Science.gov

Sample records for behavior anatomy connectivity

  1. A developmental neurobiological model of motivated behavior: anatomy, connectivity and ontogeny of the triadic nodes.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Monique; Fudge, Julie L

    2009-03-01

    Adolescence is the transition period that prepares individuals for fulfilling their role as adults. Most conspicuous in this transition period is the peak level of risk-taking behaviors that characterize adolescent motivated behavior. Significant neural remodeling contributes to this change. This review focuses on the functional neuroanatomy underlying motivated behavior, and how ontogenic changes can explain the typical behavioral patterns in adolescence. To help model these changes and provide testable hypotheses, a neural systems-based theory is presented. In short, the Triadic Model proposes that motivated behavior is governed by a carefully orchestrated articulation among three systems, approach, avoidance and regulatory. These three systems map to distinct, but overlapping, neural circuits, whose representatives are the striatum, the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. Each of these system-representatives will be described from a functional anatomy perspective that includes a review of their connectivity and what is known of their ontogenic changes.

  2. A DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGICAL MODEL OF MOTIVATED BEHAVIOR: ANATOMY, CONNECTIVITY AND ONTOGENY OF THE TRIADIC NODES

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Fudge, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is the transition period that prepares individuals for fulfilling their role as adults. Most conspicuous in this transition period is the peak level of risk-taking behaviors that characterize adolescent motivated behavior. Significant neural remodeling contributes to this change. This review focuses on the functional neuroanatomy underlying motivated behavior, and how ontogenic changes can explain the typical behavioral patterns in adolescence. To help model these changes and provide testable hypotheses, a neural systems-based theory is presented. In short, the Triadic Model proposes that motivated behavior is governed by a carefully orchestrated articulation among three systems, approach, avoidance and regulatory. These three systems map to distinct, but overlapping, neural circuits, whose representatives are the striatum, the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. Each of these system-representatives will be described from a functional anatomy perspective that includes a review of their connectivity and what is known of their ontogenic changes. PMID:19028521

  3. The Hemodynamics of Total Cavo-Pulmonary Connection Anatomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chang

    2005-11-01

    The single ventricle is a congenital heart defect in which the right side of the heart is hypoplastic or totally absent. This anomaly results in mixing of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the single ventricle, reducing the amount of oxygen transferred to the body. In U.S. two in 1000 babies are born with a single ventricle heart defect. Palliative surgical treatments are performed in stages as the child grows. The last stage is the total cavo-pulmonary connection (TCPC), which bypasses the right side of the heart and the single ventricle drives blood throughout the pulmonary and systemic circulations. We simulate the flow in two TCPC anatomies using a sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/Immersed Boundary approach. The computed solutions are compared with PIV in-vitro experiments and analyzed in detail to elucidate the richness of the hemodynamics in the surgically create pouch region where the inferior and superior vena cava flows collide and bifurcate into the left and right pulmonary arteries. The effect of the connection anatomy on the flow dynamics will also be discussed.

  4. Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: Consensus and Controversy in the Connectional Anatomy of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Tremblay, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    The growing consensus that language is distributed into large-scale cortical and subcortical networks has brought with it an increasing focus on the connectional anatomy of language, or how particular fibre pathways connect regions within the language network. Understanding connectivity of the language network could provide critical insights into…

  5. Anatomy-Guided Dense Individualized and Common Connectivity-Based Cortical Landmarks (A-DICCCOL)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Tuo; Zhu, Dajiang; Li, Kaiming; Chen, Hanbo; Lv, Jinglei; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Shen, Dinggang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2017-01-01

    Establishment of structural and functional correspondences of human brain that can be quantitatively encoded and reproduced across different subjects and populations is one of the key issues in brain mapping. As an attempt to address this challenge, our recently developed Dense Individualized and Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks (DICCCOL) system reported 358 connectional landmarks, each of which possesses consistent DTI-derived white matter fiber connection pattern that is reproducible in over 240 healthy brains. However, the DICCCOL system can be substantially improved by integrating anatomical and morphological information during landmark initialization and optimization procedures. In this paper, we present a novel anatomy-guided landmark discovery framework that defines and optimizes landmarks via integrating rich anatomical, morphological, and fiber connectional information for landmark initialization, group-wise optimization and prediction, which are formulated and solved as an energy minimization problem. The framework finally determined 555 consistent connectional landmarks. Validation studies demonstrated that the 555 landmarks are reproducible, predictable, and exhibited reasonably accurate anatomical, connectional, and functional correspondences across individuals and populations and thus are named anatomy-guided DICCCOL or A-DICCCOL. This A-DICCCOL system represents common cortical architectures with anatomical, connectional, and functional correspondences across different subjects and would potentially provide opportunities for various applications in brain science. PMID:25420253

  6. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Maha M.; Ramadan, Hazem M.; Abdel-Mooty, Mohammed N.; Mourad, Sherif A.

    2013-01-01

    Concrete filled tubes (CFTs) composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution. PMID:25685491

  7. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Maha M; Ramadan, Hazem M; Abdel-Mooty, Mohammed N; Mourad, Sherif A

    2014-03-01

    Concrete filled tubes (CFTs) composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  8. The hippocampal system as the cortical resource manager: a model connecting psychology, anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Coward, L Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A model is described in which the hippocampal system functions as resource manager for the neocortex. This model is developed from an architectural concept for the brain as a whole within which the receptive fields of neocortical columns can gradually expand but with some limited exceptions tend not to contract. The definition process for receptive fields is constrained so that they overlap as little as possible, and change as little as possible, but at least a minimum number of columns detect their fields within every sensory input state. Below this minimum, the receptive fields of some columns are expanded slightly until the minimum level is reached. The columns in which this expansion occurs are selected by a competitive process in the hippocampal system that identifies those in which only a relatively small expansion is required, and sends signals to those columns that trigger the expansion. These expansions in receptive fields are the information record that forms the declarative memory of the input state. Episodic memory activates a set of columns in which receptive fields expanded simultaneously at some point in the past, and the hippocampal system is therefore the appropriate source for information guiding access to such memories. Semantic memory associates columns that are often active (with or without expansions in receptive fields) simultaneously. Initially, the hippocampus can guide access to such memories on the basis of initial information recording, but to avoid corruption of the information needed for ongoing resource management, access control shifts to other parts of the neocortex. The roles of the mammillary bodies, amygdala and anterior thalamic nucleus can be understood as modulating information recording in accordance with various behavioral priorities. During sleep, provisional physical connectivity is created that supports receptive field expansions in the subsequent wake period, but previously created memories are not affected. This model

  9. Connections with nature and environmental behaviors.

    PubMed

    Geng, Liuna; Xu, Jingke; Ye, Lijuan; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhou, Kexin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of environmental attitudes on environmental behaviors has long been discussed. However, few studies have addressed the foundation of such attitudes. In the present study, we explored primitive belief underlying environmental attitudes, i.e., connections with nature, and its relationship with pro-environmental behaviors. Specifically, we used scales, a computerized Implicit Association Test, and a situational simulation experiment to examine both explicit and implicit connections with nature, both deliberate and spontaneous environmental behaviors, and to find correlations between environmental connectedness and environmental behaviors. Results showed that explicit connectedness was positively correlated with deliberate environmental behaviors, while implicit connectedness was positively correlated with spontaneous environmental behaviors. Additionally, explicit and implicit connectedness was independent of each other. In conclusion, the current study confirms the positive role played by connections with nature in promoting environmental behavior, and accordingly suggests means to encourage pro-environmental behavior by enhancing people's connectedness to nature.

  10. Sinus Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  11. Nasal Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  12. Topography of excitatory and inhibitory connectional anatomy in monkey visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Jennifer S.; Levitt, J. B.; Wu, Quanfeng

    1994-03-01

    . Since the basket neuron also contacts other basket neurons, by disinhibition through offset basket neurons, it will simultaneously encourage activity in pyramidal cells in a zone outside the limit of its axon field. This scaling of basket neuron axons is present in early postnatal cortex and it could lead to the punctate patterns of pyramidal neuron connectivity which also appear to develop postnatally. This anatomy might also produce the regular spacing of different functional attributes that is typical of visual cortical organization. Models that explore spatial geometries of excitation and inhibition resembling those described above are urgently needed to test current biological hypotheses underlying investigations of cerebral cortex.

  13. Physiology and anatomy of synaptic connections between thick tufted pyramidal neurones in the developing rat neocortex.

    PubMed Central

    Markram, H; Lübke, J; Frotscher, M; Roth, A; Sakmann, B

    1997-01-01

    , indicated that the axonal and dendritic anatomy of both projecting and target neurones and of uni- and bidirectionally connected neurones was uniform. 6. The number of potential synaptic contacts formed by a presynaptic neurone on a target neurone varied between four and eight (mean, 5.5 +/- 1.1 contacts; n = 19 connections). Synaptic contacts were preferentially located on basal dendrites (63%, 82 +/- 35 microns from the soma, n = 67) and apical oblique dendrites (27%, 145 +/- 59 microns, n = 29), and 35% of all contacts were located on tertiary basal dendritic branches. The mean geometric distances (from the soma) of the contacts of a connection varied between 80 and 585 microns (mean, 147 microns; median, 105 microns). The correlation between EPSP amplitude and the number of morphologically determined synaptic contacts or the mean geometric distances from the soma was only weak (correlation coefficients were 0.2 and 0.26, respectively). 7. Compartmental models constructed from camera lucida drawings of eight target neurones showed that synaptic contacts were located at mean electrotonic distances between 0.07 and 0.33 from the soma (mean, 0.13). Simulations of unitary EPSPs, assuming quantal conductance changes with fast rise time and short duration, indicated that amplitudes of quantal EPSPs at the soma were attenuated, on average, to < 10% of dendritic EPSPs and varied in amplitude up to 10-fold depending on the dendritic location of synaptic contacts. The inferred quantal peak conductance increase varied between 1.5 and 5.5 nS (mean, 3 nS). 8. The combined physiological and morphological measurements in conjunction with EPSP simulations indicated that the 20-fold range in efficacy of the synaptic connections between thick tufted pyramidal neurones, which have their synaptic contacts preferentially located on basal and apical oblique dendrites, was due to differences in transmitter release probability of the projecting neurones and, to a lesser extent, to differenc

  14. Integer anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, R.

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  15. Trust, Connectivity, and Thriving: Implications for Innovative Behaviors at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Abraham; Spreitzer, Gretchen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how trust, connectivity and thriving drive employees' innovative behaviors in the workplace. Using a sample of one hundred and seventy two employees across a variety of jobs and industries, we investigated the relationship between trust, connectivity (both measured at Time 1), thriving and innovative work behaviors (both…

  16. Roles of Morphology, Anatomy, and Aquaporins in Determining Contrasting Hydraulic Behavior of Roots1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C.; Turner, David W.; Tyerman, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    The contrasting hydraulic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) roots were identified by integrating measurements of water flow across different structural levels of organization with anatomy and modeling. Anatomy played a major role in root hydraulics, influencing axial conductance (Lax) and the distribution of water uptake along the root, with a more localized role for aquaporins (AQPs). Lupin roots had greater Lax than wheat roots, due to greater xylem development. Lax and root hydraulic conductance (Lr) were related to each other, such that both variables increased with distance from the root tip in lupin roots. Lax and Lr were constant with distance from the tip in wheat roots. Despite these contrasting behaviors, the hydraulic conductivity of root cells (Lpc) was similar for all species and increased from the root surface toward the endodermis. Lpc was largely controlled by AQPs, as demonstrated by dramatic reductions in Lpc by the AQP blocker mercury. Modeling the root as a series of concentric, cylindrical membranes, and the inhibition of AQP activity at the root level, indicated that water flow in lupin roots occurred primarily through the apoplast, without crossing membranes and without the involvement of AQPs. In contrast, water flow across wheat roots crossed mercury-sensitive AQPs in the endodermis, which significantly influenced Lr. This study demonstrates the importance of examining root morphology and anatomy in assessing the role of AQPs in root hydraulics. PMID:19321713

  17. Behavioral Interpretations of Intrinsic Connectivity Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Angela R.; Fox, P. Mickle; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Turner, Jessica A.; Ray, Kimberly L.; McKay, D. Reese; Glahn, David C.; Beckmann, Christian F.; Smith, Stephen M.; Fox, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly large number of neuroimaging studies have investigated functionally connected networks during rest, providing insight into human brain architecture. Assessment of the functional qualities of resting state networks has been limited by the task-independent state, which results in an inability to relate these networks to specific…

  18. Connecting biological concepts and religious behavior.

    PubMed

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin

    2012-04-01

    This commentary proposes experiments to examine connections between the presence of out-group members, neurovisceral reactions, religiosity, and ethnocentrism, to clarify the meaning of the correlational findings presented in the target article. It also suggests different ways of describing religious socialization and of viewing assertions about religion and health or about the human ability to detect pathogens.

  19. Connecting with Students to Limit High-Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendler, Allen N.

    2002-01-01

    Many youth use substances and engage in other high-risk behaviors in an attempt to allay the emptiness accompanying broken belongings. Schools can play important roles in fostering connections and creating the natural high that comes from success. (Author)

  20. Developmental Biodynamics: Brain, Body, Behavior Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockman, Jeffrey J.; Thelen, Esther

    1993-01-01

    Advances in the neurosciences, biomechanics, and behavior sciences, along with attempts to integrate theories and findings across these disciplines, have led to a renewed interest in the study of motor development. Considers the contributions that have led to the reinvigoration of this field of study and its new interdisciplinary outlook. (MDM)

  1. Nutrition and Behavior: The Psychonutrient Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Molly

    The combined concepts of holism and general systems theory have led to the belief among health care professionals that people cannot be fully understood unless the mind and body are seen as having an integral relationship. The relationship between nutrition and behavior is one area in which the holistic approach is relevant for the field of…

  2. Roles of morphology, anatomy, and aquaporins in determining contrasting hydraulic behavior of roots.

    PubMed

    Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C; Turner, David W; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2009-05-01

    The contrasting hydraulic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) roots were identified by integrating measurements of water flow across different structural levels of organization with anatomy and modeling. Anatomy played a major role in root hydraulics, influencing axial conductance (L(ax)) and the distribution of water uptake along the root, with a more localized role for aquaporins (AQPs). Lupin roots had greater L(ax) than wheat roots, due to greater xylem development. L(ax) and root hydraulic conductance (L(r)) were related to each other, such that both variables increased with distance from the root tip in lupin roots. L(ax) and L(r) were constant with distance from the tip in wheat roots. Despite these contrasting behaviors, the hydraulic conductivity of root cells (Lp(c)) was similar for all species and increased from the root surface toward the endodermis. Lp(c) was largely controlled by AQPs, as demonstrated by dramatic reductions in Lp(c) by the AQP blocker mercury. Modeling the root as a series of concentric, cylindrical membranes, and the inhibition of AQP activity at the root level, indicated that water flow in lupin roots occurred primarily through the apoplast, without crossing membranes and without the involvement of AQPs. In contrast, water flow across wheat roots crossed mercury-sensitive AQPs in the endodermis, which significantly influenced L(r). This study demonstrates the importance of examining root morphology and anatomy in assessing the role of AQPs in root hydraulics.

  3. Perineal striated muscles: Anatomy, spinal motoneurons, and participation on copulatory behavior in male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Zempoalteca, R; Lucio, R A; Eguibar, J R

    2008-09-01

    Despite the importance of rabbits in reproductive studies, little information is available on the anatomy and participation of the striated-perineal muscles in male copulatory behavior. In our study, we describe the gross anatomy of two striated-perineal muscles: the ischiocavernosus (ICm) and the bulbospongiosus (BSm). Both muscles have their origin at the ischiadic arc, but the ICm is inserted into the penile crura and the BSm onto the ligamentum suspensorium of the penis. The motoneurons of both muscles were identified using retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase coupled to wheat-germ agglutinin. Motoneurons were dispersed in the lower-lumbar and upper-sacral spinal-cord segments, instead of being aggregated in the neuronal nucleus as in other species: the rat, mouse, gerbil, cat, and man. Bilateral dennervation of the ICm or BSm or both in sexually experienced male rabbits did not affect copulatory variables measured at 10, 20, and 30 days after surgery. However, muscular dennervation produced extravaginal ejaculations in 42% of copulatory tests and no ejaculation in 7% of tests, although male pelvic thrusting occurred. These results suggest the participation of the ICm and BSm perineal muscles in penile orientation during copulation but not in seminal emission as described in other mammalian species.

  4. Micromechanical modeling of rate-dependent behavior of Connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M

    2017-03-07

    In this paper, a constitutive and micromechanical model for prediction of rate-dependent behavior of connective tissues (CTs) is presented. Connective tissues are considered as nonlinear viscoelastic material. The rate-dependent behavior of CTs is incorporated into model using the well-known quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) theory. A planar wavy representative volume element (RVE) is considered based on the tissue microstructure histological evidences. The presented model parameters are identified based on the available experiments in the literature. The presented constitutive model introduced to ABAQUS by means of UMAT subroutine. Results show that, monotonic uniaxial test predictions of the presented model at different strain rates for rat tail tendon (RTT) and human patellar tendon (HPT) are in good agreement with experimental data. Results of incremental stress-relaxation test are also presented to investigate both instantaneous and viscoelastic behavior of connective tissues.

  5. The ventral pallidum: Subregion-specific functional anatomy and roles in motivated behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Root, David H.; Melendez, Roberto I.; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Napier, T. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in the processing and execution of motivated behaviors. Yet this brain region is often overlooked in published discussions of the neurobiology of mental health (e.g., addiction, depression). This contributes to a gap in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This review is presented to help bridge the gap by providing a resource for current knowledge of VP anatomy, projection patterns and subregional circuits, and how this organization relates to the function of VP neurons and ultimately behavior. For example, ventromedial (VPvm) and dorsolateral (VPdl) VP subregions receive projections from nucleus accumbens shell and core, respectively. Inhibitory GABAergic neurons of the VPvm project to mediodorsal thalamus, lateral hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area, and this VP subregion helps discriminate the appropriate conditions to acquire natural rewards or drugs of abuse, consume preferred foods, and perform working memory tasks. GABAergic neurons of the VPdl project to subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, and this VP subregion is modulated by, and is necessary for, drug-seeking behavior. Additional circuits arise from nonGABAergic neuronal phenotypes that are likely to excite rather than inhibit their targets. These subregional and neuronal phenotypic circuits place the VP in a unique position to process motivationally-relevant stimuli and coherent adaptive behaviors. PMID:25857550

  6. Clarifying the anatomy of hearts with concordant ventriculo-arterial connections but abnormally related arterial trunks.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Gulati, Gurpreet S; Henry, G William; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Hearts in which the arterial trunks arise from the morphologically appropriate ventricles, but in a parallel manner, rather than the usual spiralling arrangement, have long fascinated anatomists. These rare entities, for quite some time, were considered embryological impossibilities, but ongoing experience has shown that they can be found in various segmental combinations. Problems still exist about how best to describe them, as the different variants are often described with esoteric terms, such as anatomically corrected malposition or isolated ventricular inversion. In this review, based on our combined clinical and morphological experience, we demonstrate that the essential feature of all hearts described in this manner is a parallel arrangement of the arterial trunks as they exit from the ventricular mass. We show that the relationship of the arterial roots needs to be described in terms of the underlying ventricular topology, rather than according to the arrangement of the atrial chambers. We then discuss the importance of determining atrial arrangement on the basis of the morphology of the appendages, following the precepts as set out in the so-called "morphological method" and distinguished according to the extent of the pectinate muscles relative to the atrioventricular junctions as opposed to basing diagnosis on the venoatrial connections. We show that, when approached in this manner, the various combinations can be readily diagnosed in the clinical setting and described in straightforward way.

  7. Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.

    PubMed

    Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination.

  8. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function.

    PubMed

    Huser, Annina; Rohwedder, Astrid; Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Maiolo, Elena M; Selcho, Mareike; Pauls, Dennis; von Essen, Alina; Gupta, Tripti; Sprecher, Simon G; Birman, Serge; Riemensperger, Thomas; Stocker, Reinhard F; Thum, Andreas S

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  9. Boundary Connection Behavior and Connection Design for Retrofitted Unreinforced Masonry Walls Subjected to Blast Loads (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    laced along the leading edge of the connection plate. These assumptions were validated by results of finite element simulations done using the LS - DYNA ...Case 2 option due to the amplification of the anchorage force. Figure 7 – LS - DYNA Computational Model of Shower Pan Liner Behavior...condition referenced in Figure 9 is detailed here. The numerical simulation used the computational solid dynamics code LS - DYNA (LSTC 2007) to

  10. Behavioral connectivity among bighorn sheep suggests potential for disease spread

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borg, Nathan J.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Mack, Curt M.; Waits, Lisette P.; Krausman, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Connectivity is important for population persistence and can reduce the potential for inbreeding depression. Connectivity between populations can also facilitate disease transmission; respiratory diseases are one of the most important factors affecting populations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The mechanisms of connectivity in populations of bighorn sheep likely have implications for spread of disease, but the behaviors leading to connectivity between bighorn sheep groups are not well understood. From 2007–2012, we radio-collared and monitored 56 bighorn sheep in the Salmon River canyon in central Idaho. We used cluster analysis to define social groups of bighorn sheep and then estimated connectivity between these groups using a multi-state mark-recapture model. Social groups of bighorn sheep were spatially segregated and linearly distributed along the Salmon River canyon. Monthly probabilities of movement between adjacent male and female groups ranged from 0.08 (±0.004 SE) to 0.76 (±0.068) for males and 0.05 (±0.132) to 0.24 (±0.034) for females. Movements of males were extensive and probabilities of movement were considerably higher during the rut. Probabilities of movement for females were typically smaller than those of males and did not change seasonally. Whereas adjacent groups of bighorn sheep along the Salmon River canyon were well connected, connectivity between groups north and south of the Salmon River was limited. The novel application of a multi-state model to a population of bighorn sheep allowed us to estimate the probability of movement between adjacent social groups and approximate the level of connectivity across the population. Our results suggest high movement rates of males during the rut are the most likely to result in transmission of pathogens among both male and female groups. Potential for disease spread among female groups was smaller but non-trivial. Land managers can plan grazing of domestic sheep for spring and summer

  11. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal) nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the endocrine arm of the body's response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and/or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC) regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors. PMID:23785312

  12. Larynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1350x1200 View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows ...

  13. Vulva Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  14. Hand Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is a term used to ... of the parts together. Learn more about the anatomy of the upper extremity using the links in ...

  15. Pharynx Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  16. Connecting art and science: An interdisciplinary strategy and its impact on the affective domain of community college human anatomy students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petti, Kevin

    Educational objectives are often described within the framework of a three-domain taxonomy: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. While most of the research on educational objectives has focused on the cognitive domain, the research that has been conducted on the affective domain, which speaks to emotions, attitudes, and values, has identified a number of positive outcomes. One approach to enhancing the affective domain is that of interdisciplinary education. Science education research in the realm of interdisciplinary education and affective outcomes is limited; especially research conducted on community college students of human anatomy. This project investigated the relationship between an interdisciplinary teaching strategy and the affective domain in science education by utilizing an interdisciplinary lecture in a human anatomy class. Subjects were anatomy students in a California community college who listened to a one-hour lecture describing the cultural, historical and scientific significance of selected pieces of art depicting human dissection in European medieval and Renaissance universities. The focus was on how these renderings represent the state of anatomy education during their respective eras. After listening to the lecture, subjects were administered a 35-question survey that was composed of 14 demographic questions and 21 Likert-style statements that asked respondents to rate the extent to which the intervention influenced their affective domain. Descriptive statistics were then used to determine which component of the affective domain was most influenced, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which individual differences along the affective continuum were explained by select demographic measures such as gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and previous exposure to science courses. Results indicate that the interdisciplinary intervention had a positive impact on every component of the affective domain hierarchy

  17. The functional connectivity of the human caudate: an application of meta-analytic connectivity modeling with behavioral filtering.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer L; Laird, Angela R; Glahn, David C; Blangero, John; Sanghera, Manjit K; Pessoa, Luiz; Fox, P Mickle; Uecker, Angela; Friehs, Gerhard; Young, Keith A; Griffin, Jennifer L; Lovallo, William R; Fox, Peter T

    2012-03-01

    Meta-analysis based techniques are emerging as powerful, robust tools for developing models of connectivity in functional neuroimaging. Here, we apply meta-analytic connectivity modeling to the human caudate to 1) develop a model of functional connectivity, 2) determine if meta-analytic methods are sufficiently sensitive to detect behavioral domain specificity within region-specific functional connectivity networks, and 3) compare meta-analytic driven segmentation to structural connectivity parcellation using diffusion tensor imaging. Results demonstrate strong coherence between meta-analytic and data-driven methods. Specifically, we found that behavioral filtering resulted in cognition and emotion related structures and networks primarily localized to the head of the caudate nucleus, while perceptual and action specific regions localized to the body of the caudate, consistent with early models of nonhuman primate histological studies and postmortem studies in humans. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) revealed support for meta-analytic connectivity modeling's (MACM) utility in identifying both direct and indirect connectivity. Our results provide further validation of meta-analytic connectivity modeling, while also highlighting an additional potential, namely the extraction of behavioral domain specific functional connectivity.

  18. Functional Anatomy of the Thalamus as a Model of Integrated Structural and Functional Connectivity of the Human Brain In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Mastropasqua, Chiara; Bozzali, Marco; Spanò, Barbara; Koch, Giacomo; Cercignani, Mara

    2015-07-01

    While methods of measuring non-invasively both, functional and structural brain connectivity are available, the degree of overlap between them is still unknown. In this paper this issue is addressed by investigating the connectivity pattern of a brain structure with many, well characterized structural connections, namely the thalamus. Diffusion-weighted and resting state (RS) functional MRI (fMRI) data were collected in a group of 38 healthy participants. Probabilistic tractography was performed to parcellate the thalamus into regions structurally connected to different cortical areas. The resulting regions were used as seeds for seed-based analysis of RS fMRI data. The tractographic parcellation was thus cross-validated against functional connectivity data by evaluating the overlap between the functional and structural thalamo-cortical connections originating from the parcellated regions. Our data show only a partial overall correspondence between structural and functional connections, in the same group of healthy individuals, thus suggesting that the two approaches provide complementary and not overlapping information. Future studies are warranted to extend the results we obtained in the thalamus to other structures, and to confirm that the mechanisms behind functional connectivity are more complex than just expressing structural connectivity.

  19. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  20. Tooth anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  1. Forelimb anatomy and the discrimination of the predatory behavior of carnivorous mammals: the thylacine as a case study.

    PubMed

    Janis, Christine M; Figueirido, Borja

    2014-12-01

    Carnivorous mammals use their forelimbs in different ways to capture their prey. Most terrestrial carnivores have some cursorial (running) adaptations, but ambush predators retain considerable flexibility in their forelimb movement, important for grappling with their prey. In contrast, predators that rely on pursuit to run down their prey have sacrificed some of this flexibility for locomotor efficiency, in the greater restriction of the forelimb motion to the parasagittal plane. In this article, we measured aspects of the forelimb anatomy (44 linear measurements) in 36 species of carnivorous mammals of known predatory behavior, and used multivariate analyses to investigate how well the forelimb anatomy reflects the predatory mode (ambush, pursuit, or pounce-pursuit). A prime intention of this study was to establish morphological correlates of behavior that could then be applied to fossil mammals: for this purpose, five individuals of the recently extinct thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) were also included as unknowns. We show that the three different types of predators can be distinguished by their morphology, both in analyses where all the forelimb bones are included together, and in the separate analyses of each bone individually. Of particular interest is the ability to distinguish between the two types of more cursorial predators, pursuit and pounce-pursuit, which have previously been considered as primarily size-based categories. Despite a prior consideration of the thylacine as a "pounce-pursuit" or an "ambush" type of predator, the thylacines did not consistently cluster with any type of predatory carnivores in our analyses. Rather, the thylacines appeared to be more generalized in their morphology than any of the extant carnivores. The absence of a large diversity of large carnivorous mammals in Australia, past and present, may explain the thylacine's generalized morphology.

  2. Anatomy atlases.

    PubMed

    Rosse, C

    1999-01-01

    Anatomy atlases are unlike other knowledge sources in the health sciences in that they communicate knowledge through annotated images without the support of narrative text. An analysis of the knowledge component represented by images and the history of anatomy atlases suggest some distinctions that should be made between atlas and textbook illustrations. Textbook and atlas should synergistically promote the generation of a mental model of anatomy. The objective of such a model is to support anatomical reasoning and thereby replace memorization of anatomical facts. Criteria are suggested for selecting anatomy texts and atlases that complement one another, and the advantages and disadvantages of hard copy and computer-based anatomy atlases are considered.

  3. Elucidation of the Anatomy of a Satiety Network: Focus on Connectivity of the Parabrachial Nucleus in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zséli, Györgyi; Vida, Barbara; Martinez, Anais; Lechan, Ronald M.; Khan, Arshad M.; Fekete, Csaba

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that brain regions showing neuronal activation after refeeding comprise major nodes in a satiety network, and tested this hypothesis with two sets of experiments. Detailed c-Fos mapping comparing fasted and refed rats was performed to identify candidate nodes of the satiety network. In addition to well-known feeding-related brain regions such as the arcuate, dorsomedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, parabrachial nucleus (PB), nucleus of solitary tract and central amygdalar nucleus; other refeeding activated regions were also identified, such as the parastrial and parasubthalamic nuclei. To begin understanding the connectivity of the satiety network, the interconnectivity of PB with other refeeding-activated neuronal groups was studied following administration of anterograde or retrograde tracers into the PB. After allowing for tracer transport time, the animals were fasted and then refed before sacrifice. Refeeding-activated neurons that project to the PB were found in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamic area; arcuate, paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; parasubthalamic nucleus; central amygdalar nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of solitary tract. Axons originating from PB were observed to closely associate with refeeding-activated neurons in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamus; paraventricular, arcuate and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; central amygdalar nucleus; parasubthalamic nucleus; ventral posterior thalamic nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of solitary tract. These data indicate that the PB has bidirectional connections with most refeeding-activated neuronal groups, suggesting that short loop feedback circuits exist in this satiety network. PMID:26918800

  4. Mothers' Adverse Childhood Experiences and Negative Parenting Behaviors: Connecting Mothers' Difficult Pasts to Present Parenting Behavior via Reflective Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolomeyer, Ellen; Renk, Kimberly; Cunningham, Annelise; Lowell, Amanda; Khan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have supported a connection between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negative outcomes in adulthood. Fewer studies have examined the connection between ACEs and parenting behaviors, however. The study described in this article examined the relationships among ACEs, reflective functioning, and negative parenting behaviors…

  5. Electrooculography: Connecting Mind, Brain, and Behavior in Mathematics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipulina, Olga V.; Campbell, Stephen R.; Cimen, Arda O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the potential roles and importance of electrooculography (EOG) for mathematics educational neuroscience research. EOG enables accurate measurements of eye-related behavior (i.e., blinks & movements) by recording changes in voltage potentials generated by eye-related behavior. We identify and discuss three main uses of EOG.…

  6. The Leafhoppers: Anatomy, Physiology and Behavior of Feeding and Its Sensory Mediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present book contains chapters summarizing all major aspects of the biology of leafhoppers (family Cicadellidae), among the most numerous and important insect pests in the world. Major chapter topics discussed include internal and external morphology, physiology, behavior, reproduction, taxonom...

  7. Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Connectivity has dramatically changed the landscape of higher education IT. From "on-demand" services for net-gen students and advanced eLearning systems for faculty, to high-performance computing grid resources for researchers, IT now provides more networked services than ever to connect campus constituents to each other and to the world.…

  8. The Neurocognitive Connection between Physical Activity and Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Richard J.; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Bond, Dale S.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    As obesity rates increase worldwide, health care providers require methods to instill the lifestyle behaviors necessary for sustainable weight loss. Designing effective weight loss interventions requires an understanding of how these behaviors are elicited, how they relate to each other, and whether they are supported by common neurocognitive mechanisms. This may provide valuable insights to optimize existing interventions and develop novel approaches to weight control. Researchers have begun to investigate the neurocognitive underpinnings of eating behavior and the impact of physical activity on cognition and the brain. This review attempts to bring these somewhat disparate, yet interrelated lines of literature together in order to examine a hypothesis that eating behavior and physical activity share a common neurocognitive link. The link pertains to executive functions, which rely on brain circuits located in the prefrontal cortex. These advanced cognitive processes are of limited capacity and undergo relentless strain in the current obesogenic environment. The increased demand on these neurocognitive resources as well as their overuse and/or impairment may facilitate impulses to overeat, contributing to weight gain and obesity. This impulsive eating drive may be counteracted by physical activity due to its enhancement of neurocognitive resources for executive functions and goal-oriented behavior. By enhancing the resources that facilitate “top-down” inhibitory control, increased physical activity may help compensate and suppress the hedonic drive to overeat. Understanding how physical activity and eating behaviors interact on a neurocognitive level may help to maintain a healthy lifestyle in an obesogenic environment. PMID:21676151

  9. Connecting laboratory behavior to field function through stable isotope analysis

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Eric R.; Pangle, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    Inherent difficulties of tracking and observing organisms in the field often leave researchers with no choice but to conduct behavioral experiments under laboratory settings. However, results of laboratory experiments do not always translate accurately to natural conditions. A fundamental challenge in ecology is therefore to scale up from small area and short-duration laboratory experiments to large areas and long durations over which ecological processes generally operate. In this study, we propose that stable isotope analysis may be a tool that can link laboratory behavioral observations to past field interactions or function of individual organisms. We conducted laboratory behavioral assays to measure dominance of invasive rusty crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, and used stable isotope analysis to hindcast trophic positions of these crayfish under preceding natural conditions. We hypothesized that more dominant crayfish in our assays would have higher trophic positions if dominance were related to competitive ability or willingness to pursue high-risk, high-reward prey. We did not find a relationship between crayfish dominance and trophic position, and therefore infer that laboratory dominance of crayfish may not necessarily relate to their ecology in the field. However, this is to our knowledge the first attempt to directly relate laboratory behavior to field performance via stable isotope analysis. We encourage future studies to continue to explore a possible link between laboratory and field behavior via stable isotope analysis, and propose several avenues to do so. PMID:27077010

  10. Connecting laboratory behavior to field function through stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Glon, Mael G; Larson, Eric R; Pangle, Kevin L

    2016-01-01

    Inherent difficulties of tracking and observing organisms in the field often leave researchers with no choice but to conduct behavioral experiments under laboratory settings. However, results of laboratory experiments do not always translate accurately to natural conditions. A fundamental challenge in ecology is therefore to scale up from small area and short-duration laboratory experiments to large areas and long durations over which ecological processes generally operate. In this study, we propose that stable isotope analysis may be a tool that can link laboratory behavioral observations to past field interactions or function of individual organisms. We conducted laboratory behavioral assays to measure dominance of invasive rusty crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, and used stable isotope analysis to hindcast trophic positions of these crayfish under preceding natural conditions. We hypothesized that more dominant crayfish in our assays would have higher trophic positions if dominance were related to competitive ability or willingness to pursue high-risk, high-reward prey. We did not find a relationship between crayfish dominance and trophic position, and therefore infer that laboratory dominance of crayfish may not necessarily relate to their ecology in the field. However, this is to our knowledge the first attempt to directly relate laboratory behavior to field performance via stable isotope analysis. We encourage future studies to continue to explore a possible link between laboratory and field behavior via stable isotope analysis, and propose several avenues to do so.

  11. Testing the Connection: Student Achievement, Student Behavior, and New Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Edward P.; Landis, Lynn Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article asks the following questions: (1) Is there a link between new construction and student achievement? (2) What role does socioeconomics play in the answer? Data were collected for seven academic indicators and two behavioral indicators. The high schools ranked in the lowest wealth quartile were then divided into two groups: schools with…

  12. Public Housing, Health, and Health Behaviors: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Angela R.; Reingold, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between public housing, health outcomes, and health behaviors among low-income housing residents. While public housing can be a dangerous and unhealthy environment in which to live, the subsidized rent may free up resources for nutritious food and health care. In addition, public housing may be of higher…

  13. Family Connections: Addressing Behavior Issues--Practical Tips for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaze, Donna; Kirylo, James D.

    2012-01-01

    When parents get together, the subject of appropriately addressing the behavior of their children often comes to the forefront of conversations. Parents share various challenges they face with their children, including issues associated with listening, eating vegetables, doing chores, and a host of other discipline-related situations. The plethora…

  14. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae) have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i) to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii) to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii) to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed. PMID:15841282

  15. Perceived Connections between Anti-Social Gateway Behaviors and School Bullying and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grell, Brett Stanley; Meyer, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare opinions of 8th and 9th grade teachers and students regarding the prevalence of anti-social/gateway behaviors in their classrooms, the perceived connection between these behaviors and more traditional forms of bullying, and the potential impact of school-wide anti-bullying programs specifically…

  16. Cognitive control network anatomy correlates with neurocognitive behavior: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Antees, Cassandra; Grieve, Stuart M.; Foster, Sheryl L.; Gomes, Lavier; Williams, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cognitive control is the process of employing executive functions, such as attention, planning or working memory, to guide appropriate behaviors in order to achieve a specific goal. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest a superordinate cognitive control network, comprising the dorsal regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and parietal cortex (DPC). How gray matter structure changes across this network throughout neurodevelopment and how these changes impact cognitive control are not yet fully understood. Here we investigate changes in gray matter volume of the key nodes of the cognitive control network using structural MRI scans from 176 participants aged 8–38 years. One hundred and eleven of these also completed a longitudinal follow‐up at two years. We compare these with performance on a cognitive battery also measured at these two time points. We found that volume decreases in the cognitive control network were associated with improved performance in executive function (in left DLPFC and bilateral DPC), information processing (in bilateral dACC and right DPC) and emotion identification tasks (left DLPFC). These results were significant after controlling for age. Furthermore, gray matter changes were coordinated across the network. These findings imply age‐independent synaptic pruning in the cognitive control network may have a role in improving performance in cognitive domains. This study provides insight into the direct impact of structural changes on behavior within this network during neurodevelopment and provides a normative evidence base to better understand development of cognitive dysfunction in brain disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 38:631–643, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27623046

  17. Cognitive control network anatomy correlates with neurocognitive behavior: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Breukelaar, Isabella A; Antees, Cassandra; Grieve, Stuart M; Foster, Sheryl L; Gomes, Lavier; Williams, Leanne M; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive control is the process of employing executive functions, such as attention, planning or working memory, to guide appropriate behaviors in order to achieve a specific goal. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest a superordinate cognitive control network, comprising the dorsal regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and parietal cortex (DPC). How gray matter structure changes across this network throughout neurodevelopment and how these changes impact cognitive control are not yet fully understood. Here we investigate changes in gray matter volume of the key nodes of the cognitive control network using structural MRI scans from 176 participants aged 8-38 years. One hundred and eleven of these also completed a longitudinal follow-up at two years. We compare these with performance on a cognitive battery also measured at these two time points. We found that volume decreases in the cognitive control network were associated with improved performance in executive function (in left DLPFC and bilateral DPC), information processing (in bilateral dACC and right DPC) and emotion identification tasks (left DLPFC). These results were significant after controlling for age. Furthermore, gray matter changes were coordinated across the network. These findings imply age-independent synaptic pruning in the cognitive control network may have a role in improving performance in cognitive domains. This study provides insight into the direct impact of structural changes on behavior within this network during neurodevelopment and provides a normative evidence base to better understand development of cognitive dysfunction in brain disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 38:631-643, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milner, A.R.C.; Harris, J.D.; Lockley, M.G.; Kirkland, J.I.; Matthews, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic (???198 millionyear- old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. Conclusions/Significance: The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  19. Bird-Like Anatomy, Posture, and Behavior Revealed by an Early Jurassic Theropod Dinosaur Resting Trace

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Andrew R. C.; Harris, Jerald D.; Lockley, Martin G.; Kirkland, James I.; Matthews, Neffra A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic (∼198 million-year-old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. Conclusions/Significance The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods. PMID:19259260

  20. Embryonic electrical connections appear to pre-figure a behavioral circuit in the leech CNS.

    PubMed

    Marin-Burgin, Antonia; Eisenhart, F James; Kristan, William B; French, Kathleen A

    2006-02-01

    During development, many embryos show electrical coupling among neurons that is spatially and temporally regulated. For example, in vertebrate embryos extensive dye coupling is seen during the period of circuit formation, suggesting that electrical connections could pre-figure circuits, but it has been difficult to identify which neuronal types are coupled. We have used the leech Hirudo medicinalis to follow the development of electrical connections within the circuit that produces local bending. This circuit consists of three layers of neurons: four mechanosensory neurons (P cells), 17 identified interneurons, and approximately 24 excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons. These neurons can be identified in embryos, and we followed the spatial and temporal dynamics as specific connections developed. Injecting Neurobiotin into identified cells of the circuit revealed that electrical connections were established within this circuit in a precise manner from the beginning. Connections first appeared between motor neurons; mechanosensory neurons and interneurons started to connect at least a day later. This timing correlates with the development of behaviors, so the pattern of emerging connectivity could explain the appearance first of spontaneous behaviors (driven by a electrically coupled motor network) and then of evoked behaviors (when sensory neurons and interneurons are added to the circuit).

  1. Functional anatomy of the limbs of erethizontidae (Rodentia, Caviomorpha): Indicators of locomotor behavior in Miocene porcupines.

    PubMed

    Candela, Adriana M; Picasso, Mariana B J

    2008-05-01

    Functional analysis of the limb bones of the erethizontid Steiromys duplicatus, one of the most abundant Miocene porcupines from Patagonia, provides evidence to infer their locomotor behavior. Remains of the giant Neosteiromys pattoni (Late Miocene of Northeast Argentina) are also analyzed. Osteological and myological features of extant porcupines were evaluated and used as a model to interpret the functional significance of Miocene species' limbs. Several features in erethizontids are compatible with the ability to climb: the low humeral tuberosities indicate a mobile gleno-humeral joint; the prominent and distally extended deltopectoral crest indicates a powerful pectoral muscle, which is particularly active when climbing; the humero-ulnar and humero-radial joints are indicative of pronation-supination movements; the well-developed lateral epicondylar ridge and the medially protruding entepicondyle are in agreement with an important development of the brachioradialis, supinator, flexor digitorum profundus, and pronator teres muscles, acting in climbing and grasping functions; the mechanical advantage of the biceps brachii would be emphasized because of its distal attachment on the bicipital tuberosity. As with extant porcupines, in Miocene species, the large femoral head would have permitted a broad range of abduction of the femur, and the medially protruding lesser trochanter would have emphasized the abduction and outward rotation of the femur by the action of the ilio-psoas complex. In S. duplicatus, the shape of the hip, knee, and cruro-astragalar, calcaneo-astragalar, and astragalo-navicular joints would have allowed lateral and rotational movements, although probably to a lesser degree than in extant porcupines. Foot features of S. duplicatus (e.g., great medial sesamoid bone, medial astragalar head, complete hallux) indicate that this species would have had grasping ability, but would not have achieved the high degree of specialization of Coendou

  2. Facial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery.

  3. Behavior of wet precast beam column connections under progressive collapse scenario: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimse, Rohit B.; Joshi, Digesh D.; Patel, Paresh V.

    2014-12-01

    Progressive collapse denotes a failure of a major portion of a structure that has been initiated by failure of a relatively small part of the structure such as failure of any vertical load carrying element (typically columns). Failure of large part of any structure will results into substantial loss of human lives and natural resources. Therefore, it is important to prevent progressive collapse which is also known as disproportionate collapse. Nowadays, there is an increasing trend toward construction of buildings using precast concrete. In precast concrete construction, all the components of structures are produced in controlled environment and they are being transported to the site. At site such individual components are connected appropriately. Connections are the most critical elements of any precast structure, because in past major collapse of precast structure took place because of connection failure. In this study, behavior of three different 1/3rd scaled wet precast beam column connections under progressive collapse scenario are studied and its performance is compared with monolithic connection. Precast connections are constructed by adopting different connection detailing at the junction by considering reinforced concrete corbel for two specimens and steel billet for one specimen. Performance of specimen is evaluated on the basis of ultimate load carrying capacity, maximum deflection and deflection measured along the span of the beam. From the results, it is observed that load carrying capacity and ductility of precast connections considered in this study are more than that of monolithic connections.

  4. The behavior of dielectric elastomer actuators connected in series and parallel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guorui; Liang, Yiming; Yang, Xuxu; Cheng, Tingyu; Huang, Zhilong; Li, Tiefeng

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer membrane has the ability of shrinking the thickness and expanding surface area when a voltage is applied through its thickness. Dielectric elastomer has been widely studied and used as dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA), dielectric elastomer generator (DEG) and dielectric elastomer sensor (DES). We study the behavior of several DEAs connected in series and parallel, and find that the different connecting models can achieve different responses of the DEAs. DEAs connected in series can enhance the actuation, while DEA connected in parallel can enhance the actuation force. In our experiment, DEAs connected in series and parallel are loaded in actuation direction under a dead load providing pre-stretch. We discuss the results of the experiments and give the conclusions.

  5. Conservation caring: measuring the influence of zoo visitors' connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Skibins, Jeffrey C; Powell, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Zoos in the 21st century are striving to make effective contributions to conservation. Although zoos are extremely popular and host over 600 million visitors worldwide, one challenge zoos face is how to effectively engage visitors and raise awareness and action for conservation. To this end, zoos commonly rely on charismatic megafauna, which have been shown to elicit a connection with zoo visitors. However, little is known about how to measure a connection to a species or how this connection may influence conservation behaviors. This study had two sequential objectives. The first was to develop a scale to measure visitors' connection to a species (Conservation Caring). The second was to investigate the relationship of Conservation Caring to pro-conservation behaviors, following a zoo experience. Pre- (n = 411) and post-visit (n = 452) responses were collected from three sites in order to assess the reliability and validity of a scale to measure Conservation Caring. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between Conservation Caring and pro-conservation behaviors. Conservation Caring was deemed a valid and reliable scale and was a strong predictor of species oriented behaviors (β = 0.62), for example, "adopting" an animal, but a weak predictor for biodiversity oriented behaviors (β = 0.07), for example, supporting sustainability policies. Results support the role zoos can play in fostering a connection to wildlife and stimulating pro-conservation behaviors. Additionally, visitors connected to a wide array of animals. On the basis of these results, zoos may recruit a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships.

  6. Seismic behavior of outrigger truss-wall shear connections using multiple steel angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xian; Wang, Wei; Lü, Henglin; Zhang, Guangchang

    2016-06-01

    An experimental investigation on the seismic behavior of a type of outrigger truss-reinforced concrete wall shear connection using multiple steel angles is presented. Six large-scale shear connection models, which involved a portion of reinforced concrete wall and a shear tab welded onto a steel endplate with three steel angles, were constructed and tested under combined actions of cyclic axial load and eccentric shear. The effects of embedment lengths of steel angles, wall boundary elements, types of anchor plates, and thicknesses of endplates were investigated. The test results indicate that properly detailed connections exhibit desirable seismic behavior and fail due to the ductile fracture of steel angles. Wall boundary elements provide beneficial confinement to the concrete surrounding steel angles and thus increase the strength and stiffness of connections. Connections using whole anchor plates are prone to suffer concrete pry-out failure while connections with thin endplates have a relatively low strength and fail due to large inelastic deformations of the endplates. The current design equations proposed by Chinese Standard 04G362 and Code GB50011 significantly underestimate the capacities of the connection models. A revised design method to account for the influence of previously mentioned test parameters was developed.

  7. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals.

  8. The Effects of Check, Connect, and Expect on Behavioral and Academic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Houchins, David E.; Robinson, Cecil

    2016-01-01

    "Check, Connect, and Expect" (CCE) is a secondary tier behavioral intervention that provides students with levels of support including a dedicated "coach" for check-in and check-out procedures, and social skills instruction. Elementary students (n = 22) in an alternative education school setting received CCE for 13 weeks…

  9. Effects of Check and Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the effects of Check & Connect (C&C) on the attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes of at-risk youth in a field-based effectiveness trial. Method: A multisite randomized block design was used, wherein 260 primarily Hispanic (89%) and economically disadvantaged (74%) students were randomized to treatment…

  10. Effects of Check & Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of Check & Connect (C&C) in a randomly assigned sample of students who were all receiving Communities in Schools (CIS) services. The research questions for the study include: Are there differences in attendance, academics, and behavior for CIS students who also receive C&C compared to…

  11. Alcohol Affects Brain Functional Connectivity and its Coupling with Behavior: Greater Effects in Male Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Tomasi, Dardo; Wiers, Corinde E.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior. Heavy drinkers (HD; N=16; 16 males) and normal controls (NM; N=24; 14 males) were tested after placebo and after acute alcohol administration. Group comparisons showed that NM had higher FCD in visual and prefrontal cortices, default-mode network regions, and thalamus, while HD had higher FCD in cerebellum. Acute alcohol significantly increased FCD within the thalamus, impaired cognitive and motor functions, and affected self-reports of mood/drug effects in both groups. Partial least squares regression showed alcohol-induced changes in mood/drug effects were associated with changes in thalamic FCD in both groups. Disruptions in motor function were associated with increases in cerebellar FCD in NM and thalamus FCD in HD. Alcohol-induced declines in cognitive performance were associated with connectivity increases in visual cortex and thalamus in NM, but in HD, increases in precuneus FCD were associated with improved cognitive performance. Acute alcohol reduced “neurocognitive coupling”, the association between behavioral performance and FCD (indexing brain activity), an effect that was accentuated in HD compared to NM. Findings suggest that reduced cortical connectivity in HD contribute to decline in cognitive abilities associated with heavy alcohol consumption, whereas increased cerebellar connectivity in HD may have compensatory effects on behavioral performance. The results reveal how drinking history alters the association between brain functional connectivity density and individual differences in behavioral performance. PMID:27021821

  12. ClueConnect: a word array game to promote student comprehension of key terminology in an introductory anatomy and physiology course.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Kathryn M; Olimpo, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    The sheer amount of terminology and conceptual knowledge required for anatomy and physiology can be overwhelming for students. Educational games are one approach to reinforce such knowledge. In this activity, students worked collaboratively to review anatomy and physiology concepts by creating arrays of descriptive tiles to define a term. Once guessed, students located the structure or process within diagrams of the body. The game challenged students to think about course vocabulary in novel ways and to use their collective knowledge to get their classmates to guess the terms. Comparison of pretest/posttest/delayed posttest data revealed that students achieved statistically significant learning gains for each unit after playing the game, and a survey of student perceptions demonstrated that the game was helpful for learning vocabulary as well as fun to play. The game is easily adaptable for a variety of lower- and upper-division courses.

  13. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... carotid artery. It may also form along nerve pathways in the head and neck and in other parts of the body. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Nervous System Type: Color, Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute Creator: Terese Winslow (Illustrator) AV Number: CDR739011 ...

  14. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... español An Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The Heart Valves The Heartbeat Vasculature of the Arm Vasculature of the Head Vasculature of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso ...

  15. Altered functional Connectivity in Lesional Peduncular Hallucinosis with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, Maiya R.; Tie, Yanmei; Gabrieli, John D. E.; McGinnis, Scott M.; Golby, Alexandra J.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem lesions causing peduncular hallucinosis (PH) produce vivid visual hallucinations occasionally accompanied by sleep disorders. Overlapping brainstem regions modulate visual pathways and REM sleep functions via gating of thalamocortical networks. A 66-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed abrupt-onset complex visual hallucinations with preserved insight and violent dream enactment behavior. Brain MRI showed restricted diffusion in the left rostrodorsal pons suggestive of an acute ischemic infarct. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was diagnosed on polysomnography. We investigated the integrity of ponto-geniculate-occipital circuits with seed-based resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in this patient compared to 46 controls. Rs-fcMRI revealed significantly reduced functional connectivity between the lesion and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN), and between LGN and visual association cortex compared to controls. Conversely, functional connectivity between brainstem and visual association cortex, and between visual association cortex and PFC was significantly increased in the patient. Focal damage to the left rostrodorsal pons is sufficient to cause RBD and PH in humans, suggesting an overlapping mechanism in both syndromes. This lesion produced a pattern of altered functional connectivity consistent with disrupted visual cortex connectivity via de-afferentation of thalamocortical pathways. PMID:26656284

  16. Anatomy of female continence.

    PubMed

    Sampselle, C M; DeLancey, J O

    1998-03-01

    Various muscle, connective tissue, and neurologic structures within the pelvic floor play critical roles in the maintenance of both urinary and fecal continence. Recent advances in technology, combined with greater precision during anatomic study, have expanded our understanding of the role played by the pelvic floor in maintaining continence. The goal of this article is to summarize recent research on female pelvic anatomy, with a particular emphasis on the evidence base related to urinary incontinence. The content is organized to accomplish three aims: (1) identify, within the context of pelvic floor anatomy, the structures that comprise the urinary continence system, (2) Describe the functional dynamics of urinary continence, including factors in resting urethral pressure and pressure transmission, and (3) Present the rationale, technique, and interpretation of various methods of measuring pelvic floor function.

  17. The behavior of enclosed-type connection of drill pipes during percussive drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrina, A.; Saruev, L.

    2015-11-01

    Percussion drilling is the efficient method to drill small holes (≥ 70 mm) in medium- hard and harder rocks. The existing types of drill strings for geological explorations are not intended for strain wave energy transfer. The description of the improved design of the drill string having enclosed-type nipple connections is given in this paper presents. This nipple connection is designed to be used in drilling small exploration wells with formation sampling. Experimental findings prove the effectiveness of the enclosed nipple connection in relation to the load distribution in operation. The paper presents research results of the connection behavior under quasistatic loading (compression-tension). Loop diagrams are constructed and analyzed in force-displacement coordinates. Research results are obtained for shear stresses occurred in the nipple connection. A mechanism of shear stress distribution is described for the wave strain propagation over the connecting element. It is shown that in the course of operation the drill pipe tightening reduces the shear stress three times.

  18. Alcohol affects brain functional connectivity and its coupling with behavior: greater effects in male heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Shokri-Kojori, E; Tomasi, D; Wiers, C E; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-03-29

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior. Heavy drinkers (HD, N=16, 16 males) and normal controls (NM, N=24, 14 males) were tested after placebo and after acute alcohol administration. Group comparisons showed that NM had higher FCD in visual and prefrontal cortices, default mode network regions and thalamus, while HD had higher FCD in cerebellum. Acute alcohol significantly increased FCD within the thalamus, impaired cognitive and motor functions, and affected self-reports of mood/drug effects in both groups. Partial least squares regression showed that alcohol-induced changes in mood/drug effects were associated with changes in thalamic FCD in both groups. Disruptions in motor function were associated with increases in cerebellar FCD in NM and thalamus FCD in HD. Alcohol-induced declines in cognitive performance were associated with connectivity increases in visual cortex and thalamus in NM, but in HD, increases in precuneus FCD were associated with improved cognitive performance. Acute alcohol reduced 'neurocognitive coupling', the association between behavioral performance and FCD (indexing brain activity), an effect that was accentuated in HD compared with NM. Findings suggest that reduced cortical connectivity in HD contribute to decline in cognitive abilities associated with heavy alcohol consumption, whereas increased cerebellar connectivity in HD may have compensatory effects on behavioral performance. The results reveal how drinking history alters the association between brain FCD and individual differences in behavioral performance.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 29 March 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.25.

  19. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  20. A Gross Anatomy Ontology for Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Matthew J.; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information—millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes—remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  1. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2010-12-29

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  2. Asymptotic behavior of connecting-nearest-neighbor models for growing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juher, David; Saldaña, Joan; Soler, Jaume

    2006-02-01

    This paper deals with the mathematical description of the asymptotic behavior of the solutions of a couple of models for the dynamics of growing networks based on connecting, with a higher probability, nodes that have a neighbor in common. The first model, proposed by A. Vázquez, is nonlinear and, in general, the long-time behavior of the solutions differs from the one predicted by the linear reduction proposed in its original treatment. A second model is specifically derived from the rules defining an in silico model also proposed by Vázquez to simulate the growth of a network under the mechanism of connecting nearest neighbors. The two analytical models lead to very different predictions for the configuration of the network that are tested using the simulations of the in silico model.

  3. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  4. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  5. Connecting a Connectome to Behavior: An Ensemble of Neuroanatomical Models of C. elegans Klinotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Eduardo J.; Beer, Randall D.

    2013-01-01

    Increased efforts in the assembly and analysis of connectome data are providing new insights into the principles underlying the connectivity of neural circuits. However, despite these considerable advances in connectomics, neuroanatomical data must be integrated with neurophysiological and behavioral data in order to obtain a complete picture of neural function. Due to its nearly complete wiring diagram and large behavioral repertoire, the nematode worm Caenorhaditis elegans is an ideal organism in which to explore in detail this link between neural connectivity and behavior. In this paper, we develop a neuroanatomically-grounded model of salt klinotaxis, a form of chemotaxis in which changes in orientation are directed towards the source through gradual continual adjustments. We identify a minimal klinotaxis circuit by systematically searching the C. elegans connectome for pathways linking chemosensory neurons to neck motor neurons, and prune the resulting network based on both experimental considerations and several simplifying assumptions. We then use an evolutionary algorithm to find possible values for the unknown electrophsyiological parameters in the network such that the behavioral performance of the entire model is optimized to match that of the animal. Multiple runs of the evolutionary algorithm produce an ensemble of such models. We analyze in some detail the mechanisms by which one of the best evolved circuits operates and characterize the similarities and differences between this mechanism and other solutions in the ensemble. Finally, we propose a series of experiments to determine which of these alternatives the worm may be using. PMID:23408877

  6. Endogenous Testosterone Modulates Prefrontal–Amygdala Connectivity during Social Emotional Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Toni, Ivan; Verhagen, Lennart; Roelofs, Karin

    2011-01-01

    It is clear that the steroid hormone testosterone plays an important role in the regulation of social emotional behavior, but it remains unknown which neural circuits mediate these hormonal influences in humans. We investigated the modulatory effects of endogenous testosterone on the control of social emotional behavior by applying functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy male participants performed a social approach–avoidance task. This task operationalized social emotional behavior by having participants approach and avoid emotional faces by pulling and pushing a joystick, respectively. Affect-congruent trials mapped the automatic tendency to approach happy faces and avoid angry faces. Affect-incongruent trials required participants to override those automatic action tendencies and select the opposite response (approach-angry, avoid-happy). The social emotional control required by affect-incongruent responses resulted in longer reaction times (RTs) and increased activity at the border of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and frontal pole (VLPFC/FP). We show that endogenous testosterone modulates these cerebral congruency effects through 2 mechanisms. First, participants with lower testosterone levels generate larger VLPFC/FP responses during affect-incongruent trials. Second, during the same trials, endogenous testosterone modulates the effective connectivity between the VLPFC/FP and the amygdala. These results indicate that endogenous testosterone influences local prefrontal activity and interregional connectivity supporting the control of social emotional behavior. PMID:21339377

  7. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  8. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  9. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  10. Unexpected role of interferon-γ in regulating neuronal connectivity and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Filiano, Anthony J.; Xu, Yang; Tustison, Nicholas J.; Marsh, Rachel L.; Baker, Wendy; Smirnov, Igor; Overall, Christopher C.; Gadani, Sachin P.; Turner, Stephen D.; Weng, Zhiping; Peerzade, Sayeda Najamussahar; Chen, Hao; Lee, Kevin S.; Scott, Michael M.; Beenhakker, Mark P.; Litvak, Vladimir; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Immune dysfunction is commonly associated with several neurological and mental disorders. Although the mechanisms by which peripheral immunity may influence neuronal function are largely unknown, recent findings implicate meningeal immunity influencing behavior, such as spatial learning and memory1. Here we show that meningeal immunity is also critical for social behavior; mice deficient in adaptive immunity exhibit social deficits and hyper-connectivity of fronto-cortical brain regions. Associations between rodent transcriptomes from brain and cellular transcriptomes in response to T cell–derived cytokines suggest a strong interaction between social behavior and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) driven responses. Concordantly, we demonstrate that inhibitory neurons respond to IFN-γ and increase GABAergic currents in projection neurons, suggesting that IFN-γ is a molecular link between meningeal immunity and neural circuits recruited for social behavior. Meta-analysis on the transcriptomes of a range of organisms revealed that rodents, fish, and flies elevate IFN-γ/JAK-STAT–dependent gene signatures in a social context, suggesting that the IFN-γ signaling pathway could mediate a co-evolutionary link between social/aggregation behavior and an efficient anti-pathogen response. This study implicates adaptive immune dysfunction, in particular IFN-γ, in disorders characterized by social dysfunction and suggests a co-evolutionary link between social behavior and an anti-pathogen immune response driven by IFN-γ signaling. PMID:27409813

  11. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  12. Structural Connectivity Variances Underlie Functional and Behavioral Changes During Pain Relief Induced by Neuromodulation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Richard L.; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Filippini, Nicola; Okell, Thomas W.; Stagg, Charlotte J.; Tracey, Irene

    2017-01-01

    An increased understanding of the relationship between structural connections and functional and behavioral outcomes is an essential but under-explored topic in neuroscience. During transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)–induced analgesia, neuromodulation occurs through a top-down process that depends on inter-regional connections. To investigate whether variation in anatomical connectivity explains functional and behavorial outcomes during neuromodulation, we first combined tDCS and a tonic pain model with concurrent arterial spin labelling that measures cerebral perfusion related to ongoing neural activity. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) tDCS induced an analgesic effect, which was explained by reduced perfusion to posterior insula and thalamus. Second, we used diffusion imaging to assess white matter structural integrity between L-DLPFC and thalamus, two key components of the neuromodulatory network. Fractional anisotropy of this tract correlated positively with functional and behavioral modulations. This suggests structural dependence by the neuromodulatory process to induce analgesia with potential relevance for patient stratification. PMID:28148969

  13. The effects of hemodynamic lag on functional connectivity and behavior after stroke.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Joshua S; Snyder, Abraham Z; Ramsey, Lenny; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Stroke disrupts the brain's vascular supply, not only within but also outside areas of infarction. We investigated temporal delays (lag) in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in 130 stroke patients scanned two weeks, three months and 12 months post stroke onset. Thirty controls were scanned twice at an interval of three months. Hemodynamic lag was determined using cross-correlation with the global gray matter signal. Behavioral performance in multiple domains was assessed in all patients. Regional cerebral blood flow and carotid patency were assessed in subsets of the cohort using arterial spin labeling and carotid Doppler ultrasonography. Significant hemodynamic lag was observed in 30% of stroke patients sub-acutely. Approximately 10% of patients showed lag at one-year post-stroke. Hemodynamic lag corresponded to gross aberrancy in functional connectivity measures, performance deficits in multiple domains and local and global perfusion deficits. Correcting for lag partially normalized abnormalities in measured functional connectivity. Yet post-stroke FC-behavior relationships in the motor and attention systems persisted even after hemodynamic delays were corrected. Resting state fMRI can reliably identify areas of hemodynamic delay following stroke. Our data reveal that hemodynamic delay is common sub-acutely, alters functional connectivity, and may be of clinical importance.

  14. Meta-analytic connectivity and behavioral parcellation of the human cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Michael C; Ray, Kimberly L; Dick, Anthony S; Sutherland, Matthew T; Hernandez, Zachary; Fox, P Mickle; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R

    2015-08-15

    The cerebellum historically has been thought to mediate motor and sensory signals between the body and cerebral cortex, yet cerebellar lesions are also associated with altered cognitive behavioral performance. Neuroimaging evidence indicates that the cerebellum contributes to a wide range of cognitive, perceptual, and motor functions. Here, we used the BrainMap database to investigate whole-brainco-activation patterns between cerebellar structures and regions of the cerebral cortex, as well as associations with behavioral tasks. Hierarchical clustering was performed to meta-analytically identify cerebellar structures with similar cortical co-activation, and independently, with similar correlations to specific behavioral tasks. Strong correspondences were observed in these separate but parallel analyses of meta-analytic connectivity and behavioral metadata. We recovered differential zones of cerebellar co-activation that are reflected across the literature. Furthermore, the behaviors and tasks associated with the different cerebellar zones provide insight into the specialized function of the cerebellum, relating to high-order cognition, emotion, perception, interoception, and action. Taken together, these task-basedmeta-analytic results implicate distinct zones of the cerebellum as critically involved in the monitoring and mediation of psychological responses to internal and external stimuli.

  15. Disruptions of network connectivity predict impairment in multiple behavioral domains after stroke.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Joshua Sarfaty; Ramsey, Lenny E; Snyder, Abraham Z; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Chacko, Ravi V; Weinberger, Kilian; Baldassarre, Antonello; Hacker, Carl D; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2016-07-26

    Deficits following stroke are classically attributed to focal damage, but recent evidence suggests a key role of distributed brain network disruption. We measured resting functional connectivity (FC), lesion topography, and behavior in multiple domains (attention, visual memory, verbal memory, language, motor, and visual) in a cohort of 132 stroke patients, and used machine-learning models to predict neurological impairment in individual subjects. We found that visual memory and verbal memory were better predicted by FC, whereas visual and motor impairments were better predicted by lesion topography. Attention and language deficits were well predicted by both. Next, we identified a general pattern of physiological network dysfunction consisting of decrease of interhemispheric integration and intrahemispheric segregation, which strongly related to behavioral impairment in multiple domains. Network-specific patterns of dysfunction predicted specific behavioral deficits, and loss of interhemispheric communication across a set of regions was associated with impairment across multiple behavioral domains. These results link key organizational features of brain networks to brain-behavior relationships in stroke.

  16. Disruptions of network connectivity predict impairment in multiple behavioral domains after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Lenny E.; Metcalf, Nicholas V.; Chacko, Ravi V.; Weinberger, Kilian; Baldassarre, Antonello; Hacker, Carl D.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Deficits following stroke are classically attributed to focal damage, but recent evidence suggests a key role of distributed brain network disruption. We measured resting functional connectivity (FC), lesion topography, and behavior in multiple domains (attention, visual memory, verbal memory, language, motor, and visual) in a cohort of 132 stroke patients, and used machine-learning models to predict neurological impairment in individual subjects. We found that visual memory and verbal memory were better predicted by FC, whereas visual and motor impairments were better predicted by lesion topography. Attention and language deficits were well predicted by both. Next, we identified a general pattern of physiological network dysfunction consisting of decrease of interhemispheric integration and intrahemispheric segregation, which strongly related to behavioral impairment in multiple domains. Network-specific patterns of dysfunction predicted specific behavioral deficits, and loss of interhemispheric communication across a set of regions was associated with impairment across multiple behavioral domains. These results link key organizational features of brain networks to brain–behavior relationships in stroke. PMID:27402738

  17. Immune–neural connections: how the immune system’s response to infectious agents influences behavior

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, Robert H.; Kelley, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Humans and animals use the classical five senses of sight, sound, touch, smell and taste to monitor their environment. The very survival of feral animals depends on these sensory perception systems, which is a central theme in scholarly research on comparative aspects of anatomy and physiology. But how do all of us sense and respond to an infection? We cannot see, hear, feel, smell or taste bacterial and viral pathogens, but humans and animals alike are fully aware of symptoms of sickness that are caused by these microbes. Pain, fatigue, altered sleep pattern, anorexia and fever are common symptoms in both sick animals and humans. Many of these physiological changes represent adaptive responses that are considered to promote animal survival, and this constellation of events results in sickness behavior. Infectious agents display a variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These PRR are expressed on both the surface [e.g. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4] and in the cytoplasm [e.g. nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod)-like receptors] of cells of the innate immune system, primarily macrophages and dendritic cells. These cells initiate and propagate an inflammatory response by stimulating the synthesis and release of a variety of cytokines. Once an infection has occurred in the periphery, both cytokines and bacterial toxins deliver this information to the brain using both humoral and neuronal routes of communication. For example, binding of PRR can lead to activation of the afferent vagus nerve, which communicates neuronal signals via the lower brain stem (nucleus tractus solitarius) to higher brain centers such as the hypothalamus and amygdala. Blood-borne cytokines initiate a cytokine response from vascular endothelial cells that form the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Cytokines can also reach the brain directly by leakage through the BBB via circumventricular organs or by being

  18. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  19. [Forbidden anatomy].

    PubMed

    Holck, Per

    2004-12-16

    Since centuries anatomists have used any course of action in order to get hold of material for dissections, and at the same time avoid prosecution for grave robbery, at times the only way to get hold of cadavers. Stealing newly dead people from the churchyards and offering them for sale to anatomical institutions was not uncommon in the 19th century. "Resurrectionists"--as these thieves were called, as they made the dead "alive"--were seen as necessary for the teaching of anatomy in Victorian Britain. In the 1820s a scandal was revealed in Scotland, when it was discovered that some people even committed murder to make money from supplying anatomists with human cadavers. Two men, William Burke and William Hare, became particularly notorious because of their "business" with the celebrated anatomist Robert Knox in Edinburgh.

  20. Use of Individual Feedback during Human Gross Anatomy Course for Enhancing Professional Behaviors in Doctor of Physical Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youdas, James W.; Krause, David A.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Rindflesch, Aaron B.; Hollman, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy…

  1. Craving behavioral intervention for internet gaming disorder: remediation of functional connectivity of the ventral striatum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2016-11-28

    Psychobehavioral intervention is an effective treatment of Internet addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying its efficacy remain unclear. Cortical-ventral striatum (VS) circuitry is a common target of psychobehavioral interventions in drug addiction, and cortical-VS dysfunction has been reported in IGD; hence, the primary aim of the study was to investigate how the VS circuitry responds to psychobehavioral interventions in IGD. In a cross-sectional study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity of the VS in 74 IGD subjects (IGDs) and 41 healthy controls (HCs). In a follow-up craving behavioral intervention (CBI) study, of the 74 IGD subjects, 20 IGD subjects received CBI (CBI+) and 16 IGD subjects did not (CBI-). All participants were scanned twice with similar time interval to assess the effects of CBI. IGD subjects showed greater resting-state functional connectivity of the VS to left inferior parietal lobule (lIPL), right inferior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus, in positive association with the severity of IGD. Moreover, compared with CBI-, CBI+ showed significantly greater decrease in VS-lIPL connectivity, along with amelioration in addiction severity following the intervention. These findings demonstrated that functional connectivity between VS and lIPL, each presumably mediating gaming craving and attentional bias, may be a potential biomarker of the efficacy of psychobehavioral intervention. These results also suggested that non-invasive techniques such as transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation targeting the VS-IPL circuitry may be used in the treatment of Internet gaming disorders.

  2. Nail anatomy.

    PubMed

    de Berker, David

    2013-01-01

    The nail unit comprises the nail plate, the surrounding soft tissues, and their vasculature and innervation based upon the distal phalanx. The nail plate is a laminated keratinized structure lying on the nail matrix (15-25%), the nail bed with its distal onychodermal band (75-85%), and the hyponychium at its free edge. The distal part of the matrix, the lunula characterized by its half-moon shape, can be observed in some digits. The nail plate is embedded by the proximal and lateral folds. From the proximal nail fold, the cuticle (also known as the eponychium), adheres to the superficial surface of the proximal nail plate. The nail unit possesses a complex and abundant vascular network to ensure adequate blood supply. Finally, both the periungual soft tissues and the nail folds are innervated. The shapes, structure, and inter-relationships of these tissues are factors in the way nails present with disease and how we understand and manage those diseases. In particular, an understanding of the surgical anatomy is important for those undertaking diagnostic or curative operations on the nail. With this knowledge, the most appropriate surgery can be planned and the patient can be provided with accurate and clear guidance to enable informed consent.

  3. Effects of neonatal and peripubertal ethanol treatment on various aspects of adult rat behavior and brain anatomy.

    PubMed

    Röskam, Stephan; Koch, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Exposure to ethanol during critical stages of brain development and maturation has adverse effects on behavioral and cognitive functions. So far, most animal models focused on the effects of either pre- or early postnatal ethanol treatment on behavior. We here used a multiple crossover design to investigate the effects of neonatal (postnatal day 7) ethanol treatment (2.5 g/kg b.i.d., dissolved in saline), subchronic peripubertal (postnatal days 40-65) ethanol treatment (1.0 g/kg, dissolved in saline) and the combination of both on the performance of adult Wistar rats in a variety of behavioral tasks. We also assessed anatomical changes in limbic and cortical brain areas. No effects of either single or combined neonatal and pubertal ethanol treatment was found on prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI, a measure of sensorimotor gating), or on the acoustic startle response in the absence of prepulses. Peripubertal ethanol treatment reduced the explorative behavior in the open field. The breakpoint in a progressive ratio operant response task was increased in those rats that had received both neonatal and pubertal ethanol treatment, while the preference for palatable food used as reinforcer in this task was not affected. No treatment effects were found on object recognition memory. No treatment effects on anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze were found, however, the anxiolytic effect of the prototypical benzodiazepine diazepam was enhanced in rats that had received peripubertal ethanol treatment. Additive effects of neonatal and pubertal ethanol treatments were found on behaviors related to spontaneous locomotor activity. Combined neonatal and pubertal ethanol treatment lead to a reduction of myelin sheaths in the prefrontal cortex, and the neonatal ethanol treatment lead to a reduced number of parvalbumine-immunoreactive cells in the dorsal hippocampus. These findings suggest that neonatal ethanol exposure increases the risk of some but not all adverse

  4. Differences in electrosensory anatomy and social behavior in an area of sympatry between two species of mormyrid electric fishes.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Sensory systems play a key role in social behavior by mediating the detection and analysis of communication signals. In mormyrid fishes, electric signals are processed within a dedicated sensory pathway, providing a unique opportunity to relate sensory biology to social behavior. Evolutionary changes within this pathway led to new perceptual abilities that have been linked to increased rates of signal evolution and species diversification in a lineage called 'clade A'. Previous field observations suggest that clade-A species tend to be solitary and territorial, whereas non-clade-A species tend to be clustered in high densities suggestive of schooling or shoaling. To explore behavioral differences between species in these lineages in greater detail, I studied population densities, social interactions, and electric signaling in two mormyrid species, Gnathonemus victoriae (clade A) and Petrocephalus degeni (non-clade A), from Lwamunda Swamp, Uganda. Petrocephalus degeni was found at higher population densities, but intraspecific diversity in electric signal waveform was greater in G. victoriae. In the laboratory, G. victoriae exhibited strong shelter-seeking behavior and competition for shelter, whereas P. degeni were more likely to abandon shelter in the presence of conspecifics as well as electric mimics of signaling conspecifics. In other words, P. degeni exhibited social affiliation whereas G. victoriae exhibited social competition. Further, P. degeni showed correlated electric signaling behavior whereas G. victoriae showed anti-correlated signaling behavior. These findings extend previous reports of social spacing, territoriality, and habitat preference among mormyrid species, suggesting that evolutionary divergence in electrosensory processing relates to differences in social behavior.

  5. The evolution of science literacy: Examining intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocchi-Verrino, Carol J.

    A call for a new perspective of science literacy has been marked as the impetus of change in science education, suggesting that a meaning-making approach to literacy and inquiry are central to learning science. This research study explored how science literacy evolved in a classroom where this reconceptualized view of science literacy guided curriculum design and instruction. The teacher/researcher incorporated Interactive Science Notebooks (ISNs) and Interactive Reading Organizers and Comprehension Strategies (IROCS) into instructional materials. In a class consisting of 20 mainstream and special education students, this 7-week study collected data using Likert scales, stimulated recall interviews, a teacher/researcher journal, and students¡¦ position papers. A systematic design framework was used for the three-phase analysis. Hyperresearch RTM software facilitated the identification of open codes, an axial code, and frequency graphs. In order to develop insight into the relationship between questions, methods, and curriculum design recent recommendations for quality research in science education were considered in the methodology. The hypothesis formulated from the data suggests that science literacy evolves on a continuum, and the degree to which science literacy evolves on the continuum seems to be contingent upon their uses of intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors. Several notable insights emerged from the data which were used to guide curriculum, instruction, and assessment that promotes the development of science literacy in the middle school classroom. The study suggests a possible correlation between the use of intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors, and the use of a continuum in measuring the emergence of science literacy.

  6. Investigating connections between local-remote atmospheric variability and Greenland outlet glacier behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Chen, Linling; Miles, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    The outlet glaciers along the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) exhibit a range of behaviors, which are crucial for understanding GrIS mass changes from a dynamical point of view. However, the drivers of this behavior are still poorly understood. Arguments (counter-arguments) have been made for a strong (weak) local oceanic influence on marine terminating outlet glaciers while decadal-scale drivers linked to fluctuations in the Ice sheet itself and the North Atlantic ocean (e.g. Atlantic Multidecadal Variability) have also been posited as drivers. Recently there have also been studies linking (e.g. seasonal to interannual) atmospheric variability, synoptic activity and the Ice Sheet variability. But these studies typically investigate atmospheric links to the large-scale behavior of the Ice Sheet itself and do not go down to the scale of the outlet glaciers. Conversely, investigations of the outlet glaciers often do not include potential links to non-local atmospheric dynamics. Here the authors attempt to bridge the gap and investigate the relationship between atmospheric variability across a range of scales and the behavior of three outlet glaciers on Greenland's southeast coast over a 33-year period (1980-2012). The glaciers - Helheim, Midgard and Fenris - are near Tasiilaq, are marine terminating and exhibit varying degree of connection to the GrIS. ERA-Interim reanalysis, sea-ice data and glacier observations are used for the investigation. Long records of mass balance are unavailable for these glaciers and front position is employed as a measure of glacier atmosphere interactions across multiple scales, as it exhibits robust relationships to atmospheric variability on time scales of seasons to many years, with the strongest relationships seen at seasonal - interannual time scales. The authors do not make the argument that front position is a suitable proxy for mass balance, only that it is indicative of the role of local and remote atmospheric

  7. Adolescent Alcohol Use in Spain: Connections with Friends, School, and Other Delinquent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D.; Sánchez-SanSegundo, Miriam; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia; Perrin, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and variables reflecting adolescents’ academic problems, potentially delinquent behaviors, friends’ alcohol consumption, and friendship quality. Information about alcohol use and a number of school and social variables was collected from adolescent students (N = 567) who completed the National Students School-Based Drug Survey in a classroom setting. Results suggested that gender was not significantly associated with alcohol use, although alcohol use increased with age and was more likely for adolescents enrolled in public schools compared to private. After controlling for age and type of school (public vs. private), academic problems explained 5.1% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use, potentially delinquent behaviors explained 29.0%, friends’ alcohol use 16.8%, and friendship quality 1.6%. When all unique predictors from these four models were included in a comprehensive model, they explained 32.3% of the variance in adolescents’ alcohol use. In this final model, getting expelled, participating in a fight, going out at night, the hour at which one returns, and the number of friends who have consumed alcohol were uniquely and positively associated with adolescents’ alcohol use. These results provide important information about multi-system influences on adolescent alcohol use in Alicante, Spain and suggest potential areas of focus for intervention research. PMID:26973567

  8. Anatomy of the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of ...

  9. Conflict-related anterior cingulate functional connectivity is associated with past suicidal ideation and behavior in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Yoon, Jong H; Cheng, Yaoan; Rhoades, Remy; Carter, Cameron S

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is highly prevalent in schizophrenia (SZ), yet it remains unclear how suicide risk factors such as past suicidal ideation or behavior relate to brain function. Circuits modulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are altered in SZ, including in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during conflict-monitoring (an important component of cognitive control), and dACC changes are observed in post-mortem studies of heterogeneous suicide victims. We tested whether conflict-related dACC functional connectivity is associated with past suicidal ideation and behavior in SZ. 32 patients with recent-onset of DSM-IV-TR-defined SZ were evaluated with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale and functional MRI during cognitive control (AX-CPT) task performance. Group-level regression models relating past history of suicidal ideation or behavior to dACC-seeded functional connectivity during conflict-monitoring controlled for severity of depression, psychosis and impulsivity. Past suicidal ideation was associated with relatively higher functional connectivity of the dACC with the precuneus during conflict-monitoring. Intensity of worst-point past suicidal ideation was associated with relatively higher dACC functional connectivity in medial parietal lobe and striato-thalamic nuclei. In contrast, among those with past suicidal ideation (n = 17), past suicidal behavior was associated with lower conflict-related dACC connectivity with multiple lateral and medial PFC regions, parietal and temporal cortical regions. This study provides unique evidence that recent-onset schizophrenia patients with past suicidal ideation or behavior show altered dACC-based circuit function during conflict-monitoring. Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior have divergent patterns of associated dACC functional connectivity, suggesting a differing pattern of conflict-related brain dysfunction with these two distinct features of suicide phenomenology.

  10. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kenneth S

    2009-11-01

    Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, which are the mostly likely source of the passive component, become at most approximately 30% stiffer in saturating Ca2+ solutions. The work described in this manuscript used computer modeling to test an alternative systems theory that attributes the stretch response of a mammalian fiber to the composite behavior of a collection of half-sarcomeres. The principal finding was that the stretch response of a chemically permeabilized rabbit psoas fiber could be reproduced with a framework consisting of 300 half-sarcomeres arranged in 6 parallel myofibrils without requiring titin filaments to stiffen in activating solutions. Ablation of inter-myofibrillar links in the computer simulations lowered isometric force values and lowered energy absorption during a stretch. This computed behavior mimics effects previously observed in experiments using muscles from desmin-deficient mice in which the connections between Z-disks in adjacent myofibrils are presumably compromised. The current simulations suggest that muscle fibers exhibit emergent properties that reflect interactions between half-sarcomeres and are not properties of a single half-sarcomere in isolation. It is therefore likely that full quantitative understanding of a fiber's mechanical properties requires detailed analysis of a complete fiber system and cannot be achieved by focusing solely on the properties of a single half-sarcomere.

  11. The ConNECT Framework: a model for advancing behavioral medicine science and practice to foster health equity.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Sly, Jamilia; Ashing, Kimlin; Fleisher, Linda; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Ford, Sabrina; Yi, Jean C; Lu, Qian; Meade, Cathy D; Menon, Usha; Gwede, Clement K

    2017-02-01

    Health disparities persist despite ongoing efforts. Given the United States' rapidly changing demography and socio-cultural diversity, a paradigm shift in behavioral medicine is needed to advance research and interventions focused on health equity. This paper introduces the ConNECT Framework as a model to link the sciences of behavioral medicine and health equity with the goal of achieving equitable health and outcomes in the twenty-first century. We first evaluate the state of health equity efforts in behavioral medicine science and identify key opportunities to advance the field. We then discuss and present actionable recommendations related to ConNECT's five broad and synergistic principles: (1) Integrating Context; (2) Fostering a Norm of Inclusion; (3) Ensuring Equitable Diffusion of Innovations; (4) Harnessing Communication Technology; and (5) Prioritizing Specialized Training. The framework holds significant promise for furthering health equity and ushering in a new and refreshing era of behavioral medicine science and practice.

  12. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  13. The Breadth of Peer Relationships among Preschoolers: An Application of the Q-Connectivity Method to Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanish, Laura D.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.; Barcelo, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Preschoolers' (M[subscript age]=48.7 months) social breadth (the number of peer children interact with and the frequency of these interactions) and the relations between breadth and externalizing behaviors were examined using the Q-connectivity method. After considering age, sex, and classroom effects on social breadth, children's externalizing…

  14. Structural and functional connectivity in healthy aging: Associations for cognition and motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Hirsiger, Sarah; Koppelmans, Vincent; Mérillat, Susan; Liem, Franziskus; Erdeniz, Burak; Seidler, Rachael D; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-03-01

    Age-related behavioral declines may be the result of deterioration of white matter tracts, affecting brain structural (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) during resting state. To date, it is not clear if the combination of SC and FC data could better predict cognitive/motor performance than each measure separately. We probed these relationships in the cingulum bundle, a major white matter pathway of the default mode network. We aimed to attain deeper knowledge about: (a) the relationship between age and the cingulum's SC and FC strength, (b) the association between SC and FC, and particularly (c) how the cingulum's SC and FC are related to cognitive/motor performance separately and combined. We examined these associations in a healthy and well-educated sample of 165 older participants (aged 64-85). SC and FC were acquired using probabilistic tractography to derive measures to capture white matter integrity within the cingulum bundle (fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity) and a seed-based resting-state functional MRI correlation approach, respectively. Participants performed cognitive tests measuring processing speed, memory and executive functions, and motor tests measuring motor speed and grip force. Our data revealed that only SC but not resting state FC was significantly associated with age. Further, the cingulum's SC and FC showed no relation. Different relationships between cognitive/motor performance and SC/FC separately were found, but no additive effect of the combined analysis of cingulum's SC and FC for predicting cognitive/motor performance was apparent.

  15. The complex relationship between personal sense of connection to animals and self-reported proenvironmental behaviors by zoo visitors.

    PubMed

    Grajal, Alejandro; Luebke, Jerry F; Kelly, Lisa-Anne DeGregoria; Matiasek, Jennifer; Clayton, Susan; Karazsia, Bryan T; Saunders, Carol D; Goldman, Susan R; Mann, Michael E; Stanoss, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    The global biodiversity crisis requires an engaged citizenry that provides collective support for public policies and recognizes the consequences of personal consumption decisions. Understanding the factors that affect personal engagement in proenvironmental behaviors is essential for the development of actionable conservation solutions. Zoos and aquariums may be some of the only places where many people can explore their relations with wild animals and proenvironmental behaviors. Using a moderated-mediation analysis of a survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium visitors (n = 3588), we explored the relationship between the sense of connection to animals and self-reported engagement in proenvironmental behaviors related to climate change and how this relationship is affected by certainty that climate change is happening, level of concern about climate change, and perceptions of effectiveness in personally addressing climate change. We found a significant, directional relationship between sense of connection to animals and self-reported proenvironmental behaviors. Political inclination within the conservative to liberal spectrum did not affect the relationship. We conclude that a personal sense of connection to animals may provide a foundation for educational and communication strategies to enhance involvement in proenvironmental actions.

  16. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Seth L; Plackis, Andreas C; Nuelle, Clayton W

    2014-07-01

    Patellofemoral disorders are common. There is a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from patellofemoral pain and instability to focal cartilage disease and arthritis. Regardless of the specific condition, abnormal anatomy and biomechanics are often the root cause of patellofemoral dysfunction. A thorough understanding of normal patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics is critical for the treating physician. Recognizing and addressing abnormal anatomy will optimize patellofemoral biomechanics and may ultimately translate into clinical success.

  17. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-06-29

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  18. Numerical analysis on seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam to concrete filled steel tubular column connections with ring-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi.; Xu, Li. Hua.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents numerical study of the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam to concrete filled steel tube column connections with ring-beam. The material stress-strain relations, element type and boundary condition are selected, which are consistent with actual situation. Then the seismic behavior of this type of joint are researched by ABAQUS, and finite element analyses are conducted under cyclic loading. Its parameters are discussed including thickness of steel tubular column wall, sectional dimension of the ring-beam and strength of the core concrete. The results show that the ultimate capacity of the connections is improved with sectional dimension of the ring-beam increased. In the meanwhile, the influence on skeleton curve of the joints is slight of which included thickness of steel tubular column wall and strength of the core concrete.

  19. Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Relation with Infant Frontal Function, Connectivity, and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J.; Poh, Joann S.; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls. PMID:27073881

  20. Real-time fMRI training-induced changes in regional connectivity mediating verbal working memory behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Zhang, G; Yao, L; Zhao, X

    2015-03-19

    Working memory refers to the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information that is necessary for complex cognition activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that working memory capacity can be improved by behavioral training, and brain activities in the frontal and parietal cortices and the connections between these regions are also altered by training. Our recent neurofeedback training has proven that the regulation of the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) can improve working memory performance. However, how working memory training promotes interaction between brain regions and whether this promotion correlates with performance improvement remain unclear. In this study, we employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to calculate the interactions between the regions within the working memory network during neurofeedback training. The results revealed that the direct effect of the frontoparietal connection in the left hemisphere was enhanced by the rtfMRI training. Specifically, the increase in the path from the left DLPFC to the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was positively correlated with improved performance in verbal working memory. These findings demonstrate the important role of the frontoparietal connection in working memory training and suggest that increases in frontoparietal connectivity might be a key factor associated with behavioral improvement.

  1. Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Relation with Infant Frontal Function, Connectivity, and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J; Poh, Joann S; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F P; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Meaney, Michael J; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls.

  2. Self-organization, preferential flow and rainfall runoff behavior - is there a connection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Erwin; Blume, Theresa; Kleidon, Axel; Ehret, Uwe; Scherer, Ulrike; Westhoff, Martijn

    2013-04-01

    In line with the studies of Kleidon et al. (2012) and Zehe et al. (2010) the proposed study analyzes mass flow related flows of free energy in open hydrological systems - hillslopes and small catchments - using thermodynamics methods. Why a thermodynamic treatment? A small part of the kinetic energy input from incoming rainfall is dissipated into heat and to break up soil aggregates. Depending on the partitioning of the incoming rainfall into overland flow and soil water, the remaining part of the incoming kinetic energy is partly transformed into potential energy of surface water and subsequently partly exported as kinetic energy of overland flow from the system; the rest is dissipated by frictional losses. The other part of rainfall infiltrates thereby increasing potential energy of soil water but depleting at the same time (gradients in) capillary binding energy of soil water, which again comprises energy dissipation into heat of immersion. Although, these mass fluxes are not associated with large heat fluxes, they reflect the overall conservation of energy as well as the second law of thermodynamics. They require thus a thermodynamic treatment, because tiny amounts of kinetic energy, surface energy and potential energy are dissipated into heat: this implies irreversibility and explains why water does not flow uphill. Soil hydraulic equilibrium (HE), arising from a balance in potential and capillary binding energy in soil, can be interpreted as a state of maximum entropy in soil. Soil water potential, defined as sum of matric potential and gravity potential, is in HE equal to zero along the soil profile. This corresponds to a state of maximum entropy due to a zero potential gradient, which implies due to Zehe et al. (2010) a state of minimum (Helmholtz) free energy. Our first main objective is to quantify to which extent connected preferential flow path, in our case vertical macropores and the river network enhance flow velocities at a given driving gradient and

  3. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  4. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  5. How interpersonal communication mediates the relationship of multichannel communication connections to health-enhancing and health-threatening behaviors.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mihye; Matsaganis, Matthew D

    2013-08-01

    This article examines how everyday media use and interpersonal communication for health information could influence health behaviors beyond intervention or campaign contexts. The authors argue that interpersonal communication works as an independent information channel and mediates the relation between media channels and health behaviors. In addition, the authors investigate whether interpersonal communication differently influences the relation between media connections and health behaviors for more and less educated individuals. Using data from the 2008 Annenberg National Health Communication Survey, the authors show that multiple communication channels for health information encourage health-enhancing behaviors but do not have significant relations with health-threatening behaviors. Interpersonal communication is directly linked to health-enhancing behaviors, but it also mediates the influence of individuals' multichannel media environment on health-enhancing behaviors. The mediating role of interpersonal health communication was only significant for less educated people. In addition, among media channels, television was a more important instigator of health-related conversations with family and friends for the less educated group. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings, as well as suggestions for future research directions, are discussed.

  6. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists.

  7. The architecture of cross-hemispheric communication in the aging brain: linking behavior to functional and structural connectivity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Simon W; Kragel, James E; Madden, David J; Cabeza, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Contralateral recruitment remains a controversial phenomenon in both the clinical and normative populations. To investigate the neural correlates of this phenomenon, we explored the tendency for older adults to recruit prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions contralateral to those most active in younger adults. Participants were scanned with diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic rresonance imaging during a lateralized word matching task (unilateral vs. bilateral). Cross-hemispheric communication was measured behaviorally as greater accuracy for bilateral than unilateral trials (bilateral processing advantage [BPA]) and at the neural level by functional and structural connectivity between contralateral PFC. Compared with the young, older adults exhibited 1) greater BPAs in the behavioral task, 2) greater compensatory activity in contralateral PFC during the bilateral condition, 3) greater functional connectivity between contralateral PFC during bilateral trials, and 4) a positive correlation between fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum and both the BPA and the functional connectivity between contralateral PFC, indicating that older adults' ability to distribute processing across hemispheres is constrained by white matter integrity. These results clarify how older adults' ability to recruit extra regions in response to the demands of aging is mediated by existing structural architecture, and how this architecture engenders corresponding functional changes that allow subjects to meet those task demands.

  8. Connection between Exposure to Internet Content and Violent Behavior among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perišin, Dijana; Opic, Siniša

    2013-01-01

    Internet allows great interaction between real and perceived anonymous environment. Adolescents, acting under the assumption of anonymity show different patterns of behavior, which has lead to a new form of violence: cyberbullying. There is a possibility of both positive and negative behavior in virtual space, however, the negative side of the…

  9. School Counselors Connecting the Dots between Disruptive Classroom Behavior and Youth Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidell, Markus P.; Deacon, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Students exhibiting emotional and behavioral problems in the classroom can significantly impact the learning environment and often are referred to school counselors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between high school students' self-concept and disruptive classroom behaviors (DCB). High school students (N = 92)…

  10. Panel zone behavior of moment connections between rectangular concrete-filled steel tubes and wide flange beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, Bradley Donald

    2000-10-01

    During the 1990s, guidelines for the detailing of composite joints for seismic safety have been proposed and adopted. Such guidelines were based on the testing of composite joint subassemblies under cyclic loads. The role of the confined concrete core in composite joints has been documented and quantified for systems using steel shapes encased in concrete, as well as for other mixtures of reinforced concrete and structural steel. The need to understand the role of the concrete core in moment connections utilizing concrete-fined tube (CFT) columns still exists. In this research program, the split-tee through-bolted moment connection between wide-flange steel beams and concrete-filled tubes was studied. The aim of the study was to understand the role of the confined concrete core in transferring forces through the joint. Fifteen half-scale panel-zone specimens were designed and tested to model the shear behavior of the split-tee connection. Following an analysis of the results of the panel-zone tests, six fun-scale moment connections were designed and tested. Variables studied were: concrete compressive strength, the b/t ratio (slenderness) of the steel tube walls, and the split-tee contact area against the steel tube. Following an analysis of the test data, design criteria for the concrete contribution to the joint strength are presented, and recommendations are made for the inclusion of CFT systems in the design recommendations for composite joints. Suggestions are made for further research.

  11. The Nature Relatedness Scale: Linking Individuals' Connection with Nature to Environmental Concern and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Elizabeth K.; Zelenski, John M.; Murphy, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Disconnection from the natural world may be contributing to our planet's destruction. The authors propose a new construct, Nature Relatedness (NR), and a scale that assesses the affective, cognitive, and experiential aspects of individuals' connection to nature. In Study 1, the authors explored the internal structure of the NR item responses in a…

  12. Skull Base Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base.

  13. A Cascade Model Connecting Life Stress to Risk Behavior Among Rural African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  14. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  15. Awareness of Emotional Stimuli Determines the Behavioral Consequences of Amygdala Activation and Amygdala-Prefrontal Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Lapate, R. C.; Rokers, B.; Tromp, D. P. M.; Orfali, N. S.; Oler, J. A.; Doran, S. T.; Adluru, N.; Alexander, A. L.; Davidson, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Conscious awareness of negative cues is thought to enhance emotion-regulatory capacity, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS) in the MRI scanner, we manipulated visual awareness of fearful faces during an affect misattribution paradigm, in which preferences for neutral objects can be biased by the valence of a previously presented stimulus. The amygdala responded to fearful faces independently of awareness. However, when awareness of fearful faces was prevented, individuals with greater amygdala responses displayed a negative bias toward unrelated novel neutral faces. In contrast, during the aware condition, inverse coupling between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex reduced this bias, particularly among individuals with higher structural connectivity in the major white matter pathway connecting the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Collectively, these results indicate that awareness promotes the function of a critical emotion-regulatory network targeting the amygdala, providing a mechanistic account for the role of awareness in emotion regulation. PMID:27181344

  16. Functional connectivity from a reef fish perspective: behavioral tactics for moving in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Katrine; Robillard, Audrey; Grégoire, Jacinthe; Duclos, Vanessa; Kramer, Donald L

    2010-11-01

    Functional connectivity, the degree to which the landscape facilitates or impedes movement, depends on how animals perceive costs and benefits associated with habitat features and integrate them into a movement path. There have been few studies on functional connectivity in marine organisms, despite its importance for the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas. In this study, we asked how open sand and conspecific distribution affected functional connectivity of longfin damselfish (Stegastes diencaeus) on fringing reefs in Barbados. We translocated 102 individuals to sites varying in sand gap width and in configuration: Continuous (solid reef between release site and territory); Detour (sand along the direct path between release site and territory, but an alternative, continuous solid U-shaped reef path); and Patch (sand between release site and territory, but an alternative stepping stone path). We visually tracked and mapped every homing path. We found no evidence of a barrier to movement in the Continuous configuration, but sand was a partial barrier in Detour and Patch configurations. The probability of crossing the sand gap dropped below 50% when its width was > 1.85 m in Detour and > 3.90 m in Patch configuration. Damselfish avoiding large gaps took detours that approximated the route maximizing travel over reef, but they crossed more short sand gaps and fewer conspecific territories, suggesting avoidance of agonistic interactions. This study quantifies for the first time the size and steepness of a barrier to movement in a marine organism, and it provides evidence for effects of both landscape configuration and conspecific distribution on functional connectivity.

  17. Anatomy and art.

    PubMed

    Laios, Konstantinos; Tsoukalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2013-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci, Jean Falcon, Andreas Vesalius, Henry Gray, Henry Vandyke Carter and Frank Netter created some of the best atlases of anatomy. Their works constitute not only scientific medical projects but also masterpieces of art.

  18. Central Thalamic Deep-Brain Stimulation Alters Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Cognitive Neural Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Ching; Pan, Han-Chi; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shen, Elise Ting-Hsin; Liao, Lun-De; Liao, Pei-Han; Chien, Yi-Wei; Liao, Kuei-Da; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chu, Kai-Wen; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, You-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT-DBS) has been proposed as an experimental therapeutic approach to produce consistent sustained regulation of forebrain arousal for several neurological diseases. We investigated local field potentials (LFPs) induced by CT-DBS from the thalamic central lateral nuclei (CL) and the striatum as potential biomarkers for the enhancement of lever-pressing skill learning. LFPs were simultaneously recorded from multiple sites in the CL, ventral striatum (Vstr), and dorsal striatum (Dstr). LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed and compared between the CT-DBS and sham control groups. The theta and alpha LFP oscillations were significantly increased in the CL and striatum in the CT-DBS group. Furthermore, interhemispheric coherences between bilateral CL and striatum were increased in the theta band. Additionally, enhancement of c-Fos activity, dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2), and α4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4-nAChR) occurred after CT-DBS treatment in the striatum and hippocampus. CT-DBS strengthened thalamic-striatal functional connectivity, which demonstrates that the inter-regional connectivity enhancement might contribute to synaptic plasticity in the striatum. Altered dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors resulted in modulation of striatal synaptic plasticity's ability to regulate downstream signaling cascades for higher brain functions of lever-pressing skill learning. PMID:26793069

  19. Central Thalamic Deep-Brain Stimulation Alters Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Cognitive Neural Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ching; Pan, Han-Chi; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shen, Elise Ting-Hsin; Liao, Lun-De; Liao, Pei-Han; Chien, Yi-Wei; Liao, Kuei-Da; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chu, Kai-Wen; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, You-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Central thalamic deep brain stimulation (CT-DBS) has been proposed as an experimental therapeutic approach to produce consistent sustained regulation of forebrain arousal for several neurological diseases. We investigated local field potentials (LFPs) induced by CT-DBS from the thalamic central lateral nuclei (CL) and the striatum as potential biomarkers for the enhancement of lever-pressing skill learning. LFPs were simultaneously recorded from multiple sites in the CL, ventral striatum (Vstr), and dorsal striatum (Dstr). LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed and compared between the CT-DBS and sham control groups. The theta and alpha LFP oscillations were significantly increased in the CL and striatum in the CT-DBS group. Furthermore, interhemispheric coherences between bilateral CL and striatum were increased in the theta band. Additionally, enhancement of c-Fos activity, dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2), and α4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4-nAChR) occurred after CT-DBS treatment in the striatum and hippocampus. CT-DBS strengthened thalamic-striatal functional connectivity, which demonstrates that the inter-regional connectivity enhancement might contribute to synaptic plasticity in the striatum. Altered dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors resulted in modulation of striatal synaptic plasticity's ability to regulate downstream signaling cascades for higher brain functions of lever-pressing skill learning.

  20. Anatomy of an entry vehicle experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eide, D. G.; Wurster, K. E.; Helms, V. T.; Ashby, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    The anatomy and evolution of a simple small-scale unmanned entry vehicle is described that is delivered to orbit by the shuttle and entered into the atmosphere from orbit to acquire flight data to improve our knowledge of boundary-layer behavior and evaluate advanced thermal protection systems. The anatomy of the experiment includes the justification for the experiments, instrumentation, configuration, material, and operational needs, and the translation of these needs into a configuration, weight statement, aerodynamics, program cost, and trajectory. Candidates for new instrumentation development are also identified for nonintrusive measurements of the boundary-layer properties.

  1. Normal anatomy and biomechanics of the knee.

    PubMed

    Flandry, Fred; Hommel, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    Functionally, the knee comprises 2 articulations-the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral. Stability of the joint is governed by a combination of static ligaments, dynamic muscular forces, meniscocapsular aponeurosis, bony topography, and joint load. The surgeon is ill equipped to undertake surgical treatment of a dislocated knee without a sound footing in the anatomic complexities of this joint. We review the normal anatomy of the knee, emphasizing connective tissue structures and common injury patterns.

  2. Functional Genetic Variation of the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Cannabis Use Interact on Prefrontal Connectivity and Related Working Memory Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Colizzi, Marco; Fazio, Leonardo; Ferranti, Laura; Porcelli, Annamaria; Masellis, Rita; Marvulli, Daniela; Bonvino, Aurora; Ursini, Gianluca; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid signaling is involved in different brain functions and it is mediated by the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1), which is encoded by the CNR1 gene. Previous evidence suggests an association between cognition and cannabis use. The logical interaction between genetically determined cannabinoid signaling and cannabis use has not been determined. Therefore, we investigated whether CNR1 variation predicts CNR1 prefrontal mRNA expression in postmortem prefrontal human tissue. Then, we studied whether functional variation in CNR1 and cannabis exposure interact in modulating prefrontal function and related behavior during working memory processing. Thus, 208 healthy subjects (113 males) were genotyped for the relevant functional SNP and were evaluated for cannabis use by the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. All individuals performed the 2-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. CNR1 rs1406977 was associated with prefrontal mRNA and individuals carrying a G allele had reduced CNR1 prefrontal mRNA levels compared with AA subjects. Moreover, functional connectivity MRI demonstrated that G carriers who were also cannabis users had greater functional connectivity in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and reduced working memory behavioral accuracy during the 2-back task compared with the other groups. Overall, our results indicate that the deleterious effects of cannabis use are more evident on a specific genetic background related to its receptor expression. PMID:25139064

  3. [Blocks neuron activity parietal cortex monkey brain, connected with achievement of intermediate goals of multistage behavior].

    PubMed

    Filatova, E V; Orlov, A A; Afanas'ev, S V

    2014-07-01

    The single unit activity of the monkey parietal cortex was studied during the task of alternative spatial selection. Simultaneously activities of 6--10 neurons were recorded. It was revealed that tonic impulse activity of parietal cortex neurons forms blocks. The structure of blocks reflects the structure of behavioral task and related to the achievement of interim targets in performing of be- havioral task. Earlier the formation of similar blocks of tonic activity was shown for unit activity of putamen and prefrontal cortex. Thus the data obtained evidence in favor of that grouping of tonic activity is not an individual feature of some structures but has more general character most likely typical and for other brain areas. Generally it shows that nerve control of complex much component behavior is accomplished in segments by formation of separate blocks in neuronal activity. These blocks are related to individual groups of actions which in combination lead to a final goal--performance of behavioral task in a whole. Key words: unit activity, behavior, monkey, parietal cortex.

  4. The Connections between Family Characteristics, Parent-Child Engagement, Interactive Reading Behaviors, and Preschoolers' Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Katie Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of family characteristics (i.e., SES and race), parent-child engagement, and interactive reading behaviors on preschooler's emergent literacy scores. This study used a structural equation model to examine variables that impact emergent literacy development by evaluating data from the Early Childhood…

  5. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  6. Anomalous mean-field behavior of the fully connected Ising model.

    PubMed

    Colonna-Romano, Louis; Gould, Harvey; Klein, W

    2014-10-01

    Although the fully connected Ising model does not have a length scale, we show that the critical exponents for thermodynamic quantities such as the mean magnetization and the susceptibility can be obtained using finite size scaling with the scaling variable equal to N, the number of spins. Surprisingly, the mean value and the most probable value of the magnetization are found to scale differently with N at the critical temperature of the infinite system, and the magnetization probability distribution is not a Gaussian, even for large N. Similar results inconsistent with the usual understanding of mean-field theory are found at the spinodal. We relate these results to the breakdown of hyperscaling and show that hyperscaling can be restored by increasing N while holding the Ginzburg parameter rather than the temperature fixed, or by doing finite size scaling at the pseudocritical temperature where the susceptibility is a maximum for a given value of N. We conclude that finite size scaling for the fully connected Ising model yields different results depending on how the mean-field limit is approached.

  7. Increases in frontostriatal connectivity are associated with response to dorsomedial repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory binge/purge behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Katharine; Woodside, Blake; Lam, Eileen; Olmsted, Marion; Colton, Patricia; Giacobbe, Peter; Downar, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional treatments for eating disorders are associated with poor response rates and frequent relapse. Novel treatments are needed, in combination with markers to characterize and predict treatment response. Here, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to identify predictors and correlates of response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) at 10 Hz for eating disorders with refractory binge/purge symptomatology. Methods 28 subjects with anorexia nervosa, binge−purge subtype or bulimia nervosa underwent 20–30 sessions of 10 Hz dmPFC rTMS. rs-fMRI data were collected before and after rTMS. Subjects were stratified into responder and nonresponder groups using a criterion of ≥50% reduction in weekly binge/purge frequency. Neural predictors and correlates of response were identified using seed-based functional connectivity (FC), using the dmPFC and adjacent dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as regions of interest. Results 16 of 28 subjects met response criteria. Treatment responders had lower baseline FC from dmPFC to lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right posterior insula, and from dACC to right posterior insula and hippocampus. Responders had low baseline FC from the dACC to the ventral striatum and anterior insula; this connectivity increased over treatment. However, in nonresponders, frontostriatal FC was high at baseline, and dmPFC-rTMS suppressed FC in association with symptomatic worsening. Conclusions Enhanced frontostriatal connectivity was associated with responders to dmPFC-rTMS for binge/purge behavior. rTMS caused paradoxical suppression of frontostriatal connectivity in nonresponders. rs-fMRI could prove critical for optimizing stimulation parameters in a future sham-controlled trial of rTMS in disordered eating. PMID:26199873

  8. The need to connect: on the cell biology of synapses, behaviors, and networks in science

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Ramos, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    My laboratory is interested in the cell biology of the synapse. Synapses, which are points of cellular communication between neurons, were first described by Santiago Ramón y Cajal as “protoplasmic kisses that appear to constitute the final ecstasy of an epic love story.” Who would not want to work on that?! My lab examines the biological mechanisms neurons use to find and connect to each other. How are synapses formed during development, maintained during growth, and modified during learning? In this essay, I reflect about my scientific journey to the synapse, the cell biological one, but also a metaphorical synapse—my role as a point of contact between the production of knowledge and its dissemination. In particular, I discuss how the architecture of scientific networks propels knowledge production but can also exclude certain groups in science. PMID:27799494

  9. Specialized disaster behavioral health training: Its connection with response, practice, trauma health, and resilience

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Christiana D.; Burnett,, Harvey J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the relationship between having training in key disaster behavioral health (DBH) interventions and trauma health (compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction), resilience, the number of crisis responses participated in within the last year, and the frequency of assembling to practice crisis interventions skills. Data was collected from a convenience sample of disaster behavioral health responders (N = 139) attending a training conference in Michigan. Measures included the Professional Quality of Life Scale, the 14-item Resilience Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Point biserial correlations revealed that having training in large and small group crisis interventions and individual and peer crisis interventions was significantly correlated with higher resilience and lower levels of burnout. Psychological First Aid was not significantly associated with any of the trauma health variables or with resilience. Compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction were not significantly associated with DBH training. Chi-square tests for independence found no significant association between key DBH training strategies and the number of crisis responses participated in within the past year and the frequency of assembling to practice crisis interventions skills. These findings suggest that completing training in both, large and small group and individual and peer crisis intervention techniques may help to increase resiliency and reduce burnout among disaster behavioral health providers. PMID:28229015

  10. Modeling and cyclic behavior of segmental bridge column connected with shape memory alloy bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Hwasung; Reinhorn, Andrei M.; Lee, Jong Seh

    2012-09-01

    This paper examines the quasi-static cyclic behavior, lateral strength and equivalent damping capacities of a system of post-tensioned segmental bridge columns tied with large diameter martensitic Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) link-bars. Moment-curvature constitutive relationships are formulated and analysis tools are developed for the PT column, including a modified four-spring model prepared for the SMA bars. The suggested system is exemplified using a column with an aspect ratio of 7.5 and twelve 36.5 mm diameter NiTi martensitic SMA bars. A post-tensioning force of 40% to 60% of the tendon yield strength is applied in order to obtain a self re-centering system, considering the residual stress of the martensitic SMA bars. The cyclic response results show that the lateral strength remains consistently around 10% of the total vertical load and the equivalent viscous damping ratios reach 10%-12% of critical. When large diameter NiTi superelastic SMA bars are incorporated into the column system, the cyclic response varies substantially. The creep behavior of the superelastic SMA bar is accounted for since it affects the re-centering capability of the column. Two examples are presented to emphasize the modeling sensitivities for these special bars and quantify their cyclic behavior effects within the column assembly.

  11. A three-level non-deterministic modeling methodology for the NVH behavior of rubber connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenti, A.; Moens, D.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2010-03-01

    Complex built-up structures such as vehicles have a variety of joint types, such as spot-welds, bolted joints, rubber joints, etc. Rubber joints highly contribute to the nonlinear level of the structure and are a major source of uncertainties and variability. In the general framework of developing engineering tools for virtual prototyping and product refinement, the modeling of the NVH behavior of rubber joints involve the computational burden of including a detailed nonlinear model of the joint and the uncertainties and variability typical of that joint in a full-scale system model. However, in an engineering design phase the knowledge on the joint rubber material properties is typically poor, and the working conditions a rubber joint will experience are generally not known in detail. This lack of knowledge often do not justify the computational burden and the modeling effort of including detailed nonlinear models of the joint in a full-scale system model. Driven by these issues a non-deterministic numerical methodology based on a three-level modeling approach is being developed. The methodology aims at evaluating directly in the frequency domain the sensitivity of the NVH behavior of a full-scale system model to the rubber joint material properties when nonlinear visco-elastic rubber material behavior is considered. Rather than including directly in the model a representation of the rubber nonlinear visco-elastic behavior, the methodology proposes to model the material nonlinear visco-elastic behavior by using a linear visco-elastic material model defined in an interval sense, from which the scatter on the full-scale system NVH response is evaluated. Furthermore the development of a multi-level solution scheme allows to reduce the computational burden introduced by the non-deterministic approach by allowing the definition of an equivalent linear interval parametric rubber joint model, ready to be assembled in a full-scale system model at a reasonable

  12. [Laurentius on anatomy].

    PubMed

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-03-01

    Andreas Laurentius wrote Opera anatomica (1593) and Historia anatomica (1600). These books were composed of two types of chapters; 'historia' and 'quaestio'. His description is not original, but take from other anatomists. 'Historia' describes the structure, action and usefulness of the body parts clarified after dissection. 'Quaestio' treats those questions which could not be solved only by dissection. Laurentius cited many previous contradicting interpretations to these questions and choose a best interpretation for the individual questions. In most cases, Laurentius preferred Galen's view. Historia anatomica retained almost all the 'historia' and 'quaestio' from Opera anatomica, and added some new 'historia' and 'quaestio', especially in regard to the components of the body, such as ligaments, membranes, vessels, nerves and glands. Other new 'historia' and 'quaestio' in Historia anatomica concerned several topics on anatomy in general to comprehensively analyze the history of anatomy, methods of anatomy, and usefulness of anatomy. Historia anatomica reviewed what was anatomy by describing in 'historia' what was known and in 'quaestio' what was unresolved. Till now Laurentius's anatomical works have attracted little attention because his description contained few original findings and depended on previous books. However, the important fact that Historia anatomica was very popular in the 17th century tells us that people needed non-original and handbook style of this textbook. Historia anatomica is important for further research on the propagation of anatomical knowledge from professional anatomists to non-professionals in the 17th century.

  13. Exercises in anatomy: cardiac isomerism.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne E; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the patients with the most complex cardiac malformations are those with so-called visceral heterotaxy. At present, it remains a fact that most investigators segregate these patients on the basis of their splenic anatomy, describing syndromes of so-called asplenia and polysplenia. It has also been known for quite some time, nonetheless, that the morphology of the tracheobronchial tree is usually isomeric in the setting of heterotaxy. And it has been shown that the isomerism found in terms of bronchial arrangement correlates in a better fashion with the cardiac anatomy than does the presence of multiple spleens, or the absence of any splenic tissue. In this exercise in anatomy, we use hearts from the Idriss archive of Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to demonstrate the isomeric features found in the hearts obtained from patients known to have had heterotaxy. We first demonstrate the normal arrangements, showing how it is the extent of the pectinate muscles in the atrial appendages relative to the atrioventricular junctions that distinguishes between morphologically right and left atrial chambers. We also show the asymmetry of the normal bronchial tree, and the relationships of the first bronchial branches to the pulmonary arteries supplying the lower lobes of the lungs. We then demonstrate that diagnosis of multiple spleens requires the finding of splenic tissue on either side of the dorsal mesogastrium. Turning to hearts obtained from patients with heterotaxy, we illustrate isomeric right and left atrial appendages. We emphasize that it is only the appendages that are universally isomeric, but point out that other features support the notion of cardiac isomerism. We then show that description also requires a full account of veno-atrial connections, since these can seemingly be mirror-imaged when the arrangement within the heart is one of isomerism of the atrial appendages. We show how failure to recognize the presence of such isomeric

  14. The Relationship between Frontotemporal Effective Connectivity during Picture Naming, Behavior, and Preserved Cortical Tissue in Chronic Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Erin L.; Kapse, Kushal J.; Kiran, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    While several studies of task-based effective connectivity of normal language processing exist, little is known about the functional reorganization of language networks in patients with stroke-induced chronic aphasia. During oral picture naming, activation in neurologically intact individuals is found in “classic” language regions involved with retrieval of lexical concepts [e.g., left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG)], word form encoding [e.g., left posterior superior temporal gyrus, (LpSTG)], and controlled retrieval of semantic and phonological information [e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG)] as well as domain-general regions within the multiple demands network [e.g., left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG)]. After stroke, lesions to specific parts of the left hemisphere language network force reorganization of this system. While individuals with aphasia have been found to recruit similar regions for language tasks as healthy controls, the relationship between the dynamic functioning of the language network and individual differences in underlying neural structure and behavioral performance is still unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate differences between individuals with aphasia and healthy controls in terms of task-induced regional interactions between three regions (i.e., LIFG, LMFG, and LMTG) vital for picture naming. The DCM model space was organized according to exogenous input to these regions and partitioned into separate families. At the model level, random effects family wise Bayesian Model Selection revealed that models with driving input to LIFG best fit the control data whereas models with driving input to LMFG best fit the patient data. At the parameter level, a significant between-group difference in the connection strength from LMTG to LIFG was seen. Within the patient group, several significant relationships between network connectivity parameters, spared cortical tissue, and behavior were

  15. Striatopallidal Neuron NMDA Receptors Control Synaptic Connectivity, Locomotor, and Goal-Directed Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lambot, Laurie; Chaves Rodriguez, Elena; Houtteman, Delphine; Li, Yuquing; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Gall, David

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) control action selection, motor programs, habits, and goal-directed learning. The striatum, the principal input structure of BG, is predominantly composed of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). Arising from these spatially intermixed MSNs, two inhibitory outputs form two main efferent pathways, the direct and indirect pathways. Striatonigral MSNs give rise to the activating, direct pathway MSNs and striatopallidal MSNs to the inhibitory, indirect pathway (iMSNs). BG output nuclei integrate information from both pathways to fine-tune motor procedures and to acquire complex habits and skills. Therefore, balanced activity between both pathways is crucial for harmonious functions of the BG. Despite the increase in knowledge concerning the role of glutamate NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) in the striatum, understanding of the specific functions of NMDA-R iMSNs is still lacking. For this purpose, we generated a conditional knock-out mouse to address the functions of the NMDA-R in the indirect pathway. At the cellular level, deletion of GluN1 in iMSNs leads to a reduction in the number and strength of the excitatory corticostriatopallidal synapses. The subsequent scaling down in input integration leads to dysfunctional changes in BG output, which is seen as reduced habituation, delay in goal-directed learning, lack of associative behavior, and impairment in action selection or skill learning. The NMDA-R deletion in iMSNs causes a decrease in the synaptic strength of striatopallidal neurons, which in turn might lead to a imbalanced integration between direct and indirect MSN pathways, making mice less sensitive to environmental change. Therefore, their ability to learn and adapt to the environment-based experience was significantly affected. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The striatum controls habits, locomotion, and goal-directed behaviors by coordinated activation of two antagonistic pathways. Insofar as NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) play a key role in synaptic

  16. Can Text Messages Increase Empathy and Prosocial Behavior? The Development and Initial Validation of Text to Connect

    PubMed Central

    Konrath, Sara; Falk, Emily; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Liu, Mary; Swain, James; Tolman, Richard; Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    To what extent can simple mental exercises cause shifts in empathic habits? Can we use mobile technology to make people more empathic? It may depend on how empathy is measured. Scholars have identified a number of different facets and correlates of empathy. This study is among the first to take a comprehensive, multidimensional approach to empathy to determine how empathy training could affect these different facets and correlates. In doing so, we can learn more about empathy and its multifaceted nature. Participants (N = 90) were randomly assigned to receive either an empathy-building text message program (Text to Connect) or one of two control conditions (active versus passive). Respondents completed measures of dispositional empathy (i.e. self-perceptions of being an empathic person), affective empathy (i.e. motivations to help, immediate feelings of empathic concern), and prosocial behavior (i.e. self-reports and observer-reports) at baseline, and then again after the 14 day intervention period. We found that empathy-building messages increased affective indicators of empathy and prosocial behaviors, but actually decreased self-perceptions of empathy, relative to control messages. Although the brief text messaging intervention did not consistently impact empathy-related personality traits, it holds promise for the use of mobile technology for changing empathic motivations and behaviors. PMID:26356504

  17. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary.

  18. [Viennese school of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Angetter, D C

    1999-10-01

    Anatomical science played a minor role in Vienna for centuries until Gerard van Swieten, in the 18th century, recognized the importance of anatomy for medical education. In the 19th century the anatomical school at the University of Vienna development to its height. A new building and a collection of preparations attracted a large number of students. Finally, a second department of anatomy was established. Political ideologies started to affect this institution in the beginning of the 20th century. Anti-Semitism emerged and caused uproars and fights among the students of the two departments. In 1938 both were united under Eduard Pernkopf, a dedicated Nazi and chairman of the department of anatomy, Decan of the medical faculty (1938-1943) and later on President of the University of Vienna (1943-1945). He was suspected of using cadavers of executed persons for the purpose of research and education.

  19. Connecting prosocial behavior to improved physical health: Contributions from the neurobiology of parenting.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephanie L; Brown, R Michael

    2015-08-01

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that giving to (helping) others is linked reliably to better health and longevity for the helper, little is known about causal mechanisms. In the present paper we use a recently developed model of caregiving motivation to identify possible neurophysiological mechanisms. The model describes a mammalian neurohormonal system that evolved to regulate maternal care, but over time may have been recruited to support a wide variety of helping behaviors in humans and other social animals. According to the model, perception of need or distress in others activates caregiving motivation, which in turn, can facilitate helping behavior. Motivational regulation is governed by the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, interacting with certain other brain regions, hormones, and neuromodulators (especially oxytocin and progesterone). Consideration of neurohormonal circuitry and related evidence raises the possibility that it is these hormones, known to have stress-buffering and restorative properties, that are responsible, at least in part, for health and longevity benefits associated with helping others.

  20. Connecting single cell to collective cell behavior in a unified theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Mishel; Bullo, Francesco; Campàs, Otger

    Collective cell behavior is an essential part of tissue and organ morphogenesis during embryonic development, as well as of various disease processes, such as cancer. In contrast to many in vitro studies of collective cell migration, most cases of in vivo collective cell migration involve rather small groups of cells, with large sheets of migrating cells being less common. The vast majority of theoretical descriptions of collective cell behavior focus on large numbers of cells, but fail to accurately capture the dynamics of small groups of cells. Here we introduce a low-dimensional theoretical description that successfully captures single cell migration, cell collisions, collective dynamics in small groups of cells, and force propagation during sheet expansion, all within a common theoretical framework. Our description is derived from first principles and also includes key phenomenological aspects of cell migration that control the dynamics of traction forces. Among other results, we explain the counter-intuitive observations that pairs of cells repel each other upon collision while they behave in a coordinated manner within larger clusters.

  1. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory.

  2. Chromosomes and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Robert James McKinlay

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome abnormalities may cast light on the nature of mechanisms whereby normal anatomy evolves, and abnormal anatomy arises. Correlating genotype to phenotype is an exercise in which the geneticist and the anatomist can collaborate. The increasing power of the new genetic methodologies is enabling an increasing precision in the delineation of chromosome imbalances, even to the nucleotide level; but the classical skills of careful observation and recording remain as crucial as they always have been. Clin. Anat. 29:540-546, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Anatomy for biomedical engineers.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephen W; Robb, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that were of particular interest to them. Following completion of all the dissections, the students presented what they had learned to the entire class in the anatomy laboratory. This course has fulfilled an important need for our students.

  4. Groundwater-surface water interactions: the behavior of a small lake connected to groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoux, Marie; Barbecot, Florent; Gibert-Brunet, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between lakes and groundwater have been under concern in recent years and are still not well understood. Exchange rates are both spatially and temporally highly variable and are generally underestimated. However these interactions are of utmost importance for water resource management and need to be better understood since (i) the hydrogeological and geochemical equilibria within the lake drive the evolution of lakes' ecology and quality, and (ii) groundwater inflow, even in low rate, can be a key element in both the lake nutrient balance (and therefore in lake's eutrophication) and vulnerability to pollution. In many studies two main geochemical tracers, i.e. water stable isotopes and radon-222, are used to determine these interactions. However there are still many uncertainties on their time and space variations and their reliability to determine the lake budget. Therefore, a lake connected to groundwater on a small catchment was chosen to quantify groundwater fluxes change over time and the related influences on the lake's water geochemistry. Through analyse in time and space of both tracers and a precise instrumentation of the lake, their variations linked to groundwater inflows are determined. The results show that each tracer provides additional information for the lake budget with the interest to well determine the information given by each measurement: the radon-222 gives information on the groundwater inflows at a point in space and time while water stable isotopes highlight the dominant parameters of the yearly lake budget. The variation in groundwater inflows allow us to discuss lake's evolution regarding climate and environmental changes.

  5. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  6. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    PubMed

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known.

  7. The Connection Between Local Icosahedral Order in Metallic Liquids and the Nucleation Behavior of Ordered Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Lee, G. W.; Hyers, R. W.; Rathz, T. J.; Rogers, J. R.; Robinson, M. B.; Schenk, T.; Simonet, V.

    2003-01-01

    Over fifty years ago, David Turnbull showed that the temperature of many metallic liquids could be decreased far below their equilibrium melting temperature before crystallization occurred. To explain those surprising results, Charles Frank hypothesized that the local structures of undercooled metallic liquids are different from those of crystal phases, containing a significant degree of icosahedral order that is incompatible with extended periodicity. Such structural differences must create a barrier to the formation crystal phases, explaining the observed undercooling behavior. If true, the nucleation from the liquid of phases with extended icosahedral order should be easier. Icosahedral order is often favored in small clusters, as observed recently in liquid-like clusters of pure Pb on the (111) surface of Si[3], for example. However, it has never been shown that an increasing preference for icosahedral phase formation can be directly linked with the development of icosahedral order in the undercooled liquid. Owing to the combination of very recent advances in levitation techniques and the availability of synchrotron x-ray and high flux neutron facilities, this is shown here.

  8. Adolescents' religious discordance with mothers: is there a connection to sexual risk behavior during emerging adulthood?

    PubMed

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Tracy, Allison J; Noonan, Anne E

    2013-10-01

    This study longitudinally investigates the relationship between adolescent/mother religious discordance and emerging adult sexual risk-taking 6-7 years later. We used Social Control Theory to examine the level and direction of concordance using data from Wave I and Wave III of the Add Health Study, focusing on constructs of religious importance, frequency of prayer, and attendance at religious services. We found that higher levels of adolescent/mother discordance in religious importance were related to increased emerging adult sexual risk-taking compared to those with similar levels adolescent/mother religiosity, but this occurred only when mothers reported higher levels of religious importance than their children. In contrast, adolescents reporting higher frequency of prayer than their mothers reported lower levels of sexual risk-taking than those with similar frequency of adolescent/mother prayer. These findings suggest that the protective effects of family religious socialization can be interrupted. However, this influence of religious difference on sexual risk-behavior operates differently depending on the direction and level of religious difference. Even in emerging adulthood, a period marked by distance from childhood values and institutions, religious difference with a parent remains a meaningful influence.

  9. Only Connect: The Working Alliance in Computer-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Serafini, Kelly; Frankforter, Tami; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    The limited role of therapists in some technology-based interventions raises questions as to whether clients may develop a ‘working alliance’ with the program, and the impact on relationships with a therapist and/or treatment outcomes. In this study, the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and an adapted version for technology-based interventions (WAI-Tech), were administered within a subsample (n = 66) of cocaine-dependent individuals participating in a randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of Computer-Based Training for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT4CBT) as an adjunct to treatment as usual (TAU). Results suggest the WAI-Tech has relatively similar psychometric characteristics as the standard WAI; however the ‘bond’ subscale scores were lower on the WAI-Tech [F(1,52) = 5.78, p<.05]. Scores on the WAI-Tech were not associated with cocaine use outcomes, whereas total scores on the WAI for those assigned to TAU were associated with the percentage of days abstinent from cocaine (r = .43, p < .05). There was little evidence that adding a technology-based intervention adversely affected the working alliance with a therapist in this sample. These preliminary findings suggest some concepts of working alliance may apply to computer-based CBT, yet the function of the alliance may be different in technology-based interventions than in face-to-face psychotherapies. PMID:25461789

  10. Neurotoxic protein expression reveals connections between the circadian clock and mating behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kadener, Sebastian; Villella, Adriana; Kula, Elzbieta; Palm, Kristyna; Pyza, Elzbieta; Botas, Juan; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Rosbash, Michael

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the functions of circadian neurons, we added two strategies to the standard Drosophila behavioral genetics repertoire. The first was to express a polyglutamine-expanded neurotoxic protein (MJDtr78Q; MJD, Machado–Joseph disease) in the major timeless (tim)-expressing cells of the adult brain. These Tim-MJD flies were viable, in contrast to the use of cell-death gene expression for tim neuron inactivation. Moreover, they were more arrhythmic than flies expressing other neurotoxins and had low but detectable tim mRNA levels. The second extended standard microarray technology from fly heads to dissected fly brains. By combining the two approaches, we identified a population of Tim-MJD-affected mRNAs. Some had been previously identified as sex-specific and relevant to courtship, including mRNAs localized to brain-proximal fat-body tissue and brain courtship centers. Finally, we found a decrease in the number of neurons that expressed male-specific forms of the fruitless protein in the laterodorsal region of the brain. The decrease was not a consequence of toxic protein expression within these specialized cells but a likely effect of communication with neighboring TIM-expressing neurons. The data suggest a functional interaction between adjacent circadian and mating circuits within the fly brain, as well as an interaction between circadian circuits and brain-proximal fat body. PMID:16938865

  11. Self-esteem and resilience: the connection with risky behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Orosova, Olga; Gajdosova, Beata; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2009-03-01

    The aim was to explore the association of self-esteem and resilience with smoking and cannabis use among adolescents, separately for gender. A sample of 3694 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years) from elementary schools in Slovakia filled out the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Resiliency scale and answered questions about cigarette and cannabis use. Logistic regression models showed associations between negative self-esteem and risky behavior, but only among boys. Regarding resilience, structured style and family cohesion were associated with a lower probability of smoking and cannabis use among both boys and girls. In contrast, social competence increased the probability of smoking and cannabis use among both groups. Negative self-esteem seems to play an important role regarding smoking and cannabis use among boys. Resilience seems to have mixed effects, some aspects being protective while other aspects increase the likelihood of smoking and use of cannabis. These results imply that the prevention of substance use should target not only specific individual characteristics, but also the possible risk or protective influences of the social environment, i.e. the family and social network.

  12. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  13. Anatomy of the Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Ralph

    1977-01-01

    In this insect morphology exercise, students study the external anatomy of the worker honeybee. The structures listed and illustrated are discussed in relation to their functions. A goal of the exercise is to establish the bee as a well-adapted, social insect. (MA)

  14. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  15. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  16. Behavior of engineered nanoparticles in aqueous solutions and porous media: Connecting experimentation to probabilistic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Carolina

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticles have enhanced products and services in the fields of medicine, energy, engineering, communications, personal care, environmental treatment, and many others. The increased use of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products will lead to these materials in natural systems, inevitably becoming a potential source of pollution. The study of the stability and mobility of these materials is fundamental to understand their behavior in natural systems and predict possible health and environmental implications. In addition, the use of probabilistic methods such as sensitivity analysis applied to the parameters controlling their behavior is useful in providing support in performing a risk assessment. This research investigated the stability and mobility of two types of metal oxide nanoparticles (aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide). The stability studies tested the effect of sand, pH 4, 7, and 10, and the NaCl in concentrations of 10mM, 25mM, 50mM, and 75mM. The mobility was tested using saturated quartz sand columns and nanoparticles suspension at pH 4 and 7 and in the presence of NaCl and CaCl2 in concentrations of 0.1mM, 1mM, and 10mM. Additionally, this work performed a sensitivity analysis of physical parameters used in mobility experiment performed for titanium dioxide and in mobility experiments taken from the literature for zero valent iron nanoparticles and fluorescent colloids to determine their effect on the value C/Co of by applying qualitative and quantitative methods. The results from the stability studies showed that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) could remain suspended in solution for up to seven days at pH 10 and pH 7 even after settling of the sand; while for pH 4 solutions titanium settled along with the sand and after seven days no particles were observed in suspension. Other stability studies showed that nanoparticle aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) size increased with increasing ionic strength (10 to 75

  17. Children's confession- and lying-related emotion expectancies: Developmental differences and connections to parent-reported confession behavior.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig E; Rizzo, Michael T

    2017-04-01

    Young children understand that lying is wrong, yet little is known about the emotions children connect to the acts of lying and confessing and how children's emotion expectancies relate to real-world behavior. In the current study, 4- to 9-year-old children (N=48) heard stories about protagonists (a) committing transgressions, (b) failing to disclose their misdeeds, and (c) subsequently lying or confessing. Younger children (4-5years) expected relatively positive feelings to follow self-serving transgressions, failure to disclose, and lying, and they often used gains-oriented and punishment-avoidance reasoning when justifying their responses. Older children (7-9years) had the opposite pattern of emotional responses (better feelings linked to confession compared with lying). Older children expected a more positive parental response to a confession than younger children. Furthermore, children who expected more positive parental responses to confession were reported by parents to confess more in real life than children who expected more negative parental responses to confession. Thus, the current research demonstrates a link between children's emotion expectancies and actual confession behavior.

  18. Facial anatomy of the fetus.

    PubMed

    Jeanty, P; Romero, R; Staudach, A; Hobbins, J C

    1986-11-01

    Real-time ultrasonography was used in this study to demonstrate details of the anatomy of the face and neck of the fetus. Details such as the ocular globe, vitreous body, lens, anterior chamber, rectus muscles, optic nerve and disc, and the ophthalmic artery are visible at the level of the eye. The helix, scaphoid fossa, triangular fossa, concha, antihelix, antitragus, intertragic incisure, and lobule can be seen at the level of the ear. The tip of the nose, the alae nasi, and the columna are also seen. The epiglottis is visible in the vestibulum of the larynx. The fetal face is an important structure that can provide invaluable information in the search for congenital malformations, and possibly also in fetal behavior.

  19. Microsurgical anatomy of the trochlear nerve.

    PubMed

    Joo, Wonil; Rhoton, Albert L

    2015-10-01

    The trochlear nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest intracranial course, but also the thinnest. It is the only nerve that arises from the dorsal surface of the brainstem and decussates in the superior medullary velum. After leaving the dorsal surface of the brainstem, it courses anterolaterally around the lateral surface of the brainstem and then passes anteriorly just beneath the free edge of the tentorium. It passes forward to enter the cavernous sinus, traverses the superior orbital fissure and terminates in the superior oblique muscle in the orbit. Because of its small diameter and its long course, the trochlear nerve can easily be injured during surgical procedures. Therefore, precise knowledge of its surgical anatomy and its neurovascular relationships is essential for approaching and removing complex lesions of the orbit and the middle and posterior fossae safely. This review describes the microsurgical anatomy of the trochlear nerve and is illustrated with pictures involving the nerve and its surrounding connective and neurovascular structures.

  20. Microsurgical anatomy of the trigeminal nerve.

    PubMed

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Mizokami, Koji; Rhoton, Albert L

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review surgical anatomy of the trigeminal nerve. We also demonstrate some pictures involving the trigeminal nerve and its surrounding connective and neurovascular structures. Ten adult cadaveric heads were studied, using a magnification ranging from 3× to 40×, after perfusion of the arteries and veins with colored latex. The trigeminal nerve is the largest and most complex of the cranial nerves. It serves as a major conduit of sensory input from the face and provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. Because of its size and complexity, it is essential to have thorough knowledge of the nerve before diagnoses and treatment of the pathologic processes in the orofacial, temporomandibular, infratemporal, and pterygopalatine areas. The trigeminal nerve is encountered with imaging or surgery of the skull base surgery. Thus, a comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of the trigeminal nerve is crucial for performing the surgical procedures without significant complication.

  1. Authenticity in Anatomy Art.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Jessica

    2017-01-12

    The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution and evaluate the 'realness' and authenticity in Anatomy Art, an art form I define as one which incorporates accurate anatomical representations of the human body with artistic expression. I examine the art of 17th century wax anatomical models, the preservations of Frederik Ruysch, and Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds plastinates, giving consideration to authenticity of both body and art. I give extra consideration to the works of Body Worlds since the exhibit creator believes he has created anatomical specimens with more educational value and bodily authenticity than ever before. Ultimately, I argue that von Hagens fails to offer Anatomy Art 'real human bodies,' and that the lack of bodily authenticity of his plastinates results in his creations being less pedagogic than he claims.

  2. Human ocular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes.

  3. Reading to Understand Anatomy: A Literature Circle Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calmer, Joseph; Straits, William

    2014-01-01

    As a science teacher, I regularly use outside reading assignments (e.g., news articles) to help develop my students' understanding of topics addressed in my anatomy class. However, I have found that in simply reading texts, students often fail to (1) understand the context of the science discussed, (2) make the connections between ideas…

  4. Theory of Mind and the Whole Brain Functional Connectivity: Behavioral and Neural Evidences with the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Antonella; Baglio, Francesca; Costantini, Isa; Dipasquale, Ottavia; Savazzi, Federica; Nemni, Raffaello; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Tagliabue, Semira; Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    A topic of common interest to psychologists and philosophers is the spontaneous flow of thoughts when the individual is awake but not involved in cognitive demands. This argument, classically referred to as the "stream of consciousness" of James, is now known in the psychological literature as "Mind-Wandering." Although of great interest, this construct has been scarcely investigated so far. Diaz et al. (2013) created the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire (ARSQ), composed of 27 items, distributed in seven factors: discontinuity of mind, theory of mind (ToM), self, planning, sleepiness, comfort, and somatic awareness. The present study aims at: testing psychometric properties of the ARSQ in a sample of 670 Italian subjects; exploring the neural correlates of a subsample of participants (N = 28) divided into two groups on the basis of the scores obtained in the ToM factor. Results show a satisfactory reliability of the original factional structure in the Italian sample. In the subjects with a high mean in the ToM factor compared to low mean subjects, functional MRI revealed: a network (48 nodes) with higher functional connectivity (FC) with a dominance of the left hemisphere; an increased within-lobe FC in frontal and insular lobes. In both neural and behavioral terms, our results support the idea that the mind, which does not rest even when explicitly asked to do so, has various and interesting mentalistic-like contents.

  5. Theory of Mind and the Whole Brain Functional Connectivity: Behavioral and Neural Evidences with the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Antonella; Baglio, Francesca; Costantini, Isa; Dipasquale, Ottavia; Savazzi, Federica; Nemni, Raffaello; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Tagliabue, Semira; Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    A topic of common interest to psychologists and philosophers is the spontaneous flow of thoughts when the individual is awake but not involved in cognitive demands. This argument, classically referred to as the “stream of consciousness” of James, is now known in the psychological literature as “Mind-Wandering.” Although of great interest, this construct has been scarcely investigated so far. Diaz et al. (2013) created the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire (ARSQ), composed of 27 items, distributed in seven factors: discontinuity of mind, theory of mind (ToM), self, planning, sleepiness, comfort, and somatic awareness. The present study aims at: testing psychometric properties of the ARSQ in a sample of 670 Italian subjects; exploring the neural correlates of a subsample of participants (N = 28) divided into two groups on the basis of the scores obtained in the ToM factor. Results show a satisfactory reliability of the original factional structure in the Italian sample. In the subjects with a high mean in the ToM factor compared to low mean subjects, functional MRI revealed: a network (48 nodes) with higher functional connectivity (FC) with a dominance of the left hemisphere; an increased within-lobe FC in frontal and insular lobes. In both neural and behavioral terms, our results support the idea that the mind, which does not rest even when explicitly asked to do so, has various and interesting mentalistic-like contents. PMID:26696924

  6. Connecting Biology & Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildreth, James E. K.

    2005-01-01

    Dr. James E.K. Hildreth is a prominent HIV/AIDS researcher. He has just been the director of Meharry Medical College's new Comprehensive Center for Health Disparities Research in HIV since July, and he is already feeling a sense of accomplishment. Hildreth says he's happy to be at Meharry, an institution with a storied tradition of producing many…

  7. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing.

  8. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  9. Emergence of spatial behavioral function and associated mossy fiber connectivity and c-Fos labeling patterns in the hippocampus of rats

    PubMed Central

    Comba, Rachel; Gervais, Nicole; Mumby, Dave; Holahan, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Improvement on spatial tasks is observed during a late, postnatal developmental period (PND18 – PND24).  The purpose of the current work was 1) to determine whether the emergence of spatial-behavioral function was based on the ability to generate appropriate behavioral output; 2) to assess whether mossy fiber connectivity patterns preceded the emergence of spatial-behavioral function; 3) to explore functional changes in the hippocampus to determine whether activity in hippocampal networks occurred in a training-dependent or developmentally-dependent fashion.  To these ends, male, Long Evans rats were trained on a spatial water or dry maze task for one day (PND16, PND18 or PND20) then euthanized.  Training on these 2 tasks with opposing behavioral demands (swimming versus exploration) was hypothesized to control for behavioral topology.  Only at PND20 was there evidence of spatial-behavioral function for both tasks.  Examination of synaptophysin staining in the CA3 region (i.e., mossy fiber projections) revealed enhanced connectivity patterns that preceded the emergence of spatial behavior.  Analysis of c-Fos labeling (functional changes) revealed developmentally-dependent increases in c-Fos positive cells in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1 regions whereas training-dependent increases were noted in the CA3 and CA1 regions for the water-maze trained groups.  Results suggest that changes in mossy fiber connectivity in association with enhanced hippocampal functioning precede the emergence of spatial behavior observed at PND20.  The combination of neuroanatomical and behavioural results confirms the hypothesis that this time represents a sensitive period for hippocampal development and modification and the emergence of spatial/ cognitive function. PMID:26925223

  10. Brain anatomy in Diplura (Hexapoda)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the past decade neuroanatomy has proved to be a valuable source of character systems that provide insights into arthropod relationships. Since the most detailed description of dipluran brain anatomy dates back to Hanström (1940) we re-investigated the brains of Campodea augens and Catajapyx aquilonaris with modern neuroanatomical techniques. The analyses are based on antibody staining and 3D reconstruction of the major neuropils and tracts from semi-thin section series. Results Remarkable features of the investigated dipluran brains are a large central body, which is organized in nine columns and three layers, and well developed mushroom bodies with calyces receiving input from spheroidal olfactory glomeruli in the deutocerebrum. Antibody staining against a catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (DC0) was used to further characterize the mushroom bodies. The japygid Catajapyx aquilonaris possesses mushroom bodies which are connected across the midline, a unique condition within hexapods. Conclusions Mushroom body and central body structure shows a high correspondence between japygids and campodeids. Some unique features indicate that neuroanatomy further supports the monophyly of Diplura. In a broader phylogenetic context, however, the polarization of brain characters becomes ambiguous. The mushroom bodies and the central body of Diplura in several aspects resemble those of Dicondylia, suggesting homology. In contrast, Archaeognatha completely lack mushroom bodies and exhibit a central body organization reminiscent of certain malacostracan crustaceans. Several hypotheses of brain evolution at the base of the hexapod tree are discussed. PMID:23050723

  11. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  12. [Pandora's box of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Uri; Reis, Shmuel

    2008-05-01

    Physicians in Nazi Germany were among the first to join the Nazi party and the SS, and were considered passionate and active supporters of the regime. Their actions included development and implementation of the racial theory thus legitimizing the development of the Nazi genocide plan, leadership and execution of the sterilization and euthanasia programs as well as atrocious human experimentation. Nazi law allowed the use of humans and their remains in research institutions. One of the physicians whose involvement in the Nazi regime was particularly significant was Eduard Pernkopf. He was the head of the Anatomy Institute at the University of Vienna, and later became the president of the university. Pernkopf was a member of the Nazi party, promoted the idea of "racial hygiene", and in 1938, "purified" the university from all Jews. In Pernkopfs atlas of anatomy, the illustrators expressed their sympathy to Nazism by adding Nazi symbols to their illustrations. In light of the demand stated by the "Yad Vashem" Institute, the sources of the atlas were investigated. The report, which was published in 1998, determined that Pernkopfs Anatomy Institute received almost 1400 corpses from the Gestapo's execution chambers. Copies of Pernkopfs atlas, accidentally exposed at the Rappaport School of Medicine in the Technion, led to dilemmas concerning similar works with a common background. The books initiated a wide debate in Israel and abroad, regarding ethical aspects of using information originated in Nazi crimes. Moreover, these findings are evidence of the evil to which science and medicine can give rise, when they are captured as an unshakable authority.

  13. Numerical simulation of the seismic behavior of self-centering steel beam-column connections with bottom flange friction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tong; Song, Lianglong; Zhang, Guodong

    2011-06-01

    A new type of steel moment resisting frame with bottom flange friction devices (BFFDs) has been developed to provide self-centering capacity and energy dissipation, and to reduce permanent deformations under earthquakes. This paper presents a numerical simulation of self-centering beam-column connections with BFFDs, in which the gap opening /closing at the beam-column interfaces is simulated by using pairs of zero-length elements with compression-only material properties, and the energy dissipation due to friction is simulated by using truss elements with specified hysteretic behavior. In particular, the effect of the friction bolt bearing against the slotted plate in the BFFDs was modeled, so that the increase in lateral force and the loss of friction force due to the bolt bearing could be taken into account. Parallel elastic-perfectly plastic gap (ElasticPPGap) materials in the Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (OpenSees) were used with predefined gaps to specify the sequence that each bolt went into the bearing and the corresponding increase in bending stiffness. The MinMax material in OpenSees is used to specify the minimum and maximum values of strains of the ElasticPPGap materials. To consider the loss of friction force due to bolt bearing, a number of parallel hysteretic materials were used, and the failure of these materials in sequence simulated the gradual loss of friction force. Analysis results obtained by using the proposed numerical model are discussed and compared with the test results under cyclic loadings and the seismic loading, respectively.

  14. In utero and lactational exposure to bisphenol A, in contrast to ethinyl estradiol, does not alter sexually dimorphic behavior, puberty, fertility, and anatomy of female LE rats.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Bryce C; Hotchkiss, Andrew K; Crofton, Kevin M; Gray, L Earl

    2010-03-01

    Many chemicals released into the environment display estrogenic activity including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA). EE2 is present in some aquatic systems at concentrations sufficient to alter reproductive function of fishes. Many concerns have been raised about the potential effects of BPA. The National Toxicology Program rated the potential effects of low doses of BPA on behavior and central nervous system (CNS) as an area of "some concern," whereas most effects were rated as of "negligible" or "minimal" concern. However, the number of robust studies in this area was limited. The current study was designed to determine if maternal exposure to relatively low oral doses of EE2 or BPA in utero and during lactation would alter the expression of well-characterized sexually dimorphic behaviors or alter the age of puberty or reproductive function in the female Long-Evans rat offspring. Pregnant rats were gavaged with vehicle, EE2 (0.05-50 microg/kg/day), or BPA (2, 20, and 200 microg/kg/day) from day 7 of gestation to postnatal day (PND) 18, and the female offspring were studied. EE2 (50 microg/kg/day) increased anogenital distance and reduced pup body weight at PND2, accelerated the age at vaginal opening, reduced F1 fertility and F2 litter sizes, and induced malformations of the external genitalia (5 microg/kg). F1 females exposed to EE2 also displayed a reduced (male-like) saccharin preference (5 microg/kg) and absence of lordosis behavior (15 microg/kg), indications of defeminization of the CNS. BPA had no effect on any of the aforementioned measures. These results demonstrate that developmental exposure to pharmacologically relevant dosage levels of EE2 can permanently disrupt the reproductive morphology and function of the female rat.

  15. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  16. Radiological sinonasal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Alrumaih, Redha A.; Ashoor, Mona M.; Obidan, Ahmed A.; Al-Khater, Khulood M.; Al-Jubran, Saeed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of common radiological variants of sinonasal anatomy among Saudi population and compare it with the reported prevalence of these variants in other ethnic and population groups. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 121 computerized tomography scans of the nose and paranasal sinuses of patients presented with sinonasal symptoms to the Department of Otorhinolarngology, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between January 2014 and May 2014. Results: Scans of 121 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria were reviewed. Concha bullosa was found in 55.4%, Haller cell in 39.7%, and Onodi cell in 28.9%. Dehiscence of the internal carotid artery was found in 1.65%. Type-1 and type-2 optic nerve were the prevalent types. Type-II Keros classification of the depth of olfactory fossa was the most common among the sample (52.9%). Frontal cells were found in 79.3%; type I was the most common. Conclusions: There is a difference in the prevalence of some radiological variants of the sinonasal anatomy between Saudi population and other study groups. Surgeon must pay special attention in the preoperative assessment of patients with sinonasal pathology to avoid undesirable complications. PMID:27146614

  17. The quail anatomy portal

    PubMed Central

    Ruparelia, Avnika A.; Simkin, Johanna E.; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F.; Martins, Gabriel G.; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. Database URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123) PMID:24715219

  18. The quail anatomy portal.

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Simkin, Johanna E; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F; Martins, Gabriel G; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. DATABASE URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123).

  19. Intracranial Arteries - Anatomy and Collaterals.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, David S; Caplan, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology are inextricably linked in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. Knowledge of abnormal or pathological conditions such as intracranial atherosclerosis stems from detailed recognition of the normal pattern of vascular anatomy. The vascular anatomy of the intracranial arteries, both at the level of the vessel wall and as a larger structure or conduit, is a reflection of physiology over time, from in utero stages through adult life. The unique characteristics of arteries at the base of the brain may help our understanding of atherosclerotic lesions that tend to afflict specific arterial segments. Although much of the knowledge regarding intracranial arteries originates from pathology and angiography series over several centuries, evolving noninvasive techniques have rapidly expanded our perspective. As each imaging modality provides a depiction that combines anatomy and flow physiology, it is important to interpret each image with a solid understanding of typical arterial anatomy and corresponding collateral routes. Compensatory collateral perfusion and downstream flow status have recently emerged as pivotal variables in the clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies that illustrate the anatomy and pathophysiology of these proximal arterial segments across modalities will help refine our knowledge of the interplay between vascular anatomy and cerebral blood flow. Future studies may help elucidate pivotal arterial factors far beyond the degree of stenosis, examining downstream influences on cerebral perfusion, artery-to-artery thromboembolic potential, amenability to endovascular therapies and stent conformation, and the propensity for restenosis due to biophysical factors.

  20. Anatomy and adaptations of the chewing muscles in Daubentonia (Lemuriformes).

    PubMed

    Perry, Jonathan M G; Macneill, Kristen E; Heckler, Amanda L; Rakotoarisoa, Gilbert; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2014-02-01

    The extractive foraging behavior in aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is unique among primates and likely has led to selection for a specialized jaw adductor musculature. Although this musculature has previously been examined in a subadult, until now, no one has reported the fascicle length, weight, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) for these muscles in an adult aye-aye specimen. For the present study, we dissected an adult wild-born aye-aye from the Tsimbazaza Botanical and Zoological Park, Antananarivo, Madagascar. The aye-aye follows the general strepsirrhine pattern in its overall jaw adductor muscle anatomy, but has very large muscles and PCSA relative to body size. Fascicle length is also relatively great, but not nearly as much as in the juvenile aye-aye previously dissected. Perhaps chewing muscle fascicles begin relatively long, but shorten through use and growth as connective tissue sheets expand and allow for pinnation and increased PCSA. Alternately, it may be that aye-ayes develop fascicular adaptation to wide gapes early in ontogeny, only to increase PCSA through later development into adulthood. The functional demands related to their distinctive manner of extractive foraging are likely responsible for the great PCSA in the jaw adductor muscles of the adult aye-aye. It may be that great jaw adductor PCSA in the adult, as compared to the juvenile, is a means of increasing foraging efficiency in the absence of parental assistance. Anat Rec, 297:308-316, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Communication of brain network core connections altered in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia but possibly preserved in early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Mendez, Mario F.; Bartzokis, George; Jimenez, Elvira E.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion imaging and brain connectivity analyses can assess white matter deterioration in the brain, revealing the underlying patterns of how brain structure declines. Fiber tractography methods can infer neural pathways and connectivity patterns, yielding sensitive mathematical metrics of network integrity. Here, we analyzed 1.5-Tesla wholebrain diffusion-weighted images from 64 participants - 15 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 19 with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD), and 30 healthy elderly controls. Using whole-brain tractography, we reconstructed structural brain connectivity networks to map connections between cortical regions. We evaluated the brain's networks focusing on the most highly central and connected regions, also known as hubs, in each diagnostic group - specifically the "high-cost" structural backbone used in global and regional communication. The high-cost backbone of the brain, predicted by fiber density and minimally short pathways between brain regions, accounted for 81-92% of the overall brain communication metric in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found that the set of pathways interconnecting high-cost and high-capacity regions of the brain's communication network are globally and regionally altered in bvFTD, compared to healthy participants; however, the overall organization of the high-cost and high-capacity networks were relatively preserved in EOAD participants, relative to controls. Disruption of the major central hubs that transfer information between brain regions may impair neural communication and functional integrity in characteristic ways typical of each subtype of dementia.

  2. Developmental anatomy of lampreys.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael K; Admiraal, Jeroen; Wright, Glenda M

    2010-02-01

    Lampreys are a group of aquatic chordates whose relationships to hagfishes and jawed vertebrates are still debated. Lamprey embryology is of interest to evolutionary biologists because it may shed light on vertebrate origins. For this and other reasons, lamprey embryology has been extensively researched by biologists from a range of disciplines. However, many of the key studies of lamprey comparative embryology are relatively inaccessible to the modern scientist. Therefore, in view of the current resurgence of interest in lamprey evolution and development, we present here a review of lamprey developmental anatomy. We identify several features of early organogenesis, including the origin of the nephric duct, that need to be re-examined with modern techniques. The homologies of several structures are also unclear, including the intriguing subendothelial pads in the heart. We hope that this review will form the basis for future studies into the phylogenetic embryology of this interesting group of animals.

  3. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  4. Anatomy External [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Robert

    This course entitled "Anatomy External" is concerned with the dissection of the fetal pig, and is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by the teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of five units of study, and 13 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered…

  5. Thoracic outlet anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... This can happen when there is an extra cervical rib or because of a tight fibrous band that connects the spinal vertebra to the rib. There may be pain in the neck and shoulders, and numbess in ...

  6. Clinical anatomy of the hand.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Angélica; Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Canoso, Juan J; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Kalish, Robert A

    This article reviews the underlying anatomy of trigger finger and thumb (fibrous digital pulleys, sesamoid bones), flexor tenosynovitis, de Quervain's syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, some hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis, the carpal tunnel syndrome and the ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal. Some important syndromes and structures have not been included but such are the nature of these seminars. Rather than being complete, we aim at creating a system in which clinical cases are used to highlight the pertinent anatomy and, in the most important part of the seminar, these pertinent items are demonstrated by cross examination of participants and teachers. Self learning is critical for generating interest and expanding knowledge of clinical anatomy. Just look at your own hand in various positions, move it, feel it, feel also your forearms while you move the fingers, do this repeatedly and inquisitively and after a few tries you will have developed not only a taste, but also a lifelong interest in clinical anatomy.

  7. Synaptic connections between layer 4 spiny neurone-layer 2/3 pyramidal cell pairs in juvenile rat barrel cortex: physiology and anatomy of interlaminar signalling within a cortical column.

    PubMed

    Feldmeyer, Dirk; Lübke, Joachim; Silver, R Angus; Sakmann, Bert

    2002-02-01

    Whole-cell voltage recordings were obtained from 64 synaptically coupled excitatory layer 4 (L4) spiny neurones and L2/3 pyramidal cells in acute slices of the somatosensory cortex ('barrel' cortex) of 17- to 23-days-old rats. Single action potentials (APs) in the L4 spiny neurone evoked single unitary EPSPs in the L2/3 pyramidal cell with a peak amplitude of 0.7 +/- 0.6 mV. The average latency was 2.1 +/- 0.6 ms, the rise time was 0.8 +/- 0.3 ms and the decay time constant was 12.7 +/- 3.5 ms. The percentage of failures of an AP in a L4 spiny neurone to evoke a unitary EPSP in the L2/3 pyramidal cell was 4.9 +/- 8.8 % and the coefficient of variation (c.v.) of the unitary EPSP amplitude was 0.27 +/- 0.13. Both c.v. and percentage of failures decreased with increased average EPSP amplitude. Postsynaptic glutamate receptors (GluRs) in L2/3 pyramidal cells were of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) and the non-NMDAR type. At -60 mV in the presence of extracellular Mg2+ (1 mM), 29 +/- 15 % of the EPSP voltage-time integral was blocked by NMDAR antagonists. In 0 Mg2+, the NMDAR/AMPAR ratio of the EPSC was 0.50 +/- 0.29, about half the value obtained for L4 spiny neurone connections. Burst stimulation of L4 spiny neurones showed that EPSPs in L2/3 pyramidal cells depressed over a wide range of frequencies (1-100 s(-1) ). However, at higher frequencies (30 s(-1)) EPSP summation overcame synaptic depression so that the summed EPSP was larger than the first EPSP amplitude in the train. The number of putative synaptic contacts established by the axonal collaterals of the L4 projection neurone with the target neurone in layer 2/3 varied between 4 and 5, with an average of 4.5 +/- 0.5 (n = 13 pairs). Synapses were established on basal dendrites of the pyramidal cell. Their mean geometric distance from the pyramidal cell soma was 67 +/- 34 microm (range, 16-196 microm). The results suggest that each connected L4 spiny neurone produces a weak but reliable EPSP in

  8. The anatomy of the mermaid.

    PubMed

    Heppell, D

    Investigation of the anatomy of the mermaid and of mermaid lore has revealed a tangled web of stories, sightings and specimens of the most diverse nature, extending worldwide into the realms of folklore and legend, zoology and cryptozoology, anatomy, physiology, radiography and folk medicine, ethnography, social history and the history of science. The stereotype we know as the mermaid is surely a fit subject for further serious study

  9. Intermittent θ burst stimulation modulates resting-state functional connectivity in the attention network and promotes behavioral recovery in patients with visual spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Yanming; Huo, Su; Du, JuBao; Zhu, Lin; Song, Weiqun

    2016-12-07

    Functional connectivity changes in the attention network are viewed as a physiological signature of visual spatial neglect (VSN). The left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) is known to initiate and monitor top-down attentional control and dynamically adjust behavioral performance. This study aimed to investigate whether increasing the activity of the LDLPFC through intermittent θ burst stimulation (iTBS) could modulate the resting-state functional connectivity in the attention network and facilitate recovery from VSN. Patients with right hemisphere stroke and VSN were randomly assigned to two groups matched for clinical characteristics and given a 10-day treatment. On each day, all patients underwent visual scanning training and motor function training and received iTBS over the LDLPFC either at 80% resting motor threshold (RMT) or at 40% RMT before the trainings. MRI, the line bisection test, and the star cancelation test were performed before and after treatment. Patients who received iTBS at 80% RMT showed a large-scale reduction in the resting-state functional connectivity extent, largely in the right attention network, and more significant improvement of behavioral performance compared with patients who received iTBS at 40% RMT. These results support that the LDLPFC potentially plays a key role in the modulation of attention networks in neglect. Increasing the activity of the LDPLPFC through iTBS can facilitate recovery from VSN in patients with stroke.

  10. [Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor: interdisciplinary continence and pelvic floor surgery].

    PubMed

    Muctar, S; Schmidt, W U; Batzill, W; Westphal, J

    2011-07-01

    Knowledge of functional anatomy is a prerequisite for the safe and targeted reconstructive therapy of incontinence and the prolapse syndrome of the female pelvic floor. We illustrate the interaction of muscles and connective tissue of the pelvic floor with anatomical illustrations and demonstrate their impact on the function of the urethra, bladder, vagina, uterus and rectum. Examples for the therapeutic rationale for a surgical reconstruction of the pelvic floor are defined and justified from their functional anatomy.

  11. Decision-Making Behavioral Change in Students Connected With Their Participation in a First Theoretical Management Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Tommy D.

    The educational discipline of Management is an inexact science. Because of the difficulty in measuring the effects of the academic study of Management on decision-making and related behaviors, a commercial instrument, the "How Supervise?" questionnaire, was tested as a possible means of measuring "before and after treatment" behaviors. The…

  12. The anatomy of the vestibular nuclei.

    PubMed

    Highstein, Stephen M; Holstein, Gay R

    2006-01-01

    The vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve informs the brain about the linear and angular movements of the head in space and the position of the head with respect to gravity. The termination sites of these eighth nerve afferents define the territory of the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem. (There is also a subset of afferents that project directly to the cerebellum.) This chapter reviews the anatomical organization of the vestibular nuclei, and the anatomy of the pathways from the nuclei to various target areas in the brain. The cytoarchitectonics of the vestibular brainstem are discussed, since these features have been used to distinguish the individual nuclei. The neurochemical phenotype of vestibular neurons and pathways are also summarized because the chemical anatomy of the system contributes to its signal-processing capabilities. Similarly, the morphologic features of short-axon local circuit neurons and long-axon cells with extrinsic projections are described in detail, since these structural attributes of the neurons are critical to their functional potential. Finally, the composition and hodology of the afferent and efferent pathways of the vestibular nuclei are discussed. In sum, this chapter reviews the morphology, chemoanatomy, connectivity, and synaptology of the vestibular nuclei.

  13. Anatomy of trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Wallisa; Zurada, Anna; Zurada-ZieliŃSka, Agnieszka; Gielecki, Jerzy; Loukas, Marios

    2016-07-01

    Trisomy 18 is the second most common aneuploidy after trisomy 21. Due to its multi-systemic defects, it has a poor prognosis with a 50% chance of survival beyond one week and a <10% chance of survival beyond one year of life. However, this prognosis has been challenged by the introduction of aggressive interventional therapies for patients born with trisomy 18. As a result, a review of the anatomy associated with this defect is imperative. While any of the systems can be affected by trisomy 18, the following areas are the most likely to be affected: craniofacial, musculoskeletal system, cardiac system, abdominal, and nervous system. More specifically, the following features are considered characteristic of trisomy 18: low-set ears, rocker bottom feet, clenched fists, and ventricular septal defect. Of particular interest is the associated cardiac defect, as surgical repairs of these defects have shown an improved survivability. In this article, the anatomical defects associated with each system are reviewed. Clin. Anat. 29:628-632, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anatomy of an incident

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identified as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.

  15. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; ...

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  16. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans, and physician competencies, because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be connected with a mission for professional acculturation.

  17. Anatomy of Particle Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringuier, E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses particle diffusion from a thermodynamic standpoint. The main goal of the paper is to highlight the conceptual connection between particle diffusion, which belongs to non-equilibrium statistical physics, and mechanics, which deals with particle motion, at the level of third-year university courses. We start out from the fact…

  18. The Anatomy of Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cave, Sitara; Schwartzenberg, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Fleeting electrochemical connections made between brain cells help people remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make them unique. Presents the dissection of the brain of a sheep, an animal in which brain structure and function are similar to that in humans, to demonstrate where these processes take place. (PVD)

  19. Connecting thermoelectric performance and topological-insulator behavior: Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te2Se from first principles

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Hongliang; Parker, David S.; Du, Mao-Hua; ...

    2015-01-20

    Thermoelectric performance is of interest for numerous applications such as waste-heat recovery and solid-state energy conversion and will be seen to be closely connected to topological-insulator behavior. In this paper, we here report first-principles transport and defect calculations for Bi2Te2Se in relation to Bi2Te3. The two compounds are found to contain remarkably different electronic structures in spite of being isostructural and isoelectronic. We also discuss these results in terms of the topological-insulator characteristics of these compounds.

  20. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration

    PubMed Central

    TOMA, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  1. Anatomy of news consumption on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ana Lucía; Zollo, Fabiana; Del Vicario, Michela; Bessi, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Stanley, H Eugene; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2017-03-21

    The advent of social media and microblogging platforms has radically changed the way we consume information and form opinions. In this paper, we explore the anatomy of the information space on Facebook by characterizing on a global scale the news consumption patterns of 376 million users over a time span of 6 y (January 2010 to December 2015). We find that users tend to focus on a limited set of pages, producing a sharp community structure among news outlets. We also find that the preferences of users and news providers differ. By tracking how Facebook pages "like" each other and examining their geolocation, we find that news providers are more geographically confined than users. We devise a simple model of selective exposure that reproduces the observed connectivity patterns.

  2. Anatomy of news consumption on Facebook

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ana Lucía; Del Vicario, Michela; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The advent of social media and microblogging platforms has radically changed the way we consume information and form opinions. In this paper, we explore the anatomy of the information space on Facebook by characterizing on a global scale the news consumption patterns of 376 million users over a time span of 6 y (January 2010 to December 2015). We find that users tend to focus on a limited set of pages, producing a sharp community structure among news outlets. We also find that the preferences of users and news providers differ. By tracking how Facebook pages “like” each other and examining their geolocation, we find that news providers are more geographically confined than users. We devise a simple model of selective exposure that reproduces the observed connectivity patterns. PMID:28265082

  3. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-08

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades.

    PubMed

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  5. [History of anatomy in Lyon].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, A

    1978-06-01

    1. We know very little concerning the teaching of anatomy during the Middle Ages. Only two authors, who both came to live in Lyon, Lanfranc and Guy de Chauliac, wrote on the subject. On the other hand, the important development of printing in Lyon from the sixteenth century onwards, made it possible to spread the translations of classic works and most of the books on Anatomy of the Renaissance. 2. However, Lyonese Anatomy developed very slowly because hospital training was more often badly organized. The only true supporter of Anatomy has been Marc Antoine Petit, chief surgeon of the Hôtel-Dieu before the French Revolution. 3. Apart from the parallel but only transient teaching of the Royal College of Surgery, one will have to wait for the creation of an official teaching first assumed by "schools" (secondary school and preparatory school) and finally by the Faculty of Medicine created in 1877. The names of Testut and of Latarjet contributed to the reknown of the Faculty of Medicine by their anatomical studies of great value for several generations of students. 4. Recently the Faculty of Medicine has been divided into four "universities". The new buildings are larger. The "gift of corpses" has brought a remedy to the shortage of the last twenty years. Anatomical research can be pursued thanks to micro-anatomy and bio-mechanics while conventional teaching is completed by dissection.

  6. Effects of a behavioral intervention to reduce serodiscordant unsafe sex among HIV positive men who have sex with men: the Positive Connections randomized controlled trial study.

    PubMed

    Rosser, B R Simon; Hatfield, Laura A; Miner, Michael H; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Lee, Brian R; Welles, Seth L

    2010-04-01

    Few behavioral interventions have been conducted to reduce high-risk sexual behavior among HIV-positive Men who have Sex with Men (HIV+ MSM). Hence, we lack well-proven interventions for this population. Positive Connections is a randomized controlled trial (n = 675 HIV+ MSM) comparing the effects of two sexual health seminars--for HIV+ MSM and all MSM--with a contrast prevention video arm. Baseline, 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-up surveys assessed psychosexual variables and frequency of serodiscordant unprotected anal intercourse (SDUAI). At post-test, intentions to avoid transmission were significantly higher in the sexual health arms. However, SDUAI frequency decreased equally across arms. HIV+ MSM engaging in SDUAI at baseline were more likely to leave the study. Tailoring interventions to HIV+ MSM did not increase their effectiveness in this study. A sexual health approach appeared as effective as an untailored video-based HIV prevention intervention in reducing SDUAI among HIV+ MSM.

  7. Anatomy, Physiology and Function of the Auditory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmeier, Birger

    The human ear consists of the outer ear (pinna or concha, outer ear canal, tympanic membrane), the middle ear (middle ear cavity with the three ossicles malleus, incus and stapes) and the inner ear (cochlea which is connected to the three semicircular canals by the vestibule, which provides the sense of balance). The cochlea is connected to the brain stem via the eighth brain nerve, i.e. the vestibular cochlear nerve or nervus statoacusticus. Subsequently, the acoustical information is processed by the brain at various levels of the auditory system. An overview about the anatomy of the auditory system is provided by Figure 1.

  8. Regional specificity in anatomy at the lamina cribrosa.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1981-03-01

    Specimens cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa in normal primate eyes are examined by light microscopy. The density of structural elements, consisting of crosswise-oriented connective-tissue trabeculae, is examined in different regions of the nerve head. It is noted that nasal more than temporal more than superior or inferior regions of the lamina cross section contain increased connective-tissue elements. This regional variation in nerve head anatomy is contrasted with susceptibility patterns of nerve head tissue to pressure elevation in both experimental and clinical glaucoma.

  9. Exercises in anatomy: tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is axiomatic that those performing surgery on the congenitally malformed heart require a thorough knowledge of the lesions they will be called upon to correct. The necessary anatomical knowledge is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain at first hand, since relatively few centres now hold archives of specimens obtained in an appropriately legal fashion from the patients unfortunately dying in previous years. One centre with such an archive is Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago, known previously as Chicago Memorial Children's Hospital. The archive was established by Farouk S. Idriss, and was subsequently enhanced and consolidated by his son, Rachid. It is now under the care of Carl L. Backer, the current chief of paediatric cardiothoracic surgery at Lurie Children's. With the support of Carl, the archive has been triaged and catalogued by Diane E. Spicer and Robert H. Anderson. It has now been used to create a series of video presentations, illustrating the salient features of surgical anatomy of selected entities, with the videoclips being edited and prepared for publication by Anne Sarwark. This video contains the fruits of the first of these exercises in anatomy, and is devoted to tetralogy of Fallot.We begin the exercise by making comparisons between the normal heart and the arrangement seen in typical tetralogy. We emphasize the need to recognize the 'building blocks' of the normal outflow tracts, and show how they come apart in tetralogy. We then show the variations to be found in the specific morphology of the borders of the hole between the ventricles, with the crest of the apical ventricular septum being overridden by the orifice of the aortic valve such that the latter structure has a biventricular connection. We emphasize that it is the squeeze between the deviated muscular outlet septum and septoparietal trabeculations that is the essential phenotypic feature of the lesion. We then proceed to demonstrate the further variation to

  10. Surface decarburization behavior and its adverse effects of air-cooled forging steel C70S6 for fracture splitting connecting rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao-lei; Xie, li-yao; Liu, Guang-lei; Chen, lie; Liu, Ya-zheng; Li, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Surface decarburization behavior and its adverse effects of air-cooled forging steel C70S6 for automobile engine fracture splitting connecting rod were investigated comprehensively by mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture morphology analysis. The results show that the surface decarburization in the outer surface of the fracture splitting at the big end bore and the micro-cracks in the decarburized layer are result in the uneven and spalling fracture surfaces of the waster connecting rod product. Besides, partial decarburization is produced between 900 °C and 1250 °C for heating 2 h, and decarburization sensitivity reach maximum at 1150 °C, but no complete decarburization forms for heating 2 h at 650-1250 °C. The decarburized depth follows a parabolic law with the increase of the heating time from 0.5 h to 12 h, and the decarburization sensitivity coefficient is 2.05×10-5 m·s-1/2 at 1200 °C. For the connecting rod manufacturing, surface decarburization must be under effective control during the hot forging process but not the control cooling process.

  11. Anal anatomy and normal histology.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Priti

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  12. Templated misfolding of Tau by prion-like seeding along neuronal connections impairs neuronal network function and associated behavioral outcomes in Tau transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Stancu, Ilie-Cosmin; Vasconcelos, Bruno; Ris, Laurence; Wang, Peng; Villers, Agnès; Peeraer, Eve; Buist, Arjan; Terwel, Dick; Baatsen, Peter; Oyelami, Tutu; Pierrot, Nathalie; Casteels, Cindy; Bormans, Guy; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal; Octave, Jean-Nöel; Moechars, Diederik; Dewachter, Ilse

    2015-06-01

    Prion-like seeding and propagation of Tau-pathology have been demonstrated experimentally and may underlie the stereotyped progression of neurodegenerative Tauopathies. However, the involvement of templated misfolding of Tau in neuronal network dysfunction and behavioral outcomes remains to be explored in detail. Here we analyzed the repercussions of prion-like spreading of Tau-pathology via neuronal connections on neuronal network function in TauP301S transgenic mice. Spontaneous and GABA(A)R-antagonist-induced neuronal network activity were affected following templated Tau-misfolding using synthetic preformed Tau fibrils in cultured primary neurons. Electrophysiological analysis in organotypic hippocampal slices of Tau transgenic mice demonstrated impaired synaptic transmission and impaired long-term potentiation following Tau-seed induced Tau-aggregation. Intracerebral injection of Tau-seeds in TauP301S mice, caused prion-like spreading of Tau-pathology through functionally connected neuroanatomical pathways. Electrophysiological analysis revealed impaired synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 region 6 months after Tau-seeding in entorhinal cortex (EC). Furthermore, templated Tau aggregation impaired cognitive function, measured in the object recognition test 6 months post-seeding. In contrast, Tau-seeding in basal ganglia and subsequent spreading through functionally connected neuronal networks involved in motor control, resulted in motoric deficits reflected in clasping and impaired inverted grid hanging, not significantly affected following Tau-seeding in EC. Immunostaining, biochemical and electron microscopic analysis in the different models suggested early pathological forms of Tau, including Tau-oligomers, rather than fully mature neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) as culprits of neuronal dysfunction. We here demonstrate for the first time using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models, that prion-like spreading of Tau-misfolding by Tau seeds, along unique

  13. Generalized Statistical Mechanics and Scaling Behavior for Non-equilibrium Polymer Chains: II. Monomers Connected by Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wen-Jong; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2010-02-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the relaxation process in a system of spatially well-mixed polymer chains and Lennard-Jones molecules, in which each polymer chain consists of monomers connected by springs of strength kspring and governed by bending and torsion angle potentials. The monomers are fluid-repelling, except for a small number of randomly chosen fluid-attractive “linker-sites”. The instantaneous temperatures of the monomers in polymer chains, T*P, and the fluid, T*F, are initially different, but they vary in time and their ratios Γ* = T*P/T*F approach a constant during the relaxation process. The velocity distributions of monomers in the relaxation process follow q-statistics with q ≥ 1. We find that the value of q and the limiting ratio of Γ* depend on kspring; in the strong strength limit, they approach those for the system, in which each polymer chain consists of monomers connected by rigid bonds; in the weak strength limit, Γ* and q approach 1 corresponding to Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. The thermal contact between polymer chains and the fluid in our simulated systems provides a good basis for further study on the concept of temperature and the effective number of degrees of freedom in heterogeneous soft-matter systems.

  14. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor’s initial investment—i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game—from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person’s initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange. PMID:25274577

  15. How to trust a perfect stranger: predicting initial trust behavior from resting-state brain-electrical connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien; Anderl, Christine; Teckentrup, Vanessa; Kaßecker, Anja; Windmann, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocal exchanges can be understood as the updating of an initial belief about a partner. This initial level of trust is essential when it comes to establishing cooperation with an unknown partner, as cooperation cannot arise without a minimum of trust not justified by previous successful exchanges with this partner. Here we demonstrate the existence of a representation of the initial trust level before an exchange with a partner has occurred. Specifically, we can predict the Investor's initial investment--i.e. his initial level of trust toward the unknown trustee in Round 1 of a standard 10-round Trust Game-from resting-state functional connectivity data acquired several minutes before the start of the Trust Game. Resting-state functional connectivity is, however, not significantly associated with the level of trust in later rounds, potentially mirroring the updating of the initial belief about the partner. Our results shed light on how the initial level of trust is represented. In particular, we show that a person's initial level of trust is, at least in part, determined by brain electrical activity acquired well before the beginning of an exchange.

  16. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    PubMed

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  17. Anatomy Adventure: A Board Game for Enhancing Understanding of Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy…

  18. The Anatomy of Anatomy: A Review for Its Modernization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience.…

  19. Connecting with Different Audiences: The Anatomy of Communication is Essential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Darrell J. R.

    2013-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, communication has become truly global. Advances in technology have opened up a host of ways in which we are able to communicate to retrieve or pass on information and knowledge. In many cases we have moved from a place-based communication approach to one of increasing mobility. With this shift in approach, it is…

  20. Trachea: anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Brand-Saberi, Beate E M; Schäfer, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    The windpipe (trachea) is a tube of 12 cm length connecting the larynx to the principal bronchi that lead to the lungs. The main functions of the trachea comprise air flow into the lungs, mucociliary clearance, and humidification and warming of air. Mucociliary clearance is achieved by kinocilia and goblet cells in the mucosa, and by tracheal glands. The trachea develops from the endodermal lining of the foregut in interaction with the visceral mesoderm. During adult life, different types of stem cells reside in the mucosal epithelium and glandular ducts. Recently, cholinergic chemosensory cells have been described in the trachea.

  1. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    PubMed

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  2. On the Anatomy of Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Josephson, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In search for the nature of understanding of basic science in a clinical context, eight medical students were interviewed, with a focus on their view of the discipline of anatomy, in their fourth year of study. Interviews were semi-structured and took place just after the students had finished their surgery rotations. Phenomenographic analysis was…

  3. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  4. Functional Anatomy of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Glenn C.; Chopp, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Movements of the human shoulder represent the result of a complex dynamic interplay of structural bony anatomy and biomechanics, static ligamentous and tendinous restraints, and dynamic muscle forces. Injury to 1 or more of these components through overuse or acute trauma disrupts this complex interrelationship and places the shoulder at increased risk. A thorough understanding of the functional anatomy of the shoulder provides the clinician with a foundation for caring for athletes with shoulder injuries. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE for the years 1980 to 1999, using the key words “shoulder,” “anatomy,” “glenohumeral joint,” “acromioclavicular joint,” “sternoclavicular joint,” “scapulothoracic joint,” and “rotator cuff.” Data Synthesis: We examine human shoulder movement by breaking it down into its structural static and dynamic components. Bony anatomy, including the humerus, scapula, and clavicle, is described, along with the associated articulations, providing the clinician with the structural foundation for understanding how the static ligamentous and dynamic muscle forces exert their effects. Commonly encountered athletic injuries are discussed from an anatomical standpoint. Conclusions/Recommendations: Shoulder injuries represent a significant proportion of athletic injuries seen by the medical provider. A functional understanding of the dynamic interplay of biomechanical forces around the shoulder girdle is necessary and allows for a more structured approach to the treatment of an athlete with a shoulder injury. PMID:16558636

  5. Orbital anatomy for the surgeon.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Timothy A; Golden, Brent A

    2012-11-01

    An anatomic description of the orbit and its contents and the eyelids directed toward surgeons is the focus of this article. The bone and soft tissue anatomic nuances for surgery are highlighted, including a section on osteology, muscles, and the orbital suspensory system. Innervation and vascular anatomy are also addressed.

  6. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A

    SciTech Connect

    Chopade, Prashant D.; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E.; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Myerson, Allan S.; Simpson, Jeffrey; Fry, John C.; Biermann, Kari L.; Yurttas, Nese

    2015-12-28

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described.

  7. On the connection between nonmonotonic taste behavior and molecular conformation in solution: The case of rebaudioside-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopade, Prashant D.; Sarma, Bipul; Santiso, Erik E.; Simpson, Jeffrey; Fry, John C.; Yurttas, Nese; Biermann, Kari L.; Chen, Jie; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Myerson, Allan S.

    2015-12-01

    The diterpene steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. This compound shows a parabolic change in sweet taste intensity with temperature which contrasts with the general finding for other synthetic or natural sweeteners whose sweet taste increases with temperature. The nonmonotonic taste behavior was determined by sensory analysis using large taste panels. The conformational landscape of rebaudioside A was established at a range of temperatures by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between various conformations and the observed sweetness of rebaudioside A is described.

  8. Anatomy of the optic nerve head and glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of axon damage in eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy remains undefined. Interestingly, it has been observed that, although the entire nerve cross-section may be involved by the nerve damage, in many instances, the superior and inferior axon bundles are preferentially affected by the pressure insult. Thus, recent studies by many investigators have stressed a re-examination of the optic nerve head anatomy, including the nerve head microcirculation, the glial and connective tissue elements within the nerve head, and the morphology of the axons themselves. Any correlation between regional differences in this anatomy and the preferential involvement by specific axon bundles within the nerve head by the pressure insult may suggest some further insight into the mechanisms underlying the pressure-induced axon loss in glaucomatous eyes.

  9. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  10. Practical anatomy of the carpal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Rotman, Mitchell B; Donovan, James P

    2002-05-01

    The carpal tunnel is most narrow at the level of the hook of the hamate. The median nerve is the most superficial structure. It has specific relationships to surrounding structures within the carpal tunnel to the ulnar bursa, flexor tendons, and endoscopic devices placed inside the canal. The importance of the ring finger axis is stressed. Knowledge of topographical landmarks that mark the borders of the carpal tunnel, the hook of the hamate, superficial arch, and thenar branch of the median nerve ensure appropriate incision placement for endoscopic as well as open carpal tunnel release surgery. Anatomy of the transverse carpal ligament, its layers and relationships to adjacent structures including the fad pad, Guyon's canal, palmar fascia, and thenar muscles has been discussed. Fibers derived primarily from thenar muscle fascia with connections to the hypothenar muscle fascia and dorsal fascia of the palmaris brevis form a separate fascial layer directly palmar to the TCL and can be retained. This helps to preserve postoperative pinch strength. The fat pad in line with the ring finger axis overlaps the deep surface of the distal edge of the TCL and must be retracted in order to visualize the distal end of the ligament. Whereas the ulnar artery within Guyon's canal is frequently located radial to the hook of the hamate, injury to this structure has not been a problem during ECTR surgery. Variations of the median nerve and its branches, as well as the palmar cutaneous nerve distribution, have been reviewed. A rare ulnar-sided thenar branch from the median nerve, interconnecting branches between the ulnar and median nerves located just distal to the end of the TCL, and transverse ulnar-based cutaneous nerves can be injured during open or ECTR surgery. Anomalous muscles, tendons or interconnections, and the lumbricals during finger flexion may be seen within the carpal tunnel. These structures can be the cause of compression of the median nerve. The anatomy of the

  11. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    PubMed Central

    Vithoosan, S.; Kokulan, S.; Dissanayake, M. M.; Dissanayake, Vajira; Jayasekara, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n = 77, 48.4%) was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n = 82, 51.6%) was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P < 0.05, CI 95%). Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better. PMID:27579181

  12. Reward Contingencies Improve Goal-Directed Behavior by Enhancing Posterior Brain Attentional Regions and Increasing Corticostriatal Connectivity in Cocaine Addicts.

    PubMed

    Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Costumero, Víctor; Llopis-Llacer, Juan-José; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake. We examine how the magnitude of the reward affects goal-directed processes in healthy control (HC) subjects and abstinent cocaine dependent (ACD) patients by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a counting Stroop task with blocked levels of monetary incentives of different magnitudes (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5). Our results showed that increasing reward magnitude enhances (1) performance facilitation in both groups; (2) left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in HC and left superior occipital cortex activity in ACD; and (3) left DLPFC and left putamen connectivity in ACD compared to HC. Moreover, we observed that (4) dorsal striatal and pallidum activity was associated with craving and addiction severity during the parametric increases in the monetary reward. In conclusion, the brain response to gradients in monetary value was different in HC and ACD, but both groups showed improved task performance due to the possibility of obtaining greater monetary rewards.

  13. Reward Contingencies Improve Goal-Directed Behavior by Enhancing Posterior Brain Attentional Regions and Increasing Corticostriatal Connectivity in Cocaine Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Costumero, Víctor; Llopis-Llacer, Juan-José; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user’s loss of control over his/her drug intake. We examine how the magnitude of the reward affects goal-directed processes in healthy control (HC) subjects and abstinent cocaine dependent (ACD) patients by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a counting Stroop task with blocked levels of monetary incentives of different magnitudes (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5). Our results showed that increasing reward magnitude enhances (1) performance facilitation in both groups; (2) left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in HC and left superior occipital cortex activity in ACD; and (3) left DLPFC and left putamen connectivity in ACD compared to HC. Moreover, we observed that (4) dorsal striatal and pallidum activity was associated with craving and addiction severity during the parametric increases in the monetary reward. In conclusion, the brain response to gradients in monetary value was different in HC and ACD, but both groups showed improved task performance due to the possibility of obtaining greater monetary rewards. PMID:27907134

  14. Anatomy of a Bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  15. Functional Connectivity of Basolateral Amygdala Neurons Carrying Orexin Receptors and Melanin-concentrating Hormone Receptors in Regulating Sociability and Mood-related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress induces changes in neuronal functions in specific brain regions regulating sociability and mood-related behaviors. Recently we reported that stress-induced persistent upregulation of the neuropeptides orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the resulting activation of orexin receptors or MCH receptors within the BLA produced deficits in sociability and mood-related behaviors. In the present study, we investigated the neural targets that were innervated by BLA neurons containing orexin receptors or MCH receptors. The viral vector system AAV2-CaMKII-ChR2-eYFP was injected into the BLA to trace the axonal tracts of BLA neurons. This axon labeling analysis led us to identify the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure, habenula, CA3 pyramidal neurons, central amygdala, and ventral hippocampus as the neuroanatomical sites receiving synaptic inputs of BLA neurons. Focusing on these regions, we then carried out stimulus-dependent c-Fos induction analysis after activating orexin receptors or MCH receptors of BLA neurons. Stereotaxic injection of an orexin receptor agonist or an MCH receptor agonist in the BLA induced c-Fos expression in the NAc, PVN, central amygdala, ventral hippocampus, lateral habenula and lateral hypothalamus, which are all potentially important for depression-related behaviors. Among these neural correlates, the NAc, PVN and central amygdala were strongly activated by stimulation of orexin receptors or MCH receptors in the BLA, whereas other BLA targets were differentially and weakly activated. These results identify a functional connectivity of BLA neurons regulated by orexin and MCH receptor systems in sociability and mood-related behaviors. PMID:28035181

  16. FASTGRASS implementation in BISON and Fission gas behavior characterization in UO2 and connection to validating MARMOT

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Di; Mo, Kun; Ye, Bei; Jamison, Laura M.; Miao, Yinbin; Lian, Jie; Yao, Tiankei

    2015-09-30

    This activity is supported by the US Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Product Line (FPL). Two major accomplishments in FY 15 are summarized in this report: (1) implementation of the FASTGRASS module in the BISON code; and (2) a Xe implantation experiment for large-grained UO2. Both BISON AND MARMOT codes have been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to enable next generation fuel performance modeling capability as part of the NEAMS Program FPL. To contribute to the development of the Moose-Bison-Marmot (MBM) code suite, we have implemented the FASTGRASS fission gas model as a module in the BISON code. Based on rate theory formulations, the coupled FASTGRASS module in BISON is capable of modeling LWR oxide fuel fission gas behavior and fission gas release. In addition, we conducted a Xe implantation experiment at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) in order to produce the needed UO2 samples with desired bubble morphology. With these samples, further experiments to study the fission gas diffusivity are planned to provide validation data for the Fission Gas Release Model in MARMOT codes.

  17. The influence of contact conditions and micromotions on the fretting behavior of modular titanium alloy taper connections.

    PubMed

    Baxmann, M; Jauch, S Y; Schilling, C; Blömer, W; Grupp, T M; Morlock, M M

    2013-05-01

    Modularity of femoral stems and neck components has become a more frequently used tool for an optimized restoration of the hip joint center and improvement of patient biomechanics. The additional taper interface increases the risk of mechanical failure due to fretting and crevice corrosion. Several failures of titanium alloy neck adapters have been documented in case-reports. An experimental fretting device was developed in this study to systematically investigate the effect of micromotion and contact pressure on fretting damage in contact situations similar to taper interfaces of modular hip prostheses under cyclic loading representative of in vivo load conditions. As a first application, the fretting behavior of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy components was investigated. Micromotions were varied between 10μm and 50μm, maximum contact pressures between 400 and 860N/mm(2). All modes of fretting damage were observed: Fretting wear was found for high micromotions in combination with low contact pressures. Fretting fatigue occurred with reduced movement or increased contact pressures. With small micromotions or high normal pressures, low fretting damage was observed. The developed device can be used to evaluate taper design (and especially contact geometry) as well as different materials prior to clinical use.

  18. Controlling the vocabulary for anatomy.

    PubMed Central

    Baud, R. H.; Lovis, C.; Rassinoux, A. M.; Ruch, P.; Geissbuhler, A.

    2002-01-01

    When confronted with the representation of human anatomy, natural language processing (NLP) system designers are facing an unsolved and frequent problem: the lack of a suitable global reference. The available sources in electronic format are numerous, but none fits adequately all the constraints and needs of language analysis. These sources are usually incomplete, difficult to use or tailored to specific needs. The anatomist's or ontologist's view does not necessarily match that of the linguist. The purpose of this paper is to review most recognized sources of knowledge in anatomy usable for linguistic analysis. Their potential and limits are emphasized according to this point of view. Focus is given on the role of the consensus work of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) giving the Terminologia Anatomica. PMID:12463780

  19. Effects of a behavioral intervention to reduce serodiscordant unsafe sex among HIV positive Men who have Sex with Men: The Positive Connections randomized controlled trial study

    PubMed Central

    Simon Rosser, B. R.; Hatfield, Laura A.; Miner, Michael H.; Ghiselli, Margherita E.; Lee, Brian R.; Welles, Seth L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Few behavioral interventions have been conducted to reduce high-risk sexual behavior among HIV-positive Men who have Sex with Men (HIV+MSM). Hence, we lack well-proven interventions for this population. Methods Positive Connections is a randomized controlled trial (n=675 HIV+MSM) comparing the effects of two sexual health seminars – for HIV+MSM and all MSM – with a contrast prevention video arm. Baseline, 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-up surveys assessed important psychosexual variables and frequency of serodiscordant unprotected anal intercourse (SDUAI). Results At post-test, intentions to avoid transmission were significantly higher in the sexual health arms. However, SDUAI frequency decreased equally across all arms, from 15.0 at baseline to 11.5 at 18 months. HIV+MSM engaging in SDUAI at baseline were more likely to leave the study. Discussion Tailoring interventions to HIV+MSM does not appear to increase the effectiveness of HIV prevention. A sexual health approach appears no more effective than video-based HIV prevention. PMID:20101454

  20. Connecting Urban Youth with their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the environment. We interviewed 12 students to better understand their beliefs. Although student responses showed they had learned discrete content knowledge, they lacked any ecological understanding of the environment and had mixed perceptions of the course's relevance in their lives. Students reported doing pro-environmental behaviors, but overwhelmingly contributed such actions to influences other than the urban ecology course. Analyses indicated a disconnect between the course, the environment, and the impact on the students' lives. Consequently, this suggests the importance of recognizing the implications of context, culture, and identity development of urban youth. Perhaps by providing explicit connections and skills in urban environmental programs through engaging students in environmental scientific investigations that stem from their own issues and questions can increase student engagement, motivation, and self-efficacy of environmental issues.

  1. [Surgical anatomy of the nose].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Jallut, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the nose is an essential prerequisite for preoperative analysis and the understanding of surgical techniques. Like a tent supported by its frame, the nose is an osteo-chondral structure covered by a peri-chondroperiosteal envelope, muscle and cutaneous covering tissues. For didactic reasons, we have chosen to treat this chapter in the form of comments from eight key configurations that the surgeon should acquire before performing rhinoplasty.

  2. A visual analysis of gender bias in contemporary anatomy textbooks.

    PubMed

    Parker, Rhiannon; Larkin, Theresa; Cockburn, Jon

    2017-05-01

    Empirical research has linked gender bias in medical education with negative attitudes and behaviors in healthcare providers. Yet it has been more than 20 years since research has considered the degree to which women and men are equally represented in anatomy textbooks. Furthermore, previous research has not explored beyond quantity of representation to also examine visual gender stereotypes and, in light of theoretical advancements in the area of intersectional research, the relationship between representations of gender and representations of ethnicity, body type, health, and age. This study aimed to determine the existence and representation of gender bias in the major anatomy textbooks used at Australian Medical Schools. A systematic visual content analysis was conducted on 6044 images in which sex/gender could be identified, sourced from 17 major anatomy textbooks published from 2008 to 2013. Further content analysis was performed on the 521 narrative images, which represent an unfolding story, found within the same textbooks. Results indicate that the representation of gender in images from anatomy textbooks remain predominantly male except within sex-specific sections. Further, other forms of bias were found to exist in: the visualization of stereotypical gendered emotions, roles and settings; the lack of ethnic, age, and body type diversity; and in the almost complete adherence to a sex/gender binary. Despite increased attention to gender issues in medicine, the visual representation of gender in medical curricula continues to be biased. The biased construction of gender in anatomy textbooks designed for medical education provides future healthcare providers with inadequate and unrealistic information about patients.

  3. Anatomy of the infant head

    SciTech Connect

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ.

  4. New insights into dinosaur jaw muscle anatomy.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Casey M

    2009-09-01

    Jaw muscles are key components of the head and critical to testing hypotheses of soft-tissue homology, skull function, and evolution. Dinosaurs evolved an extraordinary diversity of cranial forms adapted to a variety of feeding behaviors. However, disparate evolutionary transformations in head shape and function among dinosaurs and their living relatives, birds and crocodylians, impair straightforward reconstructions of muscles, and other important cephalic soft tissues. This study presents the osteological correlates and inferred soft tissue anatomy of the jaw muscles and relevant neurovasculature in the temporal region of the dinosaur head. Hypotheses of jaw muscle homology were tested across a broad range archosaur and sauropsid taxa to more accurately infer muscle attachments in the adductor chambers of non-avian dinosaurs. Many dinosaurs likely possessed m. levator pterygoideus, a trait shared with lepidosaurs but not extant archosaurs. Several major clades of dinosaurs (e.g., Ornithopoda, Ceratopsidae, Sauropoda) eliminated the epipterygoid, thus impacting interpretations of m. pseudotemporalis profundus. M. pseudotemporalis superficialis most likely attached to the caudoventral surface of the laterosphenoid, a trait shared with extant archosaurs. Although mm. adductor mandibulae externus profundus and medialis likely attached to the caudal half of the dorsotemporal fossa and coronoid process, clear osteological correlates separating the individual bellies are rare. Most dinosaur clades possess osteological correlates indicative of a pterygoideus ventralis muscle that attaches to the lateral surface of the mandible, although the muscle may have extended as far as the jugal in some taxa (e.g., hadrosaurs, tyrannosaurs). The cranial and mandibular attachments of mm adductor mandibulae externus superficialis and adductor mandibulae posterior were consistent across all taxa studied. These new data greatly increase the interpretive resolution of head anatomy in

  5. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans, and physician competencies, because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be connected with a mission for professional acculturation. PMID:27990464

  6. Anatomy of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Gonzales, M

    1981-12-01

    Light microscopy of specimens of human eyes cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa showed variation in structural anatomy, as demonstrated previously in certain primate eyes. Connective tissue and glial cell structural elements were greater in nasal-temporal as compared with inferior and superior quadrants of the disc. This regional variation suggests a hypothesis for the specificity of early patterns of optic nerve dysfunction characteristic of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In glaucomatous eyes, nerve head regions with relatively less structural tissue elements may yield early to detrimental effects of persistent pressure elevation.

  7. The Sphenopalatine Ganglion: Anatomy, Pathophysiology, and Therapeutic Targeting in Headache.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew S; Robertson, Carrie E; Kaplan, Eugene; Ailani, Jessica; Charleston, Larry; Kuruvilla, Deena; Blumenfeld, Andrew; Berliner, Randall; Rosen, Noah L; Duarte, Robert; Vidwan, Jaskiran; Halker, Rashmi B; Gill, Nicole; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2016-02-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) has attracted the interest of practitioners treating head and face pain for over a century because of its anatomical connections and role in the trigemino-autonomic reflex. In this review, we discuss the anatomy of the SPG, as well as what is known about its role in the pathophysiology of headache disorders, including cluster headache and migraine. We then address various therapies that target the SPG, including intranasal medication delivery, new SPG blocking catheter devices, neurostimulation, chemical neurolysis, and ablation procedures.

  8. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  9. Reduced connectivity and inter-hemispheric symmetry of the sensory system in a rat model of vulnerability to developing depression.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shimol, E; Gass, N; Vollmayr, B; Sartorius, A; Goelman, G

    2015-12-03

    Defining the markers corresponding to a high risk of developing depression in humans would have major clinical significance; however, few studies have been conducted since they are not only complex but also require homogeneous groups. This study compared congenital learned helpless (cLH) rats, selectively bred for high stress sensitivity and learned helplessness (LH) behavior, to congenital non-learned helpless (cNLH) rats that were bred for resistance to uncontrollable stress. Naïve cLH rats show some depression-like behavior but full LH behavior need additional stress, making this model ideal for studying vulnerability to depression. Resting-state functional connectivity obtained from seed correlation analysis was calculated for multiple regions that were selected by anatomy AND by a data-driven approach, independently. Significance was determined by t-statistic AND by permutation analysis, independently. A significant reduction in functional connectivity was observed by both analyses in the cLH rats in the sensory, motor, cingulate, infralimbic, accumbens and the raphe nucleus. These reductions corresponded primarily to reduced inter-hemispheric connectivity. The main reduction however was in the sensory system. It is argued that reduced connectivity and inter-hemispheric connectivity of the sensory system reflects an internal convergence state which may precede other depressive symptomatology and therefore could be used as markers for vulnerability to the development of depression.

  10. Anatomy and efficiency of urban multimodal mobility

    PubMed Central

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The growth of transportation networks and their increasing interconnections, although positive, has the downside effect of an increasing complexity which make them difficult to use, to assess, and limits their efficiency. On average in the UK, 23% of travel time is lost in connections for trips with more than one mode, and the lack of synchronization decreases very slowly with population size. This lack of synchronization between modes induces differences between the theoretical quickest trip and the ‘time-respecting' path, which takes into account waiting times at interconnection nodes. We analyse here the statistics of these paths on the multilayer, temporal network of the entire, multimodal british public transportation system. We propose a statistical decomposition – the ‘anatomy' – of trips in urban areas, in terms of riding, waiting and walking times, and which shows how the temporal structure of trips varies with distance and allows us to compare different cities. Weaknesses in systems can be either insufficient transportation speed or service frequency, but the key parameter controlling their global efficiency is the total number of stop events per hour for all modes. This analysis suggests the need for better optimization strategies, adapted to short, long unimodal or multimodal trips. PMID:25371238

  11. Microscopic functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the features of the fish integument can only be observed microscopically. Because there are over 20,000 living fishes, mostly higher bony fishes (teleosts), a great diversity exists in the microscopic anatomy of the integument. This chapter presents several examples from varied taxonomic groups to illustrate the variation in morphological features. As in all vertebrate epidermis, the fundamental structural unit is the epithelial cell. This is the only constant feature, as a great diversity of cell types exists in the various fish taxa. Some of these include apocrine mucous cells and a variety of other secretory cells, ionocytes, sensory cells, and wandering cells such as leukocytes. The dermis consists essentially of two sets of collagen fibers arranged in opposing geodesic spirals around the body. The dermis of most fishes is divided into two major layers. The upper (outer) layer, the stratum spongiosum or stratum laxum, is a loose network of connective tissue, whereas the lower layer, the stratum compactum, is a dense layer consisting primarily of orthogonal collagen bands. There are also specialized dermal elements such as chromatophores scales, and fin rays.

  12. Comparative anatomy and histology of xenarthran osteoderms.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert V

    2006-12-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissues in fossil vertebrates is an enduring challenge for paleontologists. Because inferences must be based on evidence from hard tissues (typically bones or teeth), even the most complete fossils provide only limited information about certain organ systems. Osteoderms ("dermal armor") are integumentary bones with high fossilization potential that hold information about the anatomy of the skin in many extant and fossil amniotes. Their importance for functional morphology and phylogenetic research has recently been recognized, but studies have focused largely upon reptiles, in which osteoderms are most common. Among mammals, osteoderms occur only in members of the clade Xenarthra, which includes armadillos and their extinct relatives: glyptodonts, pampatheres, and, more distantly, ground sloths. Here, I present new information on the comparative morphology and histology of osteoderms and their associated soft tissues in 11 extant and fossil xenarthrans. Extinct mylodontid sloths possessed simple, isolated ossicles, the presence of which is likely plesiomorphic for Xenarthra. More highly derived osteoderms of glyptodonts, pampatheres, and armadillos feature complex articulations and surface ornamentation. Osteoderms of modern armadillos are physically associated with a variety of soft tissues, including nerve, muscle, gland, and connective tissue. In some cases, similar osteological features may be caused by two or more different tissue types, rendering soft-tissue inferences for fossil osteoderms equivocal. Certain osteological structures, however, are consistently associated with specific soft-tissue complexes and therefore represent a relatively robust foundation upon which to base soft-tissue reconstructions of extinct xenarthrans.

  13. BOLD Granger causality reflects vascular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Webb, J Taylor; Ferguson, Michael A; Nielsen, Jared A; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have tried to exploit subtle phase differences in BOLD time series to resolve the order of sequential activation of brain regions, or more generally the ability of signal in one region to predict subsequent signal in another region. More recently, such lag-based measures have been applied to investigate directed functional connectivity, although this application has been controversial. We attempted to use large publicly available datasets (FCON 1000, ADHD 200, Human Connectome Project) to determine whether consistent spatial patterns of Granger Causality are observed in typical fMRI data. For BOLD datasets from 1,240 typically developing subjects ages 7-40, we measured Granger causality between time series for every pair of 7,266 spherical ROIs covering the gray matter and 264 seed ROIs at hubs of the brain's functional network architecture. Granger causality estimates were strongly reproducible for connections in a test and replication sample (n=620 subjects for each group), as well as in data from a single subject scanned repeatedly, both during resting and passive video viewing. The same effect was even stronger in high temporal resolution fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project, and was observed independently in data collected during performance of 7 task paradigms. The spatial distribution of Granger causality reflected vascular anatomy with a progression from Granger causality sources, in Circle of Willis arterial inflow distributions, to sinks, near large venous vascular structures such as dural venous sinuses and at the periphery of the brain. Attempts to resolve BOLD phase differences with Granger causality should consider the possibility of reproducible vascular confounds, a problem that is independent of the known regional variability of the hemodynamic response.

  14. Gross anatomy of network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  15. After School: Connecting Children at Risk with Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors--An RWJF National Program. Program Results Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "After School: Connecting Children at Risk With Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors (After School)" helped develop intermediary organizations in Boston, Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area in order to create citywide systems of after-school programs. The…

  16. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  17. Frank Netter's Legacy: Interprofessional Anatomy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niekrash, Christine E.; Copes, Lynn E.; Gonzalez, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories:…

  18. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  19. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  20. Anatomy essentials for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is performed more and more nowadays. The anatomy of these procedures is totally different from traditional open procedures because they are performed from different direction and in different space. The important anatomy essentials for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair will be discussed in this article. PMID:27826575

  1. The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Unique Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard Wj; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies point towards differential connectivity patterns among basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala regions in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as compared with controls. Here we describe the first study to compare directly connectivity patterns of the BLA and CMA complexes between PTSD patients with and without the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS and PTSD-DS, respectively). Amygdala connectivity to regulatory prefrontal regions and parietal regions involved in consciousness and proprioception were expected to differ between these two groups based on differential limbic regulation and behavioral symptoms. PTSD patients (n=49) with (n=13) and without (n=36) the dissociative subtype and age-matched healthy controls (n=40) underwent resting-state fMRI. Bilateral BLA and CMA connectivity patterns were compared using a seed-based approach via SPM Anatomy Toolbox. Among patients with PTSD, the PTSD+DS group exhibited greater amygdala functional connectivity to prefrontal regions involved in emotion regulation (bilateral BLA and left CMA to the middle frontal gyrus and bilateral CMA to the medial frontal gyrus) as compared with the PTSD-DS group. In addition, the PTSD+DS group showed greater amygdala connectivity to regions involved in consciousness, awareness, and proprioception-implicated in depersonalization and derealization (left BLA to superior parietal lobe and cerebellar culmen; left CMA to dorsal posterior cingulate and precuneus). Differences in amygdala complex connectivity to specific brain regions parallel the unique symptom profiles of the PTSD subgroups and point towards unique biological markers of the dissociative subtype of PTSD.

  2. Cool & Connected

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Cool & Connected planning assistance program helps communities develop strategies and an action plan for using broadband to promote environmentally and economically sustainable community development.

  3. Anatomy of corpus callosum in prenatally malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Ricardo; Morgan, Carlos; Pérez, Hernán; Hernández, Alejandro; Aboitiz, Francisco; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Gil, Julio; Ortiz, Alexis; Flores, Osvaldo; Gimeno, Miguel; Laborda, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The effect of prenatal malnutrition on the anatomy of the corpus callosum was assessed in adult rats (45-52 days old). In the prenatally malnourished animals we observed a significant reduction of the corpus callosum total area, partial areas, and perimeter, as compared with normal animals. In addition, the splenium of corpus callosum (posterior fifth) showed a significant decrease of fiber diameters in the myelinated fibers without changing density. There was also a significant decrease in diameter and a significant increase in density of unmyelinated fibers. Measurements of perimeter's fractal dimensions from sagittal sections of the brain and corpus callosum did not show significant differences between malnourished and control animals. These findings indicate that cortico-cortical connections are vulnerable to the prenatal malnutrition, and suggest this may affect interhemispheric conduction velocity, particularly in visual connections (splenium).

  4. Neural Population Tuning Links Visual Cortical Anatomy to Human Visual Perception

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chen; Schwarzkopf, Dietrich Samuel; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Summary The anatomy of cerebral cortex is characterized by two genetically independent variables, cortical thickness and cortical surface area, that jointly determine cortical volume. It remains unclear how cortical anatomy might influence neural response properties and whether such influences would have behavioral consequences. Here, we report that thickness and surface area of human early visual cortices exert opposite influences on neural population tuning with behavioral consequences for perceptual acuity. We found that visual cortical thickness correlated negatively with the sharpness of neural population tuning and the accuracy of perceptual discrimination at different visual field positions. In contrast, visual cortical surface area correlated positively with neural population tuning sharpness and perceptual discrimination accuracy. Our findings reveal a central role for neural population tuning in linking visual cortical anatomy to visual perception and suggest that a perceptually advantageous visual cortex is a thinned one with an enlarged surface area. PMID:25619658

  5. Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to illustrate a process of making connections, not between mathematics and other activities, but within mathematics itself--between diverse parts of the subject. Novel connections are still possible in previously explored mathematics when the material happens to be unfamiliar, as may be the case for a learner at any career stage.…

  6. Connecting grain-scale physics to macroscopic granular flow behavior using discrete contact-dynamics simulations, centrifuge experiments, and continuum modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Meredith; Stark, Colin; Hung, Chi-Yao; Smith, Breannan; Grinspin, Eitan; Capart, Herve; Li, Liming; Crone, Timothy; Hsu, Leslie; Ling, Hoe

    2014-05-01

    A complete theoretical understanding of geophysical granular flow is essential to the reliable assessment of landslide and debris flow hazard and for the design of mitigation strategies, but several key challenges remain. Perhaps the most basic is a general treatment of the processes of internal energy dissipation, which dictate the runout velocity and the shape and scale of the affected area. Currently, dissipation is best described by macroscopic, empirical friction coefficients only indirectly related to the grain-scale physics. Another challenge is describing the forces exerted at the boundaries of the flow, which dictate the entrainment of further debris and the erosion of cohesive surfaces. While the granular effects on these boundary forces have been shown to be large compared to predictions from continuum approximations, the link between granular effects and erosion or entrainment rates has not been settled. Here we present preliminary results of a multi-disciplinary study aimed at improving our understanding of granular flow energy dissipation and boundary forces, through an effort to connect grain-scale physics to macroscopic behaviors. Insights into grain-scale force distributions and energy dissipation mechanisms are derived from discrete contact-dynamics simulations. Macroscopic erosion and flow behaviors are documented from a series of granular flow experiments, in which a rotating drum half-filled with grains is placed within a centrifuge payload, in order to drive effective gravity levels up to ~100g and approach the forces present in natural systems. A continuum equation is used to characterize the flowing layer depth and velocity resulting from the force balance between the down-slope pull of gravity and the friction at the walls. In this presentation we will focus on the effect of granular-specific physics such as force chain networks and grain-grain collisions, derived from the contact dynamics simulations. We will describe our efforts to

  7. The locomotor anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Stern, J T; Susman, R L

    1983-03-01

    The postcranial skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis from the Hadar Formation, Ethiopia, and the footprints from the Laetoli Beds of northern Tanzania, are analyzed with the goal of determining (1) the extent to which this ancient hominid practiced forms of locomotion other than terrestrial bipedality, and (2) whether or not the terrestrial bipedalism of A. afarensis was notably different from that of modern humans. It is demonstrated that A. afarensis possessed anatomic characteristics that indicate a significant adaptation for movement in the trees. Other structural features point to a mode of terrestrial bipedality that involved less extension at the hip and knee than occurs in modern humans, and only limited transfer of weight onto the medial part of the ball of the foot, but such conclusions remain more tentative than that asserting substantive arboreality. A comparison of the specimens representing smaller individuals, presumably female, to those of larger individuals, presumably male, suggests sexual differences in locomotor behavior linked to marked size dimorphism. The males were probably less arboreal and engaged more frequently in terrestrial bipedalism. In our opinion, A. afarensis from Hadar is very close to what can be called a "missing link." We speculate that earlier representatives of the A. afarensis lineage will present not a combination of arboreal and bipedal traits, but rather the anatomy of a generalized ape.

  8. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  9. Art, antiquarianism and early anatomy.

    PubMed

    Guest, Clare E L

    2014-12-01

    Discussions of the early relationship between art and anatomy are shaped by Vasari's account of Florentine artists who dissected bodies in order to understand the causes of movement, and the end of movement in action. This account eclipses the role of the study of antiquities in Renaissance anatomical illustration. Beyond techniques of presentation, such as sectioning and analytic illustration, or a preoccupation with the mutilated fragment, antiquarianism offered a reflection on the variant and the role of temperament which could be adapted for anatomical purposes. With its play on ambiguities of life and death, idealisation and damage, antiquarianism also provided a way of negotiating the difficulties of content inherent in anatomical illustration. As such, it goes beyond exclusively historical interest to provoke reflection on the modes, possibilities and humane responsibilities of medical illustration.

  10. Arterial anatomy of the thumb.

    PubMed

    Ames, E L; Bissonnette, M; Acland, R; Lister, G; Firrell, J

    1993-08-01

    The anatomical literature has indicated that the arterial supply to the thumb comes from the princeps pollicis artery. However, this simplified description does not often correlate with intraoperative findings. The purpose of this study was to investigate and clarify this important area of anatomy by dissection of fresh cadaver hands. 40 dissections were completed on 35 intravascularly injected and five non-injected hands. Five patterns were identified. The most common pattern showed both a superficial and deep vessel to the first web space in 54% of specimens. Dominant vessels included the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery in 8%, first palmar metacarpal artery in 18% and dorsal metacarpal artery in 8%. Only three specimens correlated with the textbook description. We conclude that the term "princeps pollicis" is actually a misnomer.

  11. Surgical anatomy of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, G; Lichtenegger, R

    1997-09-01

    Modern functionally oriented surgery of the larynx increasingly requires exact knowledge of the anatomy and landmarks of the endolaryngeal structures in relation to the laryngeal skeleton. Review of the literature reveals several opposing statements and controversial anatomical definitions regarding several clinically critical points. In order to obtain basic anatomical data morphological measurements were performed on a total of 50 laryngeal specimens. Measurements were taken on whole organs and on cuts in the horizontal and in the frontal plane, as well. The data were evaluated statistically, which resulted in the determination of average configurations and dimensions of cartilages and soft tissues of the larynx. In particular, the projection of the deeper structures on the surface and the distances and angles between the different structures were taken into consideration. In order to make these data clinically applicable a scale model has been developed that will allow a direct correlation and application for individual surgery.

  12. Ulnar intrinsic anatomy and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul C; Sforzo, Christopher R

    2005-01-01

    Normal hand function is a balance between the extrinsic and intrinsic musculature. Although individually the intrinsics are small muscles in diameter, collectively they represent a large muscle that contributes approximately 50% of grip strength. Dysfunction of the intrinsics consequently leads to impaired grip and pinch strength as well recognized deformities. Low ulnar nerve palsy preserves ulnar innervated extrinsics resulting in sensory loss, digital clawing, thumb deformity, abduction of the small finger, and asynchronous finger motion. High ulnar nerve palsy is characterized by the above plus paralysis of the ulnar profundi and the flexor carpi ulnaris. Understanding the normal anatomy allows the clinician to identify the site of the lesion and plan appropriate surgical intervention. This article revisits the classic work of Richard J. Smith on ulnar nerve palsy with contemporary perspective.

  13. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  14. Only Connect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMieux, Anne C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author connects with today's adolescent readers by means of laughter and literature. Claims young adult literature can facilitate the growth of empathy and provide an impetus for adolescents to transcend the isolation modern culture engenders. (NH)

  15. A systems biology representation of developmental anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Bard, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The formation of any tissue involves differentiation, cell dynamics and interactions with adjacent tissues. This paper suggests that the complexity of the system as a whole can be represented as a mathematical graph, that is, a set of connected triples of the general form [term] [term]. Computationally, such graphs are widely used for modeling data; visually, they form hierarchies and networks. For morphogenesis, the triples are of the general structure , where nouns cover tissues, molecules and networks and verbs describe processes such as moves, differentiates, grows and apoptoses. The paper considers the general formalism of graphs, where graphs are already used in biology, and how developmental anatomy may be described using this format. Representing morphogenesis as a visual graph is complicated as the formalism has to incorporate tissue types, molecular signals, networks, dynamic processes and some aspects, at least, of tissue geometry. The formation of a capillary sprout is chosen as an example of how this complexity can be represented graphically, with colour used to distinguish tissues and molecules. There are three key benefits, beyond its compactness, in using the graph formalism of morphogenesis to complement experimentation. First, it emphasizes the distributed nature of causality in morphogenesis. Secondly, producing all the triples for the visual graph requires explicit formalization of each aspect of the process, and this, in turn, often exposes gaps in knowledge and so suggests new experiments. Thirdly, once the graph has been formalized, triples can be annotated with associated information or IDs (e.g. cell types, publications, gene-expression data) that link to external online resources that may be regularly updated. Such annotations allow the graph to be viewed as a self-maintaining review. The graph approach sees dynamic processes as the drivers of developmental momentum and, because the same processes are

  16. A systems biology representation of developmental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bard, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    The formation of any tissue involves differentiation, cell dynamics and interactions with adjacent tissues. This paper suggests that the complexity of the system as a whole can be represented as a mathematical graph, that is, a set of connected triples of the general form [term] [term]. Computationally, such graphs are widely used for modeling data; visually, they form hierarchies and networks. For morphogenesis, the triples are of the general structure , where nouns cover tissues, molecules and networks and verbs describe processes such as moves, differentiates, grows and apoptoses. The paper considers the general formalism of graphs, where graphs are already used in biology, and how developmental anatomy may be described using this format. Representing morphogenesis as a visual graph is complicated as the formalism has to incorporate tissue types, molecular signals, networks, dynamic processes and some aspects, at least, of tissue geometry. The formation of a capillary sprout is chosen as an example of how this complexity can be represented graphically, with colour used to distinguish tissues and molecules. There are three key benefits, beyond its compactness, in using the graph formalism of morphogenesis to complement experimentation. First, it emphasizes the distributed nature of causality in morphogenesis. Secondly, producing all the triples for the visual graph requires explicit formalization of each aspect of the process, and this, in turn, often exposes gaps in knowledge and so suggests new experiments. Thirdly, once the graph has been formalized, triples can be annotated with associated information or IDs (e.g. cell types, publications, gene-expression data) that link to external online resources that may be regularly updated. Such annotations allow the graph to be viewed as a self-maintaining review. The graph approach sees dynamic processes as the drivers of developmental momentum and, because the same processes are

  17. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  18. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice.

  19. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colds Prevention Treatment Children Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose ... cm (3/8 inch) per minute. What a Common Cold Is A common cold is an illness caused ...

  20. Curricular Guidelines for Teaching Dental Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeson, Jeffrey; Buckman, James

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Dental Anatomy and Occlusion of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. (MLW)

  1. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment. PMID:27382498

  2. Normal anatomy of the skull base.

    PubMed

    Lustrin, E S; Robertson, R L; Tilak, S

    1994-08-01

    CT and MR imaging increasingly are being used for the evaluation of the skull base. New innovative techniques have revolutionized radiologic understanding of normal skull base anatomy. Thus, normal anatomic relationships with radiographic correlation are vital for accurate pathologic assessment.

  3. Structural connectivity allows for multi-threading during rest: the structure of the cortex leads to efficient alternation between resting state exploratory behavior and default mode processing.

    PubMed

    Senden, Mario; Goebel, Rainer; Deco, Gustavo

    2012-05-01

    Despite the absence of stimulation or task conditions the cortex exhibits highly structured spatio-temporal activity patterns. These patterns are known as resting state networks (RSNs) and emerge as low-frequency fluctuations (<0.1 Hz) observed in the fMRI signal of human subjects during rest. We are interested in the relationship between structural connectivity of the cortex and the fluctuations exhibited during resting conditions. We are especially interested in the effect of degree of connectivity on resting state dynamics as the default mode network (DMN) is highly connected. We find in experimental resting fMRI data that the DMN is the functional network that is most frequently active and for the longest time. In large-scale computational simulations of the cortex based on the corresponding underlying DTI/DSI based neuroanatomical connectivity matrix, we additionally find a strong correlation between the mean degree of functional networks and the proportion of time they are active. By artificially modifying different types of neuroanatomical connectivity matrices in the model, we were able to demonstrate that only models based on structural connectivity containing hubs give rise to this relationship. We conclude that, during rest, the cortex alternates efficiently between explorations of its externally oriented functional repertoire and internally oriented processing as a consequence of the DMN's high degree of connectivity.

  4. School Psychology Awareness: Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Andrea; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2011-01-01

    A day in the life of a student at school is filled with potential connections (relationships, linkages in learning, behavioral choices, etc.). Friendships with peers, relationships with teachers, acknowledgements from administrators, encouragement from coaches: These are all interpersonal connections that are essential not only to making school an…

  5. Device Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Morris, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have to take numerous factors/data into their therapeutic decisions in daily life. Connecting the devices they are using by feeding the data generated into a database/app is supposed to help patients to optimize their glycemic control. As this is not established in practice, the different roadblocks have to be discussed to open the road. That large telecommunication companies are now entering this market might be a big help in pushing this forward. Smartphones offer an ideal platform for connectivity solutions. PMID:25614015

  6. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  7. Molecular Anatomy of Palate Development.

    PubMed

    Potter, Andrew S; Potter, S Steven

    2015-01-01

    The NIH FACEBASE consortium was established in part to create a central resource for craniofacial researchers. One purpose is to provide a molecular anatomy of craniofacial development. To this end we have used a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA-Seq to define the gene expression programs driving development of the murine palate. We focused on the E14.5 palate, soon after medial fusion of the two palatal shelves. The palate was divided into multiple compartments, including both medial and lateral, as well as oral and nasal, for both the anterior and posterior domains. A total of 25 RNA-Seq datasets were generated. The results provide a comprehensive view of the region specific expression of all transcription factors, growth factors and receptors. Paracrine interactions can be inferred from flanking compartment growth factor/receptor expression patterns. The results are validated primarily through very high concordance with extensive previously published gene expression data for the developing palate. In addition selected immunostain validations were carried out. In conclusion, this report provides an RNA-Seq based atlas of gene expression patterns driving palate development at microanatomic resolution. This FACEBASE resource is designed to promote discovery by the craniofacial research community.

  8. Functional anatomy of the spine.

    PubMed

    Bogduk, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Among other important features of the functional anatomy of the spine, described in this chapter, is the remarkable difference between the design and function of the cervical spine and that of the lumbar spine. In the cervical spine, the atlas serves to transmit the load of the head to the typical cervical vertebrae. The axis adapts the suboccipital region to the typical cervical spine. In cervical intervertebrtal discs the anulus fibrosus is not circumferential but is crescentic, and serves as an interosseous ligament in the saddle joint between vertebral bodies. Cervical vertebrae rotate and translate in the sagittal plane, and rotate in the manner of an inverted cone, across an oblique coronal plane. The cervical zygapophysial joints are the most common source of chronic neck pain. By contrast, lumbar discs are well designed to sustain compression loads, but rely on posterior elements to limit axial rotation. Internal disc disruption is the most common basis for chronic low-back pain. Spinal muscles are arranged systematically in prevertebral and postvertebral groups. The intrinsic elements of the spine are innervated by the dorsal rami of the spinal nerves, and by the sinuvertebral nerves. Little modern research has been conducted into the structure of the thoracic spine, or the causes of thoracic spinal pain.

  9. Hair anatomy for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Sperling, L C

    1991-07-01

    The rational evaluation of hair disorders requires familiarity with follicular anatomy. Hair structure can be easily examined by studying clipped hair shafts, entire hairs gently pulled or forcibly plucked from the scalp, and scalp biopsies (sectioned vertically or transversely). Anatomic features will be different depending on whether a given hair is in the anagen, catagen, or telogen phase. Follicle size will also vary, from the minute vellus hair to the long, thick terminal hair. Each follicle can be divided into distinct regions--bulb, suprabulbar zone, isthmus, and infundibulum. Activity growing (anagen) hairs are characterized by a hair matrix surrounding a dermal papilla; inner and outer root sheaths are present and well developed. A catagen hair can be identified by its markedly thickened vitreous layer and fibrous root sheath, which surrounds an epithelial column; above this column, the presumptive club forms. A telogen hair is distinguished by its fully keratinized club, which is surrounded by an epithelial sac. Below this lies the secondary hair germ and condensed dermal papilla, waiting for the mysterious signal that initiates a new life cycle.

  10. Behavior Modification is not...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawney, James W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Identified are misconceptions of behavior modification procedures according to which behavior modification is connected mistakenly with noncontingent reinforcement, partial change of a teacher's behavior, decelerations of inappropriate behaviors only, dependency producing technology, teacher dominated activity, a single type of classroom…

  11. Towards an Elastographic Atlas of Brain Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Hirsch, Sebastian; Fehlner, Andreas; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Scheel, Michael; Braun, Juergen; Sack, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral viscoelastic constants can be measured in a noninvasive, image-based way by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for the detection of neurological disorders. However, MRE brain maps of viscoelastic constants are still limited by low spatial resolution. Here we introduce three-dimensional multifrequency MRE of the brain combined with a novel reconstruction algorithm based on a model-free multifrequency inversion for calculating spatially resolved viscoelastic parameter maps of the human brain corresponding to the dynamic range of shear oscillations between 30 and 60 Hz. Maps of two viscoelastic parameters, the magnitude and the phase angle of the complex shear modulus, |G*| and φ, were obtained and normalized to group templates of 23 healthy volunteers in the age range of 22 to 72 years. This atlas of the anatomy of brain mechanics reveals a significant contrast in the stiffness parameter |G*| between different anatomical regions such as white matter (WM; 1.252±0.260 kPa), the corpus callosum genu (CCG; 1.104±0.280 kPa), the thalamus (TH; 1.058±0.208 kPa) and the head of the caudate nucleus (HCN; 0.649±0.101 kPa). φ, which is sensitive to the lossy behavior of the tissue, was in the order of CCG (1.011±0.172), TH (1.037±0.173), CN (0.906±0.257) and WM (0.854±0.169). The proposed method provides the first normalized maps of brain viscoelasticity with anatomical details in subcortical regions and provides useful background data for clinical applications of cerebral MRE. PMID:23977148

  12. Connected Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David E.

    2000-01-01

    California has numerous niche programs stressing both academic rigor and career connections. These occur most successfully where business and elected officials support K-12 partnerships and provide job-shadowing opportunities, internships, and classroom instruction offered by business partners. A sidebar outlines school-to-work principles. (MLH)

  13. Learning Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Regina D.; Richards, Patricia O.

    2005-01-01

    In this edition of Learning Connections, the authors show how technology can enhance study of weather patterns, reading comprehension, real-world training, critical thinking, health education, and art criticism. The following sections are included: (1) Social Studies; (2) Language Arts; (3) Computer Science and ICT; (4) Art; and (5) Health.…

  14. Get Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Hagevik, Rita; Adkinson, Bennett; Parmly, Jilynn

    2013-01-01

    Technology can be both a blessing and a curse in the classroom. Although technology can provide greater access to information and increase student engagement, if screen time replaces time spent outside, then students stand to lose awareness and connectivity to the surrounding natural environment. This article describes how Google Earth can foster…

  15. The Open Anatomy Browser: A Collaborative Web-Based Viewer for Interoperable Anatomy Atlases

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Michael; Demeusy, Valentin; Kikinis, Ron

    2017-01-01

    The Open Anatomy Browser (OABrowser) is an open source, web-based, zero-installation anatomy atlas viewer based on current web browser technologies and evolving anatomy atlas interoperability standards. OABrowser displays three-dimensional anatomical models, image cross-sections of labeled structures and source radiological imaging, and a text-based hierarchy of structures. The viewer includes novel collaborative tools: users can save bookmarks of atlas views for later access and exchange those bookmarks with other users, and dynamic shared views allow groups of users can participate in a collaborative interactive atlas viewing session. We have published several anatomy atlases (an MRI-derived brain atlas and atlases of other parts of the anatomy) to demonstrate OABrowser’s functionality. The atlas source data, processing tools, and the source for OABrowser are freely available through GitHub and are distributed under a liberal open source license.

  16. The Open Anatomy Browser: A Collaborative Web-Based Viewer for Interoperable Anatomy Atlases.

    PubMed

    Halle, Michael; Demeusy, Valentin; Kikinis, Ron

    2017-01-01

    The Open Anatomy Browser (OABrowser) is an open source, web-based, zero-installation anatomy atlas viewer based on current web browser technologies and evolving anatomy atlas interoperability standards. OABrowser displays three-dimensional anatomical models, image cross-sections of labeled structures and source radiological imaging, and a text-based hierarchy of structures. The viewer includes novel collaborative tools: users can save bookmarks of atlas views for later access and exchange those bookmarks with other users, and dynamic shared views allow groups of users can participate in a collaborative interactive atlas viewing session. We have published several anatomy atlases (an MRI-derived brain atlas and atlases of other parts of the anatomy) to demonstrate OABrowser's functionality. The atlas source data, processing tools, and the source for OABrowser are freely available through GitHub and are distributed under a liberal open source license.

  17. Anatomy of the clitoris and the female sexual response.

    PubMed

    Pauls, Rachel N

    2015-04-01

    The clitoris may be the most pivotal structure for female sexual pleasure. While its significance has been reported for hundreds of years, no complete anatomical description was available until recently. Most of the components of the clitoris are buried under the skin and connective tissues of the vulva. It comprises an external glans and hood, and an internal body, root, crura, and bulbs; its overall size is 9-11 cm. Clitoral somatic innervation is via the dorsal nerve of the clitoris, a branch of the pudendal nerve, while other neuronal networks within the structure are complex. The clitoris is the center for orgasmic response and is embryologically homologous to the male penis. While the source of vaginal eroticism might or might not be exclusively clitoral stimulation, it is necessary to understand the intricate anatomy of the organ to assess the data in this regard. Ultimately, sexual enjoyment entails a balance of physical and emotional factors and should be encouraged.

  18. The anatomy and physiology of the ocular motor system.

    PubMed

    Horn, Anja K E; Leigh, R John

    2011-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of abnormal eye movements depends upon knowledge of the purpose, properties, and neural substrate of distinct functional classes of eye movement. Here, we summarize current concepts of the anatomy of eye movement control. Our approach is bottom-up, starting with the extraocular muscles and their innervation by the cranial nerves. Second, we summarize the neural circuits in the pons underlying horizontal gaze control, and the midbrain connections that coordinate vertical and torsional movements. Third, the role of the cerebellum in governing and optimizing eye movements is presented. Fourth, each area of cerebral cortex contributing to eye movements is discussed. Last, descending projections from cerebral cortex, including basal ganglionic circuits that govern different components of gaze, and the superior colliculus, are summarized. At each stage of this review, the anatomical scheme is used to predict the effects of lesions on the control of eye movements, providing clinical-anatomical correlation.

  19. Surgical anatomy of selected physes.

    PubMed

    Birch, J G; Herring, J A; Wenger, D R

    1984-03-01

    Recent advances have allowed successful resection of partial physeal arrest in children whose physes have been damaged by trauma, infection, irradiation, and other causes. Underlying physeal anatomy and the relationship of overlying structures to the physis are vital in preparing for precise surgical excision of the bony bar. The cadaver of a 5-year-old child was dissected with special emphasis on the surgical accessibility of the physes and adjacent metaphyses of the distal radius, distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal tibia and fibula. The physis of the distal radius was found to be completely extracapsular. The synovial reflection of the suprapatellar pouch obscured portions of the anterior, medial, and lateral aspects of the distal femur. The capsular attachment extended to the level of the physis anteriorly and posteriorly. The capsular attachment to the medial distal femur was more distal and peripheral than to the lateral. The insertion of the adductor magnus tendon medially and the intermuscular septum laterally served as landmarks to the level of the physis. The physis of the proximal tibia was completely extracapsular. The posterior aspects of the physis and the metaphysis were obscured in the midline by the popliteus muscle, and this posterolateral region was the least surgically accessible of any of the regions studied. The distal tibial physis was entirely extracapsular. The anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments inserted across the anterolateral and posterolateral aspects of the physis of the distal fibula. This physis on its medial aspect lay intraarticularly at the level of the articular cartilage of the distal tibia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Anatomy of the ward round.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient's narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient's right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  1. Functional anatomy and imaging of the foot.

    PubMed

    Ridola, C; Palma, A

    2001-01-01

    The foot is constituted from a series of small bones making a segmented structure with multiple joints, likened to a dome, in contact with the ground in three points: posteriorly the calcanear tuberosity; anteriorly and medially the head of 1st metatarsum, and anteriorly and laterally the head of 5th metatarsum. In fact, each foot presents a semi-arch whose base is represented by the lateral border and the summit by the medial border of the foot. The foot has been likened to a half-dome, so that when the medial borders of the two feet are placed together, a complete dome is formed. In the foot are present two longitudinal arches: the medial consists of the calcaneus, the talus, the navicular, the three cuneiform bones and the first three metatarsal bones. It is more arcuated and elastic then the lateral, that consist of the calcaneus, the cuboid and the 4th and 5th metatarsus. This is flattened and in contact with the ground. We can identify two transverse arches between longitudinal arches, extending from the medial to the lateral borders of the foot: the first is a lancet dome, between midfoot and forefoot, at the tarsometatarsal joint level; it consists of the bases of the metatarsal bones and the cuboid and the three cuneiform bones; the second is at flat dome, in correspondence of forefoot, at the metatarsophalangeal joint level; it consists of the bases of the proximal phalanges of the fingers and the head of five metatarsal bones. Longitudinal and transversal arches are supported from: the shape of stones of the structure (foot bones); the long and short plantar ligaments, larger and stronger than the dorsal ligaments, tie together the lower edges of the bones; a beam (the plantar aponeurosis and the plantar muscles and tendons) connecting the ends of the bridge effectively prevents separation of the pillars and consequent sagging of the arch; the maintenance of the arch depends on multiple support (ligaments, tendons of extrinsic muscles of the foot

  2. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

    2012-09-01

    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  3. Restructuring a basic science course for core competencies: an example from anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jeremy K; Lachman, Nirusha; Camp, Christopher L; Chen, Laura P; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    Medical schools revise their curricula in order to develop physicians best skilled to serve the public's needs. To ensure a smooth transition to residency programs, undergraduate medical education is often driven by the six core competencies endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME): patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning, interpersonal skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice. Recent curricular redesign at Mayo Medical School provided an opportunity to restructure anatomy education and integrate radiology with first-year gross and developmental anatomy. The resulting 6-week (120-contact-hour) human structure block provides students with opportunities to learn gross anatomy through dissection, radiologic imaging, and embryologic correlation. We report more than 20 educational interventions from the human structure block that may serve as a model for incorporating the ACGME core competencies into basic science and early medical education. The block emphasizes clinically-oriented anatomy, invites self- and peer-evaluation, provides daily formative feedback through an audience response system, and employs team-based learning. The course includes didactic briefing sessions and roles for students as teachers, leaders, and collaborators. Third-year medical students serve as teaching assistants. With its clinical focus and competency-based design, the human structure block connects basic science with best-practice clinical medicine.

  4. Visual Literacy in Primary Science: Exploring Anatomy Cross-Section Production Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, Beatriz; Ruiz-Gallardo, José Reyes

    2017-04-01

    Are children competent producing anatomy cross-sections? To answer this question, we carried out a case study research aimed at testing graphic production skills in anatomy of nutrition. The graphics produced by 118 children in the final year of primary education were analysed. The children had to draw a diagram of a human cross section, integrating knowledge of anatomy acquired from longitudinal sections. The results show that they have very limited skills in producing these graphics judging by the dimensions (scale, shape, organs represented and its organization inside the section) and their conception of human anatomy at thoracic level (location of the organs, elements in the spaces between them and connections between organs). The results also indicate that the only exposure to cross-sections in daily life is not enough by itself to draw them correctly, so this type of graphic production should be addressed from the earliest stages of education, since it contributes to the development of visual literacy, and this is a crucial skill when it comes to learning science concepts and developing scientific literacy.

  5. Visual Literacy in Primary Science: Exploring Anatomy Cross-Section Production Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, Beatriz; Ruiz-Gallardo, José Reyes

    2016-11-01

    Are children competent producing anatomy cross-sections? To answer this question, we carried out a case study research aimed at testing graphic production skills in anatomy of nutrition. The graphics produced by 118 children in the final year of primary education were analysed. The children had to draw a diagram of a human cross section, integrating knowledge of anatomy acquired from longitudinal sections. The results show that they have very limited skills in producing these graphics judging by the dimensions (scale, shape, organs represented and its organization inside the section) and their conception of human anatomy at thoracic level (location of the organs, elements in the spaces between them and connections between organs). The results also indicate that the only exposure to cross-sections in daily life is not enough by itself to draw them correctly, so this type of graphic production should be addressed from the earliest stages of education, since it contributes to the development of visual literacy, and this is a crucial skill when it comes to learning science concepts and developing scientific literacy.

  6. A preliminary survey of professionalism teaching practices in anatomy education among Indian Medical Colleges.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das

    2017-02-06

    Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical Council of India recently recommended the integration of professionalism teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. The authors investigated whether the initial orientation lectures and instructions given by faculty at the outset of undergraduate medical anatomy courses throughout India served a "hidden curriculum" regarding professionalism practices, and whether these orientation messages could serve as an early exposure to medical professionalism and ethics for medical students. An online survey was carried out among 102 anatomy faculty members across India requesting details about specific professionalism protocols and instructions regarding behavior in the dissection hall that are routinely given to preclinical students, as well as the importance that they placed on professional behavior. It was found that most faculty members regularly instruct students regarding expected behavior during the anatomy course, including dissection practices. These instructions stress attributes of professionalism like humanism, accountability, and honesty. However, there needs to be a more concentrated effort by educators to prohibit such unprofessional practices like dissection hall photography, and better information is required regarding biomedical waste disposal. Despite the absence of clear guidelines for professionalism teaching in medical education in India, the existing framework of anatomy education provides an opportunity to introduce the concept of professionalism to the first-year medical student. This opportunity may provide an early foundation for designing a professionalism-integrated curriculum. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016

  7. Contemporary art and the ethics of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2007-01-01

    The ethics of anatomy bears on the ways in which we present and behold human bodies and human remains, as well as on the duties we have with regard to the persons whose bodies or body parts are presented. Anatomy is also a mode of thought and of social organization. Following Merleau-Ponty's assertion that the human body belongs both to the particular and to the metaphysical, I contend that art's ways of rendering of the particular in human anatomy often bring into relief metaphysical and ethical insights relevant to clinical medicine. This paper discusses the art of Gideon Gechtman, Mary Ellen Mark, Shari Zolla, and Christine Borland. It considers the relationship of these artists to earlier artistic traditions and the implications of their work for contemporary medicine and the biopsychosocial paradigm. Andrew Wyeth, the Visible Male Project, the Isenheim Altarpiece by GrA(1/4)newald, and an anonymous Dutch Baroque portrait are also discussed.

  8. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    PubMed

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints.

  9. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the first person to perform systematic dissection of the human body and is widely acknowledged as the Father of Anatomy. He has been hailed as one of the greatest anatomists that ever lived, rivaled only by Andreas Vesalius who is regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy. PMID:21267401

  10. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  11. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control].

    PubMed

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  12. Anatomy of the ethmoid: CT, endoscopic, and macroscopic

    SciTech Connect

    Terrier, F.; Weber, W.; Ruefenacht, D.; Porcellini, B.

    1985-03-01

    The authors illustrate the normal CT anatomy of the ethmoid region and correlate it with the endoscopic and macroscopic anatomy to define landmarks that can be recognized on CT and during endoscopically controlled transnasal ethmoidectomy.

  13. Individual differences in white matter anatomy predict dissociable components of reading skill in adults.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Suzanne E; Joanisse, Marc F

    2014-08-01

    We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate relationships between white matter anatomy and different reading subskills in typical-reading adults. A series of analytic approaches revealed that phonological decoding ability is associated with anatomical markers that do not relate to other reading-related cognitive abilities. Thus, individual differences in phonological decoding might relate to connectivity between a network of cortical regions, while skills like sight word reading might rely less strongly on integration across regions. Specifically, manually-drawn ROIs and probabilistic tractography revealed an association between the volume and integrity of white matter underlying primary auditory cortex and nonword reading ability. In a related finding, more extensive cross-hemispheric connections through the isthmus of the corpus callosum predicted better phonological decoding. Atlas-based white matter ROIs demonstrated that relationships with nonword reading were strongest in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus that connect occipital and anterior temporal cortex with inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, tract volume underlying the left angular gyrus was related to nonverbal IQ. Finally, connectivity underlying functional ROIs that are differentially active during phonological and semantic processing predicted nonword reading and reading comprehension, respectively. Together, these results provide important insights into how white matter anatomy may relate to both typical reading subskills, and perhaps a roadmap for understanding neural connectivity in individuals with reading impairments.

  14. Anatomy of a Busted Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version (Figure 1)

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope captured the picture on the left of comet Holmes in March 2008, five months after the comet suddenly erupted and brightened a millionfold overnight. The contrast of the picture has been enhanced on the right to show the anatomy of the comet.

    Every six years, comet 17P/Holmes speeds away from Jupiter and heads inward toward the sun, traveling the same route typically without incident. However, twice in the last 116 years, in November 1892 and October 2007, comet Holmes mysteriously exploded as it approached the asteroid belt. Astronomers still do not know the cause of these eruptions.

    Spitzer's infrared picture at left hand side of figure 1, reveals fine dust particles that make up the outer shell, or coma, of the comet. The nucleus of the comet is within the bright whitish spot in the center, while the yellow area shows solid particles that were blown from the comet in the explosion. The comet is headed away from the sun, which lies beyond the right-hand side of figure 1.

    The contrast-enhanced picture on the right shows the comet's outer shell, and strange filaments, or streamers, of dust. The streamers and shell are a yet another mystery surrounding comet Holmes. Scientists had initially suspected that the streamers were small dust particles ejected from fragments of the nucleus, or from hyerpactive jets on the nucleus, during the October 2007 explosion. If so, both the streamers and the shell should have shifted their orientation as the comet followed its orbit around the sun. Radiation pressure from the sun should have swept the material back and away from it. But pictures of comet Holmes taken by Spitzer over time show the streamers and shell in the same configuration, and not pointing away from the sun. The observations have left astronomers stumped.

    The horizontal line seen in the contrast-enhanced picture is a trail of debris

  15. Role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility.

    PubMed

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; McLaren, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is defined as a couple's failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. The etiology of infertility can be due to female factors, male factors, combined male and female factors, or have an unknown etiology. This review focuses on the role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility. Normal anatomy and the physiology of reproduction will be discussed, as well as the anatomic and pathophysiologic processes that cause infertility including ovulatory disorders, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, tubal blockage, mullerian anomalies, and abnormalities affecting the uterine cavity such as leiomyomata and endometrial polyps.

  16. Relevant surgical anatomy of the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Babu V; Rajesh, Pala B

    2010-11-01

    The chest wall, like other regional anatomy, is a remarkable fusion of form and function. Principal functions are the protection of internal viscera and an expandable cylinder facilitating variable gas flow into the lungs. Knowledge of the anatomy of the whole cylinder (ribs, sternum, vertebra, diaphragm, intercostal spaces, and extrathoracic muscles) is therefore not only important in the local environment of a specific chest wall resection but also in its relation to overall function. An understanding of chest wall kinematics might help define the loss of function after resection and the effects of various chest wall substitutes. Therefore, this article is not an exhaustive anatomic description but a focused summary and discussion.

  17. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities.

    PubMed

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the pathophysiology, select optimal therapeutic options for patients and provide clients with honest expectations for cases of canine glaucoma, clinicians should be familiar with a rational understanding of the functional anatomy of the ocular structures involved in this group of diseases. The topographical extension and the structural and humoral complexity of the regions involved with the production and the outflow of aqueous humor undergo numerous changes with aging and disease. Therefore, the anatomy relative to the fluid dynamics of aqueous has become a pivotal yet flexible concept to interpret the different phenotypes of glaucoma.

  18. Anatomy and biomechanics of the craniovertebral junction.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Alejandro J; Scheer, Justin K; Leibl, Kayla E; Smith, Zachary A; Dlouhy, Brian J; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2015-04-01

    The craniovertebral junction (CVJ) has unique anatomical structures that separate it from the subaxial cervical spine. In addition to housing vital neural and vascular structures, the majority of cranial flexion, extension, and axial rotation is accomplished at the CVJ. A complex combination of osseous and ligamentous supports allow for stability despite a large degree of motion. An understanding of anatomy and biomechanics is essential to effectively evaluate and address the various pathological processes that may affect this region. Therefore, the authors present an up-to-date narrative review of CVJ anatomy, normal and pathological biomechanics, and fixation techniques.

  19. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations.

  20. [Lateral chest X-rays. Radiographic anatomy].

    PubMed

    García Villafañe, C; Pedrosa, C S

    2014-01-01

    Lateral chest views constitute an essential part of chest X-ray examinations, so it is fundamental to know the anatomy on these images and to be able to detect the variations manifested on these images in different diseases. The aim of this article is to review the normal anatomy and main normal variants seen on lateral chest views. For teaching purposes, we divide the thorax into different spaces and analyze each in an orderly way, especially emphasizing the anatomic details that are most helpful for locating lesions that have already been detected in the posteroanterior view or for detecting lesions that can be missed in the posteroanterior view.

  1. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  2. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  3. Perceptions of Anatomy Education--A Student's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joslin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Changes in anatomy education over the last two decades have, in large part, led to less emphasis on gross anatomy in the medical curriculum. This has led many to question whether streamlined anatomy courses truly provide adequate preparation for medical practice. Rather than wondering about the effects of these changes, we should be actively…

  4. Teaching Anatomy and Physiology Using Computer-Based, Stereoscopic Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jamie; Kuehn, David; Langlois, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Learning real three-dimensional (3D) anatomy for the first time can be challenging. Two-dimensional drawings and plastic models tend to over-simplify the complexity of anatomy. The approach described uses stereoscopy to create 3D images of the process of cadaver dissection and to demonstrate the underlying anatomy related to the speech mechanisms.…

  5. From synapses to behavior: development of a sensory-motor circuit in the leech.

    PubMed

    Marin-Burgin, Antonia; Kristan, William B; French, Kathleen A

    2008-05-01

    The development of neuronal circuits has been advanced greatly by the use of imaging techniques that reveal the activity of neurons during the period when they are constructing synapses and forming circuits. This review focuses on experiments performed in leech embryos to characterize the development of a neuronal circuit that produces a simple segmental behavior called "local bending." The experiments combined electrophysiology, anatomy, and FRET-based voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs). The VSDs offered two major advantages in these experiments: they allowed us to record simultaneously the activity of many neurons, and unlike other imaging techniques, they revealed inhibition as well as excitation. The results indicated that connections within the circuit are formed in a predictable sequence: initially neurons in the circuit are connected by electrical synapses, forming a network that itself generates an embryonic behavior and prefigures the adult circuit; later chemical synapses, including inhibitory connections, appear, "sculpting" the circuit to generate a different, mature behavior. In this developmental process, some of the electrical connections are completely replaced by chemical synapses, others are maintained into adulthood, and still others persist and share their targets with chemical synaptic connections.

  6. Connecting thermoelectric performance and topological-insulator behavior: Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te2Se from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Hongliang; Parker, David S.; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-20

    Thermoelectric performance is of interest for numerous applications such as waste-heat recovery and solid-state energy conversion and will be seen to be closely connected to topological-insulator behavior. In this paper, we here report first-principles transport and defect calculations for Bi2Te2Se in relation to Bi2Te3. The two compounds are found to contain remarkably different electronic structures in spite of being isostructural and isoelectronic. We also discuss these results in terms of the topological-insulator characteristics of these compounds.

  7. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  8. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc.

  9. Computerized grading of anatomy laboratory practical examinations.

    PubMed

    Krippendorf, Beth B; Bolender, David L; Kolesari, Gary L

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the items were anatomical structures that could be tagged on a given lab practical examination. Each lab exam featured an anatomy laboratory component and a computer laboratory component. For the anatomy lab component, students moved from one question station to another at timed intervals and identified tagged anatomical structures. As students identified a tagged structure, they referred to a copy of the list (provided with their answer sheet) and wrote the number corresponding to the structure on their answer sheet. Immediately after the anatomy lab component, students were escorted to a computer instruction laboratory where they typed their answer numbers into a secured testing component of a learning management system that recorded their answers for automatic grading. After a brief review of examination scores and item analysis by faculty, exam scores were reported to students electronically. Adding this brief computer component to each lab exam greatly reduced faculty grading time, reduced grading errors and provided faster performance feedback for students without changing overall student performance.

  10. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  11. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  12. Anatomy of the retinal nerve fiber layer.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; de Bruin, J

    1981-11-01

    Anatomy of the retinal nerve fiber layer in rabbit eyes is studied by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that retinal striations noted ophthalmoscopically in these eyes represent individual fiber bundles, Axon bundles are compartmentalized within tissue tunnels comprised of elongated processes of glial cell origin.

  13. Basic anatomy and physiology of pain pathways.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Sarah; Machado, Andre G; Nagel, Sean J

    2014-10-01

    This article provides an integrated review of the basic anatomy and physiology of the pain processing pathways. The transmission and parcellation of noxious stimuli from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system is discussed. In addition, the inhibitory and excitatory systems that regulate pain along with the consequences of dysfunction are considered.

  14. [The importance of bronchoscopic anatomy for anesthesiologists].

    PubMed

    Hoşten, Tülay; Topçu, Salih

    2011-01-01

    One-lung ventilation (OLV) is a sine qua non of thoracic surgery and requires knowledge and talent. Close familiarity with equipments used for OLV as well as bronchoscopy and respiratory tract anatomy is important for successful OLV. We aim to outline the bronchoscopic anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree and OLV equipment for anesthetists and thoracic surgeons in this review. The recorded preoperative and intraoperative bronchoscopic applications of the patients hospitalized in our Thoracic Surgery clinic for diagnosis and treatment have been evaluated from an anesthetist's perspective. Anatomic landmarks were identified in the bronchoscopic evaluation. Optimal and misplacement images of double-lumen tubes (DLT) and bronchial blockers (BB) used for OLV in our clinic were obtained via fiber optic bronchoscopy. While left lung isolation can be made more safely due to the anatomy of the left main bronchus, placement of both DLTs and BBs to the right main bronchus requires greater care. Success in OLV procedures would increase with anesthetists being well informed about the fiber optic bronchoscopic anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree and in close cooperation with the surgical team.

  15. Clinical anatomy of the periocular region.

    PubMed

    Shams, Pari N; Ortiz-Pérez, Santiago; Joshi, Naresh

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: (1) to provide the facial plastic surgeon with a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of periocular anatomy including the brow, midface, and temporal region and (2) to highlight important anatomical relationships that must be appreciated in order to achieve the best possible functional and aesthetic surgical outcomes.

  16. A Syllabus for Biol 242--Human Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.

    This document is the fall and spring semester course syllabus of Biology 242--Human Anatomy at Southern University (Louisiana). Sections include: (1) Descriptive Information; (2) Specification of Course Goals and Objectives; (3) Readings; (4) Description of Instructional Procedures; (5) Course Requirements; (6) Course Schedule; (7) Evaluation of…

  17. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  18. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review.

    PubMed

    Gavaghan, M

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  19. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy.

  20. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    PubMed

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients.

  1. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, David

    1995-01-01

    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  2. Teaching Cell Anatomy with a Fabric Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluka, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Middle schoolers are often first introduced to detailed cellular anatomy through one-dimensional drawings in basic life science books, fill-in-the blank handouts accompanied by notes from the teacher, or desktop hard-plastic commercial models that resemble giant lollipops. One of the most important, yet difficult, life science concepts for…

  3. Professional Storytelling in Clinical Dental Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class,…

  4. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  5. Broca's Area: Nomenclature, Anatomy, Typology and Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Simon S.; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural…

  6. The Hippocampal Rate Code: Anatomy, Physiology and Theory

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Omar J.; Mehta, Mayank R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of Cajal, the CA1 pyramidal cell has arguably received more attention than any other neuron in the mammalian brain. Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells fire spikes with remarkable spatial and temporal precision, giving rise to the hippocampal rate and temporal codes. However, little is known about how different inputs interact during spatial behavior to generate such robust firing patterns. Here, we review the properties of the rodent hippocampal rate code, and synthesize work from several disciplines to understand the functional anatomy and excitation-inhibition balance that can produce the rate coded outputs of the CA1 pyramidal cell. We argue that both CA3 and entorhinal inputs are crucial for the formation of sharp, sparse CA1 place fields and that precisely timed and dominant inhibition is an equally important factor. PMID:19406485

  7. Connectivity between the superior colliculus and the amygdala in humans and macaque monkeys: virtual dissection with probabilistic DTI tractography

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Kristin; Bultitude, Janet H.; Mullins, Paul; Ward, Robert; Mitchell, Anna S.; Bell, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that some cortically blind patients can process the emotional valence of visual stimuli via a fast, subcortical pathway from the superior colliculus (SC) that reaches the amygdala via the pulvinar. We provide in vivo evidence for connectivity between the SC and the amygdala via the pulvinar in both humans and rhesus macaques. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography revealed a streamlined path that passes dorsolaterally through the pulvinar before arcing rostrally to traverse above the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and connect to the lateral amygdala. To obviate artifactual connectivity with crossing fibers of the stria terminalis, the stria was also dissected. The putative streamline between the SC and amygdala traverses above the temporal horn dorsal to the stria terminalis and is positioned medial to it in humans and lateral to it in monkeys. The topography of the streamline was examined in relation to lesion anatomy in five patients who had previously participated in behavioral experiments studying the processing of emotionally valenced visual stimuli. The pulvinar lesion interrupted the streamline in two patients who had exhibited contralesional processing deficits and spared the streamline in three patients who had no deficit. Although not definitive, this evidence supports the existence of a subcortical pathway linking the SC with the amygdala in primates. It also provides a necessary bridge between behavioral data obtained in future studies of neurological patients, and any forthcoming evidence from more invasive techniques, such as anatomical tracing studies and electrophysiological investigations only possible in nonhuman species. PMID:26224780

  8. The sacroiliac joint: an overview of its anatomy, function and potential clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Vleeming, A; Schuenke, M D; Masi, A T; Carreiro, J E; Danneels, L; Willard, F H

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the (functional) anatomy and biomechanics of the pelvic girdle and specifically the sacroiliac joints (SIJs). The SIJs are essential for effective load transfer between the spine and legs. The sacrum, pelvis and spine, and the connections to the arms, legs and head, are functionally interrelated through muscular, fascial and ligamentous interconnections. A historical overview is presented on pelvic and especially SIJ research, followed by a general functional anatomical overview of the pelvis. In specific sections, the development and maturation of the SIJ is discussed, and a description of the bony anatomy and sexual morphism of the pelvis and SIJ is debated. The literature on the SIJ ligaments and innervation is discussed, followed by a section on the pathology of the SIJ. Pelvic movement studies are investigated and biomechanical models for SIJ stability analyzed, including examples of insufficient versus excessive sacroiliac force closure. PMID:22994881

  9. History of cardiac anatomy: a comprehensive review from the Egyptians to today.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Youssef, Pamela; Gielecki, Jerzy; Walocha, Jerzy; Natsis, Kostantinos; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-04-01

    The nature, function, and anatomy of the heart have been extensively studied since 3500 B.C. Greek and Egyptian science developed a basic understanding of the heart, although this was primarily related to religious beliefs. During the Hippocratic era, Hippocrates and his colleagues developed a more scientific and less religious understanding of the cardiovascular system. The post-Hippocratic era was characterized by more advanced descriptions of the location, structure, and function of the heart. The Alexandrian, Roman, Medieval Islamic, and European eras included turning points in the history of cardiac anatomy. Subsequently, after the structure and function of the heart were established, its connection with the lungs was investigated. Description of the pulmonary circulation was followed by the discovery of the conductive system and innervation of the heart.

  10. Osborne’s Ligament: A Review of its History, Anatomy, and Surgical Importance

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Andre; Iwanaga, Joe; Wilson, Thomas J; Yang, Lynda; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    When discussing the pathophysiology of ulnar neuropathy, Geoffrey Vaughan Osborne described a fibrous band that can be responsible for the symptoms seen in this disorder. In this paper, we take a glimpse at the life of Osborne and review the anatomy and surgical significance of Osborne’s ligament. This band of tissue connects the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris and thus forms the roof of the cubital tunnel. To our knowledge, no prior publication has reviewed the history of this ligament, and very few authors have studied its anatomy in any detail. Therefore, the aim of the present paper is to elucidate this structure that is often implicated and surgically transected to decompress the ulnar nerve at the elbow.

  11. The sacroiliac joint: an overview of its anatomy, function and potential clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Vleeming, A; Schuenke, M D; Masi, A T; Carreiro, J E; Danneels, L; Willard, F H

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on the (functional) anatomy and biomechanics of the pelvic girdle and specifically the sacroiliac joints (SIJs). The SIJs are essential for effective load transfer between the spine and legs. The sacrum, pelvis and spine, and the connections to the arms, legs and head, are functionally interrelated through muscular, fascial and ligamentous interconnections. A historical overview is presented on pelvic and especially SIJ research, followed by a general functional anatomical overview of the pelvis. In specific sections, the development and maturation of the SIJ is discussed, and a description of the bony anatomy and sexual morphism of the pelvis and SIJ is debated. The literature on the SIJ ligaments and innervation is discussed, followed by a section on the pathology of the SIJ. Pelvic movement studies are investigated and biomechanical models for SIJ stability analyzed, including examples of insufficient versus excessive sacroiliac force closure.

  12. MRI of the cranial nerves--more than meets the eye: technical considerations and advanced anatomy.

    PubMed

    Casselman, Jan; Mermuys, Koen; Delanote, Joost; Ghekiere, Johan; Coenegrachts, Kenneth

    2008-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the method of choice to evaluate the cranial nerves. Although the skull base foramina can be seen on CT, the nerves themselves can only be visualized in detail on MR. To see the different segments of nerves I to XII, the right sequences must be used. Detailed clinical information is needed by the radiologist so that a tailored MR study can be performed. In this article, MR principles for imaging of the cranial nerves are discussed. The basic anatomy of the cranial nerves and the cranial nerve nuclei as well as their central connections are discussed and illustrated briefly. The emphasis is on less known or more advanced extra-axial anatomy, illustrated with high-resolution MR images.

  13. Diffeomorphometry and geodesic positioning systems for human anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael I.; Younes, Laurent; Trouvé, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The Computational Anatomy project has largely been a study of large deformations within a Riemannian framework as an efficient point of view for generating metrics between anatomical configurations. This approach turns D’Arcy Thompson’s comparative morphology of human biological shape and form into a metrizable space. Since the metric is constructed based on the geodesic length of the flows of diffeomorphisms connecting the forms, we call it diffeomorphometry. Just as importantly, since the flows describe algebraic group action on anatomical submanifolds and associated functional measurements, they become the basis for positioning information, which we term geodesic positioning. As well the geodesic connections provide Riemannian coordinates for locating forms in the anatomical orbit, which we call geodesic coordinates. These three components taken together — the metric, geodesic positioning of information, and geodesic coordinates — we term the geodesic positioning system. We illustrate via several examples in human and biological coordinate systems and machine learning of the statistical representation of shape and form. PMID:24904924

  14. Anatomy of the nail unit and the nail biopsy.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2015-06-01

    The nail unit is the largest and a rather complex skin appendage. It is located on the dorsal aspect of the tips of fingers and toes and has important protective and sensory functions. Development begins in utero between weeks 7 and 8 and is fully formed at birth. For its correct development, a great number of signals are necessary. Anatomically, it consists of 4 epithelial components: the matrix that forms the nail plate; the nail bed that firmly attaches the plate to the distal phalanx; the hyponychium that forms a natural barrier at the physiological point of separation of the nail from the bed; and the eponychium that represents the undersurface of the proximal nail fold which is responsible for the formation of the cuticle. The connective tissue components of the matrix and nail bed dermis are located between the corresponding epithelia and the bone of the distal phalanx. Characteristics of the connective tissue include: a morphogenetic potency for the regeneration of their epithelia; the lateral and proximal nail folds form a distally open frame for the growing nail; and the tip of the digit has rich sensible and sensory innervation. The blood supply is provided by the paired volar and dorsal digital arteries. Veins and lymphatic vessels are less well defined. The microscopic anatomy varies from nail subregion to subregion. Several different biopsy techniques are available for the histopathological evaluation of nail alterations.

  15. Neuroanatomical domain of the foundational model of anatomy ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The diverse set of human brain structure and function analysis methods represents a difficult challenge for reconciling multiple views of neuroanatomical organization. While different views of organization are expected and valid, no widely adopted approach exists to harmonize different brain labeling protocols and terminologies. Our approach uses the natural organizing framework provided by anatomical structure to correlate terminologies commonly used in neuroimaging. Description The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) Ontology provides a semantic framework for representing the anatomical entities and relationships that constitute the phenotypic organization of the human body. In this paper we describe recent enhancements to the neuroanatomical content of the FMA that models cytoarchitectural and morphological regions of the cerebral cortex, as well as white matter structure and connectivity. This modeling effort is driven by the need to correlate and reconcile the terms used in neuroanatomical labeling protocols. By providing an ontological framework that harmonizes multiple views of neuroanatomical organization, the FMA provides developers with reusable and computable knowledge for a range of biomedical applications. Conclusions A requirement for facilitating the integration of basic and clinical neuroscience data from diverse sources is a well-structured ontology that can incorporate, organize, and associate neuroanatomical data. We applied the ontological framework of the FMA to align the vocabularies used by several human brain atlases, and to encode emerging knowledge about structural connectivity in the brain. We highlighted several use cases of these extensions, including ontology reuse, neuroimaging data annotation, and organizing 3D brain models. PMID:24398054

  16. The Steroids/Sports Supplements Connection: Pragmatism and Sensation-Seeking in the Attitudes and Behavior of JHS and HS Students on Long Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, C. Roger; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Lewis, Dawn K.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine the importance of sensation seeking and pragmatism in the steroids and sports supplements behavior and attitudes of high school and junior high school students on Long Island, New York. Steroid use is much less acceptable than sports supplement use, although the reasons for use are similar. Respondents use supplements…

  17. Connecting Urban Youth with Their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…

  18. Neuromuscular anatomy and evolution of the cetacean forelimb.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Dawson, Susan D; Reidenberg, Joy S; Berta, Annalisa

    2007-09-01

    The forelimb of cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) has been radically modified during the limb-to-flipper transition. Extant cetaceans have a soft tissue flipper encasing the manus and acting as a hydrofoil to generate lift. The neuromuscular anatomy that controls flipper movement, however, is poorly understood. This study documents flipper neuromuscular anatomy and tests the hypothesis that antebrachial muscle robustness is related to body size. Data were gathered during dissections of 22 flippers, representing 15 species (7 odontocetes, 15 mysticetes). Results were compared with published descriptions of both artiodactyls and secondarily aquatic vertebrates. Results indicate muscle robustness is best predicted by taxonomic distribution and is not a function of body size. All cetaceans have atrophied triceps muscles, an immobile cubital joint, and lack most connective tissue structures and manus muscles. Forelimbs retain only three muscle groups: triceps (only the scapular head is functional as the humeral heads are vestigal), and antebrachial extensors and flexors. Well-developed flexor and extensor muscles were found in mysticetes and basal odontocetes (i.e., physeterids, kogiids, and ziphiids), whereas later diverging odontocetes (i.e., monodontids, phocoenids, and delphinids) lack or reduce these muscles. Balaenopterid mysticetes (e.g., fin and minke whales) may actively change flipper curvature, while basal odontocetes (e.g., sperm and beaked whales) probably stiffen the flipper through isometric contraction. Later diverging odontocetes lack musculature supporting digital movements and are unable to manipulate flipper curvature. Cetacean forelimbs are unique in that they have lost agility and several soft tissue structures, but retain sensory innervations.

  19. Trench connection.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Alan J; Fujii, Toyonobu

    2011-10-23

    'Trench Connection' was the first international symposium focusing primarily on the hadal zone (depths greater than 6000 m). It was held at the University of Tokyo's Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute in November 2010. The symposium was successful in having attracted an international collective of scientists and engineers to discuss the latest developments in the exploration and understanding of the deepest environments on Earth. The symposium sessions were categorized into three themes: (i) new deep-submergence technology; (ii) trench ecology and evolution; and (iii) the physical environment. Recent technological developments have overcome the challenges of accessing the extreme depths, which have in turn prompted an international renewed interest in researching physical and biological aspects of the hadal ecosystems. This bringing together of international participants from different disciplines led to healthy discussions throughout the symposium, providing potential opportunities and realizations of where the future of unravelling hadal ecology lies. Hadal science is still at relatively rudimentary levels compared with those of shallower marine environments; however, it became apparent at the symposium that it is now an ever-expanding scientific field.

  20. The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Unique Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Andrew A; Densmore, Maria; Frewen, Paul A; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard WJ; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies point towards differential connectivity patterns among basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala regions in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as compared with controls. Here we describe the first study to compare directly connectivity patterns of the BLA and CMA complexes between PTSD patients with and without the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS and PTSD−DS, respectively). Amygdala connectivity to regulatory prefrontal regions and parietal regions involved in consciousness and proprioception were expected to differ between these two groups based on differential limbic regulation and behavioral symptoms. PTSD patients (n=49) with (n=13) and without (n=36) the dissociative subtype and age-matched healthy controls (n=40) underwent resting-state fMRI. Bilateral BLA and CMA connectivity patterns were compared using a seed-based approach via SPM Anatomy Toolbox. Among patients with PTSD, the PTSD+DS group exhibited greater amygdala functional connectivity to prefrontal regions involved in emotion regulation (bilateral BLA and left CMA to the middle frontal gyrus and bilateral CMA to the medial frontal gyrus) as compared with the PTSD−DS group. In addition, the PTSD+DS group showed greater amygdala connectivity to regions involved in consciousness, awareness, and proprioception—implicated in depersonalization and derealization (left BLA to superior parietal lobe and cerebellar culmen; left CMA to dorsal posterior cingulate and precuneus). Differences in amygdala complex connectivity to specific brain regions parallel the unique symptom profiles of the PTSD subgroups and point towards unique biological markers of the dissociative subtype of PTSD. PMID:25790021

  1. The Computational Anatomy of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rick A.; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Brown, Harriet R.; Frith, Christopher D.; Friston, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers psychotic symptoms in terms of false inferences or beliefs. It is based on the notion that the brain is an inference machine that actively constructs hypotheses to explain or predict its sensations. This perspective provides a normative (Bayes-optimal) account of action and perception that emphasizes probabilistic representations; in particular, the confidence or precision of beliefs about the world. We will consider hallucinosis, abnormal eye movements, sensory attenuation deficits, catatonia, and delusions as various expressions of the same core pathology: namely, an aberrant encoding of precision. From a cognitive perspective, this represents a pernicious failure of metacognition (beliefs about beliefs) that can confound perceptual inference. In the embodied setting of active (Bayesian) inference, it can lead to behaviors that are paradoxically more accurate than Bayes-optimal behavior. Crucially, this normative account is accompanied by a neuronally plausible process theory based upon hierarchical predictive coding. In predictive coding, precision is thought to be encoded by the post-synaptic gain of neurons reporting prediction error. This suggests that both pervasive trait abnormalities and florid failures of inference in the psychotic state can be linked to factors controlling post-synaptic gain – such as NMDA receptor function and (dopaminergic) neuromodulation. We illustrate these points using biologically plausible simulations of perceptual synthesis, smooth pursuit eye movements and attribution of agency – that all use the same predictive coding scheme and pathology: namely, a reduction in the precision of prior beliefs, relative to sensory evidence. PMID:23750138

  2. The history of anatomy in Persia

    PubMed Central

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-01-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637–651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777–857 AD), Tabbari (838–870 AD), Rhazes (865–925 AD), Joveini (?−983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930–994 AD), Avicenna (980–1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042–1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in

  3. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  4. Parietal connectivity mediates multisensory facilitation.

    PubMed

    Brang, David; Taich, Zachary J; Hillyard, Steven A; Grabowecky, Marcia; Ramachandran, V S

    2013-09-01

    Our senses interact in daily life through multisensory integration, facilitating perceptual processes and behavioral responses. The neural mechanisms proposed to underlie this multisensory facilitation include anatomical connections directly linking early sensory areas, indirect connections to higher-order multisensory regions, as well as thalamic connections. Here we examine the relationship between white matter connectivity, as assessed with diffusion tensor imaging, and individual differences in multisensory facilitation and provide the first demonstration of a relationship between anatomical connectivity and multisensory processing in typically developed individuals. Using a whole-brain analysis and contrasting anatomical models of multisensory processing we found that increased connectivity between parietal regions and early sensory areas was associated with the facilitation of reaction times to multisensory (auditory-visual) stimuli. Furthermore, building on prior animal work suggesting the involvement of the superior colliculus in this process, using probabilistic tractography we determined that the strongest cortical projection area connected with the superior colliculus includes the region of connectivity implicated in our independent whole-brain analysis.

  5. Anatomy of the python heart.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjarke; Nyengaard, Jens R; Pedersen, Michael; Wang, Tobias

    2010-12-01

    The hearts of all snakes and lizards consist of two atria and a single incompletely divided ventricle. In general, the squamate ventricle is subdivided into three chambers: cavum arteriosum (left), cavum venosum (medial) and cavum pulmonale (right). Although a similar division also applies to the heart of pythons, this family of snakes is unique amongst snakes in having intracardiac pressure separation. Here we provide a detailed anatomical description of the cardiac structures that confer this functional division. We measured the masses and volumes of the ventricular chambers, and we describe the gross morphology based on dissections of the heart from 13 ball pythons (Python regius) and one Burmese python (P. molurus). The cavum venosum is much reduced in pythons and constitutes approximately 10% of the cavum arteriosum. We suggest that shunts will always be less than 20%, while other studies conclude up to 50%. The high-pressure cavum arteriosum accounted for approximately 75% of the total ventricular mass, and was twice as dense as the low-pressure cavum pulmonale. The reptile ventricle has a core of spongious myocardium, but the three ventricular septa that separate the pulmonary and systemic chambers--the muscular ridge, the bulbuslamelle and the vertical septum--all had layers of compact myocardium. Pythons, however, have unique pads of connective tissue on the site of pressure separation. Because the hearts of varanid lizards, which also are endowed with pressure separation, share many of these morphological specializations, we propose that intraventricular compact myocardium is an indicator of high-pressure systems and possibly pressure separation.

  6. The emerging discipline of Computational Functional Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael I.; Qiu, Anqi

    2010-01-01

    Computational Functional Anatomy (CFA) is the study of functional and physiological response variables in anatomical coordinates. For this we focus on two things: (i) the construction of bijections (via diffeomorphisms) between the coordinatized manifolds of human anatomy, and (ii) the transfer (group action and parallel transport) of functional information into anatomical atlases via these bijections. We review advances in the unification of the bijective comparison of anatomical submanifolds via point-sets including points, curves and surface triangulations as well as dense imagery. We examine the transfer via these bijections of functional response variables into anatomical coordinates via group action on scalars and matrices in DTI as well as parallel transport of metric information across multiple templates which preserves the inner product. PMID:19103297

  7. Fostering improved anatomy and physiology instructor pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology instructors at the college level. Data were collected through a series of individual interviews that included the use of the Teacher Beliefs Inventory questionnaire (23) along with observations onsite in participants' college classrooms and at process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) curriculum writing workshops. Findings indicated attitudinal shifts on the part of participants from teacher-centered to more student-centered pedagogy and supported the benefits of long-term professional development for instructors. Here, we documented the successful progress of these professors as they participated in a curriculum development process that emphasized student-centered teaching with the goal of promoting broader change efforts in introductory anatomy and physiology.

  8. Otitis: anatomy every practitioner should know.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Craig

    2009-11-01

    Chronic otitis externa is a difficult, frustrating problem. Four etiologic components must be considered: primary and secondary causes and perpetuating and predisposing factors.1 Usually, these cases are complex and involve more than one component. Perpetuating factors are changes in the anatomy and physiology of the ear that occur in response to inflammation in the ear canal and the perpetuating factors already present. They are self-perpetuating, are not disease specific, and include failure of self-cleaning mechanisms and proliferative changes that create folds and stenosis of the lumen of the ear canal. Elimination of perpetuating factors often requires aggressive cleaning of the ear and long-term therapy. It is important to avoid damaging key structures while aggressively cleaning the ear. Therefore, to adequately diagnose and manage perpetuating factors, veterinarians must recognize normal ear anatomy and physiology.

  9. The transcaruncular approach: surgical anatomy and technique.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Robert A; Mancini, Ronald; Demer, Joseph L

    2007-01-01

    With a detailed understanding of the pertinent surgical anatomy, the transcaruncular approach provides safe access and excellent exposure of the medial orbit and orbital apex. We herein describe our technique of the transcaruncular approach and delineate the pertinent associated surgical anatomy via dissection, magnetic resonance imaging, and histologic examination. The isolated transcaruncular approach provides exposure of the medial orbital floor from the region of the maxilloethmoidal strut to the orbital roof area superior to the frontoethmoidal suture. When combined with an inferior fornix incision, the transcaruncular approach allows for continuous exposure from the frontozygomatic suture laterally to the frontoethmoidal suture medially. Attention to anatomical details promotes creation of an effective and safe caruncular incision. The conjunctival incision should be ample. The orbital septum should be carefully dissected from the posterior surface of the Horner muscle to minimize fat spillage, and the periosteum should be opened widely at the beginning of surgery.

  10. Pelvic anatomy relative to lumbosacral instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Miller, F; Moseley, C; Koreska, J

    1990-06-01

    Anatomical study of 72 pelves revealed that the most substantial area of bone that could best support a rod for surgical fixation is the body of the ilium, with the best part of the bone being the area above the sciatic notch. Placement of the rods into the body of the ilium provides good fixation but requires complex bending of the rods and a good three-dimensional perception of the osseous anatomy of the pelvis. This study was undertaken to define the intraosseous anatomy and the range of anatomical variation of the ilium. The results of this study are useful in developing a prebent spinal fixation rod, providing a better understanding of this anatomical area from a three-dimensional perspective and providing better lumbosacral spinal instrumentation.

  11. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome.

  12. Endoscopic anatomy of the pediatric middle ear.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, "less invasively" has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the first decade, when structure and function change most rapidly. Understanding the limits and possibilities afforded by new endoscopic technologies, the pediatric otologist can strive for results matching or exceeding those achieved by more invasive surgical approaches.

  13. Innovative ventilation system for animal anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.R.; Smith, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    A unique ventilation system was designed and built to reduce formaldehyde fumes in the large animal anatomy lab at the Vet Medical Center at Cornell University. The laboratory includes four rooms totaling 5,500 ft{sup 2}. The main room has 2,300 ft{sup 2} and houses the laboratory where up to 60 students dissect as many as 12 horses at a time. Other rooms are a cold storage locker, an animal preparation room and a smaller lab for specialized instruction. The large animal anatomy laboratory has a history of air quality complaints despite a fairly high ventilation rate of over 10 air changes/hour. The horses are embalmed, creating a voluminous source of formaldehyde and phenol vapors. Budget constraints and increasingly stringent exposure limits for formaldehyde presented a great challenge to design a ventilation system that yields acceptable air quality. The design solution included two innovative elements: air-to-air heat recovery, and focused ventilation.

  14. Complementing anatomy education using three-dimensional anatomy mobile software applications on tablet computers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T L; Burnett, B; Tunstall, R G; Abrahams, P H

    2014-04-01

    Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to identify which are the most useful in clinical, academic, and educational environments. These have been systematically identified by downloading all applications with keywords related to anatomy and then carrying out qualitative assessment. Novel anatomy applications from developers such as Visible Body, 3D4Medical, and Pocket Anatomy allow students to visualize and manipulate complex anatomical structures using detailed 3D models. They often contain additional content including clinical correlations and a range of media from instructional videos to interactive quiz functions. The strength of tablet technology lies in its ability to consolidate and present anatomical information to the user in the most appropriate manner for their learning style. The only question mark remains over the level of detail and accuracy of these applications. Innovative medical educators who embrace tablet technology will find that anatomy applications serve as a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with existing teaching setups.

  15. Anatomy and ethics: an exploration of some ethical dimensions of contemporary anatomy.

    PubMed

    Jones, D G

    1998-01-01

    Anatomy and ethics have traditionally been viewed as inhabiting different conceptual worlds on the assumption that the practice of anatomy is ethically neutral. This assumption is challenged by critiquing the nature of anatomy and by demonstrating that ethical issues pervade anatomical study. This should come as no surprise since anatomy deals with the structure of the human body, and it is the human body and human tissues that are central to bioethical questions concerning human life in both health and disease, at its beginning and end and in research and clinical practice. Furthermore, many issues of interest to anatomists, such as the mechanisms of organ and fetal tissue transplantation, the neurological bases of aging and dementia, and definitions of brain death, are best tackled by venturing into questions usually dealt with in a clinical context. By the same token, a number of clinical issues can be approached helpfully from starting points provided by anatomy, although they too have ethical dimensions. To illustrate the close interrelationship between anatomical and ethical issues, two topic areas are discussed: research on archeological human remains and the notion of the pre-embryo.

  16. Monkey to human comparative anatomy of the frontal lobe association tracts.

    PubMed

    Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Valabregue, Romain; Catani, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The greater expansion of the frontal lobes along the phylogeny scale has been interpreted as the signature of evolutionary changes underlying higher cognitive abilities in humans functions in humans. However, it is unknown how an increase in number of gyri, sulci and cortical areas in the frontal lobe have coincided with a parallel increase in connectivity. Here, using advanced tractography based on spherical deconvolution, we produced an atlas of human frontal association connections that we compared with axonal tracing studies of the monkey brain. We report several similarities between human and monkey in the cingulum, uncinate, superior longitudinal fasciculus, frontal aslant tract and orbito-polar tract. These similarities suggest to preserved functions across anthropoids. In addition, we found major differences in the arcuate fasciculus and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. These differences indicate possible evolutionary changes in the connectional anatomy of the frontal lobes underlying unique human abilities.

  17. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    PubMed

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors.

  18. Going to the gym or to the movies?: situated decisions as a functional link connecting automatic and reflective evaluations of exercise with exercising behavior.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ralf; Schweizer, Geoffrey

    2015-02-01

    The goal of the present paper is to propose a model for the study of automatic cognition and affect in exercise. We have chosen a dual-system approach to social information processing to investigate the hypothesis that situated decisions between behavioral alternatives form a functional link between automatic and reflective evaluations and the time spent on exercise. A new questionnaire is introduced to operationalize this link. A reaction-time-based evaluative priming task was used to test participants' automatic evaluations. Affective and cognitive reflective evaluations, as well as exercising time, were requested via self-report. Path analyses suggest that the affective reflective (beta = .71) and the automatic evaluation (beta = .15) independently explain situated decisions, which, in turn (beta = .60) explain time spent on exercise. Our findings highlight the concept of contextualized decisions. They can serve as a starting point from which the so far seldom investigations of automatic cognition and affect in exercise can be integrated with multitudinous results from studies on reflective psychological determinants of health behavior.

  19. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  20. Brain connectivity and visual attention.

    PubMed

    Parks, Emily L; Madden, David J

    2013-01-01

    Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures.

  1. Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.

  2. A reappraisal of adult abdominal surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sara L; Buckenham, Tim; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Descriptions of clinically important surface landmarks often vary between and within contemporary anatomical texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface anatomy of major abdominal vessels, kidneys, spleen, gastroesophageal junction, and duodenojejunal flexure in living adults using computed tomography (CT). After excluding patients with distorting space-occupying lesions, scoliosis, abnormal lordosis, and obvious visceromegaly, 108 abdominal CT scans of supine adults (mean age 60 years, range 18-97 years; 64 female) at end tidal inspiration were available for analysis by dual consensus reporting. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by repeat blind assessment of a random sample of scans. The vertebral level of the aortic bifurcation and almost all of its major branches, and the origin of the inferior vena cava were consistent with current descriptions. Important differences from contemporary descriptions of surface anatomy were as follows: the renal arteries were most commonly at the L1 vertebral level (left 55%, right 43%); the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2 (left 68%, right 40%); the 11th rib was a posterior relation of the left kidney in only 28% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs (48%) with its long axis in line with the 11th rib (55%). Although the majority of vascular surface landmarks are consistent with standard descriptions, the surface anatomy of the kidneys, renal arteries, and spleen needs to be revised in accordance with observations using modern imaging techniques in vivo.

  3. Robert Knox and the anatomy of beauty.

    PubMed

    Neher, Allister

    2011-06-01

    Robert Knox (1791-1862) is typically remembered as the Edinburgh anatomist to whom the murderers Burke and Hare sold the bodies of their victims. This association brought Knox infamy and damaged his life and career. Before the Burke and Hare scandal, Knox was one of the most famous, original and influential anatomists in Britain. He was also something of a dandy with a sophisticated appreciation of the visual arts. His most significant writings on artistic subjects were his books A Manual of Artistic Anatomy and Great Artists and Great Anatomists: A Biographical and Philosophical Study. Knox's interesting and independently minded opinions on the central artistic questions of his day were taken seriously by his contemporaries. His demotion in the official history of anatomy following his involvement with Burke and Hare, however, also removed him from the history of art theory in 19th century Britain. Knox was such a magnetic and impressive figure, though, that he has to be brought back to his era and his era is not complete without him. This paper discusses how Knox's writings on anatomy and biology shaped his contributions to art theory. It is a first step towards returning Knox, the art theorist, to the cultural life of 19th century Britain.

  4. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Rocca Rossetti, Salvatore

    2016-03-31

    Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  5. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment

    PubMed Central

    Bertone, Matthew A.; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J.; Seltmann, Katja C.; Balhoff, James P.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group’s anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process. Database URL: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/hao/2012-07-18/arthropod-mappings.obo PMID:23303300

  6. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment.

    PubMed

    Bertone, Matthew A; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J; Seltmann, Katja C; Balhoff, James P; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group's anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process.

  7. Synthesis, properties, and redox behavior of 1,1,4,4-tetracyano-2-ferrocenyl-1,3-butadienes connected by aryl, biaryl, and teraryl spacers.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Taku; Maruyama, Akifumi; Yaku, Chisa; Kamata, Natsumi; Ito, Shunji; Okujima, Tetsuo; Toyota, Kozo

    2015-01-02

    Aryl-substituted 1,1,4,4-tetracyano-1,3-butadienes (FcTCBDs) and bis(1,1,4,4-tetracyanobutadiene)s (bis-FcTCBDs), possessing a ferrocenyl group on each terminal, were prepared by the reaction of a variety of alkynes with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) in a [2+2] cycloaddition reaction, followed by retro-electrocyclization of the initially formed [2+2] cycloadducts (i.e., cyclobutene derivatives). The characteristic intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) between the donor (ferrocene) and acceptor (TCBD) moieties were investigated by using UV/Vis spectroscopy. The redox behaviors of FcTCBDs and bis-FcTCBDs were examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), which revealed their properties of multi-electron transfer depending on the number of ferrocene and TCBD moieties. Moreover, significant color changes were observed by visible spectroscopy under the electrochemical reduction conditions.

  8. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences.

  9. Anatomy education environment measurement inventory: A valid tool to measure the anatomy learning environment.

    PubMed

    Hadie, Siti Nurma Hanim; Hassan, Asma'; Ismail, Zul Izhar Mohd; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Kasim, Fazlina; Yusof, Nurul Aiman Mohd; Manan Sulong, Husnaida Abdul; Tg Muda, Tg Fatimah Murniwati; Arifin, Wan Nor; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri

    2017-01-30

    Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment, valuable information can be obtained to facilitate improvements in teaching and learning. Hence, it is important to use a valid inventory that specifically measures attributes of the anatomy education environment. In this study, a new 11-factor, 132-items Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory (AEEMI) was developed using Delphi technique and was validated in a Malaysian public medical school. The inventory was found to have satisfactory content evidence (scale-level content validity index [total] = 0.646); good response process evidence (scale-level face validity index [total] = 0.867); and acceptable to high internal consistency, with the Raykov composite reliability estimates of the six factors are in the range of 0.604-0.876. The best fit model of the AEEMI is achieved with six domains and 25 items (X(2)  = 415.67, P < 0.001, ChiSq/df = 1.63, RMSEA = 0.045, GFI = 0.905, CFI = 0.937, NFI = 0.854, TLI = 0.926). Hence, AEEMI was proven to have good psychometric properties, and thus could be used to measure the anatomy education environment in Malaysia. A concerted collaboration should be initiated toward developing a valid universal tool that, using the methods outlined in this study, measures the anatomy education environment across different institutions and countries. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. EEG functional connectivity is partially predicted by underlying white matter connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Chu, CJ; Tanaka, N; Diaz, J; Edlow, BL; Wu, O; Hämäläinen, M; Stufflebeam, S; Cash, SS; Kramer, MA.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, networks have become a leading model to illustrate both the anatomical relationships (structural networks) and the coupling of dynamic physiology (functional networks) linking separate brain regions. The relationship between these two levels of description remains incompletely understood and an area of intense research interest. In particular, it is unclear how cortical currents relate to underlying brain structural architecture. In addition, although theory suggests that brain communication is highly frequency dependent, how structural connections influence overlying functional connectivity in different frequency bands has not been previously explored. Here we relate functional networks inferred from statistical associations between source imaging of EEG activity and underlying cortico-cortical structural brain connectivity determined by probabilistic white matter tractography. We evaluate spontaneous fluctuating cortical brain activity over a long time scale (minutes) and relate inferred functional networks to underlying structural connectivity for broadband signals, as well as in seven distinct frequency bands. We find that cortical networks derived from source EEG estimates partially reflect both direct and indirect underlying white matter connectivity in all frequency bands evaluated. In addition, we find that when structural support is absent, functional connectivity is significantly reduced for high frequency bands compared to low frequency bands. The association between cortical currents and underlying white matter connectivity highlights the obligatory interdependence of functional and structural networks in the human brain. The increased dependence on structural support for the coupling of higher frequency brain rhythms provides new evidence for how underlying anatomy directly shapes emergent brain dynamics at fast time scales. PMID:25534110

  11. EEG functional connectivity is partially predicted by underlying white matter connectivity.

    PubMed

    Chu, C J; Tanaka, N; Diaz, J; Edlow, B L; Wu, O; Hämäläinen, M; Stufflebeam, S; Cash, S S; Kramer, M A

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, networks have become a leading model to illustrate both the anatomical relationships (structural networks) and the coupling of dynamic physiology (functional networks) linking separate brain regions. The relationship between these two levels of description remains incompletely understood and an area of intense research interest. In particular, it is unclear how cortical currents relate to underlying brain structural architecture. In addition, although theory suggests that brain communication is highly frequency dependent, how structural connections influence overlying functional connectivity in different frequency bands has not been previously explored. Here we relate functional networks inferred from statistical associations between source imaging of EEG activity and underlying cortico-cortical structural brain connectivity determined by probabilistic white matter tractography. We evaluate spontaneous fluctuating cortical brain activity over a long time scale (minutes) and relate inferred functional networks to underlying structural connectivity for broadband signals, as well as in seven distinct frequency bands. We find that cortical networks derived from source EEG estimates partially reflect both direct and indirect underlying white matter connectivity in all frequency bands evaluated. In addition, we find that when structural support is absent, functional connectivity is significantly reduced for high frequency bands compared to low frequency bands. The association between cortical currents and underlying white matter connectivity highlights the obligatory interdependence of functional and structural networks in the human brain. The increased dependence on structural support for the coupling of higher frequency brain rhythms provides new evidence for how underlying anatomy directly shapes emergent brain dynamics at fast time scales.

  12. Hatching the behavioral addiction egg: Reward Deficiency Solution System (RDSS)™ as a function of dopaminergic neurogenetics and brain functional connectivity linking all addictions under a common rubric

    PubMed Central

    BLUM, KENNETH; FEBO, MARCELO; MCLAUGHLIN, THOMAS; CRONJÉ, FRANS J.; HAN, DAVID; GOLD, S. MARK

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Following the first association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphism and severe alcoholism, there has been an explosion of research reports in the psychiatric and behavioral addiction literature and neurogenetics. With this increased knowledge, the field has been rife with controversy. Moreover, with the advent of Whole Genome-Wide Studies (GWAS) and Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), along with Functional Genome Convergence, the multiple-candidate gene approach still has merit and is considered by many as the most prudent approach. However, it is the combination of these two approaches that will ultimately define real, genetic allelic relationships, in terms of both risk and etiology. Since 1996, our laboratory has coined the umbrella term Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) to explain the common neurochemical and genetic mechanisms involved with both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. Methods: This is a selective review of peer-reviewed papers primary listed in Pubmed and Medline. Results: A review of the available evidence indicates the importance of dopaminergic pathways and resting-state, functional connectivity of brain reward circuits. Discussion: Importantly, the proposal is that the real phenotype is RDS and impairments in the brain’s reward cascade, either genetically or environmentally (epigenetically) induced, influence both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. Understanding shared common mechanisms will ultimately lead to better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of relapse. While, at this juncture, we cannot as yet state that we have “hatched the behavioral addiction egg”, we are beginning to ask the correct questions and through an intense global effort will hopefully find a way of “redeeming joy” and permitting homo sapiens live a life, free of addiction and pain. PMID:25317338

  13. The anatomy of the sacrococcygeal cornual region and its clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Woon, Jason T K; Stringer, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    There has been no systematic study of the anatomy of the region between the sacral and coccygeal cornua. Reference texts describe an intercornual ligament connecting these structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of this region, which may be relevant to unexplained cases of coccygeal pain (coccydynia) and local nerve blocks. The bony anatomy of the sacrococcygeal (SC) cornual region was analyzed in 33 CT scans obtained from supine adults of mostly European origin with no known SC pathology, 7 μCT scans of cadaver SC specimens, and 105 Asian Indian adult skeletons. A further five cadaver SC specimens were examined histologically. SC cornual fusion was seen in 45% of CT/μCT scans (mean age 67 years, 20 males) and in 20% of adult skeletons (78 males); there was no association with age or sex. In the absence of SC fusion, the mean intersacrococcygeal cornual gap was 7.1 ± 2.4 mm; this was bridged by an intercornual ligament composed of parallel vertical collagen fibers reinforced by elastin fibers on its anterior surface. Small nerve branches were observed adjacent to the ventral aspect of the intercornual ligament and, in one case, traversing the ligament. Ipsilateral sacral and coccygeal cornua are therefore normally bridged by an intercornual ligament that is probably innervated. The cornua are fused on one or both sides in 20-45% of adults. These findings may have implications for some cases of coccydynia and for anesthetists performing local nerve blocks.

  14. New Insights in Trigeminal Anatomy: A Double Orofacial Tract for Nociceptive Input

    PubMed Central

    Henssen, Dylan J. H. A.; Kurt, Erkan; Kozicz, Tamas; van Dongen, Robert; Bartels, Ronald H. M. A.; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Orofacial pain in patients relies on the anatomical pathways that conduct nociceptive information, originating from the periphery towards the trigeminal sensory nucleus complex (TSNC) and finally, to the thalami and the somatosensorical cortical regions. The anatomy and function of the so-called trigeminothalamic tracts have been investigated before. In these animal-based studies from the previous century, the intracerebral pathways were mapped using different retro- and anterograde tracing methods. We review the literature on the trigeminothalamic tracts focusing on these animal tracer studies. Subsequently, we related the observations of these studies to clinical findings using fMRI trials. The intracerebral trigeminal pathways can be subdivided into three pathways: a ventral (contralateral) and dorsal (mainly ipsilateral) trigeminothalamic tract and the intranuclear pathway. Based on the reviewed evidence we hypothesize the co-existence of an ipsilateral nociceptive conduction tract to the cerebral cortex and we translate evidence from animal-based research to the human anatomy. Our hypothesis differs from the classical idea that orofacial pain arises only from nociceptive information via the contralateral, ventral trigeminothalamic pathway. Better understanding of the histology, anatomy and connectivity of the trigeminal fibers could contribute to the discovery of a more effective pain treatment in patients suffering from various orofacial pain syndromes. PMID:27242449

  15. Pig Pancreas Anatomy: Implications for Pancreas Procurement, Preservation, and Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Joana; Scott, William E; Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2009-01-01

    Background Islet transplantation is emerging as a treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. The limited human islet supply from cadavers and poor islet yield and quality remain substantial impediments to progress in the field. Use of porcine islets holds great promise for large-scale application of islet transplantation. Consistent isolation of porcine islets is dependent on advances in pancreas procurement and preservation, and islet isolation requiring detailed knowledge of the porcine pancreatic anatomy. The primary aim of this study was to describe the vascular and ductal anatomy of the porcine pancreas in order to guide and improve organ preservation and enzyme perfusion. Methods Pancreata were removed by en bloc viscerectomy from 65 female Landrace pigs. Results 15% of organs exhibited inconsistent vascular branching from the celiac trunk. All organs had uniform patterns of branching at the superior mesenteric artery. The superior and inferior mesenteric veins (IMV) merged to become the portal vein in all but one case in which the IMV drained into the splenic vein. 97% of pancreata had three lobes: duodenal (DL), connecting (CL), and splenic (SL); 39% demonstrated ductal communication between the CL and the other two lobes; 50% had ductal communication only between the CL and DL; and 11% presented other types of ductal delineation. Conclusions Accounting for the variations in vascular and ductal anatomy, as detailed in this study, will facilitate development of protocols for preservation, optimal enzyme administration, and pancreas distention and digestion, and ultimately lead to substantial improvements in isolation outcomes. PMID:19077881

  16. Functional Anatomy of Non-REM Sleep.

    PubMed

    de Andrés, Isabel; Garzón, Miguel; Reinoso-Suárez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The state of non-REM sleep (NREM), or slow wave sleep, is associated with a synchronized EEG pattern in which sleep spindles and/or K complexes and high-voltage slow wave activity (SWA) can be recorded over the entire cortical surface. In humans, NREM is subdivided into stages 2 and 3-4 (presently named N3) depending on the proportions of each of these polygraphic events. NREM is necessary for normal physical and intellectual performance and behavior. An overview of the brain structures involved in NREM generation shows that the thalamus and the cerebral cortex are absolutely necessary for the most significant bioelectric and behavioral events of NREM to be expressed; other structures like the basal forebrain, anterior hypothalamus, cerebellum, caudal brain stem, spinal cord and peripheral nerves contribute to NREM regulation and modulation. In NREM stage 2, sustained hyperpolarized membrane potential levels resulting from interaction between thalamic reticular and projection neurons gives rise to spindle oscillations in the membrane potential; the initiation and termination of individual spindle sequences depends on corticothalamic activities. Cortical and thalamic mechanisms are also involved in the generation of EEG delta SWA that appears in deep stage 3-4 (N3) NREM; the cortex has classically been considered to be the structure that generates this activity, but delta oscillations can also be generated in thalamocortical neurons. NREM is probably necessary to normalize synapses to a sustainable basal condition that can ensure cellular homeostasis. Sleep homeostasis depends not only on the duration of prior wakefulness but also on its intensity, and sleep need increases when wakefulness is associated with learning. NREM seems to ensure cell homeostasis by reducing the number of synaptic connections to a basic level; based on simple energy demands, cerebral energy economizing during NREM sleep is one of the prevalent hypotheses to explain NREM homeostasis.

  17. Functional Anatomy of Non-REM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    de Andrés, Isabel; Garzón, Miguel; Reinoso-Suárez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The state of non-REM sleep (NREM), or slow wave sleep, is associated with a synchronized EEG pattern in which sleep spindles and/or K complexes and high-voltage slow wave activity (SWA) can be recorded over the entire cortical surface. In humans, NREM is subdivided into stages 2 and 3–4 (presently named N3) depending on the proportions of each of these polygraphic events. NREM is necessary for normal physical and intellectual performance and behavior. An overview of the brain structures involved in NREM generation shows that the thalamus and the cerebral cortex are absolutely necessary for the most significant bioelectric and behavioral events of NREM to be expressed; other structures like the basal forebrain, anterior hypothalamus, cerebellum, caudal brain stem, spinal cord and peripheral nerves contribute to NREM regulation and modulation. In NREM stage 2, sustained hyperpolarized membrane potential levels resulting from interaction between thalamic reticular and projection neurons gives rise to spindle oscillations in the membrane potential; the initiation and termination of individual spindle sequences depends on corticothalamic activities. Cortical and thalamic mechanisms are also involved in the generation of EEG delta SWA that appears in deep stage 3–4 (N3) NREM; the cortex has classically been considered to be the structure that generates this activity, but delta oscillations can also be generated in thalamocortical neurons. NREM is probably necessary to normalize synapses to a sustainable basal condition that can ensure cellular homeostasis. Sleep homeostasis depends not only on the duration of prior wakefulness but also on its intensity, and sleep need increases when wakefulness is associated with learning. NREM seems to ensure cell homeostasis by reducing the number of synaptic connections to a basic level; based on simple energy demands, cerebral energy economizing during NREM sleep is one of the prevalent hypotheses to explain NREM homeostasis

  18. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Veronica; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education. Doctors without anatomy are like moles.They work in the dark and the work of their hands are mounds. Friedrich TiedemannThe foundation of the study of the art of operating must be laid in the dissecting room. Robert Liston PMID:24367240

  19. Anatomy in occupational therapy program curriculum: practitioners' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition to demographics, the survey asked questions on the value of a standalone anatomy course, integration of anatomical content in other coursework, practice areas requiring anatomy knowledge, course content, teaching media recommendations, and their opinions regarding whether graduates have adequate anatomy knowledge for competent practice. Surveys were distributed to OT practitioners in the state of Arizona (n = 107). Response rate was 51% on electronic surveys, 29% on mailed surveys. All respondents recommended an anatomy course in OT curricula; 97% as a standalone course with integration of course content throughout the curriculum. The most recommended teaching method was cadaver dissection. Content areas identified as important to cover included skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Regions recommended were the upper limb, thorax/trunk, head and neck, and lower limb. Practice areas requiring anatomy knowledge included joint range of motion and strengthening treatment interventions, goniometry, muscle strength testing, assessing muscle tone, wheelchair assessment/prescription, orthotics, physical agent modalities, and activity adaptation. Eighty-one percent felt that entry-level practitioners had adequate knowledge for competent practice. This study supports inclusion of a separate anatomy course in OT curricula, continued use of cadavers, and the importance of including input from practicing clinicians when determining anatomy course content.

  20. Ion-specific induced fluctuations and free energetics of aqueous protein hydrophobic interfaces: toward connecting to specific-ion behaviors at aqueous liquid-vapor interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cui, Di; Ou, Shuching; Peters, Eric; Patel, Sandeep

    2014-05-01

    We explore anion-induced interface fluctuations near protein-water interfaces using coarse-grained representations of interfaces as proposed by Willard and Chandler ( J. Phys. Chem. B 2010 , 114 , 1954 - 1958 ). We use umbrella sampling molecular dynamics to compute potentials of mean force along a reaction coordinate bridging the state where the anion is fully solvated and one where it is biased via harmonic restraints to remain at the protein-water interface. Specifically, we focus on fluctuations of an interface between water and a hydrophobic region of hydrophobin-II (HFBII), a 71 amino acid residue protein expressed by filamentous fungi and known for its ability to form hydrophobically mediated self-assemblies at interfaces such as a water/air interface. We consider the anions chloride and iodide that have been shown previously by simulations as displaying specific-ion behaviors at aqueous liquid-vapor interfaces. We find that as in the case of a pure liquid-vapor interface, at the hydrophobic protein-water interface, the larger, less charge-dense iodide anion displays a marginal interfacial stability compared with that of the smaller, more charge-dense chloride anion. Furthermore, consistent with the results at aqueous liquid-vapor interfaces, we find that iodide induces larger fluctuations of the protein-water interface than chloride.

  1. The Head and Neck Anatomy of Sea Turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and Skull Shape in Testudines

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Marc E. H.; Werneburg, Ingmar; Curtis, Neil; Penrose, Rod; O’Higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael J.; Evans, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sea turtles (Chelonoidea) are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known. Methodology/Principal Findings Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatomy and morphological variation. In both taxa the temporal region of the skull is enclosed by bone and the jaw joint structure and muscle arrangement indicate that palinal jaw movement is possible. The tongue is relatively small, and the hyoid apparatus is not as conspicuous as in some freshwater aquatic turtles. We find several similarities between the muscles of C. caretta and L. kempii, but comparison with other turtles suggests only one of these characters may be derived: connection of the m. adductor mandibulae internus into the Pars intramandibularis via the Zwischensehne. The large fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis from the jugal seems to be a characteristic feature of sea turtles. Conclusions/Significance In C. caretta and L. kempii the ability to suction feed does not seem to be as well developed as that found in some freshwater aquatic turtles. Instead both have skulls suited to forceful biting. This is consistent with the observation that both taxa tend to feed on relatively slow moving but sometimes armoured prey. The broad fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis may be linked to thecheek region being almost fully enclosed in bone but the relationship is complex. PMID:23144831

  2. From college to clinic: reasoning over memorization is key for understanding anatomy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sue Ann; Perrotti, William; Silverthorn, Dee U; Dalley, Arthur F; Rarey, Kyle E

    2002-04-15

    Anatomy and physiology are taught in community colleges, liberal arts colleges, universities, and medical schools. The goals of the students vary, but educators in these diverse settings agree that success hinges on learning concepts rather than memorizing facts. In this article, educators from across the postsecondary educational spectrum expand on several points: (1) There is a problem with student perception that anatomy is endless memorization, whereas the ability to manage information and use reasoning to solve problems are ways that professionals work. This misperception causes students to approach the subject with the wrong attitude. (2) The process of learning to use information is as important as the concepts themselves. Using understanding to explain and make connections is a more useful long-term lesson than is memorization. Anatomy should be presented and learned as a dynamic basis for problem solving and for application in the practice and delivery of quality health care. (3) Integration of form and function must be explicit and universal across all systems. (4) Using only models, images, audiovisuals, or computers cannot lead students to the requisite reasoning that comes from investigative dissection of real tissue. (5) Some undergraduate courses require students to memorize excessive musculoskeletal detail. (6) Learning tissue biology is a particular struggle for medical students who have no background from an undergraduate course. (7) Medical professors and students see benefits when students have taken undergraduate courses in anatomy, histology, and physiology. If medical schools suggest these electives to applicants, medical students might arrive better prepared and, thus, be able to learn clinical correlations more efficiently in the limited allocated time of medical school curricula.

  3. The relationship between premedical coursework in gross anatomy and histology and medical school performance in gross anatomy and histology.

    PubMed

    Forester, Joseph P; McWhorter, David L; Cole, Maria S

    2002-03-01

    Many premedical students enroll in courses whose content will be encountered again during their medical education. Presumably, students believe this practice will lead to improved academic performance in corresponding medical school courses. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine whether a premedical gross anatomy and/or histology course resulted in increased performance in corresponding medical school courses. A second aim of the study was to examine whether the type of premedical gross anatomy and/or histology course differentially affected medical school performance. A survey that assessed premedical gross anatomy and histology coursework was administered to 440 first-year medical students. The results from this survey showed that students with premedical gross anatomy (n = 236) and/or histology (n = 109) earned significantly more points in the corresponding medical school course than students without the premedical coursework (P < 0.05). Analysis of premedical course types revealed that students who took a gross anatomy course with prosected specimens (n = 35) earned significantly more points that those students without premedical gross anatomy coursework (P < 0.05). The results from this study suggest: 1) premedical gross anatomy and/or histology coursework improves academic performance in corresponding medical school courses, and 2) a premedical gross anatomy course with prosected specimens, a specific type of undergraduate course, significantly improves academic performance in medical gross anatomy.

  4. Normal Vulvovaginal, Perineal, and Pelvic Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Yavagal, Sujata; de Farias, Thais F.; Medina, Carlos A.; Takacs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrounding these structures. Through the perineal membrane and the perineal body, these superficial vulvar structures are structurally related to the deep pelvic muscle levator ani with its fascia. The levator ani forms the pelvic floor with the coccygeus muscle and provides vital support to all the pelvic organs and stability to the perineum. The internal female genital organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, tubes, and ovaries with their visceral fascia. The visceral fascia also called the endopelvic fascia, surrounds the pelvic organs and connects them to the pelvic walls. It is continuous with the paraurethral and paravaginal fascia, which is attached to the perineal membrane. Thus, the internal and external genitalia are closely related to the muscles and fascia, and work as one functioning unit. PMID:22547969

  5. Synthetic morphology: prospects for engineered, self-constructing anatomies

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jamie A

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines prospects for applying the emerging techniques of synthetic biology to the field of anatomy, with the aim of programming cells to organize themselves into specific, novel arrangements, structures and tissues. There are two main reasons why developing this hybrid discipline – synthetic morphology – would be useful. The first is that having a way to engineer self-constructing assemblies of cells would provide a powerful means of tissue engineering for clinical use in surgery and regenerative medicine. The second is that construction of simple novel systems according to theories of morphogenesis gained from study of real embryos will provide a means of testing those theories rigorously, something that is very difficult to do by manipulation of complex embryos. This paper sets out the engineering requirements for synthetic morphology, which include the development of a library of sensor modules, regulatory modules and effector modules that can be connected functionally within cells. A substantial number of sensor and regulatory modules already exist and this paper argues that some potential effector modules have already been identified. The necessary library may therefore be within reach. The paper ends by suggesting a set of challenges, ranging from simple to complex, the achievement of which would provide valuable proofs of concept. PMID:18510501

  6. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection to the Portal Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Wyttenbach, Marina; Carrel, Thierry; Schuepbach, Peter; Tschaeppeler, Heinz; Triller, Juergen

    1996-03-15

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return represents a rare congenital anomaly with wide anatomic and physiologic variability. We report a case of a newborn with a rare form of total infracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). The pulmonary veins draining both lungs formed two vertical veins, which joined to a common pulmonary trunk below the diaphragm. This venous channel connected to the portal vein through the esophageal hiatus. The diagnosis was suggested by color Doppler sonography and confirmed by intravenous digital subtraction angiography, which allowed definition of the anatomy.

  7. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  8. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    PubMed

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  9. The Virtual Anatomy Laboratory: Usability Testing to Improve an Online Learning Resource for Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubleday, Eldridge G.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.; Doubleday, Alison F.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of instructors are seeking to provide students with online anatomy resources. Many researchers have attempted to identify associations between resource use and student learning but few studies discuss the importance of usability testing in resource design and modification. Usability testing provides information about ease of…

  10. The integrated anatomy practical paper: A robust assessment method for anatomy education today.

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire F; McManus, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Assessing anatomy in a way that tests higher cognitive domains and clinical application is not always straightforward. The old "spotter" examination has been criticized for only testing low level "identify" knowledge, whereas other assessment modalities such as multiple choice questions do not reflect the three dimensional and application nature of clinical anatomy. Medical curricula are frequently integrated and subject specific examinations do not reflect the case based, spiral, integrative nature of the curricula. The integrated anatomy practical paper (IAPP) is a hybrid of the old "spotter" and an objective structured clinical examination but it demonstrates how higher levels of taxonomy can be assessed, together with clinical features and integrates well with other disciplines. Importantly, the IAPP has shown to be reliable and practical to administer. Data gathered from the Bachelor of Medicine five-year program over two academic years for four IAPP examinations, each being 40 minutes with (K = 60 items) based on 440 students revealed consistently strong reliability coefficients (Cronbach alpha) of up to 0.923. Applying Blooms taxonomy to questions has shown a marked shift resulting in an increase in the complexity level being tested; between 2009 and 2013 a reduction of 26% in the number of low level "remember knowledge" domain questions was noted with up to an increase of 15% in "understanding" domain and 12% increase in the "applying" knowledge domain. Our findings highlight that it is possible to test, based in a laboratory, anatomy knowledge and application that is integrated and fit for practice.

  11. "Digit Anatomy": A New Technique for Learning Anatomy Using Motor Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made…

  12. Observations by a University Anatomy Teacher and a Suggestion for Curricular Change: Integrative Anatomy for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darda, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The observation that anatomical course offerings have decreased in undergraduate biology curricula is supported by a survey of undergraduate institutions in the state of Washington. This reduction, due partially to increased emphasis in other areas of the biology curriculum, along with the lack of anatomy prerequisites for admission to most…

  13. A reappraisal of adult thoracic surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; Hale, Samuel J M; Buckenham, Tim; Wilson, Ben; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. Numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings exist between and within anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic surface anatomical landmarks in vivo using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. High-resolution thoracic CT scans from 153 supine adults (mean age 63, range 19-89 years; 53% female) taken at end tidal inspiration were analyzed by dual consensus reporting to determine the surface anatomy of the sternal angle, central veins, heart, lungs, and diaphragm. Patients with kyphosis/scoliosis, distorting space-occupying lesions, or visceromegaly were excluded. The position of the cardiac apex, formation of the brachiocephalic veins, and vertebral levels of the sternal angle, xiphisternal joint, and aortic hiatus were consistent with commonly accepted surface markings although there was a wide range of normal variation. In contrast, common surface markings were markedly inaccurate for the following: the position of the tracheal bifurcation, aortic arch, and azygos vein termination (below the plane of the sternal angle at T5-T6 vertebral level in most individuals); the superior vena cava/right atrial junction (most often behind the fourth costal cartilage); the lower border of the lung (adjacent to T12 vertebra posteriorly); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T11 in most). Surface anatomy must be reappraised using modern imaging in vivo if it is to be evidence based and fit for purpose. The effects of gender, age, posture, respiration, build, and ethnicity also deserve greater emphasis.

  14. [Nose surgical anatomy in six aesthetic subunits].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Lauwers, F; Lopez, R; Saboye, J; André, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J-P

    2013-04-01

    The nose is a complex entity, combining aesthetic and functional roles. Descriptive anatomy is a fundamental science that it can be difficult to relate directly to our daily surgical activity. Reasoning in terms of aesthetic subunits to decide on his actions appeared to us so obvious. The aim of this paper is to resume the anatomical bases relevant to our daily practice in order to fully apprehend the restorative or cosmetic procedures. We discuss the limits of the systematization of these principles in nasal oncology.

  15. Anatomy and physiology of the senses.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the sensory systems of the body. Sensory organs may be categorised as general or special. Sensory systems enabling sight, hearing, smell and taste may be classified as special. Sensory systems enabling proprioception, touch, and thermal and pain perception may be classified as general. This article describes the anatomy and physiology of the sensory systems, examining structures associated with vision and hearing, equilibrium and sensation. Common disorders of vision and hearing are also considered, including glaucoma, cataract, age-related hearing impairment and conductive hearing impairment.

  16. A brief history of topographical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Standring, Susan

    2016-07-01

    This brief history of topographical anatomy begins with Egyptian medical papyri and the works known collectively as the Greco-Arabian canon, the time line then moves on to the excitement of discovery that characterised the Renaissance, the increasing regulatory and legislative frameworks introduced in the 18th and 19th centuries, and ends with a consideration of the impact of technology that epitomises the period from the late 19th century to the present day. This paper is based on a lecture I gave at the Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society in Cambridge in December 2015, when I was awarded the Anatomical Society Medal.

  17. Anatomy and physiology of the perionychium.

    PubMed

    Zook, Elvin G

    2002-11-01

    Only primates have a perionychium on the dorsal distal portion of each finger and each toe. The flat nail on the end of the human finger allows for increased sensory perception in the pad of the finger and for efficient and accurate picking up of small objects. It also serves as a guard to protect the very sensate fingertip, and functions as a temperature regulator. Nail loss or deformity can be not only an aesthetic but also a functional problem. This article details the anatomy and physiology of the perionychium, knowledge that is essential to providing optimum care for these specialized structures.

  18. DISSECTING HABITAT CONNECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract

    Connectivity is increasingly recognized as an important element of a successful reserve design. Connectivity matters in reserve design to the extent that it promotes or hinders the viability of target populations. While conceptually straightforward, connectivity i...

  19. Connective Tissue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Connective tissue is the material inside your body that supports many of its parts. It is the "cellular ... their work. Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective ...

  20. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... L. Goldstein, MD, MMSc (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  1. Aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae superioris in Chinese subjects: A live gross anatomy and cadaveric histological study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Er; Nie, Yun-Fei; Wang, Zhen-Jun; Peng, Li-Xia; Wu, Yan-Hong; Li, Qin

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of the anatomy of the levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis (LPSA) is critical for successful blepharoplasty of aponeurotic ptosis. We investigated the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the LPSA.This prospective live gross anatomy study enrolled 200 adult Chinese patients with bilateral mild ptosis undergoing elective blepharoplasty. Full-thick eyelid tissues and sagittal sections from the eyelid skin to the conjunctiva were examined with Masson trichrome staining or antismooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemistry.Gross anatomy showed that the space between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA could be accessed after incising the overlying superficial fascia, by retracting the white line. Adipose layers were clearly observed in 195 out of 200 patients with bilateral mild ptosis, among which 180 cases had the superficial layer connected to the uncoated adipose. Fifteen cases had the superficial layer connected to the smoothly coated layer, and 5 cases had the superficial layer directly connected to the deep loose fiber, almost without adipose. In previously untreated patients, the LPSA space was located beneath the intact orbital septum. In those with previous surgeries, it was beneath the superficial layer of the LPSA, underlying the destructed orbital septum. Cadaveric histology showed that the deep layer of the LPSA extended into the anterior layer of the tarsal plate and the superficial layer reflexed upward in continuity with the vertical orbital septum. An occult space existed between the 2 layers of the LPSA, with a smooth lining on the deep layer. The superficial layer of the LPSA was SMA-immunonegative but the deep layer was slightly immunopositive for SMA. An occult anatomic space exists between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA, in proximity to the superior tarsal plate margin. Recognition of the more anatomically significant LPSA deep layer may help improve the aesthetic outcome of blepharoplasty.

  2. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  3. Surgical exposure and anatomy of the female pelvis.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Charles S; Gehrich, Alan; Bakaya, Sonal

    2008-04-01

    Female pelvic anatomy encompasses the reproductive, urologic, and gastrointestinal systems. Knowledge of the inherent relations between these organ systems, as well as the ability to develop pelvic spaces, will enable the surgeon to approach pelvic pathology confidently. This article highlights basic anatomy of the female pelvis and emphasizes points of caution during pelvic surgery, as well as reviews the essential principles of pelvic support.

  4. Student Perceptions to Teaching Undergraduate Anatomy in Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Ryan S.; Chiu, Li Shan; Aulfrey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy and physiology teaching has undergone significant changes to keep up with advances in technology and to cater for a wide array of student specific learning approaches. This paper examines perceptions towards a variety of teaching instruments, techniques, and innovations used in the delivery and teaching of anatomy and physiology for health…

  5. Measuring Change in Professionalism Attitudes during the Gross Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, William G., Jr.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    By design or default, anatomy educators are often responsible for introducing students to medical professionalism. Although much has been said about the role of anatomical education, there are no published reports suggesting how to measure change. This study investigated what professionalism attitudes, if any, change during a gross anatomy course.…

  6. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  7. Surface anatomy and surface landmarks for thoracic surgery: Part II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shona E; Darling, Gail E

    2011-05-01

    Surface anatomy is an integral part of a thoracic surgeon's armamentarium to assist with the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thoracic pathology. As reviewed in this article, the surface landmarks of the lungs, heart, great vessels, and mediastinum are critical for appropriate patient care and should be learned in conjunction with classic anatomy.

  8. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  9. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  10. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  11. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  12. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  13. Perceptions of Anatomy: Critical Components in the Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Michelle D.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Leong, Shou Ling; Kauffman, Gordon L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution in undergraduate medical school curricula has significantly impacted anatomy education. This study investigated the perceived role of clinical anatomy and evaluated perceptions of medical students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge in the clinic. The aim of this study was to develop a framework to enhance anatomical educational…

  14. Clinical Vignettes Improve Performance in Anatomy Practical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikah, December S. K.; Finn, Gabrielle M.; Swamy, Meenakshi; White, Pamela M.; McLachlan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Although medical curricula now adopt an integrated teaching approach, this is not adequately reflected in assessment of anatomy knowledge and skills. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of the addition of clinical vignette to item stems on students' performance in anatomy practical examinations. In this study, 129 undergraduate medical…

  15. Should Reproductive Anatomy Be Taught in University Health Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent; Fletcher, J. Sue

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on undergraduate reproductive anatomy education. This pilot study explores knowledge of anatomical reproductive anatomy among university students in a lower division and upper division health course. Using a Qualtrics survey program, a convenience sample of 120 lower division and 157 upper division students for a…

  16. Student-Directed Fresh Tissue Anatomy Course for Physician Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Drake, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare providers in all areas and levels of education depend on their knowledge of anatomy for daily practice. As educators, we are challenged with teaching the anatomical sciences in creative, integrated ways and often within a condensed time frame. This article describes the organization of a clinical anatomy course with a peer taught…

  17. Lecture Notes on Human Anatomy. Part Two, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, deal successfully with complex tasks, and learn a specific way of thinking. This is the second volume in a set of notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in human anatomy. This volume includes…

  18. Anatomy "Steeplechase" Online: Necessity Sometimes Is the Catalyst for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inuwa, Ibrahim Muhammad; Al Rawahy, Maimouna; Taranikanti, Varna; Habbal, Omar

    2011-01-01

    In most medical schools, summative practical examination in Anatomy usually takes the format of a "steeplechase" ("spotters" or "bell ringers") conducted in the gross anatomy laboratory using cadaveric material and prosected specimens. Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz…

  19. Assessment Outcomes: Computerized Instruction in a Human Gross Anatomy Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, Elaine L.

    2002-01-01

    The first of three successive classes of beginning physical therapy students (n=17) completed traditional cadaver anatomy lecture/lab; the next 17 a self-study computerized anatomy lab, and the next 20 both lectures and computer lab. No differences in study times and course or licensure exam performance appeared. Computerized self-study is a…

  20. Using Multimedia and Web3D to Enhance Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenton, Harry; Hernandez, Juan; Bello, Fernando; Strutton, Paul; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Firth, Tony; Darzi, Ara

    2007-01-01

    Anatomy teaching is undergoing significant changes due to time constraints, limited availability of cadavers and technological developments in the areas of three-dimensional modelling and computer-assisted learning. This paper gives an overview of methods used to teach anatomy to undergraduate medical students and discusses the educational…

  1. A Minimally Invasive Approach to Undergraduate Anatomy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogalniceanu, Petrut; Madani, Hardi; Paraskeva, Paraskevas A.; Darzi, Ara

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy is one of the cornerstones of medical education. Unfortunately, sufficient evidence has accumulated to suggest a worldwide decline in the resources and time allocated to its teaching. Integration of anatomy with clinical medicine has been frequently advocated as the solution to this academic crisis. Consequently, new ways of harnessing…

  2. The Use of Creative Projects in a Gross Anatomy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Nguyen, Vincent; Mourra, Sarah; Ross, Marianne; Thai, Trung; Leonard, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students often describe the gross anatomy course as both stressful and a rite of passage. Research differs as to whether the stress it engenders is significant or transitory. This qualitative study of first year anatomy student reports on the use of optional creative projects to promote reflection and reduce stress. Methods:…

  3. Anatomy Education in Namibia: Balancing Facility Design and Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed…

  4. User Acceptance of a Haptic Interface for Learning Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeom, Soonja; Choi-Lundberg, Derek; Fluck, Andrew; Sale, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Visualizing the structure and relationships in three dimensions (3D) of organs is a challenge for students of anatomy. To provide an alternative way of learning anatomy engaging multiple senses, we are developing a force-feedback (haptic) interface for manipulation of 3D virtual organs, using design research methodology, with iterations of system…

  5. Embryology and Anatomy of the Jaw and Dentition.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Poon, Colin S; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Radiologists should possess working knowledge of the embryological development and anatomy of the jaw and dentition in order to aid in the diagnosis of both simple and complex disorders that affect them. Here, we review the elaborate process of odontogenesis, as well as describe in detail the anatomy of a tooth and its surrounding structures.

  6. Lecture Notes on Human Anatomy. Part One, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrey, Kathleen

    During the process of studying the specific course content of human anatomy, students are being educated to expand their vocabulary, deal successfully with complex tasks, and use a specific way of thinking. This is the first volume in a set of notes which are designed to accompany a lecture series in human anatomy. This volume includes discussions…

  7. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  8. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.

    2010-01-01

    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  9. Peer Assessment among First Year Medical Students in Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The…

  10. Self-regulation of brain oscillations as a treatment for aberrant brain connections in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Pineda, J A; Juavinett, A; Datko, M

    2012-12-01

    Autism is a highly varied developmental disorder typically characterized by deficits in reciprocal social interaction, difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Although a wide range of behavioral, pharmacological, and alternative medicine strategies have been reported to ameliorate specific symptoms for some individuals, there is at present no cure for the condition. Nonetheless, among the many incompatible observations about aspects of the development, anatomy, and functionality of the autistic brain, it is widely agreed that it is characterized by widespread aberrant connectivity. Such disordered connectivity, be it increased, decreased, or otherwise compromised, may complicate healthy synchronization and communication among and within different neural circuits, thereby producing abnormal processing of sensory inputs necessary for normal social life. It is widely accepted that the innate properties of brain electrical activity produce pacemaker elements and linked networks that oscillate synchronously or asynchronously, likely reflecting a type of functional connectivity. Using phase coherence in multiple frequency EEG bands as a measure of functional connectivity, studies have shown evidence for both global hypoconnectivity and local hyperconnectivity in individuals with ASD. However, the nature of the brain's experience-dependent structural plasticity suggests that these abnormal patterns may be reversed with the proper type of treatment. Indeed, neurofeedback (NF) training, an intervention based on operant conditioning that results in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown promise in addressing marked abnormalities in functional and structural connectivity. It is hypothesized that neurofeedback produces positive behavioral changes in ASD children by normalizing the aberrant connections within and between neural circuits. NF exploits the brain's plasticity to normalize aberrant

  11. Animating functional anatomy for the web.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, G D

    2000-04-15

    The instructor sometimes has a complex task in explaining the concepts of functional anatomy and embryology to health professional students. However, animations can easily illustrate functional anatomy, clinical procedures, or the developing embryo. Web animation increases the accessibility of this information and makes it much more useful for independent student learning. A modified version of the animation can also be used for patient education. This article defines animation, provides a brief history of animation, discusses the principles of animation, illustrates and evaluates some of the video-editing or movie-making computer software programs, and shows examples of two of the author's animations. These two animations are the inferior alveolar nerve block from the mandibular nerve anesthetics unit and normal temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function from the muscles of the mastication and the TMJ function unit. The software discussed are the industry leaders and have made the job of producing computer-based animations much easier. The programs are Adobe Premiere, Adobe After Effects, Apple QuickTime and Macromedia Flash .

  12. Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

  13. Hemispheric asymmetries in cortical and subcortical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaojian; Herron, Timothy J; Ettlinger, Marc; Woods, David L

    2015-01-01

    Previous research studies have reported many hemispherical asymmetries in cortical and subcortical anatomy, but only a subset of findings is consistent across studies. Here, we used improved Freesurfer-based automated methods to analyse the properties of the cortex and seven subcortical structures in 138 young adult subjects. Male and female subjects showed similar hemispheric asymmetries in gyral and sulcal structures, with many areas associated with language processing enlarged in the left hemisphere (LH) and a number of areas associated with visuospatial processing enlarged in the right hemisphere (RH). In addition, we found greater (non-directional) cortical asymmetries in subjects with larger brains. Asymmetries in subcortical structures included larger LH volumes of thalamus, putamen and globus pallidus and larger RH volumes of the cerebellum and the amygdala. We also found significant correlations between the subcortical structural volumes, particularly of the thalamus and cerebellum, with cortical area. These results help to resolve some of the inconsistencies in previous studies of hemispheric asymmetries in brain anatomy.

  14. Obscuring surface anatomy in volumetric imaging data.

    PubMed

    Milchenko, Mikhail; Marcus, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The identifying or sensitive anatomical features in MR and CT images used in research raise patient privacy concerns when such data are shared. In order to protect human subject privacy, we developed a method of anatomical surface modification and investigated the effects of such modification on image statistics and common neuroimaging processing tools. Common approaches to obscuring facial features typically remove large portions of the voxels. The approach described here focuses on blurring the anatomical surface instead, to avoid impinging on areas of interest and hard edges that can confuse processing tools. The algorithm proceeds by extracting a thin boundary layer containing surface anatomy from a region of interest. This layer is then "stretched" and "flattened" to fit into a thin "box" volume. After smoothing along a plane roughly parallel to anatomy surface, this volume is transformed back onto the boundary layer of the original data. The above method, named normalized anterior filtering, was coded in MATLAB and applied on a number of high resolution MR and CT scans. To test its effect on automated tools, we compared the output of selected common skull stripping and MR gain field correction methods used on unmodified and obscured data. With this paper, we hope to improve the understanding of the effect of surface deformation approaches on the quality of de-identified data and to provide a useful de-identification tool for MR and CT acquisitions.

  15. Anatomy and biomechanics of quadratus lumborum.

    PubMed

    Phillips, S; Mercer, S; Bogduk, N

    2008-02-01

    Various actions on the lumbar spine have been attributed to quadratus lumborum, but they have not been substantiated by quantitative data. The present study was undertaken to determine the magnitude of forces and moments that quadratus lumborum could exert on the lumbar spine. The fascicular anatomy of quadratus lumborum was studied in six embalmed cadavers. For each fascicle, the sites of attachment, orientation, and physiological cross-sectional area were determined. The fascicular anatomy varied considerably, between sides and between specimens, with respect to the number of fascicles, their prevalence, and their sizes. Approximately half of the fascicles act on the twelfth rib, and the rest act on the lumbar spine. The more consistently present fascicles were incorporated, as force-equivalents, into a model of quadratus lumborum in order to determine its possible actions. The magnitudes of the compression forces exerted by quadratus lumborum on the lumbar spine, the extensor moment, and the lateral bending moment, were each no greater than 10 per cent of those exerted by erector spinae and multifidus. These data indicate that quadratus lumborum has no more than a modest action on the lumbar spine, in quantitative terms. Its actual role in spinal biomechanics has still to be determined.

  16. Interoperability between phenotype and anatomy ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Oellrich, Anika; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Phenotypic information is important for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease. A formal ontological representation of phenotypic information can help to identify, interpret and infer phenotypic traits based on experimental findings. The methods that are currently used to represent data and information about phenotypes fail to make the semantics of the phenotypic trait explicit and do not interoperate with ontologies of anatomy and other domains. Therefore, valuable resources for the analysis of phenotype studies remain unconnected and inaccessible to automated analysis and reasoning. Results: We provide a framework to formalize phenotypic descriptions and make their semantics explicit. Based on this formalization, we provide the means to integrate phenotypic descriptions with ontologies of other domains, in particular anatomy and physiology. We demonstrate how our framework leads to the capability to represent disease phenotypes, perform powerful queries that were not possible before and infer additional knowledge. Availability: http://bioonto.de/pmwiki.php/Main/PheneOntology Contact: rh497@cam.ac.uk PMID:20971987

  17. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology in the female.

    PubMed

    Wingate, S

    1997-12-01

    Important differences in male and female cardiovascular anatomy and physiology may account for many of the gender differences seen in various cardiac disease states. Predominant influences on female disease manifestations include (1) women's smaller body size, hence smaller hearts and smaller coronary vessels and (2) women's fluctuating levels of estrogen throughout their lifespan. Understanding these critical anatomic and physiologic differences allows the clinician to better predict and plan care for women. For example, knowing that women generally have a smaller body surface area than men allows one to better understand why men have higher creatine kinase (CK) values than do women--an important distinction when interpreting these values in the acute care setting. The fact that women's hearts and coronary vessels are generally smaller than men's also helps one understand why women have a higher in-hospital mortality than men post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (see article by Allen in this issue for more detailed information on revascularization). These are only a few examples of the many opportunities that acute care nurses have to integrate their knowledge of anatomy and physiology into proactive planning for their female cardiac patients.

  18. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper.

  19. Virtual Reality Educational Tool for Human Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2017-05-01

    Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.

  20. Normal shoulder ultrasound: anatomy and technique.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Harun; Robinson, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Shoulder ultrasound (US) is one of the most common applications of musculoskeletal US due to the high incidence of rotator cuff disorders. It can be used effectively for the diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases, and several studies have shown very high sensitivity and specificity for rotator cuff tears comparable with that of MRI. Shoulder US has several advantages over MRI such as lower cost, comparatively easier availability, short examination duration, dynamic capability, and ability to perform guided injection at the same appointment. However, it depends on the skill of the operator and therefore requires a standardized detailed protocol to avoid errors in diagnosis. A symptomatic area-only focused examination should not be performed because it is not uncommon to have symptoms away from the actual site of pathology. Detailed understanding of what anatomy can be evaluated is required, and this article discusses the relevant anatomy covering the rotator cuff, subacromial bursa, and acromioclavicular joint. The equipment requirements and technique of examination of different anatomical structures with transducer positions and normal sonographic appearances are described. Pitfalls and artifacts associated with shoulder US are covered; understanding them is crucial to avoid misinterpretation of findings.

  1. Breakdown of Inter-Hemispheric Connectivity Is Associated with Posttraumatic Symptomatology and Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Veksler, Ronel; Guez, Jonathan; Jacob, Yael; Shelef, Ilan; Shalev, Hadar; Friedman, Alon; Cohen, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Altered brain anatomy in specific gray-matter regions has been shown in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recently, white-matter tracts have become a focus of research in PTSD. The corpus callosum (CC) is the principal white-matter fiber bundle, crucial in relaying sensory, motor and cognitive information between hemispheres. Alterations in CC fibers have been reported in PTSD and might be assumed to underlie substantial behavioral and cognitive sequelae; however most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in adult-onset PTSD failed to address the clinical correlates between imaging and PTSD symptoms severity, behavioral manifestation and cognitive functions. In the current study we examined (a) to what extent microstructural integrity of the CC is associated with memory performance and (b) whether imaging and cognitive parameters are associated with PTSD symptom severity. DTI data were obtained and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were computed for 16 patients and 14 controls. PTSD symptom severity was assessed by employing the clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS) and memory was tested using a task probing item and associative memory for words and pictures. Significant correlations were found between PTSD symptoms severity, memory accuracy and reaction-time to CC FA values in the PTSD group. This study demonstrates meaningful clinical and cognitive correlates of microstructural connectivity. These results have implications for diagnostic tools and future studies aimed at identifying individuals at risk for PTSD. PMID:26863536

  2. Historical development of modern anatomy education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-03-01

    Medical schools at the beginning of Meiji era were diverse, both in regard to their founders and their methods of education, frequently employing foreign teachers of various nationalities. In 1871, German teachers were appointed to organize medical education at the medical school of the University of Tokyo. The anatomical education at the school was conducted by German teachers, i.e. Miller (1871-1873), Dönitz (1873-1877), Gierke (1877-1880) and Disse (1880-1885), followed by Koganei, who returned from the study in Germany. At the first meeting of Japanese Association ofAnatomists in 1893 [Meiji 26], the Japanese anatomy teachers met together and most of them were graduates of the University of Tokyo or fellows of its anatomy department. Before 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books were mainly translated from English books, and foreign teachers of various nationalities were employed in many medical schools in Japan. After 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books based on the lectures by German teachers at the University of Tokyo were published. The anatomy books after 1887 [Meiji 20] were written based on German books, and the German anatomical terms were utilized. After 1905 [Meiji 38], the original Japanese anatomy books appeared, employing international anatomical terms. In the Meiji 10s the anatomy teachers and anatomy textbooks spread from the University of Tokyo to the medical schools in Japan as the number of medical schools increased temporally. In the Meiji 20s the five national and three public medical schools in addition to the University of Tokyo provided substantial anatomy education including dissection course. Even in the early Meiji 20s these medical schools supplied only half of the newly licensed doctors, and the others were supplied through the national examination after preparatory education at private medical schools without opportunity of substantial anatomy education including dissection course.

  3. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set I: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the first part in a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following topics: (1) organization of the human body; (2) biochemistry and microbiology; (3) infection,…

  4. Multiscale image and multiscale deformation of brain anatomy for building average brain atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studholme, Colin; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2001-07-01

    In this work we consider the process of aligning a set of anatomical MRI scans, from a group of subjects, to a single reference MRI scan as accurately as possible. A key requirement of this anatomical normalization is the ability to bring into alignment brain images with different ages and disease states with equal accuracy and precision, enabling the unbiased comparison of different groups. Typical images of such anatomy may vary in terms of both tissue shape, location and contrast. To address this we have developed, a highly localized free-form inter-subject registration algorithm driven by normalized mutual information. This employs an efficient multi-image resolution and multi-deformation resolution registration procedure. In this paper we examine the behavior of this algorithm when applied to aligning high-resolution MRI of groups of younger, older and atrophied brain anatomy to different target anatomies. To gain an insight into the quality of the spatial normalization, we have examined two properties of the transformations: The residual intensity differences between spatially normalized MRI values and the spatial discrepancies in transformation estimates between group and reference, derived from transformations between 168 different image pairs. These are examined with respect to the coarseness of the deformation model employed.

  5. A Review of the Relevant Embryology, Pathohistology, and Anatomy of the Left Atrial Appendage for the Invasive Cardiac Electrophysiologist

    PubMed Central

    DeSimone, Christopher V.; Gaba, Prakriti; Tri, Jason; Syed, Faisal; Noheria, Amit; Asirvatham, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of the left atrial appendage provides the substrate for thrombus generation, and is a harbinger for embolic material due to its direct connection to the left-sided circulation. Appreciating the development of the appendage from mesodermal layer to its adult form provides the basis to improve exclusion from the atrial circulation, and thereby can lead to a significant reduction in stroke risk. This process also provides insight into the role of the left atrial appendage as an endocrine organ, its involvement in fluid homeostasis, and its connection to the autonomic nervous system. Knowledge of the surrounding structural arrangement is critical to identify landmarks from both an endocardial and epicardial perspective to improve targeted device placement. Furthermore, correlation of the left atrial appendage body, neck, and ostium to the surrounding anatomy can also improve both procedural efficacy and safety. In addition, a working knowledge of the regional anatomy adds a prudent degree of awareness for procedural complications, and allows for early identification and timely intervention as these situations arise. A detailed understanding of the left atrial appendage embryology, histology, and gross anatomy is imperative to identify the correct device and approach for each individual patient. In addition, this increased awareness can identify areas that are in need of further innovation, and thus provide the ability to adapt and refine existing technologies to overcome pitfalls currently facing catheter-based approaches. PMID:27087889

  6. Microsurgical anatomy of the arterial basket of the conus medullaris.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Kalani, M Yashar S; Lemole, G Michael; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C; Theodore, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT The arterial basket of the conus medullaris (ABCM) consists of 1 or 2 arteries arising from the anterior spinal artery (ASA) and circumferentially connecting the ASA and the posterior spinal arteries (PSAs). The arterial basket can be involved in arteriovenous fistulas and arteriovenous malformations of the conus. In this article, the authors describe the microsurgical anatomy of the ABCM with emphasis on its morphometric parameters and important role in the intrinsic blood supply of the conus medullaris. METHODS The authors performed microsurgical dissections on 16 formalin-fixed human spinal cords harvested within 24 hours of death. The course, diameter, and branching angles of the arteries comprising the ABCM were then identified and measured. In addition, histological sections were obtained to identify perforating vessels arising from the ABCM. RESULTS The ASA tapers as it nears the conus medullaris (mean preconus diameter 0.7 ± 0.12 mm vs mean conus diameter 0.38 ± 0.08 mm). The ASA forms an anastomotic basket with the posterior spinal artery (PSA) via anastomotic branches. In most of the specimens (n= 13, 81.3%), bilateral arteries formed connections between the ASA and PSA. However, in the remaining specimens (n= 3, 18.7%), a unilateral right-sided anastomotic artery was identified. The mean diameter of the right ABCM branch was 0.49 ± 0.13 mm, and the mean diameter of the left branch was 0.53 ± 0.14 mm. The mean branching angles of the arteries forming the anastomotic basket were 95.9° ± 36.6° and 90° ± 34.3° for the right- and left-sided arteries, respectively. In cases of bilateral arterial anastomoses between the ASA and PSA, the mean distance between the origins of the arteries was 4.5 ± 3.3 mm. Histological analysis revealed numerous perforating vessels supplying tissue of the conus medullaris. CONCLUSIONS The ABCM is a critical anastomotic connection between the ASA and PSA, which play an important role in the intrinsic blood supply

  7. Anatomy: a must for teaching the next generation.

    PubMed

    Older, J

    2004-04-01

    Teaching anatomy to both undergraduate medical students and medical graduates is in the midst of a downward spiral. The traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught by didactic lectures and complete dissection of the body with personal tuition, has been replaced by a multiple range of special study modules, problem-based workshops, computers, plastic models and many other teaching tools. In some centres, dissected cadaver-based anatomy is no longer taught. Changing the undergraduate medical curriculum in the UK has taken place without any research into the key aspects of knowledge necessary or comparing methods of teaching. There is no agreement on a common national core curriculum and as a result, numerous new curricula have been introduced. No external audit or validation is carried out, so medical schools have been free to teach and assess their own work themselves. There is a great divergence in medical schools across the UK and Ireland in teaching medicine in general and anatomy in particular. Published data on the impact of these changes is scant. The reduction in undergraduate teaching and knowledge of anatomy has caused great concern, not only for undergraduates but also to postgraduate students, especially in surgery. This, together with a change in basic surgical training, a marked reduction in demonstrator posts and a change in examination standards, has set up a system that is allowing young men and women with a poor knowledge of anatomy to become surgeons. There should be a full public debate at every level; the Royal Colleges, specialist associations, the Universities, Government, both health and education. This debate should highlight areas of concern, explore in depth and define a minimal core curriculum for anatomy. Teaching must be enhanced with a critical look at both teachers and methods. The dominance of research must be reassessed to establish an equitable cohabitation with teaching. The place of basic science

  8. A slip connecting the peroneus longus and tibialis posterior tendons at the forefoot: MRI, anatomic, and histologic findings in a cadaver.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Nico, Marcelo; Chen, Lina; Haghighi, Parviz; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald

    2011-12-01

    The anatomy of the peroneus longus and tibialis posterior tendons is well described in literature from both anatomy and radiology. Though a slip connecting these two structures is described in the anatomic literature, its existence has not been confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study in a cadaver, such a connection is documented using high-resolution MRI with anatomic and histologic correlation. This connection can provide support to the Lisfranc joint complex and further stabilize the region of the first and second metatarsal bases.

  9. Driving with Alzheimer disease: the anatomy of a crash.

    PubMed

    Reinach, S J; Rizzo, M; McGehee, D V

    1997-06-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) affects several abilities that are crucial to automobile driving and can thereby increase the risk for a crash. The specific driver safety errors that lead up to crashes in this driver population, however, remain largely unknown. We developed a graphical means for dissecting these safety-related behaviors for application to car crashes of AD drivers. These crashes occurred in collision avoidance scenarios implemented on the Iowa Driving Simulator. Crash plots were produced by "rewinding" the data stream, then graphing the vehicle speed, path, steering wheel position, pedal positions, and driver gaze up to the very moment of impact. In this way, we were able to display in detail the patterns of vehicle and driver control to determine exactly how a crash occurred. Several different types of antecedent safety errors were noted, ranging from responding inappropriately with the hand and foot controls to not responding at all. In this paper we focus on the performance of a single impaired driver to demonstrate our technique and findings. Understanding the "anatomy" of crashes in cognitively disabled drivers with AD can help guide future efforts at injury prevention and control.

  10. Brain anatomy alterations associated with Social Networking Site (SNS) addiction.

    PubMed

    He, Qinghua; Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2017-03-23

    This study relies on knowledge regarding the neuroplasticity of dual-system components that govern addiction and excessive behavior and suggests that alterations in the grey matter volumes, i.e., brain morphology, of specific regions of interest are associated with technology-related addictions. Using voxel based morphometry (VBM) applied to structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of twenty social network site (SNS) users with varying degrees of SNS addiction, we show that SNS addiction is associated with a presumably more efficient impulsive brain system, manifested through reduced grey matter volumes in the amygdala bilaterally (but not with structural differences in the Nucleus Accumbens). In this regard, SNS addiction is similar in terms of brain anatomy alterations to other (substance, gambling etc.) addictions. We also show that in contrast to other addictions in which the anterior-/ mid- cingulate cortex is impaired and fails to support the needed inhibition, which manifests through reduced grey matter volumes, this region is presumed to be healthy in our sample and its grey matter volume is positively correlated with one's level of SNS addiction. These findings portray an anatomical morphology model of SNS addiction and point to brain morphology similarities and differences between technology addictions and substance and gambling addictions.

  11. Brain anatomy alterations associated with Social Networking Site (SNS) addiction

    PubMed Central

    He, Qinghua; Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    This study relies on knowledge regarding the neuroplasticity of dual-system components that govern addiction and excessive behavior and suggests that alterations in the grey matter volumes, i.e., brain morphology, of specific regions of interest are associated with technology-related addictions. Using voxel based morphometry (VBM) applied to structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of twenty social network site (SNS) users with varying degrees of SNS addiction, we show that SNS addiction is associated with a presumably more efficient impulsive brain system, manifested through reduced grey matter volumes in the amygdala bilaterally (but not with structural differences in the Nucleus Accumbens). In this regard, SNS addiction is similar in terms of brain anatomy alterations to other (substance, gambling etc.) addictions. We also show that in contrast to other addictions in which the anterior-/ mid- cingulate cortex is impaired and fails to support the needed inhibition, which manifests through reduced grey matter volumes, this region is presumed to be healthy in our sample and its grey matter volume is positively correlated with one’s level of SNS addiction. These findings portray an anatomical morphology model of SNS addiction and point to brain morphology similarities and differences between technology addictions and substance and gambling addictions. PMID:28332625

  12. Neurochemical anatomy of the zebrafish retina as determined by immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Yazulla, S; Studholme, K M

    2001-07-01

    The zebrafish retina is rapidly becoming a major preparation for the study of molecular genetic mechanisms underlying neural development and visual behavior. Studies utilizing retinal mutants would benefit by the availability of a data base on the distribution of neurotransmitter systems in the wild-type fish. To this end, the neurochemical anatomy of the zebrafish retina was surveyed by light microscopic immunocytochemistry. An extensive series of 60 separate antibodies were used to describe the distribution of major transmitter systems and a variety of neuron-associated membrane channels and proteins. These include markers (i.e., antibodies against enzymes, receptors, transporters) for transmitters: GABA, glycine, glutamate, biogenic amines, acetylcholine, cannabinoids and neuropeptides; as well as a sample of voltage-gated channels and synapse associated membrane proteins. Discussion of the comparative localization of these antibodies is restricted to other teleost fishes, particularly goldfish. Overall, there was great similarity in the distribution of the various markers, as might be expected. However, there were some notable differences, including several antibodies that did not label zebrafish at all, even though goldfish retinas that were processed in parallel, labeled beautifully. This survey is extensive, but not exhaustive, and hopefully will serve as a valuable resource for future studies of the zebrafish retina.

  13. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2016-10-12

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Deep dissection: motivating students beyond rote learning in veterinary anatomy.

    PubMed

    Cake, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    The profusion of descriptive, factual information in veterinary anatomy inevitably creates pressure on students to employ surface learning approaches and "rote learning." This phenomenon may contribute to negative perceptions of the relevance of anatomy as a discipline. Thus, encouraging deep learning outcomes will not only lead to greater satisfaction for both instructors and learners but may have the added effect of raising the profile of and respect for the discipline. Consideration of the literature reveals the broad scope of interventions required to motivate students to go beyond rote learning. While many of these are common to all disciplines (e.g., promoting active learning, making higher-order goals explicit, reducing content in favor of concepts, aligning assessment with outcomes), other factors are peculiar to anatomy, such as the benefits of incorporating clinical tidbits, "living anatomy," the anatomy museum, and dissection classes into a "learning context" that fosters deep approaches. Surprisingly, the 10 interventions discussed focus more on factors contributing to student perceptions of the course than on drastic changes to the anatomy course itself. This is because many traditional anatomy practices, such as dissection and museum-based classes, are eminently compatible with active, student-centered learning strategies and the adoption of deep learning approaches by veterinary students. Thus the key to encouraging, for example, dissection for deep learning ("deep dissection") lies more in student motivation, personal engagement, curriculum structure, and "learning context" than in the nature of the learning activity itself.

  15. Oral anatomy laboratory examinations in a physical therapy program.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    The process of creating and administering traditional tagged anatomy laboratory examinations is time consuming for instructors and limits laboratory access for students. Depending on class size and the number of class, sections, creating, administering, and breaking down a tagged laboratory examination may involve one to two eight-hour days. During the time that a tagged examination is being created, student productivity may be reduced as the anatomy laboratory is inaccessible to students. Further, the type of questions that can be asked in a tagged laboratory examination may limit student assessment to lower level cognitive abilities and may limit the instructors' ability to assess the students' understanding of anatomical and clinical concepts. Anatomy is a foundational science in the Physical Therapy curriculum and a thorough understanding of anatomy is necessary to progress through the subsequent clinical courses. Physical therapy curricula have evolved to reflect the changing role of physical therapists to primary caregivers by introducing a greater scope of clinical courses earlier in the curriculum. Physical therapy students must have a thorough understanding of clinical anatomy early in the education process. However, traditional anatomy examination methods may not be reflective of the clinical thought processes required of physical therapy students. Traditional laboratory examination methods also reduce student productivity by limiting access during examination set-up and breakdown. To provide a greater complexity of questions and reduced overall laboratory time required for examinations, the Physical Therapy Program at Mercer University has introduced oral laboratory examinations for the gross anatomy course series.

  16. Anatomy integration blueprint: A fourth-year musculoskeletal anatomy elective model.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Michelle D; Kauffman, Gordon L; Kothari, Milind J; Mosher, Timothy J; Silvis, Matthew L; Wawrzyniak, John R; Anderson, Daniel T; Black, Kevin P

    2014-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical school curricular trends focus on both vertical integration of clinical knowledge into the traditionally basic science-dedicated curricula and increasing basic science education in the clinical years. This latter type of integration is more difficult and less reported on than the former. Here, we present an outline of a course wherein the primary learning and teaching objective is to integrate basic science anatomy knowledge with clinical education. The course was developed through collaboration by a multi-specialist course development team (composed of both basic scientists and physicians) and was founded in current adult learning theories. The course was designed to be widely applicable to multiple future specialties, using current published reports regarding the topics and clinical care areas relying heavily on anatomical knowledge regardless of specialist focus. To this end, the course focuses on the role of anatomy in the diagnosis and treatment of frequently encountered musculoskeletal conditions. Our iterative implementation and action research approach to this course development has yielded a curricular template for anatomy integration into clinical years. Key components for successful implementation of these types of courses, including content topic sequence, the faculty development team, learning approaches, and hidden curricula, were developed. We also report preliminary feedback from course stakeholders and lessons learned through the process. The purpose of this report is to enhance the current literature regarding basic science integration in the clinical years of medical school.

  17. Cervical carotid and circle of willis arterial anatomy of macaque monkeys: a comparative anatomy study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nishant; Lee, John J; Perlmutter, Joel S; Derdeyn, Colin P

    2009-07-01

    Macaque monkeys are used in many research applications, including cerebrovascular investigations. However, detailed catalogs of the relevant vascular anatomy are scarce. We present our experience with macaque vessel patterns as determined by digital subtraction angiography of 34 different monkeys. We retrospectively analyzed digital subtraction angiograms obtained during experimental internal carotid artery (ICA) catheterization and subsequent injection of 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Results were catalogued according to vascular distribution and variants observed. Macaque monkeys have a bovine aortic arch. The carotid vessels generally bifurcate, but are occasionally observed to divide into three vessels. The external carotid gives rise primarily to two trunks: an occipital branch and a common vessel that subsequently gives off the lingual, facial, and superior thyroid arteries. The internal maxillary artery may be present as a terminal branch of the external carotid or as a branch of the occipital artery. The ICA is similar in course to that of the human. The anterior circle of Willis was intact in all monkeys in our study. Its primary difference from that of the human is the union of the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries as a single (azygous) median vessel. Macaque cervical carotid and circle of Willis arterial anatomy differs from humans in a couple of specific patterns. Knowledge of these differences and similarities between human and macaque anatomy is important in developing endovascular macaque models of human diseases, such as ischemic stroke.

  18. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region.

  19. Abraham Colles and his contributions to anatomy.

    PubMed

    Shayota, Brian J; Oelhafen, Kim; Shoja, Mohammadali; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-07-01

    Abraham Colles is known among the medical community for his detailed description of Colles' fracture, one of the most common occurring skeletal injuries. It is remarkable that something as seemingly simple as the diagnosis of Colles' fracture had not been established until nearly 200 years ago. While that may have been his most well known accomplishment, Colles made several other contributions to medicine across multiple fields of practice. In the field of anatomy, he is also credited for his discovery and description of Colles' fascia and Colles' ligament. Less commonly known, however, are his clinical observations and offered treatment regimens for syphilis, as well as his achievement in performing the first surgery for axillary artery aneurysm. The current paper will review the life and contributions of this early surgeon and anatomist.

  20. Surgical anatomy of the anterior clinoid process.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Le, Phuong; Natori, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Tomio

    2004-04-01

    We studied the surgical anatomy of the anterior clinoid process (ACP) and its adjacent structures in cadaver heads. We paid special attention to the anatomical relationships between the ACP and adjacent structures to determine the surgical landmarks for safe anterior clinoidectomy. Thirty-five cadaver heads were dissected and the ACP regions were examined in 55 skull sides. We observed that in eight sides the ACP had been pneumatized from the sphenoid sinus. The caroticoclinoid foramen was revealed in only eight sides. The extra-ocular nerves ran forward to the superior orbital fissure at the inferolateral aspect of the ACP, with the oculomotor nerve being closest. The posterolateral area of the carotico-oculomotor membrane was thin and incomplete in nine sides. The study clarified the anatomical relationship between the ACP and its surrounding structures, and identified the major variations experienced. We used these to identify anatomical landmarks to assist the surgeon in the planning of a safe and effective anterior clinoidectomy.