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Sample records for behavior anatomy connectivity

  1. A DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGICAL MODEL OF MOTIVATED BEHAVIOR: ANATOMY, CONNECTIVITY AND ONTOGENY OF THE TRIADIC NODES

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Fudge, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is the transition period that prepares individuals for fulfilling their role as adults. Most conspicuous in this transition period is the peak level of risk-taking behaviors that characterize adolescent motivated behavior. Significant neural remodeling contributes to this change. This review focuses on the functional neuroanatomy underlying motivated behavior, and how ontogenic changes can explain the typical behavioral patterns in adolescence. To help model these changes and provide testable hypotheses, a neural systems-based theory is presented. In short, the Triadic Model proposes that motivated behavior is governed by a carefully orchestrated articulation among three systems, approach, avoidance and regulatory. These three systems map to distinct, but overlapping, neural circuits, whose representatives are the striatum, the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. Each of these system-representatives will be described from a functional anatomy perspective that includes a review of their connectivity and what is known of their ontogenic changes. PMID:19028521

  2. The Hemodynamics of Total Cavo-Pulmonary Connection Anatomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chang

    2005-11-01

    The single ventricle is a congenital heart defect in which the right side of the heart is hypoplastic or totally absent. This anomaly results in mixing of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the single ventricle, reducing the amount of oxygen transferred to the body. In U.S. two in 1000 babies are born with a single ventricle heart defect. Palliative surgical treatments are performed in stages as the child grows. The last stage is the total cavo-pulmonary connection (TCPC), which bypasses the right side of the heart and the single ventricle drives blood throughout the pulmonary and systemic circulations. We simulate the flow in two TCPC anatomies using a sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/Immersed Boundary approach. The computed solutions are compared with PIV in-vitro experiments and analyzed in detail to elucidate the richness of the hemodynamics in the surgically create pouch region where the inferior and superior vena cava flows collide and bifurcate into the left and right pulmonary arteries. The effect of the connection anatomy on the flow dynamics will also be discussed.

  3. A Useful Coordination Between Gross Anatomy and Human Behavior Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKegney, F. Patrick; Krupp, Patricia

    1977-01-01

    A coordination between first-year courses in human behavior or behavioral sciences and gross anatomy at the University of Vermont College of Medicine seems to enhance student learning and to improve student and faculty satisfaction in both courses. Details of the innovative integrative steps are provided. (LBH)

  4. Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: Consensus and Controversy in the Connectional Anatomy of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Tremblay, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    The growing consensus that language is distributed into large-scale cortical and subcortical networks has brought with it an increasing focus on the connectional anatomy of language, or how particular fibre pathways connect regions within the language network. Understanding connectivity of the language network could provide critical insights into…

  5. Neural circuits: anatomy of a sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Joshua J; Levine, Joel D

    2014-04-14

    Females of many species, once mated, undergo a rapid change in reproductive physiology and behavior, shifting from a sexually receptive state to one devoted to the rearing of offspring. Two recent reports shed light on the neural circuitry governing the female post-mating response in the fruit fly Drosophila, providing insight into the neurobiological processes governing a complex behavior.

  6. Common behavioral clusters and subcortical anatomy in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Ramsey, Lenny; Callejas, Alicia; Baldassarre, Antonello; Hacker, Carl D.; Siegel, Joshua S.; Astafiev, Serguei V.; Rengachary, Jennifer; Zinn, Kristina; Lang, Catherine E.; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Fucetola, Robert; Strube, Michael; Carter, Alex R.; Shulman, Gordon L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A long-held view is that stroke causes many distinct neurological syndromes due to damage of specialized cortical and subcortical centers. However, it is unknown if a syndrome-based description is helpful in characterizing behavioral deficits across a large number of patients. We studied a large prospective sample of first-time stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions at 1–2 weeks post-stroke. We measured behavior over multiple domains and lesion anatomy with structural MRI and a probabilistic atlas of white matter pathways. Multivariate methods estimated the percentage of behavioral variance explained by structural damage. A few clusters of behavioral deficits spanning multiple functions explained neurological impairment. Stroke topography was predominantly subcortical, and disconnection of white matter tracts critically contributed to behavioral deficits and their correlation. The locus of damage explained more variance for motor and language than memory or attention deficits. Our findings highlight the need for better models of white matter damage on cognition. PMID:25741721

  7. Common behavioral clusters and subcortical anatomy in stroke.

    PubMed

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Ramsey, Lenny; Callejas, Alicia; Baldassarre, Antonello; Hacker, Carl D; Siegel, Joshua S; Astafiev, Serguei V; Rengachary, Jennifer; Zinn, Kristina; Lang, Catherine E; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Fucetola, Robert; Strube, Michael; Carter, Alex R; Shulman, Gordon L

    2015-03-01

    A long-held view is that stroke causes many distinct neurological syndromes due to damage of specialized cortical and subcortical centers. However, it is unknown if a syndrome-based description is helpful in characterizing behavioral deficits across a large number of patients. We studied a large prospective sample of first-time stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions at 1-2 weeks post-stroke. We measured behavior over multiple domains and lesion anatomy with structural MRI and a probabilistic atlas of white matter pathways. Multivariate methods estimated the percentage of behavioral variance explained by structural damage. A few clusters of behavioral deficits spanning multiple functions explained neurological impairment. Stroke topography was predominantly subcortical, and disconnection of white matter tracts critically contributed to behavioral deficits and their correlation. The locus of damage explained more variance for motor and language than memory or attention deficits. Our findings highlight the need for better models of white matter damage on cognition.

  8. The wiring economy principle: connectivity determines anatomy in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Raj, Ashish; Chen, Yu-hsien

    2011-01-01

    Minimization of the wiring cost of white matter fibers in the human brain appears to be an organizational principle. We investigate this aspect in the human brain using whole brain connectivity networks extracted from high resolution diffusion MRI data of 14 normal volunteers. We specifically address the question of whether brain anatomy determines its connectivity or vice versa. Unlike previous studies we use weighted networks, where connections between cortical nodes are real-valued rather than binary off-on connections. In one set of analyses we found that the connectivity structure of the brain has near optimal wiring cost compared to random networks with the same number of edges, degree distribution and edge weight distribution. A specifically designed minimization routine could not find cheaper wiring without significantly degrading network performance. In another set of analyses we kept the observed brain network topology and connectivity but allowed nodes to freely move on a 3D manifold topologically identical to the brain. An efficient minimization routine was written to find the lowest wiring cost configuration. We found that beginning from any random configuration, the nodes invariably arrange themselves in a configuration with a striking resemblance to the brain. This confirms the widely held but poorly tested claim that wiring economy is a driving principle of the brain. Intriguingly, our results also suggest that the brain mainly optimizes for the most desirable network connectivity, and the observed brain anatomy is merely a result of this optimization. PMID:21915250

  9. Ventral tegmental (A10) system: neurobiology. 1. Anatomy and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Oades, R D; Halliday, G M

    1987-05-01

    The VTA contains the A10 group of DA containing neurons. These neurons have been grouped into nuclei to be found on the floor of the midbrain tegmentum--Npn, Nif, Npbp and Nln rostralis and caudalis. The VTA is traversed by many blood vessels and nerve fibers. Close to its poorly defined borders are found DA (A8, A9, A11) and 5-HT containing neurons (B8). Efferent projections of the VTA can be divided into 5 subsystems. The mesorhombencephalic projects to other monoaminergic nuclei, the cerebellum and a fine projection descends to other tegmental nuclei as far as the inferior olive. Fibers to the spinal cord have not been demonstrated. The mesodiencephalic path projects to several thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei and possibly the median eminence. Functionally important examples are the anterior hypothalamic-preoptic area, N. medialis dorsalis and reuniens thalami. These two subsystems are largely non-dopaminergic. A minor mesostriatal projection is overshadowed by the large mesolimbic projection to the accumbens, tuberculum olfactorium, septum lateralis and n. interstitialis stria terminalis. There are also mesolimbic connections with several amygdaloid nuclei (especially centralis and basolateralis), the olfactory nuclei and entorhinal cortex. A minor projection to the hippocampus has been detected. The mesocortical pathway projects to sensory (e.g. visual), motor, limbic (e.g. retrosplenial) and polysensory association cortices (e.g. prefrontal). Prefrontal, orbitofrontal (insular) and cingulate cortices receive the most marked innervation from the VTA. A more widespread presence of DA in other cortices of rodents becomes progressively more evident in carnivores and primates. Most but not all projections are unilateral. Some neurons project to more than one area in mesodiencephalic, limbic and cortical systems. The majority of these fibers ascend in the MFB. Most areas receiving a projection from the VTA (DA or non-DA) project back to the VTA. The

  10. The hippocampal system as the cortical resource manager: a model connecting psychology, anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Coward, L Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A model is described in which the hippocampal system functions as resource manager for the neocortex. This model is developed from an architectural concept for the brain as a whole within which the receptive fields of neocortical columns can gradually expand but with some limited exceptions tend not to contract. The definition process for receptive fields is constrained so that they overlap as little as possible, and change as little as possible, but at least a minimum number of columns detect their fields within every sensory input state. Below this minimum, the receptive fields of some columns are expanded slightly until the minimum level is reached. The columns in which this expansion occurs are selected by a competitive process in the hippocampal system that identifies those in which only a relatively small expansion is required, and sends signals to those columns that trigger the expansion. These expansions in receptive fields are the information record that forms the declarative memory of the input state. Episodic memory activates a set of columns in which receptive fields expanded simultaneously at some point in the past, and the hippocampal system is therefore the appropriate source for information guiding access to such memories. Semantic memory associates columns that are often active (with or without expansions in receptive fields) simultaneously. Initially, the hippocampus can guide access to such memories on the basis of initial information recording, but to avoid corruption of the information needed for ongoing resource management, access control shifts to other parts of the neocortex. The roles of the mammillary bodies, amygdala and anterior thalamic nucleus can be understood as modulating information recording in accordance with various behavioral priorities. During sleep, provisional physical connectivity is created that supports receptive field expansions in the subsequent wake period, but previously created memories are not affected. This model

  11. Sinus Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  12. Connections with Nature and Environmental Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Liuna; Xu, Jingke; Ye, Lijuan; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhou, Kexin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of environmental attitudes on environmental behaviors has long been discussed. However, few studies have addressed the foundation of such attitudes. In the present study, we explored primitive belief underlying environmental attitudes, i.e., connections with nature, and its relationship with pro-environmental behaviors. Specifically, we used scales, a computerized Implicit Association Test, and a situational simulation experiment to examine both explicit and implicit connections with nature, both deliberate and spontaneous environmental behaviors, and to find correlations between environmental connectedness and environmental behaviors. Results showed that explicit connectedness was positively correlated with deliberate environmental behaviors, while implicit connectedness was positively correlated with spontaneous environmental behaviors. Additionally, explicit and implicit connectedness was independent of each other. In conclusion, the current study confirms the positive role played by connections with nature in promoting environmental behavior, and accordingly suggests means to encourage pro-environmental behavior by enhancing people’s connectedness to nature. PMID:25985075

  13. Connections with nature and environmental behaviors.

    PubMed

    Geng, Liuna; Xu, Jingke; Ye, Lijuan; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhou, Kexin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of environmental attitudes on environmental behaviors has long been discussed. However, few studies have addressed the foundation of such attitudes. In the present study, we explored primitive belief underlying environmental attitudes, i.e., connections with nature, and its relationship with pro-environmental behaviors. Specifically, we used scales, a computerized Implicit Association Test, and a situational simulation experiment to examine both explicit and implicit connections with nature, both deliberate and spontaneous environmental behaviors, and to find correlations between environmental connectedness and environmental behaviors. Results showed that explicit connectedness was positively correlated with deliberate environmental behaviors, while implicit connectedness was positively correlated with spontaneous environmental behaviors. Additionally, explicit and implicit connectedness was independent of each other. In conclusion, the current study confirms the positive role played by connections with nature in promoting environmental behavior, and accordingly suggests means to encourage pro-environmental behavior by enhancing people's connectedness to nature.

  14. Topography of excitatory and inhibitory connectional anatomy in monkey visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Jennifer S.; Levitt, J. B.; Wu, Quanfeng

    1994-03-01

    . Since the basket neuron also contacts other basket neurons, by disinhibition through offset basket neurons, it will simultaneously encourage activity in pyramidal cells in a zone outside the limit of its axon field. This scaling of basket neuron axons is present in early postnatal cortex and it could lead to the punctate patterns of pyramidal neuron connectivity which also appear to develop postnatally. This anatomy might also produce the regular spacing of different functional attributes that is typical of visual cortical organization. Models that explore spatial geometries of excitation and inhibition resembling those described above are urgently needed to test current biological hypotheses underlying investigations of cerebral cortex.

  15. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult ... Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly ...

  16. Integer anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, R.

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  17. Visual acuity in the archerfish: behavior, anatomy, and neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Ben-Simon, Avi; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Vasserman, Genadiy; Ben-Tov, Mor; Segev, Ronen

    2012-11-28

    Archerfish are known for their remarkable behavior of shooting water jets at prey hanging on vegetation above water. Motivated by the fish's capacity to knock down small prey as high as two meters above water level, we studied the role of the retina in facilitating their excellent visual acuity. First, we show behaviorally that archerfish (Toxotes jaculatrix) can detect visual structures with a minimum angle of resolution in the range of 0.075°-0.15°. Then, combining eye movement measurements with a ray tracing method, we show that the image of a target on the retina coincides with the area centralis at the ventro-temporal retina. Moving down to retinal neural circuits, we then examine the ratio by which retinal ganglion cells multiplex visual information from the photoreceptors. Measuring the anatomical densities of both cell types in the area centralis, we found photoreceptor spacing to be 5.8 μm, which supports a minimum angle of resolution as low as 0.073°. Similarly, the average spacing of the ganglion cells was 5.7 μm. Based on electrophysiological measurements we found the smallest receptive fields of ganglion cells in that area to be in the range of 8-16 μm, which translates to an angular width of 0.1°-0.2°. These findings indicate that retinal ganglion cells in the area centralis stream information to the brain at a comparable resolution with which it is sampled by the photoreceptors. Thus, the archerfish can be used as an animal model for studying how visual details are streamed to the brain by retinal output.

  18. Roles of Morphology, Anatomy, and Aquaporins in Determining Contrasting Hydraulic Behavior of Roots1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C.; Turner, David W.; Tyerman, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    The contrasting hydraulic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) roots were identified by integrating measurements of water flow across different structural levels of organization with anatomy and modeling. Anatomy played a major role in root hydraulics, influencing axial conductance (Lax) and the distribution of water uptake along the root, with a more localized role for aquaporins (AQPs). Lupin roots had greater Lax than wheat roots, due to greater xylem development. Lax and root hydraulic conductance (Lr) were related to each other, such that both variables increased with distance from the root tip in lupin roots. Lax and Lr were constant with distance from the tip in wheat roots. Despite these contrasting behaviors, the hydraulic conductivity of root cells (Lpc) was similar for all species and increased from the root surface toward the endodermis. Lpc was largely controlled by AQPs, as demonstrated by dramatic reductions in Lpc by the AQP blocker mercury. Modeling the root as a series of concentric, cylindrical membranes, and the inhibition of AQP activity at the root level, indicated that water flow in lupin roots occurred primarily through the apoplast, without crossing membranes and without the involvement of AQPs. In contrast, water flow across wheat roots crossed mercury-sensitive AQPs in the endodermis, which significantly influenced Lr. This study demonstrates the importance of examining root morphology and anatomy in assessing the role of AQPs in root hydraulics. PMID:19321713

  19. Anatomy Instruction in Medical Schools: Connecting the Past and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Kai-kuen; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Huang, Tien-Shang; Hsieh, Bor-Shen

    2006-01-01

    Anatomy curriculum has changed dramatically around the world since the 1960s. These changes include the reduction of course hours, the abandonment of cadaver dissection, the use of problem-based learning, application of other teaching modalities such as prosected specimens, models, radiographic images, computer simulations, and the introduction of…

  20. Roles of morphology, anatomy, and aquaporins in determining contrasting hydraulic behavior of roots.

    PubMed

    Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C; Turner, David W; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2009-05-01

    The contrasting hydraulic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) roots were identified by integrating measurements of water flow across different structural levels of organization with anatomy and modeling. Anatomy played a major role in root hydraulics, influencing axial conductance (L(ax)) and the distribution of water uptake along the root, with a more localized role for aquaporins (AQPs). Lupin roots had greater L(ax) than wheat roots, due to greater xylem development. L(ax) and root hydraulic conductance (L(r)) were related to each other, such that both variables increased with distance from the root tip in lupin roots. L(ax) and L(r) were constant with distance from the tip in wheat roots. Despite these contrasting behaviors, the hydraulic conductivity of root cells (Lp(c)) was similar for all species and increased from the root surface toward the endodermis. Lp(c) was largely controlled by AQPs, as demonstrated by dramatic reductions in Lp(c) by the AQP blocker mercury. Modeling the root as a series of concentric, cylindrical membranes, and the inhibition of AQP activity at the root level, indicated that water flow in lupin roots occurred primarily through the apoplast, without crossing membranes and without the involvement of AQPs. In contrast, water flow across wheat roots crossed mercury-sensitive AQPs in the endodermis, which significantly influenced L(r). This study demonstrates the importance of examining root morphology and anatomy in assessing the role of AQPs in root hydraulics. PMID:19321713

  1. The ventral pallidum: Subregion-specific functional anatomy and roles in motivated behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Melendez, Roberto I.; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Napier, T. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in the processing and execution of motivated behaviors. Yet this brain region is often overlooked in published discussions of the neurobiology of mental health (e.g., addiction, depression). This contributes to a gap in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This review is presented to help bridge the gap by providing a resource for current knowledge of VP anatomy, projection patterns and subregional circuits, and how this organization relates to the function of VP neurons and ultimately behavior. For example, ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) VP subregions receive projections from nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. Inhibitory GABAergic neurons of the VPvm project to mediodorsal thalamus, lateral hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area, and this VP subregion helps discriminate the appropriate conditions to acquire natural rewards or drugs of abuse, consume preferred foods, and perform working memory tasks. GABAergic neurons of the VPdl project to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, and this VP subregion is modulated by, and is necessary for, drug-seeking behavior. Additional circuits arise from nonGABAergic neuronal phenotypes that are likely to excite rather than inhibit their targets. These subregional and neuronal phenotypic circuits place the VP in a unique position to process motivationally-relevant stimuli and coherent adaptive behaviors. PMID:25857550

  2. The ventral pallidum: Subregion-specific functional anatomy and roles in motivated behaviors.

    PubMed

    Root, David H; Melendez, Roberto I; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Napier, T Celeste

    2015-07-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in the processing and execution of motivated behaviors. Yet this brain region is often overlooked in published discussions of the neurobiology of mental health (e.g., addiction, depression). This contributes to a gap in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This review is presented to help bridge the gap by providing a resource for current knowledge of VP anatomy, projection patterns and subregional circuits, and how this organization relates to the function of VP neurons and ultimately behavior. For example, ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) VP subregions receive projections from nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. Inhibitory GABAergic neurons of the VPvm project to mediodorsal thalamus, lateral hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area, and this VP subregion helps discriminate the appropriate conditions to acquire natural rewards or drugs of abuse, consume preferred foods, and perform working memory tasks. GABAergic neurons of the VPdl project to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, and this VP subregion is modulated by, and is necessary for, drug-seeking behavior. Additional circuits arise from nonGABAergic neuronal phenotypes that are likely to excite rather than inhibit their targets. These subregional and neuronal phenotypic circuits place the VP in a unique position to process motivationally relevant stimuli and coherent adaptive behaviors.

  3. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function.

    PubMed

    Huser, Annina; Rohwedder, Astrid; Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Maiolo, Elena M; Selcho, Mareike; Pauls, Dennis; von Essen, Alina; Gupta, Tripti; Sprecher, Simon G; Birman, Serge; Riemensperger, Thomas; Stocker, Reinhard F; Thum, Andreas S

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  4. Resting State Brain Connectivity After Surgical and Behavioral Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lepping, Rebecca J.; Bruce, Amanda S.; Francisco, Alex; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Martin, Laura E.; Powell, Joshua N.; Hancock, Laura; Patrician, Trisha M.; Breslin, Florence J.; Selim, Niazy; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Brooks, William M.; Savage, Cary R.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Bruce, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We previously reported changes in food-cue neural reactivity associated with behavioral and surgical weight loss interventions. Resting functional connectivity represents tonic neural activity that may contribute to weight loss success. Here we explore whether intervention type is associated with differences in functional connectivity after weight loss. METHODS Fifteen obese participants were recruited prior to adjustable gastric banding surgery. Thirteen demographically matched obese participants were selected from a separate behavioral diet intervention. Resting state fMRI was collected three months after surgery/behavioral intervention. ANOVA was used to examine post-weight loss differences between the two groups in connectivity to seed regions previously identified as showing differential cue-reactivity after weight loss. RESULTS Following weight loss, behavioral dieters exhibited increased connectivity between left precuneus/superior parietal lobule (SPL) and bilateral insula pre- to post-meal and bariatric patients exhibited decreased connectivity between these regions pre- to post-meal (pcorrected<.05). CONCLUSIONS Behavioral dieters showed increased connectivity pre- to post-meal between a region associated with processing of self-referent information (precuneus/SPL) and a region associated with interoception (insula) whereas bariatric patients showed decreased connectivity between these regions. This may reflect increased attention to hunger signals following surgical procedures, and increased attention to satiety signals following behavioral diet interventions. PMID:26053145

  5. Behavioral Interpretations of Intrinsic Connectivity Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Angela R.; Fox, P. Mickle; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Turner, Jessica A.; Ray, Kimberly L.; McKay, D. Reese; Glahn, David C.; Beckmann, Christian F.; Smith, Stephen M.; Fox, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly large number of neuroimaging studies have investigated functionally connected networks during rest, providing insight into human brain architecture. Assessment of the functional qualities of resting state networks has been limited by the task-independent state, which results in an inability to relate these networks to specific…

  6. Behavior of Industrial Steel Rack Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. N. R.; Ramli Sulong, N. H.; Khan, R.; Jumaat, M. Z.; Shariati, M.

    2016-03-01

    Beam-to-column connections (BCCs) used in steel pallet racks (SPRs) play a significant role to maintain the stability of rack structures in the down-aisle direction. The variety in the geometry of commercially available beam end connectors hampers the development of a generalized analytic design approach for SPR BCCs. The experimental prediction of flexibility in SPR BCCs is prohibitively expensive and difficult for all types of commercially available beam end connectors. A suitable solution to derive a particular uniform M-θ relationship for each connection type in terms of geometric parameters may be achieved through finite element (FE) modeling. This study first presents a comprehensive description of the experimental investigations that were performed and used as the calibration bases for the numerical study that constituted its main contribution. A three dimensioned (3D) non-linear finite element (FE) model was developed and calibrated against the experimental results. The FE model took into account material nonlinearities, geometrical properties and large displacements. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data for observed failure modes and M-θ relationship showed close agreement. The validated FE model was further extended to perform parametric analysis to identify the effects of various parameters which may affect the overall performance of the connection.

  7. Nutrition and Behavior: The Psychonutrient Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Molly

    The combined concepts of holism and general systems theory have led to the belief among health care professionals that people cannot be fully understood unless the mind and body are seen as having an integral relationship. The relationship between nutrition and behavior is one area in which the holistic approach is relevant for the field of…

  8. Developmental Biodynamics: Brain, Body, Behavior Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockman, Jeffrey J.; Thelen, Esther

    1993-01-01

    Advances in the neurosciences, biomechanics, and behavior sciences, along with attempts to integrate theories and findings across these disciplines, have led to a renewed interest in the study of motor development. Considers the contributions that have led to the reinvigoration of this field of study and its new interdisciplinary outlook. (MDM)

  9. New behavior of degree distribution in connected communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyoussef, Marwa; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Benyoussef, Abdelilah

    2014-03-01

    The behavior of the degree distribution of two interdependent Barabasi-Albert (BA) sub-networks has been investigated numerically. The final complex structure obtained after connection of the two BA subnets exhibits two different kind of degree distribution law, which depends strongly on the manner in which the connection between the two subnets has been made. When connecting two existing BA subnets, the degree distribution follows a Gaussian distribution, while ensuring that the highest frequency level is still around the average degree of the final network. Whereas, when the connection is established progressively at the same time of the formation of the two BA subnets, the degree distribution follows a power-law scaling observed in real networks. It is also found that the evolution of links formed over a time for a specific node follows the same behavior, as the BA networks.

  10. Social Connections and Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    You, Sungeun; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    Disrupted social connectedness is associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs). The current study sought to further characterize this relationship by examining several indices of social connectedness—1) living alone, 2) perceived social support, 3) interpersonal conflict, 4) belongingness. Participants (n = 814) were recruited from four residential substance-use treatment programs and completed self-report measures of social connectedness as well as whether they had ever thought about or attempted suicide. Multivariate results indicated that interpersonal conflict and belongingness were significant predictors of a history of suicidal ideation, and belongingness, perceived social support, and living alone were significant predictors of suicide attempt. These results indicate the most consistent support for the relationship between suicidality and thwarted belongingness, and also support the clinical utility of assessing whether individuals live alone. PMID:21142333

  11. Larynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  12. Pharynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  13. Vulva Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  14. Causal connectivity of evolved neural networks during behavior.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anil K

    2005-03-01

    To show how causal interactions in neural dynamics are modulated by behavior, it is valuable to analyze these interactions without perturbing or lesioning the neural mechanism. This paper proposes a method, based on a graph-theoretic extension of vector autoregressive modeling and 'Granger causality,' for characterizing causal interactions generated within intact neural mechanisms. This method, called 'causal connectivity analysis' is illustrated via model neural networks optimized for controlling target fixation in a simulated head-eye system, in which the structure of the environment can be experimentally varied. Causal connectivity analysis of this model yields novel insights into neural mechanisms underlying sensorimotor coordination. In contrast to networks supporting comparatively simple behavior, networks supporting rich adaptive behavior show a higher density of causal interactions, as well as a stronger causal flow from sensory inputs to motor outputs. They also show different arrangements of 'causal sources' and 'causal sinks': nodes that differentially affect, or are affected by, the remainder of the network. Finally, analysis of causal connectivity can predict the functional consequences of network lesions. These results suggest that causal connectivity analysis may have useful applications in the analysis of neural dynamics. PMID:16350433

  15. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  16. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  17. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The ... of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso Heart anatomy illustrations and animations for grades K-6. Heart ...

  18. Connecting art and science: An interdisciplinary strategy and its impact on the affective domain of community college human anatomy students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petti, Kevin

    Educational objectives are often described within the framework of a three-domain taxonomy: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. While most of the research on educational objectives has focused on the cognitive domain, the research that has been conducted on the affective domain, which speaks to emotions, attitudes, and values, has identified a number of positive outcomes. One approach to enhancing the affective domain is that of interdisciplinary education. Science education research in the realm of interdisciplinary education and affective outcomes is limited; especially research conducted on community college students of human anatomy. This project investigated the relationship between an interdisciplinary teaching strategy and the affective domain in science education by utilizing an interdisciplinary lecture in a human anatomy class. Subjects were anatomy students in a California community college who listened to a one-hour lecture describing the cultural, historical and scientific significance of selected pieces of art depicting human dissection in European medieval and Renaissance universities. The focus was on how these renderings represent the state of anatomy education during their respective eras. After listening to the lecture, subjects were administered a 35-question survey that was composed of 14 demographic questions and 21 Likert-style statements that asked respondents to rate the extent to which the intervention influenced their affective domain. Descriptive statistics were then used to determine which component of the affective domain was most influenced, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which individual differences along the affective continuum were explained by select demographic measures such as gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and previous exposure to science courses. Results indicate that the interdisciplinary intervention had a positive impact on every component of the affective domain hierarchy

  19. Forelimb anatomy and the discrimination of the predatory behavior of carnivorous mammals: the thylacine as a case study.

    PubMed

    Janis, Christine M; Figueirido, Borja

    2014-12-01

    Carnivorous mammals use their forelimbs in different ways to capture their prey. Most terrestrial carnivores have some cursorial (running) adaptations, but ambush predators retain considerable flexibility in their forelimb movement, important for grappling with their prey. In contrast, predators that rely on pursuit to run down their prey have sacrificed some of this flexibility for locomotor efficiency, in the greater restriction of the forelimb motion to the parasagittal plane. In this article, we measured aspects of the forelimb anatomy (44 linear measurements) in 36 species of carnivorous mammals of known predatory behavior, and used multivariate analyses to investigate how well the forelimb anatomy reflects the predatory mode (ambush, pursuit, or pounce-pursuit). A prime intention of this study was to establish morphological correlates of behavior that could then be applied to fossil mammals: for this purpose, five individuals of the recently extinct thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) were also included as unknowns. We show that the three different types of predators can be distinguished by their morphology, both in analyses where all the forelimb bones are included together, and in the separate analyses of each bone individually. Of particular interest is the ability to distinguish between the two types of more cursorial predators, pursuit and pounce-pursuit, which have previously been considered as primarily size-based categories. Despite a prior consideration of the thylacine as a "pounce-pursuit" or an "ambush" type of predator, the thylacines did not consistently cluster with any type of predatory carnivores in our analyses. Rather, the thylacines appeared to be more generalized in their morphology than any of the extant carnivores. The absence of a large diversity of large carnivorous mammals in Australia, past and present, may explain the thylacine's generalized morphology.

  20. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal) nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the endocrine arm of the body's response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and/or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC) regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors. PMID:23785312

  1. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)

    PubMed Central

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Underwood, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas' larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys' basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas. PMID:24187623

  2. The Leafhoppers: Anatomy, Physiology and Behavior of Feeding and Its Sensory Mediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present book contains chapters summarizing all major aspects of the biology of leafhoppers (family Cicadellidae), among the most numerous and important insect pests in the world. Major chapter topics discussed include internal and external morphology, physiology, behavior, reproduction, taxonom...

  3. Behavioral relevance of species-specific vasotocin anatomy in gregarious finches

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Aubrey M.; Goodson, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial species differences in the vasotocin/vasopressin (VT/VP) circuitry of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) and lateral septum (LS; a primary projection target of BSTm VT/VP cells), functional consequences of this variation are poorly known. Previous experiments in the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata) demonstrate that BSTm VT neurons promote gregariousness in a male-specific manner and reduce anxiety in both sexes. However, in contrast to the zebra finch, the less gregarious Angolan blue waxbill (Estrildidae: Uraeginthus angolensis) exhibits fewer VT-immunoreactive cells in the BSTm as well as differences in receptor distribution across the LS subnuclei, suggesting that knockdown of VT production in the BSTm would produce behavioral effects in Angolan blue waxbills that are distinct from zebra finches. Thus, we here quantified social contact, gregariousness (i.e., preference for the larger of two groups), and anxiety-like behavior following bilateral antisense knockdown of VT production in the BSTm of male and female Angolan blue waxbills. We find that BSTm VT neurons promote social contact, but not gregariousness (as in male zebra finches), and that antisense effects on social contact are significantly stronger in male waxbills than in females. Knockdown of BSTm VT production has no effect on anxiety-like behavior. These data provide novel evidence that species differences in the VT/VP circuitry arising in the BSTm are accompanied by species-specific effects on affiliation behaviors. PMID:24381536

  4. Endocannabinoid signaling in the amygdala: anatomy, synaptic signaling, behavior, and adaptations to stress

    PubMed Central

    Ramikie, Teniel S.; Patel, Sachin

    2011-01-01

    The molecular constituents of endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling are abundantly expressed within the mammalian amygdaloid complex, consistent with the robust role of eCB signaling in the modulation of emotional behavior, learning, and stress-response physiology. Here we detail the anatomical distribution of eCB signaling machinery in the amygdala and the role of this system in the modulation of excitatory and inhibitory neuroplasticity in this region. We also summarize recent findings demonstrating dynamic alternations in eCB signaling that occur in response to stress exposure, as well as known behavioral consequences of eCB-mediated modulation of amygdala function. Finally, we discuss how integrating anatomical and physiological data regarding eCB signaling in the amygdala could help elucidate common functional motifs of this system in relation to broader forebrain function. PMID:21884761

  5. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae) have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i) to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii) to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii) to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed. PMID:15841282

  6. Elucidation of the anatomy of a satiety network: Focus on connectivity of the parabrachial nucleus in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Zséli, Györgyi; Vida, Barbara; Martinez, Anais; Lechan, Ronald M; Khan, Arshad M; Fekete, Csaba

    2016-10-01

    We hypothesized that brain regions showing neuronal activation after refeeding comprise major nodes in a satiety network, and tested this hypothesis with two sets of experiments. Detailed c-Fos mapping comparing fasted and refed rats was performed to identify candidate nodes of the satiety network. In addition to well-known feeding-related brain regions such as the arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, parabrachial nucleus (PB), nucleus of the solitary tract and central amygdalar nucleus, other refeeding activated regions were also identified, such as the parastrial and parasubthalamic nuclei. To begin to understand the connectivity of the satiety network, the interconnectivity of PB with other refeeding-activated neuronal groups was studied following administration of anterograde or retrograde tracers into the PB. After allowing for tracer transport time, the animals were fasted and then refed before sacrifice. Refeeding-activated neurons that project to the PB were found in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamic area; arcuate, paraventricular, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; parasubthalamic nucleus; central amygdalar nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of the solitary tract. Axons originating from the PB were observed to closely associate with refeeding-activated neurons in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamus; paraventricular, arcuate, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; central amygdalar nucleus; parasubthalamic nucleus; ventral posterior thalamic nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of the solitary tract. These data indicate that the PB has bidirectional connections with most refeeding-activated neuronal groups, suggesting that short-loop feedback circuits exist in this satiety network. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2803-2827, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26918800

  7. Facial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery.

  8. Behavioral and ecological consequences of sex-based differences in gustatory anatomy in Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Docherty, Beth A; Alport, Laura J; Burrows, Anne M; Smith, Timothy D; Paesani, Sylvia M

    2011-12-01

    Fungiform papillae (FPs) are the only gustatory structures on the anterior tongue. Taste buds (TBs), which are located in FPs, house taste receptors. Each TB has a taste pore (TP) by which tastants are transmitted. In humans, FP and TB densities correlate with taste sensitivity and food preferences. Females have higher FP densities than males in Homo, Pan, and Cebus. Homo, Pan, and Cebus also have larger brains, slower ontogenetic development, and higher maternal investment in offspring compared to most primates. An increase in maternal investment places intense pressure on females to 1) obtain high-quality foods, and 2) detect potential toxins at low levels. This study examines sex differences in FPs and TPs (a TB surrogate) in 11 Cebus apella to test the hypothesis that higher FP density in females may be an adaptation specific to reproductive strategies of females. Tongues were imaged using an environmental scanning electron microscope; from these images FP surface area, FP density, TP count, and TP densities were calculated. We found that there were no significant differences between males and females in the number of TPs per FP. However, we did find that females do have larger FP surface areas and higher FP densities than males. The anatomical evidence indicates that females may have greater taste sensitivity than males because females have more FP than males. Future research on food preference and selection in Cebus is expected to show sex-specific behaviors similar to those observed in Homo and Pan.

  9. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milner, A.R.C.; Harris, J.D.; Lockley, M.G.; Kirkland, J.I.; Matthews, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic (???198 millionyear- old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. Conclusions/Significance: The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  10. Bird-Like Anatomy, Posture, and Behavior Revealed by an Early Jurassic Theropod Dinosaur Resting Trace

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Andrew R. C.; Harris, Jerald D.; Lockley, Martin G.; Kirkland, James I.; Matthews, Neffra A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic (∼198 million-year-old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. Conclusions/Significance The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods. PMID:19259260

  11. Functional anatomy of the limbs of erethizontidae (Rodentia, Caviomorpha): Indicators of locomotor behavior in Miocene porcupines.

    PubMed

    Candela, Adriana M; Picasso, Mariana B J

    2008-05-01

    Functional analysis of the limb bones of the erethizontid Steiromys duplicatus, one of the most abundant Miocene porcupines from Patagonia, provides evidence to infer their locomotor behavior. Remains of the giant Neosteiromys pattoni (Late Miocene of Northeast Argentina) are also analyzed. Osteological and myological features of extant porcupines were evaluated and used as a model to interpret the functional significance of Miocene species' limbs. Several features in erethizontids are compatible with the ability to climb: the low humeral tuberosities indicate a mobile gleno-humeral joint; the prominent and distally extended deltopectoral crest indicates a powerful pectoral muscle, which is particularly active when climbing; the humero-ulnar and humero-radial joints are indicative of pronation-supination movements; the well-developed lateral epicondylar ridge and the medially protruding entepicondyle are in agreement with an important development of the brachioradialis, supinator, flexor digitorum profundus, and pronator teres muscles, acting in climbing and grasping functions; the mechanical advantage of the biceps brachii would be emphasized because of its distal attachment on the bicipital tuberosity. As with extant porcupines, in Miocene species, the large femoral head would have permitted a broad range of abduction of the femur, and the medially protruding lesser trochanter would have emphasized the abduction and outward rotation of the femur by the action of the ilio-psoas complex. In S. duplicatus, the shape of the hip, knee, and cruro-astragalar, calcaneo-astragalar, and astragalo-navicular joints would have allowed lateral and rotational movements, although probably to a lesser degree than in extant porcupines. Foot features of S. duplicatus (e.g., great medial sesamoid bone, medial astragalar head, complete hallux) indicate that this species would have had grasping ability, but would not have achieved the high degree of specialization of Coendou

  12. Functional anatomy of the limbs of erethizontidae (Rodentia, Caviomorpha): Indicators of locomotor behavior in Miocene porcupines.

    PubMed

    Candela, Adriana M; Picasso, Mariana B J

    2008-05-01

    Functional analysis of the limb bones of the erethizontid Steiromys duplicatus, one of the most abundant Miocene porcupines from Patagonia, provides evidence to infer their locomotor behavior. Remains of the giant Neosteiromys pattoni (Late Miocene of Northeast Argentina) are also analyzed. Osteological and myological features of extant porcupines were evaluated and used as a model to interpret the functional significance of Miocene species' limbs. Several features in erethizontids are compatible with the ability to climb: the low humeral tuberosities indicate a mobile gleno-humeral joint; the prominent and distally extended deltopectoral crest indicates a powerful pectoral muscle, which is particularly active when climbing; the humero-ulnar and humero-radial joints are indicative of pronation-supination movements; the well-developed lateral epicondylar ridge and the medially protruding entepicondyle are in agreement with an important development of the brachioradialis, supinator, flexor digitorum profundus, and pronator teres muscles, acting in climbing and grasping functions; the mechanical advantage of the biceps brachii would be emphasized because of its distal attachment on the bicipital tuberosity. As with extant porcupines, in Miocene species, the large femoral head would have permitted a broad range of abduction of the femur, and the medially protruding lesser trochanter would have emphasized the abduction and outward rotation of the femur by the action of the ilio-psoas complex. In S. duplicatus, the shape of the hip, knee, and cruro-astragalar, calcaneo-astragalar, and astragalo-navicular joints would have allowed lateral and rotational movements, although probably to a lesser degree than in extant porcupines. Foot features of S. duplicatus (e.g., great medial sesamoid bone, medial astragalar head, complete hallux) indicate that this species would have had grasping ability, but would not have achieved the high degree of specialization of Coendou

  13. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  14. Connecting laboratory behavior to field function through stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Glon, Mael G; Larson, Eric R; Pangle, Kevin L

    2016-01-01

    Inherent difficulties of tracking and observing organisms in the field often leave researchers with no choice but to conduct behavioral experiments under laboratory settings. However, results of laboratory experiments do not always translate accurately to natural conditions. A fundamental challenge in ecology is therefore to scale up from small area and short-duration laboratory experiments to large areas and long durations over which ecological processes generally operate. In this study, we propose that stable isotope analysis may be a tool that can link laboratory behavioral observations to past field interactions or function of individual organisms. We conducted laboratory behavioral assays to measure dominance of invasive rusty crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, and used stable isotope analysis to hindcast trophic positions of these crayfish under preceding natural conditions. We hypothesized that more dominant crayfish in our assays would have higher trophic positions if dominance were related to competitive ability or willingness to pursue high-risk, high-reward prey. We did not find a relationship between crayfish dominance and trophic position, and therefore infer that laboratory dominance of crayfish may not necessarily relate to their ecology in the field. However, this is to our knowledge the first attempt to directly relate laboratory behavior to field performance via stable isotope analysis. We encourage future studies to continue to explore a possible link between laboratory and field behavior via stable isotope analysis, and propose several avenues to do so. PMID:27077010

  15. Connecting laboratory behavior to field function through stable isotope analysis

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Eric R.; Pangle, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    Inherent difficulties of tracking and observing organisms in the field often leave researchers with no choice but to conduct behavioral experiments under laboratory settings. However, results of laboratory experiments do not always translate accurately to natural conditions. A fundamental challenge in ecology is therefore to scale up from small area and short-duration laboratory experiments to large areas and long durations over which ecological processes generally operate. In this study, we propose that stable isotope analysis may be a tool that can link laboratory behavioral observations to past field interactions or function of individual organisms. We conducted laboratory behavioral assays to measure dominance of invasive rusty crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, and used stable isotope analysis to hindcast trophic positions of these crayfish under preceding natural conditions. We hypothesized that more dominant crayfish in our assays would have higher trophic positions if dominance were related to competitive ability or willingness to pursue high-risk, high-reward prey. We did not find a relationship between crayfish dominance and trophic position, and therefore infer that laboratory dominance of crayfish may not necessarily relate to their ecology in the field. However, this is to our knowledge the first attempt to directly relate laboratory behavior to field performance via stable isotope analysis. We encourage future studies to continue to explore a possible link between laboratory and field behavior via stable isotope analysis, and propose several avenues to do so. PMID:27077010

  16. The Effects of Check & Connect on the School-Related Violent Behaviors of African American Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Angela T.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a modified version of Check & Connect, a comprehensive student engagement intervention, on the attendance, behavior, and academic performance of secondary African American females with violent and aggressive behavior problems. In addition, the Student Engagement Instrument (SEI) was used to assess cognitive…

  17. Connections between Early Literacy and Social Behavior. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Contemporaneous and Longitudinal Associations between Social Behavior and Literacy Achievement in a Sample of Low Income Elementary School Children" (S. B. Miles and D. Stipek). In two groups of…

  18. Public Housing, Health, and Health Behaviors: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Angela R.; Reingold, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between public housing, health outcomes, and health behaviors among low-income housing residents. While public housing can be a dangerous and unhealthy environment in which to live, the subsidized rent may free up resources for nutritious food and health care. In addition, public housing may be of higher…

  19. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  20. Executions and scientific anatomy.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Antonín; Jelen, Karel; Stajnrtova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    The very word "anatomy" tells us about this branch's connection with dissection. Studies of anatomy have taken place for approximately 2.300 years already. Anatomy's birthplace lies in Greece and Egypt. Knowledge in this specific field of science was necessary during surgical procedures in ophthalmology and obstetrics. Embalming took place without public disapproval just like autopsies and manipulation with relics. Thus, anatomical dissection became part of later forensic sciences. Anatomical studies on humans themselves, which needed to be compared with the knowledge gained through studying procedures performed on animals, elicited public disapprobation and prohibition. When faced with a shortage of cadavers, anatomists resorted to obtaining bodies of the executed and suicide victims - since torture, public display of the mutilated body, (including anatomical autopsy), were perceived as an intensification of the death penalty. Decapitation and hanging were the main execution methods meted out for death sentences. Anatomists preferred intact bodies for dissection; hence, convicts could thus avoid torture. This paper lists examples of how this process was resolved. It concerns the manners of killing, vivisection on people in the antiquity and middle-ages, experiments before the execution and after, vivifying from seeming death, experiments with galvanizing electricity on fresh cadavers, evaluating of sensibility after guillotine execution, and making perfect anatomical preparations and publications during Nazism from fresh bodies of the executed.

  1. Executions and scientific anatomy.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Antonín; Jelen, Karel; Stajnrtova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    The very word "anatomy" tells us about this branch's connection with dissection. Studies of anatomy have taken place for approximately 2.300 years already. Anatomy's birthplace lies in Greece and Egypt. Knowledge in this specific field of science was necessary during surgical procedures in ophthalmology and obstetrics. Embalming took place without public disapproval just like autopsies and manipulation with relics. Thus, anatomical dissection became part of later forensic sciences. Anatomical studies on humans themselves, which needed to be compared with the knowledge gained through studying procedures performed on animals, elicited public disapprobation and prohibition. When faced with a shortage of cadavers, anatomists resorted to obtaining bodies of the executed and suicide victims - since torture, public display of the mutilated body, (including anatomical autopsy), were perceived as an intensification of the death penalty. Decapitation and hanging were the main execution methods meted out for death sentences. Anatomists preferred intact bodies for dissection; hence, convicts could thus avoid torture. This paper lists examples of how this process was resolved. It concerns the manners of killing, vivisection on people in the antiquity and middle-ages, experiments before the execution and after, vivifying from seeming death, experiments with galvanizing electricity on fresh cadavers, evaluating of sensibility after guillotine execution, and making perfect anatomical preparations and publications during Nazism from fresh bodies of the executed. PMID:26859596

  2. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  3. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  4. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  5. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  6. ClueConnect: a word array game to promote student comprehension of key terminology in an introductory anatomy and physiology course.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Kathryn M; Olimpo, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    The sheer amount of terminology and conceptual knowledge required for anatomy and physiology can be overwhelming for students. Educational games are one approach to reinforce such knowledge. In this activity, students worked collaboratively to review anatomy and physiology concepts by creating arrays of descriptive tiles to define a term. Once guessed, students located the structure or process within diagrams of the body. The game challenged students to think about course vocabulary in novel ways and to use their collective knowledge to get their classmates to guess the terms. Comparison of pretest/posttest/delayed posttest data revealed that students achieved statistically significant learning gains for each unit after playing the game, and a survey of student perceptions demonstrated that the game was helpful for learning vocabulary as well as fun to play. The game is easily adaptable for a variety of lower- and upper-division courses.

  7. ClueConnect: a word array game to promote student comprehension of key terminology in an introductory anatomy and physiology course.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Kathryn M; Olimpo, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    The sheer amount of terminology and conceptual knowledge required for anatomy and physiology can be overwhelming for students. Educational games are one approach to reinforce such knowledge. In this activity, students worked collaboratively to review anatomy and physiology concepts by creating arrays of descriptive tiles to define a term. Once guessed, students located the structure or process within diagrams of the body. The game challenged students to think about course vocabulary in novel ways and to use their collective knowledge to get their classmates to guess the terms. Comparison of pretest/posttest/delayed posttest data revealed that students achieved statistically significant learning gains for each unit after playing the game, and a survey of student perceptions demonstrated that the game was helpful for learning vocabulary as well as fun to play. The game is easily adaptable for a variety of lower- and upper-division courses. PMID:27105741

  8. Cluster-based statistics for brain connectivity in correlation with behavioral measures.

    PubMed

    Han, Cheol E; Yoo, Sang Wook; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L; Seong, Joon-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Graph theoretical approaches have successfully revealed abnormality in brain connectivity, in particular, for contrasting patients from healthy controls. Besides the group comparison analysis, a correlational study is also challenging. In studies with patients, for example, finding brain connections that indeed deepen specific symptoms is interesting. The correlational study is also beneficial since it does not require controls, which are often difficult to find, especially for old-age patients with cognitive impairment where controls could also have cognitive deficits due to normal ageing. However, one of the major difficulties in such correlational studies is too conservative multiple comparison correction. In this paper, we propose a novel method for identifying brain connections that are correlated with a specific cognitive behavior by employing cluster-based statistics, which is less conservative than other methods, such as Bonferroni correction, false discovery rate procedure, and extreme statistics. Our method is based on the insight that multiple brain connections, rather than a single connection, are responsible for abnormal behaviors. Given brain connectivity data, we first compute a partial correlation coefficient between every edge and the behavioral measure. Then we group together neighboring connections with strong correlation into clusters and calculate their maximum sizes. This procedure is repeated for randomly permuted assignments of behavioral measures. Significance levels of the identified sub-networks are estimated from the null distribution of the cluster sizes. This method is independent of network construction methods: either structural or functional network can be used in association with any behavioral measures. We further demonstrated the efficacy of our method using patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment. We identified sub-networks that are correlated with the disease severity by exploiting diffusion tensor imaging

  9. Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Connectivity has dramatically changed the landscape of higher education IT. From "on-demand" services for net-gen students and advanced eLearning systems for faculty, to high-performance computing grid resources for researchers, IT now provides more networked services than ever to connect campus constituents to each other and to the world.…

  10. The behavior of dielectric elastomer actuators connected in series and parallel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guorui; Liang, Yiming; Yang, Xuxu; Cheng, Tingyu; Huang, Zhilong; Li, Tiefeng

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer membrane has the ability of shrinking the thickness and expanding surface area when a voltage is applied through its thickness. Dielectric elastomer has been widely studied and used as dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA), dielectric elastomer generator (DEG) and dielectric elastomer sensor (DES). We study the behavior of several DEAs connected in series and parallel, and find that the different connecting models can achieve different responses of the DEAs. DEAs connected in series can enhance the actuation, while DEA connected in parallel can enhance the actuation force. In our experiment, DEAs connected in series and parallel are loaded in actuation direction under a dead load providing pre-stretch. We discuss the results of the experiments and give the conclusions.

  11. Conservation caring: measuring the influence of zoo visitors' connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Skibins, Jeffrey C; Powell, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Zoos in the 21st century are striving to make effective contributions to conservation. Although zoos are extremely popular and host over 600 million visitors worldwide, one challenge zoos face is how to effectively engage visitors and raise awareness and action for conservation. To this end, zoos commonly rely on charismatic megafauna, which have been shown to elicit a connection with zoo visitors. However, little is known about how to measure a connection to a species or how this connection may influence conservation behaviors. This study had two sequential objectives. The first was to develop a scale to measure visitors' connection to a species (Conservation Caring). The second was to investigate the relationship of Conservation Caring to pro-conservation behaviors, following a zoo experience. Pre- (n = 411) and post-visit (n = 452) responses were collected from three sites in order to assess the reliability and validity of a scale to measure Conservation Caring. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between Conservation Caring and pro-conservation behaviors. Conservation Caring was deemed a valid and reliable scale and was a strong predictor of species oriented behaviors (β = 0.62), for example, "adopting" an animal, but a weak predictor for biodiversity oriented behaviors (β = 0.07), for example, supporting sustainability policies. Results support the role zoos can play in fostering a connection to wildlife and stimulating pro-conservation behaviors. Additionally, visitors connected to a wide array of animals. On the basis of these results, zoos may recruit a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships.

  12. Seismic behavior of outrigger truss-wall shear connections using multiple steel angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian; Wang, Wei; Lü, Henglin; Zhang, Guangchang

    2016-06-01

    An experimental investigation on the seismic behavior of a type of outrigger truss-reinforced concrete wall shear connection using multiple steel angles is presented. Six large-scale shear connection models, which involved a portion of reinforced concrete wall and a shear tab welded onto a steel endplate with three steel angles, were constructed and tested under combined actions of cyclic axial load and eccentric shear. The effects of embedment lengths of steel angles, wall boundary elements, types of anchor plates, and thicknesses of endplates were investigated. The test results indicate that properly detailed connections exhibit desirable seismic behavior and fail due to the ductile fracture of steel angles. Wall boundary elements provide beneficial confinement to the concrete surrounding steel angles and thus increase the strength and stiffness of connections. Connections using whole anchor plates are prone to suffer concrete pry-out failure while connections with thin endplates have a relatively low strength and fail due to large inelastic deformations of the endplates. The current design equations proposed by Chinese Standard 04G362 and Code GB50011 significantly underestimate the capacities of the connection models. A revised design method to account for the influence of previously mentioned test parameters was developed.

  13. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  14. Prenatal domoic acid exposure disrupts mouse pro-social behavior and functional connectivity MRI.

    PubMed

    Mills, Brian D; Pearce, Hadley L; Khan, Omar; Jarrett, Ben R; Fair, Damien A; Lahvis, Garet P

    2016-07-15

    Domoic acid (DA) is a toxin produced by marine algae and known primarily for its role in isolated outbreaks of Amnestic Shellfish Poisoning and for the damage it inflicts on marine mammals, particularly California sea lions. Lethal effects of DA are often preceded by seizures and coma. Exposure to DA during development can result in subtle and highly persistent effects on brain development and include behavioral changes that resemble diagnostic features of schizophrenia and anomalies in social behavior we believe are relevant to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To more fully examine this hypothesis, we chose to examine adolescent mice exposed in utero to DA for endpoints relevant to ASD, specifically changes in social behavior and network structure, the latter measured by resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI). We found that male offspring exposed in utero to DA expressed reproducible declines in social interaction and atypical patterns of functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate, a region of the default mode network that is critical for social functioning. We also found disruptions in global topology in regions involved in the processing of reward, social, and sensory experiences. Finally, we found that DA exposed males expressed a pattern of local over-connectivity. These anomalies in brain connectivity bear resemblance to connectivity patterns in ASD and help validate DA-exposed mice as a model of this mental disability.

  15. Prenatal domoic acid exposure disrupts mouse pro-social behavior and functional connectivity MRI.

    PubMed

    Mills, Brian D; Pearce, Hadley L; Khan, Omar; Jarrett, Ben R; Fair, Damien A; Lahvis, Garet P

    2016-07-15

    Domoic acid (DA) is a toxin produced by marine algae and known primarily for its role in isolated outbreaks of Amnestic Shellfish Poisoning and for the damage it inflicts on marine mammals, particularly California sea lions. Lethal effects of DA are often preceded by seizures and coma. Exposure to DA during development can result in subtle and highly persistent effects on brain development and include behavioral changes that resemble diagnostic features of schizophrenia and anomalies in social behavior we believe are relevant to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To more fully examine this hypothesis, we chose to examine adolescent mice exposed in utero to DA for endpoints relevant to ASD, specifically changes in social behavior and network structure, the latter measured by resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI). We found that male offspring exposed in utero to DA expressed reproducible declines in social interaction and atypical patterns of functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate, a region of the default mode network that is critical for social functioning. We also found disruptions in global topology in regions involved in the processing of reward, social, and sensory experiences. Finally, we found that DA exposed males expressed a pattern of local over-connectivity. These anomalies in brain connectivity bear resemblance to connectivity patterns in ASD and help validate DA-exposed mice as a model of this mental disability. PMID:27050322

  16. The Effects of Check, Connect, and Expect on Behavioral and Academic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Houchins, David E.; Robinson, Cecil

    2016-01-01

    "Check, Connect, and Expect" (CCE) is a secondary tier behavioral intervention that provides students with levels of support including a dedicated "coach" for check-in and check-out procedures, and social skills instruction. Elementary students (n = 22) in an alternative education school setting received CCE for 13 weeks…

  17. Connecting Research to Practice: Searching for Evidence to Support Favorable Student Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenos, Jeanne; Trick, Teri

    2013-01-01

    Educators have reported feeling stressed, overwhelmed, or demoralized when undesirable student behaviors are coupled with other instructional and programmatic barriers. Although helpful resources abound, it is not always easy to connect research to practice. Teachers can benefit from evidence-based practice (EBP), which basically involves reading…

  18. Effects of Check and Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the effects of Check & Connect (C&C) on the attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes of at-risk youth in a field-based effectiveness trial. Method: A multisite randomized block design was used, wherein 260 primarily Hispanic (89%) and economically disadvantaged (74%) students were randomized to treatment…

  19. Effects of Check & Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of Check & Connect (C&C) in a randomly assigned sample of students who were all receiving Communities in Schools (CIS) services. The research questions for the study include: Are there differences in attendance, academics, and behavior for CIS students who also receive C&C compared to…

  20. Use of Individual Feedback during Human Gross Anatomy Course for Enhancing Professional Behaviors in Doctor of Physical Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youdas, James W.; Krause, David A.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Rindflesch, Aaron B.; Hollman, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy…

  1. Altered functional connectivity in lesional peduncular hallucinosis with REM sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Maiya R; Tie, Yanmei; Gabrieli, John D E; McGinnis, Scott M; Golby, Alexandra J; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem lesions causing peduncular hallucinosis (PH) produce vivid visual hallucinations occasionally accompanied by sleep disorders. Overlapping brainstem regions modulate visual pathways and REM sleep functions via gating of thalamocortical networks. A 66-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed abrupt-onset complex visual hallucinations with preserved insight and violent dream enactment behavior. Brain MRI showed restricted diffusion in the left rostrodorsal pons suggestive of an acute ischemic stroke. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was diagnosed on polysomnography. We investigated the integrity of ponto-geniculate-occipital circuits with seed-based resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in this patient compared to 46 controls. Rs-fcMRI revealed significantly reduced functional connectivity between the lesion and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN), and between LGN and visual association cortex compared to controls. Conversely, functional connectivity between brainstem and visual association cortex, and between visual association cortex and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly increased in the patient. Focal damage to the rostrodorsal pons is sufficient to cause RBD and PH in humans, suggesting an overlapping mechanism in both syndromes. This lesion produced a pattern of altered functional connectivity consistent with disrupted visual cortex connectivity via de-afferentation of thalamocortical pathways.

  2. Altered functional connectivity in lesional peduncular hallucinosis with REM sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Maiya R; Tie, Yanmei; Gabrieli, John D E; McGinnis, Scott M; Golby, Alexandra J; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem lesions causing peduncular hallucinosis (PH) produce vivid visual hallucinations occasionally accompanied by sleep disorders. Overlapping brainstem regions modulate visual pathways and REM sleep functions via gating of thalamocortical networks. A 66-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed abrupt-onset complex visual hallucinations with preserved insight and violent dream enactment behavior. Brain MRI showed restricted diffusion in the left rostrodorsal pons suggestive of an acute ischemic stroke. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was diagnosed on polysomnography. We investigated the integrity of ponto-geniculate-occipital circuits with seed-based resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in this patient compared to 46 controls. Rs-fcMRI revealed significantly reduced functional connectivity between the lesion and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN), and between LGN and visual association cortex compared to controls. Conversely, functional connectivity between brainstem and visual association cortex, and between visual association cortex and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly increased in the patient. Focal damage to the rostrodorsal pons is sufficient to cause RBD and PH in humans, suggesting an overlapping mechanism in both syndromes. This lesion produced a pattern of altered functional connectivity consistent with disrupted visual cortex connectivity via de-afferentation of thalamocortical pathways. PMID:26656284

  3. The behavior of enclosed-type connection of drill pipes during percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrina, A.; Saruev, L.

    2015-11-01

    Percussion drilling is the efficient method to drill small holes (≥ 70 mm) in medium- hard and harder rocks. The existing types of drill strings for geological explorations are not intended for strain wave energy transfer. The description of the improved design of the drill string having enclosed-type nipple connections is given in this paper presents. This nipple connection is designed to be used in drilling small exploration wells with formation sampling. Experimental findings prove the effectiveness of the enclosed nipple connection in relation to the load distribution in operation. The paper presents research results of the connection behavior under quasistatic loading (compression-tension). Loop diagrams are constructed and analyzed in force-displacement coordinates. Research results are obtained for shear stresses occurred in the nipple connection. A mechanism of shear stress distribution is described for the wave strain propagation over the connecting element. It is shown that in the course of operation the drill pipe tightening reduces the shear stress three times.

  4. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Normalizes Functional Connectivity for Social Threat in Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mason, Liam; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Dima, Danai; Williams, Steven C; Kumari, Veena

    2016-05-01

    Psychosis is often characterized by paranoia and poor social functioning. Neurally, there is evidence of functional dysconnectivity including abnormalities when processing facial affect. We sought to establish whether these abnormalities are resolved by cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp). The study involved 38 outpatients with one or more persistent positive psychotic symptoms, and 20 healthy participants. All participants completed an implicit facial affect processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subsequently, patients either continued to receive standard care only (SCO,n= 16) or received CBTp on top of standard care (+CBTp,n= 22), with fMRI repeated 6-8 months later. To examine the mechanisms underlying CBTp-led changes in threat processing and appraisal, functional connectivity during the social threat (angry faces) condition was assessed separately from left amygdala and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seeds. At baseline, patients, compared with healthy participants, showed greater amygdala connectivity with the insula and visual areas, but less connectivity with somatosensory areas. These differences normalized following CBTp and, compared with the SCO group, the +CBTp group showed greater increases in amygdala connectivity with DLPFC and inferior parietal lobule, with the latter correlating with improvement in positive symptoms. From the DLPFC seed, the +CBTp (compared with SCO) group showed significantly greater increase in DLPFC connectivity with other prefrontal regions including dorsal anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings indicate that CBTp strengthens connectivity between higher-order cognitive systems and those involved in threat and salience, potentially facilitating reappraisal.

  5. Differences in electrosensory anatomy and social behavior in an area of sympatry between two species of mormyrid electric fishes.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Sensory systems play a key role in social behavior by mediating the detection and analysis of communication signals. In mormyrid fishes, electric signals are processed within a dedicated sensory pathway, providing a unique opportunity to relate sensory biology to social behavior. Evolutionary changes within this pathway led to new perceptual abilities that have been linked to increased rates of signal evolution and species diversification in a lineage called 'clade A'. Previous field observations suggest that clade-A species tend to be solitary and territorial, whereas non-clade-A species tend to be clustered in high densities suggestive of schooling or shoaling. To explore behavioral differences between species in these lineages in greater detail, I studied population densities, social interactions, and electric signaling in two mormyrid species, Gnathonemus victoriae (clade A) and Petrocephalus degeni (non-clade A), from Lwamunda Swamp, Uganda. Petrocephalus degeni was found at higher population densities, but intraspecific diversity in electric signal waveform was greater in G. victoriae. In the laboratory, G. victoriae exhibited strong shelter-seeking behavior and competition for shelter, whereas P. degeni were more likely to abandon shelter in the presence of conspecifics as well as electric mimics of signaling conspecifics. In other words, P. degeni exhibited social affiliation whereas G. victoriae exhibited social competition. Further, P. degeni showed correlated electric signaling behavior whereas G. victoriae showed anti-correlated signaling behavior. These findings extend previous reports of social spacing, territoriality, and habitat preference among mormyrid species, suggesting that evolutionary divergence in electrosensory processing relates to differences in social behavior.

  6. Organization of intrinsic functional brain connectivity predicts decisions to reciprocate social behavior.

    PubMed

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Gutman, David A; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-10-01

    Reciprocation of trust exchanges is central to the development of interpersonal relationships and societal well-being. Understanding how humans make pro-social and self-centered decisions in dyadic interactions and how to predict these choices has been an area of great interest in social neuroscience. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based technology with potential clinical application is the study of resting state brain connectivity. We tested if resting state connectivity may predict choice behavior in a social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent resting state fMRI before performing the Trust Game, a two person monetary exchange game. We assessed the ability of patterns of resting-state functional brain organization, demographic characteristics and a measure of moral development, the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2), to predict individuals' decisions to reciprocate money during the Trust Game. Subjects reciprocated in 74.9% of the trials. Independent component analysis identified canonical resting-state networks. Increased functional connectivity between the salience (bilateral insula/anterior cingulate) and central executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/ posterior parietal cortex) networks significantly predicted the choice to reciprocate pro-social behavior (R(2) = 0.20, p = 0.015). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that functional connectivity between these two networks (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.007) and DIT-2 personal interest schema score (p = 0.032) significantly predicted reciprocity behavior (R(2) = 0.498, p = 0.001). Intrinsic functional connectivity between neural networks in conjunction with other individual characteristics may be a valuable tool for predicting performance during social interactions. Future replication and temporal extension of these findings may bolster the understanding of decision making in clinical, financial and marketing settings.

  7. Organization of intrinsic functional brain connectivity predicts decisions to reciprocate social behavior.

    PubMed

    Cáceda, Ricardo; James, G Andrew; Gutman, David A; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-10-01

    Reciprocation of trust exchanges is central to the development of interpersonal relationships and societal well-being. Understanding how humans make pro-social and self-centered decisions in dyadic interactions and how to predict these choices has been an area of great interest in social neuroscience. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based technology with potential clinical application is the study of resting state brain connectivity. We tested if resting state connectivity may predict choice behavior in a social context. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent resting state fMRI before performing the Trust Game, a two person monetary exchange game. We assessed the ability of patterns of resting-state functional brain organization, demographic characteristics and a measure of moral development, the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2), to predict individuals' decisions to reciprocate money during the Trust Game. Subjects reciprocated in 74.9% of the trials. Independent component analysis identified canonical resting-state networks. Increased functional connectivity between the salience (bilateral insula/anterior cingulate) and central executive (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/ posterior parietal cortex) networks significantly predicted the choice to reciprocate pro-social behavior (R(2) = 0.20, p = 0.015). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that functional connectivity between these two networks (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.007) and DIT-2 personal interest schema score (p = 0.032) significantly predicted reciprocity behavior (R(2) = 0.498, p = 0.001). Intrinsic functional connectivity between neural networks in conjunction with other individual characteristics may be a valuable tool for predicting performance during social interactions. Future replication and temporal extension of these findings may bolster the understanding of decision making in clinical, financial and marketing settings. PMID:26166191

  8. A positive-negative mode of population covariation links brain connectivity, demographics and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen; Nichols, Thomas; Vidaurre, Diego; Winkler, Anderson; Behrens, Timothy; Glasser, Matthew; Ugurbil, Kamil; Barch, Deanna; Van Essen, David; Miller, Karla

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between individual subjects’ functional connectomes and 280 behavioral and demographic measures, in a single holistic multivariate analysis relating imaging to non-imaging data from 461 subjects in the Human Connectome Project. We identified one strong mode of population co-variation; subjects were predominantly spread along a single “positive-negative” axis, linking lifestyle, demographic and psychometric measures to each other and to a specific pattern of brain connectivity. PMID:26414616

  9. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  10. Nu-Way Snaps and Snap Leads: an Important Connection in the History of Behavior Analysis.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Rogelio; Lattal, Kennon A

    2014-10-01

    Beginning in the early 1950s, the snap lead became an integral and ubiquitous component of the programming of electromechanical modules used in behavioral experiments. It was composed of a Nu-Way snap connector on either end of a colored electrical wire. Snap leads were used to connect the modules to one another, thereby creating the programs that controlled contingencies, arranged reinforcers, and recorded behavior in laboratory experiments. These snap leads populated operant conditioning laboratories from their inception until the turn of the twenty-first century. They allowed quick and flexible programming because of the ease with which they could be connected, stacked, and removed. Thus, the snap lead was integral to the research activity that constituted the experimental analysis of behavior for more than five decades. This review traces the history of the snap lead from the origins of the snap connector in Birmingham, England, in the late eighteenth century, through the use of snaps connected to wires during the Second World War, to its adoption in operant laboratories, and finally to its demise in the digital age.

  11. Mapping Anatomy to Behavior in Thy1:18 ChR2-YFP Transgenic Mice Using Optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Fenno, Lief E; Gunaydin, Lisa A; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-06-01

    Linking the activity of defined neural populations with behavior is a key goal of neuroscience. In the context of controlling behavior, electrical stimulation affords researchers precision in the temporal domain with gross regional specificity, whereas pharmacology allows for more specific manipulation of cell types, but in the absence of temporal precision. The use of microbial opsins--light activated, genetically encoded ion channels and pumps--to control mammalian neurons now allows researchers to "sensitize" genetically and/or topologically defined populations of neurons to light to induce either depolarization or hyperpolarization in both a cell-type-specific and temporally precise manner not achievable with previous techniques. Here, we describe the use of transgenic mice expressing the blue-light gated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) under control of the Thy1 promoter for the purpose of linking neuronal activity to behavior through restricted delivery of light to an anatomic region of interest. The surgical procedure for implanting a fiber-optic light delivery guide into the mouse brain, the process of optically stimulating the brain in a behaving animal, and post hoc evaluation are given, along with necessary reagents and discussion of common technical problems and their solutions.

  12. [The development of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Colović, R; Colović, N

    2001-01-01

    Doctors, particularly surgeons, realise the enormous importance of good knowledge of human anatomy today. It was not so in the past when doctors showed little or no interest for human anatomy for centuries. Dissections of the human body, necessary to study human anatomy, were either forbidden or limited to the corpses of criminals on whom capital punishment was carried out. The authors give a chronology of the development of human anatomy until 19. century when dissections of the human body became almost universally regulated with positive legislation. After the "golden age of surgery" began in 1870. surgeons gave an enormous contribution to anatomy.

  13. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  14. Women and autonomy: using structural analysis of social behavior to find autonomy within connections.

    PubMed

    Berlin, S; Johnson, C G

    1989-02-01

    In their work to construct psychological theories about women's development, Carol Gilligan and Jean Baker Miller both highlight the centrality of interpersonal connections in women's lives. As they describe how women's senses of self and morality are organized around relationships, Gilligan and Miller tend to contrast affiliation with autonomy. The message that readers often take from this view is that autonomy has no meaning for women--is somehow beneath them, beyond them, or unnatural to them. Although Miller and Gilligan dichotomize affiliation and autonomy, they also provide numerous examples in which women's feelings of worth, ability, and self-consideration enhance relatedness. We argue that autonomy can be understood as a sense of freedom and personal integrity that encompasses these same characteristics, and we use the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior to clarify how autonomy makes critical contributions to interpersonal connections.

  15. Disruptions of network connectivity predict impairment in multiple behavioral domains after stroke.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Joshua Sarfaty; Ramsey, Lenny E; Snyder, Abraham Z; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Chacko, Ravi V; Weinberger, Kilian; Baldassarre, Antonello; Hacker, Carl D; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2016-07-26

    Deficits following stroke are classically attributed to focal damage, but recent evidence suggests a key role of distributed brain network disruption. We measured resting functional connectivity (FC), lesion topography, and behavior in multiple domains (attention, visual memory, verbal memory, language, motor, and visual) in a cohort of 132 stroke patients, and used machine-learning models to predict neurological impairment in individual subjects. We found that visual memory and verbal memory were better predicted by FC, whereas visual and motor impairments were better predicted by lesion topography. Attention and language deficits were well predicted by both. Next, we identified a general pattern of physiological network dysfunction consisting of decrease of interhemispheric integration and intrahemispheric segregation, which strongly related to behavioral impairment in multiple domains. Network-specific patterns of dysfunction predicted specific behavioral deficits, and loss of interhemispheric communication across a set of regions was associated with impairment across multiple behavioral domains. These results link key organizational features of brain networks to brain-behavior relationships in stroke. PMID:27402738

  16. Meta-analytic connectivity and behavioral parcellation of the human cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Michael C.; Ray, Kimberly L.; Dick, Anthony S.; Sutherland, Matthew T.; Hernandez, Zachary; Fox, P. Mickle; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum historically has been thought to mediate motor and sensory signals between the body and cerebral cortex, yet cerebellar lesions are also associated with altered cognitive behavioral performance. Neuroimaging evidence indicates that the cerebellum contributes to a wide range of cognitive, perceptual, and motor functions. Here, we used the BrainMap database to investigate whole-brain co-activation patterns between cerebellar structures and regions of the cerebral cortex, as well as associations with behavioral tasks. Hierarchical clustering was performed to meta-analytically identify cerebellar structures with similar cortical co-activation, and independently, with similar correlations to specific behavioral tasks. Strong correspondences were observed in these separate but parallel analyses of meta-analytic connectivity and behavioral metadata. We recovered differential zones of cerebellar co-activation that are reflected across the literature. Furthermore, the behaviors and tasks associated with the different cerebellar zones provide insight into the specialized function of the cerebellum, relating to high-order cognition, emotion, perception, interoception, and action. Taken together, these task-based meta-analytic results implicate distinct zones of the cerebellum as critically involved in the monitoring and mediation of psychological responses to internal and external stimuli. PMID:25998956

  17. Some behavioral effects of transecting ventral or dorsal fiber connections of the septum in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ross, J F; Grossman, L; Grossman, S P

    1975-03-01

    The behavioral effects of large electrolytic lesions in the septal area were compared with those of knife cuts that severed the ventral or dorsal connections of this structure. Rats with septal lesions lost weight and were transiently hyperdipsic. Ventral cuts produced similar effects, but dorsal cuts did not. All three operations decreased the latency to eat in a novel environment, increased the intake of sweetened milk, enhanced acquisition of a food-rewarded running response, and facilitated acquisition of a shuttle box avoidance response, The lesion, but neither of the knife cuts, reduced the effects of punishment and impaired the acquisition of a one-way avoidance response. PMID:1150960

  18. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  19. Effects of a spaceflight analog environment on brain connectivity and behavior.

    PubMed

    Cassady, Kaitlin; Koppelmans, Vincent; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia; De Dios, Yiri; Gadd, Nichole; Wood, Scott; Castenada, Roy Riascos; Kofman, Igor; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2016-11-01

    Sensorimotor functioning is adaptively altered following long-duration spaceflight. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain network organization and its relationship with behavior is largely unknown, but of importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. In the present study, we investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to an established spaceflight analog on resting state brain functional connectivity and its association with behavioral changes in 17 male participants. These bed rest participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and behavioral data were obtained at seven time points averaging around: 12 and 8days prior to bed rest; 7, 50, and 70days during bed rest; and 8 and 12days after bed rest. To assess potential confounding effects due to scanning interval or task practice, we also acquired rs-fMRI and behavioral measurements from 14 control participants at four time points. 70days of head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest resulted in significant changes in the functional connectivity of motor, somatosensory, and vestibular areas of the brain. Moreover, several of these network alterations were significantly associated with changes in sensorimotor and spatial working memory performance, which suggests that neuroplasticity mechanisms may facilitate adaptation to the microgravity analog environment. The findings from this study provide novel insights into the underlying neural mechanisms and operational risks of spaceflight analog-related changes in sensorimotor performance. PMID:27423254

  20. Effects of a spaceflight analog environment on brain connectivity and behavior.

    PubMed

    Cassady, Kaitlin; Koppelmans, Vincent; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia; De Dios, Yiri; Gadd, Nichole; Wood, Scott; Castenada, Roy Riascos; Kofman, Igor; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2016-11-01

    Sensorimotor functioning is adaptively altered following long-duration spaceflight. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain network organization and its relationship with behavior is largely unknown, but of importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. In the present study, we investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to an established spaceflight analog on resting state brain functional connectivity and its association with behavioral changes in 17 male participants. These bed rest participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and behavioral data were obtained at seven time points averaging around: 12 and 8days prior to bed rest; 7, 50, and 70days during bed rest; and 8 and 12days after bed rest. To assess potential confounding effects due to scanning interval or task practice, we also acquired rs-fMRI and behavioral measurements from 14 control participants at four time points. 70days of head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest resulted in significant changes in the functional connectivity of motor, somatosensory, and vestibular areas of the brain. Moreover, several of these network alterations were significantly associated with changes in sensorimotor and spatial working memory performance, which suggests that neuroplasticity mechanisms may facilitate adaptation to the microgravity analog environment. The findings from this study provide novel insights into the underlying neural mechanisms and operational risks of spaceflight analog-related changes in sensorimotor performance.

  1. Functional connectivity dynamics: modeling the switching behavior of the resting state.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Enrique C A; Battaglia, Demian; Spiegler, Andreas; Deco, Gustavo; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2015-01-15

    Functional connectivity (FC) sheds light on the interactions between different brain regions. Besides basic research, it is clinically relevant for applications in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, presurgical planning, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury. Simulations of whole-brain mean-field computational models with realistic connectivity determined by tractography studies enable us to reproduce with accuracy aspects of average FC in the resting state. Most computational studies, however, did not address the prominent non-stationarity in resting state FC, which may result in large intra- and inter-subject variability and thus preclude an accurate individual predictability. Here we show that this non-stationarity reveals a rich structure, characterized by rapid transitions switching between a few discrete FC states. We also show that computational models optimized to fit time-averaged FC do not reproduce these spontaneous state transitions and, thus, are not qualitatively superior to simplified linear stochastic models, which account for the effects of structure alone. We then demonstrate that a slight enhancement of the non-linearity of the network nodes is sufficient to broaden the repertoire of possible network behaviors, leading to modes of fluctuations, reminiscent of some of the most frequently observed Resting State Networks. Because of the noise-driven exploration of this repertoire, the dynamics of FC qualitatively change now and display non-stationary switching similar to empirical resting state recordings (Functional Connectivity Dynamics (FCD)). Thus FCD bear promise to serve as a better biomarker of resting state neural activity and of its pathologic alterations. PMID:25462790

  2. Anatomy of the lymphatics.

    PubMed

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatic system is perhaps the most complicated system of Homo sapiens. An introduction to the anatomy, embryology, and anomalies of the lymphatics is presented. The overall anatomy and drainage of the lymphatic vessels in outlined. The topographic anatomy, relations, and variations of the principle vessels of the lymphatic system (the right lymphatic duct, the thoracic duct, and the cisterna chyli) are presented in detail.

  3. Do stress hormones connect environmental effects with behavior in the forced swim test?

    PubMed

    Pintér, Ottó; Domokos, Ágnes; Mergl, Zsuzsa; Mikics, Éva; Zelena, Dóra

    2011-01-01

    Forced swim test (FST) is a widely used test for antidepressant development. Depression is a stress related disease, as hormones of the stress-axis can modify mood. However it is not clear, how the appearance of depressive-like behavior (floating) in FST is connected with changes in the stress-hormone levels. We hypothesized, that different manipulations would alter the behavior through changes in stress-hormone levels. First the effect of environmental alterations was studied. Increasing water-temperature enhanced floating time together with a decrease in adrenocorticotropin levels. During the dark phase of the day rats spent more time with floating independently from the actual lighting. Neither the phase nor the actual lighting had significant effect on adrenocorticotropin concentrations with higher corticosterone levels during the dark phase. At greater water depth rats float less but the size of animals had no effect. Water depth did not influence adrenocorticotropin and corticosterone responses, but the size of the rats significantly affected both factors. Secondly, administration of imipramine reduced floating and adrenocorticotropin level without affecting corticosterone. Despite the known connection between depression and stress we did not find a correlation between floating behavior and hormone levels. As an alternative mechanism imipramine-induced heart rate and core body temperature decrease was found by telemetric approach. This study is the first summary in rats examining the effect of wide range of environmental alterations during FST. It seems likely that both brain monoamines and stress-axis take part in the development of depression, but these pathways are regulated independently.

  4. Do stress hormones connect environmental effects with behavior in the forced swim test?

    PubMed

    Pintér, Ottó; Domokos, Ágnes; Mergl, Zsuzsa; Mikics, Éva; Zelena, Dóra

    2011-01-01

    Forced swim test (FST) is a widely used test for antidepressant development. Depression is a stress related disease, as hormones of the stress-axis can modify mood. However it is not clear, how the appearance of depressive-like behavior (floating) in FST is connected with changes in the stress-hormone levels. We hypothesized, that different manipulations would alter the behavior through changes in stress-hormone levels. First the effect of environmental alterations was studied. Increasing water-temperature enhanced floating time together with a decrease in adrenocorticotropin levels. During the dark phase of the day rats spent more time with floating independently from the actual lighting. Neither the phase nor the actual lighting had significant effect on adrenocorticotropin concentrations with higher corticosterone levels during the dark phase. At greater water depth rats float less but the size of animals had no effect. Water depth did not influence adrenocorticotropin and corticosterone responses, but the size of the rats significantly affected both factors. Secondly, administration of imipramine reduced floating and adrenocorticotropin level without affecting corticosterone. Despite the known connection between depression and stress we did not find a correlation between floating behavior and hormone levels. As an alternative mechanism imipramine-induced heart rate and core body temperature decrease was found by telemetric approach. This study is the first summary in rats examining the effect of wide range of environmental alterations during FST. It seems likely that both brain monoamines and stress-axis take part in the development of depression, but these pathways are regulated independently. PMID:21505269

  5. Anatomy and imaging of the normal meninges.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neel; Kirmi, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The meninges are an important connective tissue envelope investing the brain. Their function is to provide a protective coating to the brain and also participate in the formation of blood-brain barrier. Understanding their anatomy is fundamental to understanding the location and spread of pathologies in relation to the layers. It also provides an insight into the characteristics of such pathologies when imaging them. This review aims to describe the anatomy of the meninges, and to demonstrate the imaging findings of specific features.

  6. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  7. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists.

  8. Observations from the Analysis of Thermohydraulic Behavior of the Series-Connected Hybrid Magnets Superconducting Outserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilin, Andrew V.; Bai, Hongyu; Bird, Mark D.; Dixon, Iain R.

    2010-04-01

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) has finalized the design of two Series-Connected Hybrid Magnet Systems (SCH). Such systems have been developed at the NHMFL over last few years. Each of these magnet systems consists of a resistive insert (a group of concentric nested Florida-Bitter magnets) and a superconducting outsert wound with a graded cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) with Nb3Sn/Cu strands forced-flow-cooled with supercritical helium at about 4.7 K and 3.4 bar (at the inlet) delivered by a helium refrigerator. The thermohydraulic behavior of the outsert is analyzed for cyclic operational scenarios; regular thermohydraulic regimes are observed. The effects of friction factor and boundary conditions on the thermohydraulic processes are discussed.

  9. The evolution of science literacy: Examining intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocchi-Verrino, Carol J.

    A call for a new perspective of science literacy has been marked as the impetus of change in science education, suggesting that a meaning-making approach to literacy and inquiry are central to learning science. This research study explored how science literacy evolved in a classroom where this reconceptualized view of science literacy guided curriculum design and instruction. The teacher/researcher incorporated Interactive Science Notebooks (ISNs) and Interactive Reading Organizers and Comprehension Strategies (IROCS) into instructional materials. In a class consisting of 20 mainstream and special education students, this 7-week study collected data using Likert scales, stimulated recall interviews, a teacher/researcher journal, and students¡¦ position papers. A systematic design framework was used for the three-phase analysis. Hyperresearch RTM software facilitated the identification of open codes, an axial code, and frequency graphs. In order to develop insight into the relationship between questions, methods, and curriculum design recent recommendations for quality research in science education were considered in the methodology. The hypothesis formulated from the data suggests that science literacy evolves on a continuum, and the degree to which science literacy evolves on the continuum seems to be contingent upon their uses of intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors. Several notable insights emerged from the data which were used to guide curriculum, instruction, and assessment that promotes the development of science literacy in the middle school classroom. The study suggests a possible correlation between the use of intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors, and the use of a continuum in measuring the emergence of science literacy.

  10. Functional anatomy of the sleep-wakefulness cycle: wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Reinoso-Suárez, Fernando; de Andrés, Isabel; Garzón, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is a necessary, diverse, periodic, and an active condition circadian and homeostatically regulated and precisely meshed with waking time into the sleep-wakefulness cycle (SWC). Photic retinal stimulation modulates the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which acts as the pacemaker for SWC rhythmicity. Both the light period and social cues adjust the internal clock, making the SWC a circadian, 24-h period in the adult human. Bioelectrical and behavioral parameters characterize the different phases of the SWC. For a long time, lesions and electrical stimulation of brain structures, as well as connection studies, were the main methods used to decipher the foundations of the functional anatomy of the SWC. That is why the first section of this review presents these early historical studies to then discuss the current state of our knowledge based on our understanding of the functional anatomy of the structures underlying the SWC. Supported by this description, we then present a detailed review and update of the structures involved in the phase of wakefulness (W), including their morphological, functional, and chemical characteristics, as well as their anatomical connections. The structures for W generation are known as the "ascending reticular activating system", and they keep and maintain the "thalamo-cerebral cortex unit" awake. This system originates from the neuronal groups located within the brainstem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, which use known neurotransmitters and whose neurons are more active during W than during the other SWC states. Thus, synergies among several of these neurotransmitters are necessary to generate the cortical and thalamic activation that is characteristic of the W state, with all the plastic qualities and nuances present in its different behavioral circumstances. Each one of the neurotransmitters exerts powerful influences on the information and cognitive processes as well as attentional, emotional, motivational, behavioral, and arousal

  11. Investigating connections between local-remote atmospheric variability and Greenland outlet glacier behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Chen, Linling; Miles, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    The outlet glaciers along the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) exhibit a range of behaviors, which are crucial for understanding GrIS mass changes from a dynamical point of view. However, the drivers of this behavior are still poorly understood. Arguments (counter-arguments) have been made for a strong (weak) local oceanic influence on marine terminating outlet glaciers while decadal-scale drivers linked to fluctuations in the Ice sheet itself and the North Atlantic ocean (e.g. Atlantic Multidecadal Variability) have also been posited as drivers. Recently there have also been studies linking (e.g. seasonal to interannual) atmospheric variability, synoptic activity and the Ice Sheet variability. But these studies typically investigate atmospheric links to the large-scale behavior of the Ice Sheet itself and do not go down to the scale of the outlet glaciers. Conversely, investigations of the outlet glaciers often do not include potential links to non-local atmospheric dynamics. Here the authors attempt to bridge the gap and investigate the relationship between atmospheric variability across a range of scales and the behavior of three outlet glaciers on Greenland's southeast coast over a 33-year period (1980-2012). The glaciers - Helheim, Midgard and Fenris - are near Tasiilaq, are marine terminating and exhibit varying degree of connection to the GrIS. ERA-Interim reanalysis, sea-ice data and glacier observations are used for the investigation. Long records of mass balance are unavailable for these glaciers and front position is employed as a measure of glacier atmosphere interactions across multiple scales, as it exhibits robust relationships to atmospheric variability on time scales of seasons to many years, with the strongest relationships seen at seasonal - interannual time scales. The authors do not make the argument that front position is a suitable proxy for mass balance, only that it is indicative of the role of local and remote atmospheric

  12. Can spatial study of hydrological connectivity explain some behaviors of catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantreul, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Erosion is a major threat to European soil. Consequences can be very important both on-site and off-site. Belgian loamy soils are highly vulnerable to this threat because of their natural sensitivity to erosion on the one hand, and because the land is mainly used for intensive agricultural practices on the other hand. Over the last few decades, rising erosion has even been observed in our regions. This shows the importance of a deeper understanding of the coupled phenomena of runoff and erosion in order to manage soils at catchment scale. Plenty of research have already studied this but all agree to say that it seems to have a non-linear relationship between rainfall and discharge, as well as between rainfall and erosion. For that reason, a new concept has been developed a few years ago: the hydrological connectivity. Several research have focused on connectivity but up to now, each there are as much definition as papers. In this thesis, it will be important firstly to resume all these definitions to clarify this concept. Secondly, a methodology using various transects on the watershed and some pertinent field measurements will be used. These measurements include spatial distribution of particle size, surface states and soil moisture. A new approach of photogrammetry using an UAV will be used to observe erosion and deposition zones on the watershed. In this framework, several time scales will be studied from the event scale to the annual scale passing by monthly and seasonal scales. All this will serve to progress toward a better understanding of the concept of hydrological connectivity in order to study erosion at catchment scale. The final goal of this study is to describe hydrologically each different part of the catchment and to generalize these behaviors to other catchments with similar properties if possible. Afterwards, this research will be integrated in an existing (or not) model to improve the modelling of discharge and erosion in the catchment. Thanks to

  13. Equation of state of an ideal gas with nonergodic behavior in two connected vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naplekov, D. M.; Semynozhenko, V. P.; Yanovsky, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional collisionless ideal gas in the two vessels connected through a small hole. One of them is a well-behaved chaotic billiard, another one is known to be nonergodic. A significant part of the second vessel's phase space is occupied by an island of stability. In the works of Zaslavsky and coauthors, distribution of Poincaré recurrence times in similar systems was considered. We study the gas pressure in the vessels; it is uniform in the first vessel and not uniform in second one. An equation of the gas state in the first vessel is obtained. Despite the very different phase-space structure, behavior of the second vessel is found to be very close to the behavior of a good ergodic billiard but of different volume. The equation of state differs from the ordinary equation of ideal gas state by an amendment to the vessel's volume. Correlation of this amendment with a share of the phase space under remaining intact islands of stability is shown.

  14. Equation of state of an ideal gas with nonergodic behavior in two connected vessels.

    PubMed

    Naplekov, D M; Semynozhenko, V P; Yanovsky, V V

    2014-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional collisionless ideal gas in the two vessels connected through a small hole. One of them is a well-behaved chaotic billiard, another one is known to be nonergodic. A significant part of the second vessel's phase space is occupied by an island of stability. In the works of Zaslavsky and coauthors, distribution of Poincaré recurrence times in similar systems was considered. We study the gas pressure in the vessels; it is uniform in the first vessel and not uniform in second one. An equation of the gas state in the first vessel is obtained. Despite the very different phase-space structure, behavior of the second vessel is found to be very close to the behavior of a good ergodic billiard but of different volume. The equation of state differs from the ordinary equation of ideal gas state by an amendment to the vessel's volume. Correlation of this amendment with a share of the phase space under remaining intact islands of stability is shown.

  15. Adolescent Alcohol Use in Spain: Connections with Friends, School, and Other Delinquent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D.; Sánchez-SanSegundo, Miriam; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia; Perrin, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and variables reflecting adolescents’ academic problems, potentially delinquent behaviors, friends’ alcohol consumption, and friendship quality. Information about alcohol use and a number of school and social variables was collected from adolescent students (N = 567) who completed the National Students School-Based Drug Survey in a classroom setting. Results suggested that gender was not significantly associated with alcohol use, although alcohol use increased with age and was more likely for adolescents enrolled in public schools compared to private. After controlling for age and type of school (public vs. private), academic problems explained 5.1% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use, potentially delinquent behaviors explained 29.0%, friends’ alcohol use 16.8%, and friendship quality 1.6%. When all unique predictors from these four models were included in a comprehensive model, they explained 32.3% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use. In this final model, getting expelled, participating in a fight, going out at night, the hour at which one returns, and the number of friends who have consumed alcohol were uniquely and positively associated with adolescents’ alcohol use. These results provide important information about multi-system influences on adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and suggest potential areas of focus for intervention research. PMID:26973567

  16. Skull Base Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base.

  17. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  18. Anatomy and art.

    PubMed

    Laios, Konstantinos; Tsoukalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2013-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci, Jean Falcon, Andreas Vesalius, Henry Gray, Henry Vandyke Carter and Frank Netter created some of the best atlases of anatomy. Their works constitute not only scientific medical projects but also masterpieces of art. PMID:24640589

  19. Anatomy of the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... our existence. It controls our personality, thoughts, memory, intelligence, speech and understanding, emotions, senses, and basic body functions, as well as how we function in our environment. The diagrams below show brain anatomy, or the various parts of the brain, ...

  20. Anatomy of an entry vehicle experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eide, D. G.; Wurster, K. E.; Helms, V. T.; Ashby, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    The anatomy and evolution of a simple small-scale unmanned entry vehicle is described that is delivered to orbit by the shuttle and entered into the atmosphere from orbit to acquire flight data to improve our knowledge of boundary-layer behavior and evaluate advanced thermal protection systems. The anatomy of the experiment includes the justification for the experiments, instrumentation, configuration, material, and operational needs, and the translation of these needs into a configuration, weight statement, aerodynamics, program cost, and trajectory. Candidates for new instrumentation development are also identified for nonintrusive measurements of the boundary-layer properties.

  1. Evidence-Based Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy is a descriptive basic medical science that is no longer considered a research-led discipline. Many publications in clinical anatomy are prevalence studies treating clinically relevant anatomical variations and reporting their frequencies and/or associations with variables such as age, sex, side, laterality, and ancestry. This article discusses the need to make sense of the available literature. A new concept, evidence-based anatomy (EBA), is proposed to find, appraise, and synthetize the results reported in such publications. It consists in applying evidence-based principles to the field of epidemiological anatomy research through evidence synthesis using systematic reviews and meta-analyses to generate weighted pooled results. Pooled frequencies and associations based on large pooled sample size are likely to be more accurate and to reflect true population statistics and associations more closely. A checklist of a typical systematic review in anatomy is suggested and the implications of EBA for practice and future research, along with its scope, are discussed. The EBA approach would have positive implications for the future preservation of anatomy as a keystone basic science, for sound knowledge of anatomical variants, and for the safety of medical practice. Clin. Anat. 27:847–852, 2014. PMID:24797314

  2. The Breadth of Peer Relationships among Preschoolers: An Application of the Q-Connectivity Method to Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.; Barcelo, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Preschoolers' (M[subscript age]=48.7 months) social breadth (the number of peer children interact with and the frequency of these interactions) and the relations between breadth and externalizing behaviors were examined using the Q-connectivity method. After considering age, sex, and classroom effects on social breadth, children's externalizing…

  3. Photoelastic analysis of biomechanical behavior of single and multiple fixed partial prostheses with different prosthetic connections.

    PubMed

    Tonella, Bianca Piccolotto; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Ferraço, Renato; de Faria Almeida, Daniel Augusto

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution on external hexagon, internal hexagon, and Morse taper implant in single and 3-unit implant-supported fixed partial prostheses (FPPs) using photoelasticity. Six models were fabricated with the photoelastic resin PL-2: 3 models for the 3-unit implant-supported FPP with implants of 4.0 × 10.0 mm in the region of the second premolar and molar including 1 model for each type of implant connection, and 3 models for the single prosthesis for each implant type. The prostheses fabrication was standardized. A circular polariscope was used, and axial and oblique (45 degrees) loads of 100 N were applied in a universal testing machine. The results were photographed and analyzed qualitatively. The internal hexagon implant exhibited better stress distribution and lower intensity of fringes followed by the external hexagon and Morse taper implants for the models with the 3-unit prostheses. For the single implants, the Morse taper implant presented better stress distribution, followed by the internal and external hexagon implants. The oblique loading increased the number of photoelastic fringes in all models. It was concluded that the internal hexagon implant exhibited better biomechanical behavior for the 3-unit implant-supported FPP, whereas the Morse taper implant was more favorable for the single implant-supported prosthesis. The oblique loading increased the stress in all models.

  4. [Laurentius on anatomy].

    PubMed

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-03-01

    Andreas Laurentius wrote Opera anatomica (1593) and Historia anatomica (1600). These books were composed of two types of chapters; 'historia' and 'quaestio'. His description is not original, but take from other anatomists. 'Historia' describes the structure, action and usefulness of the body parts clarified after dissection. 'Quaestio' treats those questions which could not be solved only by dissection. Laurentius cited many previous contradicting interpretations to these questions and choose a best interpretation for the individual questions. In most cases, Laurentius preferred Galen's view. Historia anatomica retained almost all the 'historia' and 'quaestio' from Opera anatomica, and added some new 'historia' and 'quaestio', especially in regard to the components of the body, such as ligaments, membranes, vessels, nerves and glands. Other new 'historia' and 'quaestio' in Historia anatomica concerned several topics on anatomy in general to comprehensively analyze the history of anatomy, methods of anatomy, and usefulness of anatomy. Historia anatomica reviewed what was anatomy by describing in 'historia' what was known and in 'quaestio' what was unresolved. Till now Laurentius's anatomical works have attracted little attention because his description contained few original findings and depended on previous books. However, the important fact that Historia anatomica was very popular in the 17th century tells us that people needed non-original and handbook style of this textbook. Historia anatomica is important for further research on the propagation of anatomical knowledge from professional anatomists to non-professionals in the 17th century.

  5. Exercises in anatomy: cardiac isomerism.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne E; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the patients with the most complex cardiac malformations are those with so-called visceral heterotaxy. At present, it remains a fact that most investigators segregate these patients on the basis of their splenic anatomy, describing syndromes of so-called asplenia and polysplenia. It has also been known for quite some time, nonetheless, that the morphology of the tracheobronchial tree is usually isomeric in the setting of heterotaxy. And it has been shown that the isomerism found in terms of bronchial arrangement correlates in a better fashion with the cardiac anatomy than does the presence of multiple spleens, or the absence of any splenic tissue. In this exercise in anatomy, we use hearts from the Idriss archive of Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to demonstrate the isomeric features found in the hearts obtained from patients known to have had heterotaxy. We first demonstrate the normal arrangements, showing how it is the extent of the pectinate muscles in the atrial appendages relative to the atrioventricular junctions that distinguishes between morphologically right and left atrial chambers. We also show the asymmetry of the normal bronchial tree, and the relationships of the first bronchial branches to the pulmonary arteries supplying the lower lobes of the lungs. We then demonstrate that diagnosis of multiple spleens requires the finding of splenic tissue on either side of the dorsal mesogastrium. Turning to hearts obtained from patients with heterotaxy, we illustrate isomeric right and left atrial appendages. We emphasize that it is only the appendages that are universally isomeric, but point out that other features support the notion of cardiac isomerism. We then show that description also requires a full account of veno-atrial connections, since these can seemingly be mirror-imaged when the arrangement within the heart is one of isomerism of the atrial appendages. We show how failure to recognize the presence of such isomeric

  6. The Drosophila anatomy ontology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anatomy ontologies are query-able classifications of anatomical structures. They provide a widely-used means for standardising the annotation of phenotypes and expression in both human-readable and programmatically accessible forms. They are also frequently used to group annotations in biologically meaningful ways. Accurate annotation requires clear textual definitions for terms, ideally accompanied by images. Accurate grouping and fruitful programmatic usage requires high-quality formal definitions that can be used to automate classification and check for errors. The Drosophila anatomy ontology (DAO) consists of over 8000 classes with broad coverage of Drosophila anatomy. It has been used extensively for annotation by a range of resources, but until recently it was poorly formalised and had few textual definitions. Results We have transformed the DAO into an ontology rich in formal and textual definitions in which the majority of classifications are automated and extensive error checking ensures quality. Here we present an overview of the content of the DAO, the patterns used in its formalisation, and the various uses it has been put to. Conclusions As a result of the work described here, the DAO provides a high-quality, queryable reference for the wild-type anatomy of Drosophila melanogaster and a set of terms to annotate data related to that anatomy. Extensive, well referenced textual definitions make it both a reliable and useful reference and ensure accurate use in annotation. Wide use of formal axioms allows a large proportion of classification to be automated and the use of consistency checking to eliminate errors. This increased formalisation has resulted in significant improvements to the completeness and accuracy of classification. The broad use of both formal and informal definitions make further development of the ontology sustainable and scalable. The patterns of formalisation used in the DAO are likely to be useful to developers of other

  7. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory.

  8. Numerical analysis on seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam to concrete filled steel tubular column connections with ring-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi.; Xu, Li. Hua.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents numerical study of the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam to concrete filled steel tube column connections with ring-beam. The material stress-strain relations, element type and boundary condition are selected, which are consistent with actual situation. Then the seismic behavior of this type of joint are researched by ABAQUS, and finite element analyses are conducted under cyclic loading. Its parameters are discussed including thickness of steel tubular column wall, sectional dimension of the ring-beam and strength of the core concrete. The results show that the ultimate capacity of the connections is improved with sectional dimension of the ring-beam increased. In the meanwhile, the influence on skeleton curve of the joints is slight of which included thickness of steel tubular column wall and strength of the core concrete.

  9. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  10. Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Relation with Infant Frontal Function, Connectivity, and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J.; Poh, Joann S.; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls. PMID:27073881

  11. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    PubMed

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known.

  12. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    PubMed

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known. PMID:26061143

  13. Anatomy of the Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Ralph

    1977-01-01

    In this insect morphology exercise, students study the external anatomy of the worker honeybee. The structures listed and illustrated are discussed in relation to their functions. A goal of the exercise is to establish the bee as a well-adapted, social insect. (MA)

  14. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  15. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  16. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  17. Functional female pelvic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Klutke, C G; Siegel, C L

    1995-08-01

    This article reviews important aspects of female pelvic anatomy with particular emphasis on the structures important for pelvic organ support and urinary control. The pelvis and supporting structures, the pelvic floor, and the relationships of the pelvic organs are described and illustrated by MR imaging.

  18. Changes in functional connectivity correlate with behavioral gains in stroke patients after therapy using a brain-computer interface device.

    PubMed

    Young, Brittany Mei; Nigogosyan, Zack; Remsik, Alexander; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy Farrar; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is being incorporated into new stroke rehabilitation devices, but little is known about brain changes associated with its use. We collected anatomical and functional MRI of nine stroke patients with persistent upper extremity motor impairment before, during, and after therapy using a BCI system. Subjects were asked to perform finger tapping of the impaired hand during fMRI. Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) domains of Hand Function (HF) and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were also assessed. Group-level analyses examined changes in whole-brain task-based functional connectivity (FC) to seed regions in the motor network observed during and after BCI therapy. Whole-brain FC analyses seeded in each thalamus showed FC increases from baseline at mid-therapy and post-therapy (p < 0.05). Changes in FC between seeds at both the network and the connection levels were examined for correlations with changes in behavioral measures. Average motor network FC was increased post-therapy, and changes in average network FC correlated (p < 0.05) with changes in performance on ARAT (R (2) = 0.21), 9-HPT (R (2) = 0.41), SIS HF (R (2) = 0.27), and SIS ADL (R (2) = 0.40). Multiple individual connections within the motor network were found to correlate in change from baseline with changes in behavioral measures. Many of these connections involved the thalamus, with change in each of four behavioral measures significantly correlating with change from baseline FC of at least one thalamic connection. These preliminary results show changes in FC that occur with the administration of rehabilitative therapy using a BCI system. The correlations noted between changes in FC measures and changes in behavioral outcomes indicate that both adaptive and maladaptive changes in FC may develop with this therapy and also suggest a brain-behavior relationship that may be stimulated by the neuromodulatory

  19. Self-organization, preferential flow and rainfall runoff behavior - is there a connection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Erwin; Blume, Theresa; Kleidon, Axel; Ehret, Uwe; Scherer, Ulrike; Westhoff, Martijn

    2013-04-01

    In line with the studies of Kleidon et al. (2012) and Zehe et al. (2010) the proposed study analyzes mass flow related flows of free energy in open hydrological systems - hillslopes and small catchments - using thermodynamics methods. Why a thermodynamic treatment? A small part of the kinetic energy input from incoming rainfall is dissipated into heat and to break up soil aggregates. Depending on the partitioning of the incoming rainfall into overland flow and soil water, the remaining part of the incoming kinetic energy is partly transformed into potential energy of surface water and subsequently partly exported as kinetic energy of overland flow from the system; the rest is dissipated by frictional losses. The other part of rainfall infiltrates thereby increasing potential energy of soil water but depleting at the same time (gradients in) capillary binding energy of soil water, which again comprises energy dissipation into heat of immersion. Although, these mass fluxes are not associated with large heat fluxes, they reflect the overall conservation of energy as well as the second law of thermodynamics. They require thus a thermodynamic treatment, because tiny amounts of kinetic energy, surface energy and potential energy are dissipated into heat: this implies irreversibility and explains why water does not flow uphill. Soil hydraulic equilibrium (HE), arising from a balance in potential and capillary binding energy in soil, can be interpreted as a state of maximum entropy in soil. Soil water potential, defined as sum of matric potential and gravity potential, is in HE equal to zero along the soil profile. This corresponds to a state of maximum entropy due to a zero potential gradient, which implies due to Zehe et al. (2010) a state of minimum (Helmholtz) free energy. Our first main objective is to quantify to which extent connected preferential flow path, in our case vertical macropores and the river network enhance flow velocities at a given driving gradient and

  20. Exploring the Connections between Caring and Social Behaviors in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gano-Overway, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the relationship between the caring climate, empathy, prosocial behaviors, and antisocial behaviors, like bullying, in physical education, plus investigated whether empathy mediated the possible relationships between caring and social behaviors for boys and girls. Method: Middle school physical education students…

  1. Microsurgical anatomy of the trochlear nerve.

    PubMed

    Joo, Wonil; Rhoton, Albert L

    2015-10-01

    The trochlear nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest intracranial course, but also the thinnest. It is the only nerve that arises from the dorsal surface of the brainstem and decussates in the superior medullary velum. After leaving the dorsal surface of the brainstem, it courses anterolaterally around the lateral surface of the brainstem and then passes anteriorly just beneath the free edge of the tentorium. It passes forward to enter the cavernous sinus, traverses the superior orbital fissure and terminates in the superior oblique muscle in the orbit. Because of its small diameter and its long course, the trochlear nerve can easily be injured during surgical procedures. Therefore, precise knowledge of its surgical anatomy and its neurovascular relationships is essential for approaching and removing complex lesions of the orbit and the middle and posterior fossae safely. This review describes the microsurgical anatomy of the trochlear nerve and is illustrated with pictures involving the nerve and its surrounding connective and neurovascular structures.

  2. Thalamocortical functional connectivity and behavioral disruptions in neonates with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Goldman, Barbara D; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) affects neurobehavioral development, however, disentangling direct drug-related mechanisms from contextual effects (e.g., socioeconomic status) has proven challenging in humans. The effects of environmental confounds are minimal immediately after birth thus we aimed to delineate neurobehavioral correlates of PCE in a large cohort of neonates (2-6weeks of age, N=152) with and without drug exposure using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and developmental assessments at 3months with the Bayley Scales of Infant & Toddler Development, 3rd edition. The cohort included healthy controls and neonates with similar poly-drug exposure±cocaine. We focused on the thalamus given its critical importance in early brain development and its unique positioning in the dopamine system. Our results revealed PCE-related hyper-connectivity between the thalamus and frontal regions and a drug-common hypo-connective signature between the thalamus and motor-related regions. PCE-specific neonatal thalamo-frontal connectivity was inversely related to cognitive and fine motor scores and thalamo-motor connectivity showed a positive relationship with composite (gross plus fine) motor scores. Finally, cocaine by selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) interactions were detected, suggesting the combined use of these drugs during pregnancy could have additional consequences on fetal development. Overall, our findings provide the first delineation of PCE-related disruptions of thalamocortical functional connectivity, neurobehavioral correlations, and drug-drug interactions during infancy.

  3. Thalamocortical functional connectivity and behavioral disruptions in neonates with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Goldman, Barbara D; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) affects neurobehavioral development, however, disentangling direct drug-related mechanisms from contextual effects (e.g., socioeconomic status) has proven challenging in humans. The effects of environmental confounds are minimal immediately after birth thus we aimed to delineate neurobehavioral correlates of PCE in a large cohort of neonates (2-6weeks of age, N=152) with and without drug exposure using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and developmental assessments at 3months with the Bayley Scales of Infant & Toddler Development, 3rd edition. The cohort included healthy controls and neonates with similar poly-drug exposure±cocaine. We focused on the thalamus given its critical importance in early brain development and its unique positioning in the dopamine system. Our results revealed PCE-related hyper-connectivity between the thalamus and frontal regions and a drug-common hypo-connective signature between the thalamus and motor-related regions. PCE-specific neonatal thalamo-frontal connectivity was inversely related to cognitive and fine motor scores and thalamo-motor connectivity showed a positive relationship with composite (gross plus fine) motor scores. Finally, cocaine by selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) interactions were detected, suggesting the combined use of these drugs during pregnancy could have additional consequences on fetal development. Overall, our findings provide the first delineation of PCE-related disruptions of thalamocortical functional connectivity, neurobehavioral correlations, and drug-drug interactions during infancy. PMID:27242332

  4. The Architecture of Cross-Hemispheric Communication in the Aging Brain: Linking Behavior to Functional and Structural Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kragel, James E.; Madden, David J.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Contralateral recruitment remains a controversial phenomenon in both the clinical and normative populations. To investigate the neural correlates of this phenomenon, we explored the tendency for older adults to recruit prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions contralateral to those most active in younger adults. Participants were scanned with diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic rresonance imaging during a lateralized word matching task (unilateral vs. bilateral). Cross-hemispheric communication was measured behaviorally as greater accuracy for bilateral than unilateral trials (bilateral processing advantage [BPA]) and at the neural level by functional and structural connectivity between contralateral PFC. Compared with the young, older adults exhibited 1) greater BPAs in the behavioral task, 2) greater compensatory activity in contralateral PFC during the bilateral condition, 3) greater functional connectivity between contralateral PFC during bilateral trials, and 4) a positive correlation between fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum and both the BPA and the functional connectivity between contralateral PFC, indicating that older adults' ability to distribute processing across hemispheres is constrained by white matter integrity. These results clarify how older adults’ ability to recruit extra regions in response to the demands of aging is mediated by existing structural architecture, and how this architecture engenders corresponding functional changes that allow subjects to meet those task demands. PMID:21653286

  5. Human ocular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes.

  6. [Anatomy of the skull].

    PubMed

    Pásztor, Emil

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the human body based on a special teleological system is one of the greatest miracles of the world. The skull's primary function is the defence of the brain, so every alteration or disease of the brain results in some alteration of the skull. This analogy is to be identified even in the human embryo. Proportions of the 22 bones constituting the skull and of sizes of sutures are not only the result of the phylogeny, but those of the ontogeny as well. E.g. the age of the skeletons in archaeological findings could be identified according to these facts. Present paper outlines the ontogeny and development of the tissues of the skull, of the structure of the bone-tissue, of the changes of the size of the skull and of its parts during the different periods of human life, reflecting to the aesthetics of the skull as well. "Only the human scull can give me an impression of beauty. In spite of all genetical colseness, a skull of a chimpanzee cannot impress me aesthetically"--author confesses. In the second part of the treatise those authors are listed, who contributed to the perfection of our knowledge regarding the skull. First of all the great founder of modern anatomy, Andreas Vesalius, then Pierre Paul Broca, Jacob Benignus Winslow are mentioned here. The most important Hungarian contributors were as follow: Sámuel Rácz, Pál Bugát or--the former assistant of Broca--Aurél Török. A widely used tool for measurement of the size of the skull, the craniometer was invented by the latter. The members of the family Lenhossék have had also important results in this field of research, while descriptive anatomy of the skull was completed by microsopical anatomy thanks the activity of Géza Mihálkovits. PMID:21661257

  7. Hepatic surgical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Mirilas, Petros

    2004-04-01

    The liver, the largest organ in the body, has been misunderstood at nearly all levels of organization, and there is a tendency to ignore details that do not fit the preconception. A complete presentation of the surgical anatomy of the liver includes the study of hepatic surfaces, margins, and fissures; the various classifications of lobes and segments; and the vasculature and lymphatics. A brief overview of the intrahepatic biliary tract is also presented.

  8. [Anatomy of the skull].

    PubMed

    Pásztor, Emil

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the human body based on a special teleological system is one of the greatest miracles of the world. The skull's primary function is the defence of the brain, so every alteration or disease of the brain results in some alteration of the skull. This analogy is to be identified even in the human embryo. Proportions of the 22 bones constituting the skull and of sizes of sutures are not only the result of the phylogeny, but those of the ontogeny as well. E.g. the age of the skeletons in archaeological findings could be identified according to these facts. Present paper outlines the ontogeny and development of the tissues of the skull, of the structure of the bone-tissue, of the changes of the size of the skull and of its parts during the different periods of human life, reflecting to the aesthetics of the skull as well. "Only the human scull can give me an impression of beauty. In spite of all genetical colseness, a skull of a chimpanzee cannot impress me aesthetically"--author confesses. In the second part of the treatise those authors are listed, who contributed to the perfection of our knowledge regarding the skull. First of all the great founder of modern anatomy, Andreas Vesalius, then Pierre Paul Broca, Jacob Benignus Winslow are mentioned here. The most important Hungarian contributors were as follow: Sámuel Rácz, Pál Bugát or--the former assistant of Broca--Aurél Török. A widely used tool for measurement of the size of the skull, the craniometer was invented by the latter. The members of the family Lenhossék have had also important results in this field of research, while descriptive anatomy of the skull was completed by microsopical anatomy thanks the activity of Géza Mihálkovits.

  9. School Counselors Connecting the Dots between Disruptive Classroom Behavior and Youth Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidell, Markus P.; Deacon, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Students exhibiting emotional and behavioral problems in the classroom can significantly impact the learning environment and often are referred to school counselors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between high school students' self-concept and disruptive classroom behaviors (DCB). High school students (N = 92)…

  10. Connection between Exposure to Internet Content and Violent Behavior among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perišin, Dijana; Opic, Siniša

    2013-01-01

    Internet allows great interaction between real and perceived anonymous environment. Adolescents, acting under the assumption of anonymity show different patterns of behavior, which has lead to a new form of violence: cyberbullying. There is a possibility of both positive and negative behavior in virtual space, however, the negative side of the…

  11. [Interaction of forward and backward conditioned connections as the neurophysiologic basis of the motivation for behavior].

    PubMed

    Simonov, P V

    1983-01-01

    Motivation is defined as a physiological mechanism of activation of traces, kept in memory (engramms) of those external objects which can satisfy the organism's need and those actions which can satisfy it. In the last years E. A. Asratyan advanced and substantiated the concept that the physiological mechanism of motivation is based on the interaction of forward and backward conditioned connections where the backward connection is an activating influence of reinforcing reflex on the structures receiving conditioned signal and achieving the action which was earlier followed by reinforcement. It is experimentally shown that the appearance and extent of the backward conditioned connections generalization depend on the degree of motivational excitation. The backward conditioned connection is a specialized Ukchtomsky's dominant in the functional structure of the consolidated conditioned reflex, which makes the behaviour goaldirected and active. Thus, fundamental phenomena lay in the basis of behaviour: dominant and conditioned reflex--discovered and introduced in the science by A. A. Ukchtomsky and I. P. Pavlov. In the individual adaptive behaviour the dominant and conditioned reflex play the same role as variability and selection in the process of evolutionary adaptation. That is why the suggestion made by K. Popper and J. Eccles (1977) to replace Pavlov's theory of conditioned reflexes by the hypotheses theory is unfounded.

  12. Improving Transition Behavior in Students with Disabilities Using a Multimedia Personal Development Program: Check and Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Sue E.

    2004-01-01

    This article evaluates Check and Connect (Hoppe & Bray, 2000), a computer-assisted learning program funded by a competitive subgrant under the "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Part B" (ages 3-21). The program targeted 20 students in high school with disabilities categorized as "learning disabilities," "other health impairment,"…

  13. The Nature Relatedness Scale: Linking Individuals' Connection with Nature to Environmental Concern and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Elizabeth K.; Zelenski, John M.; Murphy, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Disconnection from the natural world may be contributing to our planet's destruction. The authors propose a new construct, Nature Relatedness (NR), and a scale that assesses the affective, cognitive, and experiential aspects of individuals' connection to nature. In Study 1, the authors explored the internal structure of the NR item responses in a…

  14. Reading to Understand Anatomy: A Literature Circle Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calmer, Joseph; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    As a science teacher, I regularly use outside reading assignments (e.g., news articles) to help develop my students' understanding of topics addressed in my anatomy class. However, I have found that in simply reading texts, students often fail to (1) understand the context of the science discussed, (2) make the connections between ideas…

  15. A Cascade Model Connecting Life Stress to Risk Behavior Among Rural African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  16. Structural and functional analysis of single neurons to correlate synaptic connectivity with grooming behavior.

    PubMed

    Kays, Ibrahim; Cvetkovska, Vedrana; Chen, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    We describe a protocol to image the complex axonal branching structure of identified mechanosensory neurons in Drosophila, combined with a behavioral assay to evaluate the functional output of the neuron. The stimulation of identified mechanosensory neurons in live animals produces a stereotyped grooming reflex. The mechanosensory axonal arbor within the CNS is subsequently labeled with a lipophilic fluorescent dye and imaged by fluorescence microscopy. The behavioral output can therefore be correlated to the axonal morphology of the stimulated neuron in the same animal. Combining this protocol with genetic analysis provides a powerful tool for identifying the roles of molecules involved in different aspects of hard-wired neural circuit formation underlying an innate behavior. From behavioral analysis to axonal imaging, the protocol takes 4 d.

  17. Anatomy relevant to conservative mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the nipple and breast skin is fundamental to any surgeon practicing conservative mastectomies. In this paper, the relevant clinical anatomy will be described, mainly focusing on the anatomy of the “oncoplastic plane”, the ducts and the vasculature. We will also cover more briefly the nerve supply and the arrangement of smooth muscle of the nipple. Finally the lymphatic drainage of the nipple and areola will be described. An appreciation of the relevant anatomy, together with meticulous surgical technique may minimise local recurrence and ischaemic complications. PMID:26645002

  18. Anatomy relevant to conservative mastectomy.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the nipple and breast skin is fundamental to any surgeon practicing conservative mastectomies. In this paper, the relevant clinical anatomy will be described, mainly focusing on the anatomy of the "oncoplastic plane", the ducts and the vasculature. We will also cover more briefly the nerve supply and the arrangement of smooth muscle of the nipple. Finally the lymphatic drainage of the nipple and areola will be described. An appreciation of the relevant anatomy, together with meticulous surgical technique may minimise local recurrence and ischaemic complications. PMID:26645002

  19. Awareness of Emotional Stimuli Determines the Behavioral Consequences of Amygdala Activation and Amygdala-Prefrontal Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Lapate, R. C.; Rokers, B.; Tromp, D. P. M.; Orfali, N. S.; Oler, J. A.; Doran, S. T.; Adluru, N.; Alexander, A. L.; Davidson, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Conscious awareness of negative cues is thought to enhance emotion-regulatory capacity, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS) in the MRI scanner, we manipulated visual awareness of fearful faces during an affect misattribution paradigm, in which preferences for neutral objects can be biased by the valence of a previously presented stimulus. The amygdala responded to fearful faces independently of awareness. However, when awareness of fearful faces was prevented, individuals with greater amygdala responses displayed a negative bias toward unrelated novel neutral faces. In contrast, during the aware condition, inverse coupling between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex reduced this bias, particularly among individuals with higher structural connectivity in the major white matter pathway connecting the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Collectively, these results indicate that awareness promotes the function of a critical emotion-regulatory network targeting the amygdala, providing a mechanistic account for the role of awareness in emotion regulation. PMID:27181344

  20. Functional connectivity from a reef fish perspective: behavioral tactics for moving in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Katrine; Robillard, Audrey; Grégoire, Jacinthe; Duclos, Vanessa; Kramer, Donald L

    2010-11-01

    Functional connectivity, the degree to which the landscape facilitates or impedes movement, depends on how animals perceive costs and benefits associated with habitat features and integrate them into a movement path. There have been few studies on functional connectivity in marine organisms, despite its importance for the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas. In this study, we asked how open sand and conspecific distribution affected functional connectivity of longfin damselfish (Stegastes diencaeus) on fringing reefs in Barbados. We translocated 102 individuals to sites varying in sand gap width and in configuration: Continuous (solid reef between release site and territory); Detour (sand along the direct path between release site and territory, but an alternative, continuous solid U-shaped reef path); and Patch (sand between release site and territory, but an alternative stepping stone path). We visually tracked and mapped every homing path. We found no evidence of a barrier to movement in the Continuous configuration, but sand was a partial barrier in Detour and Patch configurations. The probability of crossing the sand gap dropped below 50% when its width was > 1.85 m in Detour and > 3.90 m in Patch configuration. Damselfish avoiding large gaps took detours that approximated the route maximizing travel over reef, but they crossed more short sand gaps and fewer conspecific territories, suggesting avoidance of agonistic interactions. This study quantifies for the first time the size and steepness of a barrier to movement in a marine organism, and it provides evidence for effects of both landscape configuration and conspecific distribution on functional connectivity. PMID:21141194

  1. Central Thalamic Deep-Brain Stimulation Alters Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Cognitive Neural Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Ching; Pan, Han-Chi; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shen, Elise Ting-Hsin; Liao, Lun-De; Liao, Pei-Han; Chien, Yi-Wei; Liao, Kuei-Da; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chu, Kai-Wen; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, You-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT-DBS) has been proposed as an experimental therapeutic approach to produce consistent sustained regulation of forebrain arousal for several neurological diseases. We investigated local field potentials (LFPs) induced by CT-DBS from the thalamic central lateral nuclei (CL) and the striatum as potential biomarkers for the enhancement of lever-pressing skill learning. LFPs were simultaneously recorded from multiple sites in the CL, ventral striatum (Vstr), and dorsal striatum (Dstr). LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed and compared between the CT-DBS and sham control groups. The theta and alpha LFP oscillations were significantly increased in the CL and striatum in the CT-DBS group. Furthermore, interhemispheric coherences between bilateral CL and striatum were increased in the theta band. Additionally, enhancement of c-Fos activity, dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2), and α4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4-nAChR) occurred after CT-DBS treatment in the striatum and hippocampus. CT-DBS strengthened thalamic-striatal functional connectivity, which demonstrates that the inter-regional connectivity enhancement might contribute to synaptic plasticity in the striatum. Altered dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors resulted in modulation of striatal synaptic plasticity's ability to regulate downstream signaling cascades for higher brain functions of lever-pressing skill learning. PMID:26793069

  2. Reentrant Behavior in A Multi-connected Superconducting Jaynes-Cummings Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lin; Seo, Kangjun

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting quantum devices have excellent connectivity, tunable coupling and long decoherence time as demonstrated by recent experiments. These devices provide a powerful platform for constructing analog quantum simulators to study novel many-body effects. Here we present a multi-connected Jaynes-Cummings lattice model, where the qubits and the resonators are connected alternatively. In a one-dimensional configuration, this model bears an intrinsic symmetry between the left and the right qubit-resonator couplings under a mirror reflection. Different from the coupled cavity array (CCA) model, the qubit-resonator couplings in this model induce both onsite Hubbard nonlinearity and hopping of the excitations along the lattice. By analyzing this model in the limiting cases of very different couplings, we show that this model demonstrates a Mott insulator-superfluid-Mott insulator transition at commensurate fillings with symmetric critical points. The reentry to the Mott insulator phase originates from the symmetry between the couplings. This work is supported by the NSF Award 0956064.

  3. Central Thalamic Deep-Brain Stimulation Alters Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Cognitive Neural Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ching; Pan, Han-Chi; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shen, Elise Ting-Hsin; Liao, Lun-De; Liao, Pei-Han; Chien, Yi-Wei; Liao, Kuei-Da; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chu, Kai-Wen; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, You-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT-DBS) has been proposed as an experimental therapeutic approach to produce consistent sustained regulation of forebrain arousal for several neurological diseases. We investigated local field potentials (LFPs) induced by CT-DBS from the thalamic central lateral nuclei (CL) and the striatum as potential biomarkers for the enhancement of lever-pressing skill learning. LFPs were simultaneously recorded from multiple sites in the CL, ventral striatum (Vstr), and dorsal striatum (Dstr). LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed and compared between the CT-DBS and sham control groups. The theta and alpha LFP oscillations were significantly increased in the CL and striatum in the CT-DBS group. Furthermore, interhemispheric coherences between bilateral CL and striatum were increased in the theta band. Additionally, enhancement of c-Fos activity, dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2), and α4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4-nAChR) occurred after CT-DBS treatment in the striatum and hippocampus. CT-DBS strengthened thalamic-striatal functional connectivity, which demonstrates that the inter-regional connectivity enhancement might contribute to synaptic plasticity in the striatum. Altered dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors resulted in modulation of striatal synaptic plasticity's ability to regulate downstream signaling cascades for higher brain functions of lever-pressing skill learning. PMID:26793069

  4. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  5. Who is repeating anatomy? Trends in an undergraduate anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Audra F

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study, remediation rates and trends in an undergraduate anatomy course with over 400 students enrolled each semester at a large Midwestern university were identified. Demographic data was collected from spring 2004 to spring 2010, including students' age, ethnicity, major of study, class standing, college admission tests (ACT and SAT®) scores, anatomy laboratory and lecture examination scores, and final anatomy grades for each semester. Eleven percent of the students repeated the course at least once. Gender, ethnicity, major of study and SAT scores were all shown to be associated with whether or not a student would need to repeat the course. On average, students who repeated anatomy demonstrated significant improvements in lecture and laboratory scores when comparing first and second enrollments in anatomy, and therefore also saw improved final course grades in their second enrollment. These findings will aid future instructors to identify and assist at-risk students to succeed in anatomy. Instructors from other institutions may also find the results to be useful for identifying students at risk for struggling.

  6. The anatomy of anatomy: a review for its modernization.

    PubMed

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience. Moreover, modern medical curricula are giving less importance to anatomy education and to the acknowledged value of dissection. Universities have even abandoned dissection completely in favor of user-friendly multimedia, alternative teaching approaches, and newly defined priorities in clinical practice. Anatomy curriculum is undergoing international reformation but the current framework lacks uniformity among institutions. Optimal learning content can be categorized into the following modalities: (1) dissection/prosection, (2) interactive multimedia, (3) procedural anatomy, (4) surface and clinical anatomy, and (5) imaging. The importance of multimodal teaching, with examples suggested in this article, has been widely recognized and assessed. Nevertheless, there are still ongoing limitations in anatomy teaching. Substantial problems consist of diminished allotted dissection time and the number of qualified anatomy instructors, which will eventually deteriorate the quality of education. Alternative resources and strategies are discussed in an attempt to tackle these genuine concerns. The challenges are to reinstate more effective teaching and learning tools while maintaining the beneficial values of orthodox dissection. The UK has a reputable medical education but its quality could be improved by observing international frameworks. The heavy penalty of not concentrating on sufficient anatomy education will inevitably lead to incompetent anatomists and healthcare professionals, leaving patients to face dire repercussions.

  7. Functional Genetic Variation of the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Cannabis Use Interact on Prefrontal Connectivity and Related Working Memory Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Colizzi, Marco; Fazio, Leonardo; Ferranti, Laura; Porcelli, Annamaria; Masellis, Rita; Marvulli, Daniela; Bonvino, Aurora; Ursini, Gianluca; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid signaling is involved in different brain functions and it is mediated by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1), which is encoded by the CNR1 gene. Previous evidence suggests an association between cognition and cannabis use. The logical interaction between genetically determined cannabinoid signaling and cannabis use has not been determined. Therefore, we investigated whether CNR1 variation predicts CNR1 prefrontal mRNA expression in postmortem prefrontal human tissue. Then, we studied whether functional variation in CNR1 and cannabis exposure interact in modulating prefrontal function and related behavior during working memory processing. Thus, 208 healthy subjects (113 males) were genotyped for the relevant functional SNP and were evaluated for cannabis use by the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. All individuals performed the 2-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. CNR1 rs1406977 was associated with prefrontal mRNA and individuals carrying a G allele had reduced CNR1 prefrontal mRNA levels compared with AA subjects. Moreover, functional connectivity MRI demonstrated that G carriers who were also cannabis users had greater functional connectivity in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and reduced working memory behavioral accuracy during the 2-back task compared with the other groups. Overall, our results indicate that the deleterious effects of cannabis use are more evident on a specific genetic background related to its receptor expression. PMID:25139064

  8. Functional genetic variation of the cannabinoid receptor 1 and cannabis use interact on prefrontal connectivity and related working memory behavior.

    PubMed

    Colizzi, Marco; Fazio, Leonardo; Ferranti, Laura; Porcelli, Annamaria; Masellis, Rita; Marvulli, Daniela; Bonvino, Aurora; Ursini, Gianluca; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    Cannabinoid signaling is involved in different brain functions and it is mediated by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1), which is encoded by the CNR1 gene. Previous evidence suggests an association between cognition and cannabis use. The logical interaction between genetically determined cannabinoid signaling and cannabis use has not been determined. Therefore, we investigated whether CNR1 variation predicts CNR1 prefrontal mRNA expression in postmortem prefrontal human tissue. Then, we studied whether functional variation in CNR1 and cannabis exposure interact in modulating prefrontal function and related behavior during working memory processing. Thus, 208 healthy subjects (113 males) were genotyped for the relevant functional SNP and were evaluated for cannabis use by the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. All individuals performed the 2-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. CNR1 rs1406977 was associated with prefrontal mRNA and individuals carrying a G allele had reduced CNR1 prefrontal mRNA levels compared with AA subjects. Moreover, functional connectivity MRI demonstrated that G carriers who were also cannabis users had greater functional connectivity in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and reduced working memory behavioral accuracy during the 2-back task compared with the other groups. Overall, our results indicate that the deleterious effects of cannabis use are more evident on a specific genetic background related to its receptor expression. PMID:25139064

  9. Brain anatomy in Diplura (Hexapoda)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the past decade neuroanatomy has proved to be a valuable source of character systems that provide insights into arthropod relationships. Since the most detailed description of dipluran brain anatomy dates back to Hanström (1940) we re-investigated the brains of Campodea augens and Catajapyx aquilonaris with modern neuroanatomical techniques. The analyses are based on antibody staining and 3D reconstruction of the major neuropils and tracts from semi-thin section series. Results Remarkable features of the investigated dipluran brains are a large central body, which is organized in nine columns and three layers, and well developed mushroom bodies with calyces receiving input from spheroidal olfactory glomeruli in the deutocerebrum. Antibody staining against a catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (DC0) was used to further characterize the mushroom bodies. The japygid Catajapyx aquilonaris possesses mushroom bodies which are connected across the midline, a unique condition within hexapods. Conclusions Mushroom body and central body structure shows a high correspondence between japygids and campodeids. Some unique features indicate that neuroanatomy further supports the monophyly of Diplura. In a broader phylogenetic context, however, the polarization of brain characters becomes ambiguous. The mushroom bodies and the central body of Diplura in several aspects resemble those of Dicondylia, suggesting homology. In contrast, Archaeognatha completely lack mushroom bodies and exhibit a central body organization reminiscent of certain malacostracan crustaceans. Several hypotheses of brain evolution at the base of the hexapod tree are discussed. PMID:23050723

  10. Unlearning chronic pain: A randomized controlled trial to investigate changes in intrinsic brain connectivity following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shpaner, Marina; Kelly, Clare; Lieberman, Greg; Perelman, Hayley; Davis, Marcia; Keefe, Francis J.; Naylor, Magdalena R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a complex physiological and psychological phenomenon. Implicit learning mechanisms contribute to the development of chronic pain and to persistent changes in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that these central abnormalities can be remedied with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Specifically, since regions of the anterior Default Mode Network (DMN) are centrally involved in emotional regulation via connections with limbic regions, such as the amygdala, remediation of maladaptive behavioral and cognitive patterns as a result of CBT for chronic pain would manifest itself as a change in the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between these prefrontal and limbic regions. Resting-state functional neuroimaging was performed in patients with chronic pain before and after 11-week CBT (n = 19), as well as a matched (ages 19–59, both sexes) active control group of patients who received educational materials (n = 19). Participants were randomized prior to the intervention. To investigate the differential impact of treatment on intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC), we compared pre–post differences in iFC between groups. In addition, we performed exploratory whole brain analyses of changes in fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). The course of CBT led to significant improvements in clinical measures of pain and self-efficacy for coping with chronic pain. Significant group differences in pre–post changes in both iFC and fALFF were correlated with clinical outcomes. Compared to control patients, iFC between the anterior DMN and the amygdala/periaqueductal gray decreased following CBT, whereas iFC between the basal ganglia network and the right secondary somatosensory cortex increased following CBT. CBT patients also had increased post-therapy fALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate and the cerebellum. By delineating neuroplasticity associated with CBT-related improvements, these results add to mounting evidence

  11. Unlearning chronic pain: A randomized controlled trial to investigate changes in intrinsic brain connectivity following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Shpaner, Marina; Kelly, Clare; Lieberman, Greg; Perelman, Hayley; Davis, Marcia; Keefe, Francis J; Naylor, Magdalena R

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a complex physiological and psychological phenomenon. Implicit learning mechanisms contribute to the development of chronic pain and to persistent changes in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that these central abnormalities can be remedied with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Specifically, since regions of the anterior Default Mode Network (DMN) are centrally involved in emotional regulation via connections with limbic regions, such as the amygdala, remediation of maladaptive behavioral and cognitive patterns as a result of CBT for chronic pain would manifest itself as a change in the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between these prefrontal and limbic regions. Resting-state functional neuroimaging was performed in patients with chronic pain before and after 11-week CBT (n = 19), as well as a matched (ages 19-59, both sexes) active control group of patients who received educational materials (n = 19). Participants were randomized prior to the intervention. To investigate the differential impact of treatment on intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC), we compared pre-post differences in iFC between groups. In addition, we performed exploratory whole brain analyses of changes in fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). The course of CBT led to significant improvements in clinical measures of pain and self-efficacy for coping with chronic pain. Significant group differences in pre-post changes in both iFC and fALFF were correlated with clinical outcomes. Compared to control patients, iFC between the anterior DMN and the amygdala/periaqueductal gray decreased following CBT, whereas iFC between the basal ganglia network and the right secondary somatosensory cortex increased following CBT. CBT patients also had increased post-therapy fALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate and the cerebellum. By delineating neuroplasticity associated with CBT-related improvements, these results add to mounting evidence that CBT

  12. [Anatomy and anthropology].

    PubMed

    Nikitiuk, B A

    1980-09-01

    Methodological aspects of anatomy and anthropology are discussed as systems of sciences in their formation. The base of these systems is the laws of materialist dialectics on the unity of the structure and function and on relation of the social to the biological as hierarchically highest form of the matter movement towards the lowest form. In this classification of the systems of anthropological and anatomical sciences a heliocentric principle is used. Tasks of the bordering sciences--anatomical anthropology are considered. Its task is to study forms and factors on anatomical changeability of the organism.

  13. Increases in frontostriatal connectivity are associated with response to dorsomedial repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory binge/purge behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Katharine; Woodside, Blake; Lam, Eileen; Olmsted, Marion; Colton, Patricia; Giacobbe, Peter; Downar, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional treatments for eating disorders are associated with poor response rates and frequent relapse. Novel treatments are needed, in combination with markers to characterize and predict treatment response. Here, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to identify predictors and correlates of response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) at 10 Hz for eating disorders with refractory binge/purge symptomatology. Methods 28 subjects with anorexia nervosa, binge−purge subtype or bulimia nervosa underwent 20–30 sessions of 10 Hz dmPFC rTMS. rs-fMRI data were collected before and after rTMS. Subjects were stratified into responder and nonresponder groups using a criterion of ≥50% reduction in weekly binge/purge frequency. Neural predictors and correlates of response were identified using seed-based functional connectivity (FC), using the dmPFC and adjacent dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as regions of interest. Results 16 of 28 subjects met response criteria. Treatment responders had lower baseline FC from dmPFC to lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right posterior insula, and from dACC to right posterior insula and hippocampus. Responders had low baseline FC from the dACC to the ventral striatum and anterior insula; this connectivity increased over treatment. However, in nonresponders, frontostriatal FC was high at baseline, and dmPFC-rTMS suppressed FC in association with symptomatic worsening. Conclusions Enhanced frontostriatal connectivity was associated with responders to dmPFC-rTMS for binge/purge behavior. rTMS caused paradoxical suppression of frontostriatal connectivity in nonresponders. rs-fMRI could prove critical for optimizing stimulation parameters in a future sham-controlled trial of rTMS in disordered eating. PMID:26199873

  14. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  15. A Pilot Study Connecting Youth with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties to Summer Work Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Ditchman, Nicole; Owens, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential contributions of adolescent employment to postschool success, many youth who experience emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD) do not access these opportunities. This intervention study examined the effects of a package of strategies designed to increase access to summer work experiences. Fifty-seven youth with EBD from…

  16. On the buckling behavior of connected carbon nanotubes with parallel longitudinal axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imani Yengejeh, Sadegh; Akbar Zadeh, Mojtaba; Öchsner, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    The application of hetero-junction carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is increasing continuously due to their outstanding properties in nano-mechanical systems. Several investigations have been conducted to study the behavior of CNTs. In this paper, straight hetero-junctions and their constituent CNTs (armchair and zigzag) were simulated by a commercial finite element package. Then, the buckling behavior of CNTs was evaluated by comparing the critical buckling load of each straight hetero-junction and its constituent CNTs. Both obtained, i.e. analytical calculations and computational, results were compared. The investigations showed that, first, the behavior of homogeneous CNTs under cantilevered boundary conditions follows the assumption of the classical Euler equation. Second, the analytical solutions are in good agreement with the finite element simulation results. In addition, it was shown that the first critical buckling load of hetero-junctions lies within the value of the fundamental homogeneous CNT range. It was also concluded that the buckling load of straight hetero-junctions and their fundamental CNTs increases by increasing the chiral number of both armchair and zigzag CNTs. The current study provides a better insight towards the prediction of straight hetero-junction CNTs behavior.

  17. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw and label…

  18. How Much Anatomy Is Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Esther M.; Prince, Katinka J. A. H.; Drukker, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Innovations in undergraduate medical education, such as integration of disciplines and problem based learning, have given rise to concerns about students' knowledge of anatomy. This article originated from several studies investigating the knowledge of anatomy of students at the eight Dutch medical schools. The studies showed that undergraduate…

  19. Radiological sinonasal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Alrumaih, Redha A.; Ashoor, Mona M.; Obidan, Ahmed A.; Al-Khater, Khulood M.; Al-Jubran, Saeed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of common radiological variants of sinonasal anatomy among Saudi population and compare it with the reported prevalence of these variants in other ethnic and population groups. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 121 computerized tomography scans of the nose and paranasal sinuses of patients presented with sinonasal symptoms to the Department of Otorhinolarngology, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between January 2014 and May 2014. Results: Scans of 121 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria were reviewed. Concha bullosa was found in 55.4%, Haller cell in 39.7%, and Onodi cell in 28.9%. Dehiscence of the internal carotid artery was found in 1.65%. Type-1 and type-2 optic nerve were the prevalent types. Type-II Keros classification of the depth of olfactory fossa was the most common among the sample (52.9%). Frontal cells were found in 79.3%; type I was the most common. Conclusions: There is a difference in the prevalence of some radiological variants of the sinonasal anatomy between Saudi population and other study groups. Surgeon must pay special attention in the preoperative assessment of patients with sinonasal pathology to avoid undesirable complications. PMID:27146614

  20. Determination of the posterior boundary of Wernicke's area based on multimodal connectivity profiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaojian; Fan, Lingzhong; Wang, Yinyan; Xu, Wenting; Jiang, Tao; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-05-01

    Wernicke's area is one of the most important language regions and has been widely studied in both basic research and clinical neurology. However, its exact anatomy has been controversial. In this study, we proposed to address the anatomy of Wernicke's area by investigating different connectivity profiles. First, the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG), traditionally called "Wernicke's area", was parcellated into three component subregions with diffusion MRI. Then, whole-brain anatomical connectivity, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) analyses were used to establish the anatomical, resting-state and task-related coactivation network of each subregion to identify which subregions participated in the language network. In addition, behavioral domain analysis, meta-analyses of semantics, execution speech, and phonology and intraoperative electrical stimulation were used to determine which subregions were involved in language processing. Anatomical connectivity, RSFC and MACM analyses consistently identified that the two anterior subregions in the posterior STG primarily participated in the language network, whereas the most posterior subregion in the temporoparietal junction area primarily participated in the default mode network. Moreover, the behavioral domain analyses, meta-analyses of semantics, execution speech and phonology and intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping also confirmed that only the two anterior subregions were involved in language processing, whereas the most posterior subregion primarily participated in social cognition. Our findings revealed a convergent posterior anatomical border for Wernicke's area and indicated that the brain's functional subregions can be identified on the basis of its specific structural and functional connectivity patterns.

  1. Infiltration experiments demonstrate an explicit connection between heterogeneity and anomalous diffusion behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipovitch, N.; Hill, K. M.; Longjas, A.; Voller, V. R.

    2016-07-01

    Transport in systems containing heterogeneity distributed over multiple length scales can exhibit anomalous diffusion behaviors, where the time exponent, determining the spreading length scale of the transported scalar, differs from the expected value of n=1/2. Here we present experimental measurements of the infiltration of glycerin, under a fixed pressure head, into a Hele-Shaw cell containing a 3-D printed distribution of flow obstacles; a system that is an analog for infiltration into a porous medium. In support of previously presented direct simulation results, we experimentally demonstrate that, when the obstacles are distributed as a fractal carpet with fractal dimension H < 2, the averaged progress of infiltration exhibits a subdiffusive behavior n<1/2. We further show that observed values of the subdiffusion time exponent appear to be quadratically related to the fractal dimension of the carpet.

  2. The Relationship between Frontotemporal Effective Connectivity during Picture Naming, Behavior, and Preserved Cortical Tissue in Chronic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Erin L.; Kapse, Kushal J.; Kiran, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    While several studies of task-based effective connectivity of normal language processing exist, little is known about the functional reorganization of language networks in patients with stroke-induced chronic aphasia. During oral picture naming, activation in neurologically intact individuals is found in “classic” language regions involved with retrieval of lexical concepts [e.g., left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG)], word form encoding [e.g., left posterior superior temporal gyrus, (LpSTG)], and controlled retrieval of semantic and phonological information [e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG)] as well as domain-general regions within the multiple demands network [e.g., left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG)]. After stroke, lesions to specific parts of the left hemisphere language network force reorganization of this system. While individuals with aphasia have been found to recruit similar regions for language tasks as healthy controls, the relationship between the dynamic functioning of the language network and individual differences in underlying neural structure and behavioral performance is still unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate differences between individuals with aphasia and healthy controls in terms of task-induced regional interactions between three regions (i.e., LIFG, LMFG, and LMTG) vital for picture naming. The DCM model space was organized according to exogenous input to these regions and partitioned into separate families. At the model level, random effects family wise Bayesian Model Selection revealed that models with driving input to LIFG best fit the control data whereas models with driving input to LMFG best fit the patient data. At the parameter level, a significant between-group difference in the connection strength from LMTG to LIFG was seen. Within the patient group, several significant relationships between network connectivity parameters, spared cortical tissue, and behavior were

  3. Contribution of collagen and elastin fibers to the mechanical behavior of an abdominal connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Levillain, A; Orhant, M; Turquier, F; Hoc, T

    2016-08-01

    The linea alba is a complex structure commonly involved in hernia formation. Knowledge of its mechanical behavior is essential to design suitable meshes and reduce the risk of recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between the mechanical properties of the linea alba and the organization of collagen and elastin fibers. For that purpose, longitudinal and transversal samples were removed from four porcine and three human linea alba, to perform tensile tests under a biphotonic confocal microscope, in each direction. Microscopic observation revealed a tissue composed of two layers, made of transversal collagen fibers in the dorsal side and oblique collagen fibers in the ventral side. This particular architecture led to an anisotropic mechanical behavior, with higher stress in the transversal direction. During loading, oblique fibers of the ventral layer reoriented toward the tensile axis in both directions, while fibers of the dorsal layer remained in the transversal direction. This rotation of oblique fibers progressively increased the stiffness of the tissue and induced a non-linear stress-stretch relation. Elastin fibers formed a layer covering the collagen fibers and followed their movement, suggesting that they ensure their elastic recoil. All of these results demonstrated the strong relationships between the microstructure and the mechanical behavior of the linea alba.

  4. Can Text Messages Increase Empathy and Prosocial Behavior? The Development and Initial Validation of Text to Connect

    PubMed Central

    Konrath, Sara; Falk, Emily; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Liu, Mary; Swain, James; Tolman, Richard; Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    To what extent can simple mental exercises cause shifts in empathic habits? Can we use mobile technology to make people more empathic? It may depend on how empathy is measured. Scholars have identified a number of different facets and correlates of empathy. This study is among the first to take a comprehensive, multidimensional approach to empathy to determine how empathy training could affect these different facets and correlates. In doing so, we can learn more about empathy and its multifaceted nature. Participants (N = 90) were randomly assigned to receive either an empathy-building text message program (Text to Connect) or one of two control conditions (active versus passive). Respondents completed measures of dispositional empathy (i.e. self-perceptions of being an empathic person), affective empathy (i.e. motivations to help, immediate feelings of empathic concern), and prosocial behavior (i.e. self-reports and observer-reports) at baseline, and then again after the 14 day intervention period. We found that empathy-building messages increased affective indicators of empathy and prosocial behaviors, but actually decreased self-perceptions of empathy, relative to control messages. Although the brief text messaging intervention did not consistently impact empathy-related personality traits, it holds promise for the use of mobile technology for changing empathic motivations and behaviors. PMID:26356504

  5. Can Text Messages Increase Empathy and Prosocial Behavior? The Development and Initial Validation of Text to Connect.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Sara; Falk, Emily; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Liu, Mary; Swain, James; Tolman, Richard; Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    To what extent can simple mental exercises cause shifts in empathic habits? Can we use mobile technology to make people more empathic? It may depend on how empathy is measured. Scholars have identified a number of different facets and correlates of empathy. This study is among the first to take a comprehensive, multidimensional approach to empathy to determine how empathy training could affect these different facets and correlates. In doing so, we can learn more about empathy and its multifaceted nature. Participants (N = 90) were randomly assigned to receive either an empathy-building text message program (Text to Connect) or one of two control conditions (active versus passive). Respondents completed measures of dispositional empathy (i.e. self-perceptions of being an empathic person), affective empathy (i.e. motivations to help, immediate feelings of empathic concern), and prosocial behavior (i.e. self-reports and observer-reports) at baseline, and then again after the 14 day intervention period. We found that empathy-building messages increased affective indicators of empathy and prosocial behaviors, but actually decreased self-perceptions of empathy, relative to control messages. Although the brief text messaging intervention did not consistently impact empathy-related personality traits, it holds promise for the use of mobile technology for changing empathic motivations and behaviors.

  6. A three-level non-deterministic modeling methodology for the NVH behavior of rubber connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenti, A.; Moens, D.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2010-03-01

    Complex built-up structures such as vehicles have a variety of joint types, such as spot-welds, bolted joints, rubber joints, etc. Rubber joints highly contribute to the nonlinear level of the structure and are a major source of uncertainties and variability. In the general framework of developing engineering tools for virtual prototyping and product refinement, the modeling of the NVH behavior of rubber joints involve the computational burden of including a detailed nonlinear model of the joint and the uncertainties and variability typical of that joint in a full-scale system model. However, in an engineering design phase the knowledge on the joint rubber material properties is typically poor, and the working conditions a rubber joint will experience are generally not known in detail. This lack of knowledge often do not justify the computational burden and the modeling effort of including detailed nonlinear models of the joint in a full-scale system model. Driven by these issues a non-deterministic numerical methodology based on a three-level modeling approach is being developed. The methodology aims at evaluating directly in the frequency domain the sensitivity of the NVH behavior of a full-scale system model to the rubber joint material properties when nonlinear visco-elastic rubber material behavior is considered. Rather than including directly in the model a representation of the rubber nonlinear visco-elastic behavior, the methodology proposes to model the material nonlinear visco-elastic behavior by using a linear visco-elastic material model defined in an interval sense, from which the scatter on the full-scale system NVH response is evaluated. Furthermore the development of a multi-level solution scheme allows to reduce the computational burden introduced by the non-deterministic approach by allowing the definition of an equivalent linear interval parametric rubber joint model, ready to be assembled in a full-scale system model at a reasonable

  7. Striatopallidal Neuron NMDA Receptors Control Synaptic Connectivity, Locomotor, and Goal-Directed Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lambot, Laurie; Chaves Rodriguez, Elena; Houtteman, Delphine; Li, Yuquing; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Gall, David

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) control action selection, motor programs, habits, and goal-directed learning. The striatum, the principal input structure of BG, is predominantly composed of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). Arising from these spatially intermixed MSNs, two inhibitory outputs form two main efferent pathways, the direct and indirect pathways. Striatonigral MSNs give rise to the activating, direct pathway MSNs and striatopallidal MSNs to the inhibitory, indirect pathway (iMSNs). BG output nuclei integrate information from both pathways to fine-tune motor procedures and to acquire complex habits and skills. Therefore, balanced activity between both pathways is crucial for harmonious functions of the BG. Despite the increase in knowledge concerning the role of glutamate NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) in the striatum, understanding of the specific functions of NMDA-R iMSNs is still lacking. For this purpose, we generated a conditional knock-out mouse to address the functions of the NMDA-R in the indirect pathway. At the cellular level, deletion of GluN1 in iMSNs leads to a reduction in the number and strength of the excitatory corticostriatopallidal synapses. The subsequent scaling down in input integration leads to dysfunctional changes in BG output, which is seen as reduced habituation, delay in goal-directed learning, lack of associative behavior, and impairment in action selection or skill learning. The NMDA-R deletion in iMSNs causes a decrease in the synaptic strength of striatopallidal neurons, which in turn might lead to a imbalanced integration between direct and indirect MSN pathways, making mice less sensitive to environmental change. Therefore, their ability to learn and adapt to the environment-based experience was significantly affected. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The striatum controls habits, locomotion, and goal-directed behaviors by coordinated activation of two antagonistic pathways. Insofar as NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) play a key role in synaptic

  8. Connecting single cell to collective cell behavior in a unified theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Mishel; Bullo, Francesco; Campàs, Otger

    Collective cell behavior is an essential part of tissue and organ morphogenesis during embryonic development, as well as of various disease processes, such as cancer. In contrast to many in vitro studies of collective cell migration, most cases of in vivo collective cell migration involve rather small groups of cells, with large sheets of migrating cells being less common. The vast majority of theoretical descriptions of collective cell behavior focus on large numbers of cells, but fail to accurately capture the dynamics of small groups of cells. Here we introduce a low-dimensional theoretical description that successfully captures single cell migration, cell collisions, collective dynamics in small groups of cells, and force propagation during sheet expansion, all within a common theoretical framework. Our description is derived from first principles and also includes key phenomenological aspects of cell migration that control the dynamics of traction forces. Among other results, we explain the counter-intuitive observations that pairs of cells repel each other upon collision while they behave in a coordinated manner within larger clusters.

  9. Connecting prosocial behavior to improved physical health: Contributions from the neurobiology of parenting.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephanie L; Brown, R Michael

    2015-08-01

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that giving to (helping) others is linked reliably to better health and longevity for the helper, little is known about causal mechanisms. In the present paper we use a recently developed model of caregiving motivation to identify possible neurophysiological mechanisms. The model describes a mammalian neurohormonal system that evolved to regulate maternal care, but over time may have been recruited to support a wide variety of helping behaviors in humans and other social animals. According to the model, perception of need or distress in others activates caregiving motivation, which in turn, can facilitate helping behavior. Motivational regulation is governed by the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, interacting with certain other brain regions, hormones, and neuromodulators (especially oxytocin and progesterone). Consideration of neurohormonal circuitry and related evidence raises the possibility that it is these hormones, known to have stress-buffering and restorative properties, that are responsible, at least in part, for health and longevity benefits associated with helping others. PMID:25907371

  10. Experimental research on the seismic behavior of CSPSWs connected to frame beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lanhui; Ma, Xinbo; Li, Ran; Zhang, Sumei

    2011-03-01

    The seismic performance of composite steel plate shear walls (CSPSWs) that consist of a steel plate shear wall (SPSW) with reinforced concrete (RC) panels attached to one or both sides by means of bolts or connectors is experimentally studied. The shear wall is connected to the frame beams but not to the columns. This arrangement restrains the possible out-of-plane buckling of the thin-walled steel plate, thus significantly increasing the bearing capacity and ductility of the overall wall, and prevents the premature overall or local buckling failure of the frame columns. From a practical viewpoint, these solutions can provide open space in a floor as this type of composite shear walls with a relatively small aspect ratio can be placed parallel along a bay. In this study, four CSPSWs and one SPSW were tested and the results showed that both CSPSWs and SPSW possessed good ductility. For SPSW alone, the buckling appeared and resulted in a decrease of bearing capacity and energy dissipation capacity. In addition, welding stiffeners at corners were shown to be an effective way to increase the energy dissipation capacity of CSPSWs.

  11. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  12. [Surgery without anatomy?].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, F

    2016-08-01

    Anatomy is the basis of all operative medicine. While this branch of scientific medicine is frequently not explicitly mentioned in surgical publications, it is nonetheless quintessential to medical education. In the era of video sequences and digitized images, surgical methods are frequently communicated in the form of cinematic documentation of surgical procedures; however, this occurs without the help of explanatory drawings or subtexts that would illustrate the underlying anatomical nomenclature, comment on fine functionally important details or even without making any mention of the surgeon. In scientific manuscripts color illustrations frequently appear in such overwhelming quantities that they resemble long arrays of trophies but fail to give detailed explanations that would aid the therapeutic translation of the novel datasets. In a similar fashion, many anatomy textbooks prefer to place emphasis on illustrations and photographs while supplying only a paucity of explanations that would foster the understanding of functional contexts and thus confuse students and practitioners alike. There is great temptation to repeat existing data and facts over and over again, while it is proportionally rare to make reference to truly original scientific discoveries. A number of examples are given in this article to illustrate how discoveries that were made even a long time ago can still contribute to scientific progress in current times. This includes the NO signaling molecules, which were first described in 1775 but were only discovered to have a pivotal role as neurotransmitters in the function of human paradoxical sphincter muscles in 2012 and 2015. Readers of scientific manuscripts often long for explanations by the numerous silent coauthors of a publication who could contribute to the main topic by adding in-depth illustrations (e. g. malignograms, evolution and involution of lymph node structures). PMID:27251482

  13. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing. PMID:14626253

  14. Groundwater-surface water interactions: the behavior of a small lake connected to groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoux, Marie; Barbecot, Florent; Gibert-Brunet, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between lakes and groundwater have been under concern in recent years and are still not well understood. Exchange rates are both spatially and temporally highly variable and are generally underestimated. However these interactions are of utmost importance for water resource management and need to be better understood since (i) the hydrogeological and geochemical equilibria within the lake drive the evolution of lakes' ecology and quality, and (ii) groundwater inflow, even in low rate, can be a key element in both the lake nutrient balance (and therefore in lake's eutrophication) and vulnerability to pollution. In many studies two main geochemical tracers, i.e. water stable isotopes and radon-222, are used to determine these interactions. However there are still many uncertainties on their time and space variations and their reliability to determine the lake budget. Therefore, a lake connected to groundwater on a small catchment was chosen to quantify groundwater fluxes change over time and the related influences on the lake's water geochemistry. Through analyse in time and space of both tracers and a precise instrumentation of the lake, their variations linked to groundwater inflows are determined. The results show that each tracer provides additional information for the lake budget with the interest to well determine the information given by each measurement: the radon-222 gives information on the groundwater inflows at a point in space and time while water stable isotopes highlight the dominant parameters of the yearly lake budget. The variation in groundwater inflows allow us to discuss lake's evolution regarding climate and environmental changes.

  15. Dynamic Vibration Cooperates with Connective Tissue Growth Factor to Modulate Stem Cell Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhixiang; Zerdoum, Aidan B.; Duncan, Randall L.

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold disorders affect 3–9% of the U.S. population. Tissue engineering offers an alternative strategy for vocal fold repair. Successful engineering of vocal fold tissues requires a strategic combination of therapeutic cells, biomimetic scaffolds, and physiologically relevant mechanical and biochemical factors. Specifically, we aim to create a vocal fold-like microenvironment to coax stem cells to adopt the phenotype of vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs). Herein, high frequency vibratory stimulations and soluble connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were sequentially introduced to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on a poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL)-derived microfibrous scaffold for a total of 6 days. The initial 3-day vibratory culture resulted in an increased production of hyaluronic acids (HA), tenascin-C (TNC), decorin (DCN), and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1). The subsequent 3-day CTGF treatment further enhanced the cellular production of TNC and DCN, whereas CTGF treatment alone without the vibratory preconditioning significantly promoted the synthesis of collagen I (Col 1) and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs). The highest level of MMP1, TNC, Col III, and DCN production was found for cells being exposed to the combined vibration and CTGF treatment. Noteworthy, the vibration and CTGF elicited a differential stimulatory effect on elastin (ELN), HA synthase 1 (HAS1), and fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1). The mitogenic activity of CTGF was only elicited in naïve cells without the vibratory preconditioning. The combined treatment had profound, but opposite effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, Erk1/2 and p38, and the Erk1/2 pathway was critical for the observed mechano-biochemical responses. Collectively, vibratory stresses and CTGF signals cooperatively coaxed MSCs toward a VFF-like phenotype and accelerated the synthesis and remodeling of vocal fold matrices. PMID:24456068

  16. The anatomy of teaching and the teaching of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Peck, David; Skandalakis, John E

    2004-04-01

    Professional education is one of the greatest problems currently confronting the healing professions. The incorporation of basic science departments into colleges of medicine has affected curriculum design, research, admissions criteria, and licensure. Those who are not practicing members of a particular health care profession wield undue influence in medical schools. Ideally, gross anatomy teachers should be health care professionals who use anatomy in their practices. Reorganization of medical education will heal the rift between research and clinical medicine.

  17. Anatomy External [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Robert

    This course entitled "Anatomy External" is concerned with the dissection of the fetal pig, and is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by the teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of five units of study, and 13 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered…

  18. Cortical thinning, functional connectivity, and mood-related impulsivity in schizophrenia: relations to aggressive attitudes and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; Antonius, Daniel; Mauro, Cristina J.; Parker, Emily M.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aggression in schizophrenia is a major societal issue, leading to physical harm, stigmatization, patient distress, and higher healthcare costs. Impulsivity is associated with aggression in schizophrenia, but it is multidetermined. The subconstruct of urgency is likely to play an important role in this aggression, with positive urgency referring to rash action in context of positive emotion, and negative urgency to rash action in context of negative emotion. Method We examined urgency and its neural correlates in 33 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 31 healthy controls. Urgency was measured using the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation Seeking scale. Aggressive attitudes were measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results Positive urgency, negative urgency, and aggressive attitudes were significantly and selectively elevated in patients (1.21< Cohen’s ds < 1.50). Positive and negative urgency significantly correlated with Aggression Questionnaire total score (rs>.48) and each uniquely accounted for a significant portion of the variance in aggression over and above the effect of group. Urgency measures correlated with reduced cortical thickness in ventral prefrontal regions including right frontal pole, medial and lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyri, and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. In patients, reduced resting state functional connectivity in some of these regions was associated with higher urgency. Conclusions Findings highlight the key role of urgency in aggressive attitudes in people with schizophrenia and suggest neural substrates of these behaviors. They also suggest behavioral and neural targets for interventions to remediate urgency and aggression. PMID:25073506

  19. The Connection Between Local Icosahedral Order in Metallic Liquids and the Nucleation Behavior of Ordered Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Lee, G. W.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.; Robinson, M. B.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.

    2003-01-01

    Over fifty years ago, David Turnbull showed that the temperature of many metallic liquids could be decreased far below their equilibrium melting temperature before crystallization occurred. To explain those surprising results, Charles Frank hypothesized that the local structures of undercooled metallic liquids are different from those of crystal phases, containing a significant degree of icosahedral order that is incompatible with extended periodicity. Such structural differences must create a barrier to the formation crystal phases, explaining the observed undercooling behavior. If true, the nucleation from the liquid of phases with extended icosahedral order should be easier. Icosahedral order is often favored in small clusters, as observed recently in liquid-like clusters of pure Pb on the (111) surface of Si[3], for example. However, it has never been shown that an increasing preference for icosahedral phase formation can be directly linked with the development of icosahedral order in the undercooled liquid. Owing to the combination of very recent advances in levitation techniques and the availability of synchrotron x-ray and high flux neutron facilities, this is shown here.

  20. Self-esteem and resilience: the connection with risky behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Orosova, Olga; Gajdosova, Beata; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2009-03-01

    The aim was to explore the association of self-esteem and resilience with smoking and cannabis use among adolescents, separately for gender. A sample of 3694 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years) from elementary schools in Slovakia filled out the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Resiliency scale and answered questions about cigarette and cannabis use. Logistic regression models showed associations between negative self-esteem and risky behavior, but only among boys. Regarding resilience, structured style and family cohesion were associated with a lower probability of smoking and cannabis use among both boys and girls. In contrast, social competence increased the probability of smoking and cannabis use among both groups. Negative self-esteem seems to play an important role regarding smoking and cannabis use among boys. Resilience seems to have mixed effects, some aspects being protective while other aspects increase the likelihood of smoking and use of cannabis. These results imply that the prevention of substance use should target not only specific individual characteristics, but also the possible risk or protective influences of the social environment, i.e. the family and social network. PMID:19056183

  1. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Ornamental Fish.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Sweeney, Helen E

    2016-09-01

    Ornamental fish represent the largest and most diverse group of exotic animals kept as pets. The specific oral anatomy of each family or selected species has evolved to suit the natural environment, feeding behaviors, food or prey type, and location of the food/prey in the water column. The anatomy can change over the life of the animal, from fry to adult. The oral cavity of fish is susceptible to many problems including infectious and parasitic diseases, trauma, and neoplasia. Diagnosis may involve wet mount preparations of exfoliative cytology from the lesion, histopathology, and bacterial or fungal culture. PMID:27497201

  2. Functional anatomy of scent glands in Paranemastoma quadripunctatum (Opiliones, Dyspnoi, Nemastomatidae).

    PubMed

    Schaider, Miriam; Komposch, Christian; Stabentheiner, Edith; Raspotnig, Günther

    2011-10-01

    The morphological organization and functional anatomy of prosomal defensive (scent) glands in Paranemastoma quadripunctatum, a representative of the dyspnoid harvestmen, was investigated by means of histological semithin sections, software-based 3D-reconstruction and scanning electron microscopy. Scent glands comprise large, hollow sacs on either side of the prosoma, each of these opening to the outside via one orifice (ozopore) immediately above coxa I. In contrast to the situation known from laniatorean, cyphophthalmid and some eupnoid Opiliones, ozopores are not exposed but hidden in a depression (atrium), formed by a dorsal integumental fold of the carapace and the dorsal parts of coxae I. Glandular sacs are connected to ozopores via a short duct which is equipped with a specific closing mechanism in its distal part: A layer of modified epidermal cells forms a kind of pad-like tissue, surrounding the duct like a valve. Several muscles attached to the anterior parts of the glandular reservoir and to the epithelial pad may be associated with ozopore-opening. The actual mechanism of secretion discharge seems to be highly unusual and may be hypothesized on the basis of corroborating data from behavioral observations, scent gland anatomy and secretion chemistry as follows: Enteric fluid is considered to be directed towards the ozopores via cuticular grooves in the surface of the coxapophyses of legs I. Then, the fluid is sucked into the anterior part of the scent gland reservoirs by the action of dorsal dilator muscles that widen the reservoir and produce a short-term negative pressure. After dilution/solution of the naphthoquinone-rich scent gland contents, a secretion-loaded fluid is thought to be discharged with the help of transversal compressor muscles. This is the first detailed study on the functional anatomy of scent glands and the mechanisms of secretion discharge in the Dyspnoi. PMID:21618269

  3. [Dental anatomy of dogs].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, E G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate dog teeth anatomy as animal model for study of etiopathogenesis of caries disease and physiological tooth wear in human. After examining the dog's dental system, following conclusions were drawn: the dog has 42 permanent teeth, which are distributed over the dental arches not equally, and so the upper dentition consists of 20, and the lower of 22 teeth. The largest are considered upper fourth premolar and lower first molars, which are called discordant teeth. Between discordant teeth and fangs a dog has an open bite, which is limited to the top and bottom conical crown premolar teeth. Thus, in the closed position of the jaws, behind this occlusion is limited by discordant teeth, just in contact are smaller in size two molars. Only large dog's molars in a valid comparison can be likened to human molars, which allows us to use them in an analog comparison between them with further study of the morphological features ensure durability short-crown teeth and their predisposition to caries.

  4. Anatomy of trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wallisa; Zurada, Anna; Zurada-ZieliŃSka, Agnieszka; Gielecki, Jerzy; Loukas, Marios

    2016-07-01

    Trisomy 18 is the second most common aneuploidy after trisomy 21. Due to its multi-systemic defects, it has a poor prognosis with a 50% chance of survival beyond one week and a <10% chance of survival beyond one year of life. However, this prognosis has been challenged by the introduction of aggressive interventional therapies for patients born with trisomy 18. As a result, a review of the anatomy associated with this defect is imperative. While any of the systems can be affected by trisomy 18, the following areas are the most likely to be affected: craniofacial, musculoskeletal system, cardiac system, abdominal, and nervous system. More specifically, the following features are considered characteristic of trisomy 18: low-set ears, rocker bottom feet, clenched fists, and ventricular septal defect. Of particular interest is the associated cardiac defect, as surgical repairs of these defects have shown an improved survivability. In this article, the anatomical defects associated with each system are reviewed. Clin. Anat. 29:628-632, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27087248

  5. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  6. The Anatomy of Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cave, Sitara; Schwartzenberg, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Fleeting electrochemical connections made between brain cells help people remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make them unique. Presents the dissection of the brain of a sheep, an animal in which brain structure and function are similar to that in humans, to demonstrate where these processes take place. (PVD)

  7. Anatomy of Particle Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringuier, E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses particle diffusion from a thermodynamic standpoint. The main goal of the paper is to highlight the conceptual connection between particle diffusion, which belongs to non-equilibrium statistical physics, and mechanics, which deals with particle motion, at the level of third-year university courses. We start out from the fact…

  8. Theory of Mind and the Whole Brain Functional Connectivity: Behavioral and Neural Evidences with the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Antonella; Baglio, Francesca; Costantini, Isa; Dipasquale, Ottavia; Savazzi, Federica; Nemni, Raffaello; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Tagliabue, Semira; Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    A topic of common interest to psychologists and philosophers is the spontaneous flow of thoughts when the individual is awake but not involved in cognitive demands. This argument, classically referred to as the "stream of consciousness" of James, is now known in the psychological literature as "Mind-Wandering." Although of great interest, this construct has been scarcely investigated so far. Diaz et al. (2013) created the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire (ARSQ), composed of 27 items, distributed in seven factors: discontinuity of mind, theory of mind (ToM), self, planning, sleepiness, comfort, and somatic awareness. The present study aims at: testing psychometric properties of the ARSQ in a sample of 670 Italian subjects; exploring the neural correlates of a subsample of participants (N = 28) divided into two groups on the basis of the scores obtained in the ToM factor. Results show a satisfactory reliability of the original factional structure in the Italian sample. In the subjects with a high mean in the ToM factor compared to low mean subjects, functional MRI revealed: a network (48 nodes) with higher functional connectivity (FC) with a dominance of the left hemisphere; an increased within-lobe FC in frontal and insular lobes. In both neural and behavioral terms, our results support the idea that the mind, which does not rest even when explicitly asked to do so, has various and interesting mentalistic-like contents.

  9. Theory of Mind and the Whole Brain Functional Connectivity: Behavioral and Neural Evidences with the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Antonella; Baglio, Francesca; Costantini, Isa; Dipasquale, Ottavia; Savazzi, Federica; Nemni, Raffaello; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Tagliabue, Semira; Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    A topic of common interest to psychologists and philosophers is the spontaneous flow of thoughts when the individual is awake but not involved in cognitive demands. This argument, classically referred to as the “stream of consciousness” of James, is now known in the psychological literature as “Mind-Wandering.” Although of great interest, this construct has been scarcely investigated so far. Diaz et al. (2013) created the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire (ARSQ), composed of 27 items, distributed in seven factors: discontinuity of mind, theory of mind (ToM), self, planning, sleepiness, comfort, and somatic awareness. The present study aims at: testing psychometric properties of the ARSQ in a sample of 670 Italian subjects; exploring the neural correlates of a subsample of participants (N = 28) divided into two groups on the basis of the scores obtained in the ToM factor. Results show a satisfactory reliability of the original factional structure in the Italian sample. In the subjects with a high mean in the ToM factor compared to low mean subjects, functional MRI revealed: a network (48 nodes) with higher functional connectivity (FC) with a dominance of the left hemisphere; an increased within-lobe FC in frontal and insular lobes. In both neural and behavioral terms, our results support the idea that the mind, which does not rest even when explicitly asked to do so, has various and interesting mentalistic-like contents. PMID:26696924

  10. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration

    PubMed Central

    TOMA, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  11. Emergence of spatial behavioral function and associated mossy fiber connectivity and c-Fos labeling patterns in the hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Comba, Rachel; Gervais, Nicole; Mumby, Dave; Holahan, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Improvement on spatial tasks is observed during a late, postnatal developmental period (PND18 - PND24).  The purpose of the current work was 1) to determine whether the emergence of spatial-behavioral function was based on the ability to generate appropriate behavioral output; 2) to assess whether mossy fiber connectivity patterns preceded the emergence of spatial-behavioral function; 3) to explore functional changes in the hippocampus to determine whether activity in hippocampal networks occurred in a training-dependent or developmentally-dependent fashion.  To these ends, male, Long Evans rats were trained on a spatial water or dry maze task for one day (PND16, PND18 or PND20) then euthanized.  Training on these 2 tasks with opposing behavioral demands (swimming versus exploration) was hypothesized to control for behavioral topology.  Only at PND20 was there evidence of spatial-behavioral function for both tasks.  Examination of synaptophysin staining in the CA3 region (i.e., mossy fiber projections) revealed enhanced connectivity patterns that preceded the emergence of spatial behavior.  Analysis of c-Fos labeling (functional changes) revealed developmentally-dependent increases in c-Fos positive cells in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1 regions whereas training-dependent increases were noted in the CA3 and CA1 regions for the water-maze trained groups.  Results suggest that changes in mossy fiber connectivity in association with enhanced hippocampal functioning precede the emergence of spatial behavior observed at PND20.  The combination of neuroanatomical and behavioural results confirms the hypothesis that this time represents a sensitive period for hippocampal development and modification and the emergence of spatial/ cognitive function. PMID:26925223

  12. Emergence of spatial behavioral function and associated mossy fiber connectivity and c-Fos labeling patterns in the hippocampus of rats

    PubMed Central

    Comba, Rachel; Gervais, Nicole; Mumby, Dave; Holahan, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Improvement on spatial tasks is observed during a late, postnatal developmental period (PND18 – PND24).  The purpose of the current work was 1) to determine whether the emergence of spatial-behavioral function was based on the ability to generate appropriate behavioral output; 2) to assess whether mossy fiber connectivity patterns preceded the emergence of spatial-behavioral function; 3) to explore functional changes in the hippocampus to determine whether activity in hippocampal networks occurred in a training-dependent or developmentally-dependent fashion.  To these ends, male, Long Evans rats were trained on a spatial water or dry maze task for one day (PND16, PND18 or PND20) then euthanized.  Training on these 2 tasks with opposing behavioral demands (swimming versus exploration) was hypothesized to control for behavioral topology.  Only at PND20 was there evidence of spatial-behavioral function for both tasks.  Examination of synaptophysin staining in the CA3 region (i.e., mossy fiber projections) revealed enhanced connectivity patterns that preceded the emergence of spatial behavior.  Analysis of c-Fos labeling (functional changes) revealed developmentally-dependent increases in c-Fos positive cells in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1 regions whereas training-dependent increases were noted in the CA3 and CA1 regions for the water-maze trained groups.  Results suggest that changes in mossy fiber connectivity in association with enhanced hippocampal functioning precede the emergence of spatial behavior observed at PND20.  The combination of neuroanatomical and behavioural results confirms the hypothesis that this time represents a sensitive period for hippocampal development and modification and the emergence of spatial/ cognitive function. PMID:26925223

  13. Double connections in total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Arciprete, P; McKay, R; Watson, G H; Hamilton, D I; Wilkinson, J L; Arnold, R M

    1986-07-01

    Three infants who underwent operation for total anomalous pulmonary venous connection had unobstructed drainage of all the pulmonary veins to both the coronary sinus and left vertical vein. In one patient the anatomy was demonstrated preoperatively and complete correction accomplished without difficulty, but in two patients the second connection was discovered only at postoperative reinvestigation. Arbitrary classification of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection into cardiac, supracardiac, infracardiac, and mixed types does not lend itself to description of such lesions and may obscure their clinical importance. For these less common variants of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, a more detailed and precise definition of morphology facilitates accurate surgical repair.

  14. Connecting Biology & Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildreth, James E. K.

    2005-01-01

    Dr. James E.K. Hildreth is a prominent HIV/AIDS researcher. He has just been the director of Meharry Medical College's new Comprehensive Center for Health Disparities Research in HIV since July, and he is already feeling a sense of accomplishment. Hildreth says he's happy to be at Meharry, an institution with a storied tradition of producing many…

  15. Exercises in anatomy: tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is axiomatic that those performing surgery on the congenitally malformed heart require a thorough knowledge of the lesions they will be called upon to correct. The necessary anatomical knowledge is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain at first hand, since relatively few centres now hold archives of specimens obtained in an appropriately legal fashion from the patients unfortunately dying in previous years. One centre with such an archive is Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago, known previously as Chicago Memorial Children's Hospital. The archive was established by Farouk S. Idriss, and was subsequently enhanced and consolidated by his son, Rachid. It is now under the care of Carl L. Backer, the current chief of paediatric cardiothoracic surgery at Lurie Children's. With the support of Carl, the archive has been triaged and catalogued by Diane E. Spicer and Robert H. Anderson. It has now been used to create a series of video presentations, illustrating the salient features of surgical anatomy of selected entities, with the videoclips being edited and prepared for publication by Anne Sarwark. This video contains the fruits of the first of these exercises in anatomy, and is devoted to tetralogy of Fallot.We begin the exercise by making comparisons between the normal heart and the arrangement seen in typical tetralogy. We emphasize the need to recognize the 'building blocks' of the normal outflow tracts, and show how they come apart in tetralogy. We then show the variations to be found in the specific morphology of the borders of the hole between the ventricles, with the crest of the apical ventricular septum being overridden by the orifice of the aortic valve such that the latter structure has a biventricular connection. We emphasize that it is the squeeze between the deviated muscular outlet septum and septoparietal trabeculations that is the essential phenotypic feature of the lesion. We then proceed to demonstrate the further variation to

  16. Anal anatomy and normal histology.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Priti

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  17. Anatomy, Physiology and Function of the Auditory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmeier, Birger

    The human ear consists of the outer ear (pinna or concha, outer ear canal, tympanic membrane), the middle ear (middle ear cavity with the three ossicles malleus, incus and stapes) and the inner ear (cochlea which is connected to the three semicircular canals by the vestibule, which provides the sense of balance). The cochlea is connected to the brain stem via the eighth brain nerve, i.e. the vestibular cochlear nerve or nervus statoacusticus. Subsequently, the acoustical information is processed by the brain at various levels of the auditory system. An overview about the anatomy of the auditory system is provided by Figure 1.

  18. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    PubMed

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  19. The Anatomy of Anatomy: A Review for Its Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience.…

  20. Anatomy Adventure: A Board Game for Enhancing Understanding of Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy…

  1. Clinical anatomy research in a research-driven anatomy department.

    PubMed

    Jones, D Gareth; Dias, G J; Mercer, S; Zhang, M; Nicholson, H D

    2002-05-01

    Clinical anatomy is too often viewed as a discipline that reiterates the wisdom of the past, characterized more by description of what is known than by active investigation and critical analysis of hypotheses and ideas. Various misconceptions follow from an acceptance of this premise: the teaching of clinical anatomists is textbook based, there is no clinical anatomy research worthy of the name, and any research that does exist fails to utilize modern technology and does not stand comparison with serious biomedical research as found in cell and molecular biology. The aim of this paper is to challenge each of these contentions by reference to ongoing clinical research studies within this department. It is argued that all teaching (including that of clinical anatomy) should be research-informed and that the discipline of clinical anatomy should have at its base a vigorous research ethos driven by clinically related problems. In interacting with physicians, the role of the clinical anatomist should be to promulgate a questioning scientific spirit, with its willingness to test and challenge accepted anatomic dicta. PMID:11948960

  2. Numerical simulation of the seismic behavior of self-centering steel beam-column connections with bottom flange friction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tong; Song, Lianglong; Zhang, Guodong

    2011-06-01

    A new type of steel moment resisting frame with bottom flange friction devices (BFFDs) has been developed to provide self-centering capacity and energy dissipation, and to reduce permanent deformations under earthquakes. This paper presents a numerical simulation of self-centering beam-column connections with BFFDs, in which the gap opening /closing at the beam-column interfaces is simulated by using pairs of zero-length elements with compression-only material properties, and the energy dissipation due to friction is simulated by using truss elements with specified hysteretic behavior. In particular, the effect of the friction bolt bearing against the slotted plate in the BFFDs was modeled, so that the increase in lateral force and the loss of friction force due to the bolt bearing could be taken into account. Parallel elastic-perfectly plastic gap (ElasticPPGap) materials in the Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (OpenSees) were used with predefined gaps to specify the sequence that each bolt went into the bearing and the corresponding increase in bending stiffness. The MinMax material in OpenSees is used to specify the minimum and maximum values of strains of the ElasticPPGap materials. To consider the loss of friction force due to bolt bearing, a number of parallel hysteretic materials were used, and the failure of these materials in sequence simulated the gradual loss of friction force. Analysis results obtained by using the proposed numerical model are discussed and compared with the test results under cyclic loadings and the seismic loading, respectively.

  3. On the Anatomy of Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Josephson, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In search for the nature of understanding of basic science in a clinical context, eight medical students were interviewed, with a focus on their view of the discipline of anatomy, in their fourth year of study. Interviews were semi-structured and took place just after the students had finished their surgery rotations. Phenomenographic analysis was…

  4. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  5. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  6. Menstrual Cycle and Hormonal Contraceptive-Dependent Changes in Intrinsic Connectivity of Resting-State Brain Networks Correspond to Behavioral Changes Due to Hormonal Status.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; Crone, Julia Sophia; Kronbichler, Martin; Kerschbaum, Hubert

    2016-09-01

    Menstrual cycle-dependent changes have been reported for a variety of functions, including cognition, attention, emotion, inhibition, and perception. For several of these functions, an effect of hormonal contraceptives has also been discussed. Cognitive, attentional, emotional, inhibitory, and perceptual functions have been linked to distinct intrinsic connectivity networks during the resting state. However, changes in resting-state connectivity across the menstrual cycle phase and due to hormonal contraceptive use have only been investigated in two selected networks and without controlling for the type of hormonal contraceptives. In the present study, we demonstrate menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptive-dependent changes in several intrinsic connectivity networks, including networks that have been related to emotion processing, olfaction, audition, vision, coordination, and two lateralized frontoparietal networks related to a variety of cognitive functions. These changes parallel behavioral changes in the functions associated with these networks. Changes in connectivity and changes in behavior occur during the same cycle phases. Furthermore, hormonal contraceptive-dependent effects were observed in the same networks and same target sites as menstrual cycle-related changes and were dependent on the androgenicity of the progestin component contained in the hormonal contraceptive.

  7. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  8. Communication of brain network core connections altered in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia but possibly preserved in early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Mendez, Mario F.; Bartzokis, George; Jimenez, Elvira E.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion imaging and brain connectivity analyses can assess white matter deterioration in the brain, revealing the underlying patterns of how brain structure declines. Fiber tractography methods can infer neural pathways and connectivity patterns, yielding sensitive mathematical metrics of network integrity. Here, we analyzed 1.5-Tesla wholebrain diffusion-weighted images from 64 participants - 15 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 19 with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD), and 30 healthy elderly controls. Using whole-brain tractography, we reconstructed structural brain connectivity networks to map connections between cortical regions. We evaluated the brain's networks focusing on the most highly central and connected regions, also known as hubs, in each diagnostic group - specifically the "high-cost" structural backbone used in global and regional communication. The high-cost backbone of the brain, predicted by fiber density and minimally short pathways between brain regions, accounted for 81-92% of the overall brain communication metric in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found that the set of pathways interconnecting high-cost and high-capacity regions of the brain's communication network are globally and regionally altered in bvFTD, compared to healthy participants; however, the overall organization of the high-cost and high-capacity networks were relatively preserved in EOAD participants, relative to controls. Disruption of the major central hubs that transfer information between brain regions may impair neural communication and functional integrity in characteristic ways typical of each subtype of dementia.

  9. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    PubMed Central

    Vithoosan, S.; Kokulan, S.; Dissanayake, M. M.; Dissanayake, Vajira; Jayasekara, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n = 77, 48.4%) was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n = 82, 51.6%) was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P < 0.05, CI 95%). Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better. PMID:27579181

  10. Anatomy of a Bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  11. Stimulus-driven changes in sensorimotor behavior and neuronal functional connectivity application to brain-machine interfaces and neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rebesco, James M; Miller, Lee E

    2011-01-01

    Normal brain function requires constant adaptation as an organism interacts with the environment and learns to associate important sensory stimuli with appropriate motor actions. Neurological disorders may disrupt these learned associations, potentially requiring new functional pathways to be formed to replace the lost function. As a consequence, neural plasticity is a critical aspect of both normal brain function as well as the response to neurological injury. A brain-machine interface (BMI) represents a unique adaptive challenge to the nervous system. Efferent BMIs have been developed, which harness signals recorded from a tiny proportion of the motor cortex (M1) to effect control of an external device. There is also interest in the development of an afferent BMI that would supply information directly to the brain (e.g., the somatosensory cortex-S1) via electrical stimulation. If a bidirectional BMI that combined these interfaces were to be successful, new functional pathways would be necessary between the artificial inputs and outputs. Indeed, stimulation of S1 that is contingent upon the consequences of motor command signals recorded from M1 might form the basis for artificial Hebbian associations not unlike those driving learning in the normal brain. In this chapter, we review recent developments in both efferent and afferent BMIs, as well as experimental attempts to understand and mimic the Hebbian processes that give rise to plastic changes within the cortex. We have used a rat model to develop the computational and experimental tools necessary to describe changes in the way small networks of sensorimotor neurons interact and process information. We show that by repetitively pairing the recorded spikes of one neuron with electrical stimulation of another or by repetitively pairing electrical stimulation of two neurons, we can strengthen the inferred functional connection between the pair of neurons. We have also used the dual-stimulation protocol to enhance

  12. Anatomy of Nanoscale Propulsion.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vinita; Duan, Wentao; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-01-01

    Nature supports multifaceted forms of life. Despite the variety and complexity of these forms, motility remains the epicenter of life. The applicable laws of physics change upon going from macroscales to microscales and nanoscales, which are characterized by low Reynolds number (Re). We discuss motion at low Re in natural and synthetic systems, along with various propulsion mechanisms, including electrophoresis, electrolyte diffusiophoresis, and nonelectrolyte diffusiophoresis. We also describe the newly uncovered phenomena of motility in non-ATP-driven self-powered enzymes and the directional movement of these enzymes in response to substrate gradients. These enzymes can also be immobilized to function as fluid pumps in response to the presence of their substrates. Finally, we review emergent collective behavior arising from interacting motile species, and we discuss the possible biomedical applications of the synthetic nanobots and microbots.

  13. Use of a Self-monitoring Application to Reduce Stereotypic Behavior in Adolescents with Autism: A Preliminary Investigation of I-Connect.

    PubMed

    Crutchfield, Stephen A; Mason, Rose A; Chambers, Angela; Wills, Howard P; Mason, Benjamin A

    2015-05-01

    Many students with autism engage in a variety of complex stereotypic behaviors, impacting task completion and interfering with social opportunities. Self-monitoring is an intervention with empirical support for individuals with ASD to increase behavioral repertoires and decrease behaviors that are incompatible with successful outcomes. However, there is limited evidence for its utility for decreasing stereotypy, particularly for adolescents in school settings. This study evaluated the functional relationship between I-Connect, a technology-delivered self-monitoring program, and decreases in the level of stereotypy for two students with ASD in the school setting utilizing a withdrawal design with an embedded multiple baseline across participants. Both students demonstrated a marked decrease in stereotypy with the introduction of the self-monitoring application. Results and implications for practice and future research will be discussed.

  14. [Surgical anatomy of the nose].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Jallut, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the nose is an essential prerequisite for preoperative analysis and the understanding of surgical techniques. Like a tent supported by its frame, the nose is an osteo-chondral structure covered by a peri-chondroperiosteal envelope, muscle and cutaneous covering tissues. For didactic reasons, we have chosen to treat this chapter in the form of comments from eight key configurations that the surgeon should acquire before performing rhinoplasty.

  15. [Functional dental anatomy and amalgam].

    PubMed

    Tavernier, B; Colon, P

    1989-01-01

    Very often, the functional dental anatomy are reflected during the rehabilitation of posterior quadrants. However, the placement, the shaping in correct relation of the different dental components are indispensable conditions to respect, in order to achieve an adequate integration of the restoration within the neuro-muscular system. A clinical protocol is proposed in order to reconcile the anatomical and biological prerequisite and the setting time of modern alloys.

  16. Anatomy of the infant head

    SciTech Connect

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ.

  17. Decision-Making Behavioral Change in Students Connected With Their Participation in a First Theoretical Management Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Tommy D.

    The educational discipline of Management is an inexact science. Because of the difficulty in measuring the effects of the academic study of Management on decision-making and related behaviors, a commercial instrument, the "How Supervise?" questionnaire, was tested as a possible means of measuring "before and after treatment" behaviors. The…

  18. [New findings of clinical anatomy in pelvis].

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Kuniyasu; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Surgical anatomy involves clarifying the mutual relationships of each structure in the operative field. Knowledge of new surgical anatomy has arisen via new methods or approaches. Associated with the development and spread of laparoscopic surgery in recent years, adaptation to changes in surgical techniques using knowledge of classical pelvic anatomy has been difficult. Better knowledge of the delicate structures surrounding the prostate is essential in order to provide both cancer control and functional preservation with regard to radical prostatectomy. In this report, we review the progress in knowledge of pelvic anatomy, particularly regarding the endopelvic fascia, prostatic fascia and Denonvilliers' fascia.

  19. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  20. The Sphenopalatine Ganglion: Anatomy, Pathophysiology, and Therapeutic Targeting in Headache.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew S; Robertson, Carrie E; Kaplan, Eugene; Ailani, Jessica; Charleston, Larry; Kuruvilla, Deena; Blumenfeld, Andrew; Berliner, Randall; Rosen, Noah L; Duarte, Robert; Vidwan, Jaskiran; Halker, Rashmi B; Gill, Nicole; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2016-02-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) has attracted the interest of practitioners treating head and face pain for over a century because of its anatomical connections and role in the trigemino-autonomic reflex. In this review, we discuss the anatomy of the SPG, as well as what is known about its role in the pathophysiology of headache disorders, including cluster headache and migraine. We then address various therapies that target the SPG, including intranasal medication delivery, new SPG blocking catheter devices, neurostimulation, chemical neurolysis, and ablation procedures.

  1. Connecting with Different Audiences: The Anatomy of Communication is Essential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Darrell J. R.

    2013-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, communication has become truly global. Advances in technology have opened up a host of ways in which we are able to communicate to retrieve or pass on information and knowledge. In many cases we have moved from a place-based communication approach to one of increasing mobility. With this shift in approach, it is…

  2. Connecting thermoelectric performance and topological-insulator behavior: Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te2Se from first principles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shi, Hongliang; Parker, David S.; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-20

    Thermoelectric performance is of interest for numerous applications such as waste-heat recovery and solid-state energy conversion and will be seen to be closely connected to topological-insulator behavior. In this paper, we here report first-principles transport and defect calculations for Bi2Te2Se in relation to Bi2Te3. The two compounds are found to contain remarkably different electronic structures in spite of being isostructural and isoelectronic. We also discuss these results in terms of the topological-insulator characteristics of these compounds.

  3. Connecting Thermoelectric Performance and Topological-Insulator Behavior: Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te2Se from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongliang; Parker, David; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric performance is of interest for numerous applications such as waste-heat recovery and solid-state energy conversion and will be seen to be closely connected to topological-insulator behavior. In this context, we here report first-principles transport and defect calculations for Bi2Te2Se in relation to Bi2Te3 . The two compounds are found to contain remarkably different electronic structures in spite of being isostructural and isoelectronic. We discuss these results in terms of the topological-insulator characteristics of these compounds.

  4. On the functional anatomy of the urge-for-action

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Stephen R.; Parkinson, Amy; Kim, So Young; Schüermann, Martin; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2011-01-01

    Several common neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome (TS), autistic spectrum disorder) are associated with unpleasant bodily sensations that are perceived as an urge for action. Similarly, many of our everyday behaviors are also characterized by bodily sensations that we experience as urges for action. Where do these urges originate? In this paper, we consider the nature and the functional anatomy of “urges-for-action,” both in the context of everyday behaviors such as yawning, swallowing, and micturition, and in relation to clinical disorders in which the urge-for-action is considered pathological and substantially interferes with activities of daily living (e.g., TS). We review previous frameworks for thinking about behavioral urges and demonstrate that there is considerable overlap between the functional anatomy of urges associated with everyday behaviors such as swallowing, yawning, and micturition, and those urges associated with the generation of tics in TS. Specifically, we show that the limbic sensory and motor regions—insula and mid-cingulate cortex—are common to all of these behaviors, and we argue that this “motivation-for-action” network should be considered distinct from an “intentional action” network, associated with regions of premotor and parietal cortex, which may be responsible for the perception of “willed intention” during the execution of goal-directed actions. PMID:22299020

  5. Comparative anatomy and histology of xenarthran osteoderms.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert V

    2006-12-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissues in fossil vertebrates is an enduring challenge for paleontologists. Because inferences must be based on evidence from hard tissues (typically bones or teeth), even the most complete fossils provide only limited information about certain organ systems. Osteoderms ("dermal armor") are integumentary bones with high fossilization potential that hold information about the anatomy of the skin in many extant and fossil amniotes. Their importance for functional morphology and phylogenetic research has recently been recognized, but studies have focused largely upon reptiles, in which osteoderms are most common. Among mammals, osteoderms occur only in members of the clade Xenarthra, which includes armadillos and their extinct relatives: glyptodonts, pampatheres, and, more distantly, ground sloths. Here, I present new information on the comparative morphology and histology of osteoderms and their associated soft tissues in 11 extant and fossil xenarthrans. Extinct mylodontid sloths possessed simple, isolated ossicles, the presence of which is likely plesiomorphic for Xenarthra. More highly derived osteoderms of glyptodonts, pampatheres, and armadillos feature complex articulations and surface ornamentation. Osteoderms of modern armadillos are physically associated with a variety of soft tissues, including nerve, muscle, gland, and connective tissue. In some cases, similar osteological features may be caused by two or more different tissue types, rendering soft-tissue inferences for fossil osteoderms equivocal. Certain osteological structures, however, are consistently associated with specific soft-tissue complexes and therefore represent a relatively robust foundation upon which to base soft-tissue reconstructions of extinct xenarthrans.

  6. Broca's area: nomenclature, anatomy, typology and asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Keller, Simon S; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil

    2009-04-01

    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural asymmetry of Broca's area with the differences in methodological approaches, (iv) consider the functional significance of cytoarchitectonic definitions of Broca's area, and (v) critically elucidate the significance of circumscribed regions of cortex for language lateralisation and language development. Contrary to what has previously been reported in the literature, asymmetry of Broca's area has not been reproducibly demonstrated, particularly on a gross morphological level. This may be due to major inconsistencies in methodology (including different anatomical boundaries, measurement techniques and samples studied) or that the sulcal contours defining Broca's area are so naturally variable between people making a standard definition difficult. Cytoarchitectonic analyses more often than not report leftward asymmetry of some component of area 44 and/or area 45. If a structural asymmetry of Broca's area does exist, it is variable, which differs from that of the functional asymmetry of language, which is more consistent. One reason for this might be that the link between cellular architecture, connectivity and language function still remains to be elucidated. There is currently no convincing explanation to associate asymmetry of Broca's area with the lateralisation of language.

  7. Functional anatomy of the nose.

    PubMed

    Koppe, Thomas; Giotakis, Evangelos I; Heppt, Werner

    2011-04-01

    The human nose is a very complex entity with a great amount of variation among and within different human populations. Even though the morphology of the nasal pyramid and its soft tissue coverage is principally known, a standardized nomenclature does not yet exist. The past two decades have witnessed a considerable increase of new studies on the functional morphology of the external nasal anatomy. Detailed anatomic and clinical knowledge about the external nose is a prerequisite for successful rhinosurgery, thus this report deals with the basic structures necessary for functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty. PMID:21404156

  8. Gross anatomy of network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  9. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  10. Frank Netter's Legacy: Interprofessional Anatomy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niekrash, Christine E.; Copes, Lynn E.; Gonzalez, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories:…

  11. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  12. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  13. The 2008 Anatomy Ceremony: Essays

    PubMed Central

    Elansary, Mei; Goldberg, Ben; Qian, Ting; Rizzolo, Lawrence J.

    2009-01-01

    When asked to relate my experience of anatomy to the first-year medical and physician associate students at Yale before the start of their own first dissection, I found no better words to share than those of my classmates. Why speak with only one tongue, I said, when you can draw on 99 others? Anatomical dissection elicits what our course director, Lawrence Rizzolo, has called a “diversity of experience,” which, in turn, engenders a diversity of expressions. For Yale medical and physician associate students, this diversity is captured each year in a ceremony dedicated to those who donated their bodies for dissection. The service is an opportunity to offer thanks, but because only students and faculty are in attendance, it is also a place to share and address the complicated tensions that arise while examining, invading, and ultimately disassembling another’s body. It is our pleasure to present selected pieces from the ceremony to the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine readership. — Peter Gayed, Co-editor-in-chief, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine and Chair of the 2008 Anatomy Ceremony Planning Committee PMID:19325944

  14. Self-Regulated Strategy Development: Connecting Persuasive Writing to Self-Advocacy for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna; Mustian, April L.

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often experience difficulties in expressive writing and social outcomes in school and beyond. Therefore, writing instruction and self-determination skills are critical for this population. This research study, in which special education teachers were trained to be implementers, successfully…

  15. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor’s initial investment—i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game—from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person’s initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange. PMID:25274577

  16. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor's initial investment--i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game-from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person's initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange.

  17. Anatomy of corpus callosum in prenatally malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Ricardo; Morgan, Carlos; Pérez, Hernán; Hernández, Alejandro; Aboitiz, Francisco; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Gil, Julio; Ortiz, Alexis; Flores, Osvaldo; Gimeno, Miguel; Laborda, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The effect of prenatal malnutrition on the anatomy of the corpus callosum was assessed in adult rats (45-52 days old). In the prenatally malnourished animals we observed a significant reduction of the corpus callosum total area, partial areas, and perimeter, as compared with normal animals. In addition, the splenium of corpus callosum (posterior fifth) showed a significant decrease of fiber diameters in the myelinated fibers without changing density. There was also a significant decrease in diameter and a significant increase in density of unmyelinated fibers. Measurements of perimeter's fractal dimensions from sagittal sections of the brain and corpus callosum did not show significant differences between malnourished and control animals. These findings indicate that cortico-cortical connections are vulnerable to the prenatal malnutrition, and suggest this may affect interhemispheric conduction velocity, particularly in visual connections (splenium).

  18. Pubertal Stage and Brain Anatomy in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Rebecca E.; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Joormann, Jutta; Eugène, Fanny; Glover, Gary H.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of puberty have focused primarily on changes in hormones and on observable physical bodily characteristics. Little is known, however, about the nature of the relation between pubertal status and brain physiology. This is particularly important given findings that have linked the onset of puberty with both changes in cognitive functioning and increases in the incidence of depression and anxiety. The present study examined relations between pubertal stage, as assessed by Tanner Staging, and brain anatomy in a sample of 54 girls aged 9 - 15 years. Brain morphometric analysis was conducted using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hippocampus and amygdala were manually traced on MRI scans in all participants. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted with total intracranial volume (ICV), age, and pubertal status as the predictor variables and hippocampus and amygdala volumes as outcome variables. Pubertal status was significantly associated with left amygdala volume, after controlling for both age and intracranial volume (ICV). In addition, puberty was related to right hippocampus and amygdala volumes, after controlling for ICV. In contrast, no significant associations were found between age and hippocampal and amygdala volumes after controlling for pubertal status and ICV. These findings highlight the importance of the relation between pubertal status and morphometry of the hippocampus and amygdala, and of limbic and subcortical structures that have been implicated in emotional and social behavior. PMID:22569152

  19. Art, antiquarianism and early anatomy.

    PubMed

    Guest, Clare E L

    2014-12-01

    Discussions of the early relationship between art and anatomy are shaped by Vasari's account of Florentine artists who dissected bodies in order to understand the causes of movement, and the end of movement in action. This account eclipses the role of the study of antiquities in Renaissance anatomical illustration. Beyond techniques of presentation, such as sectioning and analytic illustration, or a preoccupation with the mutilated fragment, antiquarianism offered a reflection on the variant and the role of temperament which could be adapted for anatomical purposes. With its play on ambiguities of life and death, idealisation and damage, antiquarianism also provided a way of negotiating the difficulties of content inherent in anatomical illustration. As such, it goes beyond exclusively historical interest to provoke reflection on the modes, possibilities and humane responsibilities of medical illustration. PMID:24696510

  20. Art, antiquarianism and early anatomy.

    PubMed

    Guest, Clare E L

    2014-12-01

    Discussions of the early relationship between art and anatomy are shaped by Vasari's account of Florentine artists who dissected bodies in order to understand the causes of movement, and the end of movement in action. This account eclipses the role of the study of antiquities in Renaissance anatomical illustration. Beyond techniques of presentation, such as sectioning and analytic illustration, or a preoccupation with the mutilated fragment, antiquarianism offered a reflection on the variant and the role of temperament which could be adapted for anatomical purposes. With its play on ambiguities of life and death, idealisation and damage, antiquarianism also provided a way of negotiating the difficulties of content inherent in anatomical illustration. As such, it goes beyond exclusively historical interest to provoke reflection on the modes, possibilities and humane responsibilities of medical illustration.

  1. An atlas of radiological anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains a wealth of radiologic images of normal human anatomy; plain radiographs, contrast-enhanced radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) scans. There are 18 pages of magnetic resonance (MR) images, most on the brain and spinal cord, so that there are only two pages on MR imaging of the heart and two pages on abdominal and pelvic MR imaging. Twelve pages of ultrasound (US) images are included. This book has the radiologic image paired with an explanatory drawing; the image is on the left with a paragraph or two of text, and the drawing is on the right with legends. This book includes images of the brain and spinal cord obtained with arteriography, venography, myelography, encephalography, CT, and MR imaging.

  2. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    PubMed

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  3. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    PubMed Central

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  4. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  5. Clinical aspects of rodent dental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The order Rodentia is vast, encompassing a large number of species with significant anatomical variations developed during natural adaptation to differing habitats. Many veterinarians have little knowledge of the anatomy of species other than the commoner domestic large herbivores and small carnivores. Clinicians require a basic knowledge of the relevant anatomy of species they are likely to be asked to treat. This article provides sufficient working knowledge of the oral and dental anatomy of those rodents commonly kept as pets to enable veterinarians to interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating suspected dental disease.

  6. Cytokine-dependent bidirectional connection between impaired social behavior and susceptibility to seizures associated with maternal immune activation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Washington, James; Kumar, Udaya; Medel-Matus, Jesus-Servando; Shin, Don; Sankar, Raman; Mazarati, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) results in the development of autism in the offspring via hyperactivation of IL-6 signaling. Furthermore, experimental studies showed that the MIA-associated activation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concurrently with IL-6 increases the rate and the severity of hippocampal kindling in mice, thus offering an explanation for autism-epilepsy comorbidity. We examined whether epileptic phenotype triggered by prenatal exposure to IL-6 and IL-1β combination is restricted to kindling or whether it is reproducible in another model of epilepsy, whereby spontaneous seizures develop following kainic acid (KA)- induced status epilepticus. We also examined whether in mice prenatally exposed to IL-6 and IL-6+IL-1β, the presence of spontaneous seizures would exacerbate autism-like features. Between days 12 and 16 of pregnancy, C57bl/6j mice received daily injections of IL-6, IL-1β or IL-6+IL-1β combination. At postnatal day 40, male offspring was examined for the presence of social behavioral deficit and status epilepticus was induced by intrahippocampal KA injection. After six weeks of monitoring for spontaneous seizures, sociability was tested again. Both IL-6 and IL-6+IL-1β offspring presented with social behavioral deficit. Prenatal exposure to IL-6 alleviated, while such exposure to IL-6+IL-1β exacerbated the severity of KA-induced epilepsy. Increased severity of epilepsy in the IL-6+IL-1β mice correlated with the improvement of autism-like behavior. We conclude that complex and not necessarily agonistic relationships exist between epileptic and autism-like phenotypes in an animal model of MIA coupled with KA-induced epilepsy, and that the nature of these relationships depends on components of MIA involved. PMID:26103532

  7. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A

    SciTech Connect

    Chopade, Prashant D.; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E.; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Myerson, Allan S.; Simpson, Jeffrey; Fry, John C.; Biermann, Kari L.; Yurttas, Nese

    2015-12-28

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described.

  8. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A.

    PubMed

    Chopade, Prashant D; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E; Simpson, Jeffrey; Fry, John C; Yurttas, Nese; Biermann, Kari L; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L; Myerson, Allan S

    2015-12-28

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described.

  9. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A.

    PubMed

    Chopade, Prashant D; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E; Simpson, Jeffrey; Fry, John C; Yurttas, Nese; Biermann, Kari L; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L; Myerson, Allan S

    2015-12-28

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described. PMID:26723665

  10. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopade, Prashant D.; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E.; Simpson, Jeffrey; Fry, John C.; Yurttas, Nese; Biermann, Kari L.; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Myerson, Allan S.

    2015-12-01

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described.

  11. The steroids/sports supplements connection: pragmatism and sensation-seeking in the attitudes and behavior of JHS and HS students on Long Island.

    PubMed

    Rees, C Roger; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T; Lewis, Dawn K

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine the importance of sensation seeking and pragmatism in the steroids and sports supplements behavior and attitudes of high school and junior high school students on Long Island, New York. Steroid use is much less acceptable than sports supplement use, although the reasons for use are similar. Respondents use supplements more than steroids, have a greater variety of attitudes toward their use, and have a high acceptance of their "energy" potential. There is a significant effect of current sports supplements use on future steroid use. Independent of measurement format (fixed choice questions and hypothetical situations), the steroids-sports supplement connection seems to exist within a pragmatic approach to cosmetic fitness, where the goal is improving physical ability and appearance.

  12. Amphetamine sensitization in mice is sufficient to produce both manic- and depressive-related behaviors as well as changes in the functional connectivity of corticolimbic structures.

    PubMed

    Pathak, G; Ibrahim, B A; McCarthy, S A; Baker, K; Kelly, M P

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that amphetamine abuse and withdrawal mimics the diverse nature of bipolar disorder symptomatology in humans. Here, we determined if a single paradigm of amphetamine sensitization would be sufficient to produce both manic- and depressive-related behaviors in mice. CD-1 mice were subcutaneously dosed for 5 days with 1.8 mg/kg d-amphetamine or vehicle. On days 6-31 of withdrawal, amphetamine-sensitized (AS) mice were compared to vehicle-treated (VT) mice on a range of behavioral and biochemical endpoints. AS mice demonstrated reliable mania- and depression-related behaviors from day 7 to day 28 of withdrawal. Relative to VT mice, AS mice exhibited long-lasting mania-like hyperactivity following either an acute 30-min restraint stress or a low-dose 1 mg/kg d-amphetamine challenge, which was attenuated by the mood-stabilizers lithium and quetiapine. In absence of any challenge, AS mice showed anhedonia-like decreases in sucrose preference and depression-like impairments in the off-line consolidation of motor memory, as reflected by the lack of spontaneous improvement across days of training on the rotarod. AS mice also demonstrated a functional impairment in nest building, an ethologically-relevant activity of daily living. Western blot analyses revealed a significant increase in methylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 (H3K9), but not lysine 4 (H3K4), in hippocampus of AS mice relative to VT mice. In situ hybridization for the immediate-early gene activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) further revealed heightened activation of corticolimbic structures, decreased functional connectivity between frontal cortex and striatum, and increased functional connectivity between the amygdala and hippocampus of AS mice. The effects of amphetamine sensitization were blunted in C57BL/6J mice relative to CD-1 mice. These results show that a single amphetamine sensitization protocol is sufficient to produce behavioral, functional, and biochemical

  13. Variance components of aggressive behavior in genetically highly connected Pietrain populations kept under two different housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Appel, Anne K; Voß, Barbara; Tönepöhl, Björn; König von Borstel, Uta; Gauly, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Mixing of unfamiliar pigs is a standard management procedure in commercial pig production and is often associated with a period of intense and physically damaging aggression. Aggression is considered a problem for animal welfare and production. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the genetic background of aggressive behavior traits at mixing of unfamiliar gilts under 2 different housing conditions. Therefore, a total of 543 purebred Pietrain gilts, from 2 nucleus farms (farm A: n = 302; farm B: n = 241) of 1 breeding company, were tested at an average age of 214 d (SD 12.2 d) for aggressive behavior by 1 observer. Observations included the frequencies of aggressive attack and reciprocal fighting during mixing with unfamiliar gilts. On farm A 41% of the gilts were purebred Pietrains, whereas 59% were purebred Landrace or Duroc gilts. On the farm B 42% of the gilts were purebred Pietrains, and 58% purebred Large White gilts. The average size of the newly mixed groups of gilts was 28 animals on farm A and 18 animals on farm B. The Pietrain gilts from the 2 herds were genetically closely linked. They were the offspring of 96 sires, with 64% of these sires having tested progeny in both farms. There were clear differences in the housing of the animals between the 2 farms. The test pen on farm A had a solid concrete floor littered with wooden shavings and was equipped with a dry feeder. On farm B there was a partly slatted floor, and the gilts were fed by an electronic sow feeder. Mean space allowance was 2.6 m(2)/gilt on farm A and 3.9 m(2)/gilt on farm B. Although large interindividual differences existed, gilts from farm B performed numerically more aggressive attack (mean 1.12, SD 1.42 vs. mean 0.71, SD 1.20) and reciprocal fighting (mean 0.78, SD 0.98 vs. mean 0.44, SD 0.82) when compared with gilts from farm A. The heritabilities and additive genetic variances for behavioral traits were estimated with a linear animal model and were on a low level

  14. Obturator hernia. Embryology, anatomy, and surgical applications.

    PubMed

    Skandalakis, L J; Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, J E

    2000-02-01

    Obturator hernia is a rare clinical entity. In most cases, it produces small bowel obstruction with high morbidity and mortality. The embryology, anatomy, clinical picture, diagnosis, and surgery are presented in detail.

  15. Curricular Guidelines for Teaching Dental Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeson, Jeffrey; Buckman, James

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Dental Anatomy and Occlusion of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. (MLW)

  16. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  17. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment. PMID:27382498

  18. Reduced connectivity and inter-hemispheric symmetry of the sensory system in a rat model of vulnerability to developing depression.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shimol, E; Gass, N; Vollmayr, B; Sartorius, A; Goelman, G

    2015-12-01

    Defining the markers corresponding to a high risk of developing depression in humans would have major clinical significance; however, few studies have been conducted since they are not only complex but also require homogeneous groups. This study compared congenital learned helpless (cLH) rats, selectively bred for high stress sensitivity and learned helplessness (LH) behavior, to congenital non-learned helpless (cNLH) rats that were bred for resistance to uncontrollable stress. Naïve cLH rats show some depression-like behavior but full LH behavior need additional stress, making this model ideal for studying vulnerability to depression. Resting-state functional connectivity obtained from seed correlation analysis was calculated for multiple regions that were selected by anatomy AND by a data-driven approach, independently. Significance was determined by t-statistic AND by permutation analysis, independently. A significant reduction in functional connectivity was observed by both analyses in the cLH rats in the sensory, motor, cingulate, infralimbic, accumbens and the raphe nucleus. These reductions corresponded primarily to reduced inter-hemispheric connectivity. The main reduction however was in the sensory system. It is argued that reduced connectivity and inter-hemispheric connectivity of the sensory system reflects an internal convergence state which may precede other depressive symptomatology and therefore could be used as markers for vulnerability to the development of depression.

  19. Connecting Urban Youth with their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the environment. We interviewed 12 students to better understand their beliefs. Although student responses showed they had learned discrete content knowledge, they lacked any ecological understanding of the environment and had mixed perceptions of the course's relevance in their lives. Students reported doing pro-environmental behaviors, but overwhelmingly contributed such actions to influences other than the urban ecology course. Analyses indicated a disconnect between the course, the environment, and the impact on the students' lives. Consequently, this suggests the importance of recognizing the implications of context, culture, and identity development of urban youth. Perhaps by providing explicit connections and skills in urban environmental programs through engaging students in environmental scientific investigations that stem from their own issues and questions can increase student engagement, motivation, and self-efficacy of environmental issues.

  20. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  1. FASTGRASS implementation in BISON and Fission gas behavior characterization in UO2 and connection to validating MARMOT

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Di; Mo, Kun; Ye, Bei; Jamison, Laura M.; Miao, Yinbin; Lian, Jie; Yao, Tiankei

    2015-09-30

    This activity is supported by the US Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Product Line (FPL). Two major accomplishments in FY 15 are summarized in this report: (1) implementation of the FASTGRASS module in the BISON code; and (2) a Xe implantation experiment for large-grained UO2. Both BISON AND MARMOT codes have been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to enable next generation fuel performance modeling capability as part of the NEAMS Program FPL. To contribute to the development of the Moose-Bison-Marmot (MBM) code suite, we have implemented the FASTGRASS fission gas model as a module in the BISON code. Based on rate theory formulations, the coupled FASTGRASS module in BISON is capable of modeling LWR oxide fuel fission gas behavior and fission gas release. In addition, we conducted a Xe implantation experiment at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) in order to produce the needed UO2 samples with desired bubble morphology. With these samples, further experiments to study the fission gas diffusivity are planned to provide validation data for the Fission Gas Release Model in MARMOT codes.

  2. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  3. Functional anatomy of the spine.

    PubMed

    Bogduk, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Among other important features of the functional anatomy of the spine, described in this chapter, is the remarkable difference between the design and function of the cervical spine and that of the lumbar spine. In the cervical spine, the atlas serves to transmit the load of the head to the typical cervical vertebrae. The axis adapts the suboccipital region to the typical cervical spine. In cervical intervertebrtal discs the anulus fibrosus is not circumferential but is crescentic, and serves as an interosseous ligament in the saddle joint between vertebral bodies. Cervical vertebrae rotate and translate in the sagittal plane, and rotate in the manner of an inverted cone, across an oblique coronal plane. The cervical zygapophysial joints are the most common source of chronic neck pain. By contrast, lumbar discs are well designed to sustain compression loads, but rely on posterior elements to limit axial rotation. Internal disc disruption is the most common basis for chronic low-back pain. Spinal muscles are arranged systematically in prevertebral and postvertebral groups. The intrinsic elements of the spine are innervated by the dorsal rami of the spinal nerves, and by the sinuvertebral nerves. Little modern research has been conducted into the structure of the thoracic spine, or the causes of thoracic spinal pain.

  4. Molecular Anatomy of Palate Development.

    PubMed

    Potter, Andrew S; Potter, S Steven

    2015-01-01

    The NIH FACEBASE consortium was established in part to create a central resource for craniofacial researchers. One purpose is to provide a molecular anatomy of craniofacial development. To this end we have used a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA-Seq to define the gene expression programs driving development of the murine palate. We focused on the E14.5 palate, soon after medial fusion of the two palatal shelves. The palate was divided into multiple compartments, including both medial and lateral, as well as oral and nasal, for both the anterior and posterior domains. A total of 25 RNA-Seq datasets were generated. The results provide a comprehensive view of the region specific expression of all transcription factors, growth factors and receptors. Paracrine interactions can be inferred from flanking compartment growth factor/receptor expression patterns. The results are validated primarily through very high concordance with extensive previously published gene expression data for the developing palate. In addition selected immunostain validations were carried out. In conclusion, this report provides an RNA-Seq based atlas of gene expression patterns driving palate development at microanatomic resolution. This FACEBASE resource is designed to promote discovery by the craniofacial research community.

  5. [Anatomy cadaver ceremonies in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Kao, T; Ha, H

    1999-07-01

    The practice of holding annual ceremonies in honor of cadaver donors in Taiwan's medical schools has a history of nearly a hundred years. It originated in Japan, where such ceremonies have been widely held in medical schools since the practice was founded by Toyo Yamawaki, who was the first medical scholar in Japan to engage in dissection of the human body and was the author of the first anatomy book to appear in Japan, the Zoshi. The practice of holding donor ceremonies was introduced into Taiwan after the Jaiwu Sino - Japanese war, when the island became a Japanese colony. The tradition was upheld in the Viceroy's Medical School, the Viceroy's College of Medicine, and Taihoku (Taipei) Imperial University College of Medicine, and continued since the restoration of Chinese power to the present. The practice of holding cadaver donor ceremonies in institutions of medical education is intended to express respect for the donor as well as to encourage the practice of cadaver donation to the benefit of medical education.

  6. Molecular Anatomy of Palate Development

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Andrew S.; Potter, S. Steven

    2015-01-01

    The NIH FACEBASE consortium was established in part to create a central resource for craniofacial researchers. One purpose is to provide a molecular anatomy of craniofacial development. To this end we have used a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA-Seq to define the gene expression programs driving development of the murine palate. We focused on the E14.5 palate, soon after medial fusion of the two palatal shelves. The palate was divided into multiple compartments, including both medial and lateral, as well as oral and nasal, for both the anterior and posterior domains. A total of 25 RNA-Seq datasets were generated. The results provide a comprehensive view of the region specific expression of all transcription factors, growth factors and receptors. Paracrine interactions can be inferred from flanking compartment growth factor/receptor expression patterns. The results are validated primarily through very high concordance with extensive previously published gene expression data for the developing palate. In addition selected immunostain validations were carried out. In conclusion, this report provides an RNA-Seq based atlas of gene expression patterns driving palate development at microanatomic resolution. This FACEBASE resource is designed to promote discovery by the craniofacial research community. PMID:26168040

  7. Towards an elastographic atlas of brain anatomy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Hirsch, Sebastian; Fehlner, Andreas; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Scheel, Michael; Braun, Juergen; Sack, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral viscoelastic constants can be measured in a noninvasive, image-based way by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for the detection of neurological disorders. However, MRE brain maps of viscoelastic constants are still limited by low spatial resolution. Here we introduce three-dimensional multifrequency MRE of the brain combined with a novel reconstruction algorithm based on a model-free multifrequency inversion for calculating spatially resolved viscoelastic parameter maps of the human brain corresponding to the dynamic range of shear oscillations between 30 and 60 Hz. Maps of two viscoelastic parameters, the magnitude and the phase angle of the complex shear modulus, |G*| and φ, were obtained and normalized to group templates of 23 healthy volunteers in the age range of 22 to 72 years. This atlas of the anatomy of brain mechanics reveals a significant contrast in the stiffness parameter |G*| between different anatomical regions such as white matter (WM; 1.252±0.260 kPa), the corpus callosum genu (CCG; 1.104±0.280 kPa), the thalamus (TH; 1.058±0.208 kPa) and the head of the caudate nucleus (HCN; 0.649±0.101 kPa). φ, which is sensitive to the lossy behavior of the tissue, was in the order of CCG (1.011±0.172), TH (1.037±0.173), CN (0.906±0.257) and WM (0.854±0.169). The proposed method provides the first normalized maps of brain viscoelasticity with anatomical details in subcortical regions and provides useful background data for clinical applications of cerebral MRE.

  8. Functional anatomy of bronchial veins.

    PubMed

    Charan, Nirmal B; Thompson, William H; Carvalho, Paula

    2007-01-01

    The amount of bronchial arterial blood that drains into the systemic venous system is not known. Therefore, in this study we further delineated the functional anatomy of the bronchial venous system in six adult, anesthetized, and mechanically ventilated sheep. Through a left thoracotomy, the left azygos vein was dissected and the insertion of the bronchial vein into the azygos vein was identified. A pouch was created by ligating the azygos vein on either side of the insertion of the bronchial vein. A catheter was inserted into this pouch for the measurement of bronchial venous occlusion pressure and bronchial venous blood flow. An ultrasonic flow probe was placed around the common bronchial branch of the bronchoesophageal artery to monitor the bronchial arterial blood flow. Catheters were also placed into the carotid artery and the pulmonary artery. The mean bronchial blood flow was 20.6+/-4.2mlmin(-1) (mean+/-SEM) and, of this, only about 13% of the blood flow drained into the azygos vein. The mean systemic artery pressure was 72.4+/-4.1mmHg whereas the mean bronchial venous occlusion pressure was 38.1+/-2.1mmHg. The mean values for blood gas analysis were as follows: bronchial venous blood pH=7.54+/-0.02, PCO(2)=35+/-2.6, PO(2)=95+/-5.7mmHg; systemic venous blood-pH=7.43+/-0.02, PCO(2)=48+/-3.2, PO(2)=42+/-2.0mmHg; systemic arterial blood-pH=7.51+/-0.03, PCO(2)=39+/-2.1, PO(2)=169+/-9.8mmHg. We conclude that the major portion of the bronchial arterial blood flow normally drains into the pulmonary circulation and only about 13% drains into the bronchial venous system. In addition, the oxygen content of the bronchial venous blood is similar to that in the systemic arterial blood.

  9. Clinical anatomy and biomechanics of the ankle in dance.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jeffrey A; McEwan, Islay M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    The ankle is an important joint to understand in the context of dance because it is the connection between the leg and the foot that establishes lower extremity stability. Its function coordinates with the leg and foot and, thus, it is crucial to the dancer's ability to perform. Furthermore, the ankle is one of the most commonly injured body regions in dance. An understanding of ankle anatomy and biomechanics is not only important for healthcare providers working with dancers, but for dance scientists, dance instructors, and dancers themselves. The bony architecture, the soft tissue restraints, and the locomotive structures all integrate to allow the athletic artistry of dance. Yet, there is still much research to be carried out in order to more completely understand the ankle of the dancer.

  10. The Reward Circuit: Linking Primate Anatomy and Human Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Suzanne N; Knutson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Although cells in many brain regions respond to reward, the cortical-basal ganglia circuit is at the heart of the reward system. The key structures in this network are the anterior cingulate cortex, the orbital prefrontal cortex, the ventral striatum, the ventral pallidum, and the midbrain dopamine neurons. In addition, other structures, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and lateral habenular nucleus, and specific brainstem structures such as the pedunculopontine nucleus, and the raphe nucleus, are key components in regulating the reward circuit. Connectivity between these areas forms a complex neural network that mediates different aspects of reward processing. Advances in neuroimaging techniques allow better spatial and temporal resolution. These studies now demonstrate that human functional and structural imaging results map increasingly close to primate anatomy. PMID:19812543

  11. After School: Connecting Children at Risk with Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors--An RWJF National Program. Program Results Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "After School: Connecting Children at Risk With Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors (After School)" helped develop intermediary organizations in Boston, Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area in order to create citywide systems of after-school programs. The intermediaries--Boston After…

  12. Revisiting the Anatomy of the Living Heart.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shumpei; Spicer, Diane E; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the complexity of cardiac anatomy is required by all who seek, in the setting of cardiac disease, to interpret the images confronting them. Although the mysteries of cardiac structure have been extensively addressed, significant gaps continue to exist between the descriptions provided by morphologists and by those working in the clinical setting. In part, this reflects the limitations in providing 3D visualization of such a complicated organ. Current 3D imaging technology now permits visualization of the cardiac components using datasets obtained in the living individual. These advances, furthermore, demonstrate the anatomy in the setting of the heart as imaged within the thorax. It has been failure to describe the heart as it lies within the thorax that remains a major deficiency of many morphologists relying on the dissecting room to provide the gold standard. Describing the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion, a basic rule of clinical anatomy, creates the necessary bridges between anatomists and clinicians. The rapid progression of cardiac interventional techniques, furthermore, emphasizes the need to revisit cardiac anatomy using a multidisciplinary approach. In this review, therefore, we illustrate the advantages of an attitudinally correct approach to cardiac anatomy. We then focus on the morphology of the arterial roots, revealing the accuracy that can now be achieved by clinicians using datasets obtained during life.

  13. Exploring relationships between personality and anatomy performance.

    PubMed

    Finn, Gabrielle M; Walker, Simon J; Carter, Madeline; Cox, David R; Hewitson, Ruth; Smith, Claire F

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition in medicine of the importance of noncognitive factors, including personality, for performance, and for good medical practice. The personality domain of conscientiousness is a well-established predictor of performance in workplace and academic settings. This study investigates the relationships between the "Big Five" personality domains, the facets of conscientiousness and performance in a practical anatomy examination. First- and second-year undergraduate medical students (n = 85) completed a paper-based questionnaire, which included a 50-item measure of the Big Five personality domains (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and a 60-item measure of the six conscientiousness facets (orderliness, dutifulness, achievement-striving, self-discipline, self-efficacy, and cautiousness) from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP). In addition, routinely-collected academic performance scores from the end of semester anatomy practical examinations (spotters) were obtained. Anatomy examination performance correlated moderately with conscientiousness (r = 0.24, P = 0.03). Of the six facets of conscientiousness, a positive relationship was observed between anatomy examination performance and achievement striving (r = 0.22, P = 0.05). In conclusion, this study found that performance in an anatomy examination was related to higher levels of conscientiousness and, more specifically, to higher levels of achievement striving. The results have implications for selection and assessment in medicine.

  14. Contemporary art and the ethics of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2007-01-01

    The ethics of anatomy bears on the ways in which we present and behold human bodies and human remains, as well as on the duties we have with regard to the persons whose bodies or body parts are presented. Anatomy is also a mode of thought and of social organization. Following Merleau-Ponty's assertion that the human body belongs both to the particular and to the metaphysical, I contend that art's ways of rendering of the particular in human anatomy often bring into relief metaphysical and ethical insights relevant to clinical medicine. This paper discusses the art of Gideon Gechtman, Mary Ellen Mark, Shari Zolla, and Christine Borland. It considers the relationship of these artists to earlier artistic traditions and the implications of their work for contemporary medicine and the biopsychosocial paradigm. Andrew Wyeth, the Visible Male Project, the Isenheim Altarpiece by GrA(1/4)newald, and an anonymous Dutch Baroque portrait are also discussed. PMID:17259679

  15. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    PubMed

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints.

  16. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2010-12-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  17. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  18. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  19. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

    2012-09-01

    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  20. Restructuring a basic science course for core competencies: an example from anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jeremy K; Lachman, Nirusha; Camp, Christopher L; Chen, Laura P; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    Medical schools revise their curricula in order to develop physicians best skilled to serve the public's needs. To ensure a smooth transition to residency programs, undergraduate medical education is often driven by the six core competencies endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME): patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning, interpersonal skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice. Recent curricular redesign at Mayo Medical School provided an opportunity to restructure anatomy education and integrate radiology with first-year gross and developmental anatomy. The resulting 6-week (120-contact-hour) human structure block provides students with opportunities to learn gross anatomy through dissection, radiologic imaging, and embryologic correlation. We report more than 20 educational interventions from the human structure block that may serve as a model for incorporating the ACGME core competencies into basic science and early medical education. The block emphasizes clinically-oriented anatomy, invites self- and peer-evaluation, provides daily formative feedback through an audience response system, and employs team-based learning. The course includes didactic briefing sessions and roles for students as teachers, leaders, and collaborators. Third-year medical students serve as teaching assistants. With its clinical focus and competency-based design, the human structure block connects basic science with best-practice clinical medicine.

  1. Anatomy of a Busted Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version (Figure 1)

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope captured the picture on the left of comet Holmes in March 2008, five months after the comet suddenly erupted and brightened a millionfold overnight. The contrast of the picture has been enhanced on the right to show the anatomy of the comet.

    Every six years, comet 17P/Holmes speeds away from Jupiter and heads inward toward the sun, traveling the same route typically without incident. However, twice in the last 116 years, in November 1892 and October 2007, comet Holmes mysteriously exploded as it approached the asteroid belt. Astronomers still do not know the cause of these eruptions.

    Spitzer's infrared picture at left hand side of figure 1, reveals fine dust particles that make up the outer shell, or coma, of the comet. The nucleus of the comet is within the bright whitish spot in the center, while the yellow area shows solid particles that were blown from the comet in the explosion. The comet is headed away from the sun, which lies beyond the right-hand side of figure 1.

    The contrast-enhanced picture on the right shows the comet's outer shell, and strange filaments, or streamers, of dust. The streamers and shell are a yet another mystery surrounding comet Holmes. Scientists had initially suspected that the streamers were small dust particles ejected from fragments of the nucleus, or from hyerpactive jets on the nucleus, during the October 2007 explosion. If so, both the streamers and the shell should have shifted their orientation as the comet followed its orbit around the sun. Radiation pressure from the sun should have swept the material back and away from it. But pictures of comet Holmes taken by Spitzer over time show the streamers and shell in the same configuration, and not pointing away from the sun. The observations have left astronomers stumped.

    The horizontal line seen in the contrast-enhanced picture is a trail of debris

  2. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities.

    PubMed

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the pathophysiology, select optimal therapeutic options for patients and provide clients with honest expectations for cases of canine glaucoma, clinicians should be familiar with a rational understanding of the functional anatomy of the ocular structures involved in this group of diseases. The topographical extension and the structural and humoral complexity of the regions involved with the production and the outflow of aqueous humor undergo numerous changes with aging and disease. Therefore, the anatomy relative to the fluid dynamics of aqueous has become a pivotal yet flexible concept to interpret the different phenotypes of glaucoma.

  3. Surgical anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree

    PubMed Central

    Drevet, Gabrielle; Conti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Airway surgery is often indicated in the management of benign or malignant pathological processes of the tracheobronchial tree. The surgeon undertaking this type of work has, however, the responsibility of understanding the particular anatomy applicable to these structures and procedures as well as be able to correlate imaging, intraoperative findings and anatomy. These are important considerations if one wants to reduce operative morbidity and improve potential for better long-term results. This paper reviews the most important anatomic features of the tracheobronchial tree putting emphasis on those features that are important to surgeons performing surgical procedures on those organs. PMID:26981262

  4. [Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy].

    PubMed

    García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

    2014-01-01

    Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view.

  5. Individual differences in white matter anatomy predict dissociable components of reading skill in adults.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Suzanne E; Joanisse, Marc F

    2014-08-01

    We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate relationships between white matter anatomy and different reading subskills in typical-reading adults. A series of analytic approaches revealed that phonological decoding ability is associated with anatomical markers that do not relate to other reading-related cognitive abilities. Thus, individual differences in phonological decoding might relate to connectivity between a network of cortical regions, while skills like sight word reading might rely less strongly on integration across regions. Specifically, manually-drawn ROIs and probabilistic tractography revealed an association between the volume and integrity of white matter underlying primary auditory cortex and nonword reading ability. In a related finding, more extensive cross-hemispheric connections through the isthmus of the corpus callosum predicted better phonological decoding. Atlas-based white matter ROIs demonstrated that relationships with nonword reading were strongest in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus that connect occipital and anterior temporal cortex with inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, tract volume underlying the left angular gyrus was related to nonverbal IQ. Finally, connectivity underlying functional ROIs that are differentially active during phonological and semantic processing predicted nonword reading and reading comprehension, respectively. Together, these results provide important insights into how white matter anatomy may relate to both typical reading subskills, and perhaps a roadmap for understanding neural connectivity in individuals with reading impairments.

  6. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  7. Perceptions of Anatomy Education--A Student's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joslin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Changes in anatomy education over the last two decades have, in large part, led to less emphasis on gross anatomy in the medical curriculum. This has led many to question whether streamlined anatomy courses truly provide adequate preparation for medical practice. Rather than wondering about the effects of these changes, we should be actively…

  8. Teaching Anatomy and Physiology Using Computer-Based, Stereoscopic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jamie; Kuehn, David; Langlois, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Learning real three-dimensional (3D) anatomy for the first time can be challenging. Two-dimensional drawings and plastic models tend to over-simplify the complexity of anatomy. The approach described uses stereoscopy to create 3D images of the process of cadaver dissection and to demonstrate the underlying anatomy related to the speech mechanisms.…

  9. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  10. Teaching dental anatomy with light-activated resins.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, Y; Denehy, G E; Schulein, T M

    1984-04-01

    A method has been described in which light-activated resins are incorporated into the dental anatomy laboratory. This procedure is a valuable addition to the anatomy course because students (1) work with a restorative material appropriate for anterior teeth, (2) learn the unique properties of the light-activated resins, and (3) apply the principles of dental anatomy to a clinically relevant task.

  11. Properties of Publications on Anatomy in Medical Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…

  12. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  13. Teaching Cell Anatomy with a Fabric Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluka, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Middle schoolers are often first introduced to detailed cellular anatomy through one-dimensional drawings in basic life science books, fill-in-the blank handouts accompanied by notes from the teacher, or desktop hard-plastic commercial models that resemble giant lollipops. One of the most important, yet difficult, life science concepts for…

  14. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  15. Anatomy of a Minicourse. Audiovisual Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rex

    This kit explains the use of minicourses at Macquarie University in New South Wales, Australia, which were designed for the inservice training of teachers. The kit contains the script of the audio commentary, a cassette tape, color slides, and a booklet entitled "Anatomy of the Minicourse." The tape briefly describes the minicourses in general and…

  16. Clinical anatomy of the periocular region.

    PubMed

    Shams, Pari N; Ortiz-Pérez, Santiago; Joshi, Naresh

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: (1) to provide the facial plastic surgeon with a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of periocular anatomy including the brow, midface, and temporal region and (2) to highlight important anatomical relationships that must be appreciated in order to achieve the best possible functional and aesthetic surgical outcomes.

  17. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc.

  18. Teaching Modern Technique through Experiential Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    ````````Incorporation of an experiential anatomy component into the modern technique class educates students about the body in a way that permanently and positively impacts how they move. It is our responsibility as dance educators, whether at the elementary, secondary, or college level, to teach students how to care for their bodies and make…

  19. Essential anatomy for contemporary upper lid blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Siegel, R J

    1993-04-01

    A clear understanding of upper eyelid anatomy is an absolute prerequisite for performing advanced invagination-type blepharoplasty. This article describes the author's simple, systematic approach to intraoperative identification of the levator aponeurosis as well as the other key layers of fascia in the upper lid.

  20. Professional Storytelling in Clinical Dental Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class,…

  1. A Syllabus for Biol 242--Human Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.

    This document is the fall and spring semester course syllabus of Biology 242--Human Anatomy at Southern University (Louisiana). Sections include: (1) Descriptive Information; (2) Specification of Course Goals and Objectives; (3) Readings; (4) Description of Instructional Procedures; (5) Course Requirements; (6) Course Schedule; (7) Evaluation of…

  2. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  3. Computerized Grading of Anatomy Laboratory Practical Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippendorf, Beth B.; Bolender, David L.; Kolesari, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the…

  4. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  5. Broca's Area: Nomenclature, Anatomy, Typology and Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Simon S.; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural…

  6. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  7. Innovative Strategies for Teaching Anatomy and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritt, Laura; Stewart, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of new teaching strategies in an anatomy and physiology laboratory at Burlington County College (New Jersey) based on laser disc technology, computers with multimedia capabilities, and appropriate software. Lab activities are described and results of a survey of former students are reported, including a comparison of lab…

  8. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  9. Connecting grain-scale physics to macroscopic granular flow behavior using discrete contact-dynamics simulations, centrifuge experiments, and continuum modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Meredith; Stark, Colin; Hung, Chi-Yao; Smith, Breannan; Grinspin, Eitan; Capart, Herve; Li, Liming; Crone, Timothy; Hsu, Leslie; Ling, Hoe

    2014-05-01

    A complete theoretical understanding of geophysical granular flow is essential to the reliable assessment of landslide and debris flow hazard and for the design of mitigation strategies, but several key challenges remain. Perhaps the most basic is a general treatment of the processes of internal energy dissipation, which dictate the runout velocity and the shape and scale of the affected area. Currently, dissipation is best described by macroscopic, empirical friction coefficients only indirectly related to the grain-scale physics. Another challenge is describing the forces exerted at the boundaries of the flow, which dictate the entrainment of further debris and the erosion of cohesive surfaces. While the granular effects on these boundary forces have been shown to be large compared to predictions from continuum approximations, the link between granular effects and erosion or entrainment rates has not been settled. Here we present preliminary results of a multi-disciplinary study aimed at improving our understanding of granular flow energy dissipation and boundary forces, through an effort to connect grain-scale physics to macroscopic behaviors. Insights into grain-scale force distributions and energy dissipation mechanisms are derived from discrete contact-dynamics simulations. Macroscopic erosion and flow behaviors are documented from a series of granular flow experiments, in which a rotating drum half-filled with grains is placed within a centrifuge payload, in order to drive effective gravity levels up to ~100g and approach the forces present in natural systems. A continuum equation is used to characterize the flowing layer depth and velocity resulting from the force balance between the down-slope pull of gravity and the friction at the walls. In this presentation we will focus on the effect of granular-specific physics such as force chain networks and grain-grain collisions, derived from the contact dynamics simulations. We will describe our efforts to

  10. "Digit anatomy": a new technique for learning anatomy using motor memory.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice the movements which express (1) the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches, (2) the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and their branches, and formation of the portal vein, (3) the heart and the coronary arteries, and (4) the brachial, lumbar, and sacral plexuses. A feedback survey showed that digit anatomy was helpful for the students not only in memorizing anatomical structures but also in understanding their functions. Out of 40 students, 34 of them who learned anatomy with the help of digit anatomy were "very satisfied" or "generally satisfied" with this new teaching method. Digit anatomy that was used to express the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches was more helpful than those representing other structures. Although the movements of digit anatomy are expected to be remembered longer than the exact meaning of each movement, invoking the motor memory of the movement may help to make relearning of the same information easier and faster in the future. PMID:21538938

  11. History of cardiac anatomy: a comprehensive review from the Egyptians to today.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Youssef, Pamela; Gielecki, Jerzy; Walocha, Jerzy; Natsis, Kostantinos; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-04-01

    The nature, function, and anatomy of the heart have been extensively studied since 3500 B.C. Greek and Egyptian science developed a basic understanding of the heart, although this was primarily related to religious beliefs. During the Hippocratic era, Hippocrates and his colleagues developed a more scientific and less religious understanding of the cardiovascular system. The post-Hippocratic era was characterized by more advanced descriptions of the location, structure, and function of the heart. The Alexandrian, Roman, Medieval Islamic, and European eras included turning points in the history of cardiac anatomy. Subsequently, after the structure and function of the heart were established, its connection with the lungs was investigated. Description of the pulmonary circulation was followed by the discovery of the conductive system and innervation of the heart. PMID:26918296

  12. The sacroiliac joint: an overview of its anatomy, function and potential clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Vleeming, A; Schuenke, M D; Masi, A T; Carreiro, J E; Danneels, L; Willard, F H

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the (functional) anatomy and biomechanics of the pelvic girdle and specifically the sacroiliac joints (SIJs). The SIJs are essential for effective load transfer between the spine and legs. The sacrum, pelvis and spine, and the connections to the arms, legs and head, are functionally interrelated through muscular, fascial and ligamentous interconnections. A historical overview is presented on pelvic and especially SIJ research, followed by a general functional anatomical overview of the pelvis. In specific sections, the development and maturation of the SIJ is discussed, and a description of the bony anatomy and sexual morphism of the pelvis and SIJ is debated. The literature on the SIJ ligaments and innervation is discussed, followed by a section on the pathology of the SIJ. Pelvic movement studies are investigated and biomechanical models for SIJ stability analyzed, including examples of insufficient versus excessive sacroiliac force closure. PMID:22994881

  13. MRI of the cranial nerves--more than meets the eye: technical considerations and advanced anatomy.

    PubMed

    Casselman, Jan; Mermuys, Koen; Delanote, Joost; Ghekiere, Johan; Coenegrachts, Kenneth

    2008-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the method of choice to evaluate the cranial nerves. Although the skull base foramina can be seen on CT, the nerves themselves can only be visualized in detail on MR. To see the different segments of nerves I to XII, the right sequences must be used. Detailed clinical information is needed by the radiologist so that a tailored MR study can be performed. In this article, MR principles for imaging of the cranial nerves are discussed. The basic anatomy of the cranial nerves and the cranial nerve nuclei as well as their central connections are discussed and illustrated briefly. The emphasis is on less known or more advanced extra-axial anatomy, illustrated with high-resolution MR images.

  14. The Computational Anatomy of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rick A.; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Brown, Harriet R.; Frith, Christopher D.; Friston, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers psychotic symptoms in terms of false inferences or beliefs. It is based on the notion that the brain is an inference machine that actively constructs hypotheses to explain or predict its sensations. This perspective provides a normative (Bayes-optimal) account of action and perception that emphasizes probabilistic representations; in particular, the confidence or precision of beliefs about the world. We will consider hallucinosis, abnormal eye movements, sensory attenuation deficits, catatonia, and delusions as various expressions of the same core pathology: namely, an aberrant encoding of precision. From a cognitive perspective, this represents a pernicious failure of metacognition (beliefs about beliefs) that can confound perceptual inference. In the embodied setting of active (Bayesian) inference, it can lead to behaviors that are paradoxically more accurate than Bayes-optimal behavior. Crucially, this normative account is accompanied by a neuronally plausible process theory based upon hierarchical predictive coding. In predictive coding, precision is thought to be encoded by the post-synaptic gain of neurons reporting prediction error. This suggests that both pervasive trait abnormalities and florid failures of inference in the psychotic state can be linked to factors controlling post-synaptic gain – such as NMDA receptor function and (dopaminergic) neuromodulation. We illustrate these points using biologically plausible simulations of perceptual synthesis, smooth pursuit eye movements and attribution of agency – that all use the same predictive coding scheme and pathology: namely, a reduction in the precision of prior beliefs, relative to sensory evidence. PMID:23750138

  15. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  16. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  17. The history of anatomy in Persia

    PubMed Central

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-01-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637–651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777–857 AD), Tabbari (838–870 AD), Rhazes (865–925 AD), Joveini (?−983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930–994 AD), Avicenna (980–1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042–1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in

  18. Anatomy of a malpractice lawsuit.

    PubMed

    Prevatt, Haley A; Sturgill, T Cornelius; Austin, J Brent; Seif, Elizabeth R; Schwartz, Richard W

    2007-03-01

    Given the prevalence of medical malpractice lawsuits, physicians are often thrust into the legal world without the education of a juris doctor. The risk of facing suit varies among specialties, but there is no guarantee any physician will proceed through his or her career without being a defendant in a lawsuit. Every physician stands a significant chance of being sued. Although a lawsuit is an exhausting and intimidating situation in and of itself, the ramifications of a plaintiff's verdict could have chilling effects on the physician's life, both professionally and personally. Therefore, it is imperative that every physician have an understanding of the legal process of which he or she may become involved. This article provides a practical guide for the physician, including the fundamental procedures of a medical malpractice lawsuit, the behavior that will be expected or required of the defendant physician, and the effect of disobeying the required procedures.

  19. Anatomy of the python heart.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjarke; Nyengaard, Jens R; Pedersen, Michael; Wang, Tobias

    2010-12-01

    The hearts of all snakes and lizards consist of two atria and a single incompletely divided ventricle. In general, the squamate ventricle is subdivided into three chambers: cavum arteriosum (left), cavum venosum (medial) and cavum pulmonale (right). Although a similar division also applies to the heart of pythons, this family of snakes is unique amongst snakes in having intracardiac pressure separation. Here we provide a detailed anatomical description of the cardiac structures that confer this functional division. We measured the masses and volumes of the ventricular chambers, and we describe the gross morphology based on dissections of the heart from 13 ball pythons (Python regius) and one Burmese python (P. molurus). The cavum venosum is much reduced in pythons and constitutes approximately 10% of the cavum arteriosum. We suggest that shunts will always be less than 20%, while other studies conclude up to 50%. The high-pressure cavum arteriosum accounted for approximately 75% of the total ventricular mass, and was twice as dense as the low-pressure cavum pulmonale. The reptile ventricle has a core of spongious myocardium, but the three ventricular septa that separate the pulmonary and systemic chambers--the muscular ridge, the bulbuslamelle and the vertical septum--all had layers of compact myocardium. Pythons, however, have unique pads of connective tissue on the site of pressure separation. Because the hearts of varanid lizards, which also are endowed with pressure separation, share many of these morphological specializations, we propose that intraventricular compact myocardium is an indicator of high-pressure systems and possibly pressure separation.

  20. Endoscopic anatomy of the pediatric middle ear.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, "less invasively" has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the first decade, when structure and function change most rapidly. Understanding the limits and possibilities afforded by new endoscopic technologies, the pediatric otologist can strive for results matching or exceeding those achieved by more invasive surgical approaches.

  1. Innovative ventilation system for animal anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.R.; Smith, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    A unique ventilation system was designed and built to reduce formaldehyde fumes in the large animal anatomy lab at the Vet Medical Center at Cornell University. The laboratory includes four rooms totaling 5,500 ft{sup 2}. The main room has 2,300 ft{sup 2} and houses the laboratory where up to 60 students dissect as many as 12 horses at a time. Other rooms are a cold storage locker, an animal preparation room and a smaller lab for specialized instruction. The large animal anatomy laboratory has a history of air quality complaints despite a fairly high ventilation rate of over 10 air changes/hour. The horses are embalmed, creating a voluminous source of formaldehyde and phenol vapors. Budget constraints and increasingly stringent exposure limits for formaldehyde presented a great challenge to design a ventilation system that yields acceptable air quality. The design solution included two innovative elements: air-to-air heat recovery, and focused ventilation.

  2. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome.

  3. Fostering improved anatomy and physiology instructor pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology instructors at the college level. Data were collected through a series of individual interviews that included the use of the Teacher Beliefs Inventory questionnaire (23) along with observations onsite in participants' college classrooms and at process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) curriculum writing workshops. Findings indicated attitudinal shifts on the part of participants from teacher-centered to more student-centered pedagogy and supported the benefits of long-term professional development for instructors. Here, we documented the successful progress of these professors as they participated in a curriculum development process that emphasized student-centered teaching with the goal of promoting broader change efforts in introductory anatomy and physiology. PMID:25434015

  4. Fostering improved anatomy and physiology instructor pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology instructors at the college level. Data were collected through a series of individual interviews that included the use of the Teacher Beliefs Inventory questionnaire (23) along with observations onsite in participants' college classrooms and at process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) curriculum writing workshops. Findings indicated attitudinal shifts on the part of participants from teacher-centered to more student-centered pedagogy and supported the benefits of long-term professional development for instructors. Here, we documented the successful progress of these professors as they participated in a curriculum development process that emphasized student-centered teaching with the goal of promoting broader change efforts in introductory anatomy and physiology.

  5. Computed tomographic anatomy of the temporal bone

    SciTech Connect

    Virapongse, C.; Rothman, S.L.G.; Kier, E.L.; Sarwar, M.

    1982-10-01

    With the recent development of high-resolution computed tomography (CT), there is a growing need to explore the full potential of this new method in demonstrating the detailed anatomy of the temporal bone. For this purpose, dry skulls with intact ossicles were scanned in axial and coronal projections. The detailed CT anatomy of the temporal bone was documented, complemented by images from live patients. Because of its superior contrast resolution, CT was able to demonstrate numerous structures, such as the tympanic membrane, ossicles, and supporting structures, hitherto never or poorly visualized by any other method. In addition, the ease by which axial sections of the temporal bone could be obtained is of great benefit in displaying several structures previously difficult to evaluate.

  6. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    PubMed

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors. PMID:27278888

  7. Dental anatomy portrayed with microscopic volume investigations.

    PubMed

    Baumann, M A; Schwebel, T; Kriete, A

    1993-01-01

    The clinical treatment of the root canal of teeth--called endodontics--assumes a precise idea of the spatial arrangement of the anatomy of teeth and their inner structure. By using computer-assisted data acquisition from filmed sequences of histologic serial sections and a special kind of magnetic resonance microscope--the Stray Field Imaging (STRAFI)--volume investigations were carried out using special functions of a newly developed 3D software. Possible applications and future perspectives are discussed.

  8. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    PubMed

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors.

  9. The anatomy of choice: active inference and agency.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fitzgerald, Thomas; Moutoussis, Michael; Behrens, Timothy; Dolan, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers agency in the setting of embodied or active inference. In brief, we associate a sense of agency with prior beliefs about action and ask what sorts of beliefs underlie optimal behavior. In particular, we consider prior beliefs that action minimizes the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between desired states and attainable states in the future. This allows one to formulate bounded rationality as approximate Bayesian inference that optimizes a free energy bound on model evidence. We show that constructs like expected utility, exploration bonuses, softmax choice rules and optimism bias emerge as natural consequences of this formulation. Previous accounts of active inference have focused on predictive coding and Bayesian filtering schemes for minimizing free energy. Here, we consider variational Bayes as an alternative scheme that provides formal constraints on the computational anatomy of inference and action-constraints that are remarkably consistent with neuroanatomy. Furthermore, this scheme contextualizes optimal decision theory and economic (utilitarian) formulations as pure inference problems. For example, expected utility theory emerges as a special case of free energy minimization, where the sensitivity or inverse temperature (of softmax functions and quantal response equilibria) has a unique and Bayes-optimal solution-that minimizes free energy. This sensitivity corresponds to the precision of beliefs about behavior, such that attainable goals are afforded a higher precision or confidence. In turn, this means that optimal behavior entails a representation of confidence about outcomes that are under an agent's control. PMID:24093015

  10. The anatomy of choice: active inference and agency.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fitzgerald, Thomas; Moutoussis, Michael; Behrens, Timothy; Dolan, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers agency in the setting of embodied or active inference. In brief, we associate a sense of agency with prior beliefs about action and ask what sorts of beliefs underlie optimal behavior. In particular, we consider prior beliefs that action minimizes the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between desired states and attainable states in the future. This allows one to formulate bounded rationality as approximate Bayesian inference that optimizes a free energy bound on model evidence. We show that constructs like expected utility, exploration bonuses, softmax choice rules and optimism bias emerge as natural consequences of this formulation. Previous accounts of active inference have focused on predictive coding and Bayesian filtering schemes for minimizing free energy. Here, we consider variational Bayes as an alternative scheme that provides formal constraints on the computational anatomy of inference and action-constraints that are remarkably consistent with neuroanatomy. Furthermore, this scheme contextualizes optimal decision theory and economic (utilitarian) formulations as pure inference problems. For example, expected utility theory emerges as a special case of free energy minimization, where the sensitivity or inverse temperature (of softmax functions and quantal response equilibria) has a unique and Bayes-optimal solution-that minimizes free energy. This sensitivity corresponds to the precision of beliefs about behavior, such that attainable goals are afforded a higher precision or confidence. In turn, this means that optimal behavior entails a representation of confidence about outcomes that are under an agent's control.

  11. Use of a Self-Monitoring Application to Reduce Stereotypic Behavior in Adolescents with Autism: A Preliminary Investigation of I-Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Mason, Rose A.; Chambers, Angela; Wills, Howard P.; Mason, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Many students with autism engage in a variety of complex stereotypic behaviors, impacting task completion and interfering with social opportunities. Self-monitoring is an intervention with empirical support for individuals with ASD to increase behavioral repertoires and decrease behaviors that are incompatible with successful outcomes. However,…

  12. Andreas Vesalius--the reformer of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Holomanova, A; Ivanova, A; Brucknerova, I; Benuska, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with two main topics. The first part provides data on the life of Andreas Vesalius, a scholar and anatomist of the 16th century, and describes the environment in which he lived and worked. It highlights his personality of a great doctor and teacher and points out the importance of his scientific methods and techniques as opposed to speculative methods that were prevalent in the scientific research in those days. The second part of the paper is devoted to the characteristics and description of his famous and, given the times he lived in, grand work called "De Humani Corporis Fabrica", which opened a new epoch in the history of anatomy. Andreas Vesalius is considered to be the founder of the science of anatomy which is based on observation and experience gained by using scalpel on dead bodies of humans. This is how he proved the then valid statements wrong. This complex view of life and work of Andreas Vesalius is aimed at highlighting the milestone which he represents in this traditional science of anatomy that has been conscientiously developed since the Classical times. (Fig. 4, Ref. 6.) PMID:11723674

  13. Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.

  14. Testing to enhance retention in human anatomy.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jessica M; Thompson, Andrew J; Marshak, David W

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the nervous system, were developed. The quizzes were optional, and no credit was awarded. They were posted online using Blackboard, which provided feedback, and they were very popular. To determine whether the quizzes had any effect on retention, they were given in a controlled setting to 21 future medical and dental students. The weekly quizzes included questions on regional anatomy and an expanded set of questions on the nervous system. Each question about the nervous system was given three times, in a slightly different form each time. The second quiz was given approximately half an hour after the first one, and the third was given one week after the second to assess retention. The quizzes were unpopular, but students showed robust improvement on the questions about the nervous system. The scores increased by almost 9% on the second quiz, with no intervention except viewing the correct answers. The scores were 29% higher on the third quiz than on the first, and there was also a positive correlation between the grades on the quizzes and the final examination. Thus, repeated testing is an effective strategy for learning and retaining information about human anatomy. PMID:21805688

  15. Andreas Vesalius--the reformer of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Holomanova, A; Ivanova, A; Brucknerova, I; Benuska, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with two main topics. The first part provides data on the life of Andreas Vesalius, a scholar and anatomist of the 16th century, and describes the environment in which he lived and worked. It highlights his personality of a great doctor and teacher and points out the importance of his scientific methods and techniques as opposed to speculative methods that were prevalent in the scientific research in those days. The second part of the paper is devoted to the characteristics and description of his famous and, given the times he lived in, grand work called "De Humani Corporis Fabrica", which opened a new epoch in the history of anatomy. Andreas Vesalius is considered to be the founder of the science of anatomy which is based on observation and experience gained by using scalpel on dead bodies of humans. This is how he proved the then valid statements wrong. This complex view of life and work of Andreas Vesalius is aimed at highlighting the milestone which he represents in this traditional science of anatomy that has been conscientiously developed since the Classical times. (Fig. 4, Ref. 6.)

  16. Anatomy of gravitationally deformed slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Shintaro; Hariyama, Takehiro

    2010-05-01

    fractures, which also suggests the low confining pressures. Vertical distribution of gravitational deformation with above features indicates that gravitational shear zones are nucleated in a distributed manner, then gradually connected to each other, and finally cut through the whole slope. This is the transition of gravitational mass rock creep to rock slide. First nucleation points seem to be controlled by the heterogeneity of rock properties. Thick black layers in pelitic schist, shale near thick sandstone beds in sedimentary rocks, were such nuclear points. The geometrical relationships between the distribution of fracture zones and the slope morphology suggest that they are formed in accordance to the valley incision and resultant slope destabilization.

  17. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Rocca Rossetti, Salvatore

    2016-03-31

    Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  18. Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to illustrate a process of making connections, not between mathematics and other activities, but within mathematics itself--between diverse parts of the subject. Novel connections are still possible in previously explored mathematics when the material happens to be unfamiliar, as may be the case for a learner at any career stage.…

  19. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences. PMID:27474188

  20. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences.

  1. School Psychology Awareness: Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Andrea; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2011-01-01

    A day in the life of a student at school is filled with potential connections (relationships, linkages in learning, behavioral choices, etc.). Friendships with peers, relationships with teachers, acknowledgements from administrators, encouragement from coaches: These are all interpersonal connections that are essential not only to making school an…

  2. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology, and disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Riddhi M; Pinto, Jayant M

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system is an essential part of human physiology, with a rich evolutionary history. Although humans are less dependent on chemosensory input than are other mammals (Niimura 2009, Hum. Genomics 4:107-118), olfactory function still plays a critical role in health and behavior. The detection of hazards in the environment, generating feelings of pleasure, promoting adequate nutrition, influencing sexuality, and maintenance of mood are described roles of the olfactory system, while other novel functions are being elucidated. A growing body of evidence has implicated a role for olfaction in such diverse physiologic processes as kin recognition and mating (Jacob et al. 2002a, Nat. Genet. 30:175-179; Horth 2007, Genomics 90:159-175; Havlicek and Roberts 2009, Psychoneuroendocrinology 34:497-512), pheromone detection (Jacob et al. 200b, Horm. Behav. 42:274-283; Wyart et al. 2007, J. Neurosci. 27:1261-1265), mother-infant bonding (Doucet et al. 2009, PLoS One 4:e7579), food preferences (Mennella et al. 2001, Pediatrics 107:E88), central nervous system physiology (Welge-Lüssen 2009, B-ENT 5:129-132), and even longevity (Murphy 2009, JAMA 288:2307-2312). The olfactory system, although phylogenetically ancient, has historically received less attention than other special senses, perhaps due to challenges related to its study in humans. In this article, we review the anatomic pathways of olfaction, from peripheral nasal airflow leading to odorant detection, to epithelial recognition of these odorants and related signal transduction, and finally to central processing. Olfactory dysfunction, which can be defined as conductive, sensorineural, or central (typically related to neurodegenerative disorders), is a clinically significant problem, with a high burden on quality of life that is likely to grow in prevalence due to demographic shifts and increased environmental exposures.

  3. New Insights in Trigeminal Anatomy: A Double Orofacial Tract for Nociceptive Input.

    PubMed

    Henssen, Dylan J H A; Kurt, Erkan; Kozicz, Tamas; van Dongen, Robert; Bartels, Ronald H M A; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Orofacial pain in patients relies on the anatomical pathways that conduct nociceptive information, originating from the periphery towards the trigeminal sensory nucleus complex (TSNC) and finally, to the thalami and the somatosensorical cortical regions. The anatomy and function of the so-called trigeminothalamic tracts have been investigated before. In these animal-based studies from the previous century, the intracerebral pathways were mapped using different retro- and anterograde tracing methods. We review the literature on the trigeminothalamic tracts focusing on these animal tracer studies. Subsequently, we related the observations of these studies to clinical findings using fMRI trials. The intracerebral trigeminal pathways can be subdivided into three pathways: a ventral (contralateral) and dorsal (mainly ipsilateral) trigeminothalamic tract and the intranuclear pathway. Based on the reviewed evidence we hypothesize the co-existence of an ipsilateral nociceptive conduction tract to the cerebral cortex and we translate evidence from animal-based research to the human anatomy. Our hypothesis differs from the classical idea that orofacial pain arises only from nociceptive information via the contralateral, ventral trigeminothalamic pathway. Better understanding of the histology, anatomy and connectivity of the trigeminal fibers could contribute to the discovery of a more effective pain treatment in patients suffering from various orofacial pain syndromes. PMID:27242449

  4. The anatomy of the sacrococcygeal cornual region and its clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Woon, Jason T K; Stringer, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    There has been no systematic study of the anatomy of the region between the sacral and coccygeal cornua. Reference texts describe an intercornual ligament connecting these structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of this region, which may be relevant to unexplained cases of coccygeal pain (coccydynia) and local nerve blocks. The bony anatomy of the sacrococcygeal (SC) cornual region was analyzed in 33 CT scans obtained from supine adults of mostly European origin with no known SC pathology, 7 μCT scans of cadaver SC specimens, and 105 Asian Indian adult skeletons. A further five cadaver SC specimens were examined histologically. SC cornual fusion was seen in 45% of CT/μCT scans (mean age 67 years, 20 males) and in 20% of adult skeletons (78 males); there was no association with age or sex. In the absence of SC fusion, the mean intersacrococcygeal cornual gap was 7.1 ± 2.4 mm; this was bridged by an intercornual ligament composed of parallel vertical collagen fibers reinforced by elastin fibers on its anterior surface. Small nerve branches were observed adjacent to the ventral aspect of the intercornual ligament and, in one case, traversing the ligament. Ipsilateral sacral and coccygeal cornua are therefore normally bridged by an intercornual ligament that is probably innervated. The cornua are fused on one or both sides in 20-45% of adults. These findings may have implications for some cases of coccydynia and for anesthetists performing local nerve blocks.

  5. New Insights in Trigeminal Anatomy: A Double Orofacial Tract for Nociceptive Input

    PubMed Central

    Henssen, Dylan J. H. A.; Kurt, Erkan; Kozicz, Tamas; van Dongen, Robert; Bartels, Ronald H. M. A.; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Orofacial pain in patients relies on the anatomical pathways that conduct nociceptive information, originating from the periphery towards the trigeminal sensory nucleus complex (TSNC) and finally, to the thalami and the somatosensorical cortical regions. The anatomy and function of the so-called trigeminothalamic tracts have been investigated before. In these animal-based studies from the previous century, the intracerebral pathways were mapped using different retro- and anterograde tracing methods. We review the literature on the trigeminothalamic tracts focusing on these animal tracer studies. Subsequently, we related the observations of these studies to clinical findings using fMRI trials. The intracerebral trigeminal pathways can be subdivided into three pathways: a ventral (contralateral) and dorsal (mainly ipsilateral) trigeminothalamic tract and the intranuclear pathway. Based on the reviewed evidence we hypothesize the co-existence of an ipsilateral nociceptive conduction tract to the cerebral cortex and we translate evidence from animal-based research to the human anatomy. Our hypothesis differs from the classical idea that orofacial pain arises only from nociceptive information via the contralateral, ventral trigeminothalamic pathway. Better understanding of the histology, anatomy and connectivity of the trigeminal fibers could contribute to the discovery of a more effective pain treatment in patients suffering from various orofacial pain syndromes. PMID:27242449

  6. Functional Anatomy of Non-REM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    de Andrés, Isabel; Garzón, Miguel; Reinoso-Suárez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The state of non-REM sleep (NREM), or slow wave sleep, is associated with a synchronized EEG pattern in which sleep spindles and/or K complexes and high-voltage slow wave activity (SWA) can be recorded over the entire cortical surface. In humans, NREM is subdivided into stages 2 and 3–4 (presently named N3) depending on the proportions of each of these polygraphic events. NREM is necessary for normal physical and intellectual performance and behavior. An overview of the brain structures involved in NREM generation shows that the thalamus and the cerebral cortex are absolutely necessary for the most significant bioelectric and behavioral events of NREM to be expressed; other structures like the basal forebrain, anterior hypothalamus, cerebellum, caudal brain stem, spinal cord and peripheral nerves contribute to NREM regulation and modulation. In NREM stage 2, sustained hyperpolarized membrane potential levels resulting from interaction between thalamic reticular and projection neurons gives rise to spindle oscillations in the membrane potential; the initiation and termination of individual spindle sequences depends on corticothalamic activities. Cortical and thalamic mechanisms are also involved in the generation of EEG delta SWA that appears in deep stage 3–4 (N3) NREM; the cortex has classically been considered to be the structure that generates this activity, but delta oscillations can also be generated in thalamocortical neurons. NREM is probably necessary to normalize synapses to a sustainable basal condition that can ensure cellular homeostasis. Sleep homeostasis depends not only on the duration of prior wakefulness but also on its intensity, and sleep need increases when wakefulness is associated with learning. NREM seems to ensure cell homeostasis by reducing the number of synaptic connections to a basic level; based on simple energy demands, cerebral energy economizing during NREM sleep is one of the prevalent hypotheses to explain NREM homeostasis

  7. Atlas of fetal sectional anatomy with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacson, G.; Mintz, M.C.; Crelin, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    Here is an atlas of sectional anatomy for the fetus featuring correlated anatomy and imaging, transverse coronal and sagittal views, a guide to development of the brain, cardiac anatomy in standard plans of study and, over 280 illustrations.

  8. Only Connect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMieux, Anne C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author connects with today's adolescent readers by means of laughter and literature. Claims young adult literature can facilitate the growth of empathy and provide an impetus for adolescents to transcend the isolation modern culture engenders. (NH)

  9. The relationship between premedical coursework in gross anatomy and histology and medical school performance in gross anatomy and histology.

    PubMed

    Forester, Joseph P; McWhorter, David L; Cole, Maria S

    2002-03-01

    Many premedical students enroll in courses whose content will be encountered again during their medical education. Presumably, students believe this practice will lead to improved academic performance in corresponding medical school courses. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine whether a premedical gross anatomy and/or histology course resulted in increased performance in corresponding medical school courses. A second aim of the study was to examine whether the type of premedical gross anatomy and/or histology course differentially affected medical school performance. A survey that assessed premedical gross anatomy and histology coursework was administered to 440 first-year medical students. The results from this survey showed that students with premedical gross anatomy (n = 236) and/or histology (n = 109) earned significantly more points in the corresponding medical school course than students without the premedical coursework (P < 0.05). Analysis of premedical course types revealed that students who took a gross anatomy course with prosected specimens (n = 35) earned significantly more points that those students without premedical gross anatomy coursework (P < 0.05). The results from this study suggest: 1) premedical gross anatomy and/or histology coursework improves academic performance in corresponding medical school courses, and 2) a premedical gross anatomy course with prosected specimens, a specific type of undergraduate course, significantly improves academic performance in medical gross anatomy.

  10. The Head and Neck Anatomy of Sea Turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and Skull Shape in Testudines

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Marc E. H.; Werneburg, Ingmar; Curtis, Neil; Penrose, Rod; O’Higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael J.; Evans, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sea turtles (Chelonoidea) are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known. Methodology/Principal Findings Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatomy and morphological variation. In both taxa the temporal region of the skull is enclosed by bone and the jaw joint structure and muscle arrangement indicate that palinal jaw movement is possible. The tongue is relatively small, and the hyoid apparatus is not as conspicuous as in some freshwater aquatic turtles. We find several similarities between the muscles of C. caretta and L. kempii, but comparison with other turtles suggests only one of these characters may be derived: connection of the m. adductor mandibulae internus into the Pars intramandibularis via the Zwischensehne. The large fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis from the jugal seems to be a characteristic feature of sea turtles. Conclusions/Significance In C. caretta and L. kempii the ability to suction feed does not seem to be as well developed as that found in some freshwater aquatic turtles. Instead both have skulls suited to forceful biting. This is consistent with the observation that both taxa tend to feed on relatively slow moving but sometimes armoured prey. The broad fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis may be linked to thecheek region being almost fully enclosed in bone but the relationship is complex. PMID:23144831

  11. From college to clinic: reasoning over memorization is key for understanding anatomy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sue Ann; Perrotti, William; Silverthorn, Dee U; Dalley, Arthur F; Rarey, Kyle E

    2002-04-15

    Anatomy and physiology are taught in community colleges, liberal arts colleges, universities, and medical schools. The goals of the students vary, but educators in these diverse settings agree that success hinges on learning concepts rather than memorizing facts. In this article, educators from across the postsecondary educational spectrum expand on several points: (1) There is a problem with student perception that anatomy is endless memorization, whereas the ability to manage information and use reasoning to solve problems are ways that professionals work. This misperception causes students to approach the subject with the wrong attitude. (2) The process of learning to use information is as important as the concepts themselves. Using understanding to explain and make connections is a more useful long-term lesson than is memorization. Anatomy should be presented and learned as a dynamic basis for problem solving and for application in the practice and delivery of quality health care. (3) Integration of form and function must be explicit and universal across all systems. (4) Using only models, images, audiovisuals, or computers cannot lead students to the requisite reasoning that comes from investigative dissection of real tissue. (5) Some undergraduate courses require students to memorize excessive musculoskeletal detail. (6) Learning tissue biology is a particular struggle for medical students who have no background from an undergraduate course. (7) Medical professors and students see benefits when students have taken undergraduate courses in anatomy, histology, and physiology. If medical schools suggest these electives to applicants, medical students might arrive better prepared and, thus, be able to learn clinical correlations more efficiently in the limited allocated time of medical school curricula.

  12. "Digit Anatomy": A New Technique for Learning Anatomy Using Motor Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice…

  13. The Virtual Anatomy Laboratory: Usability Testing to Improve an Online Learning Resource for Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubleday, Eldridge G.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.; Doubleday, Alison F.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of instructors are seeking to provide students with online anatomy resources. Many researchers have attempted to identify associations between resource use and student learning but few studies discuss the importance of usability testing in resource design and modification. Usability testing provides information about ease of…

  14. The zebrafish anatomy and stage ontologies: representing the anatomy and development of Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Zebrafish Anatomy Ontology (ZFA) is an OBO Foundry ontology that is used in conjunction with the Zebrafish Stage Ontology (ZFS) to describe the gross and cellular anatomy and development of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, from single cell zygote to adult. The zebrafish model organism database (ZFIN) uses the ZFA and ZFS to annotate phenotype and gene expression data from the primary literature and from contributed data sets. Results The ZFA models anatomy and development with a subclass hierarchy, a partonomy, and a developmental hierarchy and with relationships to the ZFS that define the stages during which each anatomical entity exists. The ZFA and ZFS are developed utilizing OBO Foundry principles to ensure orthogonality, accessibility, and interoperability. The ZFA has 2860 classes representing a diversity of anatomical structures from different anatomical systems and from different stages of development. Conclusions The ZFA describes zebrafish anatomy and development semantically for the purposes of annotating gene expression and anatomical phenotypes. The ontology and the data have been used by other resources to perform cross-species queries of gene expression and phenotype data, providing insights into genetic relationships, morphological evolution, and models of human disease. PMID:24568621

  15. The integrated anatomy practical paper: A robust assessment method for anatomy education today.

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire F; McManus, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Assessing anatomy in a way that tests higher cognitive domains and clinical application is not always straightforward. The old "spotter" examination has been criticized for only testing low level "identify" knowledge, whereas other assessment modalities such as multiple choice questions do not reflect the three dimensional and application nature of clinical anatomy. Medical curricula are frequently integrated and subject specific examinations do not reflect the case based, spiral, integrative nature of the curricula. The integrated anatomy practical paper (IAPP) is a hybrid of the old "spotter" and an objective structured clinical examination but it demonstrates how higher levels of taxonomy can be assessed, together with clinical features and integrates well with other disciplines. Importantly, the IAPP has shown to be reliable and practical to administer. Data gathered from the Bachelor of Medicine five-year program over two academic years for four IAPP examinations, each being 40 minutes with (K = 60 items) based on 440 students revealed consistently strong reliability coefficients (Cronbach alpha) of up to 0.923. Applying Blooms taxonomy to questions has shown a marked shift resulting in an increase in the complexity level being tested; between 2009 and 2013 a reduction of 26% in the number of low level "remember knowledge" domain questions was noted with up to an increase of 15% in "understanding" domain and 12% increase in the "applying" knowledge domain. Our findings highlight that it is possible to test, based in a laboratory, anatomy knowledge and application that is integrated and fit for practice.

  16. Observations by a University Anatomy Teacher and a Suggestion for Curricular Change: Integrative Anatomy for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darda, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The observation that anatomical course offerings have decreased in undergraduate biology curricula is supported by a survey of undergraduate institutions in the state of Washington. This reduction, due partially to increased emphasis in other areas of the biology curriculum, along with the lack of anatomy prerequisites for admission to most…

  17. Synthetic morphology: prospects for engineered, self-constructing anatomies

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jamie A

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines prospects for applying the emerging techniques of synthetic biology to the field of anatomy, with the aim of programming cells to organize themselves into specific, novel arrangements, structures and tissues. There are two main reasons why developing this hybrid discipline – synthetic morphology – would be useful. The first is that having a way to engineer self-constructing assemblies of cells would provide a powerful means of tissue engineering for clinical use in surgery and regenerative medicine. The second is that construction of simple novel systems according to theories of morphogenesis gained from study of real embryos will provide a means of testing those theories rigorously, something that is very difficult to do by manipulation of complex embryos. This paper sets out the engineering requirements for synthetic morphology, which include the development of a library of sensor modules, regulatory modules and effector modules that can be connected functionally within cells. A substantial number of sensor and regulatory modules already exist and this paper argues that some potential effector modules have already been identified. The necessary library may therefore be within reach. The paper ends by suggesting a set of challenges, ranging from simple to complex, the achievement of which would provide valuable proofs of concept. PMID:18510501

  18. Normal Vulvovaginal, Perineal, and Pelvic Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Yavagal, Sujata; de Farias, Thais F.; Medina, Carlos A.; Takacs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrounding these structures. Through the perineal membrane and the perineal body, these superficial vulvar structures are structurally related to the deep pelvic muscle levator ani with its fascia. The levator ani forms the pelvic floor with the coccygeus muscle and provides vital support to all the pelvic organs and stability to the perineum. The internal female genital organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, tubes, and ovaries with their visceral fascia. The visceral fascia also called the endopelvic fascia, surrounds the pelvic organs and connects them to the pelvic walls. It is continuous with the paraurethral and paravaginal fascia, which is attached to the perineal membrane. Thus, the internal and external genitalia are closely related to the muscles and fascia, and work as one functioning unit. PMID:22547969

  19. A brief history of topographical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Standring, Susan

    2016-07-01

    This brief history of topographical anatomy begins with Egyptian medical papyri and the works known collectively as the Greco-Arabian canon, the time line then moves on to the excitement of discovery that characterised the Renaissance, the increasing regulatory and legislative frameworks introduced in the 18th and 19th centuries, and ends with a consideration of the impact of technology that epitomises the period from the late 19th century to the present day. This paper is based on a lecture I gave at the Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society in Cambridge in December 2015, when I was awarded the Anatomical Society Medal. PMID:27278889

  20. The flexible adult flatfoot: anatomy and pathomechanics.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is generally associated with a collapsing medial longitudinal arch and progressive loss of strength of the tibialis posterior tendon. It is most commonly associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction that can have an arthritic or traumatic cause. With an increasing population of obese patients, the often misdiagnosed and overlooked posterior tibial tendon dysfunction will only continue to present more often in the foot and ankle specialist's office. This article focuses on the anatomy, classification, and pathomechanics of the flexible adult flatfoot.

  1. [Nose surgical anatomy in six aesthetic subunits].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Lauwers, F; Lopez, R; Saboye, J; André, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J-P

    2013-04-01

    The nose is a complex entity, combining aesthetic and functional roles. Descriptive anatomy is a fundamental science that it can be difficult to relate directly to our daily surgical activity. Reasoning in terms of aesthetic subunits to decide on his actions appeared to us so obvious. The aim of this paper is to resume the anatomical bases relevant to our daily practice in order to fully apprehend the restorative or cosmetic procedures. We discuss the limits of the systematization of these principles in nasal oncology.

  2. The flexible adult flatfoot: anatomy and pathomechanics.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is generally associated with a collapsing medial longitudinal arch and progressive loss of strength of the tibialis posterior tendon. It is most commonly associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction that can have an arthritic or traumatic cause. With an increasing population of obese patients, the often misdiagnosed and overlooked posterior tibial tendon dysfunction will only continue to present more often in the foot and ankle specialist's office. This article focuses on the anatomy, classification, and pathomechanics of the flexible adult flatfoot. PMID:24980923

  3. Connecting thermoelectric performance and topological-insulator behavior: Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te2Se from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Hongliang; Parker, David S.; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-20

    Thermoelectric performance is of interest for numerous applications such as waste-heat recovery and solid-state energy conversion and will be seen to be closely connected to topological-insulator behavior. In this paper, we here report first-principles transport and defect calculations for Bi2Te2Se in relation to Bi2Te3. The two compounds are found to contain remarkably different electronic structures in spite of being isostructural and isoelectronic. We also discuss these results in terms of the topological-insulator characteristics of these compounds.

  4. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  5. Lecture Notes on Human Anatomy. Part One, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, deal successfully with complex tasks, and use a specific way of thinking. This is the first volume in a set of notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in human anatomy. This volume includes discussions…

  6. The 2007 Anatomy Ceremony: A Service of Gratitude

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Yale University medical and PA students, classes of 2010 and 2008 respectively, express their gratitude in a compilation of reflections on learning human anatomy. In coordination with the Section of Anatomy and Experimental Surgery at the School of Medicine, the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine encourages you to hear the stories of the body as narrated by the student. PMID:18160994

  7. The 2007 Anatomy Ceremony: A Service of Gratitude

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Yale University medical and PA students, classes of 2010 and 2008 respectively, express their gratitude in a compilation of reflections on learning human anatomy. In coordination with the Section of Anatomy and Experimental Surgery at the School of Medicine, the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine encourages you to hear the stories of the body as narrated by the student.

  8. Student Perceptions to Teaching Undergraduate Anatomy in Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Ryan S.; Chiu, Li Shan; Aulfrey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy and physiology teaching has undergone significant changes to keep up with advances in technology and to cater for a wide array of student specific learning approaches. This paper examines perceptions towards a variety of teaching instruments, techniques, and innovations used in the delivery and teaching of anatomy and physiology for health…

  9. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  10. Clinical Vignettes Improve Performance in Anatomy Practical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikah, December S. K.; Finn, Gabrielle M.; Swamy, Meenakshi; White, Pamela M.; McLachlan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Although medical curricula now adopt an integrated teaching approach, this is not adequately reflected in assessment of anatomy knowledge and skills. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of the addition of clinical vignette to item stems on students' performance in anatomy practical examinations. In this study, 129 undergraduate medical…

  11. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  12. Perceptions of Anatomy: Critical Components in the Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Michelle D.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Leong, Shou Ling; Kauffman, Gordon L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution in undergraduate medical school curricula has significantly impacted anatomy education. This study investigated the perceived role of clinical anatomy and evaluated perceptions of medical students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge in the clinic. The aim of this study was to develop a framework to enhance anatomical educational…

  13. Should Reproductive Anatomy Be Taught in University Health Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent; Fletcher, J. Sue

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on undergraduate reproductive anatomy education. This pilot study explores knowledge of anatomical reproductive anatomy among university students in a lower division and upper division health course. Using a Qualtrics survey program, a convenience sample of 120 lower division and 157 upper division students for a…

  14. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  15. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  16. Embryology and Anatomy of the Jaw and Dentition.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Poon, Colin S; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Radiologists should possess working knowledge of the embryological development and anatomy of the jaw and dentition in order to aid in the diagnosis of both simple and complex disorders that affect them. Here, we review the elaborate process of odontogenesis, as well as describe in detail the anatomy of a tooth and its surrounding structures.

  17. User Acceptance of a Haptic Interface for Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeom, Soonja; Choi-Lundberg, Derek; Fluck, Andrew; Sale, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Visualizing the structure and relationships in three dimensions (3D) of organs is a challenge for students of anatomy. To provide an alternative way of learning anatomy engaging multiple senses, we are developing a force-feedback (haptic) interface for manipulation of 3D virtual organs, using design research methodology, with iterations of system…

  18. Using Multimedia and Web3D to Enhance Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenton, Harry; Hernandez, Juan; Bello, Fernando; Strutton, Paul; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Firth, Tony; Darzi, Ara

    2007-01-01

    Anatomy teaching is undergoing significant changes due to time constraints, limited availability of cadavers and technological developments in the areas of three-dimensional modelling and computer-assisted learning. This paper gives an overview of methods used to teach anatomy to undergraduate medical students and discusses the educational…

  19. A Minimally Invasive Approach to Undergraduate Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogalniceanu, Petrut; Madani, Hardi; Paraskeva, Paraskevas A.; Darzi, Ara

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy is one of the cornerstones of medical education. Unfortunately, sufficient evidence has accumulated to suggest a worldwide decline in the resources and time allocated to its teaching. Integration of anatomy with clinical medicine has been frequently advocated as the solution to this academic crisis. Consequently, new ways of harnessing…

  20. Student-Directed Fresh Tissue Anatomy Course for Physician Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Drake, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare providers in all areas and levels of education depend on their knowledge of anatomy for daily practice. As educators, we are challenged with teaching the anatomical sciences in creative, integrated ways and often within a condensed time frame. This article describes the organization of a clinical anatomy course with a peer taught…

  1. Lecture Notes on Human Anatomy. Part Two, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, deal successfully with complex tasks, and learn a specific way of thinking. This is the second volume in a set of notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in human anatomy. This volume includes…

  2. Anatomy Education in Namibia: Balancing Facility Design and Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed…

  3. Assessment Outcomes: Computerized Instruction in a Human Gross Anatomy Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, Elaine L.

    2002-01-01

    The first of three successive classes of beginning physical therapy students (n=17) completed traditional cadaver anatomy lecture/lab; the next 17 a self-study computerized anatomy lab, and the next 20 both lectures and computer lab. No differences in study times and course or licensure exam performance appeared. Computerized self-study is a…

  4. Peer Assessment among First Year Medical Students in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The…

  5. Anatomy "Steeplechase" Online: Necessity Sometimes Is the Catalyst for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Al Rawahy, Maimouna; Taranikanti, Varna; Habbal, Omar

    2011-01-01

    In most medical schools, summative practical examination in Anatomy usually takes the format of a "steeplechase" ("spotters" or "bell ringers") conducted in the gross anatomy laboratory using cadaveric material and prosected specimens. Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in WebCT[TM] and…

  6. Measuring Change in Professionalism Attitudes during the Gross Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, William G., Jr.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    By design or default, anatomy educators are often responsible for introducing students to medical professionalism. Although much has been said about the role of anatomical education, there are no published reports suggesting how to measure change. This study investigated what professionalism attitudes, if any, change during a gross anatomy course.…

  7. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  8. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  9. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  10. Aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae superioris in Chinese subjects: A live gross anatomy and cadaveric histological study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Er; Nie, Yun-Fei; Wang, Zhen-Jun; Peng, Li-Xia; Wu, Yan-Hong; Li, Qin

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of the anatomy of the levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis (LPSA) is critical for successful blepharoplasty of aponeurotic ptosis. We investigated the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the LPSA.This prospective live gross anatomy study enrolled 200 adult Chinese patients with bilateral mild ptosis undergoing elective blepharoplasty. Full-thick eyelid tissues and sagittal sections from the eyelid skin to the conjunctiva were examined with Masson trichrome staining or antismooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemistry.Gross anatomy showed that the space between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA could be accessed after incising the overlying superficial fascia, by retracting the white line. Adipose layers were clearly observed in 195 out of 200 patients with bilateral mild ptosis, among which 180 cases had the superficial layer connected to the uncoated adipose. Fifteen cases had the superficial layer connected to the smoothly coated layer, and 5 cases had the superficial layer directly connected to the deep loose fiber, almost without adipose. In previously untreated patients, the LPSA space was located beneath the intact orbital septum. In those with previous surgeries, it was beneath the superficial layer of the LPSA, underlying the destructed orbital septum. Cadaveric histology showed that the deep layer of the LPSA extended into the anterior layer of the tarsal plate and the superficial layer reflexed upward in continuity with the vertical orbital septum. An occult space existed between the 2 layers of the LPSA, with a smooth lining on the deep layer. The superficial layer of the LPSA was SMA-immunonegative but the deep layer was slightly immunopositive for SMA. An occult anatomic space exists between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA, in proximity to the superior tarsal plate margin. Recognition of the more anatomically significant LPSA deep layer may help improve the aesthetic outcome of blepharoplasty

  11. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper.

  12. Controversial snake relationships supported by reproductive anatomy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Dustin S; Miralles, Aurélien; Aldridge, Robert D

    2011-03-01

    Since the advent of molecular character sets in phylogenetic systematics our understanding of the evolutionary history of snakes has changed considerably. In some cases the novel topologies reconstructed from molecular datasets have left researchers puzzled, as no morphological feature seems to support the new relationships found. This is the case for 'Amerophidia'sensu Vidal et al. (2007; Biology of the Boas and Pythons, Eagle Mountain: Eagle Mountain Publishing; Aniliidae+ Tropidophiidae), a grouping of the Red Pipesnakes and Neotropical Dwarf Boas. We contend that in some cases the apparent lack of historical morphological support for the molecular phylogenies is due to our poor understanding of the organisms as a whole, and not the complete lack of morphological support for controversial clades. For example, we found novel evidence from reproductive anatomy that demonstrates a unique association of the oviducts and cloaca in Amerophidia. Whereas in all other female squamates the oviducts communicate directly with the cloaca, the oviducts of Aniliidae and Tropidophiidae communicate with diverticuli of the cloaca. At present this is the only unambiguous synapomorphy for the Amerophidia. We feel that confirmation of controversial molecular relationships will revolve around the investigation of non-traditional morphological characters such as reproductive anatomy.

  13. Professional storytelling in clinical dental anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class, consisting of 12 questions that students had to answer on a Likert scale of 1-5. An overall satisfaction score was obtained and we used a linear mixed model to compare differences in satisfaction between the two groups, with "group" as the fixed effect. We also conducted an exploratory factor analysis of the responses to investigate whether there were distinct constructs within the data. Overall satisfaction is high, with students "with stories" having higher satisfaction than those "without stories." The former group consistently gives higher satisfaction scores, regardless of which question is being asked. Factor analysis provides evidence that storytelling nurtures reflective learning, while students work on their clinical anatomy problems.

  14. Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

  15. Normal shoulder ultrasound: anatomy and technique.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Harun; Robinson, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Shoulder ultrasound (US) is one of the most common applications of musculoskeletal US due to the high incidence of rotator cuff disorders. It can be used effectively for the diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases, and several studies have shown very high sensitivity and specificity for rotator cuff tears comparable with that of MRI. Shoulder US has several advantages over MRI such as lower cost, comparatively easier availability, short examination duration, dynamic capability, and ability to perform guided injection at the same appointment. However, it depends on the skill of the operator and therefore requires a standardized detailed protocol to avoid errors in diagnosis. A symptomatic area-only focused examination should not be performed because it is not uncommon to have symptoms away from the actual site of pathology. Detailed understanding of what anatomy can be evaluated is required, and this article discusses the relevant anatomy covering the rotator cuff, subacromial bursa, and acromioclavicular joint. The equipment requirements and technique of examination of different anatomical structures with transducer positions and normal sonographic appearances are described. Pitfalls and artifacts associated with shoulder US are covered; understanding them is crucial to avoid misinterpretation of findings.

  16. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  17. Arthroscopic Anatomy of the Ankle Joint.

    PubMed

    Ray, Ronald G

    2016-10-01

    There are a number of variations in the intra-articular anatomy of the ankle which should not be considered pathological under all circumstances. The anteromedial corner of the tibial plafond (between the anterior edge of the tibial plafond and the medial malleolus) can have a notch, void of cartilage and bone. This area can appear degenerative arthroscopically; it is actually a normal variant of the articular surface. The anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITF) can possess a lower, accessory band which can impinge on the anterolateral edge of the talar dome. In some cases it can cause irritation along this area of the talus laterally. If it is creating local irritation it can be removed since it does not provide any additional stabilization to the syndesmosis. There is a beveled region at the anterior leading edge of the lateral and dorsal surfaces of the talus laterally. This triangular region is void of cartilage and subchondral bone. The lack of talar structure in this region allows the lower portion of the AITF ligament to move over the talus during end range dorsiflexion of the ankle, preventing impingement. The variation in talar anatomy for this area should not be considered pathological. PMID:27599433

  18. Clinical anatomy of the coccyx: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Woon, Jason T K; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-03-01

    The coccyx has been relatively neglected in anatomical research which is surprising given the population prevalence of coccydynia and our inadequate understanding of its etiology. This systematic review analyzes available information on the clinical anatomy of the coccyx. A literature search using five electronic databases and standard anatomy reference texts was conducted yielding 61 primary and 7 secondary English-language sources. This was supplemented by a manual search of selected historical foreign language articles. The coccygeal vertebrae, associated joints, ligaments and muscles, coccygeal movements, nerves, and blood supply were analyzed in detail. Although the musculoskeletal aspects of the coccyx are reasonably well described, the precise anatomy of the coccygeal plexus and its distribution, the function of the coccygeal body, and the anatomy of the sacrococcygeal zygapophyseal joints are poorly documented. Further research into the anatomy of the coccyx may clarify the etiopathogenesis of coccydynia which remains uncertain in one-third of affected patients.

  19. Device Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have to take numerous factors/data into their therapeutic decisions in daily life. Connecting the devices they are using by feeding the data generated into a database/app is supposed to help patients to optimize their glycemic control. As this is not established in practice, the different roadblocks have to be discussed to open the road. That large telecommunication companies are now entering this market might be a big help in pushing this forward. Smartphones offer an ideal platform for connectivity solutions. PMID:25614015

  20. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set I: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the first part in a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following topics: (1) organization of the human body; (2) biochemistry and microbiology; (3) infection,…

  1. Hamiltonian Systems and Optimal Control in Computational Anatomy: 100 Years Since D'Arcy Thompson.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael I; Trouvé, Alain; Younes, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Anatomy project is the morphome-scale study of shape and form, which we model as an orbit under diffeomorphic group action. Metric comparison calculates the geodesic length of the diffeomorphic flow connecting one form to another. Geodesic connection provides a positioning system for coordinatizing the forms and positioning their associated functional information. This article reviews progress since the Euler-Lagrange characterization of the geodesics a decade ago. Geodesic positioning is posed as a series of problems in Hamiltonian control, which emphasize the key reduction from the Eulerian momentum with dimension of the flow of the group, to the parametric coordinates appropriate to the dimension of the submanifolds being positioned. The Hamiltonian viewpoint provides important extensions of the core setting to new, object-informed positioning systems. Several submanifold mapping problems are discussed as they apply to metamorphosis, multiple shape spaces, and longitudinal time series studies of growth and atrophy via shape splines.

  2. A neural connection between the central part of the medial preoptic nucleus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis to regulate sexual behavior in male rats.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Sho; Ohishi, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Shohei; Tsukahara, Shinji

    2015-10-01

    The medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) is a regulatory center for male sexual behavior. It consists of sexually dimorphic structures that are male biased, and these structures are found in the central part of the MPN (MPNc). The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) also participates in male sexual behavior, and receives efferent neural projections from the MPNc. In this study, we examined if MPNc neurons projecting to the BNST are activated in male rats displaying sexual behavior. Fluoro-Gold (FG; a retrograde neural tracer) was injected into the BNST of male rats, which were separated into two groups: (1) those in contact with estrous female rats and displayed sexual behavior followed by ejaculation and (2) those without contact with estrous female rats. In both groups, protein expression of c-Fos (a neuronal activity marker) and calbindin (a location marker of the MPNc) were detected by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. The number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells with or without FG labeling in the MPNc was also measured. The number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells significantly increased following ejaculation. Approximately 10% of FG-labeled cells in ejaculation male rats were immunoreactive for c-Fos, and this percentage value was significantly higher in this group compared with control male rats. Overall, these results suggest that efferent projections from the MPNc to the BNST function to control sexual behavior in male rats.

  3. College Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Scalzo, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Oakwood City School District's College Connection Study, which is now in its eighth year. The purpose of the study is to help the educators in the district learn how to effectively prepare students for success in the colleges of their choice. Teachers, administrators, and other staff members travel to colleges to conduct…

  4. Connecting Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    A paper describes the Octanode, a connecting node that facilitates the integration of multiple docking mechanisms, hatches, windows, and internal and external systems with the use of flat surfaces. The Octanode is a 26- faced Great Rhombicuboctahedron Archi medean solid with six octagonshaped panels, eight hexagon-shaped panels, and 12 square panels using three unique, simple, flat shapes to construct a spherical approximation. Each flat shape can be constructed with a variety of material and manufacturing techniques, such as honeycomb composite panels or a pocketed skinstringer configuration, using conventional means. The flat shapes can be connected together and sealed to create a pressurizable volume by the use of any conventional means including welding or fastening devices and sealant. The node can then be connected to other elements to allow transfer between those elements, or it could serve as an airlock. The Octanode can be manufactured on the ground and can be integrated with subsystems including hatches and ports. The node can then be transported to its intended location, whether on orbit or on surface. Any of the flat panels could be replaced by curved ones, turning the node into a copula. Windows may be placed on flat panes with optimal viewing angles that are not blocked by large connecting nodes. The advantage of using flat panels to represent a spherical approximation is that this allows for easier integration of subsystems and design features.

  5. Get Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Hagevik, Rita; Adkinson, Bennett; Parmly, Jilynn

    2013-01-01

    Technology can be both a blessing and a curse in the classroom. Although technology can provide greater access to information and increase student engagement, if screen time replaces time spent outside, then students stand to lose awareness and connectivity to the surrounding natural environment. This article describes how Google Earth can foster…

  6. Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quillen, Ian

    2014-01-01

    "We used to send out books that looked like this," says Barbara Dreyer, as she holds the 500-page volume from one of the first-ever courses offered online by Connections Academy. "You could look at this information online, but, frankly, a lot of people were doing this," she adds, thumbing through the book's pages. Dreyer,…

  7. Anatomy: a must for teaching the next generation.

    PubMed

    Older, J

    2004-04-01

    Teaching anatomy to both undergraduate medical students and medical graduates is in the midst of a downward spiral. The traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught by didactic lectures and complete dissection of the body with personal tuition, has been replaced by a multiple range of special study modules, problem-based workshops, computers, plastic models and many other teaching tools. In some centres, dissected cadaver-based anatomy is no longer taught. Changing the undergraduate medical curriculum in the UK has taken place without any research into the key aspects of knowledge necessary or comparing methods of teaching. There is no agreement on a common national core curriculum and as a result, numerous new curricula have been introduced. No external audit or validation is carried out, so medical schools have been free to teach and assess their own work themselves. There is a great divergence in medical schools across the UK and Ireland in teaching medicine in general and anatomy in particular. Published data on the impact of these changes is scant. The reduction in undergraduate teaching and knowledge of anatomy has caused great concern, not only for undergraduates but also to postgraduate students, especially in surgery. This, together with a change in basic surgical training, a marked reduction in demonstrator posts and a change in examination standards, has set up a system that is allowing young men and women with a poor knowledge of anatomy to become surgeons. There should be a full public debate at every level; the Royal Colleges, specialist associations, the Universities, Government, both health and education. This debate should highlight areas of concern, explore in depth and define a minimal core curriculum for anatomy. Teaching must be enhanced with a critical look at both teachers and methods. The dominance of research must be reassessed to establish an equitable cohabitation with teaching. The place of basic science

  8. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  9. The connection between the hassles-burnout relationship, as moderated by coping, and aberrant behaviors and health problems among bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Kao, Ya-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Driving a bus is a stressful job, and may result in aberrant behaviors or health problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of bus driver burnout on aberrant behaviors and health problems, as well as the role of self-criticism and confrontive and reappraisal coping as moderator variables in the hassle-burnout relationship. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to collect empirical data from bus drivers working at a Taiwanese motor transport company. The results confirm that burnout has a significantly positive relationship with both health problems and aberrant driving behaviors. In addition, although self-criticism positively moderates the relationship between job hassles and burnout, confrontive and reappraisal coping negatively moderate it.

  10. Does tunica anatomy matter in penile implant?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Heng-Shuen; Huang, Sheng-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background Overall prosthesis survival is important in penile implant, which remains the final viable solution to many patients with refractory erectile dysfunction (ED). This paper is to retrospectively study the role of the anatomy of tunica albuginea (TA). Methods From March 1987 to March 1991 while the TA was regarded as a circumferential single layer, 21 organically ED men, aged from 27 to 77, received penile prosthesis implantation and were allocated to conventional group. From August 1992 to March 2013 while the tip of Hegar’s dilator was categorically directed medial-dorsally during corporal dilatation derived from newfound TA as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat, 196 ED males, aged from 35 to 83, underwent penile implant and were categorized to advanced group. The model of prosthesis was recorded. Prosthesis loss rate and survival time were analyzed and the follow up period ranged from 22.4-26.4 (average 24.3) years and 0.4-20.6 (average 15.8) years to the conventional and advanced group respectively. Results To the conventional and advanced group, the number of inflatable and rigid type prosthesis used were 2, 19 and 15, 181 respectively, whereas the prosthesis loss was encountered in 50.0% (1/2), 15.8% (3/19) and 0.0% (0/15), 0.6% (1/181) respectively. And the prosthesis survival time were 5.1-6.3 (5.7) years, 1.3-26.4 (15.2) years and 6.1-16.2 (11.2) years, 0.4-20.6 (15.3) years to the conventional and advanced group respectively. Statistical significance was noted on prosthesis loss in groups (P=0.01) while the Mentor Acuform stood out in prosthesis survival. Conclusions Anatomy-based managing maneuver appears to deliver better surgery success in penile implant. Tunica anatomy is significant in performing implant surgery. PMID:26816839

  11. Microsurgical anatomy of the arterial basket of the conus medullaris.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Kalani, M Yashar S; Lemole, G Michael; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C; Theodore, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT The arterial basket of the conus medullaris (ABCM) consists of 1 or 2 arteries arising from the anterior spinal artery (ASA) and circumferentially connecting the ASA and the posterior spinal arteries (PSAs). The arterial basket can be involved in arteriovenous fistulas and arteriovenous malformations of the conus. In this article, the authors describe the microsurgical anatomy of the ABCM with emphasis on its morphometric parameters and important role in the intrinsic blood supply of the conus medullaris. METHODS The authors performed microsurgical dissections on 16 formalin-fixed human spinal cords harvested within 24 hours of death. The course, diameter, and branching angles of the arteries comprising the ABCM were then identified and measured. In addition, histological sections were obtained to identify perforating vessels arising from the ABCM. RESULTS The ASA tapers as it nears the conus medullaris (mean preconus diameter 0.7 ± 0.12 mm vs mean conus diameter 0.38 ± 0.08 mm). The ASA forms an anastomotic basket with the posterior spinal artery (PSA) via anastomotic branches. In most of the specimens (n= 13, 81.3%), bilateral arteries formed connections between the ASA and PSA. However, in the remaining specimens (n= 3, 18.7%), a unilateral right-sided anastomotic artery was identified. The mean diameter of the right ABCM branch was 0.49 ± 0.13 mm, and the mean diameter of the left branch was 0.53 ± 0.14 mm. The mean branching angles of the arteries forming the anastomotic basket were 95.9° ± 36.6° and 90° ± 34.3° for the right- and left-sided arteries, respectively. In cases of bilateral arterial anastomoses between the ASA and PSA, the mean distance between the origins of the arteries was 4.5 ± 3.3 mm. Histological analysis revealed numerous perforating vessels supplying tissue of the conus medullaris. CONCLUSIONS The ABCM is a critical anastomotic connection between the ASA and PSA, which play an important role in the intrinsic blood supply

  12. The root of dental anatomy: a case for naming Eustachius the "father of dental anatomy".

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gregory W

    2009-01-01

    When one considers the names of those whose affect on dentistry reached far beyond their lifetimes, one may think of Fauchard, Wells, Morton and Black. One name that deserves to be called among the pantheon of the greats is Bartholomaeus Eustachius. Eustachius was not the first to study the anatomy of the teeth and jaws, having been preceded by Da Vinci; however, he was the first to publish a treatise devoted entirely to this subject, Libellus de Dentibus, in 1563. As Sir William Osler, the father of modern medicine, stated: "In Science, the credit goes to the man who convinces the world, not to whom the idea first occurs." The purpose of this paper is to show that Eustachius deserves to be named the father of dental anatomy.

  13. Integrating anatomy and function for zebrafish circuit analysis.

    PubMed

    Arrenberg, Aristides B; Driever, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Due to its transparency, virtually every brain structure of the larval zebrafish is accessible to light-based interrogation of circuit function. Advanced stimulation techniques allow the activation of optogenetic actuators at different resolution levels, and genetically encoded calcium indicators report the activity of a large proportion of neurons in the CNS. Large datasets result and need to be analyzed to identify cells that have specific properties-e.g., activity correlation to sensory stimulation or behavior. Advances in three-dimensional (3D) functional mapping in zebrafish are promising; however, the mere coordinates of implicated neurons are not sufficient. To comprehensively understand circuit function, these functional maps need to be placed into the proper context of morphological features and projection patterns, neurotransmitter phenotypes, and key anatomical landmarks. We discuss the prospect of merging functional and anatomical data in an integrated atlas from the perspective of our work on long-range dopaminergic neuromodulation and the oculomotor system. We propose that such a resource would help researchers to surpass current hurdles in circuit analysis to achieve an integrated understanding of anatomy and function.

  14. Integrating anatomy and function for zebrafish circuit analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arrenberg, Aristides B.; Driever, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Due to its transparency, virtually every brain structure of the larval zebrafish is accessible to light-based interrogation of circuit function. Advanced stimulation techniques allow the activation of optogenetic actuators at different resolution levels, and genetically encoded calcium indicators report the activity of a large proportion of neurons in the CNS. Large datasets result and need to be analyzed to identify cells that have specific properties—e.g., activity correlation to sensory stimulation or behavior. Advances in three-dimensional (3D) functional mapping in zebrafish are promising; however, the mere coordinates of implicated neurons are not sufficient. To comprehensively understand circuit function, these functional maps need to be placed into the proper context of morphological features and projection patterns, neurotransmitter phenotypes, and key anatomical landmarks. We discuss the prospect of merging functional and anatomical data in an integrated atlas from the perspective of our work on long-range dopaminergic neuromodulation and the oculomotor system. We propose that such a resource would help researchers to surpass current hurdles in circuit analysis to achieve an integrated understanding of anatomy and function. PMID:23630469

  15. Oral anatomy laboratory examinations in a physical therapy program.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    The process of creating and administering traditional tagged anatomy laboratory examinations is time consuming for instructors and limits laboratory access for students. Depending on class size and the number of class, sections, creating, administering, and breaking down a tagged laboratory examination may involve one to two eight-hour days. During the time that a tagged examination is being created, student productivity may be reduced as the anatomy laboratory is inaccessible to students. Further, the type of questions that can be asked in a tagged laboratory examination may limit student assessment to lower level cognitive abilities and may limit the instructors' ability to assess the students' understanding of anatomical and clinical concepts. Anatomy is a foundational science in the Physical Therapy curriculum and a thorough understanding of anatomy is necessary to progress through the subsequent clinical courses. Physical therapy curricula have evolved to reflect the changing role of physical therapists to primary caregivers by introducing a greater scope of clinical courses earlier in the curriculum. Physical therapy students must have a thorough understanding of clinical anatomy early in the education process. However, traditional anatomy examination methods may not be reflective of the clinical thought processes required of physical therapy students. Traditional laboratory examination methods also reduce student productivity by limiting access during examination set-up and breakdown. To provide a greater complexity of questions and reduced overall laboratory time required for examinations, the Physical Therapy Program at Mercer University has introduced oral laboratory examinations for the gross anatomy course series.

  16. Undergraduate perspectives on the teaching and learning of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rob; Batty, Lachlan

    2009-03-01

    The volume of time dedicated to anatomy teaching has steadily decreased in the context of increasingly dense undergraduate curricula. We examine the complex topic of anatomical education from the undergraduate perspective, with a focus on student perceptions, their origins and their potential solutions. A limited dataset suggests students perceive their tuition in anatomy may be suboptimal. Multiple factors (including the intensity of pre-clinical studies, academic criticism of modern courses, surgical culture and misinformation) may account for the unrest. It is difficult to objectively measure the impact of modified anatomy curriculum on clinical performance and patient safety. While there is a case (on the basis of student perception at least) for reinvigorating elements of undergraduate anatomy education, the modern medical educational framework is here to stay, and students and clinicians must learn to adapt. Anatomy must be linked with contemporary approaches to medical education and it should be integrated, continuous and guided. It is critical that clinicians engage in the teaching of anatomy in the clinical environment and they must be adequately resourced to do so. Graduates must emerge with a core understanding of anatomy, but not an encyclopaedic knowledge of the human form. Undergraduate programme should simply strive to equip their graduates with a foundation for lifelong learning and a platform for safe practice as interns.

  17. Occurrence and evolutionary inferences about Kranz anatomy in Cyperaceae (Poales).

    PubMed

    Martins, Shirley; Alves, Marccus; Scatena, Vera L

    2015-01-01

    Cyperaceae is an angiosperm family with the greatest diversity of species with Kranz anatomy. Four different types of Kranz anatomy (chlorocyperoid, eleocharoid, fimbristyloid and rhynchosporoid) have been described for this angiosperm family, and the occurrence and structural characteristics of these types are important to trace evolutionary hypotheses. The purpose of this study was to examine the available data on Cyperaceae Kranz anatomy, emphasizing taxonomy, geographic distribution, habitat and anatomy, to infer the potential origin of the Kranz anatomy in this family. The results showed that the four types of Kranz anatomy (associated with C4 photosynthesis) in Cyperaceae emerged numerous times in unrelated phylogenetic groups. However, the convergence of these anatomical types, except rhynchosporoid, was observed in certain groups. Thus, the diverse origin of these species might result from different environmental pressures that promote photorespiration. Greater variation in occurrence of Kranz anatomy and anatomical types was observed in Eleocharis, whose emergence of the C4 pathway was recent compared with other genera in the family, and the species of this genus are located in aquatic environments. PMID:26628020

  18. What impact does anatomy education have on clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire France; Mathias, Haydn Socrates

    2011-01-01

    There is continuing debate regarding doctors' knowledge of anatomy as an appropriate preparation for professional practice. This exploratory case study examined alumni's experiences of learning anatomy. The aim was to inform curriculum development and to gain a better understanding of how anatomy knowledge is applied in practice. A total of 140 medical student alumni from the University of Southampton participated in this study (49% males, 51% females). Participants completed a Likert scale questionnaire with free comment sections. Descriptive results found that: using cadaveric material was an effective way of learning anatomy; assessment was a major motivator; and around half of students forgot a lot of anatomy but that knowledge came back easily. Statistical analysis revealed associations between certain positive and negative factors in learning. Links were also seen with current job role, revealing that those who responded to positive factors were involved in careers which involved a great deal of anatomy and vice versa. To facilitate learning, anatomy should be taught throughout the curriculum and use human cadavers. Relating knowledge to practice requires transformation of knowledge and is best facilitated by the learning being situated in clinical contexts.

  19. Connecting with Parents: Mothers' Depressive Symptoms and Responsive Behaviors in the Regulation of Social Contact by One- and Young Two-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Theodore; Cheng, Nina; Day, William H.

    2009-01-01

    When children act to involve mothers in positive interaction, they influence the amount, timing, and content of parent-child exchanges. By assessing children's smiling and positive initiation, we examined child behaviors that function to create positive interaction. In a non-clinical North American sample of 103 mothers and their 14- to…

  20. The Steroids/Sports Supplements Connection: Pragmatism and Sensation-Seeking in the Attitudes and Behavior of JHS and HS Students on Long Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, C. Roger; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Lewis, Dawn K.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine the importance of sensation seeking and pragmatism in the steroids and sports supplements behavior and attitudes of high school and junior high school students on Long Island, New York. Steroid use is much less acceptable than sports supplement use, although the reasons for use are similar. Respondents use supplements…

  1. Connecting Urban Youth with Their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…

  2. Anatomy integration blueprint: A fourth-year musculoskeletal anatomy elective model.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Michelle D; Kauffman, Gordon L; Kothari, Milind J; Mosher, Timothy J; Silvis, Matthew L; Wawrzyniak, John R; Anderson, Daniel T; Black, Kevin P

    2014-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical school curricular trends focus on both vertical integration of clinical knowledge into the traditionally basic science-dedicated curricula and increasing basic science education in the clinical years. This latter type of integration is more difficult and less reported on than the former. Here, we present an outline of a course wherein the primary learning and teaching objective is to integrate basic science anatomy knowledge with clinical education. The course was developed through collaboration by a multi-specialist course development team (composed of both basic scientists and physicians) and was founded in current adult learning theories. The course was designed to be widely applicable to multiple future specialties, using current published reports regarding the topics and clinical care areas relying heavily on anatomical knowledge regardless of specialist focus. To this end, the course focuses on the role of anatomy in the diagnosis and treatment of frequently encountered musculoskeletal conditions. Our iterative implementation and action research approach to this course development has yielded a curricular template for anatomy integration into clinical years. Key components for successful implementation of these types of courses, including content topic sequence, the faculty development team, learning approaches, and hidden curricula, were developed. We also report preliminary feedback from course stakeholders and lessons learned through the process. The purpose of this report is to enhance the current literature regarding basic science integration in the clinical years of medical school.

  3. Marcello Malpighi: the father of microscopic anatomy.

    PubMed

    DiDio, L J

    1995-01-01

    Biographical data of Malpighi to justify naming him "the father of microscopic anatomy", as he used the microscope, soon after its invention, to study and discover and accurately describe many biological, particularly anatomical, structures. Although he utilized the microscope as a scientific instrument, his ideas, innovations and discoveries caused such an opposition that the microscope could be considered as Malpighi's weapon to start a scientific revolution. He was a naturalist for whom the "natural world, known and experienced scientifically, was all that existed". He was also a "cardiocentrist", who opposed Galen's "hepatocentrism". Several anatomical structures known eponymically to honor Malpighi are listed followed by their synonyms. Malpighi is another example of a genius as an extraordinary man who stood on the shoulders of giants, such as Galilei, Hans and Zacharias Janssen, Borelli, Harvey, B. Massari, among others.

  4. Arthroscopic anatomy of the subdeltoid space.

    PubMed

    J Salata, Michael; J Nho, Shane; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Van Thiel, Geoffrey; Ghodadra, Neil; Dwyer, Tim; A Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    From the first shoulder arthroscopy performed on a cadaver in 1931, shoulder arthroscopy has grown tremendously in its ability to diagnose and treat pathologic conditions about the shoulder. Despite improvements in arthroscopic techniques and instrumentation, it is only recently that arthroscopists have begun to explore precise anatomical structures within the subdeltoid space. By way of a thorough bursectomy of the subdeltoid region, meticulous hemostasis, and the reciprocal use of posterior and lateral viewing portals, one can identify a myriad of pertinent ligamentous, musculotendinous, osseous, and neurovascular structures. For the purposes of this review, the subdeltoid space has been compartmentalized into lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior regions. Being able to identify pertinent structures in the subdeltoid space will provide shoulder arthroscopists with the requisite foundation in core anatomy that will be required for challenging procedures such as arthroscopic subscapularis mobilization and repair, biceps tenodesis, subcoracoid decompression, suprascapular nerve decompression, quadrangular space decompression and repair of massive rotator cuff tears. PMID:24191185

  5. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region.

  6. Marcello Malpighi: the father of microscopic anatomy.

    PubMed

    DiDio, L J

    1995-01-01

    Biographical data of Malpighi to justify naming him "the father of microscopic anatomy", as he used the microscope, soon after its invention, to study and discover and accurately describe many biological, particularly anatomical, structures. Although he utilized the microscope as a scientific instrument, his ideas, innovations and discoveries caused such an opposition that the microscope could be considered as Malpighi's weapon to start a scientific revolution. He was a naturalist for whom the "natural world, known and experienced scientifically, was all that existed". He was also a "cardiocentrist", who opposed Galen's "hepatocentrism". Several anatomical structures known eponymically to honor Malpighi are listed followed by their synonyms. Malpighi is another example of a genius as an extraordinary man who stood on the shoulders of giants, such as Galilei, Hans and Zacharias Janssen, Borelli, Harvey, B. Massari, among others. PMID:11322304

  7. Anatomy of an Elementary Chemical Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Andrew J.; Zare, Richard N.

    1998-09-01

    The alchemists of old sought the knowledge to transform one material to another-for example, base metals into gold-as a path to the elixir of life. As chemists have concerned themselves with the transformation from compound to compound, so they have become involved in trying to uncover the structures of molecules and the pathways that reactions follow. Classically, the study of reaction mechanisms in chemistry encompasses reaction kinetics, the study of velocities or rates of reactions, and reaction dynamics, the study of the nanoscopic motion and rearrangement of atoms during a reactive event. An essential aim of this article is to bring the reader to a favorable vantage point with a brief introduction to reactive dynamics, and from there to describe some examples of recent strategies that have been employed to promote a fundamental understanding of the anatomy of elementary chemical reactions. In the final section we ponder future directions for this rapidly evolving field of research.

  8. Surgical anatomy of the upper eyelid fascia.

    PubMed

    Siegel, R

    1984-10-01

    There is a network of fascia in the upper eyelid that serves to transmit and distribute the motor power of the levator palpebrae muscle to the superficial tissues. The architecture of this network was studied intraoperatively. The results demonstrate that there is a superficial fascia under the orbicularis muscle which fuses with the levator aponeurosis at the level of the lid fold. Below the fold, these fascia remain fused or "conjoined." Thus, the fold in the upper eyelid reflects the union of fascia occurring internally and dose not result simply from the levator aponeurosis inserting into the skin. This article describes the anatomy and surgical identification of the upper eyelid fascia. I contend that the fascia constitutes an important internal framework for the upper eyelid, shaping the lid fold while elevating the tarsal plate in perfect synchrony. For the surgeon, visualizing the fascial architecture is a great aid in the correction of a variety of difficult eyelid deformities.

  9. Arthroscopic Anatomy of the Subdeltoid Space

    PubMed Central

    J. Salata, Michael; J. Nho, Shane; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Van Thiel, Geoffrey; Ghodadra, Neil; Dwyer, Tim; A. Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    From the first shoulder arthroscopy performed on a cadaver in 1931, shoulder arthroscopy has grown tremendously in its ability to diagnose and treat pathologic conditions about the shoulder. Despite improvements in arthroscopic techniques and instrumentation, it is only recently that arthroscopists have begun to explore precise anatomical structures within the subdeltoid space. By way of a thorough bursectomy of the subdeltoid region, meticulous hemostasis, and the reciprocal use of posterior and lateral viewing portals, one can identify a myriad of pertinent ligamentous, musculotendinous, osseous, and neurovascular structures. For the purposes of this review, the subdeltoid space has been compartmentalized into lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior regions. Being able to identify pertinent structures in the subdeltoid space will provide shoulder arthroscopists with the requisite foundation in core anatomy that will be required for challenging procedures such as arthroscopic subscapularis mobilization and repair, biceps tenodesis, subcoracoid decompression, suprascapular nerve decompression, quadrangular space decompression and repair of massive rotator cuff tears. PMID:24191185

  10. Acromioclavicular joint injuries: anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Willimon, S Clifton; Gaskill, Trevor R; Millett, Peter J

    2011-02-01

    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries are common in athletic populations and account for 40% to 50% of shoulder injuries in many contact sports, including lacrosse, hockey, rugby and football. The AC joint is stabilized by static and dynamic restraints, including the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments. Knowledge of these supporting structures is important when identifying injury and directing treatment. Management of AC injuries should be guided by severity of injury, duration of injury and symptoms, and individual patient factors. These help determine how best to guide management, and whether patients should be treated surgically or nonsurgically. Treatment options for AC injuries continue to expand, and include arthroscopic-assisted anatomic reconstruction of the CC ligaments. The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy, diagnostic methods, and treatment options for AC joint injuries. In addition, the authors' preferred reconstruction technique and outcomes are presented.

  11. Comparative petiole anatomy of cassava (Manihot) species.

    PubMed

    Graciano-Ribeiro, D; Hashimoto-Freitas, D Y; Nassar, N M A

    2016-01-22

    In this study, we describe the petiole anatomy of six wild cassava (Manihot) species, one hybrid, and two cultivars of Manihot esculenta, in order to identify their dominant anatomical patterns and relate them to possible adaptations to abiotic factors in the Cerrado biome. The median parts of several petiole samples were transversally and longitudinally sectioned and stained. The results include data for the taxonomic classification of the genus, including distinctive anatomical characteristics of hybrid varieties of cassava and wild species, such as the presence/absence of trichomes and a hypodermis, layer type and number in the cortex, number of vascular bundles, cell types in the pith, and type of organization. Morphological analysis revealed differences in length and shape of the petiole insertion. The presence of trichomes, a hypodermis, the amount and type of supporting tissue in the cortex, as well as gelatinous fibers, may be related to drought tolerance.

  12. Anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jamie L

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the normal anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism is the first step in providing appropriate diagnosis and treatment for children born with cleft lip and palate. The velopharyngeal mechanism consists of a muscular valve that extends from the posterior surface of the hard palate (roof of mouth) to the posterior pharyngeal wall and includes the velum (soft palate), lateral pharyngeal walls (sides of the throat), and the posterior pharyngeal wall (back wall of the throat). The function of the velopharyngeal mechanism is to create a tight seal between the velum and pharyngeal walls to separate the oral and nasal cavities for various purposes, including speech. Velopharyngeal closure is accomplished through the contraction of several velopharyngeal muscles including the levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, superior pharyngeal constrictor, palatopharyngeus, palatoglossus, and salpingopharyngeus. The tensor veli palatini is thought to be responsible for eustachian tube function.

  13. Spinal Cord Anatomy and Clinical Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Eric; Morales, Humberto

    2016-10-01

    We review the anatomy of the spinal cord, providing correlation with key functional and clinically relevant neural pathways, as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Peripherally, the main descending (corticospinal tract) and ascending (gracilis or cuneatus fasciculi and spinothalamic tracts) pathways compose the white matter. Centrally, the gray matter can be divided into multiple laminae. Laminae 1-5 carry sensitive neuron information in the posterior horn, and lamina 9 carries most lower motor neuron information in the anterior horn. Damage to the unilateral corticospinal tract (upper motor neuron information) or gracillis-cuneatus fasciculi (touch and vibration) correlates with ipsilateral clinical findings, whereas damage to unilateral spinothalamic tract (pain-temperature) correlates with contralateral clinical findings. Damage to commissural fibers correlates with a suspended bilateral "girdle" sensory level. Autonomic dysfunction is expected when there is bilateral cord involvement. PMID:27616310

  14. Medical student perceptions of radiology use in anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kevin P; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Maher, Michael M; Cryan, John F; O'Connor, Owen J

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on students' abilities to correctly identify imaging modalities and anatomical structures on radiological images. First-year medical students completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the first academic year that incorporated ten hours of radiologic anatomy teaching in the anatomy curriculum. Questions used a combination of Likert scales, rankings, and binary options. Students were tested on their ability to identify radiology modalities and anatomical structures on radiology images. Preresponse and postresponse rates were 93% (157/168) and 85% (136/160), respectively. Postmodule, 96.3% of students wanted the same or more radiology integration. Furthermore, 92.4% premodule and 96.2% postmodule agreed that "Radiology is important in medical undergraduate teaching." Modality and structure identification scores significantly increased from 59.8% to 64.3% (P < 0.001) and from 47.4% to 71.2% (P < 0.001), respectively. The top three preferred teaching formats premodule and postmodule were (1) anatomy laboratory instruction, (2) interactive sessions combining radiology with anatomy, and (3) anatomy lectures. Postmodule, 38.3% of students were comfortable reviewing radiology images. Students were positive about integrating radiology into anatomy teaching and most students wanted at least the same level of assimilation but that it is used as an adjunct rather than primary method of teaching anatomy.

  15. Medical student perceptions of radiology use in anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kevin P; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Maher, Michael M; Cryan, John F; O'Connor, Owen J

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on students' abilities to correctly identify imaging modalities and anatomical structures on radiological images. First-year medical students completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the first academic year that incorporated ten hours of radiologic anatomy teaching in the anatomy curriculum. Questions used a combination of Likert scales, rankings, and binary options. Students were tested on their ability to identify radiology modalities and anatomical structures on radiology images. Preresponse and postresponse rates were 93% (157/168) and 85% (136/160), respectively. Postmodule, 96.3% of students wanted the same or more radiology integration. Furthermore, 92.4% premodule and 96.2% postmodule agreed that "Radiology is important in medical undergraduate teaching." Modality and structure identification scores significantly increased from 59.8% to 64.3% (P < 0.001) and from 47.4% to 71.2% (P < 0.001), respectively. The top three preferred teaching formats premodule and postmodule were (1) anatomy laboratory instruction, (2) interactive sessions combining radiology with anatomy, and (3) anatomy lectures. Postmodule, 38.3% of students were comfortable reviewing radiology images. Students were positive about integrating radiology into anatomy teaching and most students wanted at least the same level of assimilation but that it is used as an adjunct rather than primary method of teaching anatomy. PMID:25516061

  16. Constructive, Collaborative, Contextual, and Self-Directed Learning in Surface Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Esther M.; Sieben, Judith M.; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and…

  17. Technique and nuances of an S-2 alar iliac screw for lumbosacral fixation in patients with transitional and normal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Junichi; Vogel, Todd D; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berven, Sigurd; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2016-07-01

    S-2 alar iliac (S2AI) screw fixation has recently been recognized as a useful technique for pelvic fixation. The authors demonstrate two cases where S2AI fixation was indicated: one case was a sacral insufficiency fracture following a long-segment fusion in a patient with a transitional S-1 vertebra; the other case involved pseudarthrosis following lumbosacral fixation. S2AI screws offer rigid fixation, low profile, and allow easy connection to the lumbosacral rod. The authors describe and demonstrate the surgical technique and nuances for the S2AI screw in a case with transitional S-1 anatomy and in a case with normal S-1 anatomy. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Sj21lk13_aw . PMID:27364429

  18. Virtual reality anatomy: is it comparable with traditional methods in the teaching of human forearm musculoskeletal anatomy?

    PubMed

    Codd, Anthony M; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy was produced using the open source 3D imaging program "Blender." The aim was to evaluate the use of 3D virtual reality when compared with traditional anatomy teaching methods. Three groups were identified from the University of Manchester second year Human Anatomy Research Skills Module class: a "control" group (no prior knowledge of forearm anatomy), a "traditional methods" group (taught using dissection and textbooks), and a "model" group (taught solely using e-resource). The groups were assessed on anatomy of the forearm by a ten question practical examination. ANOVA analysis showed the model group mean test score to be significantly higher than the control group (mean 7.25 vs. 1.46, P < 0.001) and not significantly different to the traditional methods group (mean 6.87, P > 0.5). Feedback from all users of the e-resource was positive. Virtual reality anatomy learning can be used to compliment traditional teaching methods effectively.

  19. A case of flying insects visiting an anatomy and embalming laboratory in Medellín, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Amat, Eduardo; Serna-Giraldo, Claudia; Antia-Montoya, German

    2016-10-01

    From July to September of 2012, the fauna of flying insects visiting the anatomy and embalming laboratory of the Tecnológico de Antioquia, Faculty of Forensic Sciences, located in the city of Medellin, Colombia, were recorded. The first checklist in the literature of incidental flying insects occurring in this type of locale is provided, and a brief discussion is given of their behavioral habits related to this uncommon case.

  20. A case of flying insects visiting an anatomy and embalming laboratory in Medellín, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Amat, Eduardo; Serna-Giraldo, Claudia; Antia-Montoya, German

    2016-10-01

    From July to September of 2012, the fauna of flying insects visiting the anatomy and embalming laboratory of the Tecnológico de Antioquia, Faculty of Forensic Sciences, located in the city of Medellin, Colombia, were recorded. The first checklist in the literature of incidental flying insects occurring in this type of locale is provided, and a brief discussion is given of their behavioral habits related to this uncommon case. PMID:27491015

  1. Brain anatomy of the marine tardigrade Actinarctus doryphorus (Arthrotardigrada).

    PubMed

    Persson, Dennis K; Halberg, Kenneth A; Jørgensen, Aslak; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge of tardigrade brain structure is important for resolving the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Here, we present new insight into the morphology of the brain in a marine arthrotardigrade, Actinarctus doryphorus, based on transmission electron microscopy, supported by scanning electron microscopy, conventional light microscopy as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy. Arthrotardigrades contain a large number of plesiomorphic characters and likely represent ancestral tardigrades. They often have segmented body outlines and each trunk segment, with its paired set of legs, may have up to five sensory appendages. Noticeably, the head carries numerous cephalic appendages that are structurally equivalent to the sensory appendages of the trunk segments. Our data reveal that the brain of A. doryphorus is partitioned into three paired lobes, and that these lobes exhibit a more pronounced separation as compared to that of eutardigrades. The first brain lobe in A. doryphorus is located anteriodorsally, with the second lobe just below it in an anterioventral position. Both of these two paired lobes are located anterior to the buccal tube. The third pair of brain lobes are situated posterioventrally to the first two lobes, and flank the buccal tube. In addition, A. doryphorus possesses a subpharyngeal ganglion, which is connected with the first of the four ventral trunk ganglia. The first and second brain lobes in A. doryphorus innervate the clavae and cirri of the head. The innervations of these structures indicate a homology between, respectively, the clavae and cirri of A. doryphorus and the temporalia and papilla cephalica of eutardigrades. The third brain lobes innervate the buccal lamella and the stylets as described for eutardigrades. Collectively, these findings suggest that the head region of extant tardigrades is the result of cephalization of multiple segments. Our results on the brain anatomy of Actinarctus doryphorus support the monophyly of

  2. Brain anatomy of the marine tardigrade Actinarctus doryphorus (Arthrotardigrada).

    PubMed

    Persson, Dennis K; Halberg, Kenneth A; Jørgensen, Aslak; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge of tardigrade brain structure is important for resolving the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Here, we present new insight into the morphology of the brain in a marine arthrotardigrade, Actinarctus doryphorus, based on transmission electron microscopy, supported by scanning electron microscopy, conventional light microscopy as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy. Arthrotardigrades contain a large number of plesiomorphic characters and likely represent ancestral tardigrades. They often have segmented body outlines and each trunk segment, with its paired set of legs, may have up to five sensory appendages. Noticeably, the head carries numerous cephalic appendages that are structurally equivalent to the sensory appendages of the trunk segments. Our data reveal that the brain of A. doryphorus is partitioned into three paired lobes, and that these lobes exhibit a more pronounced separation as compared to that of eutardigrades. The first brain lobe in A. doryphorus is located anteriodorsally, with the second lobe just below it in an anterioventral position. Both of these two paired lobes are located anterior to the buccal tube. The third pair of brain lobes are situated posterioventrally to the first two lobes, and flank the buccal tube. In addition, A. doryphorus possesses a subpharyngeal ganglion, which is connected with the first of the four ventral trunk ganglia. The first and second brain lobes in A. doryphorus innervate the clavae and cirri of the head. The innervations of these structures indicate a homology between, respectively, the clavae and cirri of A. doryphorus and the temporalia and papilla cephalica of eutardigrades. The third brain lobes innervate the buccal lamella and the stylets as described for eutardigrades. Collectively, these findings suggest that the head region of extant tardigrades is the result of cephalization of multiple segments. Our results on the brain anatomy of Actinarctus doryphorus support the monophyly of

  3. How-To-Do-It: Pig Foot Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Paula M.

    1988-01-01

    Described is an activity used to introduce the anatomy of the skeletal and muscular systems. A teacher conducted, video enhanced demonstration and a student activity are discussed. Included is a sample student laboratory paper. (CW)

  4. Surface Anatomy of the Nail for the Dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Solish, Danielle; Weinberg, Tessa; Murray, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Expert diagnosis of cutaneous pathology requires precise anatomic description. In this brief report the authors review the clinically relevant surface anatomy of the nail and relate it to a case of squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  6. Teaching of clinical anatomy in rheumatology: a review of methodologies.

    PubMed

    Torralba, Karina D; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Evelyn, Christine M; Koolaee, R Michelle; Kalish, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Clinical anatomy may be defined as anatomy that is applied to the care of the patient. It is the foundation of a well-informed physical examination that is so important in rheumatologic practice. Unfortunately, there is both documented and observed evidence of a significant deficiency in the teaching and performance of a competent musculoskeletal examination at multiple levels of medical education including in rheumatology trainees. At the Annual Meeting of the American College of Rheumatology in Boston, MA, that took place in November 2014, a Clinical Anatomy Study Group met to share techniques of teaching clinical anatomy to rheumatology fellows, residents, and students. Techniques that were reviewed included traditional anatomic diagrams, hands-on cross-examination, cadaver study, and musculoskeletal ultrasound. The proceedings of the Study Group section are described in this review.

  7. Bacteria detected on surfaces of formalin fixed anatomy cadavers.

    PubMed

    Tabaac, Burton; Goldberg, Geoffrey; Alvarez, Lia; Amin, Molly; Shupe-Ricksecker, Kathleen; Gomez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if anatomy cadavers fixed in a formalin solution are a possible source of introduction of microorganisms into the anatomy laboratory. Routinely preserved cadavers were sampled for microbiological contaminates prior to examination and dissection by anatomy students. Regions sampled include the axilla, oral/nasal cavity, and inguinal/perineal region. Using conventional bacteriologic culture and identification methods our research group was able to successfully recover and identify a variety of organisms from all cadavers and in all regions tested. The results indicate that cadavers processed with 10% buffered formalin have viable organisms on their surfaces that can be a source of contamination of laboratory equipment and clothing. Given the diversity of bacterial species cultured, preserved cadavers used for anatomy education as well as research must be considered a possible source for dissemination of bacterial organisms. This study underscores the importance of standard infection control protocols.

  8. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  9. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  10. Surgical planning of the total cavopulmonary connection: robustness analysis.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Maria; Luffel, Mark; Sebring, Jake; Kanter, Kirk; Del Nido, Pedro; Veneziani, Alessandro; Rossignac, Jarek; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2015-06-01

    In surgical planning of the Fontan connection for single ventricle physiologies, there can be differences between the proposed and implemented options. Here, we developed a surgical planning framework that help determine the best performing option and ensures that the results will be comparable if there are slight geometrical variations. Eight patients with different underlying anatomies were evaluated in this study; surgical variations were created for each connection by changing either angle, offset or baffle diameter. Computational fluid dynamics were performed and the energy efficiency (indexed power loss-iPL) and hepatic flow distribution (HFD) computed. Differences with the original connection were evaluated: iPL was not considerably affected by the changes in geometry. For HFD, the single superior vena cava (SVC) connections presented less variability compared to the other anatomies. The Y-graft connection was the most robust overall, while the extra-cardiac connections showed dependency to offset. Bilateral SVC and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygous continuation showed high variability in HFD. We have developed a framework to assess the robustness of a surgical option for the TCPC; this will be useful to assess the most complex cases where pre-surgery planning could be most beneficial to ensure an efficient and robust hemodynamic performance.

  11. Evolution of the paranasal sinuses' anatomy through the ages

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Previously, anatomists considered paranasal sinuses as a mysterious region of the human skull. Historically, paranasal sinuses were first identified by ancient Egyptians and later, by Greek physicians. After a long period of no remarkable improvement in the understanding of anatomy during the Middle Ages, anatomists of the Renaissance period-Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius-made their own contribution. Nathaniel Highmore's name is also associated with the anatomy of paranasal sinuses as he was first to describe the maxillary sinus. PMID:24386595

  12. Evolution of the paranasal sinuses' anatomy through the ages.

    PubMed

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George

    2013-12-01

    Previously, anatomists considered paranasal sinuses as a mysterious region of the human skull. Historically, paranasal sinuses were first identified by ancient Egyptians and later, by Greek physicians. After a long period of no remarkable improvement in the understanding of anatomy during the Middle Ages, anatomists of the Renaissance period-Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius-made their own contribution. Nathaniel Highmore's name is also associated with the anatomy of paranasal sinuses as he was first to describe the maxillary sinus. PMID:24386595

  13. Building a Cell and Anatomy Ontology of Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Paul W.

    2003-01-01

    We are endowed with a rich knowledge about Caenorhabditis elegans. Its stereotyped anatomy and development has stimulated research and resulted in the accumulation of cell-based information concerning gene expression, and the role of specific cells in developmental signalling and behavioural circuits. To make the information more accessible to sophisticated queries and automated retrieval systems, WormBase has begun to construct a C. elegans cell and anatomy ontology. Here we present our strategies and progress. PMID:18629098

  14. Brain without Anatomy: Construction and Comparison of Fully Network-Driven Structural MRI Connectomes

    PubMed Central

    Tymofiyeva, Olga; Ziv, Etay; Barkovich, A. James; Hess, Christopher P.; Xu, Duan

    2014-01-01

    MRI connectomics methods treat the brain as a network and provide new information about its organization, efficiency, and mechanisms of disruption. The most commonly used method of defining network nodes is to register the brain to a standardized anatomical atlas based on the Brodmann areas. This approach is limited by inter-subject variability and can be especially problematic in the context of brain maturation or neuroplasticity (cerebral reorganization after brain damage). In this study, we combined different image processing and network theory methods and created a novel approach that enables atlas-free construction and connection-wise comparison of diffusion MRI-based brain networks. We illustrated the proposed approach in three age groups: neonates, 6-month-old infants, and adults. First, we explored a data-driven method of determining the optimal number of equal-area nodes based on the assumption that all cortical areas of the brain are connected and, thus, no part of the brain is structurally isolated. Second, to enable a connection-wise comparison, alignment to a “reference brain” was performed in the network domain within each group using a matrix alignment algorithm with simulated annealing. The correlation coefficients after pair-wise network alignment ranged from 0.6102 to 0.6673. To test the method’s reproducibility, one subject from the 6-month-old group and one from the adult group were scanned twice, resulting in correlation coefficients of 0.7443 and 0.7037, respectively. While being less than 1 due to parcellation and noise, statistically, these values were significantly higher than inter-subject values. Rotation of the parcellation largely explained the variability. Through the abstraction from anatomy, the developed framework allows for a fully network-driven analysis of structural MRI connectomes and can be applied to subjects at any stage of development and with substantial differences in cortical anatomy. PMID:24789312

  15. The thoracolumbar fascia: anatomy, function and clinical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Willard, F H; Vleeming, A; Schuenke, M D; Danneels, L; Schleip, R

    2012-01-01

    In this overview, new and existent material on the organization and composition of the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) will be evaluated in respect to its anatomy, innervation biomechanics and clinical relevance. The integration of the passive connective tissues of the TLF and active muscular structures surrounding this structure are discussed, and the relevance of their mutual interactions in relation to low back and pelvic pain reviewed. The TLF is a girdling structure consisting of several aponeurotic and fascial layers that separates the paraspinal muscles from the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall. The superficial lamina of the posterior layer of the TLF (PLF) is dominated by the aponeuroses of the latissimus dorsi and the serratus posterior inferior. The deeper lamina of the PLF forms an encapsulating retinacular sheath around the paraspinal muscles. The middle layer of the TLF (MLF) appears to derive from an intermuscular septum that developmentally separates the epaxial from the hypaxial musculature. This septum forms during the fifth and sixth weeks of gestation. The paraspinal retinacular sheath (PRS) is in a key position to act as a ‘hydraulic amplifier’, assisting the paraspinal muscles in supporting the lumbosacral spine. This sheath forms a lumbar interfascial triangle (LIFT) with the MLF and PLF. Along the lateral border of the PRS, a raphe forms where the sheath meets the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis. This lateral raphe is a thickened complex of dense connective tissue marked by the presence of the LIFT, and represents the junction of the hypaxial myofascial compartment (the abdominal muscles) with the paraspinal sheath of the epaxial muscles. The lateral raphe is in a position to distribute tension from the surrounding hypaxial and extremity muscles into the layers of the TLF. At the base of the lumbar spine all of the layers of the TLF fuse together into a thick composite that attaches firmly to the posterior superior iliac spine

  16. Going to the gym or to the movies?: situated decisions as a functional link connecting automatic and reflective evaluations of exercise with exercising behavior.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ralf; Schweizer, Geoffrey

    2015-02-01

    The goal of the present paper is to propose a model for the study of automatic cognition and affect in exercise. We have chosen a dual-system approach to social information processing to investigate the hypothesis that situated decisions between behavioral alternatives form a functional link between automatic and reflective evaluations and the time spent on exercise. A new questionnaire is introduced to operationalize this link. A reaction-time-based evaluative priming task was used to test participants' automatic evaluations. Affective and cognitive reflective evaluations, as well as exercising time, were requested via self-report. Path analyses suggest that the affective reflective (beta = .71) and the automatic evaluation (beta = .15) independently explain situated decisions, which, in turn (beta = .60) explain time spent on exercise. Our findings highlight the concept of contextualized decisions. They can serve as a starting point from which the so far seldom investigations of automatic cognition and affect in exercise can be integrated with multitudinous results from studies on reflective psychological determinants of health behavior.

  17. A sculpture masterpiece for the teaching of anatomy

    PubMed Central

    DUMITRASCU, DINU IULIU; CRIVII, CARMEN BIANCA; OPINCARU, IULIAN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim The study of anatomy remains the backbone of medical education in the first years. There is a constant need for educational materials that enable the assimilation of knowledge by students. The casts after human bodies have not lost the value, even in the era of virtual education. We present in this paper a museal item destined to improve the anatomy teaching. Methods Given the existence in the department of anatomy from Cluj –Napoca of an item of exceptional artistic and scientific value, we intensively searched Pubmed and Scopus, as well as by manual search of printed only documents, for all papers related to the muscle man by Brancusi created for educational purposes of anatomy students. Results This paper presents summary data from the biography of the creators of this item, the world famous sculptor Constantin Brancusi and the professor of anatomy and surgery from Bucharest Dimitrie Gerota. We also describe this item and the conditions which generated it Conclusion Teaching anatomy relies on the quality of the didactic support. The muscle man by Brancusi is a very realistic reproduction of a man, very useful for anatomical training and teaching. PMID:27152086

  18. Human anatomy: let the students tell us how to teach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and contemporary teaching methods and tools are largely unknown. This study quantified medical student and anatomy faculty opinion on various aspects of anatomical teaching at the Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, UK. A questionnaire was used to explore the perceived effectiveness of different anatomical teaching methods and tools among anatomy faculty (AF) and medical students in year one (Y1) and year two (Y2). A total of 370 preclinical medical students entered the study (76% response rate). Responses were quantified and intergroup comparisons were made. All students and AF were strongly in favor of access to cadaveric specimens and supported traditional methods of small-group teaching with medically qualified demonstrators. Other teaching methods, including e-learning, anatomical models and surgical videos, were considered useful educational tools. In several areas there was disharmony between the opinions of AF and medical students. This study emphasizes the importance of collecting student preferences to optimize teaching methods used in the undergraduate anatomy curriculum.

  19. Hatching the behavioral addiction egg: Reward Deficiency Solution System (RDSS)™ as a function of dopaminergic neurogenetics and brain functional connectivity linking all addictions under a common rubric

    PubMed Central

    BLUM, KENNETH; FEBO, MARCELO; MCLAUGHLIN, THOMAS; CRONJÉ, FRANS J.; HAN, DAVID; GOLD, S. MARK

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Following the first association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphism and severe alcoholism, there has been an explosion of research reports in the psychiatric and behavioral addiction literature and neurogenetics. With this increased knowledge, the field has been rife with controversy. Moreover, with the advent of Whole Genome-Wide Studies (GWAS) and Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), along with Functional Genome Convergence, the multiple-candidate gene approach still has merit and is considered by many as the most prudent approach. However, it is the combination of these two approaches that will ultimately define real, genetic allelic relationships, in terms of both risk and etiology. Since 1996, our laboratory has coined the umbrella term Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) to explain the common neurochemical and genetic mechanisms involved with both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. Methods: This is a selective review of peer-reviewed papers primary listed in Pubmed and Medline. Results: A review of the available evidence indicates the importance of dopaminergic pathways and resting-state, functional connectivity of brain reward circuits. Discussion: Importantly, the proposal is that the real phenotype is RDS and impairments in the brain’s reward cascade, either genetically or environmentally (epigenetically) induced, influence both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. Understanding shared common mechanisms will ultimately lead to better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of relapse. While, at this juncture, we cannot as yet state that we have “hatched the behavioral addiction egg”, we are beginning to ask the correct questions and through an intense global effort will hopefully find a way of “redeeming joy” and permitting homo sapiens live a life, free of addiction and pain. PMID:25317338

  20. Synthesis, properties, and redox behavior of 1,1,4,4-tetracyano-2-ferrocenyl-1,3-butadienes connected by aryl, biaryl, and teraryl spacers.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Taku; Maruyama, Akifumi; Yaku, Chisa; Kamata, Natsumi; Ito, Shunji; Okujima, Tetsuo; Toyota, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    Aryl-substituted 1,1,4,4-tetracyano-1,3-butadienes (FcTCBDs) and bis(1,1,4,4-tetracyanobutadiene)s (bis-FcTCBDs), possessing a ferrocenyl group on each terminal, were prepared by the reaction of a variety of alkynes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) in a [2+2] cycloaddition reaction, followed by retro-electrocyclization of the initially formed [2+2] cycloadducts (i.e., cyclobutene derivatives). The characteristic intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) between the donor (ferrocene) and acceptor (TCBD) moieties were investigated by using UV/Vis spectroscopy. The redox behaviors of FcTCBDs and bis-FcTCBDs were examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), which revealed their properties of multi-electron transfer depending on the number of ferrocene and TCBD moieties. Moreover, significant color changes were observed by visible spectroscopy under the electrochemical reduction conditions.

  1. Ocular comparative anatomy of the family Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2013-07-01

    There is little information regarding ocular anatomy and histology in many of the rodent species. Histological analyses for morphologic features were performed in 31 globes from 18 rodent species submitted to and archived at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin. The following measurements were taken: thickness of the cornea, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and retina. H&E sections were evaluated for the following anatomical features: presence of pigmented epithelial cells in the peripheral cornea, presence and location of Schlemm's canal, presence of iridal sphincter and dilator and ciliary body muscles, presence of pars plicata and plana, presence of retinal vessels, presence of lamina cribrosa, and presence of tapetum lucidum. The springhaas was the only rodent in our collection that presented a well-developed tapetum lucidum fibrosum. The presence of retinal vessels was variable: vessels were observed in all of the members of the mouse-related clade, except the springhaas and the beaver, in all of the squirrel-related clade members, and in none of the Ctenohystrica. In the flying squirrels, blood vessels extended to the outer limiting membrane in the photoreceptor layer. Beavers, chinchillas, capybara, and guinea pigs lacked vessels within the retina; however, they had vessels within the optic nerve head. Ground squirrels have an optic nerve head, which is linear in the horizontal plane and an asymmetric retina. The tree-dwelling squirrels have a rounded but still elongated optic nerve, and the flying squirrel has a round optic nerve head like all the other rodents.

  2. US anatomy of the shoulder: Pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Precerutti, M; Garioni, E; Madonia, L; Draghi, F

    2010-12-01

    A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the shoulder is essential for the assessment of its condition. The purpose of this article is to provide a useful tool for the ultrasound (US) study of this joint. The shoulder girdle and upper arm are made up of a number of muscles and tendons: rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis), humeral biceps, deltoid and pectoral muscles, which can all be evaluated at US examination. Various and complex capsular ligamentous structures contribute to the stability of the shoulder, but only a few can be adequately evaluated by US and will therefore receive particular attention. Numerous serous bursae are situated among muscles, skin, subcutaneous tissues, joint capsule structures and bones to prevent friction and they can be evaluated by US only in the presence of pathologies. Subacromial-subdeltoid and subcoracoid bursa are most frequently involved and will therefore be described in detail. There are furthermore nerves and vessels providing the various components of the shoulder with innervation and vascularization, and they can also be studied by US. The shoulder girdle (humerus, scapula, clavicle and sternal manubrium) is situated in the deep layers; only the cortex of the bone can be seen at US as a continuous hyperechoic line. For a better understanding of the location and relationship between the structures which can be studied by US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be carried out as this method provides a wider and more complete view of the structures.

  3. [Surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum].

    PubMed

    Biondi, Alberto; Rausei, Stefano; Cananzi, Ferdinando C M; Zoccali, Marco; D'Ugo, Stefano; Persiani, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The mediastinum is located from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm between the left and right pleural cavities and contains vital structures of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and nervous system. Over the years, since there are no fascial or anatomic planes, anatomists and radiologists have suggested various schemes for subdividing the mediastinum and several anatomical and radiological classifications of the mediastinum are reported in the literature. The most popular of these scheme divides medistinum, for purposes of description, into two parts: an upper portion, above the upper level of the pericardium, which is named the superior mediastinum; and a lower portion, below the upper level of the pericardium. For clinical purposes, the mediastinum may be subdivided into three major areas, i.e. anterior, middle, and posterior compartments. The anterior mediastinum is defined as the region posterior to the sternum and anterior to the heart and brachiocephalic vessels. It extends from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm and contains the thymus gland, fat, and lymph nodes. This article will review surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum and will focus on the surgical approch to anterior mediastinum and thymic diseases.

  4. Muscular Anatomy of the Human Ventricular Folds

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jerald; Alipour, Fariborz

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to better understand the muscular anatomy of the ventricular folds (VF) to help improve biomechanical modeling of phonation and to better understand the role of these muscles during phonatory and non-phonatory tasks. Method Four human larynges were decalcified and sectioned coronally from the posterior to anterior using a CryoJane tape transfer system, and stained using Massons trichrome. The total and relative area of muscles observed in each section were calculated and used for characterizing muscle distribution within the ventricular folds. Results The ventricular folds of the larynges contained anteriorly coursing thyroarytenoid and ventricularis muscle fibers lying in the lower half of the VF posteriorly, with some ventricularis muscle evident in the upper and lateral portion of the fold more anteriorly. Very little muscle tissue was observed in the medial half of the fold, and the anterior half of the VF was largely devoid of any muscle tissue. All four VF’s contained muscle bundles coursing superiorly and medially through the upper half of the fold toward the lateral margin of the epiglottis. Conclusions While variability in expression was evident, the well-defined thyroarytenoid muscle was readily apparent lateral to the arytenoid cartilage in all specimens. PMID:24224399

  5. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    PubMed Central

    Ewings, Ember L.; Carstens, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier's observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier's empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way. PMID:19884675

  6. Anatomy of a Security Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John

    2010-01-01

    Many agencies and corporations are either contemplating or in the process of building a cyber Security Operations Center (SOC). Those Agencies that have established SOCs are most likely working on major revisions or enhancements to existing capabilities. As principle developers of the NASA SOC; this Presenters' goals are to provide the GFIRST community with examples of some of the key building blocks of an Agency scale cyber Security Operations Center. This presentation viII include the inputs and outputs, the facilities or shell, as well as the internal components and the processes necessary to maintain the SOC's subsistence - in other words, the anatomy of a SOC. Details to be presented include the SOC architecture and its key components: Tier 1 Call Center, data entry, and incident triage; Tier 2 monitoring, incident handling and tracking; Tier 3 computer forensics, malware analysis, and reverse engineering; Incident Management System; Threat Management System; SOC Portal; Log Aggregation and Security Incident Management (SIM) systems; flow monitoring; IDS; etc. Specific processes and methodologies discussed include Incident States and associated Work Elements; the Incident Management Workflow Process; Cyber Threat Risk Assessment methodology; and Incident Taxonomy. The Evolution of the Cyber Security Operations Center viII be discussed; starting from reactive, to proactive, and finally to proactive. Finally, the resources necessary to establish an Agency scale SOC as well as the lessons learned in the process of standing up a SOC viII be presented.

  7. Anatomy education in a changing medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Drake, R L

    1999-08-01

    How we educate students in the first two years of medical school is changing at many institutions. Effective medical education should be viewed as a continuum, integration of the basic sciences and clinical medicine should occur throughout the curriculum, and self-directed, life-long learning should be emphasized. Curricular revision may be appropriate if these fundamental concepts are absent. The principles of three curricular models are discussed: traditional, problem-based, and systems-oriented. The ideal curriculum may draw from each of these: A truly integrated curriculum. However, the curricular model chosen must meet the needs of the institution and its students. As anatomists we should not shy away from this process of change. With progressive educational approaches, we can be leaders in this climate of curricular reform. Anatomy courses are laboratory based and the laboratory is an outstanding small group, faculty/student interactive opportunity. However, we must show flexibility and innovation in our educational approaches whatever the curricular design being proposed. PMID:10496094

  8. Anatomy education in a changing medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Drake, R L

    1998-02-01

    How we educate students in the first two years of medical school is changing at many institutions. Effective medical education should be viewed as a continuum, integration of the basic sciences and clinical medicine should occur throughout the curriculum, and self-directed, life-long learning should be emphasized. Curricular revision may be appropriate if these fundamental concepts are absent. The principles of three curricular models are discussed: traditional, problem-based, and systems-oriented. The ideal curriculum may draw from each of these: A truly integrated curriculum. However, the curricular model chosen must meet the needs of the institution and its students. As anatomists we should not shy away from this process of change. With progressive educational approaches, we can be leaders in this climate of curricular reform. Anatomy courses are laboratory based and the laboratory is an outstanding small group, faculty/student interactive opportunity. However, we must show flexibility and innovation in our educational approaches whatever the curricular design being proposed. PMID:9556023

  9. Formaldehyde Exposures in a University Anatomy Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Kyle William

    Air sampling studies were conducted within a university anatomical laboratory during the embalmment of a cadaver in order to determine if dangerous concentrations of formaldehyde existed. Three air sampling studies were conducted in the anatomical laboratory on three separate days that a cadaver was being embalmed. Samples were collected and analyzed using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Sampling and Analytical Methods: Method 52. Each air sampling study sampled for short term exposure limit (STEL) and time weighted mean (TWA) breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations as well as area TWA formaldehyde concentrations. A personal aldehyde monitor was also used in each air sampling study to sample for breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations. Measured TWA mean exposures to formaldehyde ranged from 0.15--1.3 parts per million (ppm), STEL formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.019--0.64 ppm, and eight-hour TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 3.6 ppm. All 8-hour TWA formaldehyde concentrations sampled in the anatomy laboratory during an embalmment were less than the permissible exposure limit (PEL) required by OSHA.

  10. A case-based anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Scott, T M

    1994-01-01

    A course is described in which the students give consideration to clinical cases as they review their current knowledge, and follow a set protocol which guided them in preparing their learning. The students are required to examine a case history, put down as key words either their first answer or the knowledge they consider they would need to answer specific questions. They then select stations at which additional information, wet specimens, models and radiological images assist them in upgrading their knowledge. They complete the exercise by writing a final answer to the questions on the case. The tutor is able through examination of the key words to determine the knowledge of the students as they enter, and confirm appropriate learning by inspection of the final answer. The students are able to identify their own deficiencies, develop strategies for thinking and learning, resulting in the acquisition of expertise in problem solving, and extend their communication skills by working with colleagues. While the course was designed for second-year anatomy teaching it could be applied to other disciplines.

  11. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection to the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Wyttenbach, Marina; Carrel, Thierry; Schuepbach, Peter; Tschaeppeler, Heinz; Triller, Juergen

    1996-03-15

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return represents a rare congenital anomaly with wide anatomic and physiologic variability. We report a case of a newborn with a rare form of total infracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). The pulmonary veins draining both lungs formed two vertical veins, which joined to a common pulmonary trunk below the diaphragm. This venous channel connected to the portal vein through the esophageal hiatus. The diagnosis was suggested by color Doppler sonography and confirmed by intravenous digital subtraction angiography, which allowed definition of the anatomy.

  12. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 1. Anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins.

    PubMed

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Parthasarathi, Venkatraman; Aydin, Emre; Al Schameri, Rahman A; Roth, Peter; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins aiming to elucidate aspects related to the cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Data from relevant articles on the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins were identified using one electronic database, supplemented by data from selected reference texts. Persisting fetal pial-arachnoidal veins correspond to the adult bridging veins. Relevant embryologic descriptions are based on the classic scheme of five divisions of the brain (telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon). Variation in their exact position and the number of bridging veins is the rule and certain locations, particularly that of the anterior cranial fossa and lower posterior cranial fossa are often neglected in prior descriptions. The distal segment of a bridging vein is part of the dural system and can be primarily involved in cranial dural arteriovenous lesions by constituting the actual site of the shunt. The veins in the lamina cribriformis exhibit a bridging-emissary vein pattern similar to the spinal configuration. The emissary veins connect the dural venous system with the extracranial venous system and are often involved in dural arteriovenous lesions. Cranial dural shunts may develop in three distinct areas of the cranial venous system: the dural sinuses and their interfaces with bridging veins and emissary veins. The exact site of the lesion may dictate the arterial feeders and original venous drainage pattern.

  13. Vascular anatomy of canine hepatic venous system: a basis for liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Mari, L; Acocella, F

    2015-06-01

    Detailed knowledge of the vascular anatomy is important for improving surgical approaches to the liver. Twelve canine livers were skeletonized to describe the anatomy of their portal and hepatic veins in details. Our data suggest that the liver can be divided into two sections, three divisions, seven lobes and two to four sub-lobes. This differs from the classic division into four lobes, four sub-lobes and two processes. The right section was perfused by the right portal branch and drained by independent hepatic veins, while most of the left section, perfused by the left portal branch, was drained by the main hepatic vein deriving from the middle and the left hepatic vein confluence. Part of the right medial lobe, and in some cases the papillary process of the caudate lobe, drained directly into the caudal vena cava. A proper right hepatic vein draining blood from more than one lobe was never observed. Portal connections between the quadrate and the left medial lobe were frequently recorded. Two sub-lobes with different portal blood supply and venous drainage could be identified in the right lateral (33.3% of cases) and the left lateral (100% of cases) lobes. From our results, the classic nomenclature of the liver lobes does not reflect their vascularization. Based on similarities between canine lobes and human segments, a new nomenclature is possible and may be less confounding in surgical settings.

  14. Automatic thoracic anatomy segmentation on CT images using hierarchical fuzzy models and registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kaioqiong; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a thoracic anatomy segmentation method based on hierarchical recognition and delineation guided by a built fuzzy model. Labeled binary samples for each organ are registered and aligned into a 3D fuzzy set representing the fuzzy shape model for the organ. The gray intensity distributions of the corresponding regions of the organ in the original image are recorded in the model. The hierarchical relation and mean location relation between different organs are also captured in the model. Following the hierarchical structure and location relation, the fuzzy shape model of different organs is registered to the given target image to achieve object recognition. A fuzzy connected delineation method is then used to obtain the final segmentation result of organs with seed points provided by recognition. The hierarchical structure and location relation integrated in the model provide the initial parameters for registration and make the recognition efficient and robust. The 3D fuzzy model combined with hierarchical affine registration ensures that accurate recognition can be obtained for both non-sparse and sparse organs. The results on real images are presented and shown to be better than a recently reported fuzzy model-based anatomy recognition strategy.

  15. Ultrasound anatomy of normal nails unit with 18 mhz linear transducer.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Andrea; Montella, Andrea; Ena, Pasquale; Meloni, Giovanni Battista; Mazzarello, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    Interest is growing in non-invasive diagnostic methods for nails in dermatological pathology. Currently, nail disease diagnosis is based mostly on clinical evaluation; instrumental examination, traditionally, has been performed by magnetic resonance. Ultrasound (US) can be proposed as an easier and more available method for the study of the nail apparatus. In this study, the nail unit normal ultrasound anatomy was investigated to obtain data on adult normal parameters. On 35 healthy volunteers (20 women and 15 men--average age of 27 years) we performed an ultrasonographic study on the nail plate (dorsal and ventral), nail matrix and nail bed of all fingers of the hands using a 18 MHz linear transducer with Esaote Mylab 50. A thick gel layer allowed for appropriate transmission of ultrasound without any additional device. Macroscopic nail features were studied by clinical examination and photographic analysis. The following ultrasound parameters were investigated: nail thickness; nail bed thickness; matrix lenght; matrix-bone distance. Blood flow was studied with the use of colour and power colour Doppler. The nail apparatus echographic anatomy consists in: (a) nail plate, represented by two hyperechoic bands (dorsal and ventral) with an hypoechoic or anechoic space between them; (b) nail bed, represented by an area of dys-homogeneous hypo-echogeneity; (c) nail matrix, represented by a markedly hypoechoic area corresponding to the region under the nail sulcus; (d) ligaments, sometimes well detectable and formed by a specialized connective tissue; and (e) vessels, well evaluable through doppler examination.

  16. Functional Anatomy and Oncologic Barriers of the Larynx.

    PubMed

    Mor, Niv; Blitzer, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Laryngeal barriers to tumor spread are a product of laryngeal development, anatomic barriers, and enzymatic activity. Supraglottic and glottic/subglottic development is distinct and partially explains the metastatic behavior of laryngeal carcinoma. Dense connective tissues and elastic fibers provide anatomic barriers within the larynx. Laryngeal cartilage contains dense cartilage, enzyme inhibitors, and an intact perichondrium making it relatively resistant to tumor invasion; however, focal areas of vulnerability are created by ossified cartilage and natural interruptions in the perichondrium. Local inflammation and the enzymatic interplay between tumor and host are important factors in the spread of laryngeal tumor.

  17. Breakdown of Inter-Hemispheric Connectivity Is Associated with Posttraumatic Symptomatology and Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Veksler, Ronel; Guez, Jonathan; Jacob, Yael; Shelef, Ilan; Shalev, Hadar; Friedman, Alon; Cohen, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Altered brain anatomy in specific gray-matter regions has been shown in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recently, white-matter tracts have become a focus of research in PTSD. The corpus callosum (CC) is the principal white-matter fiber bundle, crucial in relaying sensory, motor and cognitive information between hemispheres. Alterations in CC fibers have been reported in PTSD and might be assumed to underlie substantial behavioral and cognitive sequelae; however most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in adult-onset PTSD failed to address the clinical correlates between imaging and PTSD symptoms severity, behavioral manifestation and cognitive functions. In the current study we examined (a) to what extent microstructural integrity of the CC is associated with memory performance and (b) whether imaging and cognitive parameters are associated with PTSD symptom severity. DTI data were obtained and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were computed for 16 patients and 14 controls. PTSD symptom severity was assessed by employing the clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS) and memory was tested using a task probing item and associative memory for words and pictures. Significant correlations were found between PTSD symptoms severity, memory accuracy and reaction-time to CC FA values in the PTSD group. This study demonstrates meaningful clinical and cognitive correlates of microstructural connectivity. These results have implications for diagnostic tools and future studies aimed at identifying individuals at risk for PTSD. PMID:26863536

  18. Ion-Specific Induced Fluctuations and Free Energetics of Aqueous Protein Hydrophobic Interfaces: Toward Connecting to Specific-Ion Behaviors at Aqueous Liquid–Vapor Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We explore anion-induced interface fluctuations near protein–water interfaces using coarse-grained representations of interfaces as proposed by Willard and Chandler (J. Phys. Chem. B2010, 114, 1954−195820055377). We use umbrella sampling molecular dynamics to compute potentials of mean force along a reaction coordinate bridging the state where the anion is fully solvated and one where it is biased via harmonic restraints to remain at the protein–water interface. Specifically, we focus on fluctuations of an interface between water and a hydrophobic region of hydrophobin-II (HFBII), a 71 amino acid residue protein expressed by filamentous fungi and known for its ability to form hydrophobically mediated self-assemblies at interfaces such as a water/air interface. We consider the anions chloride and iodide that have been shown previously by simulations as displaying specific-ion behaviors at aqueous liquid–vapor interfaces. We find that as in the case of a pure liquid–vapor interface, at the hydrophobic protein–water interface, the larger, less charge-dense iodide anion displays a marginal interfacial stability compared with that of the smaller, more charge-dense chloride anion. Furthermore, consistent with the results at aqueous liquid–vapor interfaces, we find that iodide induces larger fluctuations of the protein–water interface than chloride. PMID:24701961

  19. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature.

    PubMed

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education.

  20. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-01

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.