans, just the investigators of nature. Being ts the main foundation upon which we build our knowledge of nature through our continuous and inescapable reciprocal interaction - the possible key factor of our cerebral modulation, mediator between us and the world -, its objective essence appears to be inevitably destined to remain unveiled. We derive that any imagined and theoretically possible Time Machine, aimed to get us in our past or in our future allowing us to act there, does not have any practical grounds if it is built by using the illusory, impersonal, time, modeled by the parameter t, at the place of our interpersonal lived time ts. A real, humanly-tuned, Time Machine could perhaps arise by integrating tsin the body of a new kind of rationality - a `complex thought' - where empiricism and logic-mathematic are harmonized with participation and interaction. Ongoing joint research in neurophysiology and physics (without neglecting any important contribution coming from anthropology) will surely help achieving such a goal.

  2. A kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiu-Bo; Dou, Zhao; Xu, Gang; He, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Universality is an important feature, but less researched in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, a kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol is investigated. Firstly, we design a quantum secret sharing protocol based on the Borras-Plastino-Batle (BPB) state. Departing from previous research, our protocol has a salient feature in that participants in our protocol only need projective measurement instead of any unitary operations. It makes our protocol more flexible. Secondly, universality of quantum communication protocols is studied for the first time. More specifically, module division of quantum communication protocols and coupling between different modules are discussed. Our aforementioned protocol is analyzed as an example. On one hand, plenty of quantum states (the BPB-class states and the BPB-like-class states, which are proposed in this paper) could be used as carrier to perform our protocol. On the other hand, our protocol also could be regarded as a quantum private comparison protocol with a little revision. These features are rare for quantum communication protocols, and make our protocol more robust. Thirdly, entanglements of the BPB-class states are calculated in the Appendix.

  3. A kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu-Bo; Dou, Zhao; Xu, Gang; He, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Universality is an important feature, but less researched in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, a kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol is investigated. Firstly, we design a quantum secret sharing protocol based on the Borras-Plastino-Batle (BPB) state. Departing from previous research, our protocol has a salient feature in that participants in our protocol only need projective measurement instead of any unitary operations. It makes our protocol more flexible. Secondly, universality of quantum communication protocols is studied for the first time. More specifically, module division of quantum communication protocols and coupling between different modules are discussed. Our aforementioned protocol is analyzed as an example. On one hand, plenty of quantum states (the BPB-class states and the BPB-like-class states, which are proposed in this paper) could be used as carrier to perform our protocol. On the other hand, our protocol also could be regarded as a quantum private comparison protocol with a little revision. These features are rare for quantum communication protocols, and make our protocol more robust. Thirdly, entanglements of the BPB-class states are calculated in the Appendix. PMID:28079109

  4. Does Geophysics Need "A new kind of Science"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2002-12-01

    Stephen Wolfram's book "A New Kind of Science" has received a great deal of attention in the last six months, both positive and negative. The theme of the book is that "cellular automata", which arise from spatial and temporal coarse-graining of equations of motion, provide the foundations for a new nonlinear science of "complexity". The old science is the science of partial differential equations. Some of the major contributions of this old science have been in geophysics, i.e. gravity, magnetics, seismic waves, heat flow. The basis of the new science is the use of massive computing and numerical simulations. The new science is motivated by the observations that many physical systems display a vast multiplicity of space and time scales, and have hidden dynamics that in many cases are impossible to directly observe. An example would be molecular dynamics. Statistical physics derives continuum equations from the discrete interactions between atoms and molecules, in the modern world the continuum equations are then discretized using finite differences, finite elements, etc. in order to obtain numerical solutions. Examples of widely used cellular automata models include diffusion limited aggregation and site percolation. Also the class of models that are said to exhibit self-organized criticality, the sand-pile model, the slider-block model, the forest-fire model. Applications of these models include drainage networks, seismicity, distributions of minerals,and the evolution of landforms and coastlines. Simple cellular automata models generate deterministic chaos, i.e. the logistic map.

  5. A kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Bo; Dou, Zhao; Xu, Gang; He, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2017-01-12

    Universality is an important feature, but less researched in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, a kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol is investigated. Firstly, we design a quantum secret sharing protocol based on the Borras-Plastino-Batle (BPB) state. Departing from previous research, our protocol has a salient feature in that participants in our protocol only need projective measurement instead of any unitary operations. It makes our protocol more flexible. Secondly, universality of quantum communication protocols is studied for the first time. More specifically, module division of quantum communication protocols and coupling between different modules are discussed. Our aforementioned protocol is analyzed as an example. On one hand, plenty of quantum states (the BPB-class states and the BPB-like-class states, which are proposed in this paper) could be used as carrier to perform our protocol. On the other hand, our protocol also could be regarded as a quantum private comparison protocol with a little revision. These features are rare for quantum communication protocols, and make our protocol more robust. Thirdly, entanglements of the BPB-class states are calculated in the Appendix.

  6. Perceptual evaluation and acoustical analyses of 6 kinds of electrolarynges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimori, Noriyo; Fuyuki, Hiroyoshi; Kobayashi, Noriko; Horiguchi, Satoshi; Koike, Minako; Hirose, Hajime

    2003-10-01

    Six different kinds of electrolarynges, which were commercially available in Japan, were compared with regard to the listeners preference and the acoustical characteristics. Listeners were 4 speech therapists who were familiar with electrolarynx speech and 15 university students who had little experience with the device. Sound samples were obtained for each E1 under two conditions: the original sound and the sustained vowels produced by two skilled E1 users with larynges. Perceptual evaluations were performed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) on intelligibility, acceptability, noisiness, and naturalness. Speech therapists perceived unnaturalness for an E1 with peculiar F0 declination while naive listeners did not. The lower the perceptual evaluations, the higher the mechanical noise level was found by acoustical analyses. High levels of higher harmonic components were found for the E1's which had lower perceptual evaluation due to the noise disturbance. Although naive listeners tended to despise E1s with rich higher harmonic components in general, speech therapists did not perceive this as noisiness. Various factors seemed to exist for the listeners preference of E1s. [Work supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas (B) Prosody and Speech Processing, Ministry of Education and Sciences.

  7. Driving behavior and control in traffic system with two kinds of signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Hino, Yuki

    2014-06-01

    We study the vehicular traffic controlled by two kinds of signals which are positioned with a periodic configuration. We propose a microscopic model to explore the driving behavior in the traffic system with two kinds of signals. The control method of traffic flow by the combination of two kinds of signals is proposed. The dynamic model is described by the nonlinear map model and the CA model. The driving behavior is clarified for the traffic system controlled by two kinds of signals. The fundamental diagrams are derived for various combinations of two kinds of signals. The traffic flow through two kinds of signals is compared with that of a single kind of signals. The traffic flow displays the complex behavior different from the conventional traffic with a single kind of signals.

  8. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... represent a subdivision of a kind, which is characterized by growth, plant, fruit, seed, or other characters... labeled on the basis of a separate grower's declaration, invoice, or other documents. (b) Name of kind...

  9. 7 CFR 201.48 - Kind or variety considered pure seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind or variety considered pure seed. 201.48 Section... variety considered pure seed. The pure seed shall include all seeds of each kind or each kind and variety... present to the extent of 5 percent or less of the whole may be considered pure seed if shown on the...

  10. 7 CFR 201.48 - Kind or variety considered pure seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kind or variety considered pure seed. 201.48 Section... variety considered pure seed. The pure seed shall include all seeds of each kind or each kind and variety... present to the extent of 5 percent or less of the whole may be considered pure seed if shown on the...

  11. 7 CFR 201.48 - Kind or variety considered pure seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kind or variety considered pure seed. 201.48 Section... variety considered pure seed. The pure seed shall include all seeds of each kind or each kind and variety... present to the extent of 5 percent or less of the whole may be considered pure seed if shown on the...

  12. 7 CFR 201.48 - Kind or variety considered pure seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kind or variety considered pure seed. 201.48 Section... variety considered pure seed. The pure seed shall include all seeds of each kind or each kind and variety... present to the extent of 5 percent or less of the whole may be considered pure seed if shown on the...

  13. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6... provision by nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons of in-kind donations of medicine,...

  14. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine....515 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of...

  15. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of...

  16. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of...

  17. 9 CFR 381.164 - “(Kind) barbecued.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false â(Kind) barbecued.â 381.164 Section 381.164 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Composition § 381.164 “(Kind) barbecued.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated...

  18. 7 CFR 201.36b - Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... part of the name or variety of seed; for example, Stringless Green Pod, Detroit Dark Red, Black Seeded...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Advertising § 201.36b Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid. (a) The representation of the name of a kind or kind and variety of seed in any...

  19. 7 CFR 201.36b - Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... part of the name or variety of seed; for example, Stringless Green Pod, Detroit Dark Red, Black Seeded...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Advertising § 201.36b Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid. (a) The representation of the name of a kind or kind and variety of seed in any...

  20. 7 CFR 201.36b - Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... part of the name or variety of seed; for example, Stringless Green Pod, Detroit Dark Red, Black Seeded...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Advertising § 201.36b Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid. (a) The representation of the name of a kind or kind and variety of seed in any...

  1. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions. 104.13 Section 104.13 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL REPORTS... consumption of in-kind contributions. (a)(1) The amount of an in-kind contribution shall be equal to the usual...

  2. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of...

  3. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6... provision by nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons of in-kind donations of medicine,...

  4. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of...

  5. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6... provision by nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons of in-kind donations of medicine,...

  6. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6... provision by nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons of in-kind donations of medicine,...

  7. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of...

  8. 7 CFR 800.75 - Kinds of official inspection and weighing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kinds of official inspection and weighing services. 800.75 Section 800.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Kinds of Official Services § 800.75 Kinds of official inspection and weighing...

  9. 45 CFR 263.6 - What kinds of expenditures do not count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true What kinds of expenditures do not count? 263.6... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.6 What kinds of expenditures do not count? The following kinds of expenditures do not count: (a) Expenditures...

  10. 45 CFR 263.6 - What kinds of expenditures do not count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true What kinds of expenditures do not count? 263.6... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.6 What kinds of expenditures do not count? The following kinds of expenditures do not count: (a) Expenditures...

  11. 45 CFR 263.6 - What kinds of expenditures do not count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What kinds of expenditures do not count? 263.6... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.6 What kinds of expenditures do not count? The following kinds of expenditures do not count: (a) Expenditures...

  12. 45 CFR 263.6 - What kinds of expenditures do not count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What kinds of expenditures do not count? 263.6... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.6 What kinds of expenditures do not count? The following kinds of expenditures do not count: (a)...

  13. Are Sertoli cells a kind of mesenchymal stem cells?

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Daoyuan; Zhang, Chunfu; Li, Tao; Zhang, Jiahui; Zhang, Nannan; Tao, Zehua; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sertoli cells (SCs) are a major component of testis which secrete a variety of cytokines and immunosuppressive factors, providing nutritional support and immune protection for sperm growth and development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between SCs and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in order to provide a theoretical basis for better application of SCs. Methods: We used the adherence method to isolate Sprague-Dawley rat SCs and BMSCs. Cells surface markers were detected by flow cytometry. The capacity of cells to differentiate was determined by osteogenic and adipogenic induction. Assessment of cell proliferation was performed by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. Changes in the nucleus were analyzed by Hoechst nuclear staining. Cell aging was observed with β-galactosidase, which is a biological marker of senescence. RT-PCR was employed to detect the expression of cytokines. Results: From the aforementioned experiments, we found that the surface markers of SCs and BMSCs were almost exactly the same. Proliferation of SCs, as well as osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, were weaker than in BMSCs. Compared with BMSCs, Hoechst nuclear staining showed that the chromatin of SCs began to aggregate and was slightly larger. β-galactosidase staining showed that SCs were in a slightly aging state. The secretion of cytokines from SCs was slightly less than the secretion from BMSCs. Conclusion: SCs are a kind of mesenchymal stem cells which have begun the process of differentiation. PMID:28386334

  14. Sleep Shelters Verbal Memory from Different Kinds of Interference

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Bhavin R.; Varghese, Reni; Truong, Thuy

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Studies have shown that sleep shelters old verbal memories from associative interference arising from new, more recently acquired memories. Our objective is to extend the forms of interference for which sleep provides a sheltering benefit to non-associative and prospective interference, and to examine experimental conditions and memory strengths for which sleep before or after learning particularly affects verbal memory consolidation. Design: Acquiring paired word associates, retention across intervening sleep and wake, training on new, interfering word associates, and test recall of both sets. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Healthy volunteers. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Comparing recall before and after intervening periods of sleep versus wake, we found that: (i) Sleep preferentially shields weakly encoded verbal memories from retroactive interference. (ii) Sleep immediately following learning helps shelter memory from associative and non-associative forms of retroactive interference. (iii) Sleep protects new verbal memories from prospective interference. (iv) Word associations acquired for the first time in the evening after a day spent in the wake state are encoded more strongly than word associations acquired in the morning following a night of sleep. Conclusions: The findings extend the known sleep protection from interference to non-associative as well as prospective interference, and limit the protection to weakly encoded word associations. Combined, our results suggest that sleep immediately after verbal learning isolates newly formed memory traces and renders them inaccessible, except by specific contextual cues. Memory isolation in sleep is a passive mechanism that can reasonably account for several experimental findings. Citation: Sheth BR; Varghese R; Truong T. Sleep shelters verbal memory from different kinds of interference. SLEEP 2012;35(7):985-996. PMID:22754045

  15. Supercontinuum generation in two kinds of chalcogenide microstructured optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weiqing; Hu, Jigang; Li, Yuan; Qiu, Huaili; Yuan, Zijun; Gao, Feng; Duan, Zhongchao; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2014-10-01

    Chalcogenide microstructured fibers (MOFs) have great advantages for supercontinuum (SC) generation in mid-infrared (MIR) region, because they possess the properties of high nonlinearity and wide transmission window, simultaneously. The nonlinear parameters of chalcogenide MOFs can be higher by several tens or hundreds than those of silica, fluoride and tellurite fibers depending on the material components and fiber structures. Chalcogenide MOF can be transparent from visible up to the infrared region of 12 or 15 μm depending on the compositions. In this paper, we demonstrate the SC generation in two kinds of suspended-core chalcogenide MOFs with different material components and fiber structures. One is an As2S3 MOF with three-hole structure (Fiber I). The other is an As2S5 MOF with four-hole structure (Fiber II). For Fiber I, the SC range of 3020 nm (from 1510 to 4530 nm) were obtained in a 2.4 cm fiber, when pumped by the wavelength at 2500 nm. The SC extends to the wavelengths longer than 4 μm. For Fiber II, the SC range of 4280 nm (from 1370 to 5650 nm) is generated in a 4.8 cm fiber when pumped by the wavelength at 2300 nm, which covers more than two octaves. Compared to the SC generated in Fiber I, the SC spectral range in Fiber II has been increased by more than 1200 nm due to the better transmission property of the As2S5 glass; the SC extends to the wavelengths longer than 5 μm.

  16. Ansätze für eine Bifurkationsanalyse von RF LC-Tank VCOs unter Berücksichtigung nichtlinearer Bauelementegleichungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorn, C.; Bremer, J.-K.; Mathis, W.

    2008-05-01

    Es wird ein alternativer Ansatz zum Entwurf von vollintegrierten LC Oszillatoren mit Hilfe der Andronov-Hopf Bifurkationsanalyse unter Einbeziehung eines nichtlinearen Overall-Modells für MOS-Transistoren (EKV-Modell) vorgestellt. Das in dieser Arbeit vorgestellte Verfahren beschreibt die MOS-Kapazität des VCOs über geometrische Gundgrößen, die damit nur als Längen- und Weitenverhältnisse in die Bifurkationsanalyse eingehen. Zur Beschreibung der MOS-Kapazität wurde ein Basic-Charge-Modell, wie es in den Arbeiten von Enz und Vittoz vorgestellt wurde, in Verbindung einer expliziten analytischen Näherung des Oberflächenpotenzials verwendet. Das Verfahren ermöglicht es, als zusätzlichen Freiheitsgrad für den Designer auch die Amplitude zur Optimierung der Bauteilparameter heranzuziehen und vorab eine genauere Abschätzung der Parameter des Varaktors zu erhalten. Zusammengefasst in einer Toolbox führt die Anwendung des Verfahrens auf einen grafischen Optimierungsprozess, mit dessen Hilfe die Parameter analytisch bestimmt werden können. Die verwendete Methode erweitert den von Hajimiri und Ham vorgestellten Entwurfsprozess von LC-Tank VCOs um eine Stabilitätsanalyse, die Berücksichtigung harmonischer höherer Ordnung und die physikalisch exakte Modellierung der Varaktorkapazitäten.

  17. Radon anomalies on three kinds of faults in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, C.-Y.; Zhang, W.; King, B.-S.

    1993-01-01

    Radon emanation is known to be anomalously high along active faults in many parts of the world. We tested this relationship in California during July and early August 1992, using a portable radonmeter to conduct soil-air radon surveys at 5 sites across three kinds of faults: Creeping, locked, and freshly broken. Along a 350-m long survey line across a creeping segment of the San Andreas fault at Nyland Ranch in San Juan Bautista, we found anomalous radon concentrations not in the creep zone itself as determined by a creepmeter, but on the adjacent sides, 10 and 30 meters from the center line of the fault. The anomalous values were 5 times higher than the background values measured farther away from the fault. A similar radon anomaly was observed along a 420-m long survey line across a creeping segment of the Calaveras fault near 7th Street in Hollister. There, the anomalous values were about 6 to 11 times the background values and about 40 and 50 m from the center line of the fault. The double-peaked featire of the anomalies may be indicative of a relatively low gas permeability of the fault-gouge materials in the creeping zones and high permeability of fractured rocks in the adjacent shear zones. Along a 144-m survey line across the currently locked segment of the San Andreas fault at the Earthquake Trail near Olema, the radon concentration was indeed anomalously high in the fault zone, by a factor of two above background values. However, the maximum values (3 to 6 times background) again were recorded about 10 meters from the center line. Three weeks after the magnitude 7.5 Landers earthquake of 28 June 1992, we conducted a survey along a 300-m line across the earthquake fault alongside Encantado Road in the epicenter area. The radon values measured at the two main fault breaks were an order of magnitude higher than the background values. A similar result was found along a 420-m line alongside Reche Road about 1.7 km south of Encantado Road. ?? 1993 Birkha

  18. Vernachlässigte klinische Merkmale der follikulotropen Mycosis fungoides: eine große klinische Fallserie.

    PubMed

    Baykal, Can; Atci, Tugba; Ozturk Sari, Sule; Polat Ekinci, Algun; Buyukbabani, Nesimi

    2017-03-01

    Als seltene Form der Mycosis fungoides (MF), ist die follikulotrope MF (FMF) durch ein breites Spektrum klinischer Symptome gekennzeichnet. Dazu gehören, neben den vorherrschenden follikulären Läsionen, auch viele atypische Manifestationen. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war eine klinische Bewertung von FMF-Patienten, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von vernachlässigten dermatologischen Merkmalen. Insgesamt wurden 27 FMF-Patienten aus dem 572 Patienten umfassenden MF-Register unserer Abteilung retrospektiv bezüglich ihrer Demographie sowie der klinischen Merkmale, Behandlungsformen, Nachsorge und Therapieergebnisse bewertet. Neben den bekannten klinischen Symptomen der FMF fanden wir Lichen-spinulosus-artige Läsionen mit begleitender Hypopigmentierung (n = 3) und Alopezie (n = 2), infiltrierte/erhabene, erythematöse Plaques im Gesicht, die zunächst als Lupus tumidus angesehen wurden (n = 2), pseudotumorale Läsionen, die klinisch eine MF im Tumorstadium vortäuschten (n = 1), dauerhafte Exkoriationen (n = 1), erythematöse, Rosazea-artige Papeln im Gesicht (n = 1) sowie kuppelförmige, asymptomatische, mit Muzin gefüllte (in der Histologie) Papeln/Knoten (n = 2), die andere krankheitsbedingte Läsionen überlagerten. Es kamen mehrere Therapieansätze mit unterschiedlichem Ergebnis zur Anwendung. Acht (29,6 %) Patienten hatten FMF im Spätstadium. Das Bewusstsein für vernachlässigte klinische Symptome kann wesentlich dazu beitragen, verspätete Diagnosen dieser aggressiven MF-Variante zu verringern. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Unterstützung der IT-Service-Management-Prozesse an der Technischen Universität München durch eine Configuration-Management-Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittl, Silvia

    Hochschulprozesse in Lehre und Verwaltung erfordern durch die steigende Integration und IT-Unterstützung ein sogenanntes Business Alignment der IT und damit auch ein professionelleres IT-Service-Management (ITSM). Die IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) mit ihrer Beschreibung von in der Praxis bewährten Prozessen hat sich zum de-facto Standard im ITSM etabliert. Ein solcher Prozess ist das Konfigurationsmanagement. Es bildet die IT-Infrastruktur als Konfigurationselemente und deren Beziehungen in einem Werkzeug, genannt Configuration Management Database (CMDB), ab und unterstützt so das ITSM. Dieser Bericht beschreibt die Erfahrungen mit der prototypischen Einführung einer CMDB an der Technischen Universität München.

  20. Immersion freezing of different kinds of combustion ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Grawe, Sarah; Hellner, Lisa; Wex, Heike; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Stratmann, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Ice particles in the atmosphere influence both, weather and climate. Therefore it is important to know which kind of particles can act as ice nucleating particles (INP) under atmospheric conditions. In the last years, a lot of effort has been made to investigate the freezing abilities of natural INPs such as dusts and biological particles (Murray et al., 2012, Hoose and Möhler, 2012). However, there are only a few investigations concerning the ice nucleation ability of combustion ashes, which are the remains of fossil fuel and wood combustion and thus a possible source for anthropogenic INPs. Ash particles have similar compositions as mineral dust particles. However, the actual contribution of combustion ash particles to the atmospheric ice nucleation is rather unclear. A recent study by Umo et al. (2014) showed that combustion ashes could have a significant impact on the ice nucleation in clouds and thus should be the focus of further research. Ash particles can be lifted to the atmosphere by wind (bottom ashes) or directly during the combustion process (fly ashes). In the present study we investigated the freezing behavior of bottom ash particles which originated from wood as well as from coal. Additionally we investigated particles from fly ash from a coal-fired power plant. Particles were generated by dry dispersion and afterwards size selected with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA). The immersion freezing ability of the different ash particles was quantified utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS, Hartmann et al., 2011), where exactly one size segregated ash particle is immersed in a droplet. We found significant differences between the freezing abilities of the different ash types. Particles from wood bottom ashes initiate freezing at rather low temperatures near the homogenous freezing point (around -36°C). Particles from coal bottom ashes show significant higher ice nucleation abilities than the wood bottom ash, with

  1. Nitric Oxide Has a Concentration-Dependent Effect on the Cell Cycle Acting via EIN2 in Arabidopsis thaliana Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Novikova, Galina V.; Mur, Luis A. J.; Nosov, Alexander V.; Fomenkov, Artem A.; Mironov, Kirill S.; Mamaeva, Anna S.; Shilov, Evgeny S.; Rakitin, Victor Y.; Hall, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene is known to influence the cell cycle (CC) via poorly characterized roles whilst nitric oxide (NO) has well-established roles in the animal CC but analogous role(s) have not been reported for plants. As NO and ethylene signaling events often interact we examined their role in CC in cultured cells derived from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (Col-0) plants and from ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-1 plants. Both NO and ethylene were produced mainly during the first 5 days of the sub-cultivation period corresponding to the period of active cell division. However, in ein2-1 cells, ethylene generation was significantly reduced while NO levels were increased. With application of a range of concentrations of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (between 20 and 500 μM) ethylene production was significantly diminished in Col-0 but unchanged in ein2-1 cells. Flow cytometry assays showed that in Col-0 cells treatments with 5 and 10 μM SNP concentrations led to an increase in S-phase cell number indicating the stimulation of G1/S transition. However, at ≥20 μM SNP CC progression was restrained at G1/S transition. In the mutant ein2-1 strain, the index of S-phase cells was not altered at 5–10 μM SNP but decreased dramatically at higher SNP concentrations. Concomitantly, 5 μM SNP induced transcription of genes encoding CDKA;1 and CYCD3;1 in Col-0 cells whereas transcription of CDKs and CYCs were not significantly altered in ein2-1 cells at any SNP concentrations examined. Hence, it is appears that EIN2 is required for full responses at each SNP concentration. In ein2-1 cells, greater amounts of NO, reactive oxygen species, and the tyrosine-nitrating peroxynitrite radical were detected, possibly indicating NO-dependent post-translational protein modifications which could stop CC. Thus, we suggest that in Arabidopsis cultured cells NO affects CC progression as a concentration-dependent modulator with a dependency on EIN2 for both ethylene production and a NO

  2. Nitric Oxide Has a Concentration-Dependent Effect on the Cell Cycle Acting via EIN2 in Arabidopsis thaliana Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Novikova, Galina V; Mur, Luis A J; Nosov, Alexander V; Fomenkov, Artem A; Mironov, Kirill S; Mamaeva, Anna S; Shilov, Evgeny S; Rakitin, Victor Y; Hall, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene is known to influence the cell cycle (CC) via poorly characterized roles whilst nitric oxide (NO) has well-established roles in the animal CC but analogous role(s) have not been reported for plants. As NO and ethylene signaling events often interact we examined their role in CC in cultured cells derived from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (Col-0) plants and from ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-1 plants. Both NO and ethylene were produced mainly during the first 5 days of the sub-cultivation period corresponding to the period of active cell division. However, in ein2-1 cells, ethylene generation was significantly reduced while NO levels were increased. With application of a range of concentrations of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (between 20 and 500 μM) ethylene production was significantly diminished in Col-0 but unchanged in ein2-1 cells. Flow cytometry assays showed that in Col-0 cells treatments with 5 and 10 μM SNP concentrations led to an increase in S-phase cell number indicating the stimulation of G1/S transition. However, at ≥20 μM SNP CC progression was restrained at G1/S transition. In the mutant ein2-1 strain, the index of S-phase cells was not altered at 5-10 μM SNP but decreased dramatically at higher SNP concentrations. Concomitantly, 5 μM SNP induced transcription of genes encoding CDKA;1 and CYCD3;1 in Col-0 cells whereas transcription of CDKs and CYCs were not significantly altered in ein2-1 cells at any SNP concentrations examined. Hence, it is appears that EIN2 is required for full responses at each SNP concentration. In ein2-1 cells, greater amounts of NO, reactive oxygen species, and the tyrosine-nitrating peroxynitrite radical were detected, possibly indicating NO-dependent post-translational protein modifications which could stop CC. Thus, we suggest that in Arabidopsis cultured cells NO affects CC progression as a concentration-dependent modulator with a dependency on EIN2 for both ethylene production and a NO

  3. Children show heightened knew-it-all-along errors when learning new facts about kinds: Evidence for the power of kind representations in children's thinking.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-08-01

    Several proposals in the literature on conceptual development converge on the claim that information about kinds of things in the world has a privileged status in children's cognition, insofar as it is acquired, manipulated, and stored with surprising ease. Our goal in the present studies (N = 440) was to test a prediction of this claim. Specifically, if the early cognitive system privileges kind (or generic) information in the proposed ways, then learning new facts about kinds should be so seamless that it is often accompanied by an impression that these facts were known all along. To test this prediction, we presented 4- to 7-year-old children with novel kind-wide and individual-specific facts, and we then asked children whether they had prior knowledge of these facts. As predicted, children were under the impression that they had known the kind-wide facts more often than the individual-specific facts, even though in reality they had just learned both (Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5). Importantly, learning facts about (nongeneric) plural sets of individuals was not similarly accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors (Experiment 4), highlighting the privileged status of kind information per se. Finally, we found that young children were able to correctly recognize their previous ignorance of newly learned generic facts when this ignorance was made salient before the learning event (Experiment 6), suggesting that children's frequent knew-it-all-along impressions about such facts truly stem from metacognitive difficulties rather than being a methodological artifact. In sum, these 6 studies indicate that learning information about kinds is accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors. More broadly, this evidence supports the view that early cognition privileges kind representations.

  4. Giant Radio Jet Coming From Wrong Kind of Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Giant jets of subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light have been found coming from thousands of galaxies across the Universe, but always from elliptical galaxies or galaxies in the process of merging -- until now. Using the combined power of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Very Large Array (VLA) and the 8-meter Gemini-South Telescope, astronomers have discovered a huge jet coming from a spiral galaxy similar to our own Milky Way. Radio-optical view of galaxy Combined HST and VLA image of the galaxy 0313-192. Optical HST image shows the galaxy edge-on; VLA image, shown in red, reveals giant jet of speeding particles. For more images, see this link below. CREDIT: Keel, Ledlow & Owen; STScI,NRAO/AUI/NSF, NASA "We've always thought spirals were the wrong kind of galaxy to generate these huge jets, but now we're going to have to re-think some of our ideas on what produces these jets," said William Keel, a University of Alabama astronomer who led the research team. Keel worked with Michael Ledlow of Gemini Observatory and Frazer Owen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The scientists reported their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. "Further study of this galaxy may provide unique insights on just what needs to happen in a galaxy to produce these powerful jets of particles," Keel said. In addition, Owen said, "The loose-knit nature of the cluster of galaxies in which this galaxy resides may play a part in allowing this particular spiral to produce jets." Astronomers believe such jets originate at the cores of galaxies, where supermassive black holes provide the tremendous gravitational energy to accelerate particles to nearly the speed of light. Magnetic fields twisted tightly by spinning disks of material being sucked into the black hole are presumed to narrow the speeding particles into thin jets, like a nozzle on a garden hose. Both elliptical and spiral galaxies are believed to harbor supermassive

  5. Kopplung eines auf der Momentenmethode basierenden Computerprogramms mit einem FEM-Algorithmus zur Berechnung von elektromagnetischen Streuproblemen im medizinischen Bereich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, M.; Landstorfer, F. M.

    2004-05-01

    Am Beispiel der Verkopplung von medizinischen Geräten über den menschlichen Körper werden elektromagnetische Störphänomene im Klinikbereich betrachtet. Für die Berechnung dieser komplexen Szenarien wird zum einen die Momentenmethode (MoM) verwendet, die sich in besonderem Maße für die Berücksichtigung metallischer Strukturen und offener Streuprobleme eignet, und zum anderen die Methode der Finiten Elemente (FEM), mit der die Eigenschaften des menschlichen Körpers besser berücksichtigt werden können. Mit Hilfe des Äquivalenzprinzips lässt sich das Gesamtproblem in zwei Teile zerlegen, in ein inneres und in ein äußeres. Der Außenraum wird dabei mit der MoM behandelt und das Innere, d.h. der Körper mit der FEM. Die Kopplung der beiden Methoden erfolgt an der Körperoberfläche über äquivalente Oberflächenströme. Durch Lösen des resultierenden linearen Gleichungssystems für das gesamte Problem lassen sich dann die Oberflächenströme und die über die Kontinuitätsgleichung miteinander verknüpften elektromagnetischen Felder bestimmen.

  6. 9 CFR 381.161 - “(Kind) A La Kiev.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false â(Kind) A La Kiev.â 381.161 Section 381.161 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Composition § 381.161 “(Kind) A La Kiev.” Such product consists of poultry meat of the kind indicated,...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1580 Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. (a)...

  8. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1580 Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. (a)...

  9. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1580 Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. (a)...

  10. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1580 Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. (a)...

  11. Tell me about Pangolins! Evidence that children are motivated to learn about kinds.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Park, JoAnn J

    2014-02-01

    We propose that conceptual development is facilitated by an early emerging bias that leads children to privilege learning about kinds of things in the world (e.g., dogs, chairs). Three studies (N = 144) provided evidence consistent with this proposal. When given a choice between finding out about a kind or about a concrete individual from that kind, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to find out about the kind. This preference was broad in scope, extending to both familiar (Experiment 3) and unfamiliar (Experiments 1 and 2) kinds. Children's desire to learn about kinds was also expressed flexibly rather than being automatically cued by superficial features of the task: Children who talked to an ostensibly ignorant experimenter did not favor the facts about kinds (Experiments 1 and 3). Moreover, children's preference was specific to kinds rather than extending to plural sets more generally: Children who chose between facts about a single individual and facts about multiple individuals did not favor the latter (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that conceptual development may be driven in part by a heightened motivation to learn about kinds.

  12. Character Education: Students Develop "The Kindness Company" to Benefit Local Charities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    One can develop a family and consumer sciences (FCS) course that teaches character education, and allows students to experience the good feelings that come from helping others through The Kindness Company. The Kindness Company is a simulated company that produces items for donation to local charitable organizations. Students get management…

  13. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM and...

  14. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM and...

  15. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM and...

  16. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM and...

  17. Loving-kindness meditation for posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kearney, David J; Malte, Carol A; McManus, Carolyn; Martinez, Michelle E; Felleman, Ben; Simpson, Tracy L

    2013-08-01

    Loving-kindness meditation is a practice designed to enhance feelings of kindness and compassion for self and others. Loving-kindness meditation involves repetition of phrases of positive intention for self and others. We undertook an open pilot trial of loving-kindness meditation for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Measures of PTSD, depression, self-compassion, and mindfulness were obtained at baseline, after a 12-week loving-kindness meditation course, and 3 months later. Effect sizes were calculated from baseline to each follow-up point, and self-compassion was assessed as a mediator. Attendance was high; 74% attended 9-12 classes. Self-compassion increased with large effect sizes and mindfulness increased with medium to large effect sizes. A large effect size was found for PTSD symptoms at 3-month follow-up (d = -0.89), and a medium effect size was found for depression at 3-month follow-up (d = -0.49). There was evidence of mediation of reductions in PTSD symptoms and depression by enhanced self-compassion. Overall, loving-kindness meditation appeared safe and acceptable and was associated with reduced symptoms of PTSD and depression. Additional study of loving-kindness meditation for PTSD is warranted to determine whether the changes seen are due to the loving-kindness meditation intervention versus other influences, including concurrent receipt of other treatments.

  18. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  19. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of medical records must providers... for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 30.700 What kinds of medical records must providers keep? Federal Government medical officers, private physicians and hospitals are required to...

  20. 20 CFR 10.800 - What kind of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kind of medical records must providers...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Information for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 10.800 What kind of medical records must providers keep? Agency medical officers, private physicians and hospitals...

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What kind of maintenance programs must we have? 102-34.275 Section 102-34.275 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.275 What kind of maintenance...

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kind of maintenance programs must we have? 102-34.275 Section 102-34.275 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.275 What kind of maintenance...

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kind of maintenance programs must we have? 102-34.275 Section 102-34.275 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.275 What kind of maintenance...

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What kind of maintenance programs must we have? 102-34.275 Section 102-34.275 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.275 What kind of maintenance...

  5. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine... Licensing Policy § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a... medicine, medical devices, and medical services to the Palestinian Authority Ministry of Health,...

  6. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine, medical...

  7. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  8. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  9. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  10. 25 CFR 26.27 - What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? 26.27 Section 26.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Job Placement Services § 26.27 What kind of Job Placement support services...

  11. 25 CFR 26.27 - What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? 26.27 Section 26.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Job Placement Services § 26.27 What kind of Job Placement support services...

  12. 48 CFR 1516.303-74 - Determining the value of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... market values. (a) Where the Agency receives title to donated land, building, equipment or supplies and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determining the value of... Contracts 1516.303-74 Determining the value of in-kind contributions. In-kind contributions accepted from...

  13. McDonaldized Education: Is It the Right Kind for Russia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippov, R. I.

    2011-01-01

    Russian society can benefit from the kind of simplified, packaged education that has developed in many countries, since it is a quick way to bring a mass of students to a certain level of competency. But it is not a good basis for creating the kind of specialists and creative thinkers that Russia will need to succeed in the coming years. [This…

  14. 40 CFR 35.4170 - What kinds of reporting does EPA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of reporting does EPA require? 35.4170 Section 35.4170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... § 35.4170 What kinds of reporting does EPA require? There are several types of reports you need...

  15. 7 CFR 800.83 - Sampling provisions by kind of movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sampling provisions by kind of movement. 800.83 Section 800.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... REGULATIONS Inspection Methods and Procedures § 800.83 Sampling provisions by kind of movement. (a) Export...

  16. 7 CFR 800.83 - Sampling provisions by kind of movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sampling provisions by kind of movement. 800.83 Section 800.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... REGULATIONS Inspection Methods and Procedures § 800.83 Sampling provisions by kind of movement. (a) Export...

  17. 7 CFR 800.83 - Sampling provisions by kind of movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sampling provisions by kind of movement. 800.83 Section 800.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... REGULATIONS Inspection Methods and Procedures § 800.83 Sampling provisions by kind of movement. (a) Export...

  18. 7 CFR 800.83 - Sampling provisions by kind of movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sampling provisions by kind of movement. 800.83 Section 800.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... REGULATIONS Inspection Methods and Procedures § 800.83 Sampling provisions by kind of movement. (a) Export...

  19. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine, medical...

  20. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine, medical...

  1. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006, nongovernmental organizations that are U.S. persons are authorized to provide in-kind donations of medicine, medical...

  2. Character Education: Students Develop "The Kindness Company" to Benefit Local Charities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    One can develop a family and consumer sciences (FCS) course that teaches character education, and allows students to experience the good feelings that come from helping others through The Kindness Company. The Kindness Company is a simulated company that produces items for donation to local charitable organizations. Students get management…

  3. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? (a)...

  4. 25 CFR 26.35 - What kind of support services are available to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kind of support services are available to me? 26.35 Section 26.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.35 What kind of support services are available to me? As...

  5. 25 CFR 26.35 - What kind of support services are available to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kind of support services are available to me? 26.35 Section 26.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.35 What kind of support services are available to me? As...

  6. 46 CFR 201.158 - Decisions, authority to make and kinds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decisions, authority to make and kinds. 201.158 Section... Decisions, authority to make and kinds. To the presiding officer is delegated the authority to render... Administration, in which case another Presiding Officer will be designated to make such decision or certify the...

  7. 46 CFR 201.158 - Decisions, authority to make and kinds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decisions, authority to make and kinds. 201.158 Section... Decisions, authority to make and kinds. To the presiding officer is delegated the authority to render... Administration, in which case another Presiding Officer will be designated to make such decision or certify the...

  8. 46 CFR 201.158 - Decisions, authority to make and kinds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decisions, authority to make and kinds. 201.158 Section... Decisions, authority to make and kinds. To the presiding officer is delegated the authority to render... Administration, in which case another Presiding Officer will be designated to make such decision or certify the...

  9. 46 CFR 201.158 - Decisions, authority to make and kinds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decisions, authority to make and kinds. 201.158 Section... Decisions, authority to make and kinds. To the presiding officer is delegated the authority to render... Administration, in which case another Presiding Officer will be designated to make such decision or certify the...

  10. 46 CFR 201.158 - Decisions, authority to make and kinds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decisions, authority to make and kinds. 201.158 Section... Decisions, authority to make and kinds. To the presiding officer is delegated the authority to render... Administration, in which case another Presiding Officer will be designated to make such decision or certify the...

  11. 25 CFR 26.27 - What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? 26.27 Section 26.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Job Placement Services § 26.27 What kind of Job Placement support...

  12. 21 CFR 822.19 - What kinds of decisions may you make?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of decisions may you make? 822.19 Section 822.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE FDA Review and Action § 822.19 What kinds of...

  13. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat in...

  14. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat in...

  15. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat in...

  16. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat in...

  17. 13 CFR 142.15 - What kind of hearing is contemplated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What kind of hearing is contemplated? 142.15 Section 142.15 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.15 What kind of hearing is contemplated?...

  18. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  19. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  20. 14 CFR 189.3 - Kinds of messages accepted or relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kinds of messages accepted or relayed. 189.3 Section 189.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Kinds of messages accepted or relayed. (a) Flight Service Stations may accept for transmission over FAA...

  1. Time microscopy for all kinds of data including circadian clock biology.

    PubMed

    Katinas, G S; Halberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Otsuka, K; Bakken, E E

    2005-10-01

    Data showing a rhythm to the naked eye prominently, barely or not at all were described as kinds A, B and C, respectively. Here, we document good agreement between estimates of maxima and minima with eyeballing and with the addition of point and interval estimates of parameters in kind A data. We also construct a chart that provides estimates of uncertainties that can be obtained objectively while they are more difficult to quantify subjectively; again there is agreement. Interval as point estimates of rhythm characteristics and parameter comparisons are useful in charting all kinds of data and become indispensable as we proceed from kind A to kind C data. Illustrations included herein from molecular biology apply equally to all aspects of transdisciplinary science.

  2. [On the connotation of "Shennong tastes all kinds of herbs and encounters seventy kinds of toxic substances in a single day"].

    PubMed

    Hao, Baohua; Kang, Xingjun

    2002-10-01

    The description of "Shennong tastes all kinds of herbs and encounters seventy kinds of toxic substances in a single day" is a legend in Chinese medical history, demonstrating that medicine is originated from practice. This description has been interpreted as a semi - mythological legend. In fact, the description has a true and primitive background. Among them, the "day" and "seventy" bear specific implication and deep historical and cultural connotation. As time progresses, the fading of history will be even more deified. Hence, this phenomenon should arouse attention during the study of medical history.

  3. Begabung, Leistung Und Geschlecht: Neue Dimensionen Im Lichte Eines Alten Erziehungswissenschaftlichen Diskurses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Margrit

    2007-07-01

    GIFTEDNESS, ACHIEVEMENT AND GENDER - This article deals with the interrelation of giftedness, achievement and gender. It examines the effect of gender affiliation on the development of talent. The cardinal focus is put on the questions of how gender roles influence the lives of gifted children and adolescents as well as what kinds of coping strategies they use to manage these challenges. Based on the thesis stating that the present assimilation of gender roles displays a new challenge of social pressure girls and boys deal with in different ways, the hitherto accessible research findings are discussed in respect of the current state of knowledge. As a result, the existence of the gender gap can be reaffirmed and linked to distinct danger zones for boys and girls. The way into underachievement can be one strategy to get rid of this social pressure.

  4. Children Show Heightened Knew-It-All-Along Errors When Learning New Facts about Kinds: Evidence for the Power of Kind Representations in Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Several proposals in the literature on conceptual development converge on the claim that information about "kinds of things" in the world has a privileged status in children's cognition, insofar as it is acquired, manipulated, and stored with surprising ease. Our goal in the present studies (N = 440) was to test a prediction of this…

  5. Integral equations of the first kind, inverse problems and regularization: a crash course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2007-06-01

    This paper is an expository survey of the basic theory of regularization for Fredholm integral equations of the first kind and related background material on inverse problems. We begin with an historical introduction to the field of integral equations of the first kind, with special emphasis on model inverse problems that lead to such equations. The basic theory of linear Fredholm equations of the first kind, paying particular attention to E. Schmidt's singular function analysis, Picard's existence criterion, and the Moore-Penrose theory of generalized inverses is outlined. The fundamentals of the theory of Tikhonov regularization are then treated and a collection of exercises and a bibliography are provided.

  6. KIND Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIND Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presented are 14 student worksheets for use in teaching the care and humane treatment of animals. Topics of these games, puzzles include both domestic pets and wild animals. An answer sheet for teachers is included. (CW)

  7. KIND Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIND Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 14 student worksheets for use in teaching the care of and humane treatment of animals. Topics of these games and puzzles include state animal trivia, domestic pets and wild animals. An answer sheet for teachers is included. (CW)

  8. KIND Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIND Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 14 student worksheets for use in teaching about environmental conservation. Topics of these games, puzzles include pollution, rainforests, endangered species, habitat destruction, and solid waste. An answer sheet for teachers is included. (CW)

  9. KIND Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIND Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 14 student worksheets for use in teaching about environmental conservation. Topics of these games, puzzles include pollution, rainforests, endangered species, habitat destruction, and solid waste. An answer sheet for teachers is included. (CW)

  10. Places to Go; People to See; Things to Do--Celebrating Be Kind to Animals Week.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Lorraine P.

    1984-01-01

    Presents suggestions of what teachers and employees of welfare organizations can do to encourage people's observance of "Be Kind to Animals Week." Includes places to go, people to see, and things to do. (BC)

  11. Histochemical Investigation and Kinds of Alkaloids in Leaves of Different Developmental Stages in Thymus quinquecostatus

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Haiting; Liu, Jing; Liu, Hanzhu; Xin, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Thymus quinquecostatus, with more medical value, is a kind of wild plants. In order to exploit and utilize this plant, we studied the species and locations of alkaloids in its leaves. In this paper, histochemical study of leaves at different developing stages was taken to localize the alkaloids. Meanwhile, the kinds and content of alkaloids in leaves were identified using GC-MS technique. It was found that there were two kinds of glandular trichomes, namely, peltate trichomes and capitate trichomes, on the surface of leaves, and their secretory cells could secrete alkaloids. Results showed that trichomes could secrete alkaloids as soon as the first pair of leaves formed, and there were altogether 18 kinds of alkaloids identified by GC-MS. Nearly all of these alkaloids of leaves at different developing stages were distinct from each other, except one, 3-methoxy-a-methyl-benzeneethanamine, persists at different developing stages with high concentration. PMID:25101324

  12. Histochemical investigation and kinds of alkaloids in leaves of different developmental stages in Thymus quinquecostatus.

    PubMed

    Jing, Haiting; Liu, Jing; Liu, Hanzhu; Xin, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Thymus quinquecostatus, with more medical value, is a kind of wild plants. In order to exploit and utilize this plant, we studied the species and locations of alkaloids in its leaves. In this paper, histochemical study of leaves at different developing stages was taken to localize the alkaloids. Meanwhile, the kinds and content of alkaloids in leaves were identified using GC-MS technique. It was found that there were two kinds of glandular trichomes, namely, peltate trichomes and capitate trichomes, on the surface of leaves, and their secretory cells could secrete alkaloids. Results showed that trichomes could secrete alkaloids as soon as the first pair of leaves formed, and there were altogether 18 kinds of alkaloids identified by GC-MS. Nearly all of these alkaloids of leaves at different developing stages were distinct from each other, except one, 3-methoxy-a-methyl-benzeneethanamine, persists at different developing stages with high concentration.

  13. [On the nonexistence of propionic acid in various kinds of breeds (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lück, E; Oeser, H; Remmert, K H; Sabel, J

    1975-05-30

    Analyses of 45 samples of sour dough and various kinds of bread have shown that no appreciable amounts of propionic acid are formed during sour dough fermentation. Bread has no natural propionic acid content.

  14. How respect and kindness are experienced at the end of life by nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Genevieve N; McClement, Susan E; Chochinov, Harvey M

    2011-09-01

    Respect and kindness are core principles of nursing practice, yet little is known about how they are experienced by nursing home (NH) residents at the end of life. The aim of this study was to examine the factors associated with being treated with respect and kindness in the last month of life as an NH resident. A retrospective survey of 208 bereaved family members was conducted in 21 NHs located in a city in central Canada. The majority of participants indicated that the resident had always been treated with respect or kindness. However, significant differences emerged, with not all family members believing that their loved one had always been treated with respect or kindness. The apparent lapses in care practices are troubling and indicate that steps must be taken to address them.

  15. Defense Infrastructure: In-Kind Construction and Renovation Projects Initiated by DOD during Fiscal Year 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA...the receipt of fair- market value. The Act also provided for a listing of facilities constructed or renovated with the use of in-kind payments, and...of in-kind projects reflect the fair- market value of the real-property interest in real-estate transactions. Each of the Services reported similar

  16. 25 CFR 103.4 - What kinds of loans will BIA guarantee or insure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of loans will BIA guarantee or insure? 103.4 Section 103.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOAN GUARANTY, INSURANCE, AND INTEREST SUBSIDY General Provisions § 103.4 What kinds of loans will BIA guarantee or insure? In general, BIA may guarantee...

  17. 9 CFR 381.162 - “(Kind) steak or fillet.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false â(Kind) steak or fillet.â 381.162 Section 381.162 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Composition § 381.162 “(Kind) steak or fillet.” Such product consists of a boneless slice or strip of poultry...

  18. Security of a kind of quantum secret sharing with entangled states.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Liu, Ying-Zhao; Wei, Chun-Yan; Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2017-05-30

    We present a new collusion attack to a kind of quantum secret sharing schemes with entangled states. Using this attack, an unauthorized set of agents can gain access to the shared secret without the others' cooperation. Furthermore, we establish a general model for this kind of quantum secret sharing schemes and then give some necessary conditions to design a secure quantum secret sharing scheme under this model.

  19. Inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly determine the expenditure of effort in project teams.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiaojie; Rapoport, Amnon; Zhao, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The literature on team cooperation has neglected the effects of relative kindness intention on cooperation, which we measure by comparing the kindness intentions of an agent to her group members to the kindness shown by other members to this same agent. We argue that the agent's emotional reaction to material payoff inequity is not constant, but rather affected by her relative kindness intention. Then, we apply the model to team projects with multiple partners and investigate how inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly influence team cooperation. We first consider the case of homogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are the same, and then consider the case of heterogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are not the same. Our results show that inequity-aversion has no effect on effort expenditure in the former case, but does affect it in the latter case. The consideration of relative kindness intention may impact the agents' optimal cooperative effort expenditure when their technical capacities are different. In addition, it is beneficial for team cooperation, and might not only reduce the negative impact but also enhance the positive impact of inequity-aversion on the agents' effort expenditures.

  20. Inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly determine the expenditure of effort in project teams

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Amnon; Zhao, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The literature on team cooperation has neglected the effects of relative kindness intention on cooperation, which we measure by comparing the kindness intentions of an agent to her group members to the kindness shown by other members to this same agent. We argue that the agent’s emotional reaction to material payoff inequity is not constant, but rather affected by her relative kindness intention. Then, we apply the model to team projects with multiple partners and investigate how inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly influence team cooperation. We first consider the case of homogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are the same, and then consider the case of heterogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are not the same. Our results show that inequity-aversion has no effect on effort expenditure in the former case, but does affect it in the latter case. The consideration of relative kindness intention may impact the agents’ optimal cooperative effort expenditure when their technical capacities are different. In addition, it is beneficial for team cooperation, and might not only reduce the negative impact but also enhance the positive impact of inequity-aversion on the agents’ effort expenditures. PMID:28459853

  1. Introduction of a Diagnosis Related Groups’ Case Flat Rate System: Hopes and Fears (einfuerhrng eines drg-fallpauschalensystems - hoffnungen und aengste)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    GOnter Neubauer Universittt der Bundeswehr M(Jnchen Neuordnung der KrankenhausvergUtung 15 Gerhard Knorr Bayerisches Staatsministerium fOr Arbeit und...Erlbse zu stellen. Nur eine solche trans- parente Vorgehensweise wird auch der entsprechenden Sachlage gerecht. -10- Schr ~itt zu e1 in U411 duc...user gelten. Unterschiede in der Entgelthohe sind dabei nur sehr be- schr ~nkt m5glich: Zum einen, soweit es sich um Finanzierungstatbesttn- de handelt

  2. KIND1 Loss Sensitizes Keratinocytes to UV-Induced Inflammatory Response and DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Luo, Suju; Wu, Joseph; Zhang, Long; Wang, Wen-Hui; Degan, Simone; Erdmann, Detlev; Hall, Russell; Zhang, Jennifer Y

    2017-02-01

    Loss of function of KIND1, a cytoskeletal protein involved in β1-integrin function, causes Kindler syndrome, a genetic disease characterized by skin fragility, photosensitivity, and increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Dysregulation of β1-integrin underlies Kindler syndrome skin fragility. However, the mechanisms underlying squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that gene silencing of KIND1 decreased keratinocyte proliferation and increased apoptosis in vitro and in skin grafts regenerated on mice, which was correlated with reduced cyclinB1. In addition, KIND1 loss sensitized keratinocytes to cytokine and UV-induced NF-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and upregulation of CXCL10 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Moreover, KIND1 loss impaired DNA repair, as indicated by the increased detection of γH2AX and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers 24 hours after UVB radiation. Genetic or pharmacological c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition and NF-κB inhibition markedly reduced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers-positive cells. Further, we show that KIND1 was regulated by JunB at the transcriptional level and, like JunB, it was downregulated in human squamous cell carcinoma cells. Together, these results indicate that KIND1 is important not only for keratinocyte proliferation but also for the suppression of UV-induced inflammation and DNA damage. These latter findings support a tumor suppressor function for KIND1, and identify c-Jun N-terminal kinase and NF-κB as potential therapeutic targets for prevention of squamous cell carcinoma in patients with Kindler syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of hypergravity on lignin formation and expression of lignin-related genes in inflorescence stems of an ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein3-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahara, Ichirou; Kobayashi, Mai; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    Our previous studies have shown that hypergravity inhibits growth and promotes lignin forma-tion in inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana by up-regulation of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis (Tamaoki et al. 2006, 2009). In the present study, we have examined whether ethylene is involved in these responses using an ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein3-1. Our results revealed that hypergravity treatment at 300 G for 24 h significantly inhibited growth of inflorescence stems, promoted both deposition of acetyl bromide extractable lignin and gene expression involved in lignin formation in inflorescence stems of wild type plants. Growth inhibition of inflorescence stems was also observed in ein3-1. However, the effects of hypergravity on the promotion of the deposition of acetyl bromide lignin and the expression of genes involved in lignin formation were not observed in ein3-1, indicating that ethylene sig-naling is involved in the up-regulation of the expression of lignin-related genes as well as the promotion of deposition of lignin by hypergravity in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems.

  4. Members of the tomato LeEIL (EIN3-like) gene family are functionally redundant and regulate ethylene responses throughout plant development.

    PubMed

    Tieman, D M; Ciardi, J A; Taylor, M G; Klee, H J

    2001-04-01

    The plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of growth, development and responses to the environment. The Arabidopsis ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) protein is a nuclear-localized component of the ethylene signal-transduction pathway with DNA-binding activity. Loss-of-function mutations in this protein result in ethylene insensitivity in Arabidopsis. To gain a better understanding of the ethylene signal-transduction pathway in tomato, we have identified three homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3 gene (LeEILs). Each of these genes complemented the ein3-1 mutation in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that all are involved in ethylene signal transduction. Transgenic tomato plants with reduced expression of a single LeEIL gene did not exhibit significant changes in ethylene response; reduced expression of multiple tomato LeEIL genes was necessary to reduce ethylene sensitivity significantly. Reduced LeEIL expression affected all ethylene responses examined, including leaf epinasty, flower abscission, flower senescence and fruit ripening. Our results indicate that the LeEILs are functionally redundant and positive regulators of multiple ethylene responses throughout plant development.

  5. WomanKind: an innovative model of health care response to domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Hadley, S M; Short, L M; Lezin, N; Zook, E

    1995-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of the WomanKind program in creating opportunities for discussing domestic violence and training health professionals. The WomanKind program is based on the belief that without such discussion, health care providers will continue to treat the medical and mental health problems that bring women to their doors without addressing the underlying pattern of abuse that is the root cause. WomanKind has evolved to integrate case management/advocacy services for victims of domestic abuse, in addition to education and consultation for health professionals. It also provides case management and advocacy services, including crisis intervention, assessment and evaluation, and ongoing assistance to battered women who suffer from physical, emotional, or sexual abuse by a current or former partner. The WomanKind staff consists of a director who oversees the program, including marketing and public relations, education and training, as well as assisting the full-time program coordinators at each of the three hospital sites. An intensive 40-hour training program provides the new WomanKind volunteers with an understanding of the issues of domestic abuse and violence, as well as knowledge of community resources. The program goals are elaborated in this article as well as the program marketing techniques.

  6. Kind discipline: Developing a conceptual model of a promising school discipline approach.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Jennifer L; Walsh, Michele E; de Blois, Madeleine; Maré, Jeannette; Carvajal, Scott C

    2017-02-06

    This formative evaluation develops a novel conceptual model for a discipline approach fostering intrinsic motivation and positive relationships in schools. We used concept mapping to elicit and integrate perspectives on kind discipline from teachers, administrators, and other school staff. Three core themes describing kind discipline emerged from 11 identified clusters: (1) proactively developing a positive school climate, (2) responding to conflict with empathy, accountability, and skill, and (3) supporting staff skills in understanding and sharing expectations. We mapped the identified components of kind discipline onto a social ecological model and found that kind discipline encompasses all levels of that model including the individual, relational, environmental/structural, and even community levels. This contrasts with the dominant individual-behavioral discipline approaches that focus on fewer levels and may not lead to sustained student and staff motivation. The findings illustrate the importance of setting and communicating clear expectations and the need for them to be collaboratively developed. Products of the analysis and synthesis reported here are operationalized materials for teachers grounded in a "be kind" culture code for classrooms.

  7. [Chloroplast ultrastructure and photosynthetic characteristics of five kinds of dandelion (Taraxacum) leaves in northeast China].

    PubMed

    Ning, Wei; Wu, Jie; Zhao, Ting; Zhao, Xin; Li, Tianlai

    2012-05-01

    The paper adopted the JEM-100CX II transmission electron microscope to observe chloroplast ultrastructure of five kinds of dandelion (Taraxacum) leaves in northeast, and the LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system was used to compare the chlorophyll fluorescence and the photosynthesis characteristics of five kinds of dandelions in Northeast China. Chloroplast ultrastructure showed: in the five kinds of dandelion, larger chloroplast, grana with more layers, regular thylakoid, without starch grains and so on, these chloroplasts characteristics decided to bigger photosynthetic rate. The five kinds of dandelion P(n) exhibited a "double peak" diurnal curve: stomatal limitation is the main adjustment factors for the midday depression phenomenon. The P(n),G(s),C(i) content of T. mongolicum are the highest, and T. asiaticum are the lowest among them. The relation between P(n) and G(s),C(i) is direct ratio, P(n) and T(r) is in an inverse proportion among the five kinds of dandelion. In addition, P(n) is positively correlated with Chla, Chlb, and the relationship with Chlb is bigger. The paper demonstrates the Mongolian dandelion photosynthetic efficiency is the highest, it is an higher photosynthetic efficiency dandelion,it provide theoretical basis for assessment and use of the resource of dandelion.

  8. The benefit of interleaved mathematics practice is not limited to superficially similar kinds of problems.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Doug; Dedrick, Robert F; Burgess, Kaleena

    2014-10-01

    Most mathematics assignments consist of a group of problems requiring the same strategy. For example, a lesson on the quadratic formula is typically followed by a block of problems requiring students to use that formula, which means that students know the appropriate strategy before they read each problem. In an alternative approach, different kinds of problems appear in an interleaved order, which requires students to choose the strategy on the basis of the problem itself. In the classroom-based experiment reported here, grade 7 students (n = 140) received blocked or interleaved practice over a nine-week period, followed two weeks later by an unannounced test. The mean test scores were greater for material learned by interleaved practice rather than by blocked practice (72 % vs. 38 %, d = 1.05). This interleaving effect was observed even though the different kinds of problems were superficially dissimilar from each other, whereas previous interleaved mathematics studies had required students to learn nearly identical kinds of problems. We conclude that interleaving improves mathematics learning not only by improving discrimination between different kinds of problems, but also by strengthening the association between each kind of problem and its corresponding strategy.

  9. Identification of different kinds of plastics using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for waste management.

    PubMed

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Siddiqui, Mohammad N

    2007-11-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for the identification of various kinds of plastics for management and recycling of plastic waste. In order to fingerprint these plastics, a laser-produced plasma emission was recorded for spectral analysis of various kinds of plastics. The plasma was generated by focusing a Nd:YAG laser radiation at wavelength = 1064 nm having laser energy = 40 mJ. The 6 main family of plastics tested are: Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Polypropylenes (PP), Polystyrene (PS), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The capability of this technique is demonstrated by the analysis of the major constituents carbon and hydrogen present in polymer matrices. The LIBS signal intensity measured for carbon and hydrogen was detrimental for the fingerprinting of various kinds of plastics. The C/H line intensity ratio was 1.68, 1.51, 1.42, 1.16, 1.01 and 0.91 for HDPE, LDPE, PS, PP, PET and PVC respectively. The detection limits of carbon and hydrogen were found to be approximately 6 micro g/g by applying 20 laser shots. The unique features of LIBS are: it is a simple, rapid, remote, real-time analysis without sampling requirements. The study demonstrated that LIBS could be applied as a best tool for sorting out different kinds plastics on a fast scale for waste management. The health hazards of different kinds of plastics are also described.

  10. Depression and suicide are natural kinds: implications for physician-assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Jonathan Y

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that depression and suicide are natural kinds insofar as they are classes of abnormal behavior underwritten by sets of stable biological mechanisms. In particular, depression and suicide are neurobiological kinds characterized by disturbances in serotonin functioning that affect various brain areas (i.e., the amygdala, anterior cingulate, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus). The significance of this argument is that the natural (biological) basis of depression and suicide allows for reliable projectable inferences (i.e., predictions) to be made about individual members of a kind. In the context of assisted suicide, inferences about the decision-making capacity of depressed individuals seeking physician-assisted suicide are of special interest. I examine evidence that depression can hamper the decision-making capacity of individuals seeking assisted suicide and discuss some implications.

  11. Nonverbal generics: human infants interpret objects as symbols of object kinds.

    PubMed

    Csibra, Gergely; Shamsudheen, Rubeena

    2015-01-03

    Human infants are involved in communicative interactions with others well before they start to speak or understand language. It is generally thought that this communication is useful for establishing interpersonal relations and supporting joint activities, but, in the absence of symbolic functions that language provides, these early communicative contexts do not allow infants to learn about the world. However, recent studies suggest that when someone demonstrates something using an object as the medium of instruction, infants can conceive the object as an exemplar of the whole class of objects of the same kind. Thus, an object, just like a word, can play the role of a symbol that stands for something else than itself, and infants can learn general knowledge about a kind of object from nonverbal communication about a single item of that kind. This rudimentary symbolic capacity may be one of the roots of the development of symbolic understanding in children.

  12. NONVERBAL GENERICS: Human Infants Interpret Objects as Symbols of Object Kinds

    PubMed Central

    Csibra, Gergely; Shamsudheen, Rubeena

    2015-01-01

    Human infants are involved in communicative interactions with others well before they start to speak or understand language. It is generally thought that this communication is useful for establishing interpersonal relations and supporting joint activities, but, in the absence of symbolic functions that language provides, these early communicative contexts do not allow infants to learn about the world. However, recent studies suggest that when someone demonstrates something using an object as the medium of instruction, infants can conceive the object as an exemplar of the whole class of objects of the same kind. Thus, an object, just like a word, can play the role of a symbol that stands for something else than itself, and infants can learn generic knowledge about a kind of object from nonverbal communication about a single item of that kind. This rudimentary symbolic capacity may be one of the roots of the development of symbolic understanding in children. PMID:25251493

  13. Remembering kinds: new evidence that categories are privileged in children's thinking.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Erickson, Lucy C

    2012-05-01

    What are the representations and learning mechanisms that underlie conceptual development? The present research provides evidence in favor of the claim that this process is guided by an early-emerging predisposition to think and learn about abstract kinds. Specifically, three studies (N=192) demonstrated that 4- to 7-year-old children have better recall for novel information about kinds (e.g., that dogs catch a bug called "fep") than for similar information about individuals (e.g., that a particular dog catches a bug called "fep"). By showing that children are particularly likely to retain information about kinds, this work not only provides a first empirical demonstration of a phenomenon that may be key to conceptual development but also makes it apparent that young children's thinking is suffused with abstractions rather than being perceptually-based and concrete.

  14. Stochastic resonance for a linear oscillator with two kinds of fractional derivatives and random frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianqu; Jin, Weidong; Guo, Feng

    2017-04-01

    The stochastic resonance (SR) behavior for a linear oscillator with two kinds of fractional derivatives and random frequency is investigated. Based on linear system theory, and applying with the definition of the Gamma function and fractional derivatives, we derive the expression for the output amplitude gain (OAG). A stochastic multiresonance is found on the OAG curve versus the first kind of fractional derivative exponent. The SR occurs on the OAG as a function of the second kind of fractional exponent, as a function of the viscous damping and the friction coefficients, and as a function of the system's frequency. The bona fide SR also takes place on the OAG curve versus the driving frequency.

  15. Two kinds of magnetic gauge potentials due to coherent effect in two-gap superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xuguang

    2016-10-01

    Two-component Ginzburg-Landau model with one magnetic gauge potential can be used to describe the physical properties of two-gap superconductor. When the order parameters in two-gap superconductor have different phases, the gauge invariance will be destroyed. In order to preserve gauge invariance, two kinds of gauge potentials must be introduced. For seeking the origins of two kinds of gauge potentials, one suggests two kinds of order parameters are in the coherent state. Therefore, two different gauge potentials and masses of the order parameters arise through deducing the super-current of the coherent state. As a result, two different gauge potentials lead to different magnetic fields at the zero points of the order parameters. In other places, the gauge potentials have no contributions to the magnetic field. Moreover, the topological properties of two different gauge potentials are discussed in detail.

  16. [How do I assess requirement of a blood bank and its kind for a healthcare establishment?].

    PubMed

    Lafeuillade, B; Tixier, A; Bliem, C; Meyer, F

    2014-12-01

    Access to blood components is required for healthcare establishments, particularly for emergency situation and hospital blood bank was often a response to this requirement. However, the complexity of regulation and economic pressures lead healthcare establishment to review regularly their need for a blood bank. This assessment requires analysis of need for transfusions in terms of delay, quantity and clinical situations to which they must respond. When a blood bank is required, three kinds could be under consideration: emergency blood bank, intermediate blood bank and issuance blood bank. According to requirements, advantages and disadvantages of each kind, healthcare establishments would select the most suitable one.

  17. Fragments and absences: language and loss in Miriam Toews's A complicated kindness.

    PubMed

    Steffler, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Miriam Toews resists the conventional narrative of the adolescent leaving the small town, proposing instead that the community deserts Nomi Nickel. Nomi, facing maternal absence and the loss of her mother tongue, attempts to use linguistic and material fragments to connect word and world. Suffering from multiple and inexplicable desertions, she rejects the community's intolerance but values its kindness. Her contradictory responses to Plautdietsch, which is both deserting her and being rejected by her, complicate and challenge the concrete words and signs of adolescent protest and rebellion. Binaries separating word and world, kindness and judgement, margin and centre are challenged and collapsed in the course of Nomi's narrative.

  18. Orbifold singularities, Lie algebras of the third kind (LATKes), and pure Yang-Mills with matter

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, Tamar

    2011-02-15

    We discover the unique, simple Lie algebra of the third kind, or LATKe, that stems from codimension 6 orbifold singularities and gives rise to a new kind of Yang-Mills theory which simultaneously is pure and contains matter. The root space of the LATKe is one-dimensional and its Dynkin diagram consists of one point. The uniqueness of the LATKe is a vacuum selection mechanism. The World in a Point?; Blow-up ofC{sup 3}/Z{sub 3}| Dynkin diagram of the LATKe; {center_dot}; Pure Yang-Mills with matter

  19. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; designation as hybrid. 201.34 Section 201.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture..., variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid. (a) Indistinguishable seed and treatment... therefor, provided the name does not apply to more than one kind and is not misleading. (c)...

  20. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; designation as hybrid. 201.34 Section 201.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture..., variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid. (a) Indistinguishable seed and treatment... therefor, provided the name does not apply to more than one kind and is not misleading. (c)...

  1. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; designation as hybrid. 201.34 Section 201.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture..., variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid. (a) Indistinguishable seed and treatment... therefor, provided the name does not apply to more than one kind and is not misleading. (c)...

  2. Using Current Literature Selections to Nurture the Development of Kindness in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeece, Pauline Davey

    2009-01-01

    Learning to display kindness and compassion for others is a critical and ongoing developmental process and an important part of young children's evolving social competence (Han and Kemple in "Early Child Educ J" 34(3):241-246, 2006; Moore in "Early Child Educ Today" 19(3):36-44, 2004). The capacity to care emanates from physical and psychological…

  3. Remembering Kinds: New Evidence that Categories are Privileged in Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimpian, Andrei; Erickson, Lucy C.

    2012-01-01

    What are the representations and learning mechanisms that underlie conceptual development? The present research provides evidence in favor of the claim that this process is guided by an early-emerging predisposition to think and learn about abstract kinds. Specifically, three studies (N=192) demonstrated that 4- to 7-year-old children have better…

  4. Bilingualism Affects 9-Month-Old Infants' Expectations about How Words Refer to Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Infants are precocious word learners, and seem to possess systematic expectations about how words refer to object kinds. For example, while monolingual infants show a one-to-one mapping bias (e.g. mutual exclusivity), expecting each object to have only one basic level label, previous research has shown that this is less robust in bi- and…

  5. What Kinds of Collaboration Do You Engage in for the Benefit of Your Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potash, Betsy; Oxford, Janelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors share what kinds of collaboration they engage in for the benefit of their students. The first author introduces the Bread Loaf Teacher Network which connects classes across the world--urban and rural, East Coast and West Coast, American, African, Indian, and European. The second author encourages teachers to consider…

  6. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What kinds of medical records must providers keep? 30.700 Section 30.700 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF... occupational illness or covered illness, a description of the nature and extent of the claimed occupational...

  7. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of medical records must providers keep? 30.700 Section 30.700 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF... occupational illness or covered illness, a description of the nature and extent of the claimed occupational...

  8. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kinds of medical records must providers keep? 30.700 Section 30.700 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF... occupational illness or covered illness, a description of the nature and extent of the claimed occupational...

  9. 20 CFR 10.800 - What kind of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kind of medical records must providers keep? 10.800 Section 10.800 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF... of the injury, a description of the nature and extent of injury, the results of any diagnostic...

  10. On a kind of Noether symmetries and conservation laws in k-cosymplectic field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, Juan Carlos; Roman-Roy, Narciso; Salgado, Modesto; Vilarino, Silvia

    2011-02-15

    This paper is devoted to studying symmetries of certain kinds of k-cosymplectic Hamiltonian systems in first-order classical field theories. Thus, we introduce a particular class of symmetries and study the problem of associating conservation laws to them by means of a suitable generalization of Noether's theorem.

  11. Generics License 30-Month-Olds' Inferences about the Atypical Properties of Novel Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Susan A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Clarke, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the distinction between generic and nongeneric language provides toddlers with a rapid and efficient means to learn about kinds. In Experiment 1, we examined 30-month-olds' willingness to extend atypical properties to members of an unfamiliar category when the properties were introduced in 1 of 3 ways: (a) using a generic noun…

  12. The Emergence of Kind Concepts: A Rejoinder to Needham and Baillargeon (2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Carey, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Responds to Needham and Baillargeon's criticisms and offers an alternative resolution of the conflicting results between the laboratories regarding abilities of infants less than 12 months to use property/featural information for object individuation. Maintains that kind concepts are acquired as infants approach their first birthday and that…

  13. 34 CFR 370.4 - What kinds of activities may the Secretary fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of activities may the Secretary fund? 370.4 Section 370.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CLIENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General...

  14. 40 CFR 35.4170 - What kinds of reporting does EPA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of reporting does EPA require? 35.4170 Section 35.4170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... receive an advance payment: Type of report Required information Timing and frequency (a) Federal...

  15. The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Darcher, Alana; Negi, Lobsang T.; Raison, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body. Here, we link contemplative accounts of compassion and loving-kindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition. Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another’s affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof. This theoretical model will be discussed alongside best practices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work. PMID:25729374

  16. The Distributional Impact of In-Kind Public Benefits in European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Alari; Sutherland, Holly; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2010-01-01

    International comparisons of inequality based on measures of disposable income may not be valid if the size and incidence of publicly provided in-kind benefits differ across the countries considered. The benefits that are financed by taxation in one country may need to be purchased out of disposable income in another. We estimate the size and…

  17. In-Kind Income and the Measurement of Poverty. The Measure of Poverty, Technical Paper VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Janice

    This technical paper summarizes what is known about the receipt of in-kind income; that is, benefits that take a non-cash form. These benefits may be provided by the government (food stamps, Medicare, etc.), or the private sector (health insurance, free housing, etc.). The problem addressed in the paper is the development of a theoretically…

  18. 25 CFR 26.18 - What kinds of supportive services are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.18 What kinds of supportive services are available... description of the Job Placement and Training Program and related services; (c) An assessment of eligibility; (d) An assessment of need for employment services (or a combination of training and employment...

  19. Polysemy and the Taxonomic Constraint: Children's Representation of Words That Label Multiple Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Snedeker, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    How do children resolve the problem of indeterminacy when learning a new word? By one account, children adopt a "taxonomic assumption" and expect the word to denote only members of a particular taxonomic category. According to one version of this constraint, young children should represent polysemous words that label multiple kinds--for…

  20. Coherence Formation when Learning from Text and Pictures: What Kind of Support for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholome, Tobias; Bromme, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how 2 kinds of help when learning from text and pictures (mapping support and instructional guidance through prompts) influence the coherence formation process of integrating information into a mental model. It also explored spatial abilities and working memory span as potential moderators. In a computer-based setting, 84…

  1. Bilingualism Affects 9-Month-Old Infants' Expectations about How Words Refer to Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Infants are precocious word learners, and seem to possess systematic expectations about how words refer to object kinds. For example, while monolingual infants show a one-to-one mapping bias (e.g. mutual exclusivity), expecting each object to have only one basic level label, previous research has shown that this is less robust in bi- and…

  2. How to Make Decisions with Different Kinds of Student Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this book, best-selling author Susan M. Brookhart helps teachers and administrators understand the critical elements and nuances of assessment data and how that information can best be used to inform improvement efforts in the school or district. Readers will learn: (1) What different kinds of data can--and cannot--tell us about student…

  3. Remembering Kinds: New Evidence that Categories are Privileged in Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimpian, Andrei; Erickson, Lucy C.

    2012-01-01

    What are the representations and learning mechanisms that underlie conceptual development? The present research provides evidence in favor of the claim that this process is guided by an early-emerging predisposition to think and learn about abstract kinds. Specifically, three studies (N=192) demonstrated that 4- to 7-year-old children have better…

  4. Understanding Conflict Resolution Philosophically in a School Setting: Three Different Kinds of Violence and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    According to Galtung, violence can be divided into two kinds: (i) direct violence, which is always physical in a wider sense (e.g. bodily harm or verbal abuse) or (ii) indirect violence that is either structural (i.e. the institution is structurally violent because it is organised so to privilege a group over others; e.g. a strict pyramidal…

  5. The Distributional Impact of In-Kind Public Benefits in European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Alari; Sutherland, Holly; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2010-01-01

    International comparisons of inequality based on measures of disposable income may not be valid if the size and incidence of publicly provided in-kind benefits differ across the countries considered. The benefits that are financed by taxation in one country may need to be purchased out of disposable income in another. We estimate the size and…

  6. Riding the Information Highway--Towards a New Kind of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Mikko; Olkinuora, Erkki

    2007-01-01

    In the modern world, skimming through information quickly and finding the important nuggets of knowledge from amongst the information overload is an essential skill. One way to train oneself for this kind of literacy is reading on the internet, which requires continuous assessment of search results and specifying searches. In this article a…

  7. One Kind of Human Being: MACOS, the Human Sciences, and Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivens, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary reform movements have roots in post-World War II changes. Back then, social reformers in the United States targeted education as a field for the human sciences to intervene and impart a new kind of knowledge into daily life. These experts developed Man: A Course of Study (MACOS), a science-based curriculum, steeped in biological and…

  8. Generics License 30-Month-Olds' Inferences about the Atypical Properties of Novel Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Susan A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Clarke, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the distinction between generic and nongeneric language provides toddlers with a rapid and efficient means to learn about kinds. In Experiment 1, we examined 30-month-olds' willingness to extend atypical properties to members of an unfamiliar category when the properties were introduced in 1 of 3 ways: (a) using a generic noun…

  9. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  10. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  11. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What kind of maintenance programs must we have? 102-34.275 Section 102-34.275 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... must we have? You must have a scheduled maintenance program for each motor vehicle you own or...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such as...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such as...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such as...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such as...

  17. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  18. 34 CFR 370.4 - What kinds of activities may the Secretary fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What kinds of activities may the Secretary fund? 370.4 Section 370.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CLIENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  19. 34 CFR 370.4 - What kinds of activities may the Secretary fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kinds of activities may the Secretary fund? 370.4 Section 370.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CLIENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  20. 34 CFR 370.4 - What kinds of activities may the Secretary fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of activities may the Secretary fund? 370.4 Section 370.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CLIENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  1. 34 CFR 370.4 - What kinds of activities may the Secretary fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What kinds of activities may the Secretary fund? 370.4 Section 370.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CLIENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  2. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  3. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  4. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  5. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  6. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  7. Comparison of the Relative Effectiveness of Different Kinds of Reinforcers: A PEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Hsen-Hsing

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to apply the percentage of data points exceeding the median of baseline phase (PEM) approach for a meta-analysis of single-case experiments to compare the relative effectiveness of different kinds of reinforcers used in behavior modification. Altogether 153 studies were located, which produced 1091 effect…

  8. Communicative Function Demonstration Induces Kind-Based Artifact Representation in Preverbal Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futo, Judit; Teglas, Erno; Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, Gyorgy

    2010-01-01

    Human infants grow up in environments populated by artifacts. In order to acquire knowledge about different kinds of human-made objects, children have to be able to focus on the information that is most relevant for sorting artifacts into categories. Traditional theories emphasize the role of superficial, perceptual features in object…

  9. The Emergence of Kind Concepts: A Rejoinder to Needham and Baillargeon (2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Carey, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Responds to Needham and Baillargeon's criticisms and offers an alternative resolution of the conflicting results between the laboratories regarding abilities of infants less than 12 months to use property/featural information for object individuation. Maintains that kind concepts are acquired as infants approach their first birthday and that…

  10. 40 CFR 310.16 - What kind of cost documentation is necessary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What kind of cost documentation is necessary? 310.16 Section 310.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... cost documentation is necessary? Cost documentation must be adequate for an audit. At a minimum, you...

  11. 40 CFR 310.16 - What kind of cost documentation is necessary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kind of cost documentation is necessary? 310.16 Section 310.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... cost documentation is necessary? Cost documentation must be adequate for an audit. At a minimum, you...

  12. 25 CFR 26.27 - What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... resume preparation, interview techniques, job retention, and related living skills. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? 26.27 Section 26.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES...

  13. 27 CFR 19.643 - Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... content, and State of distillation. 19.643 Section 19.643 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... State of distillation. (a) Brand name and kind. The label of distilled spirits shall state the brand... thing. (c) State of distillation—(1) Mandatory statement. If a whisky produced in the United States...

  14. Do Lions Have Manes? For Children, Generics Are about Kinds Rather than Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandone, Amanda C.; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Generic statements (e.g., "Lions have manes") make claims about kinds (e.g., lions as a category) and, for adults, are distinct from quantificational statements (e.g., "Most lions have manes"), which make claims about how many individuals have a given property. This article examined whether young children also understand that generics do not…

  15. 16 CFR 1011.3 - General requirements for various kinds of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ACTIVITIES § 1011.3 General requirements for various kinds of meetings. Meetings which involve... between Commissioners or Agency staff and outside parties. The requirements for Agency meetings between... part 1012. (c) Commission meetings. The requirements for Commission meetings under the Government in...

  16. Machine-Aided Indexing in Practice: An Encounter with Automatic Indexing of the Third Kind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    This three-part report includes a brief history of the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) with a description of the collections and their accessibility; categorization of automatic indexing into three kinds with a brief description of the DDC system of machine-aided indexing; and an indication of some operational experiences with the system.…

  17. Using Current Literature Selections to Nurture the Development of Kindness in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeece, Pauline Davey

    2009-01-01

    Learning to display kindness and compassion for others is a critical and ongoing developmental process and an important part of young children's evolving social competence (Han and Kemple in "Early Child Educ J" 34(3):241-246, 2006; Moore in "Early Child Educ Today" 19(3):36-44, 2004). The capacity to care emanates from physical and psychological…

  18. Object Manipulation Facilitates Kind-Based Object Individuation of Shape-Similar Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were partially replicated, showing that infants were…

  19. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Many of these types of materials also are represented in the... materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? (a) The...

  20. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Many of these types of materials also are represented in the... materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? (a) The...

  1. 34 CFR 654.3 - What kind of activity may be assisted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kind of activity may be assisted? 654.3 Section 654.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ROBERT C. BYRD HONORS SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM General § 654.3...

  2. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  3. Children with Their Dreams--What Kind of Reveries Are Accepted in School Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokinen, Kimmo; Pohjola, Kirsi Anneli

    2011-01-01

    The media and the contemporary consumer culture are central categories in modern childhood. They have opened new kinds of experiences and learning situations for children. In this article we are interested in the role of the media and consumption in schoolchildren's daily life. The data consist of writings and drawings of 7-12-year-old…

  4. Artifacts and Natural Kinds: Children's Judgments about Whether Objects Are Owned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Karen R.; Van de Vondervoort, Julia W.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    People's behavior in relation to objects depends on whether they are owned. But how do people judge whether objects are owned? We propose that people expect human-made objects (artifacts) to be more likely to be owned than naturally occurring objects (natural kinds), and we examine the development of these expectations in young children.…

  5. Communicative Function Demonstration Induces Kind-Based Artifact Representation in Preverbal Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futo, Judit; Teglas, Erno; Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, Gyorgy

    2010-01-01

    Human infants grow up in environments populated by artifacts. In order to acquire knowledge about different kinds of human-made objects, children have to be able to focus on the information that is most relevant for sorting artifacts into categories. Traditional theories emphasize the role of superficial, perceptual features in object…

  6. How to Make Decisions with Different Kinds of Student Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this book, best-selling author Susan M. Brookhart helps teachers and administrators understand the critical elements and nuances of assessment data and how that information can best be used to inform improvement efforts in the school or district. Readers will learn: (1) What different kinds of data can--and cannot--tell us about student…

  7. [Principles of optimal nutrition of sportsmen in various kinds of sport].

    PubMed

    Azizbekian, G A; Nikitiuk, D B; Pozdniakov, A L; Zilova, I S; Vybornaia, K V

    2010-01-01

    Basic principles of optimal nutrition of sportsmen in various kinds of sport are formulated. Their diet must be well-balanced in terms of all nutrients and contain essential vitamins and minerals. There is outlined an indispensable content of the basic nutrients in sportsmen's daily diet: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, as well as vitamins and minerals.

  8. The preconditioned Gauss-Seidel iterative methods for solving Fredholm integral equations of the second kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, performance analysis of the preconditioned Gauss-Seidel iterative methods for solving dense linear system arise from Fredholm integral equations of the second kind is investigated. The formulation and implementation of the preconditioned Gauss-Seidel methods are presented. Numerical results are included in order to verify the performance of the methods.

  9. Riding the Information Highway--Towards a New Kind of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Mikko; Olkinuora, Erkki

    2007-01-01

    In the modern world, skimming through information quickly and finding the important nuggets of knowledge from amongst the information overload is an essential skill. One way to train oneself for this kind of literacy is reading on the internet, which requires continuous assessment of search results and specifying searches. In this article a…

  10. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management system... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management...

  11. A New Kind of Laser Microphone Using High Sensitivity Pulsed Laser Vibrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chen-Chia; Trivedi, Sudhir; Jin, Feng; Swaminathan, V.; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a new kind of laser microphone using a highly sensitive pulsed laser vibrometer. By using the photo-electromotive-force (photo-EMF) sensors, we present data indicating the real-time detection of surface displacements as small as 4 pm.

  12. NUMBER AND KINDS OF CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KUBY, ALMA M.; STAR, SHIRLEY A.

    A BYPRODUCT OF THE PROJECT ON PHYSICAL FACILITIES FOR GROUP CARE OF CHILDREN, THE REPORT LISTS THE NUMBER AND KINDS OF CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL INSTITUTIONS. TEN TABLES PROVIDE DATA AS OF SEPTEMBER 1965 ON THE TYPES AND AUSPICES OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE (BOTH VOLUNTARY AND PROPRIETARY) INSTITUTIONS, INCLUDING MATERNITY HOMES FOR UNMARRIED GIRLS, AND…

  13. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  14. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  15. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  16. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  17. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  18. 34 CFR 464.3 - What kinds of activities may be assisted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kinds of activities may be assisted? 464.3 Section 464.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE LITERACY RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM General § 464...

  19. 34 CFR 464.3 - What kinds of activities may be assisted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What kinds of activities may be assisted? 464.3 Section 464.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE LITERACY RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM General § 464...

  20. 21 CFR 822.19 - What kinds of decisions may you make?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kinds of decisions may you make? 822.19 Section 822.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... may you make? If your plan: Then we will send you: And you must: (a) Should result in the collection...

  1. 21 CFR 822.19 - What kinds of decisions may you make?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of decisions may you make? 822.19 Section 822.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... may you make? If your plan: Then we will send you: And you must: (a) Should result in the collection...

  2. 21 CFR 822.19 - What kinds of decisions may you make?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kinds of decisions may you make? 822.19 Section 822.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... may you make? If your plan: Then we will send you: And you must: (a) Should result in the collection...

  3. 21 CFR 822.19 - What kinds of decisions may you make?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kinds of decisions may you make? 822.19 Section 822.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... may you make? If your plan: Then we will send you: And you must: (a) Should result in the collection...

  4. Coherence Formation when Learning from Text and Pictures: What Kind of Support for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholome, Tobias; Bromme, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how 2 kinds of help when learning from text and pictures (mapping support and instructional guidance through prompts) influence the coherence formation process of integrating information into a mental model. It also explored spatial abilities and working memory span as potential moderators. In a computer-based setting, 84…

  5. A pilot study of loving-kindness meditation for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David P; Penn, David L; Fredrickson, Barbara L; Kring, Ann M; Meyer, Piper S; Catalino, Lahnna I; Brantley, Mary

    2011-07-01

    This pilot study examined loving-kindness meditation (LKM) with 18 participants with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and significant negative symptoms. Findings indicate that the intervention was feasible and associated with decreased negative symptoms and increased positive emotions and psychological recovery.

  6. The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Darcher, Alana; Negi, Lobsang T; Raison, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body. Here, we link contemplative accounts of compassion and loving-kindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition. Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another's affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof. This theoretical model will be discussed alongside best practices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work.

  7. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. 107.1580 Section 107.1580 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage...

  8. What Kind of Citizen? An Analysis of the Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kus, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The social studies curriculum was recently revised in Turkey, running in a pilot scheme in the school year 2004-05. It was then implemented in primary schools all over Turkey from 2006. This study describes the kind of citizen it aims to form by analysing all of the documents relating to social studies teaching. The social studies curriculum for…

  9. 9 CFR 381.161 - “(Kind) A La Kiev.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false â(Kind) A La Kiev.â 381.161 Section 381.161 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.... It may be dipped in batter, fried, and frozen....

  10. 9 CFR 381.161 - “(Kind) A La Kiev.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false â(Kind) A La Kiev.â 381.161 Section 381.161 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.... It may be dipped in batter, fried, and frozen....

  11. Artifacts and Natural Kinds: Children's Judgments about Whether Objects Are Owned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Karen R.; Van de Vondervoort, Julia W.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    People's behavior in relation to objects depends on whether they are owned. But how do people judge whether objects are owned? We propose that people expect human-made objects (artifacts) to be more likely to be owned than naturally occurring objects (natural kinds), and we examine the development of these expectations in young children.…

  12. Understanding Students' Experiments--What Kind of Support Do They Need in Inquiry Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Julia Caroline; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Inquiry learning is a widely recognized method for fostering inquiry competence in science education. Nevertheless, there is discussion about how to best support students while working on inquiry tasks (in this case: experiments on causal relationships). To identify the kind of support students need in order to design experiments in upper grades,…

  13. What Kind of Citizen? An Analysis of the Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kus, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The social studies curriculum was recently revised in Turkey, running in a pilot scheme in the school year 2004-05. It was then implemented in primary schools all over Turkey from 2006. This study describes the kind of citizen it aims to form by analysing all of the documents relating to social studies teaching. The social studies curriculum for…

  14. Children with Their Dreams--What Kind of Reveries Are Accepted in School Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokinen, Kimmo; Pohjola, Kirsi Anneli

    2011-01-01

    The media and the contemporary consumer culture are central categories in modern childhood. They have opened new kinds of experiences and learning situations for children. In this article we are interested in the role of the media and consumption in schoolchildren's daily life. The data consist of writings and drawings of 7-12-year-old…

  15. Polysemy and the Taxonomic Constraint: Children's Representation of Words That Label Multiple Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Snedeker, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    How do children resolve the problem of indeterminacy when learning a new word? By one account, children adopt a "taxonomic assumption" and expect the word to denote only members of a particular taxonomic category. According to one version of this constraint, young children should represent polysemous words that label multiple kinds--for…

  16. 75 FR 15725 - Termination of Royalty-in-Kind (RIK) Eligible Refiner Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...: March 18, 2010. Gregory J. Gould, Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management. BILLING CODE 4310... Minerals Management Service Termination of Royalty-in-Kind (RIK) Eligible Refiner Program AGENCY: Minerals Management Service, Interior. ACTION: Advance notice for the termination of the RIK Eligible Refiner Program...

  17. Do Lions Have Manes? For Children, Generics Are about Kinds Rather than Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandone, Amanda C.; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Generic statements (e.g., "Lions have manes") make claims about kinds (e.g., lions as a category) and, for adults, are distinct from quantificational statements (e.g., "Most lions have manes"), which make claims about how many individuals have a given property. This article examined whether young children also understand that generics do not…

  18. 7 CFR 201.36b - Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to color, shape, size, habit of growth, disease-resistance, or other characteristics of the kind or.... (c) Terms descriptive of quality or origin and terms descriptive of the basis for representations..., Idaho origin alfalfa, and Grower's affidavit of variety Atlas sorghum. (d) Terms descriptive of...

  19. 34 CFR 356.50 - What kinds of payments are allowed under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What kinds of payments are allowed under this program? 356.50 Section 356.50 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND...

  20. 34 CFR 356.50 - What kinds of payments are allowed under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of payments are allowed under this program? 356.50 Section 356.50 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND...