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Sample records for behavioral assessment scale

  1. The Multidimensional Behavior Rating Scale: An Assessment Device for Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothblum, Esther D.; Green, Leon

    The Multidimensional Behavior Rating Scale (MBRS) was constructed to assess symptoms of depression across seven modalities: behavior, affect, sensation, imagery, cognition, interpersonal relationship, and drugs. Subjects (N=33) were matched by level of depression on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression Scale to either a…

  2. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Behavior Rating Scale for the Assessment of Treatment Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals is described. Separate factor analyses of the data from two samples resulted in a five-factor scale: (1) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (2) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (3) Stereotypic Behavior; (4) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and…

  3. The aberrant behavior checklist: a behavior rating scale for the assessment of treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Singh, N N; Stewart, A W; Field, C J

    1985-03-01

    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals was described. In the first stage of the project, an initial scale encompassing a large number of behavior problems was used to rate 418 residents. The scale was then reduced to an intermediate version, and in the second stage, 509 moderately to profoundly retarded individuals were rated. Separate factor analyses of the data from the two samples resulted in a five-factor scale comprising 58 items. The factors of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist have been labeled as follows: (I) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (II) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (III) Stereotypic Behavior; (IV) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and (V) Inappropriate Speech. Average subscale scores were presented for the instrument, and the results were compared with empirically derived rating scales of childhood psychopathology and with factor analytic work in the field of mental retardation.

  4. The aberrant behavior checklist: a behavior rating scale for the assessment of treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Singh, N N; Stewart, A W; Field, C J

    1985-03-01

    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals was described. In the first stage of the project, an initial scale encompassing a large number of behavior problems was used to rate 418 residents. The scale was then reduced to an intermediate version, and in the second stage, 509 moderately to profoundly retarded individuals were rated. Separate factor analyses of the data from the two samples resulted in a five-factor scale comprising 58 items. The factors of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist have been labeled as follows: (I) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (II) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (III) Stereotypic Behavior; (IV) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and (V) Inappropriate Speech. Average subscale scores were presented for the instrument, and the results were compared with empirically derived rating scales of childhood psychopathology and with factor analytic work in the field of mental retardation. PMID:3993694

  5. Contextual Influences on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and Implications for Its Cross-cultural Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Marten; Super, Charles M.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale outside the standard hospital setting introduces variations in the physical and social context that influence scores on some of the behavioral items. (Author/BH)

  6. Psychometric Comparison of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, S.; Iacono, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) are frequently used to assess the learned function of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim was to explore and compare the psychometric properties of the MAS and the QABF. Method: Seventy adults with ID and…

  7. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale as a biomarker of the effects of environmental agents on the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Tronick, E.Z.

    1987-10-01

    The organization of the newborn's brain and the nature of the effects of toxins and pollutants conspire to produce complex and difficult problems for the assessment of the behavioral effects of environmental agents. The newborn's brain can be characterized as relatively undifferentiated, and more vulnerable to, but potentially more capable of recovery from, the effects of environmental agents specific to this time period than it will be later in development. Environmental agents tend to have nonspecific, possibly subtle, effects that invade many areas of newborn functioning. These characteristics of the newborn and the behavioral effects of teratogens make assessment at this point in development difficult. Further exacerbating this difficulty is the nature of development. Development is critically dependent on the care the newborn receives. Distortions of a newborn's behavior can produce disturbances in the caretaking environment, and these caretaking disturbances can amplify the original behavioral distortion and produce other distortions. Attention to these types of effects must be built into an assessment. These considerations lead to the conclusion that an apical assessment of newborn behavior is required. The most standardized, valid, and reliable instrument currently available is the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale developed by Brazelton. It assesses the integrated actions of the infant that function to regulate simultaneously the infant's internal state and exchanges with the animate (caretaking) and inanimate environment. The scale uses a set of reflex and behavioral items to assess the critical domains of infant functioning (e.g., the infant's ability to control his states of consciousness). 52 references.

  8. The Exploratory Behavior Scale: Assessing Young Visitors' Hands-On Behavior in Science Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Franse, Rooske K.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Exploratory Behavior Scale (EBS), a quantitative measure of young children's interactivity. More specifically, the EBS is developed from the psychological literature on exploration and play and measures the extent to which preschoolers explore their physical environment. A practical application of the EBS in a…

  9. The Efficiency of Behavior Rating Scales to Assess Inattentive-Overactive and Oppositional-Defiant Behaviors: Applying Generalizability Theory to Streamline Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Although the efficiency with which a wide range of behavioral data can be obtained makes behavior rating scales particularly attractive tools for the purposes of screening and evaluation, feasibility concerns arise in the context of formative assessment. Specifically, informant load, or the amount of time informants are asked to contribute to the…

  10. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.

    PubMed

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-12-01

    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology.

  11. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.

    PubMed

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-12-01

    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology. PMID:24417750

  12. The motivation of stereotypic and repetitive behavior: examination of construct validity of the motivation assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C

    2008-08-01

    Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or the original 4-factor structure. Some motivators appear to form a unidimensional construct: "to gain attention", "to gain a tangible object", and "to escape". There was evidence that sensory stimulation represents a different construct. Children with intellectual disability were more apt to be motivated by desire to gain a tangible item or attention. Children with the dual diagnoses were more apt to have sensory stimulation or escape from task demand as a motivator for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.

  13. The Development of a Scale To Assess the Emotional and Behavioral Strengths of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael H.; Sharma, Jennifer; McKelvey, Janet; Frankenberry, Erin

    This paper describes the development of the Behavioral and Emotional Strengths Scale (BESS), developed as part of a program which focuses on strengths of children usually seen as having severe emotional and/or behavioral disorders. The BESS is a 68-item scale that identifies children's behavioral strengths on five dimensions: (1) self-control; (2)…

  14. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  15. A Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales Approach to Institutional Self-Assessment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pounder, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    Reports a study which used the effectiveness criteria contained in the Competing Values Model of Organizational Effectiveness to produce a set of organizational effectiveness self-rating scales for Hong Kong higher educational institutions. Scales were developed using the behaviorally anchored rating scales procedure. Highlights the qualitative…

  16. The PDD Behavior Inventory: a rating scale for assessing response to intervention in children with pervasive developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ira L; Schmidt-Lackner, Susan; Romanczyk, Raymond; Sudhalter, Vicki

    2003-02-01

    The PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) is a rating scale filled out by caregivers or teachers that was designed to assess children having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD; autism, Asperger disorder, PDD-NOS, or childhood disintegrative disorder). Both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are assessed in the scale, making it useful for treatment studies in which decreases in maladaptive behaviors and improvements in adaptive social and language skills relevant to PDD are expected. The adaptive behaviors assessed include core features of the disorder such as joint attention skills, pretend play, and referential gesture. The maladaptive behaviors sample a wide variety of behaviors observed in both lower- and higher-functioning individuals and include stereotyped behaviors, fears, aggression, social interaction deficits, and aberrant language. The inventory was found to have a high degree of internal consistency. Inter-rater reliability was better for adaptive behaviors than for maladaptive behaviors. Factor analyses confirmed the structure of the PDDBI and indicated good construct validity. In a subsample of children between 3 and 6 years of age, raw scores for adaptive behaviors increased with age in the parent and teacher versions, as did measures of social pragmatic problems. It was concluded that the PDDBI is both reliable and valid and is useful in providing information not typically available in most instruments used to assess children with PDD.

  17. The Efficiency of Behavior Rating Scales to Assess Inattentive-Overactive and Oppositional-Defiant Behavior: Applying Generalizability Theory to Streamline Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Although the efficiency with which a wide range of behavioral data can be obtained makes behavior rating scales particularly attractive tools for the purposes of screening and evaluation, feasibility concerns arise in the context of formative assessment. Specifically, informant load, or the amount of time informants are asked to contribute to the assessment process, likely has a negative impact on the quality of data over time and the informant's willingness to participate. Two important determinants of informant load in progress monitoring are the length of the rating scale (i.e., the number of items) and how frequently informants are asked to provide ratings (i.e., the number of occasions). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the dependability of the IOWA Conners Teacher Rating Scale (Loney & Milich, 1982), which is used to differentiate inattentive-overactive from oppositional-defiant behaviors. Specifically, the facets of items and occasions were examined to identify combinations of these sources of error necessary to reach an acceptable level of dependability for both absolute and relative decisions. Results from D studies elucidated a variety of possible item–occasion combinations reaching the criteria for adequate dependability. Recommendations for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21215839

  18. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III

    2008-01-01

    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  19. The Motivation of Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior: Examination of Construct Validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.

    2008-01-01

    Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or…

  20. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  1. Large-scale assessment of olfactory preferences and learning in Drosophila melanogaster: behavioral and genetic components

    PubMed Central

    Reisenberger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the Evolve and Resequence method (E&R), experimental evolution and genomics are combined to investigate evolutionary dynamics and the genotype-phenotype link. As other genomic approaches, this methods requires many replicates with large population sizes, which imposes severe restrictions on the analysis of behavioral phenotypes. Aiming to use E&R for investigating the evolution of behavior in Drosophila, we have developed a simple and effective method to assess spontaneous olfactory preferences and learning in large samples of fruit flies using a T-maze. We tested this procedure on (a) a large wild-caught population and (b) 11 isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Compared to previous methods, this procedure reduces the environmental noise and allows for the analysis of large population samples. Consistent with previous results, we show that flies have a preference for orange vs. apple odor. With our procedure wild-derived flies exhibit olfactory learning in the absence of previous laboratory selection. Furthermore, we find genetic differences in the olfactory learning with relatively high heritability. We propose this large-scale method as an effective tool for E&R and genome-wide association studies on olfactory preferences and learning. PMID:26357595

  2. The Working Memory Rating Scale: A Classroom-Based Behavioral Assessment of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Kirkwood, Hannah; Elliott, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS), an observer-based rating scale that reflects behavioral difficulties of children with poor working memory. The findings indicate good internal reliability and adequate psychometric properties for use as a screening tool by teachers. Higher…

  3. Development of a Brief Rating Scale for the Formative Assessment of Positive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cressey, James M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide effective social, emotional, and behavioral supports to all students, there is a need for formative assessment tools that can help determine the responsiveness of students to intervention. Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) is one framework that can provide evidence-based intervention within a 3-tiered model to reach…

  4. PRENATAL PHTHALATE EXPOSURE AND PERFORMANCE ON THE NEONATAL BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT SCALE IN A MULTIETHNIC BIRTH COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Stephanie M.; Zhu, Chenbo; Berkowitz, Gertrud S.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Silva, Manori J.; Miodovnik, Amir; Wolff, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between prenatal maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and neonatal behavior in their 295 children enrolled in a multiethnic birth cohort between 1998 and 2002 at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Trained examiners administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) to children within 5 days of delivery. We measured metabolites of 7 phthalate esters in maternal urine that was collected between 25 and 40 weeks’ gestation. All but two phthalate metabolites were over 95% detectable. We summed metabolites on a molar basis into low and high molecular weight phthalates. We hypothesized the existence of sex-specific effects from phthalate exposure a priori given the hormonal activity of these chemicals. Overall we found few associations between individual phthalate metabolites or their molar sums and most of the BNBAS domains. However, we observed significant sex-phthalate metabolite interactions (p < 0.10) for the Orientation and Motor domains and the overall Quality of Alertness score. Among girls, there was a significant linear decline in adjusted mean Orientation score with increasing urinary concentrations of high molecular weight phthalate metabolites (B = -0.37, p = 0.02). Likewise, there was a strong linear decline in their adjusted mean Quality of Alertness score (B = -0.48, p < 0.01). In addition, boys and girls demonstrated opposite patterns of association between low and high molecular weight phthalate metabolite concentrations and Motor performance, with some indication of improved Motor performance with increasing concentration of low molecular weight phthalate metabolites among boys. This is the first study to report an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and neurological effects in humans or animals, and as such requires replication. PMID:19375452

  5. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  6. Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

  7. The Maternal Behavior Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gerald; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Independent ratings of videotaped sessions in which mothers (N=60) interacted with their mentally retarded children (ages 1-3) suggested that potentially important components of maternal behavior (child orientedness/pleasure and control) may be assessed with the seven-item short form of the Maternal Behavior Rating Scale. (JW)

  8. Construction and validation of a scale of assessment of self-care behaviors with arteriovenous fistula in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Clemente Neves; Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta Jesus Silva; Dias, Vanessa Filipa Ferreira; Teles, Paulo; Martins, Maria Manuela

    2015-04-01

    Several guidelines recommend the importance of educating the patient about the care of vascular access. Nurses have a key role in promoting the development of self-care behaviors by providing the necessary knowledge to patients, so that they develop the necessary skills to take care of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). This article describes the process of building a scale of assessment of self-care behaviors with arteriovenous fistula in hemodialysis (ASBHD-AVF). This is a cross-sectional study in which the development, construction, and validation process followed the directions of the authors Streiner and Norman. This is a convenience sample, sequential, and nonprobabilistic constituted by 218 patients. The study was conducted in two stages during 2012-2014. The first phase corresponds to the scale construction process, 64 patients participated, while the second corresponds to the evaluation of metric properties and 154 patients participated. The principal component analysis revealed a two-factor structure, with factorial weights between 0.805 and 0.511 and between 0.700 and 0.369, respectively, explaining 39.12% of the total variance of the responses. The Cronbach's alpha of the subscale management of signs and symptoms is 0.797 and from the subscale prevention of complications is 0.722. The ASBHD-AVF revealed properties that allow its use to assess the self-care behaviors in the maintenance and conservation of the AVF.

  9. Assessing Behavioral Responses to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Louis A.; Shermis, Mark D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of a stress paradigm in the assessment of children with behavior disorders. The Stress Response Scale, designed to assess such behavioral patterns, is presented and discussed. Data are presented which describe the most frequently found patterns among a population of school-aged children. (Author/LMO)

  10. Using Direct Behavior Rating--Single Item Scales to Assess Student Behavior within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faith G.; Patwa, Shamim S.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    An increased emphasis on collecting and using data in schools has occurred, in part, because of the implementation of multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS). Commonly referred to as response to intervention in the academic domain and school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports in the behavioral domain, these initiatives have a…

  11. Validity and reliability of the Behavior Problems Inventory, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised among infants and toddlers at risk for intellectual or developmental disabilities: a multi-method assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for individuals with IDD that have been proven psychometrically sound in older populations: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale - Revised (RBS-R). Data were analyzed for 180 between six and 36 months old children at risk for IDD. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) across the subscales of the three instruments was variable. Test-retest reliability of the three BPI-01 subscales ranged from .68 to .77 for frequency ratings and from .65 to .80 for severity ratings (intraclass correlation coefficients). Using a multitrait-multimethod matrix approach high levels of convergent and discriminant validity across the three instruments was found. As anticipated, there was considerable overlap in the information produced by the three instruments; however, each behavior-rating instrument also contributed unique information. Our findings support using all three scales in conjunction if possible.

  12. Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Psychometrics and Associations With Child and Parent Variables

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Stephanie L.; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Mirenda, Pat; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    Objective The factor structure and validity of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; Crist & Napier-Phillips, 2001) were examined in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the original BPFAS five-factor model, the fit of each latent variable, and a rival one-factor model. None of the models was adequate, thus a categorical exploratory factor analysis (CEFA) was conducted. Correlations were used to examine relations between the BPFAS and concurrent variables of interest. Results The CEFA identified an acceptable three-factor model. Correlational analyses indicated that feeding problems were positively related to parent-reported autism symptoms, behavior problems, sleep problems, and parenting stress, but largely unrelated to performance-based indices of autism symptom severity, language, and cognitive abilities, as well as child age. Conclusion These results provide evidence supporting the use of the identified BPFAS three-factor model for samples of young children with ASD. PMID:25725217

  13. Assessment of Parenting Practices Related to Conduct Problems: Development and Validation of the Management of Children's Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perepletchikova, Francheska; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the development and initial validation of the parent-report scale, "Management of Children's Behavior Scale" (MCBS), designed to evaluate parenting practices related to conduct problems in children. Children (N = 396, ages 2-14) referred for outpatient treatment and their parents served as participants. We evaluated the composition…

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Lithuanian Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Scale (LAPACBS) in Parents of 6- to 12-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Roy M.; Jonyniene, Jolita

    2012-01-01

    The structure-related validity and internal consistency reliability of the translated version of the Adlerian Parental Assessment of the Child Behavior Scale (APACBS) which would be referred to as the Lithuanian APACBS (LAPACBS) was the focus of the research study. A factor analysis was performed using a sample of 246 Lithuanian parents. It…

  15. Validity of the OSU Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale and the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality with Child Tornado Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda Garner; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Tornadoes and other natural disasters can lead to anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. This study provides further validity for the Oklahoma State University Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-Child Form (OSU PTSDS-CF) by comparing it to the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP).…

  16. Discriminative Validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Parent Rating Scales in Children with Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Paul M.; Schoff, Kristin M.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Abelkop, A. Shayne

    2003-01-01

    Examined discriminative validity of the Parent Rating Scale (PRS) of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992, Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services). Two groups were compared: a cohort with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) (n = 49) and children from the BASC-PRS standardization sample (n = 49) matched on…

  17. Which is the appropriate scale to assess the impact of landscape spatial configuration on the diet and behavior of spider monkeys?

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Gómez, José D; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Nicasio-Arzeta, Sergio; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the response of species to changes in landscape configuration is required to design adequate management and conservation strategies. Yet, the most appropriate spatial scale (i.e., landscape size) to assess the response of species to changes in landscape configuration (so-called "scale of effect") is largely unknown. In this paper, we assess the impact of landscape forest cover, forest fragmentation, edge density, and inter-patch isolation distance on the diet and behavior of six communities of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in the fragmented Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We evaluated the strength of the relationship between each landscape predictor and each response variable within ten different-sized landscapes (range = 50-665 ha) to identify the landscape size that best predicted changes in diet and behavior. The strength of most associations varied across spatial scales, with the 126-ha landscape showing the strongest relationships between landscape predictors and response variables in many cases. Yet forest cover represented the main driver of the diet and behavior of spider monkeys, being positively associated with time traveling and time feeding on wood, but negatively related to time resting and time feeding on leaves. Although weaker, the impact of edge density was opposite to forest cover for most response variables. Forest fragmentation and isolation distance showed the weakest associations with the diet and behavior of this species. Our findings thus indicate that different landscape attributes operate on different response variables at different spatial scales. Therefore, the scale of effects cannot be generalized to all response variables and to all predictors, and a multi-scale analysis will be required to accurately assess the impact of landscape configuration on species' responses.

  18. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  19. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women’s health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. Method This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. Results In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. Conclusion This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women’s sexual abstinence. PMID:24924696

  20. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmar, Roger, D.; Blake, John, I.; Crolly, William, T.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

  1. Interrater Agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Dunlap, Glen; Kincaid, Don

    2014-01-01

    Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence…

  2. The Practicality of Behavioral Observation Scales, Behavioral Expectation Scales, and Trait Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersma, Uco; Latham, Gary P.

    1986-01-01

    The practicality of three appraisal instruments was measured in terms of user preference, namely, behavioral observation scales (BOS), behavioral expectation scales (BES), and trait scales. In all instances, BOS were preferred to BES, and in all but two instances, BOS were viewed as superior to trait scales. (Author/ABB)

  3. Adapting the McMaster-Ottawa scale and developing behavioral anchors for assessing performance in an interprofessional Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Désirée; May, Win; Richter-Lagha, Regina; Forest, Christopher; Banzali, Yvonne; Lohenry, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Current scales for interprofessional team performance do not provide adequate behavioral anchors for performance evaluation. The Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter (TOSCE) provides an opportunity to adapt and develop an existing scale for this purpose. We aimed to test the feasibility of using a retooled scale to rate performance in a standardized patient encounter and to assess faculty ability to accurately rate both individual students and teams. Methods The 9-point McMaster-Ottawa Scale developed for a TOSCE was converted to a 3-point scale with behavioral anchors. Students from four professions were trained a priori to perform in teams of four at three different levels as individuals and teams. Blinded faculty raters were trained to use the scale to evaluate individual and team performances. G-theory was used to analyze ability of faculty to accurately rate individual students and teams using the retooled scale. Results Sixteen faculty, in groups of four, rated four student teams, each participating in the same TOSCE station. Faculty expressed comfort rating up to four students in a team within a 35-min timeframe. Accuracy of faculty raters varied (38–81% individuals, 50–100% teams), with errors in the direction of over-rating individual, but not team performance. There was no consistent pattern of error for raters. Conclusion The TOSCE can be administered as an evaluation method for interprofessional teams. However, faculty demonstrate a ‘leniency error’ in rating students, even with prior training using behavioral anchors. To improve consistency, we recommend two trained faculty raters per station. PMID:26004993

  4. Testing Students with Special Educational Needs in Large-Scale Assessments - Psychometric Properties of Test Scores and Associations with Test Taking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are-at the same time-measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L.

  5. Testing Students with Special Educational Needs in Large-Scale Assessments - Psychometric Properties of Test Scores and Associations with Test Taking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are-at the same time-measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L. PMID:26941665

  6. Testing Students with Special Educational Needs in Large-Scale Assessments – Psychometric Properties of Test Scores and Associations with Test Taking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H.; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are—at the same time—measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L. PMID:26941665

  7. Opportunities and challenges for the use of large-scale surveys in public health research: A comparison of the assessment of cancer screening behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Breen, Nancy; Klabunde, Carrie N.; Moser, Richard P.; Leyva, Bryan; Breslau, Erica S.; Kobrin, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale surveys that assess cancer prevention and control behaviors are a readily-available, rich resource for public health researchers. Although these data are used by a subset of researchers who are familiar with them, their potential is not fully realized by the research community for reasons including lack of awareness of the data, and limited understanding of their content, methodology, and utility. Until now, no comprehensive resource existed to describe and facilitate use of these data. To address this gap and maximize use of these data, we catalogued the characteristics and content of four surveys that assessed cancer screening behaviors in 2005, the most recent year with concurrent periods of data collection: the National Health Interview Survey, Health Information National Trends Survey, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and California Health Interview Survey. We documented each survey's characteristics, measures of cancer screening, and relevant correlates; examined how published studies (n=78) have used the surveys’ cancer screening data; and reviewed new cancer screening constructs measured in recent years. This information can guide researchers in deciding how to capitalize on the opportunities presented by these data resources. PMID:25300474

  8. Development and Validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ok, Ahmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) has been a focus of many studies in the field of environmental education, very few scales have been developed to assess children's ERB. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale (CREBS) and also reports the…

  9. Application of a Theoretical Model to the Development of a New Instrument for Assessing Self-Destructive Potential: The Firestone Voice Scale for Self-Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Lisa

    The concept of the "voice" as developed by Robert W, Firestone (1984 and later) has been hypothesized as an essential mechanism in self-destructive behavior in general and suicide in particular. This study applies the theory of the voice to the development of the Firestone Voice Scale for Self-Destructive Behavior (FVSSDB). The FVSSDB consists of…

  10. Scaling of prosocial behavior in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbesman, Samuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has examined how various behaviors scale in cities in relation to their population sizes. Behavior related to innovation and productivity has been found to increase per capita as the size of the city increases, a phenomenon known as superlinear scaling. Criminal behavior has also been found to scale superlinearly. Here we examine a variety of prosocial behaviors (e.g., voting and organ donation), which also would be presumed to be categorized into a single class of scaling with population. We find that, unlike productivity and innovation, prosocial behaviors do not scale in a unified manner. We argue how this might be due to the nature of interactions that are distinct for different prosocial behaviors.

  11. Evaluating Sensitivity to Behavioral Change Using Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Maggin, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the researchers evaluated the sensitivity of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) for assessing behavior change in response to an intervention. Included in the analyses were data from 20 completed behavioral consultation cases involving a diverse sample of elementary participants and contexts using a common…

  12. The Behavior Observation Scale for Autism (BOS): Frequency Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, B. J.; And Others

    Frequency data are reported from a research project aimed at developing the Behavior Observation Scale (BOS), an objective assessment tool for establishing the diagnosis of autism. The goals of the BOS are to differentiate autistic, normal, and mentally retarded children (ages 30 to 60 months) along objective symptom axes involving 67 behaviors.…

  13. Behavioral Observation Scales for Performance Appraisal Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary P.; Wexley, Kenneth N.

    1977-01-01

    This research attempts to determine whether Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS) could be improved by developing them through quantitative methods. The underlying assumption was that developing composite scales with greater internal consistency might improve their generalizability as evidenced by the cross-validation coefficients of scales based on…

  14. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation’s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  15. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  16. Factor Analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…

  17. Direct Behavior Rating: An Evaluation of Alternate Definitions to Assess Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra; Jaffery, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    The method of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) incorporates aspects of both systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales to provide an efficient means to collect time series data. This study extended the development and evaluation of DBR Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) as a behavior assessment tool. Eighty-eight undergraduate students used…

  18. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  19. Review of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marilyn Mueller

    1985-01-01

    Information on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a major revision of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, covers authors, publisher, prices, copyright dates and revisions, groups for whom the instrument is intended, forms, purpose and recommended use, dimensions measured, administration, data summation, score interpretation, test…

  20. The Incremental Utility of Behavioral Rating Scales and a Structured Diagnostic Interview in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Aaron J.; Hoza, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =…

  1. Cross Informant Agreement of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale - 2nd Edition (BERS-2) Parent and Youth Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synhorst, Lori L.; Buckley, Jacquelyn A.; Reid, Robert; Epstein, Michael E.; Ryser, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are important tools in the process of assessing students' emotional and behavioral needs. Best practices in behavioral assessment dictate that the perspectives of multiple informants (e.g., teacher, parent, youth) should be considered. Overall, agreement between multiple informants is modest at best and is especially low…

  2. Bicritical scaling behavior in unidirectionally coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y; Lim, W

    2001-03-01

    We study the scaling behavior of period doublings in a system of two unidirectionally coupled parametrically forced pendulums near a bicritical point where two critical lines of period-doubling transition to chaos in both subsystems meet. When crossing a bicritical point, a hyperchaotic attractor with two positive Lyapunov exponents appears, i.e., a transition to hyperchaos occurs. Varying the control parameters of the two subsystems, the unidirectionally coupled parametrically forced pendulums exhibit multiple period-doubling transitions to hyperchaos. For each transition to hyperchaos, using both a "residue-matching" renormalization group method and a direct numerical method, we make an analysis of the bicritical scaling behavior. It is thus found that the second response subsystem exhibits a new type of non-Feigenbaum scaling behavior, while the first drive subsystem is in the usual Feigenbaum critical state. The universality of the bicriticality is also examined for several different types of unidirectional couplings.

  3. Broadband Behavior Rating Scales as Screeners for Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.; Gross, Amber D.; McReynolds, Brandy M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in…

  4. Natural Tracers and Multi-Scale Assessment of Caprock Sealing Behavior: A Case Study of the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Heath; Brian McPherson; Thomas Dewers

    2011-03-15

    The assessment of caprocks for geologic CO{sub 2} storage is a multi-scale endeavor. Investigation of a regional caprock - the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, USA - at the pore-network scale indicates high capillary sealing capacity and low permeabilities. Core and wellscale data, however, indicate a potential seal bypass system as evidenced by multiple mineralized fractures and methane gas saturations within the caprock. Our interpretation of {sup 4}He concentrations, measured at the top and bottom of the caprock, suggests low fluid fluxes through the caprock: (1) Of the total {sup 4}He produced in situ (i.e., at the locations of sampling) by uranium and thorium decay since deposition of the Kirtland Formation, a large portion still resides in the pore fluids. (2) Simple advection-only and advection-diffusion models, using the measured {sup 4}He concentrations, indicate low permeability ({approx}10-20 m{sup 2} or lower) for the thickness of the Kirtland Formation. These findings, however, do not guarantee the lack of a large-scale bypass system. The measured data, located near the boundary conditions of the models (i.e., the overlying and underlying aquifers), limit our testing of conceptual models and the sensitivity of model parameterization. Thus, we suggest approaches for future studies to better assess the presence or lack of a seal bypass system at this particular site and for other sites in general.

  5. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Anticipatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Santiago; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2007-01-01

    Papini and Pellegrini (Papini, M. R., & Pellegrini, S. "Scaling relative incentive value in consummatory behavior." "Learning and Motivation", in press) observed that, within limits, the level of consummatory responding of rats exposed to incentive downshifts in the concentration of sucrose solutions was similar when the ratio of test/training…

  6. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  7. Behavioral Assessment and Interventions in Youth Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ronald E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of behavioral assessment for both descriptive and program evaluation purposes. Notes the use of behavioral assessment to study coaching behaviors and their effects on young athletes. Operant and cognitive-behavioral interventions have proven effective in both athletic and psychosocial outcomes. Discusses unresolved issues and…

  8. An International Assessment of the Emotional and Behavioral Strengths of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Kristiina; Savolainen, Hannu; Kuorelahti, Matti; Epstein, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths has been identified as an important part of the assessment process for children referred for specialized services. The Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2; Epstein, Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: a strength-based approach to assessment. PRO-Ed, Austin, TX, 2004) was developed…

  9. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  10. Broadband behavior rating scales as screeners for autism?

    PubMed

    Myers, Carl L; Gross, Amber D; McReynolds, Brandy M

    2014-06-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in this study to determine if any of the scales on the instruments could adequately distinguish between children with autism from other clinically referred children. There were four scales from two instruments that resulted in mean scores outside the average range and had statistically significant differences. However, the small mean score differences and analyses of sensitivity and specificity suggest those scales have limited practical usefulness when used by clinicians.

  11. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…

  12. Generalizability of Scaling Gradients on Direct Behavior Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2009-01-01

    Generalizability theory is used to examine the impact of scaling gradients on a single-item Direct Behavior Rating (DBR). A DBR refers to a type of rating scale used to efficiently record target behavior(s) following an observation occasion. Variance components associated with scale gradients are estimated using a random effects design for persons…

  13. Factor Structure of Child Behavior Scale Scores in Peruvian Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Erin L.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Soto, Cesar Merino; Simmons, Crystal S.; Anguiano, Rebecca; Brett, Jeremy; Holman, Alea; Martin, Justin F.; Hata, Heidi K.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior rating scales aid in the identification of problem behaviors, as well as the development of interventions to reduce such behavior. Although scores on many behavior rating scales have been validated in the United States, there have been few such studies in other cultural contexts. In this study, the structural validity of scores on a…

  14. Laplacian scale-space behavior of planar curve corners.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Qu, Ying; Yang, Dan; Wang, Hongxing; Kymer, Jeff

    2015-11-01

    Scale-space behavior of corners is important for developing an efficient corner detection algorithm. In this paper, we analyze the scale-space behavior with the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) operator on a planar curve which constructs Laplacian Scale Space (LSS). The analytical expression of a Laplacian Scale-Space map (LSS map) is obtained, demonstrating the Laplacian Scale-Space behavior of the planar curve corners, based on a newly defined unified corner model. With this formula, some Laplacian Scale-Space behavior is summarized. Although LSS demonstrates some similarities to Curvature Scale Space (CSS), there are still some differences. First, no new extreme points are generated in the LSS. Second, the behavior of different cases of a corner model is consistent and simple. This makes it easy to trace the corner in a scale space. At last, the behavior of LSS is verified in an experiment on a digital curve.

  15. Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

  16. Ecological Theory and Method for Behavioral Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Cindy I.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The theoretical perspective and naturalistic methods of ecological psychology developed by Roger Barker are described. Ecological assessment implies examining (1) naturally occurring behavior; (2) environment immediately surrounding behavior; and (3) the individual-environment link. The specimen record, chronolog, and behavior-setting survey are…

  17. Lifestyle Assessment: Helping Patients Change Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ciliska, Donna; Wilson, Douglas M. C.

    1984-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, maintain their commitment and teach them the skills needed to effect changes in health behavior.

  18. A clinimetric overview of scar assessment scales.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, M B A; Verhaegen, P D H M; Middelkoop, E; van Zuijlen, P P M

    2012-01-01

    Standardized validated evaluation instruments are mandatory to increase the level of evidence in scar management. Scar assessment scales are potentially suitable for this purpose, but the most appropriate scale still needs to be determined. This review will elaborate on several clinically relevant scar features and critically discuss the currently available scar scales in terms of basic clinimetric requirements. Many current scales can produce reliable measurements but seem to require multiple observers to obtain these results reliably, which limits their feasibility in clinical practice. The validation process of scar scales is hindered by the lack of a "gold standard" in subjective scar assessment or other reliable objective instruments which are necessary for a good comparison. The authors conclude that there are scar scales available that can reliably measure scar quality. However, further research may lead to improvement of their clinimetric properties and enhance the level of evidence in scar research worldwide.

  19. Factors and Clusters for the Brazelton Scale: An Investigation of the Dimensions of Neonatal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Joseph L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the psychometric properties of two procedures for reducing data from the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale: factor and cluster analysis. The sample consisted of 85 male and 77 female newborns. (RH)

  20. Probabilistic Simulation of Multi-Scale Composite Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    A methodology is developed to computationally assess the non-deterministic composite response at all composite scales (from micro to structural) due to the uncertainties in the constituent (fiber and matrix) properties, in the fabrication process and in structural variables (primitive variables). The methodology is computationally efficient for simulating the probability distributions of composite behavior, such as material properties, laminate and structural responses. Bi-products of the methodology are probabilistic sensitivities of the composite primitive variables. The methodology has been implemented into the computer codes PICAN (Probabilistic Integrated Composite ANalyzer) and IPACS (Integrated Probabilistic Assessment of Composite Structures). The accuracy and efficiency of this methodology are demonstrated by simulating the uncertainties in composite typical laminates and comparing the results with the Monte Carlo simulation method. Available experimental data of composite laminate behavior at all scales fall within the scatters predicted by PICAN. Multi-scaling is extended to simulate probabilistic thermo-mechanical fatigue and to simulate the probabilistic design of a composite redome in order to illustrate its versatility. Results show that probabilistic fatigue can be simulated for different temperature amplitudes and for different cyclic stress magnitudes. Results also show that laminate configurations can be selected to increase the redome reliability by several orders of magnitude without increasing the laminate thickness--a unique feature of structural composites. The old reference denotes that nothing fundamental has been done since that time.

  1. Pain assessment scales in newborns: integrative review

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Gleicia Martins; Lélis, Ana Luíza Paula de Aguiar; de Moura, Alline Falconieri; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; da Silva, Viviane Martins

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze studies on methods used to assess pain in newborns. DATA SOURCES: Integrative review study of articles published from 2001 to 2012, carried out in the following databases: Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and Cochrane. The sample consisted of 13 articles with level of evidence 5. DATA SYNTHESIS: 29 pain assessment scales in newborns, including 13 one-dimensional and 16 multidimensional, that assess acute and prolonged pain in preterm and full-term infants were available in scientific publications. CONCLUSION: Based on the characteristics of scales, one cannot choose a single one as the most appropriate scale, as this choice will depend on gestational age, type of painful stimulus and the environment in which the infant is inserted. It is suggested the use of multidimensional or one-dimensional scales; however, they must be reliable and validated. PMID:25511005

  2. Behavioral assessment for pediatric intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, M F; Bessman, C A; Parker, L H; Pearson, J E; Rogers, M C

    1979-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to analyze behaviors of staff and patients on a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). In the first study, behavioral observation procedures were employed to assess patient state, physical position, affect, verbal behaviors, visual attention and activity engagement, and staff verbal behavior. On the average, one-third of the patients were judged to be conscious and alert but markedly nonengaged with their environment. In the second study, a member of the hospital staff provided alert patients with individual activities to determine whether a simple environmental manipulation could positively affect behavior of children in intensive care. Employing a reversal design, the activity intervention was found to increase attention and engagement and positive affect, and to decrease inappropriate behavior. Both studies demonstrate that behavioral assessment procedures can provide an empirical basis for designing PICU routines affecting children's psychosocial status, and, thus, complement current procedures designed to provide quality medical care.

  3. Using Telemedicine to Conduct Behavioral Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Barretto, Anjali; Wacker, David P; Harding, Jay; Lee, John; Berg, Wendy K

    2006-01-01

    We describe the use of telemedicine by the Biobehavioral Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to conduct brief functional analyses for children with developmental and behavioral disorders who live in rural areas of Iowa. Instead of being served at our outpatient facility, participants received initial behavioral assessments in their local schools or social service agencies via videoconference. Case descriptions for 2 participants whose evaluations were conducted via telemedicine, and a brief summary of all outpatient assessments conducted over a 4-year period by the Biobehavioral Service, are provided. This report extends previous applications of functional analysis procedures by examining brief behavioral assessments conducted via telemedicine. PMID:17020213

  4. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…

  5. Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Pediatric Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysocki, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical research literature on behavioral assessment and intervention methods in the context of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The review summarizes the pathophysiology, medical management, and monitoring of pediatric type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Next, the article describes common behavioral barriers to…

  6. Multiple site optical recording of transmembrane voltage (MSORTV) in patterned growth heart cell cultures: assessing electrical behavior, with microsecond resolution, on a cellular and subcellular scale.

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, S; Salzberg, B M

    1994-01-01

    We have applied multiple site optical recording of transmembrane voltage (MSORTV) to patterned growth cultures of heart cells to analyze the effect of geometry per se on impulse propagation in excitable tissue, with cellular and subcellular resolution. Extensive dye screening led to the choice of di-8-ANEPPS as the most suitable voltage-sensitive dye for this application; it is internalized slowly and permits optical recording with signal-to-noise ratios as high as 40:1 (measured peak-to-peak) and average fractional fluorescence changes of 15% per 100 mV. Using a x 100 objective and a fast data acquisition system, we could resolve impulse propagation on a microscopic scale (15 microns) with high temporal resolution (uncertainty of +/- 5 microseconds). We could observe the decrease in conduction velocity of an impulse propagating along a narrow cell strand as it enters a region of abrupt expansion, and we could explain this phenomenon in terms of the micro-architecture of the tissue. In contrast with the elongated and aligned cells forming the narrow strands, the cells forming the expansions were aligned at random and presented 2.5 times as many cell-to-cell appositions per unit length. If the decrease in conduction velocity results entirely from this increased number of cell-to-cell boundaries per unit length, the mean activation delay introduced by each boundary can be estimated to be 70 microseconds. Using this novel experimental system, we could also demonstrate the electrical coupling of fibroblasts and endotheloid cells to myocytes in culture. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:7811945

  7. Foundation for the Development and Use of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) to Assess and Evaluate Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) is a method of social--emotional and behavior assessment that combines the immediacy of systematic direct observation and the efficiency of behavior rating scales. The purpose of this article is to discuss the defensibility and usability of DBR. This article provides a brief summary of (a) the past, present, and future…

  8. Psychometric properties of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale, the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis and the Social Performance Survey Schedule in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD), the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS), and the Social Performance Survey Schedule (SPSS). Data were collected in two community-based groups of adults with mild to profound ID (n = 263). Subscale reliability (internal consistency) ranged from fair to excellent for the ABC, the ADAMS, and the SPSS (mean coefficient α across ABC subscales was .87 (ranging from fair to excellent), the ADAMS subscales .83 (ranging from fair to good), and the SPSS subscales .91 (range from good to excellent). The ADD subscales had generally lower reliability scores with a mean of .59 (ranging from unacceptable to good). Convergent and discriminant validity was determined by bivariate Spearman ρ correlations between subscales of one instrument and the subscales of the other three instruments. For the most part, all four instruments showed solid convergent and discriminant validity. To examine the factorial validity, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were attempted with the inter-item covariance matrix of each instrument. Generally, the data did not show good fits with the measurement models for the SPSS, ABC, or the ADAMS (CFA analyses with the ADD would not converge). However, most of the items on these three instruments had significant loadings on their respective factors.

  9. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  10. COMPARISONS AND CONTRASTS AMONG DIFFERENT SCALED ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of a regional (multi-state) and local (multi-county) scale assessment was done to evaluate similarities and differences in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of landscape data. The study areas included EP A Region 3 a11d a sub-region spanning North and Sout...

  11. Item-Based Psychometrics of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (PreBERS) is an assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in preschoolers with well-established reliability and validity for educational and clinical application in children with and without disabilities. The present study provides further evidence of psychometric rigor for items and…

  12. Validity and Reliability Analysis for the Teacher Determination for Democratic Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil, Rustu

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to develop a scale to assess the extent to which teachers display democratic behaviors they are supposed to display in in-classroom teaching practices and the level of their determination in displaying such behaviors. The study group of this survey is composed of 446 second grade high school students, 243 girls and…

  13. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we…

  14. Technical Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale--Second Edition--Teacher Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Clark, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and validity of scores on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-second edition-teacher version (DBRS-II-T) was analyzed. The DBRS-II-T was designed to assess teacher observations of students referred for behavioral difficulties. The five-factor model fit the data poorly, but convergent and diagnostic validities were excellent.…

  15. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Consummatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Mauricio R.; Pellegrini, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Surprising downshifts from more preferred (training incentive) to less preferred incentives (test incentive) are usually accompanied by emotional activation and suppression of conditioned behavior in rats. Two experiments were designed to determine whether consummatory behavior is similarly affected by downshifts of equal proportions. Within…

  16. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  17. Psychometric Properties of the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," the "Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale," the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" and the "Social Performance Survey Schedule" in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W.; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist" (ABC), the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" (ADD), the…

  18. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R.

    1996-04-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Duffard, R

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone,dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or changes in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. PMID:9182042

  20. Scaling behaviors at discontinuous quantum transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nespolo, Jacopo; Campostrini, Massimo; Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    First-order (or discontinuous) quantum phase transitions (FOQTs) are characterized by a vanishing energy gap and jumps in the values of some observables across the critical point in the thermodynamic limit. Unlike what happens at continuous transitions, the correlation lengths remain finite at FOQTs. Nevertheless, finite systems at FOQTs exhibit finite-size effects, in the form of a rounding and smoothing of the discontinuities. We show that a scaling theory, similar to the usual finite-size scaling, can be formulated at FOQTs, and that the relevant scaling variable is extremely sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions. We further consider the scaling effects due to the presence of spatial inhomogeneities, in analogy with trap-size scaling at continuous transitions. Our results are supported by numerical simulations on the ferromagnetic quantum Ising chain and on the q-state quantum Potts chain with q > 4 . We provide FSS predictions for the energy gap and the magnetization of finite quantum chains, which can be relevant for quantum computation applications.

  1. Clinical assessment of the voluntariness of behavior.

    PubMed

    Halleck, S L

    1992-01-01

    There are a variety of therapeutic and forensic contexts in which the clinician is called upon to assess the voluntariness of behavior. Because the assessment has such complex moral and scientific dimensions, it has been difficult to conceptualize how it is done. By considering the behavior of clinicians and other relevant theoretical issues, the author has prepared a framework for thinking about the assessment of voluntariness. The relevance of diagnostic and philosophical issues is considered. Most of the factors which influence assessment are related to the nature of the patient's pathological experience, hypotheses of causation, and method of treatment. Dr. Diamond had a deep interest in questions of voluntariness and responsibility. I know that he would have disagreed with, at least, some of the material, but I believe that he would have thoroughly enjoyed discussing and arguing the issues. I know that I would have loved the dialogue.

  2. Predicting Compliance Behavior from Moral Judgment Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froming, William J.; Cooper, Robert G., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments with college males examined the relationship between moral judgment and compliance in a modified Asch paradigm. Moral judgment was assessed using Kohlberg's dilemmas in one experiment and with Rest's Defining Issues in the second experiment. (Editor/RK)

  3. Scale invariance in the dynamics of spontaneous behavior

    PubMed Central

    Proekt, Alex; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos; Pfaff, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    Typically one expects that the intervals between consecutive occurrences of a particular behavior will have a characteristic time scale around which most observations are centered. Surprisingly, the timing of many diverse behaviors from human communication to animal foraging form complex self-similar temporal patterns reproduced on multiple time scales. We present a general framework for understanding how such scale invariance may arise in nonequilibrium systems, including those that regulate mammalian behaviors. We then demonstrate that the predictions of this framework are in agreement with detailed analysis of spontaneous mouse behavior observed in a simple unchanging environment. Neural systems operate on a broad range of time scales, from milliseconds to hours. We analytically show that such a separation between time scales could lead to scale-invariant dynamics without any fine tuning of parameters or other model-specific constraints. Our analyses reveal that the specifics of the distribution of resources or competition among several tasks are not essential for the expression of scale-free dynamics. Rather, we show that scale invariance observed in the dynamics of behavior can arise from the dynamics intrinsic to the brain. PMID:22679281

  4. A Diagnostician's Primer on Functional Behavioral Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Joe P.; Walker, Steven C.

    1999-01-01

    This article synthesizes information from the special education literature about functional behavioral assessments (FBAs), including the law and FBA, working definitions, basic assumptions underlying FBA, the role of the diagnosticians, the role of special educators, the steps to conducting an FBA, the methods of FBA, and tools for the…

  5. Common scaling behavior in finance and macroeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, B.; Horvatic, D.; Petersen, A. M.; Njavro, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    2010-08-01

    In order to test whether scaling exists in finance at the world level, we test whether the average growth rates and volatility of market capitalization (MC) depend on the level of MC. We analyze the MC for 54 worldwide stock indices and 48 worldwide bond indices. We find that (i) the average growth rate of the MC and (ii) the standard deviation σ(r) of growth rates r decrease both with MC as power laws, with exponents αw = 0.28 ± 0.09 and βw = 0.12 ± 0.04. We define a stochastic process in order to model the scaling results we find for worldwide stock and bond indices. We establish a power-law relationship between the MC of a country's financial market and the gross domestic product (GDP) of the same country.

  6. Scaling behavior of coarsening Faraday heaps.

    PubMed

    van Gerner, Henk Jan; van der Weele, Ko; van der Meer, Devaraj; van der Hoef, Martin A

    2015-10-01

    When a layer of sand is vertically shaken, the surface spontaneously breaks up in a landscape of small conical "Faraday heaps," which merge into larger ones on an ever increasing time scale. We propose a model for the heap dynamics and show analytically that the mean lifetime of the transient state with N heaps scales as N(-2). When there is an abundance of sand, such that the vibrating plate always remains completely covered, this means that the average diameter of the heaps grows as t(1/2). Otherwise, when the sand is less plentiful and parts of the plate get depleted during the coarsening process, the average diameter of the heaps grows more slowly, namely as t(1/3). This result compares well with experimental observations. PMID:26565231

  7. A Scale for Assessing the Severity of Arousal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Zhang, Bin; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Flamand, Mathilde; Noël de Fontréaux, Alix; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Brion, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arousal disorders may have serious health consequences. Objective: To develop a scale assessing the severity of arousal disorders (Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale, PADSS). Setting: University hospital. Design: Controlled study. Participants: Consecutive patients (older than 15 y), with sleepwalking (SW) and/or sleep terrors (ST), subjects with previous SW/ST, normal controls and patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Intervention: The self-rated scale listed 17 parasomniac behaviors (PADSS-A), assessed their frequency from never to twice or more per night (PADSS-B) and evaluated the consequences (PADSS-C: disturbed sleep, injuries, fatigue, and psychological consequences). The clinimetric properties and face validity of the scale were tested. Results: Half of the 73 patients with SW/ST (more men than women) had injured themselves or others, whereas 15% had concomitant sexsomnia and 23% had amnestic eating behaviors. The total PADSS score (range: 0-50) was 19.4 ± 6.3 (range: 8-36) in this group, 11.7 ± 5.9 in 26 subjects with previous SW/ST, 8.8 ± 3.2 in 26 patients with RBD, and 2.0 ± 3.5 in 53 normal controls (P < 0.05). The PADSS demonstrated high sensitivity (83.6%), specificity (87.8%), internal consistency, and test-retest reliability (0.79). The best cutoff for the total score was at 13/14. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two components: wandering and violence/handling. The complexity of behaviors emerging from N3 sleep (scored on videopolysomnography) positively correlated with scores for the PADSS-total, PADSS-A, PADSS-C, and the “violence/handling” factor. Conclusion: This scale had reasonable psychometric properties and could be used for screening and stratifying patients and for evaluating the effects of treatments. Citation: Arnulf I; Zhang B; Uguccioni G; Flamand M; Noël de Fontréaux A; Leu-Semenescu S; Brion A. A scale for assessing the severity of arousal disorders. SLEEP 2014;37(1):127-136. PMID

  8. Complex scaling behavior in animal foraging patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premachandra, Prabhavi Kaushalya

    This dissertation attempts to answer questions from two different areas of biology, ecology and neuroscience, using physics-based techniques. In Section 2, suitability of three competing random walk models is tested to describe the emergent movement patterns of two species of primates. The truncated power law (power law with exponential cut off) is the most suitable random walk model that characterizes the emergent movement patterns of these primates. In Section 3, an agent-based model is used to simulate search behavior in different environments (landscapes) to investigate the impact of the resource landscape on the optimal foraging movement patterns of deterministic foragers. It should be noted that this model goes beyond previous work in that it includes parameters such as spatial memory and satiation, which have received little consideration to date in the field of movement ecology. When the food availability is scarce in a tropical forest-like environment with feeding trees distributed in a clumped fashion and the size of those trees are distributed according to a lognormal distribution, the optimal foraging pattern of a generalist who can consume various and abundant food types indeed reaches the Levy range, and hence, show evidence for Levy-flight-like (power law distribution with exponent between 1 and 3) behavior. Section 4 of the dissertation presents an investigation of phase transition behavior in a network of locally coupled self-sustained oscillators as the system passes through various bursting states. The results suggest that a phase transition does not occur for this locally coupled neuronal network. The data analysis in the dissertation adopts a model selection approach and relies on methods based on information theory and maximum likelihood.

  9. Alternate Forms Reliability of the Behavioral Relaxation Scale: Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Dunlap, Angel L.

    2006-01-01

    Alternate forms reliability of the Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS; Poppen,1998), a direct observation measure of relaxed behavior, was examined. A single BRS score, based on long duration observation (5-minute), has been found to be a valid measure of relaxation and is correlated with self-report and some physiological measures. Recently,…

  10. Validating the Interpersonal Communication Assessment Scale.

    PubMed

    Klakovich, Marilyn D; Dela Cruz, Felicitas A

    2006-01-01

    Despite the centrality of interpersonal communication in nursing, there are few psychometrically sound instruments to measure the communication competencies of undergraduate and graduate nursing students. This article reports on the development and testing of the Interpersonal Communication Assessment Scale (ICAS), which was designed to assess the communication competencies of students in undergraduate and graduate nursing programs. Retroductive triangulation, using both deductive and inductive methods, and the Model of Relational Competence guided the measure's conceptualization and development. We used responses from 531 (24%) undergraduate and graduate clinical faculty from 246 American Association of Colleges of Nursing member schools for the psychometric testing of the 54-item content-validated and pilot-tested ICAS. Exploratory-factor analysis resulted in a three-factor solution labeled as advocacy, therapeutic use of self, and validation. These factors accounted for 60% of the variance. Items that loaded .60 or higher were retained, resulting in a 23-item scale with a Cronbach's alpha of .96. The ICAS significantly differentiated the communication competencies of beginning and graduating students in both undergraduate and graduate programs. The ICAS was found to have construct validity and internal consistency, underscoring its potential as a formative and summative tool to assess the interpersonal communication competencies of nursing students. PMID:16459290

  11. Validating the Interpersonal Communication Assessment Scale.

    PubMed

    Klakovich, Marilyn D; Dela Cruz, Felicitas A

    2006-01-01

    Despite the centrality of interpersonal communication in nursing, there are few psychometrically sound instruments to measure the communication competencies of undergraduate and graduate nursing students. This article reports on the development and testing of the Interpersonal Communication Assessment Scale (ICAS), which was designed to assess the communication competencies of students in undergraduate and graduate nursing programs. Retroductive triangulation, using both deductive and inductive methods, and the Model of Relational Competence guided the measure's conceptualization and development. We used responses from 531 (24%) undergraduate and graduate clinical faculty from 246 American Association of Colleges of Nursing member schools for the psychometric testing of the 54-item content-validated and pilot-tested ICAS. Exploratory-factor analysis resulted in a three-factor solution labeled as advocacy, therapeutic use of self, and validation. These factors accounted for 60% of the variance. Items that loaded .60 or higher were retained, resulting in a 23-item scale with a Cronbach's alpha of .96. The ICAS significantly differentiated the communication competencies of beginning and graduating students in both undergraduate and graduate programs. The ICAS was found to have construct validity and internal consistency, underscoring its potential as a formative and summative tool to assess the interpersonal communication competencies of nursing students.

  12. Validation of a novel behavior prediction scale: A two-center trial

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, Sharath; Surendran, Sharmila; Punugoti, Dedeepya; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Geetha Priya, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prediction of the child's behavior can adequately equip the dentist in rendering effective and efficient dental treatment. Aim: This study was planned to evaluate and validate a specially prepared questionnaire as a child behavior prediction scale. Design: A two-center cross-sectional study was done to validate the new scale. Materials and Methods: Children aged 3–12 years (n = 296), from two different centers participated in this study. The questionnaire used was a 10-point observational scale. Observations involved perceiving overt and subtle behavioral characteristics of a child, to assess the child's behavior in the dental office before treatment. An independent observer approached the children and their parents in the waiting room. The child's behavior was then evaluated by the dentist using Frankl behavior rating scale during and after treatment. The prediction of behavior compared to the Frankl scale was assessed and validated. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity tests, and receiver operating curve analysis were used to validate the new scale and calculate the cut-off score for positive and negative behavior. All data were processed by SPSS software (16.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill, USA). Results: The best cut-off score to predict a positive Frankl rating was ≥ 8.0 in both the centers. The sensitivity and specificity scores were 93.4% and 62.5% in center 1; 83.1% and 59.6% in center 2 respectively. Conclusion: This novel prediction scale can be of great importance in predicting children's behavior in the dental environment. PMID:25395769

  13. Development of Behaviorally-Anchored Rating Scales for Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grussing, Paul G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen behaviorally-anchored rating scales were developed for a comprehensive measure of performance in pharmacy practice, including pharmacist selection, performance appraisal, and promotion activities. The scales (which are included) were also used to evaluate extern performance, and to serve as a criterion measure in studies of concurrent…

  14. Toward Oxide Scale Behavior Management At High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Deltombe, R.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.; Dubar, L.

    2011-01-17

    Oxide scales grow freely on bare metallic surface under environmental conditions such as high temperature and oxygen. These act as thermal and mechanical shields, especially during high hot forming processes (>1000 deg. C). But product quality can be impacted by these oxide scales due to scale remaining on product or sticking on tools. Thus the TEMPO laboratory has created an original methodology in order to characterize oxide scale under high temperature, pressure and strain gradients. An experimental device has been developed. The final purpose of this work is to understand the scale behavior as a function of temperature, reduction ratio and steel composition.

  15. Rating Scale Items: A Brief Review of Nomenclature, Components, and Formatting to Inform the Development of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Boice, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Ratings scales are a common component of many multisource, multimethod frameworks for socioemotional and behavior assessment of children. There is a modest literature base to support the use of attitudinal, behavioral, and personality rating scales. Much of that historic literature focuses on the characteristics and interpretations of specific…

  16. The Development and Validation of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxhandler, Holly K.; Parrish, Danielle E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article describes the development and validation of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale (RSIPAS). The RSIPAS is designed to assess social work practitioners' self-efficacy, attitudes, behaviors, and perceived feasibility concerning the assessment or integration of clients' religious and spiritual beliefs…

  17. The Behavior Observation Scale for Autism (BOS): Relationship of Frequency of Behavior to IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, B. J.; And Others

    The Behavior Observation Scale (BOS) was administered to 53 autistic children, 35 mentally retarded children matched for MA, and 33 normal children (all 2 to 5 years old) in an attempt to quantify autistic behavior. Ss were observed 3 days for 3 minutes through a one way mirror in a playroom setting where occurrence of 67 behaviors on the BOS was…

  18. Assessing distress in pediatric intensive care environments: the COMFORT scale.

    PubMed

    Ambuel, B; Hamlett, K W; Marx, C M; Blumer, J L

    1992-02-01

    Managing psychological distress is a central treatment goal in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs), with medical and psychological implications. However, there is no objective measure for assessing efficacy of pharmacologic and psychological interventions used to reduce distress. Development of the COMFORT scale is described, a nonintrusive measure for assessing distress in PICU patients. Eight dimensions were selected based upon a literature review and survey of PICU nurses. Interrater agreement and internal consistency were high. Criterion validity, assessed by comparison with concurrent global ratings of PICU nurses, was also high. Principal components analysis revealed 2 correlated factors, behavioral and physiologic, accounting for 84% of variance. An ecological-developmental model is presented for further study of children's distress and coping in the PICU.

  19. Toward Increasing Fairness in Score Scale Calibrations Employed in International Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, Maria Elena; von Davier, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the creation of comparable score scales across countries in international assessments. We examine potential improvements to current score scale calibration procedures used in international large-scale assessments. Our approach seeks to improve fairness in scoring international large-scale assessments, which often…

  20. Atypical Behavior Identification in Large Scale Network Traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Best, Daniel M.; Hafen, Ryan P.; Olsen, Bryan K.; Pike, William A.

    2011-10-23

    Cyber analysts are faced with the daunting challenge of identifying exploits and threats within potentially billions of daily records of network traffic. Enterprise-wide cyber traffic involves hundreds of millions of distinct IP addresses and results in data sets ranging from terabytes to petabytes of raw data. Creating behavioral models and identifying trends based on those models requires data intensive architectures and techniques that can scale as data volume increases. Analysts need scalable visualization methods that foster interactive exploration of data and enable identification of behavioral anomalies. Developers must carefully consider application design, storage, processing, and display to provide usability and interactivity with large-scale data. We present an application that highlights atypical behavior in enterprise network flow records. This is accomplished by utilizing data intensive architectures to store the data, aggregation techniques to optimize data access, statistical techniques to characterize behavior, and a visual analytic environment to render the behavioral trends, highlight atypical activity, and allow for exploration.

  1. School Social Behavior Scales: an adaptation study of the Portuguese version of the social competence scale from SSBS-2.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Raquel; Carapito, Elsa; Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques Pinto, Alexandra; Lima, Maria Luísa; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa

    2012-11-01

    This study analyses the psychometric proprieties of a Portuguese version of the social competence scale from the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS-2, Merrell, 2002). It is a rating instrument of children and adolescents behavior, to be used by teachers and other school personnel. This scale includes 3 subscales: self-management/compliance, peer relations and academic behavior. In our first sample, 175 teachers rated 344 students from grade 1 through 12. On the second sample 13 teachers rated 251 3rd and 4th grades students. The results from the Portuguese adaptation support the multidimensional structure of the social competence scale from the SSBS-2, although an alternative model demonstrated a better fit to the data than the model originally proposed by the author. The scale showed good internal consistency and good intercorrelations between subscales, as well as between subscales and the total scale. The final model was well replicated in the second sample. These results encourage us to pursue the SSBS-2 Portuguese adaptation, in order to provide a useful and validated instrument for the assessment of social competence and for educational interventions.

  2. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  3. An Investigation of the Reliability and Factor Structure of Four New Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.; Siegle, Del; Reis, Sally M.; Gavin, M. Katherine; Sytsma Reed, Rachael E.

    2009-01-01

    Teacher rating scales have been used widely throughout the United States as part of a comprehensive plan for identifying potentially gifted and talented students. The Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics for Superior Students (SRBCSS) are among the most frequently used teacher rating scales to assess the characteristics of and nominate…

  4. Establishment and assessment of code scaling capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jaehyok

    In this thesis, a method for using RELAP5/MOD3.3 (Patch03) code models is described to establish and assess the code scaling capability and to corroborate the scaling methodology that has been used in the design of the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility. It was sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) under the program "PUMA ESBWR Tests". PUMA-E facility was built for the USNRC to obtain data on the performance of the passive safety systems of the General Electric (GE) Nuclear Energy Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). Similarities between the prototype plant and the scaled-down test facility were investigated for a Gravity-Driven Cooling System (GDCS) Drain Line Break (GDLB). This thesis presents the results of the GDLB test, i.e., the GDLB test with one Isolation Condenser System (ICS) unit disabled. The test is a hypothetical multi-failure small break loss of coolant (SB LOCA) accident scenario in the ESBWR. The test results indicated that the blow-down phase, Automatic Depressurization System (ADS) actuation, and GDCS injection processes occurred as expected. The GDCS as an emergency core cooling system provided adequate supply of water to keep the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) coolant level well above the Top of Active Fuel (TAF) during the entire GDLB transient. The long-term cooling phase, which is governed by the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) condensation, kept the reactor containment system that is composed of Drywell (DW) and Wetwell (WW) below the design pressure of 414 kPa (60 psia). In addition, the ICS continued participating in heat removal during the long-term cooling phase. A general Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation approach was discussed in detail relative to safety analyses of Light Water Reactor (LWR). The major components of the CSAU methodology that were highlighted particularly focused on the

  5. Habitat Utilization Assessment - Building in Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Blume, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Habitability, and the associated architectural and design attributes of an environment, is a powerful performance shaping factor. By identifying how inhabitants use an area, we can draw conclusions about what design or architectural attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance. We are analyzing how a crew uses a long duration habitat and work environment during a four-day underwater mission and identifying certain architectural and design attributes that are related to, and potential enablers of, certain crew behaviors. By identifying how inhabitants use the habitat, we can draw conclusions about what habitability attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance (applicable to NASA's Bioastronautics Human Behavior and Performance Critical Path Roadmap question 6.12). This assessment replicates a methodology reported in a chapter titled "Sociokinetic Analysis as a Tool for Optimization of Environmental Design" by C. Adams.' That study collected video imagery of certain areas of a closed habitat during a 91 day test and from that data calculated time spent in different volumes during the mission, and characterized the behaviors occurring in certain habitat volumes thus concluding various rules for design of such habitats. This study assesses the utilization of the Aquarius Habitat, an underwater station, which will support six Aquanauts for a fourteen-day mission during which the crew will perform specific scientific and engineering studies. Video is recorded for long uninterrupted periods of time during the mission and from that data the time spent in each area is calculated. In addition, qualitative and descriptive analysis of the types of behaviors in each area is performed with the purpose of identifying any behaviors that are not typical of a certain area. If a participant uses an area in a way different from expected, a subsequent analysis of the features of that area may result in

  6. An Exploratory Investigation of the Counseling Competencies Scale: A Measure of Counseling Skills, Dispositions, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Witta, E. Lea

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Counseling Competencies Scale (CCS; University of Central Florida Counselor Education Faculty, 2009), an instrument designed to assess trainee competencies as measured in their counseling skills, dispositions, and behaviors. There was strong internal consistency for the 4-factor model for…

  7. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  8. On the Scaling Behavior of Reliability-Resilience-Vulnerability Indices in Agricultural Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk indices such as reliability-resilience-vulnerability (R-R-V) have been proposed to assess watershed health. In this study, the spatial scaling behavior of R-R-V indices has been explored for five agricultural watersheds in the midwestern United States. The study was conduc...

  9. Construction of a Computerized Adaptive Testing Version of the Quebec Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasse, Marc J.; And Others

    Multilog (Thissen, 1991) was used to estimate parameters of 225 items from the Quebec Adaptive Behavior Scale (QABS). A database containing actual data from 2,439 subjects was used for the parameterization procedures. The two-parameter-logistic model was used in estimating item parameters and in the testing strategy. MicroCAT (Assessment Systems…

  10. Multidimensionality of Teachers' Graded Responses for Preschoolers' Stylistic Learning Behavior: The Learning-to-Learn Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Paul A.; Fantuzzo, John W.; Warley, Heather P.; Waterman, Clare; Angelo, Lauren E.; Gadsden, Vivian L.; Sekino, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of preschool learning behavior has become very popular as a mechanism to inform cognitive development and promote successful interventions. The most widely used measures offer sound predictions but distinguish only a few types of stylistic learning and lack sensitive growth detection. The Learning-to-Learn Scales was designed to…

  11. Off-equilibrium scaling behaviors across first-order transitions.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Vicari, Ettore

    2015-12-01

    We study off-equilibrium behaviors at first-order transitions (FOTs) driven by a time dependence of the temperature across the transition point T(c), such as the linear behavior T(t)/T(c)=1±t/t(s) where t(s) is a time scale. In particular, we investigate the possibility of nontrivial off-equilibrium scaling behaviors in the regime of slow changes, corresponding to large t(s). We consider the two-dimensional Potts models, which provide an ideal theoretical laboratory to investigate issues related to FOTs driven by thermal fluctuations. We put forward general ansatzes for off-equilibrium scaling behaviors around the time t=0 corresponding to T(c). Then we present numerical results for the q=10 and 20 Potts models. We show that off-equilibrium scaling behaviors emerge at FOTs with relaxational dynamics, when appropriate boundary conditions are considered, such as mixed boundary conditions favoring different phases at the opposite sides of the system, which enforce an interface in the system.

  12. Off-equilibrium scaling behaviors across first-order transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Vicari, Ettore

    2015-12-01

    We study off-equilibrium behaviors at first-order transitions (FOTs) driven by a time dependence of the temperature across the transition point Tc, such as the linear behavior T (t ) /Tc=1 ±t /ts where ts is a time scale. In particular, we investigate the possibility of nontrivial off-equilibrium scaling behaviors in the regime of slow changes, corresponding to large ts. We consider the two-dimensional Potts models, which provide an ideal theoretical laboratory to investigate issues related to FOTs driven by thermal fluctuations. We put forward general ansatzes for off-equilibrium scaling behaviors around the time t =0 corresponding to Tc. Then we present numerical results for the q =10 and 20 Potts models. We show that off-equilibrium scaling behaviors emerge at FOTs with relaxational dynamics, when appropriate boundary conditions are considered, such as mixed boundary conditions favoring different phases at the opposite sides of the system, which enforce an interface in the system.

  13. Increasing the on-task homework behavior of youth with behavior disorders using functional behavioral assessment.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Renee O; Axelrod, Michael I

    2008-11-01

    Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework are needed to increase students' academic success. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures may be helpful for intervention planning; however, there has been limited research on use of FBA with youth with EBD experiencing poor academic performance or task completion problems. In the current study, FBA methods were used to identify the contingencies maintaining the off-task behavior of four youth with behavior problems. Effects of interventions based on functional hypotheses were compared to the effects of interventions not linked to such hypotheses. Discussion focuses on utility of FBA procedures for developing and implementing effective interventions for youth with EBD.

  14. Reliability of the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale during toddlerhood.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Eric A; Houck, Gail M; Kindermann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The quality of the maternal-child feeding interaction has been proposed to be an important contributor to a child's being overweight, yet assessment of this proposition has been hindered by a lack of age-appropriate instrumentation. The primary aim of this study was to examine the reliability of the Nursing Child Assessment of Feeding Scale (NCAFS) if extended to use during toddlerhood. A longitudinal design was used to assess NCAFS reliability at 12, 24, and 36 months. The NCAFS was used to code videotaped feeding observations of 116 mother-toddler dyads collected as part of a larger study examining mother-child interactions and adaptations of toddlers. Reliability was explored through the assessment of interrater reliability, internal consistency of the various subscales and the scale as a whole, and stability of the scale measurements over time. At each age, interrater reliability was generally quite good whereas the NCAFS' internal consistency was low. Maternal contributions to feeding interaction quality were stable over time but dyadic and child contributions were not. The lower internal consistency estimates were likely due to relatively low levels of variance among the dyads within each age. Another probable contributor to diminished internal consistency was the attrition of several behavior items due to zero variance. Possible explanations for this restriction of variance and several approaches for improving the NCAFS internal consistency during toddlerhood are considered. With revision, the NCAFS could be useful in assessment of feeding interaction quality during the transition to toddlerhood when issues of control and autonomy become increasingly prominent.

  15. Caregiving Hassles Scale: Assessing the Daily Hassles of Caring for a Family Member with Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jennifer M.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris

    1989-01-01

    Primary caregivers to Alzheimer disease patients (N=60) twice completed Caregiving Hassles Scale and reported on their well-being. Scale provided reliable and psychometrically sound instrument for assessing hassles associated with assistance in basic and instrumental activities of daily living, care-recipient cognitive status and behavior, and…

  16. NATIONAL-SCALE ASSESSMENT OF AIR TOXICS RISKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The national-scale assessment of air toxics risks is a modeling assessment which combines emission inventory development, atmospheric fate and transport modeling, exposure modeling, and risk assessment to characterize the risk associated with inhaling air toxics from outdoor sour...

  17. Acceptability of Functional Behavioral Assessment Procedures to Special Educators and School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Robert E.; Bundock, Kaitlin; Kladis, Kristin; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    This survey study assessed the acceptability of a variety of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures (i.e., functional assessment interviews, rating scales/questionnaires, systematic direct observations, functional analysis manipulations) to a national sample of 123 special educators and a state sample of 140 school psychologists.…

  18. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  19. Construct Validation of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nancy K.; Sass, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Beliefs related to classroom management vary among teachers and play an important role in classrooms. Despite the importance of this construct, valid measures have proven difficult to develop. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS), a short but valid measure of teachers'…

  20. [Evaluation scale of autistic behavior. Validity and reliability of a scale for autistic behavior detection].

    PubMed

    Assumpçäo Júnior, F B; Kuczynski, E; Gabriel, M R; Rocca, C C

    1999-03-01

    This study aimed to translate, to adapt and to validate the scale of autistic traits (ATA) developed by Ballabriga et al. in Barcelona, by the analysis of 31 patients with mental deficiency and 30 patients with autism, according to the DSM-IV criteria. The "cut off point" found was 15 (p = 0.05); the reliability coefficient was 0.27; the construct validity showed low agreement (kappa = 0.04) and the internal validity was 100%, with all evaluated patients having their clinical diagnosis confirmed through the scale application. The correlation index was 0.42, showing that it is specific for autism. The scale presents discrimination capacity and internal consistency, and the Cronbach's alpha was 0.71. We consider that achieved results show that the scale is reliable to be used in our population.

  1. Lateralized Kinematics of Predation Behavior in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Oda, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral lateralization has been documented in many vertebrates. The scale-eating cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis is well known for exhibiting lateral dimorphism in its mouth morphology and lateralized behavior in robbing scales from prey fish. A previous field study indicated that this mouth asymmetry closely correlates with the side on which prey is attacked, but details of this species' predation behavior have not been previously analyzed because of the rapidity of the movements. Here, we studied scale-eating behavior in cichlids in a tank through high-speed video monitoring and quantitative assessment of behavioral laterality and kinematics. The fish observed showed a clear bias toward striking on one side, which closely correlated with their asymmetric mouth morphologies. Furthermore, the maximum angular velocity and amplitude of body flexion were significantly larger during attacks on the preferred side compared to those on the nonpreferred side, permitting increased predation success. In contrast, no such lateral difference in movement elements was observed in acoustically evoked flexion during the escape response, which is similar to flexion during scale eating and suggests that they share a common motor control pathway. Thus the neuronal circuits controlling body flexion during scale eating may be functionally lateralized upstream of this common motor pathway. PMID:22238598

  2. A risk assessment framework for assessing metallic nanomaterials of environmental concern: aquatic exposure and behavior.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Niall Joseph; Cummins, Enda J

    2011-05-01

    Nanomaterials are finding application in many different environmentally relevant products and processes due to enhanced catalytic, antimicrobial, and oxidative properties of materials at this scale. As the market share of nano-functionalized products increases, so too does the potential for environmental exposure and contamination. This study presents some exposure ranking methods that consider potential metallic nanomaterial surface water exposure and fate, due to nano-functionalized products, through a number of exposure pathways. These methods take into account the limited and disparate data currently available for metallic nanomaterials and apply variability and uncertainty principles, together with qualitative risk assessment principles, to develop a scientific ranking. Three exposure scenarios with three different nanomaterials were considered to demonstrate these assessment methods: photo-catalytic exterior paint (nano-scale TiO₂), antimicrobial food packaging (nano-scale Ag), and particulate-reducing diesel fuel additives (nano-scale CeO₂). Data and hypotheses from literature relating to metallic nanomaterial aquatic behavior (including the behavior of materials that may relate to nanomaterials in aquatic environments, e.g., metals, pesticides, surfactants) were used together with commercial nanomaterial characteristics and Irish natural aquatic environment characteristics to rank the potential concentrations, transport, and persistence behaviors within subjective categories. These methods, and the applied scenarios, reveal where data critical to estimating exposure and risk are lacking. As research into the behavior of metallic nanomaterials in different environments emerges, the influence of material and environmental characteristics on nanomaterial behavior within these exposure- and risk-ranking methods may be redefined on a quantitative basis.

  3. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Barbara; Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-11-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km(2)), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km(2)), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km(2)), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality. PMID:25419085

  4. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km2), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km2), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km2), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality. PMID:25419085

  5. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries. PMID:23316097

  6. Validity and reliability of the dementia behavior disturbance scale.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, M; Becker, R; Gauthier, S

    1990-03-01

    Behavioral disturbance is a common and distinctive feature of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Existing instruments designed to quantify behavior disturbance among patients with dementia tend to be quite heterogeneous, including many items that do not refer to behavioral disturbance as such, but rather to cognitive, psychological, or somatic symptoms, or functional impairments. A 28-item Dementia Behavior Disturbance (DBD) scale was developed to avoid some of the problems encountered with the older instruments. In two samples of patients with dementia (n = 50 and n = 46), the most common symptoms were repetitive questions, losing or hiding things, lack of interest in daily activities, nocturnal wakefulness, unwarranted accusations, excessive daytime sleeping, and pacing. The coefficient of internal consistency was greater than .80 in both samples, and the correlation between scores obtained from the same subjects at a two-week interval was moderately high (Pearson's correlation coefficient = .71). There was a relatively high correlation between DBD scores and scores on Greene's Behavior and Mood Disturbance scale, and higher DBD scores were associated with increased duration and severity of disease. These preliminary results indicate that the DBD may be a useful and valid measure of one dimension of the dementia syndrome. PMID:2313003

  7. The Use of Structural Behavioral Assessment to Develop Interventions for Secondary Students Exhibiting Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Structural behavioral assessment (SBA) involves a series of heuristic approaches similar to those used with functional behavioral assessment (FBA). It involves assessing contextual variables that precede the occurrence of a behavior. These variables have also been termed antecedents, setting events, or establishing operations. Once these variables…

  8. Short-time scale behavior modeling within long-time scale fuel cycle evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.; Tsvetkov, P.; Lucas, S.

    2012-07-01

    Typically, short-time and long-time scales in nuclear energy system behavior are accounted for with entirely separate models. However, long-term changes in system characteristics do affect short-term transients through material variations. This paper presents an approach to consistently account for short-time scales within a nuclear system lifespan. The reported findings and developments are of significant importance for small modular reactors and other nuclear energy systems operating in autonomous modes. It is necessary to simulate the short time-scale kinetic behavior of the reactor as well as the long time-scale dynamics that occur with fuel burnup. The former is modeled using the point kinetics equations, while the latter is modeled by the Bateman equations. (authors)

  9. The Child Behavior Scale (CBS) Revisited: A Longitudinal Evaluation of CBS Subscales with Children, Preadolescents, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.; Herald-Brown, Sarah L.; Andrews, Rebecca K.

    2009-01-01

    The Child Behavior Scale (CBS) is a teacher-report instrument that was developed over a decade ago as an alternative to more costly methods for assessing children's behavior and peer relations in school contexts. This investigation was undertaken to clarify how well the CBS achieves its aims with a broader age spectrum of youth (6- to…

  10. Behavioral assessment of the toxicity of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Holder, M D; Yirmiya, R

    1989-01-01

    Six experiments with rats assessed the toxicity of aspartame with behavioral measures. The first three experiments used a conditioned taste aversion procedure since taste aversions are typically observed after a taste is followed by a toxin. Thirty min after thirsty rats drank a sweet solution they were intraperitoneally injected (Experiment 1) or intragastrically intubated (Experiment 2) with saline or 176, 352, or 704 mg/kg of aspartame. Relative to rats given saline, rats injected with 704 and 352 mg/kg aspartame showed strong and mild aversions, respectively. Rats injected with 176 mg/kg of aspartame or intubated with any dose of aspartame did not show taste aversions. In Experiment 3, rats voluntarily consumed an aspartame solution sweetened with saccharin for 7 hr each day. Consumption of the taste paired with aspartame was not reduced. When 352 mg/kg aspartame was injected (Experiment 4), but not when intubated (Experiment 5), 5 min prior to access to a running wheel, running was reduced. Wheel running was not affected by the voluntary consumption of aspartame (Experiment 6). The route of administration effect (intraperitoneal vs. intragastric) on behavior corresponded with the amino acid levels in blood plasma (Experiment 7). Aspartate, phenylalanine, tyrosine and glutamate levels increased more after the injection, than the intubation, of aspartame (176 mg/kg). Overall, the results suggest that aspartame may have adverse effects when intraperitoneally injected but not when the route of administration is oral.

  11. Refining Neurobehavioral Assessment of the High-Risk Infant Using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Mary C; Miller, Robin J; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Nurses caring for high-risk infants use advanced assessment skills to identify the nature of infant instability and to assure timely intervention. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) is a comprehensive assessment of neurological integrity and behavioral function of infants at risk. Research evidence supports its validity and reliability for clinical and research use. The NNNS offers nurses a neurobehavioral assessment especially suited to high-risk and premature infants.

  12. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(Ni(x)Co(y)Mn(z))O2/Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(Ni(x)Co(y)Mn(z))O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112-121 °C on anode tab and 139 to 147 °C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li(+) distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference. PMID:25586064

  13. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(NixCoyMnz)O2/Li4Ti5O12 batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112–121°C on anode tab and 139 to 147°C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li+ distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference. PMID:25586064

  14. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-14

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(Ni(x)Co(y)Mn(z))O2/Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(Ni(x)Co(y)Mn(z))O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112-121 °C on anode tab and 139 to 147 °C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li(+) distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference.

  15. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(NixCoyMnz)O2/Li4Ti5O12 batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112-121°C on anode tab and 139 to 147°C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li+ distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference.

  16. Experimental control of scaling behavior: what is not fractal?

    PubMed

    Likens, Aaron D; Fine, Justin M; Amazeen, Eric L; Amazeen, Polemnia G

    2015-10-01

    The list of psychological processes thought to exhibit fractal behavior is growing. Although some might argue that the seeming ubiquity of fractal patterns illustrates their significance, unchecked growth of that list jeopardizes their relevance. It is important to identify when a single behavior is and is not fractal in order to make meaningful conclusions about the processes underlying those patterns. The hypothesis tested in the present experiment is that fractal patterns reflect the enactment of control. Participants performed two steering tasks: steering on a straight track and steering on a circular track. Although each task could be accomplished by holding the steering wheel at a constant angle, steering around a curve may require more constant control, at least from a psychological standpoint. Results showed that evidence for fractal behavior was strongest for the circular track; straight tracks showed evidence of two scaling regions. We argue from those results that, going forward, the goal of the fractal literature should be to bring scaling behavior under experimental control.

  17. Fracture behavior of nano-scale rubber-modified epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacigalupo, Lauren N.

    The primary focus of the first portion of this study is to compare physical and mechanical properties of a model epoxy that has been toughened with one of three different types of rubber-based modifier: a traditional telechelic oligomer (phase separates into micro-size particles), a core-shell latex particle (preformed nano-scale particles) and a triblock copolymer (self-assembles into nano-scale particles). The effect of modifier content on the physical properties of the matrix was determined using several thermal analysis methods, which provided insight into any inherent alterations of the epoxy matrix. Although the primary objective is to study the role of particle size on the fracture toughness, stiffness and strength were also determined since these properties are often reduced in rubber-toughened epoxies. It was found that since the CSR- and SBM-modified epoxies are composed of less rubber, thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy were better maintained. In order to better understand the fracture behavior and mechanisms of the three types of rubber particles utilized in this study, extensive microscopy analysis was conducted. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was used to quantify the volume fraction of particles, transmission optical microscopy (TOM) was used to determine plastic damage zone size, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess void growth in the plastic zone after fracture. By quantifying these characteristics, it was then possible to model the plastic damage zone size as well as the fracture toughness to elucidate the behavior of the rubber-modified epoxies. It was found that localized shear yielding and matrix void growth are the active toughening mechanisms in all rubber-modified epoxies in this study, however, matrix void growth was more prevalent. The second portion of this study investigated the use of three acrylate-based triblocks and four acrylate-based diblocks to modify a model epoxy system. By

  18. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  19. A Method for the Systematic Observation of Examiner Behavior during Psychoeducational Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strein, William

    1984-01-01

    Describes a specific empirical method for the systematic observation of examiner behavior during psychoeducational assessments, the Systematic Observation Scale for Assessments (SOS-A). Discusses development of the instrument and presents data on intra- and interobserver agreement. The instrument is regarded as an initially adequate method for…

  20. Scaling Behavior in Twisted, Helical and Undulating Lysozyme Amyloid Fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzenga, Raffaele; Lara, Cecile; Adamcik, Jozef; Usov, Ivan; Jordens, Sophia

    2012-02-01

    We combine atomic force microscopy single-molecule statistical analysis with polymer physics concepts to study the molecular conformations of lysozyme amyloid fibrils. We use different denaturation conditions to yield amyloid fibrils of different types. At 90 C and pH2, highly laminated twisted and helical ribbons are found, in which as many as 17 protofilaments pack laterally for a total width approaching 180 nm. In the case of 60 C and pH2, we find thin, wavy fibrils, in which the scaling behavior varies at multiple length scales. We use bond and pair correlation functions, end-to-end distribution and worm-like chain model to identify 3 characteristic length scales. At short length scales there is a first bending transition of the fibrils, corresponding to a bending length Lb. At slightly larger length scales (>2Lb), the fibrils become pseudoperiodic and start to undulate. Finally, at length scales larger than the persistence length Lp, the fibrils become flexible and are well described by a 2D self-avoiding random walk. We interpret these results in terms of the periodic fluctuations of the cross-section orientation of the fibrils (twisting) and the impact these have on the area moment of inertia and the corresponding propensity of the fibrils to bend.

  1. Examining the scaling behavior of Delbrueck scattering in experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Kunwar, B.; Bhadra, A; Sen Gupta, S. K.

    2011-09-15

    The conventional perception is that the amplitudes of Delbrueck scattering calculated to all orders in the charge number Z of the target nucleus should exhibit a scaling behavior at high energies. To examine this hypothesis the available experimental data of differential cross sections of elastic scattering in the energy range between 140 MeV and 7.11 GeV are analyzed. It is found that the experimental data do not show scaling characteristics. Such a finding, though apparently against the standard notion, is not unexpected because at high energies Delbrueck scattering is in very forward direction and the theoretical arguments demand that to observe scaling, not only the energy itself but the product of scattering angles and energy also should be very large.

  2. Probabilistic simulation of multi-scale composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, D. G.; Shiao, M. C.; Singhal, S. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology is developed to computationally assess the probabilistic composite material properties at all composite scale levels due to the uncertainties in the constituent (fiber and matrix) properties and in the fabrication process variables. The methodology is computationally efficient for simulating the probability distributions of material properties. The sensitivity of the probabilistic composite material property to each random variable is determined. This information can be used to reduce undesirable uncertainties in material properties at the macro scale of the composite by reducing the uncertainties in the most influential random variables at the micro scale. This methodology was implemented into the computer code PICAN (Probabilistic Integrated Composite ANalyzer). The accuracy and efficiency of this methodology are demonstrated by simulating the uncertainties in the material properties of a typical laminate and comparing the results with the Monte Carlo simulation method. The experimental data of composite material properties at all scales fall within the scatters predicted by PICAN.

  3. Scaling behavior of an airplane-boarding model.

    PubMed

    Brics, Martins; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    An airplane-boarding model, introduced earlier by Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)], is studied with the aim of determining precisely its asymptotic power-law scaling behavior for a large number of passengers N. Based on Monte Carlo simulation data for very large system sizes up to N=2(16)=65536, we have analyzed numerically the scaling behavior of the mean boarding time and other related quantities. In analogy with critical phenomena, we have used appropriate scaling Ansätze, which include the leading term as some power of N (e.g., [proportionality]N(α) for ), as well as power-law corrections to scaling. Our results clearly show that α=1/2 holds with a very high numerical accuracy (α=0.5001±0.0001). This value deviates essentially from α=/~0.69, obtained earlier by Frette and Hemmer from data within the range 2≤N≤16. Our results confirm the convergence of the effective exponent α(eff)(N) to 1/2 at large N as observed by Bernstein. Our analysis explains this effect. Namely, the effective exponent α(eff)(N) varies from values about 0.7 for small system sizes to the true asymptotic value 1/2 at N→∞ almost linearly in N(-1/3) for large N. This means that the variation is caused by corrections to scaling, the leading correction-to-scaling exponent being θ≈1/3. We have estimated also other exponents: ν=1/2 for the mean number of passengers taking seats simultaneously in one time step, β=1 for the second moment of t(b), and γ≈1/3 for its variance. PMID:23679383

  4. Scaling behavior of an airplane-boarding model.

    PubMed

    Brics, Martins; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    An airplane-boarding model, introduced earlier by Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)], is studied with the aim of determining precisely its asymptotic power-law scaling behavior for a large number of passengers N. Based on Monte Carlo simulation data for very large system sizes up to N=2(16)=65536, we have analyzed numerically the scaling behavior of the mean boarding time and other related quantities. In analogy with critical phenomena, we have used appropriate scaling Ansätze, which include the leading term as some power of N (e.g., [proportionality]N(α) for ), as well as power-law corrections to scaling. Our results clearly show that α=1/2 holds with a very high numerical accuracy (α=0.5001±0.0001). This value deviates essentially from α=/~0.69, obtained earlier by Frette and Hemmer from data within the range 2≤N≤16. Our results confirm the convergence of the effective exponent α(eff)(N) to 1/2 at large N as observed by Bernstein. Our analysis explains this effect. Namely, the effective exponent α(eff)(N) varies from values about 0.7 for small system sizes to the true asymptotic value 1/2 at N→∞ almost linearly in N(-1/3) for large N. This means that the variation is caused by corrections to scaling, the leading correction-to-scaling exponent being θ≈1/3. We have estimated also other exponents: ν=1/2 for the mean number of passengers taking seats simultaneously in one time step, β=1 for the second moment of t(b), and γ≈1/3 for its variance.

  5. Dynamic Assessment in Phonological Disorders: The Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological…

  6. Population-scale assessment endpoints in ecological risk assessment. Part 1: Reflections of stakeholder values.

    PubMed

    Landis, Wayne G

    2006-01-01

    The selection of appropriate assessment endpoints is a basic element of an ecological risk assessment, especially at regional or watershed scales. Because ecological services often are tied to specific species, the risk to populations is a critical endpoint and feature of ecological risk assessments. The first item is a discussion of the replacement of population-level risk assessment with the construct of a population-scale assessment endpoint. Next, the criteria that are currently used for assessment endpoints are reviewed and evaluated for utility in an ecological risk assessment. Following this examination, assessment endpoints from a number of regional-scale ecological risk assessments are compared. The outcome of this evaluation is that population-scale assessment endpoints are important expressions of the valued components of ecological structures. Finally, a few recommendations for the selection of assessment endpoints at a population scale are listed. PMID:16640323

  7. Linking Large-Scale Reading Assessments: Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    E. A. Hanushek points out in this commentary that applied researchers in education have only recently begun to appreciate the value of international assessments, even though there are now 50 years of experience with these. Until recently, these assessments have been stand-alone surveys that have not been linked, and analysis has largely focused on…

  8. Scaling of flow and transport behavior in heterogeneous groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe, Timothy; Yabusaki, Steven

    1998-11-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a detailed synthetic hydraulic conductivity field developed from geological considerations provide insight into the scaling of subsurface flow and transport processes. Flow and advective transport in the highly resolved heterogeneous field were modeled using massively parallel computers, providing a realistic baseline for evaluation of the impacts of parameter scaling. Upscaling of hydraulic conductivity was performed at a variety of scales using a flexible power law averaging technique. A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of varying the scaling exponent on a number of metrics of flow and transport behavior. Flow and transport simulation on high-performance computers and three-dimensional scientific visualization combine to form a powerful tool for gaining insight into the behavior of complex heterogeneous systems. Many quantitative groundwater models utilize upscaled hydraulic conductivity parameters, either implicitly or explicitly. These parameters are designed to reproduce the bulk flow characteristics at the grid or field scale while not requiring detailed quantification of local-scale conductivity variations. An example from applied groundwater modeling is the common practice of calibrating grid-scale model hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity parameters so as to approximate observed hydraulic head and boundary flux values. Such parameterizations, perhaps with a bulk dispersivity imposed, are then sometimes used to predict transport of reactive or non-reactive solutes. However, this work demonstrates that those parameters that lead to the best upscaling for hydraulic conductivity and head do not necessarily correspond to the best upscaling for prediction of a variety of transport behaviors. This result reflects the fact that transport is strongly impacted by the existence and connectedness of extreme-valued hydraulic conductivities, in contrast to bulk flow which depends more strongly on

  9. Internal Consistency and Cross-Informant Agreement of the Lithuanian-Translated Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sointu, Erkko T.; Geležiniene, Renata; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nordness, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Educational professionals need assessments that yield psychometrically sound scores to assess students' behavioral and emotional functioning in order to guide data-driven decision-making processes. Rating scales have been found to be effective and economical, and often multiple informant perspectives can be obtained. The agreement between multiple…

  10. A logical learning theory explanation of why personality scales predict behavior.

    PubMed

    Gruba-McCallister, F P; Rychlak, J F

    1981-10-01

    An explanation of why personality scales predict is drawn from the tenets of logical learning theory (Rychlak, 1977). This theory holds that behavior is not only responsive in nature, but also telosponsive, i.e., enacted intentionally for the sake of premises. Personality scales tap the subject's premises concerning some aspect of behavior, the meanings of which are then extended in behavior telosponsively so that a prediction to some criterion performance becomes possible. The subject in effect creates the behavior based on his or her premises. An important telosponse inhuman learning is that of affective assessment, which is operationalized as reinforcement value (like-dislike). Two experiments establish the role of reinforcement value in scale measurement and prediction. The first demonstrates that subjects score higher on personality dimensions which they like very much than on dimensions which they greatly dislike. The second experiment then establishes that a personality dimension which a subject both likes and scores highly on is more predictive to an independently assessed manifestation of this personality characteristic than is a comparable dimension which is disliked.

  11. Behavioral assessment in youth sports: coaching behaviors and children's attitudes.

    PubMed

    Smith, R E; Zane, N W; Smoll, F L; Coppel, D B

    1983-01-01

    To define the characteristics and dimensional patterning of coaching behaviors, 15,449 behaviors of 31 youth basketball coaches were coded in terms of a 10-category system. Post-season attitude and self-esteem data were obtained from players on 23 teams and were related to the behavioral measures. Compared with rates of reinforcement, encouragement, and technical instruction, punitive responses occurred relatively infrequently. Factor analysis of the coaching behaviors indicated that supportive and punitive behavioral dimensions were orthogonal or statistically independent of one another rather than opposite ends of the same dimension. Punitive and instructional categories were part of the same behavior cluster. The relationship between coaching behaviors and the various player attitudes were highly specific in nature. Coaching behaviors accounted for about half of the variance in post-season attitudes toward the coach and the sport, but for significantly less variance in measures of team solidarity and self-esteem. Surprisingly, the rate of positive reinforcement was unrelated to any of the attitudinal measures. Punishment was negatively related to liking for the coach. In general, technical instruction categories were the strongest predictors of basketball player attitudes. PMID:6621307

  12. Behavioral assessment in youth sports: coaching behaviors and children's attitudes.

    PubMed

    Smith, R E; Zane, N W; Smoll, F L; Coppel, D B

    1983-01-01

    To define the characteristics and dimensional patterning of coaching behaviors, 15,449 behaviors of 31 youth basketball coaches were coded in terms of a 10-category system. Post-season attitude and self-esteem data were obtained from players on 23 teams and were related to the behavioral measures. Compared with rates of reinforcement, encouragement, and technical instruction, punitive responses occurred relatively infrequently. Factor analysis of the coaching behaviors indicated that supportive and punitive behavioral dimensions were orthogonal or statistically independent of one another rather than opposite ends of the same dimension. Punitive and instructional categories were part of the same behavior cluster. The relationship between coaching behaviors and the various player attitudes were highly specific in nature. Coaching behaviors accounted for about half of the variance in post-season attitudes toward the coach and the sport, but for significantly less variance in measures of team solidarity and self-esteem. Surprisingly, the rate of positive reinforcement was unrelated to any of the attitudinal measures. Punishment was negatively related to liking for the coach. In general, technical instruction categories were the strongest predictors of basketball player attitudes.

  13. Using Functional Behavior Assessment to Develop Behavior Interventions for Students in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Elizabeth M.; Nelson, C. Michael

    2009-01-01

    A withdrawal design repeated across three children enrolled in two Head Start classrooms was used to investigate the effectiveness of functional assessment-based interventions to decrease inappropriate behavior. The two questions addressed in the study were (a) Will a behavior intervention plan based on functional behavior assessment conducted in…

  14. Scaling behaviors of weighted food webs as energy transportation networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Liangpeng

    2010-06-01

    Food webs can be regarded as energy transporting networks in which the weight of each edge denotes the energy flux between two species. By investigating 21 empirical weighted food webs as energy flow networks, we found several ubiquitous scaling behaviors. Two random variables A(i) and C(i) defined for each vertex i, representing the total flux (also called vertex intensity) and total indirect effect or energy store of i, were found to follow power law distributions with the exponents alpha approximately 1.32 and beta approximately 1.33, respectively. Another scaling behavior is the power law relationship, C(i) approximately A(i)(eta), where eta approximately 1.02. This is known as the allometric scaling power law relationship because A(i) can be treated as metabolism and C(i) as the body mass of the sub-network rooted from the vertex i, according to the algorithm presented in this paper. Finally, a simple relationship among these power law exponents, eta=(alpha-1)/(beta-1), was mathematically derived and tested by the empirical food webs.

  15. Intrinsic Multi-Scale Dynamic Behaviors of Complex Financial Systems.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Fang-Yan; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The empirical mode decomposition is applied to analyze the intrinsic multi-scale dynamic behaviors of complex financial systems. In this approach, the time series of the price returns of each stock is decomposed into a small number of intrinsic mode functions, which represent the price motion from high frequency to low frequency. These intrinsic mode functions are then grouped into three modes, i.e., the fast mode, medium mode and slow mode. The probability distribution of returns and auto-correlation of volatilities for the fast and medium modes exhibit similar behaviors as those of the full time series, i.e., these characteristics are rather robust in multi time scale. However, the cross-correlation between individual stocks and the return-volatility correlation are time scale dependent. The structure of business sectors is mainly governed by the fast mode when returns are sampled at a couple of days, while by the medium mode when returns are sampled at dozens of days. More importantly, the leverage and anti-leverage effects are dominated by the medium mode. PMID:26427063

  16. Intrinsic Multi-Scale Dynamic Behaviors of Complex Financial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fang-Yan; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The empirical mode decomposition is applied to analyze the intrinsic multi-scale dynamic behaviors of complex financial systems. In this approach, the time series of the price returns of each stock is decomposed into a small number of intrinsic mode functions, which represent the price motion from high frequency to low frequency. These intrinsic mode functions are then grouped into three modes, i.e., the fast mode, medium mode and slow mode. The probability distribution of returns and auto-correlation of volatilities for the fast and medium modes exhibit similar behaviors as those of the full time series, i.e., these characteristics are rather robust in multi time scale. However, the cross-correlation between individual stocks and the return-volatility correlation are time scale dependent. The structure of business sectors is mainly governed by the fast mode when returns are sampled at a couple of days, while by the medium mode when returns are sampled at dozens of days. More importantly, the leverage and anti-leverage effects are dominated by the medium mode. PMID:26427063

  17. Creation and validation of the Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale in a depression trial.

    PubMed

    Miner, Adam S; Schueller, Stephen M; Lattie, Emily G; Mohr, David C

    2015-12-30

    The Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale (CB-RSS) is a self-report measure of the use and helpfulness of several cognitive and behavioral skills. Unlike other measures that focus on language specific to terms used in therapy, the CB-RSS was intended to tap the strategies in ways that might be understandable to those who had not undergone therapy. The measure was included in a clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression and completed by 325 participants at baseline and end of treatment (18 weeks). Psychometric properties of the scale were assessed through iterative exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. These analyses identified two subscales, cognitive and behavioral skills, each with high reliability. Validity was addressed by investigating relationships with depression symptoms, positive affect, perceived stress, and coping self-efficacy. End of treatment scores predicted changes in all outcomes, with the largest relationships between baseline CB-RSS scales and coping self-efficacy. These findings suggest that the CB-RSS is a useful tool to measure cognitive and behavioral skills both at baseline (prior to treatment) as well as during the course of treatment.

  18. Scale dependent behavioral responses to human development by a large predator, the puma.

    PubMed

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Wang, Yiwei; Nickel, Barry; Houghtaling, Paul; Shakeri, Yasaman; Allen, Maximilian L; Kermish-Wells, Joe; Yovovich, Veronica; Williams, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    The spatial scale at which organisms respond to human activity can affect both ecological function and conservation planning. Yet little is known regarding the spatial scale at which distinct behaviors related to reproduction and survival are impacted by human interference. Here we provide a novel approach to estimating the spatial scale at which a top predator, the puma (Puma concolor), responds to human development when it is moving, feeding, communicating, and denning. We find that reproductive behaviors (communication and denning) require at least a 4× larger buffer from human development than non-reproductive behaviors (movement and feeding). In addition, pumas give a wider berth to types of human development that provide a more consistent source of human interference (neighborhoods) than they do to those in which human presence is more intermittent (arterial roads with speeds >35 mph). Neighborhoods were a deterrent to pumas regardless of behavior, while arterial roads only deterred pumas when they were communicating and denning. Female pumas were less deterred by human development than males, but they showed larger variation in their responses overall. Our behaviorally explicit approach to modeling animal response to human activity can be used as a novel tool to assess habitat quality, identify wildlife corridors, and mitigate human-wildlife conflict.

  19. Co-Curricular Assessment Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldmann, Matthew; Aper, Jeffery P.; Meredith, Sam T.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a scale informed by the construct of emotional intelligence designed to measure student development outcomes identified as co-curricular goals. Supervisors, staff, and coaches provided firsthand accounts of student development outcomes at a small, private, liberal arts work college, generating data on…

  20. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  1. Developing Assessment Scales for Large-Scale Speaking Tests: A Multiple-Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaczi, Evelina D.; ffrench, Angela; Hubbard, Chris; Green, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The process of constructing assessment scales for performance testing is complex and multi-dimensional. As a result, a number of different approaches, both empirically and intuitively based, are open to developers. In this paper we outline the approach taken in the revision of a set of assessment scales used with speaking tests, and present the…

  2. Scaling behavior of explosive percolation on the square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziff, Robert M.

    2010-11-01

    Clusters generated by the product-rule growth model of Achlioptas, D’Souza, and Spencer on a two-dimensional square lattice are shown to obey qualitatively different scaling behavior than standard (random growth) percolation. The threshold with unrestricted bond placement (allowing loops) is found precisely using several different criteria based on both moments and wrapping probabilities, yielding pc=0.526565±0.000005 , consistent with the recent result of Radicchi and Fortunato. The correlation-length exponent ν is found to be close to 1. The qualitative difference from regular percolation is shown dramatically in the behavior of the percolation probability P∞ (size of largest cluster), of the susceptibility, and of the second moment of finite clusters, where discontinuities appear at the threshold. The critical cluster-size distribution does not follow a consistent power law for the range of system sizes we study (L≤8192) but may approach a power law with τ>2 for larger L .

  3. Assessment scale of risk for surgical positioning injuries 1

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Camila Mendonça de Moraes; Haas, Vanderlei José; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; de Oliveira, Cheila Gonçalves; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to build and validate a scale to assess the risk of surgical positioning injuries in adult patients. Method: methodological research, conducted in two phases: construction and face and content validation of the scale and field research, involving 115 patients. Results: the Risk Assessment Scale for the Development of Injuries due to Surgical Positioning contains seven items, each of which presents five subitems. The scale score ranges between seven and 35 points in which, the higher the score, the higher the patient's risk. The Content Validity Index of the scale corresponded to 0.88. The application of Student's t-test for equality of means revealed the concurrent criterion validity between the scores on the Braden scale and the constructed scale. To assess the predictive criterion validity, the association was tested between the presence of pain deriving from surgical positioning and the development of pressure ulcer, using the score on the Risk Assessment Scale for the Development of Injuries due to Surgical Positioning (p<0.001). The interrater reliability was verified using the intraclass correlation coefficient, equal to 0.99 (p<0.001). Conclusion: the scale is a valid and reliable tool, but further research is needed to assess its use in clinical practice. PMID:27579925

  4. Testing the Factor Structure of a Scale to Assess African American Acculturation: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert J.; Brown, Tiffany L.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Snowden, Lonnie; Hines, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Research has pointed to the important role that acculturation plays in understanding a range of physical health behaviors as well as psychological functioning, but only a few studies have attempted to establish reliable and valid measures of African American acculturation. The scale developed by Snowden and Hines (1999) to assess African American…

  5. Taxometric Analysis of the Antisocial Features Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Federal Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Geyer, Matthew D.; Duncan, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was subjected to taxometric analysis in a group of 2,135 federal prison inmates. Scores on the three ANT subscales--Antisocial Behaviors (ANT-A), Egocentricity (ANT-E), and Stimulus Seeking (ANT-S)--served as indicators in this study and were evaluated using the…

  6. Scaling behavior in the conductivity of alkali oxide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sidebottom, D.L.; Green, P.F.; Brow, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    Although the frequency dependent conductivity, {sigma}({omega}), of ion-containing glasses displays power law dispersion ({sigma}({omega}) {approx} {omega}{sup n}) that can usually be described by a master curve, several findings have suggested that this scaling fails at low temperatures as indicated by a temperature dependence of the scaling exponent, n. The authors investigate this behavior in the frequency range between 1 Hz and 10{sup 6} Hz for a different materials including alkali metaphosphate glasses and a polymer. They identify two distinct regimes of conductive behavior, {sigma}{sub {vert_bar}} and {sigma}{sub {parallel}}. The first, {sigma}{sub {vert_bar}}, is strongly temperature dependent and appears to obey a master curve representation. The second, {sigma}{sub {parallel}}, exhibits only a weak temperature dependence with a roughly linear frequency dependence. A strong depression of {sigma}{sub {vert_bar}} occurs for the mixed alkali case, but {sigma}{sub {parallel}} is unaffected and occurs at roughly the same location in all the alkali compositions studied. They propose that {sigma}{sub {parallel}} does not arise from cation motion, but rather originates from a second mechanisms likely involving small distortions of the underlying glassy matrix. This assignment of {sigma}{sub {parallel}} is further supported by the roughly universal location of {sigma}{sub {parallel}}, to within an order of magnitude, of a variety of materials, including a polymer electrolyte and a doped crystal. Since {sigma}{sub {vert_bar}}(T) and {sigma}{sub {parallel}}(T {approx} const.) are viewed as separate phenomena, the temperature dependence of the scaling exponent is shown to result merely from a superposition of these two contributions and does not indicate any intrinsic failure of the scaling property of {sigma}{sub {vert_bar}}.

  7. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales as a summary of functional outcome of extremely low-birthweight children.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, P; Saigal, S; Szatmari, P; Hoult, L

    1995-07-01

    This study reports moderate to high Pearson correlations between Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) subscale and total scores and a variety of cognitive, academic and motor performance tests on a population of extremely low-birthweight infants assessed at eight years of age. The subscales describe adaptive behaviour in daily living, communication, motor function and socialization, as well as an adaptive behaviour composite score. Because it can provide a norm-referenced description of functional outcomes and can be used to assess all children regardless of disability, the authors believe that the VABS should be applied uniformly by all groups reporting school-age outcome of neonatal intensive-care populations.

  8. Preschool Children's Learning Behaviors, Concept Attainment, Social Skills, and Problem Behaviors: Validity Evidence for Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara A.; Shur, Kimberely Fitch; Macri-Summers, Maria; MacDonald, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides concurrent and predictive validity and test-retest reliability evidence for scores from the preschool teacher-completed Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2002) using two regional samples of preschool children aged 3 to 5.5 years (Ns of 61 and 70). Teacher ratings of social skills and…

  9. Technology for behavioral assessment and intervention in bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J Graham; Bond, Dale S; Sarwer, David B; Wing, Rena R

    2011-01-01

    Patients' behaviors have a substantial effect on postoperative outcomes after bariatric surgery. Thus, studying patients' behaviors is essential to learning how to optimize postoperative outcomes. To be most effective, this research should use the best tools available for assessing patient behavior. However, the traditional methods of behavioral assessment (e.g., questionnaires and clinical interviews) rely primarily on patients' retrospective self-report, which is often inaccurate. Despite their significant shortcomings, these types of assessments continue to predominate. However, technological advances now allow for much greater accuracy in the assessment of patient behaviors by way of devices, such as accelerometers and palmtop computers. Accelerometers allow for patients' physical activity to be measured objectively in great detail, in real-time, in the patients' natural environment. Ecologic momentary assessment using a palmtop computer or mobile telephone allows the assessment of important behaviors, such as eating and activity behaviors, to be measured, with many of the same advantages. Furthermore, new computer-assisted technologies are in development that will further facilitate behavioral assessment. Technology also has the potential to play an important role in the delivery of behavioral interventions aimed at bariatric surgery patients, given that Internet-based treatments have already proved effective for nonoperative weight loss and are often highly cost-effective and easily disseminable. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of these programs for bariatric patients.

  10. Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition…

  11. Behavioral Diagnosis and Assessment in Teaching Young Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijou, Sidney W.; Grimm, Jeffrey A.

    Presented in the paper are procedures for diagnosing academic and social behaviors of retarded and emotionally disturbed children 5 to 8 years of age. Assessment before instruction is said to involve medical reports, interviews, psychometric tests, direct observation, and behavior inventories. Assessment during instruction is discussed in terms of…

  12. Functional Assessment of Problem Behaviors in Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paclawskyj, Theodosia R.; Kurtz, Patricia F.; O'Connor, Julia T.

    2004-01-01

    Functional assessment has significantly improved the success of behavioral treatment of problem behaviors in adults with mental retardation. Functional assessment methods (i.e., techniques that yield a hypothesis of functional relationships) include direct observation, interviews, and checklists. Functional analysis consists of empirical methods…

  13. Longitudinal Outcomes of Functional Behavioral Assessment--Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; Gallagher, Patricia; Starosta, Kristin; Hickman, Wesley; George, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A critical measure of intervention effectiveness is durability over time. Still, few studies have examined the long-term outcomes of support derived from a functional behavioral assessment as well as enablers and barriers that contribute to or impede successful outcomes. In the current study, a functional behavioral assessment was conducted with a…

  14. Primary Influences on the Development of Competence: The Development of a Maternal Behavior Scale. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, E. Robert, Jr.

    This is a progress report on the development of a maternal behavior scale, one which would reflect both the actual behavior of a mother when confronted by her child's activities and also show the behaviors instigated by the mother in the child's presence. The ultimate goal of the research is to produce a human behavior scale which will record the…

  15. Comparability of naturalistic and controlled observation assessment of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Millham, J; Chilcutt, J; Atkinson, B L

    1978-07-01

    The comparability of retrospective naturalistic and controlled observation assessment of adaptive behavior was evaluated. The number, degree, and direction of discrepancies were evaluated with respect to level of retardation of the client, rater differences, behavior domain sampled, and prior observational base for the ratings. Generally poor comparability between the procedures was found and questions were raised concerning the types of generalizability that can be made from adaptive behavior assessment obtained under the two procedures.

  16. Deciphering landslide behavior using large-scale flume experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Iverson, Richard M.; Iverson, Neal R.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Brien, Dianne L.; Logan, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Landslides can be triggered by a variety of hydrologic events and they can exhibit a wide range of movement dynamics. Effective prediction requires understanding these diverse behaviors. Precise evaluation in the field is difficult; as an alternative we performed a series of landslide initiation experiments in the large-scale, USGS debris-flow flume. We systematically investigated the effects of three different hydrologic triggering mechanisms, including groundwater exfiltration from bedrock, prolonged rainfall infiltration, and intense bursts of rain. We also examined the effects of initial soil porosity (loose or dense) relative to the soil’s critical-state porosity. Results show that all three hydrologic mechanisms can instigate landsliding, but water pathways, sensor response patterns, and times to failure differ. Initial soil porosity has a profound influence on landslide movement behavior. Experiments using loose soil show rapid soil contraction during failure, with elevated pore pressures liquefying the sediment and creating fast-moving debris flows. In contrast, dense soil dilated upon shearing, resulting in slow, gradual, and episodic motion. These results have fundamental implications for forecasting landslide behavior and developing effective warning systems.

  17. LSCI in Functional Behavior Assessment and Positive Behavioral Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, John R.

    2001-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandated a shift from reactive strategies toward proactive interventions with students who experience both disability and behavioral challenges. The author describes how the methodology of Life Space Crisis Intervention can provide a source of data for functional assessment…

  18. Adolescent Risk Behavior Subgroups: An Empirical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Childs, Kristina K.; O'Connell, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Theories and prior research have outlined a constellation of adolescent risk behaviors that tend to co-occur, reflecting a general pattern. Although their generality has largely been supported, there is some question about how to best study and portray the relationship among these behaviors. This study used data from a survey administered to high…

  19. Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

    2015-02-01

    Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability. PMID:24835246

  20. Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

    2015-02-01

    Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability.

  1. Institutional Racism Scale: Assessing Self and Organizational Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarin, Oscar A.; Gilbert, Renee

    The Institutional Racism Scale (IRS) was developed to assess how individuals look at racism, engage in activities to reduce racism, and view organizational commitment to the reduction of institutional racism. Existing methods for evaluating racism provided a framework for developing the scale. The final instrument generated after testing and…

  2. REDUCING AMBIGUITY IN THE FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Rooker, Griffin W.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Severe problem behavior (e.g., self-injury and aggression) remains among the most serious challenges for the habilitation of persons with intellectual disabilities and is a significant obstacle to community integration. The current standard of behavior analytic treatment for problem behavior in this population consists of a functional assessment and treatment model. Within that model, the first step is to assess the behavior–environment relations that give rise to and maintain problem behavior, a functional behavioral assessment. Conventional methods of assessing behavioral function include indirect, descriptive, and experimental assessments of problem behavior. Clinical investigators have produced a rich literature demonstrating the relative effectiveness for each method, but in clinical practice, each can produce ambiguous or difficult-to-interpret outcomes that may impede treatment development. This paper outlines potential sources of variability in assessment outcomes and then reviews the evidence on strategies for avoiding ambiguous outcomes and/or clarifying initially ambiguous results. The end result for each assessment method is a set of best practice guidelines, given the available evidence, for conducting the initial assessment. PMID:26236145

  3. The Brief Accessibility, Responsiveness, and Engagement Scale: A Tool for Measuring Attachment Behaviors in Clinical Couples.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Jonathan G; Novak, Joshua R; Davis, Stephanie Y; Busby, Dean M

    2016-01-01

    Measuring attachment behaviors is relevant to creating secure couple relationships. This article seeks to test and examine the reliability and validity of the Brief Accessibility, Responsiveness, and Engagement (BARE) Scale-a practical measure of couple attachment-in a clinical sample. Couples took the BARE and other assessments measuring relationship functioning (self and partner reports of relationship satisfaction, relationship stability, positive and negative communication, and attachment styles). Results suggest that the BARE appears to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing couple attachment and can accurately predict and classify whether the couples belong in the clinical or nonclinical group, as well as their level of relationship satisfaction. Results also indicate attachment behaviors are related to relationship outcomes. PMID:26748730

  4. Time-Scaling in Atomistics and the Rate-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-06-01

    Conventional molecular dynamics simulations enable the elucidation of an astonishing array of phenomena inherent in the mechanical and chemical behavior of materials. Unfortunately, current computational limitations preclude accounting for processes whose transition times exceed, at best, microseconds. This limitation severely impacts, among others, a realistic assessment of slow-strain-rate mechanical behavior. In this work, using a simple paradigmatical model of a metallic nanopillar that is often the subject of experimental works, we attempt to circumvent the time-scale bottleneck of conventional molecular dynamics and provide novel physical insights into the rate-dependence of mechanical behavior of nanostructures. Using a collection of algorithms that include a recently developed potential energy surface sampling method-the so-called autonomous basin climbing approach, kinetic Monte Carlo, and others, we assess the nanopillar mechanical behavior under strain rates ranging from 1 to 10(8) s(-1). While our results for high-strain rate behavior are consistent with conventional molecular dynamics, we find that the response of nanostructures to slow compression is "liquid-like" and accompanied by extensive surface reconstructions. PMID:27167716

  5. Neuroimaging supports behavioral personality assessment: Overlapping activations during reflective and impulsive risk taking.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; M Ortner, Tuulia

    2016-09-01

    Personality assessment has been challenged by the fact that different assessment methods (implicit measures, behavioral measures and explicit rating scales) show little or no convergence in behavioral studies. In this neuroimaging study we address for the first time, whether different assessment methods rely on separate or overlapping neuronal systems. Fifty nine healthy adult participants completed two objective personality tests of risk propensity: the more implicit Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the more explicit Game of Dice Task (GDT). Significant differences in activation, as well as connectivity patterns between both tasks were observed. In both tasks, risky decisions yielded significantly stronger activations than safe decisions in the bilateral caudate, as well as the bilateral Insula. The finding of overlapping brain areas validates different assessment methods, despite their behavioral non-convergence. This suggests that neuroimaging can be an important tool of validation in the field of personality assessment.

  6. Neuroimaging supports behavioral personality assessment: Overlapping activations during reflective and impulsive risk taking.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; M Ortner, Tuulia

    2016-09-01

    Personality assessment has been challenged by the fact that different assessment methods (implicit measures, behavioral measures and explicit rating scales) show little or no convergence in behavioral studies. In this neuroimaging study we address for the first time, whether different assessment methods rely on separate or overlapping neuronal systems. Fifty nine healthy adult participants completed two objective personality tests of risk propensity: the more implicit Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the more explicit Game of Dice Task (GDT). Significant differences in activation, as well as connectivity patterns between both tasks were observed. In both tasks, risky decisions yielded significantly stronger activations than safe decisions in the bilateral caudate, as well as the bilateral Insula. The finding of overlapping brain areas validates different assessment methods, despite their behavioral non-convergence. This suggests that neuroimaging can be an important tool of validation in the field of personality assessment. PMID:27373370

  7. Ivermectin dose assessment without weighing scales.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, N. D.; Cousens, S. N.; Yahaya, H.; Abiose, A.; Jones, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    Described are two alternatives to the weighing of patients for assessing the dose of ivermectin for use in mass chemotherapy campaigns against onchocerciasis. The first method uses height to separate patients into four dosing categories (1/2, 1, 11/2 and 2 tablets), while the second involves estimating one of these dosing categories according to an individual's physical appearance, without making any measurements. Data for the height-based method were obtained from 6373 people who were taking part in a placebo-controlled trial of ivermectin in northern Nigeria. Use of an arbitrary trade-off of approximately 100 people "overdosed" for every person "underdosed" would lead to 0.5% of the population being underdosed by 1/2 tablet, 46.5% being dosed correctly, 51.7% being overdosed by 1/2 tablet, and 1.2% being overdosed by 1 tablet. The physical appearance approach involved three observers and 779 subjects. A total of 82% of the observers' estimates were "correct", with all the incorrect dosing deviating by only 1/2 tablet from the dose that the subjects should have received. PMID:8324855

  8. Brief scales to assess physical activity and sedentary equipment in the home

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing are associated with childhood obesity, while physical activity promotes healthy weight. The role of the home environment in shaping these behaviors among youth is poorly understood. The study purpose was to examine the reliability of brief parental proxy-report and adolescent self-report measures of electronic equipment and physical activity equipment in the home and to assess the construct validity of these scales by examining their relationship to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status of children and adolescents. Methods Participants were adolescents (n = 189; mean age = 14.6), parents of adolescents (n = 171; mean age = 45.0), and parents of younger children (n = 116; parents mean age = 39.6; children's mean age = 8.3) who completed two surveys approximately one month apart. Measures included a 21-item electronic equipment scale (to assess sedentary behavior facilitators in the home, in the child or adolescent's bedroom, and portable electronics) and a 14-item home physical activity equipment scale. Home environment factors were examined as correlates of children's and adolescents' physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status after adjusting for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and number of children in the home. Results Most scales had acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations were .54 - .92). Parent and adolescent reports were correlated. Electronic equipment in adolescents' bedrooms was positively related to sedentary behavior. Activity equipment in the home was inversely associated with television time in adolescents and children, and positively correlated with adolescents' physical activity. Children's BMI z-score was positively associated with having a television in their bedroom. Conclusions The measures of home electronic equipment and activity equipment were similarly reliable when reported by parents and by adolescents. Home environment

  9. Forelimb Locomotor Assessment Scale (FLAS): Novel Assessment of Forelimb Dysfunction After Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kim D.; Sharp, Kelli G.; Hofstadter, Maura; Irvine, Karen-Amanda; Murray, Marion; Steward, Oswald

    2009-01-01

    We describe here a novel Forelimb Locomotor Assessment Scale (FLAS) that assesses forelimb use during locomotion in rats injured at the cervical level. A quantitative scale was developed that measures movements of shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints, forepaw position and digit placement, forelimb-hindlimb coordination, compensatory behaviors adopted while walking, and balance. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received graded cervical contusions ranging from 200–230 (“mild”, n=11) and 250–290 kilodynes (“moderate”, n=13) between C5–8. Rats were videotaped post-injury as they walked along an alley to determine deficits and recovery of forelimb function. Recovery of shoulder and elbow joint movement occurred rapidly (within 1–7 days post-injury), whereas recovery of wrist joint movement was slower and more variable. Most rats in all groups displayed persistent deficits in forepaw and digit movement, but developed compensatory behaviors to allow functional forward locomotion within 1–2 weeks post-injury. Recovery of forelimb function as measured by the FLAS reached a plateau by 3 weeks post-injury in all groups. Rats with mild contusions displayed greater locomotor recovery than rats with moderate contusions, but exhibited persistent deficits compared to sham controls. Reliability was tested by having seven raters (3 internal, 4 external) from different laboratories, independently and blindly score videos of all rats. The multivariate correlation between all raters, all animals, and all time-points ranged from r2=0.88–0.96 (p<0.0001), indicating a high inter-rater reliability. Thus, the FLAS is a simple, inexpensive, sensitive, and reliable measure of forelimb function during locomotion following cervical SCI. PMID:19733168

  10. International Large-Scale Assessments: What Uses, What Consequences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background: International large-scale assessments (ILSAs) are a much-debated phenomenon in education. Increasingly, their outcomes attract considerable media attention and influence educational policies in many jurisdictions worldwide. The relevance, uses and consequences of these assessments are often the focus of research scrutiny. Whilst some…

  11. Integrating Risk Context into Risk Assessments: The Risk Context Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroner, Daryl G.; Gray, Andrew L.; Goodrich, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The context in which offenders are released is an important component of conducting risk assessments. A sample of 257 supervised male parolees were followed in the community ("M" = 870 days) after an initial risk assessment. Drawing on community-based information, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the recently developed Risk Context Scale.…

  12. The Behavioral Function of Feeding Problems as Assessed by the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Kuhn, David E.; Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita; Cooper, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Differences in subscale scores on the questions about behavioral function (QABF) were assessed for participants identified with pica, rumination, food stealing, food refusal, and mealtime behavior problems (e.g., aggression, self-injurious behavior). The QABF was administered to informants for 125 individuals identified with problematic feeding…

  13. The Link between Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBAs) and Behavioral Intervention Plans (BIPs). ERIC Digest E592.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolivette, Kristine; Scott, Terrance M.; Nelson, C. Michael

    This Digest discusses provisions in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that require functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavioral intervention plans (BIPs) to be conducted prior to a change in placement or suspension for more than 10 days, based on inappropriate behaviors for students with disabilities. It presents…

  14. What Is a Functional Behavior Assessment? The "WHY" of a Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities, Marion.

    This guide discusses using Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) to find out why a student is behaving inappropriately and to enable the provision of appropriate positive behavior intervention. It stresses that a FBA goes beyond looking at antecedent behavior and consequence to review everything in the entire environment of the student.…

  15. Dynamic urban traffic flow behavior on scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. J.; Sun, H. J.; Gao, Z. Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new dynamic traffic model (DTM) for routing choice behaviors (RCB) in which both topology structures and dynamical properties are considered to address the RCB problem by using numerical experiments. The phase transition from free flow to congestion is found by simulations. Further, different topologies are studied in which large degree distribution exponents may alleviate or avoid the occurrence of traffic congestion efficiently. Compared with random networks, it is also found that scale-free networks can bear larger volume of traffic by our model. Finally, based on the concept of routing guide system (RGS), we give a dynamic traffic control model (DTCM) by extending DTM. And we find that choosing an appropriate η-value can enhance the system’s capacity maximally. We also address several open theoretical problems related to the urban traffic network dynamics and traffic flow.

  16. The SAD PERSONS scale for suicide risk assessment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Warden, Sarah; Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender; Bolton, James M

    2014-01-01

    The SAD PERSONS scale (SPS) is widely used for suicide risk assessment in clinical and educational settings. The study objective was to systematically review the SPS performance in clinical situations. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted. Relevant descriptive, quality, and outcome data were reviewed. In the search, 149 studies were identified and 9 met inclusion criteria. Included studies were highly variable across outcome measures, populations, and assessment methods. Only 3 studies examined SPS performance in predicting suicide outcomes; none showed the scale accurately predicted suicidal behavior. Available literature is of limited quality and quantity. Insufficient evidence exists to support SPS use in assessment or prediction of suicidal behavior. Well-designed studies that address the observed limitations are required.

  17. Entrustability Scales: Outlining Their Usefulness for Competency-Based Clinical Assessment.

    PubMed

    Rekman, Janelle; Gofton, Wade; Dudek, Nancy; Gofton, Tyson; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2016-02-01

    Meaningful residency education occurs at the bedside, along with opportunities for situated in-training assessment. A necessary component of workplace-based assessment (WBA) is the clinical supervisor, whose subjective judgments of residents' performance can yield rich and nuanced ratings but may also occasionally reflect bias. How to improve the validity of WBA instruments while simultaneously capturing meaningful subjective judgment is currently not clear. This Perspective outlines how "entrustability scales" may help bridge the gap between the assessment judgments of clinical supervisors and WBA instruments. Entrustment-based assessment evaluates trainees against what they will actually do when independent; thus, "entrustability scales"-defined as behaviorally anchored ordinal scales based on progression to competence-reflect a judgment that has clinical meaning for assessors. Rather than asking raters to assess trainees against abstract scales, entrustability scales provide raters with an assessment measure structured around the way evaluators already make day-to-day clinical entrustment decisions, which results in increased reliability. Entrustability scales help raters make assessments based on narrative descriptors that reflect real-world judgments, drawing attention to a trainee's readiness for independent practice rather than his/her deficiencies. These scales fit into milestone measurement both by allowing an individual resident to strive for independence in entrustable professional activities across the entire training period and by allowing residency directors to identify residents experiencing difficulty. Some WBA tools that have begun to use variations of entrustability scales show potential for allowing raters to produce valid judgments. This type of anchor scale should be brought into wider circulation. PMID:26630609

  18. Assessment of psychoemotional and behavioral status in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Onega, Lisa L

    2006-03-01

    Depression and behavioral symptoms occur in many older adults with dementia and result in serious consequences, including nursing home admissions, decreased functional ability, mortality, and increased healthcare costs. Assessment of depression in this population is challenging and is facilitated by using interviewer-rated instruments as an adjunct to clinical judgment. Clinicians should select a perspective that enables them to view behavioral symptoms associated with dementia in a therapeutic manner. Care for depression and behavioral symptoms should be individualized to match presenting symptoms. Issues related to psychoemotional and behavioral assessment are: (1) implementation of effective psychogeriatric models of care and (2) incorporating evidenced-based knowledge into practice settings.

  19. [French scale validation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire three months after birth].

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Marie; Delmas, Philippe; Carrier, Nathalie; Rabillon, Florence; Couture, Marie-Estelle

    2015-06-01

    Breastfeeding is recognize to be the perfect food of mother and child's health. The child's temperament is one of the factors that may explain pursuing the breastfeeding. Few instruments are available in French to measure this factor. The objective of the study is to present and validate the French translation of the scale "Infant Behavior Questionnaire" (IBQ). The sample consists of 193 primaparous or multiparous women who gave birth in a maternity in Paris. The child's temperament questionnaire was sent by mail three months after the birth. The same questionnaire was sent to a sub-sample of 30 women 15 days later. Analyses were conducted to assess the temporal stability, internal consistency, construct validity and predictive. The different results tend to show a compliant validity to the french scale version. This first IBQ French-language validation is worth pursuing in order to confirm the scale factor structure and participate to studies supporting mothers in their breastfeeding project.

  20. [French scale validation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire three months after birth].

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Marie; Delmas, Philippe; Carrier, Nathalie; Rabillon, Florence; Couture, Marie-Estelle

    2015-06-01

    Breastfeeding is recognize to be the perfect food of mother and child's health. The child's temperament is one of the factors that may explain pursuing the breastfeeding. Few instruments are available in French to measure this factor. The objective of the study is to present and validate the French translation of the scale "Infant Behavior Questionnaire" (IBQ). The sample consists of 193 primaparous or multiparous women who gave birth in a maternity in Paris. The child's temperament questionnaire was sent by mail three months after the birth. The same questionnaire was sent to a sub-sample of 30 women 15 days later. Analyses were conducted to assess the temporal stability, internal consistency, construct validity and predictive. The different results tend to show a compliant validity to the french scale version. This first IBQ French-language validation is worth pursuing in order to confirm the scale factor structure and participate to studies supporting mothers in their breastfeeding project. PMID:26411241

  1. National-Scale Wind Resource Assessment for Power Generation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation describes the current standards for conducting a national-scale wind resource assessment for power generation, along with the risk/benefit considerations to be considered when beginning a wind resource assessment. The presentation describes changes in turbine technology and viable wind deployment due to more modern turbine technology and taller towers and shows how the Philippines national wind resource assessment evolved over time to reflect changes that arise from updated technologies and taller towers.

  2. Convergent Validity of the Strength-Based Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale with Youth in a Residential Setting.

    PubMed

    Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Lambert, Matthew C; Epstein, Michael H; Stevens, Amy

    2015-07-01

    Strength-based assessment has been identified as an appropriate approach to use in planning treatment and evaluating outcomes of youth in residential settings. In previous research, the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2, a standardized and norm-referenced strength-based measure, has demonstrated adequate reliability and validity with youth served in community and educational settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the internal reliability and convergent validity of the BERS-2 by comparing the test to the Child Behavior Checklist and the Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale. The results indicate that the scores from the BERS-2 are internally consistent and converge with other behavioral and emotional measures which, taken together, suggest that the BERS-2 could be acceptable for assessing the emotional and behavioral strengths of youth in residential settings. Study limitations and future research directions are identified.

  3. State of the Art Procedures for Assessment and Treatment of Learners with Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRue, Robert H., Jr.; Weiss, Mary Jane; Ferraioli, Suzannah J.

    2008-01-01

    Challenging behavior can create significant obstacles to academic and social progress for individuals in a school setting, particularly those with developmental disabilities. Functional assessments such as rating scales, ABC analyses, and functional analyses, are evidenced to be the most effective methods for identifying the maintaining variables…

  4. Situational Specificity Makes the Difference in Assessment of Youth Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Paul A.; Steinberg, Carrie M.; Angelo, Lauren E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine the ability of contextual information to enhance assessment of behavior problems in schools. Capitalizing on the multisituational structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents, exploratory and confirmatory analyses with a representative national sample (N = 1,400, ages 5-17 years) revealed three unique…

  5. Conceptualizing the Science Curriculum: 40 Years of Developing Assessment Frameworks in Three Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Per Morten

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes conceptualizations in the science frameworks in three large-scale assessments, Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The assessments have a shared history, but have developed different conceptualizations. The…

  6. Multi-scale satellite assessment of water availability and agricultural drought: from field to global scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses a multi-scale remote sensing modeling system that fuses flux assessments generated with TIR imagery collected by multiple satellite platforms to estimate daily surface fluxes from field to global scales. The Landsat series of polar orbiting systems has collected TIR imagery at 6...

  7. Small-scale behavior of Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Stawarz, Julia E; Pouquet, Annick

    2015-12-01

    Decaying Hall magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD) turbulence is studied using three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulations with grids up to 768(3) points and two different types of initial conditions. Results are compared to analogous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) runs and both Laplacian and Laplacian-squared dissipative operators are examined. At scales below the ion inertial length, the ratio of magnetic to kinetic energy as a function of wave number transitions to a magnetically dominated state. The transition in behavior is associated with the advection term in the momentum equation becoming subdominant to dissipation. Examination of autocorrelation functions reveals that, while current and vorticity structures are similarly sized in MHD, HMHD current structures are narrower and vorticity structures are wider. The electric field autocorrelation function is significantly narrower in HMHD than in MHD and is similar to the HMHD current autocorrelation function at small separations. HMHD current structures are found to be significantly more intense than in MHD and appear to have an enhanced association with strong alignment between the current and magnetic field, which may be important in collisionless plasmas where field-aligned currents can be unstable. When hyperdiffusivity is used, a longer region consistent with a k(-7/3) scaling is present for right-polarized fluctuations when compared to Laplacian dissipation runs.

  8. Small-scale behavior of Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Stawarz, Julia E; Pouquet, Annick

    2015-12-01

    Decaying Hall magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD) turbulence is studied using three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulations with grids up to 768(3) points and two different types of initial conditions. Results are compared to analogous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) runs and both Laplacian and Laplacian-squared dissipative operators are examined. At scales below the ion inertial length, the ratio of magnetic to kinetic energy as a function of wave number transitions to a magnetically dominated state. The transition in behavior is associated with the advection term in the momentum equation becoming subdominant to dissipation. Examination of autocorrelation functions reveals that, while current and vorticity structures are similarly sized in MHD, HMHD current structures are narrower and vorticity structures are wider. The electric field autocorrelation function is significantly narrower in HMHD than in MHD and is similar to the HMHD current autocorrelation function at small separations. HMHD current structures are found to be significantly more intense than in MHD and appear to have an enhanced association with strong alignment between the current and magnetic field, which may be important in collisionless plasmas where field-aligned currents can be unstable. When hyperdiffusivity is used, a longer region consistent with a k(-7/3) scaling is present for right-polarized fluctuations when compared to Laplacian dissipation runs. PMID:26764833

  9. Quantum behavior of graphene transistors near the scaling limit.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanqing; Perebeinos, Vasili; Lin, Yu-ming; Low, Tony; Xia, Fengnian; Avouris, Phaedon

    2012-03-14

    The superior intrinsic properties of graphene have been a key research focus for the past few years. However, external components, such as metallic contacts, serve not only as essential probing elements, but also give rise to an effective electron cavity, which can form the basis for new quantum devices. In previous studies, quantum interference effects were demonstrated in graphene heterojunctions formed by a top gate. Here phase coherent transport behavior is demonstrated in a simple two terminal graphene structure with clearly resolved Fabry-Perot oscillations in sub-100 nm devices. By aggressively scaling the channel length down to 50 nm, we study the evolution of the graphene transistor from the channel-dominated diffusive regime to the contact-dominated ballistic regime. Key issues such as the current asymmetry, the question of Fermi level pinning by the contacts, the graphene screening determining the heterojunction barrier width, the scaling of minimum conductivity, and of the on/off current ratio are investigated. PMID:22316333

  10. The Children's Behavior Questionnaire very short scale: psychometric properties and development of a one-item temperament scale.

    PubMed

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Hughes, Sheryl O; O'Connor, Teresia M; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice C; Nicklas, Theresa A; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-02-01

    Little research has been conducted on the psychometrics of the very short scale (36 items) of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire, and no one-item temperament scale has been tested for use in applied work. In this study, 237 United States caregivers completed a survey to define their child's behavioral patterns (i.e., Surgency, Negative Affectivity Effortful Control) using both scales. Psychometrics of the 36-item Children's Behavior Questionnaire were examined using classical test theory, principal factor analysis, and item response modeling. Classical test theory analysis demonstrated adequate internal consistency and factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure. Potential improvements to the measure were identified using item response modeling. A one-item (three response categories) temperament scale was validated against the three temperament factors of the 36-item scale. The temperament response categories correlated with the temperament factors of the 36-item scale, as expected. The one-item temperament scale may be applicable for clinical use.

  11. Use of automated monitoring to assess behavioral toxicology in fish: Linking behavior and physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; DeLonay, A.J.; Beauvais, S.L.; Little, E.E.; Jones, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    We measured locomotory behaviors (distance traveled, speed, tortuosity of path, and rate of change in direction) with computer-assisted analysis in 30 day posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to pesticides. We also examined cholinesterase inhibition as a potential endpoint linking physiology and behavior. Sublethal exposure to chemicals often causes changes in swimming behavior, reflecting alterations in sensory and motor systems. Swimming behavior also integrates functions of the nervous system. Rarely are the connections between physiology and behavior made. Although behavior is often suggested as a sensitive, early indicator of toxicity, behavioral toxicology has not been used to its full potential because conventional methods of behavioral assessment have relied on manual techniques, which are often time-consuming and difficult to quantify. This has severely limited the application and utility of behavioral procedures. Swimming behavior is particularly amenable to computerized assessment and automated monitoring. Locomotory responses are sensitive to toxicants and can be easily measured. We briefly discuss the use of behavior in toxicology and automated techniques used in behavioral toxicology. We also describe the system we used to determine locomotory behaviors of fish, and present data demonstrating the system's effectiveness in measuring alterations in response to chemical challenges. Lastly, we correlate behavioral and physiological endpoints.

  12. Establishing a Scale for Assessing the Social Validity of Skill Building Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Natalie I.; Manston, Lauren; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Scale of Treatment Perceptions (STP), a measure of treatment acceptability targeting skill-building interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This scale utilizes a strength-based approach to intervention assessment, and was established by modifying the Behavior Intervention Rating…

  13. The Functional Assessment of School Refusal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Lemos, Amie; Silverman, Jenna

    2004-01-01

    School refusal behavior refers to child-motivated refusal to attend school and/or difficulty attending classes for an entire day (Kearney & Silverman, 1996). As such, the term represents an umbrella construct for many historical ones that have been used to describe youths with problematic absenteeism, including truancy, psychoneurotic truancy,…

  14. A Teacher-Report Measure of Children's Task-Avoidant Behavior: A Validation Study of the Behavioral Strategy Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Aunola, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to validate a teacher-report measure of children's task-avoidant behavior, namely the Behavioral Strategy Rating Scale (BSRS), in a sample of 352 Finnish children. In each of the four waves from Kindergarten to Grade 2, teachers rated children's task-avoidant behavior using the BSRS, children completed reading and mathematics…

  15. How reliable is the Spanish bodily harm assessment scale?

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Mayán, Lucía; Represas, Carlos; Miguéns, Xoan; Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol; Febrero-Bande, Manuel; Muñoz-Barús, José Ignacio

    2015-05-01

    The use of scales to quantify or qualify bodily harm resulting from an unintentional car accident has been mandatory in Spain since 1995 and compensation for personal injuries resulting from a traffic accident is calculated according to a legal ruling established by Royal Decree 8/2004 (RDL). This present study assesses the reliability of the scale. Agreement between the evaluations for the same patient by 24 qualified observers following the Royal Decree 8/2004 was measured using the Kappa index. The variables assessed were the days of hospitalization, impeditive days, non impeditive days and the functional and aesthetic sequelae. The application of the Fleiss Kappa index obtained a result of 0.37, indicating a "fair agreement" according to the rating scale proposed by Landis and Koch. This study demonstrates the unreliability of the Spanish medical scale for the assessment of injury as described in the RDL 8/2004. The scale should adopt the measurement systems and clinical classifications of outcomes such as the ASIA, SCI scale or the Daniels scale of neurological injury and allow scientific discussion of the findings of the report. The resulting quantitative value should operate as a reliable indicator of a specific quality of the damage.

  16. A typology of time-scale mismatches and behavioral interventions to diagnose and solve conservation problems.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robyn S; Hardisty, David J; Epanchin-Niell, Rebecca S; Runge, Michael C; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Urban, Dean L; Maguire, Lynn A; Hastings, Alan; Mumby, Peter J; Peters, Debra P C

    2016-02-01

    Ecological systems often operate on time scales significantly longer or shorter than the time scales typical of human decision making, which causes substantial difficulty for conservation and management in socioecological systems. For example, invasive species may move faster than humans can diagnose problems and initiate solutions, and climate systems may exhibit long-term inertia and short-term fluctuations that obscure learning about the efficacy of management efforts in many ecological systems. We adopted a management-decision framework that distinguishes decision makers within public institutions from individual actors within the social system, calls attention to the ways socioecological systems respond to decision makers' actions, and notes institutional learning that accrues from observing these responses. We used this framework, along with insights from bedeviling conservation problems, to create a typology that identifies problematic time-scale mismatches occurring between individual decision makers in public institutions and between individual actors in the social or ecological system. We also considered solutions that involve modifying human perception and behavior at the individual level as a means of resolving these problematic mismatches. The potential solutions are derived from the behavioral economics and psychology literature on temporal challenges in decision making, such as the human tendency to discount future outcomes at irrationally high rates. These solutions range from framing environmental decisions to enhance the salience of long-term consequences, to using structured decision processes that make time scales of actions and consequences more explicit, to structural solutions aimed at altering the consequences of short-sighted behavior to make it less appealing. Additional application of these tools and long-term evaluation measures that assess not just behavioral changes but also associated changes in ecological systems are needed.

  17. A typology of time-scale mismatches and behavioral interventions to diagnose and solve conservation problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robyn S.; Hardisty, David J.; Epanchin-Niell, Rebecca S.; Runge, Michael C.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Urban, Dean L.; Maguire, Lynn A.; Hastings, Alan; Mumby, Peter J.; Peters, Debra P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological systems often operate on time scales significantly longer or shorter than the time scales typical of human decision making, which causes substantial difficulty for conservation and management in socioecological systems. For example, invasive species may move faster than humans can diagnose problems and initiate solutions, and climate systems may exhibit long-term inertia and short-term fluctuations that obscure learning about the efficacy of management efforts in many ecological systems. We adopted a management-decision framework that distinguishes decision makers within public institutions from individual actors within the social system, calls attention to the ways socioecological systems respond to decision makers’ actions, and notes institutional learning that accrues from observing these responses. We used this framework, along with insights from bedeviling conservation problems, to create a typology that identifies problematic time-scale mismatches occurring between individual decision makers in public institutions and between individual actors in the social or ecological system. We also considered solutions that involve modifying human perception and behavior at the individual level as a means of resolving these problematic mismatches. The potential solutions are derived from the behavioral economics and psychology literature on temporal challenges in decision making, such as the human tendency to discount future outcomes at irrationally high rates. These solutions range from framing environmental decisions to enhance the salience of long-term consequences, to using structured decision processes that make time scales of actions and consequences more explicit, to structural solutions aimed at altering the consequences of short-sighted behavior to make it less appealing. Additional application of these tools and long-term evaluation measures that assess not just behavioral changes but also associated changes in ecological systems are needed.

  18. Using Brief Assessments to Evaluate Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; King, Lisa; Lally, Grainne; Dhomhnaill, Orla Nic

    2000-01-01

    Functional assessments were conducted for two Irish individuals with severe disabilities and aberrant behavior. A modified attention condition was introduced, which involved both parents interacting with a third person. Aberrant behavior occurred only in the modified attention condition. Successful treatment consisted of delivery of attention on a…

  19. Writing Assessment's "Debilitating Inheritance": Behaviorism's Dismissal of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maja Joiwind

    2013-01-01

    In this project, I examine the legacy of behaviorism's dismissal of experience on contemporary writing assessment theory and practice within the field of composition studies. I use an archival study of John B. Watson's letters to Robert Mearns Yerkes to establish behaviorism's systematic denial of experience and its related constructs: mind,…

  20. Stereotypy I: A Review of Behavioral Assessment and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, John T.; Vollmer; Timothy R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we review definitional issues related to stereotypy, behavioral interpretations of stereotypy, procedures for determining operant function(s) of stereotypy, and behavioral interventions for stereotypy. In general, a preponderance of the assessment literature suggests that most forms of stereotypy are maintained by automatic…

  1. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  2. Using Rasch Rating Scale Methodology to Examine a Behavioral Screener for Preschoolers at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Greer, Fred W.; Kamphaus, R. W.; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A screening instrument used to identify young children at risk for behavioral and emotional difficulties, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool was examined. The Rasch Rating Scale Method was used to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items, respondents, and the response scale.…

  3. Superinfection Behaviors on Scale-Free Networks with Competing Strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Small, Michael; Liu, Huaxiang

    2013-02-01

    This paper considers the epidemiology of two strains ( I, J) of a disease spreading through a population represented by a scale-free network. The epidemiological model is SIS and the two strains have different reproductive numbers. Superinfection means that strain I can infect individuals already infected with strain J, replacing the strain J infection. Individuals infected with strain I cannot be infected with strain J. The model is set up as a system of ordering differential equations and stability of the disease free, marginal strain I and strain J, and coexistence equilibria are assessed using linear stability analysis, supported by simulations. The main conclusion is that superinfection, as modeled in this paper, can allow strain I to coexist with strain J even when it has a lower basic reproductive number. Most strikingly, it can allow strain I to persist even when its reproductive number is less than 1.

  4. Frequency effects on the scale and behavior of acoustic streaming.

    PubMed

    Dentry, Michael B; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic streaming underpins an exciting range of fluid manipulation phenomena of rapidly growing significance in microfluidics, where the streaming often assumes the form of a steady, laminar jet emanating from the device surface, driven by the attenuation of acoustic energy within the beam of sound propagating through the liquid. The frequencies used to drive such phenomena are often chosen ad hoc to accommodate fabrication and material issues. In this work, we seek a better understanding of the effects of sound frequency and power on acoustic streaming. We present and, using surface acoustic waves, experimentally verify a laminar jet model that is based on the turbulent jet model of Lighthill, which is appropriate for acoustic streaming seen at micro- to nanoscales, between 20 and 936 MHz and over a broad range of input power. Our model eliminates the critically problematic acoustic source singularity present in Lighthill's model, replacing it with a finite emission area and enabling determination of the streaming velocity close to the source. At high acoustic power P (and hence high jet Reynolds numbers ReJ associated with fast streaming), the laminar jet model predicts a one-half power dependence (U∼P1/2∼ ReJ) similar to the turbulent jet model. However, the laminar model may also be applied to jets produced at low powers-and hence low jet Reynolds numbers ReJ-where a linear relationship between the beam power and streaming velocity exists: U∼P∼ReJ2. The ability of the laminar jet model to predict the acoustic streaming behavior across a broad range of frequencies and power provides a useful tool in the analysis of microfluidics devices, explaining peculiar observations made by several researchers in the literature. In particular, by elucidating the effects of frequency on the scale of acoustically driven flows, we show that the choice of frequency is a vitally important consideration in the design of small-scale devices employing acoustic streaming

  5. Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Ecohydrological models are frequently used to assess the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad impacts of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for impacts assessments and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model. PMID:26595397

  6. Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Ecohydrological models are frequently used to assess the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad impacts of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for impacts assessments and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model.

  7. [Development of the Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics].

    PubMed

    Sugawarai, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for assessing the attributes of the heterosexual love of alcoholics. Using the characteristics and categories related to the heterosexual love of alcoholics found in previous research, we created a "Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics" and conducted a survey among 110 alcoholics (80 men and 30 women). The following three factors were extracted from the results: "mutual respect", "superficial intimacy", and "fear of being disliked", A high level of reliability was obtained on the scales indicated below (alpha = 63-82), and concurrent validity was confirmed between these and the Adult Attachment Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory). Further, correlations were found between "mutual respect" and the benefit of heterosexual love in recovery, and between the other two factors and the impediment of heterosexual love, and between the Denial & Awareness Scale (for alcoholic). As this scale can be used to assess the type of heterosexual love of alcoholics, we predict that it will be useful in examining the effects of heterosexual love on recovery and as a tool for offering advice.

  8. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, Bo; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to

  9. Stereotypy I: a review of behavioral assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rapp, John T; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we review definitional issues related to stereotypy, behavioral interpretations of stereotypy, procedures for determining operant function(s) of stereotypy, and behavioral interventions for stereotypy. In general, a preponderance of the assessment literature suggests that most forms of stereotypy are maintained by automatic reinforcement. Review of the treatment literature suggests that antecedent (e.g., environmental enrichment) and consequent (e.g., differential reinforcement of alternative behavior) interventions produce at least short-term reductions in stereotypy. Suggestions for further assessment and treatment of stereotypy are provided. PMID:15885981

  10. Parent-infant relationship global assessment scale: a study of its predictive validity.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yutaka; Zeanah, Charles H; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Bakshi, Sudha

    2002-10-01

    The Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIRGAS; Zero to Three, 1994) provides a continuously distributed scale of infant-parent relationship adaptation, raging from 'well-adapted' to 'dangerously impaired'. The present study examines the predictive validity of the PIRGAS in a high-risk sample by coding relationship adaptation level from a single sample of 10 min of unstructured free play between mothers and their 20-month-old infants and examining its relationship to subsequent interaction with mothers and behavior problems at 24 months. Relationship adaptation assessed reliably from observations of only 10 min of free play between mothers and their infants at 20 months of age using PIRGAS predicted subsequent mother- infant interaction in a laboratory based problem-solving paradigm (Crowell procedure) at 24 months and internalizing symptomatology of Child Behavior Checklist at age 24 months. These results contribute to the predictive validity of the PIRGAS as a measure of mother-infant relationship adaptation.

  11. Direct Behavior Rating Scales as Screeners: A Preliminary Investigation of Diagnostic Accuracy in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Welsh, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy and concurrent validity of Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales for use in school-based behavior screening of second-grade students. Results indicated that each behavior target was a moderately to highly accurate predictor of behavioral risk. Optimal universal screening cut scores…

  12. Validity of pressure ulcer risk assessment scales; Cubbin and Jackson, Braden, and Douglas scale.

    PubMed

    Jun Seongsook, R N; Jeong Ihnsook, R N; Lee Younghee, R N

    2004-02-01

    This study was to compare the validity of three pressure ulcer risk tools: Cubbin and Jackson, Braden, and Douglas scales. Data were collected three times per week from 48 to 72 h after admission based on the three pressure ulcer risk assessment scales and skin assessment tool developed by the Panel for the Prediction and Prevention of Pressure Ulcers (1994) from 112 intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a educational hospital Ulsan, Korea during December 11, 2000 to February 10, 2001. When a patient developed a pressure ulcer at the time of assessment, the patient was classified into 'pressure ulcer group', and when patients did not have a pressure ulcer until they died, moved to other wards or were discharged from the hospital, they were classified into 'not pressure ulcer group'. Four indices of validity and area under the curves (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were calculated. Based on the cut-off point presented by the developer, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were as follows: Cubbin and Jackson scale: 89%, 61%, 51%, 92%, respectively, Braden scale: 97%, 26%, 37%, 95%, respectively, and Douglas scale: 100%, 18%, 34%, 100%, respectively. AUCs of ROC curve were 0.826 for Cubbin and Jackson, 0.707 for Braden, and 0.791 for Douglas. Overall, the Cubbin and Jackson scale showed the best validity among scales tested and we recommended it for this ICU.

  13. Impulsivity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Subtype Classification Using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale.

    PubMed

    Miller, Drew J; Derefinko, Karen J; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the classification accuracy of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS) in discriminating several attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, including predominantly inattentive type (ADHD/I), combined type (ADHD/C), and combined type with behavioral problems (ADHD/ODD), between each other and a non-ADHD control group using logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 88 children ranging in age from 9.0 years to 12.8 years, with a mean of 10.9 years. Children were predominantly male (74%) and Caucasian (86%) and in grades 3-7. Results indicated that the UPPS performed well in classifying ADHD subtypes relative to traditional diagnostic measures. In addition, analyses indicated that differences in symptoms between subtypes can be explained by specific pathways to impulsivity. Implications for the assessment of ADHD and conceptual issues are discussed. PMID:21765593

  14. Multidimensional Scales for the Measurement of Locus of Control of Reinforcements for Physical Fitness Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, James R.; Corbin, Charles B.

    1988-01-01

    Trial administrations of the FITLOC, multidimensional scales for the measurement of locus of control of reinforcement for physical fitness behavior, provided preliminary evidence for the scales' reliability and validity. (Author/CB)

  15. Teachers' Rooms Environmental Assessment Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Suna

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' rooms are important parts of educational environments, as the quality of the physical-spatial and psychosocial conditions may affect the personal and occupational developments of teachers as well as the education processes. In Study 1 (n = 245), a Teachers' Rooms-Environmental Assessment Scale (TREAS) measure of the current conditions of…

  16. Diagnostic Assessment of Writing: A Comparison of Two Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoch, Ute

    2009-01-01

    Alderson (2005) suggests that diagnostic tests should identify strengths and weaknesses in learners' use of language and focus on specific elements rather than global abilities. However, rating scales used in performance assessment have been repeatedly criticized for being imprecise and therefore often resulting in holistic marking by raters…

  17. Assessing Laptop Use in Higher Education: The Laptop Use Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin; Lauricella, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The laptop computer is considered one of the most used and important technological devices in higher education, yet limited systematic research has been conducted to develop a measure of laptop use in college and university. The purpose of the following study was to develop a research-based, theoretically grounded scale to assess student use of…

  18. Linear Model to Assess the Scale's Validity of a Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tristan, Agustin; Vidal, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Wright and Stone had proposed three features to assess the quality of the distribution of the items difficulties in a test, on the so called "most probable response map": line, stack and gap. Once a line is accepted as a design model for a test, gaps and stacks are practically eliminated, producing an evidence of the "scale validity" of the test.…

  19. Improving the Utility of Large-Scale Assessments in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Principals and teachers do not use large-scale assessment results because the lack of distinct and reliable subtests prevents identifying strengths and weaknesses of students and instruction, the results arrive too late to be used, and principals and teachers need assistance to use the results to improve instruction so as to improve student…

  20. Assessing Vulnerability to Drought on a pan-European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; González-Tánago, Itziar; Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    During the past decade, a number of theoretical frameworks have been defined within the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change communities to assess drought vulnerability at different scales, sectors, socio-political contexts, and geo-climatic conditions. However, there is still little consensus around the criteria, dimensions and factors used in these assessments; and none of them has been applied at a pan-European scale. This is due to a triple complexity. Firstly, drought as a natural hazard is a complex phenomenon due to the difficulty of determining its onset and its multiscale, multifaceted and dynamic nature. Secondly, there is an on-going debate regarding the concept of vulnerability and its constitutive elements, together with an important diversity of theoretical approaches to assess it. Finally, Europe's diversity in bioclimatic conditions, national water use practice and water use policies adds a challenging characteristic for working on pan-European scale. This work addresses the challenge of defining a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability factors to drought at a pan-European scale. For this purpose, we first review existing conceptual frameworks as well as of past initiatives for drought vulnerability assessment. The literature review showed that the high complexity of drought vulnerability assessment requires a clear definition of the concept of vulnerability and the associated terms, and that, before undertaking any assessment, it is necessary to clearly define the "vulnerable unit" i.e. replying to the questions 'whose vulnerability is being assessed?' and 'vulnerability to what type of impact?'. In this context, this work proposes the application of a factor-based approach, consisting in the analysis of significant factors that influence vulnerability in the context of specific situations of potential vulnerability. Those situations are framed within the specific drought characteristics of four different geoclimatic macro

  1. Examination of Eco-Behavioral Assessments Designed for Understanding Complex Behaviors and Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie L.; McGough, Sarah M.; Vilardo, Laura; Tankersley, Melody

    2006-01-01

    Second-generation intervention research requires methods for overcoming challenges to understanding complex learning ecologies and interactions of students. Eco-behavioral assessments (EBAs) are one solution to past intervention research challenges. EBAs record the effects of ecological variables in students' behavior and daily interactions. The…

  2. Assessment of Behavior Management and Behavioral Interventions in State Child Welfare Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    Official state program reviews of 204 substitute care facilities were assessed for the types of behavior management and behavioral interventions used and the extent to which agency practices were consistent with learning theory principles. Data were also collected on the type and number of professional staff available to implement and oversee…

  3. A New IDEA Mandate: The Use of Functional Assessment of Behavior and Positive Behavior Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses requirements under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments of 1997 for functional assessments of behavior (FABs) and provision of positive behavioral supports (PBSs). It describes steps in implementing FABs and examples of appropriate PBSs with students with disabilities. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  4. Development and Construct Validation of the Mentor Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Pascale; Larose, Simon; Tarabulsy, George; Feng, Bei; Forget-Dubois, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Researchers suggest that certain supportive behaviors of mentors could increase the benefits of school-based mentoring for youth. However, the literature contains few validated instruments to measure these behaviors. In our present study, we aimed to construct and validate a tool to measure the supportive behaviors of mentors participating in…

  5. Debris flows: behavior and hazard assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Debris flows are water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock that rush down mountainsides, funnel into stream channels, entrain objects in their paths, and form lobate deposits when they spill onto valley floors. Because they have volumetric sediment concentrations that exceed 40 percent, maximum speeds that surpass 10 m/s, and sizes that can range up to ~109 m3, debris flows can denude slopes, bury floodplains, and devastate people and property. Computational models can accurately represent the physics of debris-flow initiation, motion and deposition by simulating evolution of flow mass and momentum while accounting for interactions of debris' solid and fluid constituents. The use of physically based models for hazard forecasting can be limited by imprecise knowledge of initial and boundary conditions and material properties, however. Therefore, empirical methods continue to play an important role in debris-flow hazard assessment.

  6. The Incremental Validity of a Short Form of the Ideational Behavior Scale and Usefulness of Distractor, Contraindicative, and Lie Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.; Walczyk, Jeffrey John; Acar, Selcuk; Cowger, Ernest L.; Simundson, Melissa; Tripp, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an empirical refinement of the "Runco Ideational Behavior Scale" (RIBS). The RIBS seems to be associated with divergent thinking, and the potential for creative thinking, but it was possible that its validity could be improved. With this in mind, three new scales were developed and the unique benefit (or…

  7. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  8. Full scale assessment of pansharpening methods and data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiazzi, B.; Alparone, L.; Baronti, S.; Carlà, R.; Garzelli, A.; Santurri, L.

    2014-10-01

    Quality assessment of pansharpened images is traditionally carried out either at degraded spatial scale by checking the synthesis property ofWald's protocol or at the full spatial scale by separately checking the spectral and spatial consistencies. The spatial distortion of the QNR protocol and the spectral distortion of Khan's protocol may be combined into a unique quality index, referred to as hybrid QNR (HQNR), that is calculated at full scale. Alternatively, multiscale measurements of indices requiring a reference, like SAM, ERGAS and Q4, may be extrapolated to yield a quality measurement at the full scale of the fusion product, where a reference does not exist. Experiments on simulated Pĺeiades data, of which reference originals at full scale are available, highlight that quadratic polynomials having three-point support, i.e. fitting three measurements at as many progressively doubled scales, are adequate. Q4 is more suitable for extrapolation than ERGAS and SAM. The Q4 value predicted from multiscale measurements and the Q4 value measured at full scale thanks to the reference original, differ by very few percents for six different state-of-the-art methods that have been compared. HQNR is substantially comparable to the extrapolated Q4.

  9. Scaling for Robust Assessment and Predictions of Aquatic Ecosystem Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, O.; Ishtiaq, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation demonstrates the development and applications of a unique scaling technique for robust assessment and predictions of aquatic ecosystem health. We developed scaling-based, robust empirical and semi-empirical models for standardizing grab samples of stream dissolved oxygen (DO) and for predicting (hindcasting and forecasting) stream DO time-series. A reference clock-time, single observation from the diurnal cycle is used as the scaling parameter to collapse hourly DO time-series of different days into a single diurnal curve, which is parameterized by developing an extended stochastic harmonic analysis (ESHA). The scaling technique was previously applied to develop an algorithm for converting grab samples of stream DO collected at any time of the day to a reference clock time. The research is extended to develop an algorithm for simulating the diurnal DO cycles at different stream sites from their corresponding single reference observations of the day. The scaling concept was tested for spatio-temporal robustness with hourly DO data for eight streams representing five distinct Level III Ecoregions of Minnesota. Estimated model parameters demonstrated notable robustness in time and space. Scaling is often used to develop robust modeling and application tools in many physical engineering disciplines. Presented research exemplifies utilization of the scaling concept in Ecological Engineering applications.

  10. [Factor structure analysis of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scale scores in Spanish population].

    PubMed

    Benítez Muñoz, Juan Luis; Pichardo Martínez, María del Carmen; García Berbén, Trinidad; Fernández Cabezas, María; Justicia Justicia, Fernando; Fernández de Haro, Eduardo

    2011-04-01

    Social competence and antisocial behavior in children are interesting variables for researchers and educators. Nonetheless, there are few assessment instruments capable of measuring the two constructs in small children. The aim of this study is to verify the structural validity of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scale for Teachers and Caregivers (PKBS-2), in order to determine the theoretical model that best fits the data from a Spanish sample. 1509 children from preschool education (741 males and 768 females) from 3 to 6 years old (M= 3.78; SD= 0.815) participated in the study. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS-15.0) and the Structural Equations Program (EQS 6.1). The resulting models of social skills and behavioral problems show adequate fit indexes, statistically significant loadings, and a high internal consistency index (Cronbach's alpha). Lastly, the structural model confirms a two-factor structure: a first factor of Social Skills, comprising three variables (social cooperation, social interaction, and social independence), and a second factor of Behavior Problems, comprising two variables (externalization and internalization of problems).

  11. Assessing Counter-Terrorism field training with multiple behavioral measures.

    PubMed

    Spiker, V Alan; Johnston, Joan H

    2013-09-01

    Development of behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills is an essential element of Counter-Terrorism training, particularly in the field. Three classes of behavioral measures were collected in an assessment of skill acquisition during a US Joint Forces Command-sponsored course consisting of Combat Tracking and Combat Profiling segments. Measures included situational judgment tests, structured behavioral observation checklists, and qualitative assessments of the emergence of specific knowledge-skills-attitudes over the course of the training. The paper describes statistical evidence across the three types of measures that indicate that behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills were successfully acquired by most students (a mix of Army and civilian law enforcement personnel) during the field training exercises. Implications for broader training of these critical skills are also discussed.

  12. Assessing Counter-Terrorism field training with multiple behavioral measures.

    PubMed

    Spiker, V Alan; Johnston, Joan H

    2013-09-01

    Development of behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills is an essential element of Counter-Terrorism training, particularly in the field. Three classes of behavioral measures were collected in an assessment of skill acquisition during a US Joint Forces Command-sponsored course consisting of Combat Tracking and Combat Profiling segments. Measures included situational judgment tests, structured behavioral observation checklists, and qualitative assessments of the emergence of specific knowledge-skills-attitudes over the course of the training. The paper describes statistical evidence across the three types of measures that indicate that behavioral pattern recognition and analysis skills were successfully acquired by most students (a mix of Army and civilian law enforcement personnel) during the field training exercises. Implications for broader training of these critical skills are also discussed. PMID:22818862

  13. The Development of a Test to Assess Drug Using Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Michael E.

    The objective of the study was to develop a test which could measure both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of drug-using behavior, including such factors as attitudes toward drugs, experience with drugs, and knowledge about drugs. The Drug Use Scale was developed containing 134 items and dealing with five classes of drugs: marijuana,…

  14. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  15. Calcium isotope fractionation in groundwater: Molecular scale processes influencing field scale behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druhan, Jennifer L.; Steefel, Carl I.; Williams, Kenneth H.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2013-10-01

    It is the purpose of this study to demonstrate that the molecular scale reaction mechanisms describing calcite precipitation and calcium isotope fractionations under highly controlled laboratory conditions also reproduce field scale measurements of δ44Ca in groundwater systems. We present data collected from an aquifer during active carbonate mineral precipitation and develop a reactive transport model capturing the observed chemical and isotopic variations. Carbonate mineral precipitation and associated fluid δ44Ca data were measured in multiple clogged well bores during organic carbon amended biogenic reduction of a uranium contaminated aquifer in western Colorado, USA. Secondary mineral formation induced by carbonate alkalinity generated during the biostimulation process lead to substantial permeability reduction in multiple electron-donor injection wells at the field site. These conditions resulted in removal of aqueous calcium from a background concentration of 6 mM to <1 mM while δ44Ca enrichment ranged from 1‰ to greater than 2.5‰. The relationship between aqueous calcium removal and isotopic enrichment did not conform to Rayleigh model behavior. Explicit treatment of the individual isotopes of calcium within the CrunchFlow reactive transport code demonstrates that the system did not achieve isotopic reequilibration over the time scale of sample collection. Measured fluid δ44Ca values are accurately reproduced by a linear rate law when the Ca2+:CO32- activity ratio remains substantially greater than unity. Variation in the measured δ44Ca between wells is shown to originate from a difference in carbonate alkalinity generated in each well bore. The influence of fluid Ca2+:CO32- ratio on the precipitation rate and δ44Ca is modeled by coupling the CrunchFlow reactive transport code to an ion by ion growth model. This study presents the first coupled ion-by-ion and reactive transport model for isotopic enrichment and demonstrates that reproducing field-scale

  16. Refining a self-assessment of informatics competency scale using Mokken scaling analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare environments are increasingly implementing health information technology (HIT) and those from various professions must be competent to use HIT in meaningful ways. In addition, HIT has been shown to enable interprofessional approaches to health care. The purpose of this article is to describe the refinement of the Self-Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies Scale (SANICS) using analytic techniques based upon item response theory (IRT) and discuss its relevance to interprofessional education and practice. In a sample of 604 nursing students, the 93-item version of SANICS was examined using non-parametric IRT. The iterative modeling procedure included 31 steps comprising: (1) assessing scalability, (2) assessing monotonicity, (3) assessing invariant item ordering, and (4) expert input. SANICS was reduced to an 18-item hierarchical scale with excellent reliability. Fundamental skills for team functioning and shared decision making among team members (e.g. "using monitoring systems appropriately," "describing general systems to support clinical care") had the highest level of difficulty, and "demonstrating basic technology skills" had the lowest difficulty level. Most items reflect informatics competencies relevant to all health professionals. Further, the approaches can be applied to construct a new hierarchical scale or refine an existing scale related to informatics attitudes or competencies for various health professions.

  17. Refining a self-assessment of informatics competency scale using Mokken scaling analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare environments are increasingly implementing health information technology (HIT) and those from various professions must be competent to use HIT in meaningful ways. In addition, HIT has been shown to enable interprofessional approaches to health care. The purpose of this article is to describe the refinement of the Self-Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies Scale (SANICS) using analytic techniques based upon item response theory (IRT) and discuss its relevance to interprofessional education and practice. In a sample of 604 nursing students, the 93-item version of SANICS was examined using non-parametric IRT. The iterative modeling procedure included 31 steps comprising: (1) assessing scalability, (2) assessing monotonicity, (3) assessing invariant item ordering, and (4) expert input. SANICS was reduced to an 18-item hierarchical scale with excellent reliability. Fundamental skills for team functioning and shared decision making among team members (e.g. "using monitoring systems appropriately," "describing general systems to support clinical care") had the highest level of difficulty, and "demonstrating basic technology skills" had the lowest difficulty level. Most items reflect informatics competencies relevant to all health professionals. Further, the approaches can be applied to construct a new hierarchical scale or refine an existing scale related to informatics attitudes or competencies for various health professions. PMID:26652630

  18. Generalizability and Dependability of Single-Item and Multiple-Item Direct Behavior Rating Scales for Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    Direct behavior rating (DBR) has been described as a hybrid of systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales. Although single-item (DBR-SIS) and multi-item (DBR-MIS) methods have been advocated, the overwhelming majority of research attention has focused on DBR-SIS. This study employed generalizability theory to compare the…

  19. The Emotional Reactions to Challenging Behavior Scale-Korean (ERCBS-K): Modification and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kozub, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the original version of Mitchell and Hastings's (1998) Emotional Reaction to Challenging Behavior Scale (ERCBS) and estimate validity and reliability of a revised version containing 29 items. The Emotional Reaction to Challenging Behavior Scale-Korean (ERCBS-K) was studied using 445 in-service physical…

  20. Social Desirability and Behavior Rating Scales: An Exploratory Study with the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…

  1. Scaling behavior in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection revealed by conditional structure functions.

    PubMed

    Ching, Emily S C; Tsang, Yue-Kin; Fok, T N; He, Xiaozhou; Tong, Penger

    2013-01-01

    We show that the nature of the scaling behavior can be revealed by studying the conditional structure functions evaluated at given values of the locally averaged thermal dissipation rate. These conditional structure functions have power-law dependence on the value of the locally averaged thermal dissipation rate, and such dependence for the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling is different from the other scaling behaviors. Our analysis of experimental measurements verifies the power-law dependence and reveals the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling behavior at the center of the bottom plate of the convection cell.

  2. Development of the Behavioral Evaluation of Disorders of Sleep Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    We describe the development, preliminary psychometric properties, and cross-validation of the Behavioral Evaluation of Disorders of Sleep (BEDS: Schreck 1997/1998). Parental reports of problem sleep behavior in elementary school aged children 5 years to 12 years were collected for two samples. With the first sample, an exploratory factor analysis…

  3. Large-scale genotoxicity assessments in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Hose, J E

    1994-12-01

    There are a number of techniques for detecting genotoxicity in the marine environment, and many are applicable to large-scale field assessments. Certain tests can be used to evaluate responses in target organisms in situ while others utilize surrogate organisms exposed to field samples in short-term laboratory bioassays. Genotoxicity endpoints appear distinct from traditional toxicity endpoints, but some have chemical or ecotoxicologic correlates. One versatile end point, the frequency of anaphase aberrations, has been used in several large marine assessments to evaluate genotoxicity in the New York Bight, in sediment from San Francisco Bay, and following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  4. Large-scale genotoxicity assessments in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Hose, J E

    1994-12-01

    There are a number of techniques for detecting genotoxicity in the marine environment, and many are applicable to large-scale field assessments. Certain tests can be used to evaluate responses in target organisms in situ while others utilize surrogate organisms exposed to field samples in short-term laboratory bioassays. Genotoxicity endpoints appear distinct from traditional toxicity endpoints, but some have chemical or ecotoxicologic correlates. One versatile end point, the frequency of anaphase aberrations, has been used in several large marine assessments to evaluate genotoxicity in the New York Bight, in sediment from San Francisco Bay, and following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. PMID:7713029

  5. Preferences in Individuals with Angelman Syndrome Assessed by a Modified Choice Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, R.; Korzilius, H.; Kamphuis, A.; Sturmey, P.; Lancioni, G.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS) seem to have a strong preference for water-related items. Until present, preference assessment in AS has not been reported. Methods: An adapted Dutch version of the Choice Assessment Scale (CAS) was administered by parents and other caregivers to 105 individuals with AS. The CAS was adapted by…

  6. Development of a Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale for Assessment of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Mak, Rose; Lau, Vanessa; Cheung, Jasmine; Lam, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the development of the cognitive domain of the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS) for assessment of preschool children with developmental disabilities. The initial version of the cognitive domain consisted of 87 items. They were administered to 324 preschool children, including 240 children from…

  7. Optimal Scaling of HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors in Ethnically Diverse Homosexually Active Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used homogeneity analysis and latent class analysis to analyze sexual behavior patterns in two samples of homosexually active men. Results support the existence of a single, nonlinear, latent dimension underlying male homosexual behaviors consistent with HIV-related risk taking, providing an efficient means to scale sexual behavior patterns. (RJM)

  8. Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised: Scale Development and Psychometric Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the scale development and psychometric characteristics of the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R). To develop this measure, 502 subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 91 parenting behaviors in terms of parenting behavior specificity (e.g., bonding, discipline), importance level, and appropriateness for…

  9. Automatic assessment of voice quality according to the GRBAS scale.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-Lechón, Nicolás; Godino-Llorente, Juan I; Osma-Ruiz, Víctor; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, the most extended techniques to measure the voice quality are based on perceptual evaluation by well trained professionals. The GRBAS scale is a widely used method for perceptual evaluation of voice quality. The GRBAS scale is widely used in Japan and there is increasing interest in both Europe and the United States. However, this technique needs well-trained experts, and is based on the evaluator's expertise, depending a lot on his own psycho-physical state. Furthermore, a great variability in the assessments performed from one evaluator to another is observed. Therefore, an objective method to provide such measurement of voice quality would be very valuable. In this paper, the automatic assessment of voice quality is addressed by means of short-term Mel cepstral parameters (MFCC), and learning vector quantization (LVQ) in a pattern recognition stage. Results show that this approach provides acceptable results for this purpose, with accuracy around 65% at the best.

  10. Assessing the construct validity of the AIDS Attitude Scale.

    PubMed

    Bruce, K E; Reid, B C

    1998-02-01

    To assess the construct validity of the AIDS Attitude Scale (AAS) (Shrum, Turner, & Bruce, 1989), we administered it and related attitude scales to introductory psychology students (n = 279) and gay/lesbian support group members (n = 38). A subset of the students (n = 105) participated in a concurrent validity study; students donating items to an AIDS food pantry scored more tolerantly on the AAS than other students. AAS scores also differentiated subjects expected to have more tolerant attitudes toward people living with HIV and AIDS from other respondents, indicating known groups validity. As expected, AAS scores were positively correlated with attitudes about homosexuals and negatively correlated with authoritarian beliefs. However, AAS scores were not related to death anxiety. Attitudes about AIDS were distinguishable from related constructs using factor analysis. Together, these data provide evidence for the construct validity of the AAS. The need for valid assessment tools and uses of the AAS are discussed.

  11. Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

    The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…

  12. The Elkins Hypnotizability Scale: Assessment of Reliability and Validity.

    PubMed

    Kekecs, Zoltán; Bowers, Juliette; Johnson, Alisa; Kendrick, Cassie; Elkins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Measuring hypnotizability is an integral part of hypnosis research and is also relevant for predicting effectiveness of hypnosis-based therapies. The Elkins Hypnotizability Scale (EHS) was designed to meet the needs of modern hypnosis research and clinical practice. Reliability, validity, and normative data were explored by subjecting 230 participants to the EHS and Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSS:C). The EHS demonstrated adequate internal consistency (α = .78), its items showed good discriminating ability, and scores of the two scales were highly correlated (ρ = .86). Results indicate that the EHS is a reliable and valid tool to assess hypnotizability. Further research is needed to establish its role as a surrogate for the SHSS:C. PMID:27267674

  13. The transient behavior of scaling in the atmosphere: stratiform/convective transition and applications to sub-grid scale statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, M.; Barros, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Multifractal behavior holds to a remarkable approximation over wide ranges of spatial scales in orographic rainfall and cloud fields. The scaling exponents characterizing this behavior are shown to be fundamentally transient with nonlinear dependencies on the particular atmospheric state and terrain forcing. In particular, a robust transition is found in the scaling parameters between non-convective (stable) and convective (unstable) regimes, with clear physical correspondence to the transition from stratiform to organized convective orographic precipitation. These results can explain two often reported scaling regimes for atmospheric wind, temperature and water observations. On the one hand, spectral slopes around 2-2.3 arise under non-convective or very weak convective conditions when the spatial patterns are dominated by large-scale gradients and landform. On the other hand, under convective conditions the scaling exponents generally fluctuate around 5/3, in agreement with the Kolmogorov turbulent regime accounting for the intermittency correction. High-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are able to reproduce the ubiquitous scaling behavior of observed atmospheric fields down to their effective resolution length-scale, below which the variability is misrepresented by the model. The effective resolution is shown to be a transient property dependent on the particular simulated conditions and NWP formulation, implying that a blunt decrease in grid spacing without adjusting numerical techniques may not lead to the improvements desired.Finally, the application of transient spatial scaling behavior for stochastic downscaling and sub-grid scale parameterization of cloud and rainfall fields is investigated. The proposed fractal methods are able to rapidly generate large ensembles of high-resolution statistically robust fields from the coarse resolution information alone, which can provide significant improvements for stochastic hydrological prediction

  14. Assessing Social Support, Companionship, and Distress: NIH Toolbox Adult Social Relationship Scales

    PubMed Central

    Cyranowski, Jill M.; Zill, Nicholas; Bode, Rita; Butt, Zeeshan; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Salsman, John M.; Cella, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective The quality of our daily social interactions – including perceptions of support, feelings of loneliness, and distress stemming from negative social exchanges – influence physical health and well-being. Despite the importance of social relationships, brief yet precise, unidimensional scales that assess key aspects of social relationship quality are lacking. As part of the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function, we developed brief self-report scales designed to assess aspects of social support, companionship, and social distress across age cohorts. This report details the development and psychometric testing of the adult NIH Toolbox Social Relationship scales. Methods Social relationship concepts were selected, and item sets were developed and revised based on expert feedback and literature review. Items were then tested across a community-dwelling U.S. internet panel sample of adults aged 18 and above (N=692) using traditional (classic) psychometric methods and item response theory (IRT) approaches to identify items for inclusion in 5–8 item unidimensional scales. Finally, concurrent validity of the newly-developed scales was evaluated with respect to their inter-relationships with classic social relationship validation instruments. Results Results provide support for the internal reliability and concurrent validity of resulting self-report scales assessing Emotional Support, Instrumental Support, Friendship, Loneliness, Perceived Rejection, and Perceived Hostility. Conclusion These brief social relationship scales provide the pragmatic utility and enhanced precision needed to promote future epidemiological and social neuroscience research on the impact of social relationships on physical and emotional health outcomes. PMID:23437856

  15. Neuronal long-range temporal correlations and avalanche dynamics are correlated with behavioral scaling laws.

    PubMed

    Palva, J Matias; Zhigalov, Alexander; Hirvonen, Jonni; Korhonen, Onerva; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus; Palva, Satu

    2013-02-26

    Scale-free fluctuations are ubiquitous in behavioral performance and neuronal activity. In time scales from seconds to hundreds of seconds, psychophysical dynamics and the amplitude fluctuations of neuronal oscillations are governed by power-law-form long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs). In millisecond time scales, neuronal activity comprises cascade-like neuronal avalanches that exhibit power-law size and lifetime distributions. However, it remains unknown whether these neuronal scaling laws are correlated with those characterizing behavioral performance or whether neuronal LRTCs and avalanches are related. Here, we show that the neuronal scaling laws are strongly correlated both with each other and with behavioral scaling laws. We used source reconstructed magneto- and electroencephalographic recordings to characterize the dynamics of ongoing cortical activity. We found robust power-law scaling in neuronal LRTCs and avalanches in resting-state data and during the performance of audiovisual threshold stimulus detection tasks. The LRTC scaling exponents of the behavioral performance fluctuations were correlated with those of concurrent neuronal avalanches and LRTCs in anatomically identified brain systems. The behavioral exponents also were correlated with neuronal scaling laws derived from a resting-state condition and with a similar anatomical topography. Finally, despite the difference in time scales, the scaling exponents of neuronal LRTCs and avalanches were strongly correlated during both rest and task performance. Thus, long and short time-scale neuronal dynamics are related and functionally significant at the behavioral level. These data suggest that the temporal structures of human cognitive fluctuations and behavioral variability stem from the scaling laws of individual and intrinsic brain dynamics. PMID:23401536

  16. Development of a Behavioral Affective Relationship Scale for Encounter Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Jr.; Zarle, Thomas

    The paper outlines several studies over a two-year period to develop a self-report and observer-rating measure of sensitivity/encounter group outcome. The initial form of the scale was taken from McMillan (1971) who developed a measure of 16 categories of group outcome; McMillan's work indicated the scale had high reliability. Subsequent study…

  17. Tracking Behavior Assessment Methodology and Support Strategies: A National Survey of How Schools Utilize Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couvillon, Michael A.; Bullock, Lyndal M.; Gable, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Although functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) have been utilized since the 1960s, their use has steadily increased since the passing of IDEA 1997 which mandated their use in specified circumstances. References to FBAs and BIPs in No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, the 2004 re-authorization of IDEA, and in…

  18. The Reading Behavior Inventory: An Outcome Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Gregory L.; Kirby, Jennine; Wood, Jennifer; Peters, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Many questionnaires attempt to assess the quality of life of individuals who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), but few apply to those who are undergoing visual rehabilitation and hence are difficult to adapt as an outcome measure Massof & Rubin, 2001). The Reading Behavior Inventory (RBI) was developed as a…

  19. A Comparison of Treatment Integrity Assessment Methods for Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Seong A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…

  20. Trainable Mentally Retarded Individual Behavioral Assessment Guide (BAG).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    Presented is the individual Behavior Assessment Guide (BAG) for trainable mentally handicapped children. It is explained that the BAG, developed by teachers and staff members, is designed to serve as the basis for individualized programs. Following is a list of curriculum areas with examples of sub skills in parentheses: communication…

  1. Recent Case Law Regarding Functional Behavioral Assessments: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    While functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) are currently federally mandated requirements, public schools have not been provided clear federal guidance concerning what constitutes an acceptable FBA through Individuals With Disabilities Education Act or related regulations. The purpose of this article is to examine recent rulings regarding FBAs…

  2. Behavioral Assessment of Feeding Problems of Individuals with Severe Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munk, Dennis D.; Repp, Alan C.

    1994-01-01

    A behavioral assessment procedure was evaluated with five children with severe/profound mental retardation who exhibited feeding problems of limited intake. Subjects were fed various types of foods. Results indicated each subject fit into one of four categories: (1) total food refusal, (2) food type selectivity, (3) food texture selectivity, or…

  3. Assessment of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotts, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While federal law sets the general parameters for identification in school settings, these criteria are vague and may lead to inconsistencies in selection and interpretation of assessment…

  4. Assessing Students with Serious Mental Health and Behavioral Problems: Clinical Assessment for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Conlon, Amy L.

    The current intervention trend for many of the mental health and behavioral problems faced by today's youth is an integrative approach that involves the community, families, and schools. Clinical assessment for serious mental health and behavioral problems can be an important component in the development of school-based screening programs. The…

  5. Bridging Behavioral Assessment and Behavioral Intervention: Finding Your Inner Behavior Analyst

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, LeAnne D.; Monn, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of challenging behaviors for some children highlights a need and an opportunity to explore several key principles of behavioral intervention that are necessary for effective decision- making when more personalized interventions must be layered on top of high-quality universal supports. In the absence of expert support,…

  6. The Problem Behaviour Checklist: short scale to assess challenging behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Jessica; Evans, Rosie; Oliver, Patricia; Bassett, Paul; Liedtka, Natalie; Tarabi, Aris

    2016-01-01

    Background Challenging behaviour, especially in intellectual disability, covers a wide range that is in need of further evaluation. Aims To develop a short but comprehensive instrument for all aspects of challenging behaviour. Method In the first part of a two-stage enquiry, a 28-item scale was constructed to examine the components of challenging behaviour. Following a simple factor analysis this was developed further to create a new short scale, the Problem Behaviour Checklist (PBCL). The scale was subsequently used in a randomised controlled trial and tested for interrater reliability. Scores were also compared with a standard scale, the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS). Results Seven identified factors – personal violence, violence against property, self-harm, sexually inappropriate, contrary, demanding and disappearing behaviour – were scored on a 5-point scale. A subsequent factor analysis with the second population showed demanding, violent and contrary behaviour to account for most of the variance. Interrater reliability using weighted kappa showed good agreement (0.91; 95% CI 0.83–0.99). Good agreement was also shown with scores on the MOAS and a score of 1 on the PBCL showed high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (85%) for a threshold MOASscore of 4. Conclusions The PBCL appears to be a suitable and practical scale for assessing all aspects of challenging behaviour. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703753

  7. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, Jason D.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Perez, Danielle M.; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Luzzi, Lelio; Uffelen, Paul Van; Williamson, Richard L.

    2014-10-12

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertaintymore » in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.« less

  8. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, J. D.; Novascone, S. R.; Perez, D. M.; Spencer, B. W.; Luzzi, L.; Van Uffelen, P.; Williamson, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code with a recently implemented physics-based model for fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information in the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior predictions with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, significantly higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  9. The Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S): A psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, A; Lundqvist, C

    2016-01-01

    The present study validated a Swedish version of the 47-item Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S). Sample 1 consisted of 506 team sport athletes [262 men and 244 women; mean age: 22.20, standard deviation (SD) = 3.90] distributed across 41 coaches at the two highest national levels of various sports. Athletes completed the CBS-S and established questionnaires of coaching behaviors (LSS), self-confidence (CSAI-2R), and coach-athlete relationship (CART-Q). An additional sample of 39 basketball players (21 men and 18 women; mean age = 17.40, SD = 2.39) completed the CBS-S twice, approximately 4 weeks apart. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable model fit for the seven-factor version of the CBS-S, although two items of the negative personal rapport subscale displayed insufficient factor loadings. Correlations between the subscales of the CBS-S and established instruments were in accordance with theoretical expectations, supporting the concurrent validity. Cronbach's alpha (> 0.82) for all dimensions provided support for the reliability of the CBS-S, and test-retest correlations indicated moderate stability over time. Cultural differences in the assessment of coaching behaviors and the usability of the CBS-S by coaches for self-reflection and development are discussed. PMID:25440429

  10. The Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S): A psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, A; Lundqvist, C

    2016-01-01

    The present study validated a Swedish version of the 47-item Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S). Sample 1 consisted of 506 team sport athletes [262 men and 244 women; mean age: 22.20, standard deviation (SD) = 3.90] distributed across 41 coaches at the two highest national levels of various sports. Athletes completed the CBS-S and established questionnaires of coaching behaviors (LSS), self-confidence (CSAI-2R), and coach-athlete relationship (CART-Q). An additional sample of 39 basketball players (21 men and 18 women; mean age = 17.40, SD = 2.39) completed the CBS-S twice, approximately 4 weeks apart. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable model fit for the seven-factor version of the CBS-S, although two items of the negative personal rapport subscale displayed insufficient factor loadings. Correlations between the subscales of the CBS-S and established instruments were in accordance with theoretical expectations, supporting the concurrent validity. Cronbach's alpha (> 0.82) for all dimensions provided support for the reliability of the CBS-S, and test-retest correlations indicated moderate stability over time. Cultural differences in the assessment of coaching behaviors and the usability of the CBS-S by coaches for self-reflection and development are discussed.

  11. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, Jason D.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Perez, Danielle M.; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Luzzi, Lelio; Uffelen, Paul Van; Williamson, Richard L.

    2014-10-12

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  12. Predicted scaling behavior of Bloch oscillation in Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Qi; Liu, Xiong-Jun

    2016-09-01

    We predict a fundamental scaling law of Bloch oscillation in Weyl semimetals, which manifests that the transverse drift of quasiparticles accelerated bypassing a Weyl point exhibits asymptotically a linear log-log relation with respect to the minimal momentum measured from the Weyl point. This scaling relation is deeply connected to the topological monopole structure of Weyl points, thus being universal and providing a scheme to measure bulk topology of Weyl semimetals.

  13. Another Scale for the Assessment of Facial Paralysis? ADS Scale: Our Proposition, How to Use It

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several authors in the years propose different methods to evaluate areas and specific movement’s disease in patient affected by facial palsy. Despite these efforts the House Brackmann is anyway the most used assessment in medical community. Aim The aims of our study is the proposition and assessing a new rating Arianna Disease Scale (ADS) for the clinical evaluation of facial paralysis. Materials and Methods Sixty patients affected by unilateral facial Bell paralysis were enrolled in a prospective study from 2012 to 2014. Their facial nerve function was evaluated with our assessment analysing facial district divided in upper, middle and lower third. We analysed different facial expressions. Each movement corresponded to the action of different muscles. The action of each muscle was scored from 0 to 1, with 0 corresponding from complete flaccid paralysis to muscle’s normal function ending with a score of 1. Synkinesis was considered and evaluated also in the scale with a fixed 0.5 score. Our results considered ease and speed of evaluation of the assessment, the accuracy of muscle deficit and the ability to calculate synkinesis using a score. Results All the three observers agreed 100% in the highest degree of deficit. We found some discrepancies in intermediate score with 92% agreement in upper face, 87% in middle and 80% in lower face, where there were more muscles involved in movements. Conclusion Our scale had some limitations linked to the small group of patients evaluated and we had a little difficulty understanding the intermediate score of 0.3 and 0.7. However, this was an accurate tool to quickly evaluate facial nerve function. This has potential as an alternative scale to and to diagnose facial nerve disorders. PMID:26814596

  14. Intimate Behavior and Assessment of Benefits in Clinical Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Developed three measures of clinical group benefits and presented empirical evidence (N=27) explicating the logic of the Interpersonal Relations Scale as an assessment device. Conceptualized the benefits of clinical groups as the fostering of intimacy skills by which group members learn about themselves, others, and their interpersonal…

  15. Crossover from antipersistent to persistent behavior in time series possessing the generalyzed dynamic scaling law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Morales Matamoros, Oswaldo; Gálvez M., Ernesto; Pérez A., Alfonso

    2004-03-01

    The behavior of crude oil price volatility is analyzed within a conceptual framework of kinetic roughening of growing interfaces. We find that the persistent long-horizon volatilities satisfy the Family-Viscek dynamic scaling ansatz, whereas the mean-reverting in time short horizon volatilities obey the generalized scaling law with continuously varying scaling exponents. Furthermore we find that the crossover from antipersistent to persistent behavior is accompanied by a change in the type of volatility distribution. These phenomena are attributed to the complex avalanche dynamics of crude oil markets and so a similar behavior may be observed in a wide variety of physical systems governed by avalanche dynamics.

  16. Leader personality and 360-degree assessments of leader behavior.

    PubMed

    Bergman, David; Lornudd, Caroline; Sjöberg, Lennart; Von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between personality and multi-source feedback, we assessed 190 health care managers by applying the Understanding Personal Potential personality test, which provides comprehensive measurement of the Big Five dimensions and eight narrower personality traits. Managers' leadership behaviors were assessed by colleagues, supervisors, a random sample of each manager's subordinates as well as the managers themselves using a 360-degree change, production, employee (CPE) instrument. Hierarchical multivariate regression analysis showed that the Big Five variables were significantly related to the Managers' leadership behavior in all CPE dimensions. Also, addition of narrow personality variables to the Big Five increased explained variance in leadership behavior. This study is the first of its kind to include the full range of viewpoints in a 360-degree instrument, along with a large number of subordinate assessments. We found that both the strength of the relationship between personality and behavior and the configuration of different predictors varied depending on who did the rating and what leadership orientation was investigated, and this observation merits further investigation. PMID:24833326

  17. Chronic Assessment of Diaphragm Muscle EMG Activity across Motor Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Seven, Yasin B.; Hurtado-Palomino, Juan N.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

    2011-01-01

    The diaphragm muscle is main inspiratory muscle in mammals. Quantitative analyses documenting the reliability of chronic diaphragm EMG recordings are lacking. Assessment of ventilatory and non-ventilatory motor behaviors may facilitate evaluating diaphragm EMG activity over time. We hypothesized that normalization of diaphragm EMG amplitude across behaviors provides stable and reliable parameters for longitudinal assessments of diaphragm activity. We found that diaphragm EMG activity shows substantial intra-animal variability over 6 weeks, with coefficient of variation (CV) for different behaviors ~29–42%. Normalization of diaphragm EMG activity to near maximal behaviors (e.g., deep breathing) reduced intra-animal variability over time (CV ~22–29%). Plethysmographic measurements of eupneic ventilation were also stable over 6 weeks (CV ~13% for minute ventilation). Thus, stable and reliable measurements of diaphragm EMG activity can be obtained longitudinally using chronically implanted electrodes by examining multiple motor behaviors. By quantitatively determining the reliability of longitudinal diaphragm EMG analyses, we provide an important tool for evaluating the progression of diseases or injuries that impair ventilation. PMID:21414423

  18. The Irvine, Beatties, and Bresnahan (IBB) Forelimb Recovery Scale: An Assessment of Reliability and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Karen-Amanda; Ferguson, Adam R.; Mitchell, Kathleen D.; Beattie, Stephanie B.; Lin, Amity; Stuck, Ellen D.; Huie, J. Russell; Nielson, Jessica L.; Talbott, Jason F.; Inoue, Tomoo; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.

    2014-01-01

    The IBB scale is a recently developed forelimb scale for the assessment of fine control of the forelimb and digits after cervical spinal cord injury [SCI; (1)]. The present paper describes the assessment of inter-rater reliability and face, concurrent and construct validity of this scale following SCI. It demonstrates that the IBB is a reliable and valid scale that is sensitive to severity of SCI and to recovery over time. In addition, the IBB correlates with other outcome measures and is highly predictive of biological measures of tissue pathology. Multivariate analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that the IBB is highly predictive of the syndromic outcome after SCI (2), and is among the best predictors of bio-behavioral function, based on strong construct validity. Altogether, the data suggest that the IBB, especially in concert with other measures, is a reliable and valid tool for assessing neurological deficits in fine motor control of the distal forelimb, and represents a powerful addition to multivariate outcome batteries aimed at documenting recovery of function after cervical SCI in rats. PMID:25071704

  19. Multi-Scale Synthesized View Assessment Based on Morphological Pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandić-Stanković, Dragana; Kukolj, Dragan; Le Callet, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The Depth-Image-Based-Rendering (DIBR) algorithms used for 3D video applications introduce geometric distortions affecting the edge coherency in the synthesized images. In order to better deal with specific geometric distortions in the DIBR synthesized images, we propose full-reference metric based on multi-scale pyramid decompositions using morphological filters. The non-linear morphological filters used in multi-scale image decompositions maintain important geometric information such as edges across different resolution levels. We show that PSNR has particularly good agreement with human judgment when it is calculated between detailed images at higher scales of morphological pyramids. Consequently, we propose reduced morphological pyramid peak signal-to-noise ratio metric (MP-PSNR), taking into account only mean squared errors between pyramids' images at higher scales. Proposed computationally efficient metric achieves significantly higher correlation with human judgment compared to the state-of-the-art image quality assessment metrics and compared to the tested metric dedicated to synthesis-related artifacts.

  20. Assessment of Scaled Rotors for Wind Tunnel Experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Maniaci, David Charles; Kelley, Christopher Lee; Chiu, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    Rotor design and analysis work has been performed to support the conceptualization of a wind tunnel test focused on studying wake dynamics. This wind tunnel test would serve as part of a larger model validation campaign that is part of the Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program’s Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) initiative. The first phase of this effort was directed towards designing a functionally scaled rotor based on the same design process and target full-scale turbine used for new rotors for the DOE/SNL SWiFT site. The second phase focused on assessing the capabilities of an already available rotor, the G1, designed and built by researchers at the Technical University of München.

  1. Validation of a behavioral observation tool to assess pig welfare.

    PubMed

    Smulders, D; Verbeke, G; Mormède, P; Geers, R

    2006-10-30

    Accurately measuring and monitoring of animal behavior is an important factor when assessing on-farm animal welfare. First we developed a feasible and simple method aiming at consistently on-farm measuring of pig's behavior. This test should cover a broad range of welfare-related pig behavior. The reaction towards a novel object, startling, tail and ear biting, play and aggressive behavior, stereotypies, coughing, sneezing, skin lesions, defecation, urination and cleanliness of body and pen are included. The development of accurate measures of on-farm behavior first requires the reliability assessment of the procedure. Therefore, the methodology was tested in a first part by three observers scoring simultaneously and independently pre-defined behavioral characteristics of 108 group-housed fattening pigs. The inter-observer repeatability of the measures was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 1. In a second part, the objective was to validate the behavioral characteristics against salivary cortisol, urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine and production traits. Salivary cortisol concentrations significantly increased in ear-bitten pigs and in pigs with tail lesions. Growth rate significantly dropped when cortisol levels rose. An age effect was also found. The percentage of animals approaching the novel object is positively correlated with the urinary epinephrine concentration. Pigs defecating during the test showed significantly higher epinephrine levels. Urinary norepinephrine concentration decreased significantly with age. Faster growing animals and animals with tail lesions showed significantly higher levels of norepinephrine. Pen dirtiness and number of animals per pen were associated with higher norepinephrine concentrations. Finally, barrows had higher norepinephrine concentrations than sows. PMID:16904137

  2. Development and validation of the Family Health Behavior Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a psychometrically sound, parent-report measure of family and child behaviors related to obesity in children between 5- and 12-years-old. Item generation, item selection, and initial exploratory factor analysis yielded a 27-item measure called the Fami...

  3. Large-scale analysis of phylogenetic search behavior.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jung; Sul, Seung-Jin; Williams, Tiffani L

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis is used in all branches of biology with applications ranging from studies on the origin of human populations to investigations of the transmission patterns of HIV. Most phylogenetic analyses rely on effective heuristics for obtaining accurate trees. However, relatively little work has been done to analyze quantitatively the behavior of phylogenetic heuristics in tree space. A better understanding of local search behavior can facilitate the design of better heuristics, which ultimately lead to more accurate depictions of the true evolutionary relationships. In this paper, we present new and novel insights into local search behavior for maximum parsimony on three biological datasets consisting of 44, 60, and 174 taxa. By analyzing all trees from search, we find that, as the search algorithm climbs the hill to local optima, the trees in the neighborhood surrounding the current solution improve as well. Furthermore, the search is quite robust to a small number of randomly selected neighbors. Thus, our work shows how to gain insights into the behavior of local search algorithm by exploring a large diverse collection of trees.

  4. A structured assessment of motor function and behavior in patients with Kleefstra syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susanne; Nag, Heidi E; Hunn, Bente S; Houge, Gunnar; Hoxmark, Lise B

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to further our understanding of Kleefstra syndrome, especially regarding motor function and behavioral characteristics. In total, four males and four females between two and 27 years of age with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of Kleefstra syndrome and their parents participated in this study. Four patients had 9q34.3 deletions that caused Euchromatin Histone Methyl Transferase 1 (EHMT1) haplo-insufficiency, and four patients harbored EHMT1 mutations. The motor function was evaluated via systematic observation. Standardized assessments such as the Vineland Adapted Behavior Scales II (VABS II), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist (CBCL, ABCL) were used for the behavioral assessment. All patients showed a delayed developmental status. Muscular hypotonia and its manifestations were present in all patients, regardless of their age. The mean values for all VABS II domains (communication, socialization, daily living skills, and motor skills) were significantly lower than the mean of the reference population (p < 0.001), but similar to other rare intellectual disabilities such as Smith-Magenis syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The results from the SCQ indicated that all patient values exceeded the cut-off value, suggesting the possibility of autism spectrum disorder. The behavioral and emotional problems assessed by CBCL and ABCL were less frequent. In conclusion, patients with Kleefstra syndrome present with a broad range of clinical problems in all age groups and are therefore in need of a multidisciplinary follow-up also after their transition into adulthood. PMID:26808425

  5. Pain Assessment in Elderly with Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Malara, Alba; De Biase, Giuseppe Andrea; Bettarini, Francesco; Ceravolo, Francesco; Di Cello, Serena; Garo, Michele; Praino, Francesco; Settembrini, Vincenzo; Sgrò, Giovanni; Spadea, Fausto; Rispoli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pain is under-detected and undertreated in people with dementia. The present study investigates the prevalence of pain in people with dementia hospitalized in nursing homes that are members of National Association of Third Age Residences (ANASTE) Calabria, and evaluates the association among pain, mood, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Objective: The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of pain in people with dementia in long term care facilities using scales of self-reporting and observational tools and, particularly, to study the relationship between pain and BPSD. Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out on 233 patients. Pain assessment was performed using self-reporting tools such as the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for patients with slight cognitive impairment or no cognitive impairment and observational tools such as Pain Assessment In Advanced Dementia Scale (PAINAD) for patients with moderate or severe cognitive impairment. Mood was evaluated through the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) while behavioral problems were assessed through the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Results: Only 42.5% of patients evaluated by NRS provided a reliable answer; of these, 20.4% reported no pain. The percentage of pain evaluated by PAINAD was 51.8% . Analysis of data showed a statistically significant correlation between diagnosis of pain and depressive symptoms, assessed with CSDD (p = 0.0113), as well as by single items of NPI, such as anxiety (p = 0.0362) and irritability (p = 0.0034), and F1 profile (Aggression) of CMAI (p = 0.01). Conclusion: This study confirms that self-report alone is not sufficient to assess pain in elderly people with dementia; the observational tool is a necessary and suitable way of assessing pain in patients with cognitive impairment. If not adequately treated, chronic pain can cause depression

  6. The perceived racism scale: a multidimensional assessment of the experience of white racism among African Americans.

    PubMed

    McNeilly, M D; Anderson, N B; Armstead, C A; Clark, R; Corbett, M; Robinson, E L; Pieper, C F; Lepisto, E M

    1996-01-01

    The experience of racism is a complex, multidimensional phenomenon. At present, there are few instruments that attempt to capture the experience of racism in all of its complexity. For this study, a new instrument, the Perceived Racism Scale, has been constructed to assess the experience of racism in African Americans in a multidimensional manner. The scale not only provides a measure of the frequency of exposure to many manifestations of racism (including individual and institutional, overt and covert, attitudinal, behavioral, and cultural), but takes a step forward in more comprehensively measuring the experience of racism by assessing emotional and behavioral coping responses to racism. These responses are measured with respect to exposure to racism in three situational domains: on the job, in academic settings, and in the public realm. Measurement of responses to a fourth domain, that of exposure to racist statements, is also included. It is hoped that the Perceived Racism Scale will facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the experience of racism among African Americans and, through its use in research and clinical settings, will ultimately move us closer to reducing the prevalence and potentially untoward effects of racism.

  7. A Critique of Carver and White's (1994) Behavioral Inhibition Scale (BIS) for Investigating Lykken's (1995) Theory of Primary Psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Poythress, Norman G; Edens, John F; Landfield, Kristin; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Skeem, Jennifer L; Douglas, Kevin S

    2008-09-01

    In a 1995 monograph, Lykken asserted that an innate fearless temperament underpins the development of primary psychopathy as described by Cleckley (1941). To embed this insight in a larger theory of behavior, Lykken embraced constructs from Gray's (1982) reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST). Specifically, he hypothesized that in primary psychopaths the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) lacks normal sensitivity to cues of conditioned punishment or non-reward. Subsequent researchers have embraced Carver and White's (1994) BIS scale as the instrument of choice for testing Lykken's theory of primary psychopathy, a practice that this review calls into question. We note (a) a dearth of research using the BIS scales in offender samples, where more psychopathic individuals are likely to be found and (b) limited BIS scale coverage of the functions attributed to the behavioral inhibition system in RST. In addition, (c) we review literature suggesting that rather than assessing the fear sensitivity function critical to Lykken's theory, the BIS scale instead functions primarily as an index of negative emotionality. We recommend a moratorium on the use of the BIS scale to test Lykken's theory of primary psychopathy.

  8. The Behavioral Assessment of Parents and Coaches at Youth Sports: Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apache, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    A behavioral assessment system for scoring the behaviors of parents and coaches at youth sports games is described within this paper. The Youth Sports Behavior Assessment System (YSBAS) contains nine behavioral categories describing behaviors commonly seen during youth sports. The developmental process of YSBAS and the observer-training program…

  9. Predicting Adaptive Behavior from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotard, Stephen; McWhirter, Richard

    To examine the proportion of variance in adaptive functioning predictable from mental ability, chronological age, I.Q., evidence of brain malfunction, seizure medication, and receptive and expressive language scores, 25 severely and profoundly retarded institutionalized persons (2-19 years old) were administered the Bayley Infant Scale Mental…

  10. Scaling behavior of circular colliders dominated by synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talman, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The scaling formulas in this paper — many of which involve approximation — apply primarily to electron colliders like CEPC or FCC-ee. The more abstract “radiation dominated” phrase in the title is intended to encourage use of the formulas — though admittedly less precisely — to proton colliders like SPPC, for which synchrotron radiation begins to dominate the design in spite of the large proton mass. Optimizing a facility having an electron-positron Higgs factory, followed decades later by a p, p collider in the same tunnel, is a formidable task. The CEPC design study constitutes an initial “constrained parameter” collider design. Here the constrained parameters include tunnel circumference, cell lengths, phase advance per cell, etc. This approach is valuable, if the constrained parameters are self-consistent and close to optimal. Jumping directly to detailed design makes it possible to develop reliable, objective cost estimates on a rapid time scale. A scaling law formulation is intended to contribute to a “ground-up” stage in the design of future circular colliders. In this more abstract approach, scaling formulas can be used to investigate ways in which the design can be better optimized. Equally important, by solving the lattice matching equations in closed form, as contrasted with running computer programs such as MAD, one can obtain better intuition concerning the fundamental parametric dependencies. The ground-up approach is made especially appropriate by the seemingly impossible task of simultaneous optimization of tunnel circumference for both electrons and protons. The fact that both colliders will be radiation dominated actually simplifies the simultaneous optimization task. All GeV scale electron accelerators are “synchrotron radiation dominated”, meaning that all beam distributions evolve within a fraction of a second to an equilibrium state in which “heating” due to radiation fluctuations is canceled by the “cooling” in

  11. Data concerning the psychometric properties of the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scales for the Portuguese population.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Almeida, Fernando; Pinto, Marta; Segarra, Pilar; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    The behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation (BIS/BAS) scales (Carver & White, 1994), which allow rating the Gray's motivational systems, were translated and adapted into Portuguese. In this study, the authors present the procedure and the psychometric analyses of the Portuguese version of the scales, which included basic item and scales psychometric characteristics, as well as confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. After the psychometric analyses provided evidence for the quality of the Portuguese version of the scales, the normative data was provided by age and school grade. The confirmatory factor analysis of the BIS/BAS scales that the authors performed did not demonstrate satisfactory fit for the 2- or 4-factor solution. The authors also tested the more recent 5-factor model, but the fit indices remained inadequate. As fit indices were not satisfactory they proceeded with an exploratory factor analysis to examine the structure of the Portuguese scales. These psychometric analyses provided evidence of a successful translation of the original scales. Therefore these scales can now be used in future research with Portuguese or Brazilian population.

  12. An Auditory BCI System for Assisting CRS-R Behavioral Assessment in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jun; Xie, Qiuyou; He, Yanbin; Yu, Tianyou; Lu, Shenglin; Huang, Ningmeng; Yu, Ronghao; Li, Yuanqing

    2016-01-01

    The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) is a consistent and sensitive behavioral assessment standard for disorders of consciousness (DOC) patients. However, the CRS-R has limitations due to its dependence on behavioral markers, which has led to a high rate of misdiagnosis. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which directly detect brain activities without any behavioral expression, can be used to evaluate a patient’s state. In this study, we explored the application of BCIs in assisting CRS-R assessments of DOC patients. Specifically, an auditory passive EEG-based BCI system with an oddball paradigm was proposed to facilitate the evaluation of one item of the auditory function scale in the CRS-R – the auditory startle. The results obtained from five healthy subjects validated the efficacy of the BCI system. Nineteen DOC patients participated in the CRS-R and BCI assessments, of which three patients exhibited no responses in the CRS-R assessment but were responsive to auditory startle in the BCI assessment. These results revealed that a proportion of DOC patients who have no behavioral responses in the CRS-R assessment can generate neural responses, which can be detected by our BCI system. Therefore, the proposed BCI may provide more sensitive results than the CRS-R and thus assist CRS-R behavioral assessments. PMID:27620348

  13. An Auditory BCI System for Assisting CRS-R Behavioral Assessment in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Xie, Qiuyou; He, Yanbin; Yu, Tianyou; Lu, Shenglin; Huang, Ningmeng; Yu, Ronghao; Li, Yuanqing

    2016-09-13

    The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) is a consistent and sensitive behavioral assessment standard for disorders of consciousness (DOC) patients. However, the CRS-R has limitations due to its dependence on behavioral markers, which has led to a high rate of misdiagnosis. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which directly detect brain activities without any behavioral expression, can be used to evaluate a patient's state. In this study, we explored the application of BCIs in assisting CRS-R assessments of DOC patients. Specifically, an auditory passive EEG-based BCI system with an oddball paradigm was proposed to facilitate the evaluation of one item of the auditory function scale in the CRS-R - the auditory startle. The results obtained from five healthy subjects validated the efficacy of the BCI system. Nineteen DOC patients participated in the CRS-R and BCI assessments, of which three patients exhibited no responses in the CRS-R assessment but were responsive to auditory startle in the BCI assessment. These results revealed that a proportion of DOC patients who have no behavioral responses in the CRS-R assessment can generate neural responses, which can be detected by our BCI system. Therefore, the proposed BCI may provide more sensitive results than the CRS-R and thus assist CRS-R behavioral assessments.

  14. An Auditory BCI System for Assisting CRS-R Behavioral Assessment in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Xie, Qiuyou; He, Yanbin; Yu, Tianyou; Lu, Shenglin; Huang, Ningmeng; Yu, Ronghao; Li, Yuanqing

    2016-01-01

    The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) is a consistent and sensitive behavioral assessment standard for disorders of consciousness (DOC) patients. However, the CRS-R has limitations due to its dependence on behavioral markers, which has led to a high rate of misdiagnosis. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which directly detect brain activities without any behavioral expression, can be used to evaluate a patient's state. In this study, we explored the application of BCIs in assisting CRS-R assessments of DOC patients. Specifically, an auditory passive EEG-based BCI system with an oddball paradigm was proposed to facilitate the evaluation of one item of the auditory function scale in the CRS-R - the auditory startle. The results obtained from five healthy subjects validated the efficacy of the BCI system. Nineteen DOC patients participated in the CRS-R and BCI assessments, of which three patients exhibited no responses in the CRS-R assessment but were responsive to auditory startle in the BCI assessment. These results revealed that a proportion of DOC patients who have no behavioral responses in the CRS-R assessment can generate neural responses, which can be detected by our BCI system. Therefore, the proposed BCI may provide more sensitive results than the CRS-R and thus assist CRS-R behavioral assessments. PMID:27620348

  15. An Auditory BCI System for Assisting CRS-R Behavioral Assessment in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jun; Xie, Qiuyou; He, Yanbin; Yu, Tianyou; Lu, Shenglin; Huang, Ningmeng; Yu, Ronghao; Li, Yuanqing

    2016-09-01

    The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) is a consistent and sensitive behavioral assessment standard for disorders of consciousness (DOC) patients. However, the CRS-R has limitations due to its dependence on behavioral markers, which has led to a high rate of misdiagnosis. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which directly detect brain activities without any behavioral expression, can be used to evaluate a patient’s state. In this study, we explored the application of BCIs in assisting CRS-R assessments of DOC patients. Specifically, an auditory passive EEG-based BCI system with an oddball paradigm was proposed to facilitate the evaluation of one item of the auditory function scale in the CRS-R – the auditory startle. The results obtained from five healthy subjects validated the efficacy of the BCI system. Nineteen DOC patients participated in the CRS-R and BCI assessments, of which three patients exhibited no responses in the CRS-R assessment but were responsive to auditory startle in the BCI assessment. These results revealed that a proportion of DOC patients who have no behavioral responses in the CRS-R assessment can generate neural responses, which can be detected by our BCI system. Therefore, the proposed BCI may provide more sensitive results than the CRS-R and thus assist CRS-R behavioral assessments.

  16. Employee recruitment: using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K

    2007-01-01

    The labor shortage of skilled health care professionals continues to make employee recruitment and retention a challenge for health care managers. Greater accountability is being placed on health care managers to retain their employees. The urgency to retain health care professionals is largely an issue that should be considered during the initial recruitment of potential employees. Health care managers should analyze candidates rigorously to ensure that appropriate hiring decisions are made. Behavioral assessments can be used as a useful employee selection tool to assist managers in the appropriate placement and training of potential new employees. When administered appropriately, these tools can provide managers with a variety of useful information. This information can assist health care managers in demystifying the hiring process. Although there are varying organizational concerns to address when using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool, the potential return on investment is worth the effort. PMID:17938588

  17. Evaluation of convergence behavior of metamodeling techniques for bridging scales in multi-scale multimaterial simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Oishik; Davis, Sean; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H.S.

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of several metamodeling techniques, viz. the Polynomial Stochastic Collocation method, Adaptive Stochastic Collocation method, a Radial Basis Function Neural Network, a Kriging Method and a Dynamic Kriging Method is evaluated. This is done with the express purpose of using metamodels to bridge scales between micro- and macro-scale models in a multi-scale multimaterial simulation. The rate of convergence of the error when used to reconstruct hypersurfaces of known functions is studied. For sufficiently large number of training points, Stochastic Collocation methods generally converge faster than the other metamodeling techniques, while the DKG method converges faster when the number of input points is less than 100 in a two-dimensional parameter space. Because the input points correspond to computationally expensive micro/meso-scale computations, the DKG is favored for bridging scales in a multi-scale solver.

  18. Plastic behavior of polycrystalline copper at optical scales of deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domber, Jeanette Leah

    Microplasticity is permanent deformation that occurs below the proportional limit of a material. For precision deployable optical spacecraft, it is unknown how microplasticity will affect the performance of the precision structure. An examination of the rolling of thin film optical reflectors indicates a strong dependence of the post-deployed shape on the strain hardening exponent of the material. However, confirmation of the valid extension of the constitutive model used to predict the deployed shape to microscopic strain regimes is necessary. The primary objective of this thesis is threefold: determine the relationship between stress and strain at nano to microstrain levels for representative materials; determine if the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic plastic behavior can be accurately characterized by the Ramberg-Osgood strain hardening constitutive model with a single set of material parameters; and determine if dislocation motion is the root cause of microplastic behavior at room temperature. The test apparatus, with a dynamic force range of 40,000 to 1, measures strains from 0.01 to 1000 parts per million (ppm) of cylindrical amorphous quartz and cold-worked and annealed tempered polycrystalline copper specimen. Elastic behavior in all three materials was consistent with typical values. However, plastic responses were larger than expected. Stresses on the order of 10 to 10,000 kPa (1.45 to 1450 psi) produced permanent strain in all three types of materials ranging from 0.01 to 1 ppm, some of which was attributable to a systematic error in the measurement. Extrapolating macroplastic behavior to lower stress and strain values underestimates the amount of microplasticity observed in the material. Therefore, material property characterization is required at all strain levels that are of concern for a particular application. The similarity in the levels of measured permanent strain for a given stress level between the as-drawn and annealed copper

  19. DAPHNE: A New Tool for the Assessment of the Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Claire; Evrard, Christelle; Hardouin, Jean Benoît; Rocher, Laëtitia; Charriau, Tiphaine; Etcharry-Bouyx, Frédérique; Auriacombe, Sophie; Richard-Mornas, Aurélie; Lebert, Florence; Pasquier, Florence; Sauvaget, Anne; Bulteau, Samuel; Vercelletto, Martine; Derkinderen, Pascal; Bretonnière, Cédric; Thomas-Antérion, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) relies primarily on clinical features and remains challenging. The specificity of the recently revised criteria can be disappointing, justifying development of new clinical tools. Objective We produced a behavioral inventory named DAPHNE. This scale (adapted from Rascovsky's criteria) explores six domains: disinhibition, apathy, perseverations, hyperorality, personal neglect and loss of empathy. It is composed of ten items (five answer categories). The aim was (1) to assess the validity and reliability of DAPHNE and (2) to evaluate its contribution in differentiating patients. Methods Two scores were computed: DAPHNE-6 (screening) from the six domains and DAPHNE-40 (diagnosis) from the ten items. Reliability and reproducibility were assessed. External validity was studied with the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) and the Frontotemporal Behavioral Scale (FBS). Finally, the diagnostic performance of DAPHNE was compared to revised criteria, FBI and FBS. Results DAPHNE was administered to the caregivers of 89 patients, 36 with bvFTD, 22 with Alzheimer's disease, 15 with progressive supranuclear palsy and 16 with bipolar disorder. Reliability and reproducibility were excellent, as was external validity. DAPHNE-6 allowed bvFTD diagnosis (score ≥4) with a sensitivity of 92%, while DAPHNE-40 (score ≥15) had a specificity of 92%. Conclusion We demonstrate excellent psychometric features for DAPHNE. This quick tool could help for both diagnosing and screening bvFTD. PMID:26955383

  20. Operant procedures for assessing behavioral flexibility in rats.

    PubMed

    Brady, Anne Marie; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-02-15

    Executive functions consist of multiple high-level cognitive processes that drive rule generation and behavioral selection. An emergent property of these processes is the ability to adjust behavior in response to changes in one's environment (i.e., behavioral flexibility). These processes are essential to normal human behavior, and may be disrupted in diverse neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, alcoholism, depression, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding of the neurobiology of executive functions has been greatly advanced by the availability of animal tasks for assessing discrete components of behavioral flexibility, particularly strategy shifting and reversal learning. While several types of tasks have been developed, most are non-automated, labor intensive, and allow testing of only one animal at a time. The recent development of automated, operant-based tasks for assessing behavioral flexibility streamlines testing, standardizes stimulus presentation and data recording, and dramatically improves throughput. Here, we describe automated strategy shifting and reversal tasks, using operant chambers controlled by custom written software programs. Using these tasks, we have shown that the medial prefrontal cortex governs strategy shifting but not reversal learning in the rat, similar to the dissociation observed in humans. Moreover, animals with a neonatal hippocampal lesion, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, are selectively impaired on the strategy shifting task but not the reversal task. The strategy shifting task also allows the identification of separate types of performance errors, each of which is attributable to distinct neural substrates. The availability of these automated tasks, and the evidence supporting the dissociable contributions of separate prefrontal areas, makes them particularly well-suited assays for the investigation of basic neurobiological processes as well as drug discovery and screening in disease models.

  1. Operant procedures for assessing behavioral flexibility in rats.

    PubMed

    Brady, Anne Marie; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions consist of multiple high-level cognitive processes that drive rule generation and behavioral selection. An emergent property of these processes is the ability to adjust behavior in response to changes in one's environment (i.e., behavioral flexibility). These processes are essential to normal human behavior, and may be disrupted in diverse neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, alcoholism, depression, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding of the neurobiology of executive functions has been greatly advanced by the availability of animal tasks for assessing discrete components of behavioral flexibility, particularly strategy shifting and reversal learning. While several types of tasks have been developed, most are non-automated, labor intensive, and allow testing of only one animal at a time. The recent development of automated, operant-based tasks for assessing behavioral flexibility streamlines testing, standardizes stimulus presentation and data recording, and dramatically improves throughput. Here, we describe automated strategy shifting and reversal tasks, using operant chambers controlled by custom written software programs. Using these tasks, we have shown that the medial prefrontal cortex governs strategy shifting but not reversal learning in the rat, similar to the dissociation observed in humans. Moreover, animals with a neonatal hippocampal lesion, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, are selectively impaired on the strategy shifting task but not the reversal task. The strategy shifting task also allows the identification of separate types of performance errors, each of which is attributable to distinct neural substrates. The availability of these automated tasks, and the evidence supporting the dissociable contributions of separate prefrontal areas, makes them particularly well-suited assays for the investigation of basic neurobiological processes as well as drug discovery and screening in disease models

  2. Functional Behavioral Assessment for a Boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Problem Behavior: A Case Study from Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoridou, Zoe; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design a positive behavior intervention (PBI) for a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who encounters serious difficulties at the mainstream school because of behavioral problems and physical limitations. After the definition of problem behavior and its…

  3. Metric qualities of the cognitive behavioral assessment for outcome evaluation to estimate psychological treatment effects

    PubMed Central

    Bertolotti, Giorgio; Michielin, Paolo; Vidotto, Giulio; Sanavio, Ezio; Bottesi, Gioia; Bettinardi, Ornella; Zotti, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive behavioral assessment for outcome evaluation was developed to evaluate psychological treatment interventions, especially for counseling and psychotherapy. It is made up of 80 items and five scales: anxiety, well-being, perception of positive change, depression, and psychological distress. The aim of the study was to present the metric qualities and to show validity and reliability of the five constructs of the questionnaire both in nonclinical and clinical subjects. Methods Four steps were completed to assess reliability and factor structure: criterion-related and concurrent validity, responsiveness, and convergent–divergent validity. A nonclinical group of 269 subjects was enrolled, as was a clinical group comprising 168 adults undergoing psychotherapy and psychological counseling provided by the Italian public health service. Results Cronbach’s alphas were between 0.80 and 0.91 for the clinical sample and between 0.74 and 0.91 in the nonclinical one. We observed an excellent structural validity for the five interrelated dimensions. The clinical group showed higher scores in the anxiety, depression, and psychological distress scales, as well as lower scores in well-being and perception of positive change scales than those observed in the nonclinical group. Responsiveness was large for the anxiety, well-being, and depression scales; the psychological distress and perception of positive change scales showed a moderate effect. Conclusion The questionnaire showed excellent psychometric properties, thus demonstrating that the questionnaire is a good evaluative instrument, with which to assess pre- and post-treatment outcomes. PMID:26442466

  4. Scaling Laws for Reduced-Scale Tests of Pulse Jet Mixing Systems in Non-Newtonian Slurries: Mixing Cavern Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Barnes, Steven M.; Etchells, Arthur W.

    2006-03-02

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at the Hanford Site will use pulse jet mixer (PJM) technology for mixing and gas retention control applications in tanks expected to contain waste slurries exhibiting a non-Newtonian rheology. This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies undertaken to establish a methodology to perform reduced-scale mixing tests with PJM systems in non-Newtonian fluids. A theoretical model for mixing cavern formation from steady and pulsed jets is developed and compared with data from a single unsteady jet in a yield stress simulant. Dimensional analysis is used to identify the important dimensionless parameters affecting mixing performance in more complex systems. Scaling laws are proposed based on the modeling and dimensional analysis. Experimental validation of the scaling laws governing unsteady jet mixing in non-Newtonian fluids are also presented. Tests were conducted at three scales using two non-Newtonian simulants. The data were compared non-dimensionally, and the important scale laws were confirmed. The key dimensionless parameters were found to be the Strouhal number (which describes unsteady pulse jet mixer operation), the yield Reynolds number (which governs cavern formation due to non-Newtonian fluid behavior), and the viscous Reynolds number (which determines the flow regime and the degree of turbulence). The experimentally validated scaling laws provide the basis for reduced scale testing of prototypic WTP mixing systems. It is argued that mixing systems developed from reduced scale testing will produce conservative designs at full scale.

  5. Dynamics Behaviors of Scale-Free Networks with Elastic Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Lai; Sun, Hui-Jun; Wu, Jian-Jun

    Many real-world networks, such as transportation networks and Internet, have the scale-free properties. It is important to study the bearing capacity of such networks. Considering the elastic demand condition, we analyze load distributions and bearing capacities with different parameters through artificially created scale-free networks. The simulation results show that the load distribution follows a power-law form, which means some ordered pairs, playing the dominant role in the transportation network, have higher demand than other pairs. We found that, with the decrease of perceptual error, the total and average ordered pair demand will decrease and then stay in a steady state. However, with the increase of the network size, the average demand of each ordered pair will decrease, which is particularly interesting for the network design problem.

  6. Gompertz mortality law and scaling behavior of the Penna model.

    PubMed

    Coe, J B; Mao, Y

    2005-11-01

    The Penna model is a model of evolutionary ageing through mutation accumulation where traditionally time and the age of an organism are treated as discrete variables and an organism's genome is represented by a binary bit string. We reformulate the asexual Penna model and show that a universal scale invariance emerges as we increase the number of discrete genome bits to the limit of a continuum. The continuum model, introduced by Almeida and Thomas [Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 11, 1209 (2000)] can be recovered from the discrete model in the limit of infinite bits coupled with a vanishing mutation rate per bit. Finally, we show that scale invariant properties may lead to the ubiquitous Gompertz law for mortality rates for early ages, which is generally regarded as being empirical.

  7. Gompertz mortality law and scaling behavior of the Penna model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, J. B.; Mao, Y.

    2005-11-01

    The Penna model is a model of evolutionary ageing through mutation accumulation where traditionally time and the age of an organism are treated as discrete variables and an organism’s genome is represented by a binary bit string. We reformulate the asexual Penna model and show that a universal scale invariance emerges as we increase the number of discrete genome bits to the limit of a continuum. The continuum model, introduced by Almeida and Thomas [Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 11, 1209 (2000)] can be recovered from the discrete model in the limit of infinite bits coupled with a vanishing mutation rate per bit. Finally, we show that scale invariant properties may lead to the ubiquitous Gompertz law for mortality rates for early ages, which is generally regarded as being empirical.

  8. Mapping Subfield-Scale Evapotranspiration to Assess Agricultural Drought Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, S. C.; Loheide, S. P., III

    2014-12-01

    Assessing crop response to drought on the subfield-scale is critical for efficient agricultural water management and yield forecasting. Evapotranspiration provides a direct physical link between the soil, crop canopy, and the atmosphere, and is hence highly sensitive to changes in water availability. Here, we introduce a new surface energy balance model (High Resolution Mapping of Evapotranspiration; HRMET) that can map ET at very high resolution (meter-scale) requiring only canopy surface temperature, canopy structure, and meteorology as inputs. HRMET can be used in both open and closed canopy conditions. We validate HRMET over two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed (south-central Wisconsin, USA) and investigate the spatially variable ET response to severe drought conditions during the 2012 growing season. Results show that the magnitude of within-field ET variability is much larger when the drought is more severe. We then introduce a new metric, Relative ET (ETR), which normalizes ET on a field scale and allows for direct comparison across measurement dates, despite differences in meteorological conditions and crop growth stage. Using a novel paired-image technique, we use persistent patterns of ETR identify portions of the field that are most susceptible to drought, and portions that are consistently productive across measurement dates. These results have implications for precision agriculture and irrigation efficiency in addition to water management and yield forecasting, as identification of persistent patterns in crop productivity during low-stress periods allows farmers to direct resources to the most sensitive areas early in droughts.

  9. Accuracy Assessment in rainfall upscaling in multiple time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Wang, C.; Lin, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term hydrologic parameters, e.g. annual precipitations, are usually used to represent the general hydrologic characteristics in a region. Recently, the analysis of the impact of climate change to hydrological patterns primarily relies on the measurement and/or the estimations in long time scales, e.g. year. Under the general condition of the prevalence of short-term measurements, therefore, it is important to understand the accuracy of upscaling for the long-term estimations of hydrologic parameters. This study applies spatiotemporal geostatistical method to analyze and discuss the accuracy of precipitation upscaling in Taiwan under the different time scales, and also quantifies the uncertainty in the upscaled long-term precipitations. In this study, two space-time upscaling approaches developed by Bayesian Maximum Entropy method (BME) are presented 1) UM1: data aggregation followed by BME estimation and 2) UM2: BME estimation followed by aggregation. The investigation and comparison are also implemented to assess the performance of the rainfall estimations in multiple time scales in Taiwan by the two upscaling. Keywords: upscaling, geostatistics, BME, uncertainty analysis

  10. Measurement artifacts in the assessment of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: do we know what we think we know?

    PubMed

    Spector, Paul E; Bauer, Jeremy A; Fox, Suzy

    2010-07-01

    An experiment investigated whether measurement features affected observed relationships between counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and their relationships with other variables. As expected, correlations between CWB and OCB were significantly higher with ratings of agreement rather than frequency of behavior, when OCB scale content overlapped with CWB than when it did not, and with supervisor rather than self-ratings. Relationships with job satisfaction and job stressors were inconsistent across conditions. We concluded that CWB and OCB are likely unrelated and not necessarily oppositely related to other variables. Researchers should avoid overlapping content in CWB and OCB scales and should use frequency formats to assess how often individuals engage in each form of behavior.

  11. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Responses to Childhood Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: The Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peris, Tara S.; Benazon, Nili; Langley, Audra; Roblek, Tami; Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents preliminary examination of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS), an OCD-specific measure of parental attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral strategies related to childhood OCD. Employing a sample of 123 youth (mean age = 11.7; 59% male, 79% Caucasian) diagnosed with…

  12. Tools to study and manage grazing behavior at multiple scales to enhance the sustainability of livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-ranging animal behavior is a multifaceted and complex phenomenon within rangeland ecology that must be understood and ultimately managed. Improving behavioral studies requires tools appropriate for use at the landscape scale. Though tools alone do not assure research will generate accurate in...

  13. TABS Manual for the Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale: Early Childhood Indicators of Developmental Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neisworth, John T.; Bagnato, Stephen J.; Salvia, John; Hunt, Frances M.

    This manual describes the rationale, use, and validity of the Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale (TABS), a norm-referenced measure of dysfunctional behavior appropriately used with infants and young children between the ages of 11 and 71 months. TABS is intended to identify children who are developing atypically or are at risk for atypical…

  14. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Rachel C.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Luo, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Following a landmark component analysis of cognitive therapy by Jacobson and colleagues (1996), there has been renewed interest in behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was developed to measure when and how clients become activated over the course of BA treatment. Multiple…

  15. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  16. Analysis of Unbound Aggregate Layer Deformation Behavior from Full Scale Aircraft Gear Loading with Wander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Phillip Raymond

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of the behavior of unbound aggregates to offset wheel loads. Test data from full-scale aircraft gear loading conducted at the National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are used to investigate the effects of wander (offset loads) on the deformation behavior of…

  17. Deriving Childhood Temperament Measures from Emotion-Eliciting Behavioral Episodes: Scale Construction and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific…

  18. Scale Development for Measuring and Predicting Adolescents’ Leisure Time Physical Activity Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Francis; Romero Granados, Santiago; Arribas Galarraga, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents’ physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127) and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198), selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items’ time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context. Key points When using the structured alternative format, weak internal consistency was obtained

  19. Emotional Indicators on the Bender-Gestalt and the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory Mary K.

    1977-01-01

    A heterogeneous group of elementary school children referred for psycho-educational diagnosis were rated on the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale and the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, scoring for Koppitz Emotional Indicators. Findings suggests that certain DCB factors may be more predictive of emotional problems than others in the scale.…

  20. Use of the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale in Evaluating Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Robert J.

    Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS), a new quantitative method of employee performance evaluation, is advocated for teacher evaluation. Development of a BARS consists generally of five steps: a representative sample of potential raters generates the scales; the group identifies the broad qualities to be evaluated; the group formulates…

  1. Retrospective assessment of behavioral inhibition in infants and toddlers: development of a parent report questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Gensthaler, A; Möhler, E; Resch, F; Paulus, F; Schwenck, C; Freitag, C M; Goth, K

    2013-02-01

    A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral inhibition in infants and toddlers. Principal Component Analysis of the Retrospective Infant Behavioral Inhibition Scale (RIBI) supported a three factor solution of the core features of BI in two unselected samples. Internal consistency and inter-rater agreement of both parent judgments were >.90 and >.70. Scores of the RIBI were positively correlated with the parent report temperament questionnaire IBQ and a laboratory-based test at age 14 months with the child. PMID:22798203

  2. Time scale hierarchies in the functional organization of complex behaviors.

    PubMed

    Perdikis, Dionysios; Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2011-09-01

    Traditional approaches to cognitive modelling generally portray cognitive events in terms of 'discrete' states (point attractor dynamics) rather than in terms of processes, thereby neglecting the time structure of cognition. In contrast, more recent approaches explicitly address this temporal dimension, but typically provide no entry points into cognitive categorization of events and experiences. With the aim to incorporate both these aspects, we propose a framework for functional architectures. Our approach is grounded in the notion that arbitrary complex (human) behaviour is decomposable into functional modes (elementary units), which we conceptualize as low-dimensional dynamical objects (structured flows on manifolds). The ensemble of modes at an agent's disposal constitutes his/her functional repertoire. The modes may be subjected to additional dynamics (termed operational signals), in particular, instantaneous inputs, and a mechanism that sequentially selects a mode so that it temporarily dominates the functional dynamics. The inputs and selection mechanisms act on faster and slower time scales then that inherent to the modes, respectively. The dynamics across the three time scales are coupled via feedback, rendering the entire architecture autonomous. We illustrate the functional architecture in the context of serial behaviour, namely cursive handwriting. Subsequently, we investigate the possibility of recovering the contributions of functional modes and operational signals from the output, which appears to be possible only when examining the output phase flow (i.e., not from trajectories in phase space or time). PMID:21980278

  3. Dynamical Mechanism of Scaling Behaviors in Multifractal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Jung, Jae Won; Kim, Soo Yong

    2010-03-01

    The pattern of stone distribution in the game of Go (Baduk, Weiqi, or Igo) can be treated in the mathematical and physical languages of multifractals. The concepts of fractals and multifractals have relevance to many fields of science and even arts. A significant and fascinating feature of this approach is that it provides a proper interpretation for the pattern of the two-colored (black and white) stones in terms of the numerical values of the generalized dimension and the scaling exponent. For our case, these statistical quantities can be estimated numerically from the black, white, and mixed stones, assuming the excluded edge effect that the cell form of the Go game has the self-similar structure. The result from the multifractal structure allows us to find a definite and reliable fractal dimension, and it precisely verifies that the fractal dimension becomes larger, as the cell of grids increases. We also find the strength of multifractal structures from the difference in the scaling exponents in the black, white, and mixed stones.

  4. Scaling behavior in the convection-driven Brazil nut effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejmady, Prakhyat; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjini; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Dhar, Abhishek

    2012-11-01

    The Brazil nut effect is the phenomenon in which a large intruder particle immersed in a vertically shaken bed of smaller particles rises to the top, even when it is much denser. The usual practice while describing these experiments has been to use the dimensionless acceleration Γ=aω2/g, where a and ω are, respectively, the amplitude and the angular frequency of vibration and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Considering a vibrated quasi-two-dimensional bed of mustard seeds, we show here that the peak-to-peak velocity of shaking v=aω, rather than Γ, is the relevant parameter in the regime where boundary-driven granular convection is the main driving mechanism. We find that the rise time τ of an intruder is described by the scaling law τ˜(v-vc)-α, where vc is identified as the critical vibration velocity for the onset of convective motion of the mustard seeds. This scaling form holds over a wide range of (a,ω), diameter, and density of the intruder.

  5. Methodological considerations when assessing restricted and repetitive behaviors and aggression

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, A.J.; Kalb, L.; Mazurek, M.O.; Kanne, S.M.; Freedman, B.; Vasa, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Methodological issues impacting the relationship between aggression and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RRSBI) were examined in 2648 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using a multi-method, multi-informant analysis model to assess the effects of informant, assessment method, and aggression phenotype. Overall, a significant, but small relationship was found between RRSBI and aggression (p < .05). There was significant heterogeneity of estimates with large effect sizes observed when utilizing teacher report and a broad phenotype of aggression. Variance in estimates was attributed to differences in informant and assessment method with two times greater effect attributed to informant. Results suggest strategies to optimize future investigations of the relationship between RRSBI and aggression. Findings also provide the opportunity for the development of targeted interventions for aggression in youth with ASD. PMID:27239223

  6. Correlations among the Reiss Screen, the Adaptive Behavior Scale Part II, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kevin K.; Shenouda, Nivine

    1999-01-01

    Relations among instruments used in community mental-health services for people with developmental disabilities were explored with 284 individuals. Correlation coefficients were evaluated for statistical significance and effect size for subtests of the Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and the Adaptive…

  7. Assessment and Evaluation of the High Risk Neonate: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Barry M.; Andreozzi-Fontaine, Lynne; Tronick, Edward; Bigsby, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in the assessment of the neurobehavioral integrity of the newborn infant. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. These are infants who are at increased risk for poor developmental outcome because of insults during prenatal development, such as substance exposure or prematurity or factors such as poverty, poor nutrition or lack of prenatal care that can have adverse effects on the intrauterine environment and affect the developing fetus. The NNNS assesses the full range of infant neurobehavioral performance including neurological integrity, behavioral functioning, and signs of stress/abstinence. The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. The NNNS can identify infants at high risk for abnormal developmental outcome and is an important clinical tool that enables medical researchers and health practitioners to identify these infants and develop intervention programs to optimize the development of these infants as early as possible. The video shows the NNNS procedures, shows examples of normal and abnormal performance and the various clinical populations in which the exam can be used. PMID:25177897

  8. Dynamic scaling behaviors of linear fractal Langevin-type equation driven by nonconserved and conserved noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Xun, Zhi-Peng; Wu, Ling; Chen, Yi-Li; Xia, Hui; Hao, Da-Peng; Tang, Gang

    2016-06-01

    In order to study the effects of the microscopic details of fractal substrates on the scaling behavior of the growth model, a generalized linear fractal Langevin-type equation, ∂h / ∂t =(- 1) m + 1 ν∇ mzrw h (zrw is the dynamic exponent of random walk on substrates), driven by nonconserved and conserved noise is proposed and investigated theoretically employing scaling analysis. Corresponding dynamic scaling exponents are obtained.

  9. Predicting the Failure Behavior of Textile Composite Laminates by Using a Multi-Scale Correlating Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yan; Chen, Xiuhua; Wang, Hai

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the elastic and failure behavior of textile composite laminates by using an analytical multi-scale correlating approach. The analyses are performed under the four scale levels, i.e. the laminate scale, representative unit cell (RUC) scale, tow architecture scale and fiber/matrix scale levels. The correlation between different scales is derived based on the continuum mechanics and homogenization method from which the stress and strain fields in multiple scales can be obtained concurrently. Effective modulus and ultimate failure strengths of different textile composite (plain weave, twill weave and satin weave) laminates are predicted solely from the corresponding constituent properties, braid geometrical parameters and lay-up. The damage and failure mechanisms at the constituent level are also determined by the micromechanical failure criteria. All the predicted results compare favorably with available experimental data. Parametric studies are also performed to examine the effect of various mechanical and geometrical parameters on the resulting mechanical properties.

  10. Scaling behavior in ranking mobility of Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ke; Xiong, Wanting; Weng, Xin; Wang, Yougui

    2014-08-01

    As an aggregate measure of the variations in individuals, the analysis of mobility provides a substantial and comprehensive perspective into the complexity of socio-economic systems. In this paper, we introduced the ranking mobility index to measure the ranking variations of the stocks in Chinese stock market over time. Using the daily data of 837 constituent stocks of the Shanghai A-Stock Composite Index from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2012, we examined respectively the dependence of ranking mobility with respect to the absolute return, trading volume and turnover ratio on the sampling time interval. The scaling property is observed in all three relations. The fact of long relaxation times gives evidence of long memory property in the stock ranking orders.

  11. Scaling behavior of the surface in ballistic deposition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianguo; Amar, Jacques G

    2002-06-01

    Using a dynamical scaling form for the surface fractal dimension as well as efficient algorithms for the simulation and analysis of the surface in three-dimensional ballistic deposition, we show that while the top of the surface is self-affine, the complete surface including overhangs has fractal dimension D(f) approximately 3. The existence of such a fractal surface is a consequence of the difficulty of closing off voids in three and higher dimensions. By studying a modified ballistic deposition model in which sticking is allowed with a given probability p, we show that the surface undergoes a phase transition from fractal to compact at a finite value of p. Our results also have implications for understanding the surface morphology in sedimentary rocks and low-temperature thin films.

  12. Scaling Behavior of Barkhausen Avalanches along the Hysteresis loop in Nucleation-Mediated Magnetization Reversal Process

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Kim, D.-H.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-10-14

    We report the scaling behavior of Barkhausen avalanches for every small field step along the hysteresis loop in CoCrPt alloy film having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Individual Barkhausen avalanche is directly observed utilizing a high-resolution soft X-ray microscopy that provides real space images with a spatial resolution of 15 nm. Barkhausen avalanches are found to exhibit power-law scaling behavior at all field steps along the hysteresis loop, despite their different patterns for each field step. Surprisingly, the scaling exponent of the power-law distribution of Barkhausen avalanches is abruptly altered from 1 {+-} 0.04 to 1.47 {+-} 0.03 as the field step is close to the coercive field. The contribution of coupling among adjacent domains to Barkhausen avalanche process affects the sudden change of the scaling behavior observed at the coercivity-field region on the hysteresis loop of CoCrPt alloy film.

  13. An Application of Hadoop and Horizontal Scaling to Conjunction Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prausa, M.; Facas, N.

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines a horizontal scaling approach for Conjunction Assessment (CA) processing using the Apache Hadoop framework. A key focus of this paper is the Input/Output (I/O) characteristics of CA, which directly impact the performance and scalability of the distributed system. To accomplish this and maintain a focus on I/O, a synthetic data model and simulated CA algorithm are used. These components form the basis for a series of scalability tests that result in high collocation rates and near linear scaleout for the 16 node/64 core cluster used. Amdahl’s law is used to examine these results as well as provide a basis for extrapolated results. These extrapolated results model larger clusters and identify potential degradation as node count increases.

  14. Assessment and treatment of problem behavior occasioned by interruption of free-operant behavior.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, Louis P; Bruzek, Jennifer L; Bowman, Lynn G; Jennett, Heather K

    2007-01-01

    The current study describes the assessment and treatment of the problem behavior of 3 individuals with autism for whom initial functional analysis results were inconclusive. Subsequent analyses revealed that the interruption of free-operant behavior using "do" requests (Study 1) as well as "do" and "don't" requests (Study 2) occasioned problem behavior. Initially, treatment involved differential and noncontingent reinforcement without interruption. To make the intervention more sustainable in the natural environment (where interruptions are unavoidable), a two-component multiple-schedule arrangement was used to progressively increase the period of time in which ongoing activities would be interrupted. During generalization sessions, the intervention was applied across a variety of contexts and therapists. PMID:17471795

  15. Assessment and treatment of problem behavior occasioned by interruption of free-operant behavior.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, Louis P; Bruzek, Jennifer L; Bowman, Lynn G; Jennett, Heather K

    2007-01-01

    The current study describes the assessment and treatment of the problem behavior of 3 individuals with autism for whom initial functional analysis results were inconclusive. Subsequent analyses revealed that the interruption of free-operant behavior using "do" requests (Study 1) as well as "do" and "don't" requests (Study 2) occasioned problem behavior. Initially, treatment involved differential and noncontingent reinforcement without interruption. To make the intervention more sustainable in the natural environment (where interruptions are unavoidable), a two-component multiple-schedule arrangement was used to progressively increase the period of time in which ongoing activities would be interrupted. During generalization sessions, the intervention was applied across a variety of contexts and therapists.

  16. Methods to Assess Measurement Error in Questionnaires of Sedentary Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Joshua N; Matthews, Charles E; Freedman, Laurence; Carroll, Raymond J.; Kipnis, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior has already been associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Questionnaires are an affordable tool for measuring sedentary behavior in large epidemiological studies. Here, we introduce and evaluate two statistical methods for quantifying measurement error in questionnaires. Accurate estimates are needed for assessing questionnaire quality. The two methods would be applied to validation studies that measure a sedentary behavior by both questionnaire and accelerometer on multiple days. The first method fits a reduced model by assuming the accelerometer is without error, while the second method fits a more complete model that allows both measures to have error. Because accelerometers tend to be highly accurate, we show that ignoring the accelerometer’s measurement error, can result in more accurate estimates of measurement error in some scenarios. In this manuscript, we derive asymptotic approximations for the Mean-Squared Error of the estimated parameters from both methods, evaluate their dependence on study design and behavior characteristics, and offer an R package so investigators can make an informed choice between the two methods. We demonstrate the difference between the two methods in a recent validation study comparing Previous Day Recalls (PDR) to an accelerometer-based ActivPal. PMID:27340315

  17. The scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia correlates with dysarthria assessment in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Eigentler, Andreas; Rhomberg, Johanna; Nachbauer, Wolfgang; Ritzer, Irmgard; Poewe, Werner; Boesch, Sylvia

    2012-03-01

    Dysarthria is an acquired neurogenic sensorimotor speech symptom and an integral part within the clinical spectrum of ataxia syndromes. Ataxia measurements and disability scores generally focus on the assessment of motor functions. Since comprehensive investigations of dysarthria in ataxias are sparse, we assessed dysarthria in ataxia patients using the Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment. The Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment is a ten-item validated test in which eight items focus on the observation of oral structures and speech functions. Fifteen Friedreich's ataxia patients and 15 healthy control individuals were analyzed using clinical and logopedic methodology. All patients underwent neurological assessment applying the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia. In Friedreich's ataxia patients, the Frenchay sub-item voice showed to be most affected compared to healthy individuals followed by items such as reflexes, palate, tongue, and intelligibility. Scoring of lips, jaw, and respiration appeared to be mildly affected. Ataxia severity in Friedreich's ataxia patients revealed a significant correlation with the Frenchay dysarthria sum score. The introduction of a binary Adapted Dysarthria Score additionally allowed allocation to distinct dysarthria pattern in ataxias. The Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment proved to be a valid dysarthria measure in Friedreich's ataxia. Its availability in several languages provides a major advantage regarding the applicability in international clinical studies. Shortcomings of the Frenchay test are the multiplicity of items tested and its alphabetic coding. Numerical scoring and condensation of assessments in a modified version may, however, provide an excellent clinical tool for the measurement and scoring of dysarthria in ataxic speech disorders.

  18. Extending large-scale forest inventories to assess urban forests.

    PubMed

    Corona, Piermaria; Agrimi, Mariagrazia; Baffetta, Federica; Barbati, Anna; Chiriacò, Maria Vincenza; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Pompei, Enrico; Valentini, Riccardo; Mattioli, Walter

    2012-03-01

    Urban areas are continuously expanding today, extending their influence on an increasingly large proportion of woods and trees located in or nearby urban and urbanizing areas, the so-called urban forests. Although these forests have the potential for significantly improving the quality the urban environment and the well-being of the urban population, data to quantify the extent and characteristics of urban forests are still lacking or fragmentary on a large scale. In this regard, an expansion of the domain of multipurpose forest inventories like National Forest Inventories (NFIs) towards urban forests would be required. To this end, it would be convenient to exploit the same sampling scheme applied in NFIs to assess the basic features of urban forests. This paper considers approximately unbiased estimators of abundance and coverage of urban forests, together with estimators of the corresponding variances, which can be achieved from the first phase of most large-scale forest inventories. A simulation study is carried out in order to check the performance of the considered estimators under various situations involving the spatial distribution of the urban forests over the study area. An application is worked out on the data from the Italian NFI.

  19. Scaling Behavior in Economics: I. Empirical Results for Company Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes Amaral, Luís A.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Leschhorn, Heiko; Maass, Philipp; Salinger, Michael A.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Stanley, Michael H. R.

    1997-04-01

    We address the question of the growth of firm size. To this end, we analyze the Compustat data base comprising all publicly-traded United States manufacturing firms within the years 1974-1993. We find that the distribution of firm sizes remains stable for the 20 years we study, i.e., the mean value and standard deviation remain approximately constant. We study the distribution of sizes of the “new” companies in each year and find it to be well approximated by a log-normal. We find (i) the distribution of the logarithm of the growth rates, for a fixed growth period of one year, and for companies with approximately the same size S, display an exponential form, and (ii) the fluctuations in the growth rates measured by the width of this distribution σ_1 scale as a power with S, σ_1sim S^{-β}. We find that the exponent β takes the same value, within the error bars, for several measures of the size of a company. In particular, we obtain: β = 0.20± 0.03 for sales, β = 0.18± 0.03 for number of employees, β = 0.18± 0.03 for assets, β = 0.18± 0.03 for cost of goods sold, and β = 0.20± 0.03 for property, plant, and equipment.

  20. Risk Assessment and Scaling for the SLS LH2 ET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafiychuk, Halyna; Ponizovskaya-Devine, Ekaterina; Luchinsky, Dmitry; Khasin, Michael; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2012-01-01

    In this report the main physics processes in LH2 tank during prepress and rocket flight are studied. The goal of this investigation is to analyze possible hazards and to make risk assessment in proposed LH2 tank designs for SLS with 5 engines (the situation with 4 engines is less critical). For analysis we use the multinode model (MNM) developed by us and presented in a separate report and also 3D ANSYS simulations. We carry out simulation and theoretical analysis the physics processes such as (i) accumulation of bubbles in LH2 during replenish stage and their collapsing in the liquid during the prepress; (ii) condensation-evaporation at the liquid-vapor interface and tank wall, (iv) heating the liquid near the interface and wall due to condensation and environment heat, (v) injection of hot He during prepress and of hot GH2 during flight, (vi) mixing and cooling of the injected gases due to heat transfer between the gases, liquid and the tank wall. We analyze the effects of these physical processes on the thermo- and fluid gas dynamics in the ullage and on the stratification of temperature in the liquid and assess the associated hazards. A special emphasize is put on the scaling predictions for the larger SLS LH2 tank.

  1. Functional assessment scales: a study of persons after stroke.

    PubMed

    Granger, C V; Cotter, A C; Hamilton, B B; Fiedler, R C

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate disability in persons after stroke by using combinations of functional assessment item, subscale, domain, and full-scale scores, to predict (1) the burden of care measured in minutes of assistance provided per day by another person in the home, and (2) the subject's level of satisfaction with life in general. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) each contributed to prediction of the subject's physical care needs. A change in total FIM score of one point (range, 61 to 126) was equivalent to an average of 2.19 minutes of help from another person per day and a change in one point in the SIP physical dysfunction (SIPPHYS) score (range, 4.0% to 57.4%) was equivalent to an average of 3.32 minutes. Along with the Brief Symptom Inventory and a measure of visual ability, the FIM contributed to predicting the patient's general satisfaction as well. The burden of care and subjective satisfaction with life in general are important standards by which functional assessment instruments may be compared to reflect, in pragmatic terms, the impact of disability on the lives of individuals and on the human and economic resources of the community.

  2. Old and new scales for the assessment of body image.

    PubMed

    Stunkard, A

    2000-06-01

    Two new carefully constructed figure rating scales showed no greater validity than did the first such scale to be developed, as determined by the correlation between scale scores and body mass index and body weight.

  3. Alteration in scaling behavior of short-term heartbeat time series for professional shooting athletes from rest to exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jian Jun; Ning, Xin Bao; He, Ai Jun; Zou, Ming; Sun, Biao; Wu, Xu Hui

    2008-11-01

    Scaling analysis of heartbeat time series has emerged as a useful tool for assessing the autonomic cardiac control under various physiologic and pathologic conditions. We study the heartbeat activity and scaling behavior of heartbeat fluctuations regulated by autonomic nervous system for professional shooting athletes under two states: rest and exercise, by applying the detrended fluctuation analysis method. We focus on alteration in correlation properties of heartbeat intervals for the shooters from rest to exercise, which may have a potential value in monitoring the quality of training and evaluating the sports capacity of the athletes. The result shows that scaling exponents of short-term heart rate variability signals from the shooters get significantly larger during exercise compared with those obtained at rest. It demonstrates that during exercise stronger correlations appear in the heartbeat series of shooting athletes in order to satisfy the specific requirements for high concentration and better control on their heart beats.

  4. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary

  5. Handed foraging behavior in scale-eating cichlid fish: its potential role in shaping morphological asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Kusche, Henrik; Meyer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Scale-eating cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis, from Lake Tanganyika display handed (lateralized) foraging behavior, where an asymmetric 'left' mouth morph preferentially feeds on the scales of the right side of its victim fish and a 'right' morph bites the scales of the left side. This species has therefore become a textbook example of the astonishing degree of ecological specialization and negative frequency-dependent selection. We investigated the strength of handedness of foraging behavior as well as its interaction with morphological mouth laterality in P. microlepis. In wild-caught adult fish we found that mouth laterality is, as expected, a strong predictor of their preferred attack orientation. Also laboratory-reared juvenile fish exhibited a strong laterality in behavioral preference to feed on scales, even at an early age, although the initial level of mouth asymmetry appeared to be small. This suggests that pronounced mouth asymmetry is not a prerequisite for handed foraging behavior in juvenile scale-eating cichlid fish and might suggest that behavioral preference to attack a particular side of the prey plays a role in facilitating morphological asymmetry of this species.

  6. Correlations among the Reiss Screen, the Adaptive Behavior Scale Part II, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    PubMed

    Walsh, K K; Shenouda, N

    1999-05-01

    Relations among instruments used in community mental health services for people with developmental disabilities were explored with 284 individuals. Correlation coefficients among the instrument subscales were interpreted in terms of statistical significance and effect size. Of the 157 coefficients, 44% were significant, p < .001, and 35% represented large effects, r > .50. Reiss Screen subscale scores correlated with Irritability, Lethargy, and Hyperactivity on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and with Social Behavior and Disturbing Interpersonal Behavior on the ABS Part II. Stepwise regression analyses predicting Reiss Screen scores from the ABS and ABC resulted in a significant regression, with an overall adjusted R2 of .67. Variance was largely accounted for by two ABS domains and two ABC subscales.

  7. Assessing Causality in the Relationship between Adolescents' Risky Sexual Online Behavior and Their Perceptions of This Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate…

  8. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  9. Vocal behavior and risk assessment in wild chimpanzees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael L.; Hauser, Marc D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2005-09-01

    If, as theory predicts, animal communication is designed to manipulate the behavior of others to personal advantage, then there will be certain contexts in which vocal behavior is profitable and other cases where silence is favored. Studies conducted in Kibale National Park, Uganda investigated whether chimpanzees modified their vocal behavior according to different levels of risk from intergroup aggression, including relative numerical strength and location in range. Playback experiments tested numerical assessment, and observations of chimpanzees throughout their range tested whether they called less frequently to avoid detection in border areas. Chimpanzees were more likely to call to playback of a stranger's call if they greatly outnumbered the stranger. Chimpanzees tended to reduce calling in border areas, but not in all locations. Chimpanzees most consistently remained silent when raiding crops: they almost never gave loud pant-hoot calls when raiding banana plantations outside the park, even though they normally give many pant-hoots on arrival at high-quality food resources. These findings indicate that chimpanzees have the capacity to reduce loud call production when appropriate, but that additional factors, such as advertising territory ownership, contribute to the costs and benefits of calling in border zones.

  10. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) approximately 20min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72s. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1week, 1month and 2months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light↔dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence

  11. Impact of Test-Taking Behaviors on Full-Scale IQ Scores from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV Spanish Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Harris, Josette G.

    2009-01-01

    Research on children's counterproductive test behavior supports a three-factor model for behaviors: inattentiveness, avoidance, and uncooperative mood. In this study, test behaviors measured by the Guide to the Assessment of Test Session Behaviors (GATSB) are rated on a sample of 110 Hispanic Spanish-speaking children included in the Wechsler…

  12. Deriving childhood temperament measures from emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes: scale construction and initial validation.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Jeffrey R; Van Hulle, Carol A; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2011-06-01

    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific behaviors using the Lab-TAB and for forming behavioral composites that correspond to commonly researched temperament dimensions. We used mother ratings and independent postvisit observer ratings to provide validity evidence in a community sample of 4.5-year-old children. 12 Lab-TAB behavioral episodes were employed, yielding 24 within-episode temperament components that collapsed into 9 higher level composites (Anger, Sadness, Fear, Shyness, Positive Expression, Approach, Active Engagement, Persistence, and Inhibitory Control). These dimensions of temperament are similar to those found in questionnaire-based assessments. Correlations among the 9 composites were low to moderate, suggesting relative independence. As expected, agreement between Lab-TAB measures and postvisit observer ratings was stronger than agreement between the Lab-TAB and mother questionnaire. However, for Active Engagement and Shyness, mother ratings did predict child behavior in the Lab-TAB quite well. Findings demonstrate the feasibility of emotion-eliciting temperament assessment methodologies, suggest appropriate methods for data aggregation into trait-level constructs and set some expectations for associations between Lab-TAB dimensions and the degree of cross-method convergence between the Lab-TAB and other commonly used temperament assessments.

  13. Deriving Childhood Temperament Measures from Emotion-eliciting Behavioral Episodes: Scale Construction and Initial Validation

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament using a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This paper provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific behaviors using the Lab-TAB and for forming behavioral composites that correspond to commonly researched temperament dimensions. We used mother ratings and independent post-visit observer ratings to provide validity evidence in a community sample of 4.5 year-old children. 12 Lab-TAB behavioral episodes were employed, yielding 24 within-episode temperament components that collapsed into 9 higher-level composites (Anger, Sadness, Fear, Shyness, Positive Expression, Approach, Active Engagement, Persistence, and Inhibitory Control). These dimensions of temperament are similar to those found in questionnaire-based assessments. Correlations among the 9 composites were low to moderate, suggesting relative independence. As expected, agreement between Lab-TAB measures and post-visit observer ratings was stronger than agreement between the Lab-TAB and mother questionnaire. However, for Active Engagement and Shyness, mother ratings did predict child behavior in the Lab-TAB quite well. Findings demonstrate the feasibility of emotion-eliciting temperament assessment methodologies, suggest appropriate methods for data aggregation into trait-level constructs, and set some expectations for associations between Lab-TAB dimensions and the degree of cross-method convergence between the Lab-TAB and other commonly used temperament assessments. PMID:21480723

  14. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the behavioral pain scale and the critical-care pain observational tools in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsiung, Nai-Huan; Yang, Yen; Lee, Ming Shinn; Dalal, Koustuv; Smith, Graeme D

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the cultural adaptation and testing of the behavioral pain scale (BPS) and the critical-care pain observation tools (CPOT) for pain assessment in Taiwan. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the steps of translation, including forward translation, back-translation, evaluation of the translations by a committee of experts, adjustments, and then piloting of the prefinal versions of the BPS and the CPOT. A content validity index was used to assess content validities of the BPS and the CPOT, with 0.80 preset as the level that would be regarded as acceptable. The principal investigator then made adjustments when the content validity index was <0.80. The pilot test was performed with a sample of ten purposively selected patients by 2 medical staff from a medical care center in Taiwan. The BPS and the CPOT are adequate instruments for the assessment of pain levels in patients who cannot communicate due to sedation and ventilation treatments.

  15. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the behavioral pain scale and the critical-care pain observational tools in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsiung, Nai-Huan; Yang, Yen; Lee, Ming Shinn; Dalal, Koustuv; Smith, Graeme D

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the cultural adaptation and testing of the behavioral pain scale (BPS) and the critical-care pain observation tools (CPOT) for pain assessment in Taiwan. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the steps of translation, including forward translation, back-translation, evaluation of the translations by a committee of experts, adjustments, and then piloting of the prefinal versions of the BPS and the CPOT. A content validity index was used to assess content validities of the BPS and the CPOT, with 0.80 preset as the level that would be regarded as acceptable. The principal investigator then made adjustments when the content validity index was <0.80. The pilot test was performed with a sample of ten purposively selected patients by 2 medical staff from a medical care center in Taiwan. The BPS and the CPOT are adequate instruments for the assessment of pain levels in patients who cannot communicate due to sedation and ventilation treatments. PMID:27695360

  16. 2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Balk, Thomas

    2012-07-27

    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  17. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Assessing the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076

  18. Anomalous scaling behavior and surface roughening in molecular thin-film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, S.; Jones, T. S.

    2006-04-15

    The thin film growth dynamics of a molecular semiconductor, free-base phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}Pc), deposited by organic molecular beam deposition, has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and height difference correlation function (HDCF) analysis. The measured dynamic scaling components ({alpha}{sub loc}=0.61{+-}0.12, {beta}=1.02{+-}0.08, and 1/z=0.72{+-}0.13) are consistent with rapid surface roughening and anomalous scaling behavior. A detailed analysis of AFM images and simple growth models suggest that this behavior arises from the pronounced upward growth of crystalline H{sub 2}Pc mounds during the initial stages of thin film growth.

  19. Scaling behavior of spin gap of the bond alternating anisotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Susobhan; Ghosh, Asim Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Scaling behavior of spin gap of a bond alternating spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg chain has been studied both in ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) cases. Spin gap has been estimated by using exact diagonalization technique. All those quantities have been obtained for a region of anisotropic parameter Δ defined by 0≤Δ≤1. Spin gap is found to develop as soon as the non-uniformity in the alternating bond strength is introduced in the AFM regime which furthermore sustains in the FM regime as well. Scaling behavior of the spin gap has been studied by introducing scaling exponent. The variation of scaling exponents with Δ is fitted with a regular function.

  20. Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Im, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-02-04

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34 {+-} 0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls.

  1. Reliability and Validity of "Parents' Evaluation of Responsible Behaviors of 5-6 Year Old Children" Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ozgul; Dagal, Asude B.

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at developing a scale (Parents' Evaluation of Responsible Behaviors of 5-6 Year Old Children) for measuring parents' evaluation of their 5-6 year-old children's responsible behaviors. The construct validity of the scale was tested by Factor Analysis. Factor analysis determined that the scale can be clustered under 10 factors.…

  2. Validation of a Six Item Questionnaire for Assessing Type A Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Baron; And Others

    Type A behavior is an aggregate of behaviors associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. Two self-administered questionnaires used to determine the presence of Type A behavior, the Jenkins Activity Survey and Framingham Type A Behavior Pattern Scale, were administered to 150 undergraduate students at a midwestern university, along…

  3. NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Credibility Assessment Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babula, Maria; Bertch, William J.; Green, Lawrence L.; Hale, Joseph P.; Mosier, Gary E.; Steele, Martin J.; Woods, Jody

    2009-01-01

    As one of its many responses to the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA decided to develop a formal standard for models and simulations (M&S). Work commenced in May 2005. An interim version was issued in late 2006. This interim version underwent considerable revision following an extensive Agency-wide review in 2007 along with some additional revisions as a result of the review by the NASA Engineering Management Board (EMB) in the first half of 2008. Issuance of the revised, permanent version, hereafter referred to as the M&S Standard or just the Standard, occurred in July 2008. Bertch, Zang and Steeleiv provided a summary review of the development process of this standard up through the start of the review by the EMB. A thorough recount of the entire development process, major issues, key decisions, and all review processes are available in Ref. v. This is the second of a pair of papers providing a summary of the final version of the Standard. Its focus is the Credibility Assessment Scale, a key feature of the Standard, including an example of its application to a real-world M&S problem for the James Webb Space Telescope. The companion paper summarizes the overall philosophy of the Standard and an overview of the requirements. Verbatim quotes from the Standard are integrated into the text of this paper, and are indicated by quotation marks.

  4. Assessing large-scale wildlife responses to human infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Torres, Aurora; Jaeger, Jochen A G; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-26

    Habitat loss and deterioration represent the main threats to wildlife species, and are closely linked to the expansion of roads and human settlements. Unfortunately, large-scale effects of these structures remain generally overlooked. Here, we analyzed the European transportation infrastructure network and found that 50% of the continent is within 1.5 km of transportation infrastructure. We present a method for assessing the impacts from infrastructure on wildlife, based on functional response curves describing density reductions in birds and mammals (e.g., road-effect zones), and apply it to Spain as a case study. The imprint of infrastructure extends over most of the country (55.5% in the case of birds and 97.9% for mammals), with moderate declines predicted for birds (22.6% of individuals) and severe declines predicted for mammals (46.6%). Despite certain limitations, we suggest the approach proposed is widely applicable to the evaluation of effects of planned infrastructure developments under multiple scenarios, and propose an internationally coordinated strategy to update and improve it in the future.

  5. Assessing large-scale wildlife responses to human infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Torres, Aurora; Jaeger, Jochen A G; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-26

    Habitat loss and deterioration represent the main threats to wildlife species, and are closely linked to the expansion of roads and human settlements. Unfortunately, large-scale effects of these structures remain generally overlooked. Here, we analyzed the European transportation infrastructure network and found that 50% of the continent is within 1.5 km of transportation infrastructure. We present a method for assessing the impacts from infrastructure on wildlife, based on functional response curves describing density reductions in birds and mammals (e.g., road-effect zones), and apply it to Spain as a case study. The imprint of infrastructure extends over most of the country (55.5% in the case of birds and 97.9% for mammals), with moderate declines predicted for birds (22.6% of individuals) and severe declines predicted for mammals (46.6%). Despite certain limitations, we suggest the approach proposed is widely applicable to the evaluation of effects of planned infrastructure developments under multiple scenarios, and propose an internationally coordinated strategy to update and improve it in the future. PMID:27402749

  6. Developing a comprehensive scale to assess college multicultural programming.

    PubMed

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Miles, Joseph R; Bhaskar, Tripti; Chery, Nicole; Choi, Gahee; Sung, Mi-Ra

    2014-01-01

    A barrier to assessing effectiveness of multicultural programming is lack of a relatively brief instrument to measure the wide range of intended outcomes. A frequent goal of programming is to increase cultural empathy, but this is rarely the only intended outcome. We conducted focus groups of campus administrators, student affairs staff, and undergraduate instructors who identified a full range of racial/ethnic multicultural competencies that undergraduates should possess. An 84-item pool generated from these focus groups was combined with the 31-item Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE; Wang et al., 2003). These 115 items, together with instruments used to gauge concurrent validity, were administered to White undergraduate students in introductory psychology courses at the midpoint (n = 602) and end (n = 676) of fall semester. Exploratory factor analysis suggested 6 subscales for the Everyday Multicultural Competencies/Revised SEE (EMC/RSEE): (a) Cultural Openness and Desire to Learn; (b) Resentment and Cultural Dominance; (c) Anxiety and Lack of Multicultural Self-Efficacy; (d) Empathic Perspective-Taking; (e) Awareness of Contemporary Racism and Privilege; and (f) Empathic Feeling and Acting as an Ally. Item response theory principles guided final selection of subscale items. Analyses suggested good factor stability, reliability, and discriminant validity of the 48-item EMC/RSEE in these undergraduate samples. EMC/RSEE subscales were not strongly correlated with a measure of impression management and were significantly associated with measures of Openness to Diversity Challenge, and Universal-Diverse Orientation.

  7. Evaluation of Thermal and Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Full-scale Energy Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Kyle D.

    This study focuses on the thermo-mechanical and thermal behavior of full-scale energy foundations installed as part of two buildings recently constructed in Colorado. The soil stratigraphy at each of the sites differed, but both foundations were expected to function as primarily end-bearing elements with a tip socketed into rock. The heat exchanger configurations were also different amongst the foundations at both sites, permitting evaluation of the role of heat exchange. A common thread for both energy foundation case histories was the monitoring of the temperature and axial strain within the foundations during heat exchange operations. The first case study involves an evaluation of the long-term thermo-mechanical response of two full-scale energy foundations installed at the new Denver Housing Authority (DHA) Senior Living Facility at 1099 Osage St. in Denver, Colorado. Due to the construction schedule for this project, the thermal properties of the foundations and surrounding subsurface could not be assessed using thermal response tests. However, instrumentation was incorporated into the foundations to assess their long-term heat exchange response as well as the thermo-mechanical strains, stresses, and displacements that occurred during construction and operation of the ground-source heat pump system. The temperature changes within the foundations during heating and cooling operations over a period of approximately 600 days ranged from 9 to 32 °C, respectively. The thermal axial stresses in the foundations were calculated from the measured strains, and ranged from 3.1 MPa during heating to --1.0 MPa during cooling. These values are within reasonable limits for reinforced concrete structures. The maximum thermal axial stress was observed near the toe of both foundations, which is consistent with trends expected for end-bearing toe boundary conditions. The greatest thermal axial strains were observed near the top of the foundations (upward expansion during

  8. Leveraging large-scale behavioral profiling in zebrafish to explore neuroactive polypharmacology

    PubMed Central

    McCarroll, Matthew N; Gendelev, Leo; Keiser, Michael J; Kokel, David

    2016-01-01

    Many psychiatric drugs modulate the nervous system through multi-target mechanisms. However, systematic identification of multi-target compounds has been difficult using traditional in vitro screening assays. New approaches to phenotypic profiling in zebrafish can help researchers identify novel compounds with complex polypharmacology. For example, large-scale behavior-based chemical screens can rapidly identify large numbers of structurally diverse and phenotype-related compounds. Once these compounds have been identified, a systems-level analysis of their structures may help to identify statistically enriched target pathways. Together, systematic behavioral profiling and multi-target predictions may help researchers identify new behavior-modifying pathways and CNS therapeutics. PMID:26845413

  9. Actuarial Models for Assessing Prison Violence Risk: Revisions and Extensions of the Risk Assessment Scale for Prison (RASP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Mark D.; Sorensen, Jon R.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation and extension of the Risk Assessment Scale for Prison (RASP-Potosi), an actuarially derived scale for the assessment of prison violence, was undertaken through a retrospective review of the disciplinary records of the first 12 months of confinement of a cohort of inmates entering the Florida Department of Corrections in 2002 and…

  10. Higher-Order Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales with a Referred Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Canivez, Gary L.; Lindstrom, Will; Hatt, Clifford V.

    2007-01-01

    The factor structure of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; [Reynolds, C.R., & Kamphaus, R.W. (2003). "Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.]) was investigated with a large (N=1163) independent sample of referred students (ages 6-18). More rigorous factor extraction criteria…

  11. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  12. Valid and Reliable Assessments to Measure Scale Literacy of Students in Introductory College Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Karrie; Trate, Jaclyn; Blecking, Anja; Geissinger, Peter; Murphy, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    An important component of a student's science literacy is scale and concepts relating to scale including proportion and quantity. Measuring a student's scale concept has been examined using laboratory studies with one-on-one activities and interviews. However, classwide assessments to measure a student's scale concept have been…

  13. Do Assessments of HIV Risk Behaviors Change Behaviors and Prevention Intervention Efficacy? An Experimental Examination of the Influence of Type of Assessment and Risk Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Glasman, Laura R.; Skinner, Donald; Bogart, Laura M.; Kalichman, Seth C.; McAuliffe, Timothy; Sitzler, Cheryl A.; Toefy, Yoesrie; Weinhardt, Lance S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Behavioral assessments may change behaviors and responses to behavioral interventions, depending on assessment type and respondents’ motivations. PURPOSE We observed effects on sexual behavior and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention intervention efficacy of interviews assessing recent HIV risk behavior frequency or HIV risk behavior events among respondents with different perceptions of their risk for HIV. METHODS Young South African Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic clients (N= 1728) participated in a 3 (event-based vs. frequency-based vs. no interview) by 2 (evidence-based vs. standard of care risk-reduction session) RCT. RESULTS The interviews increased reported safer sexual behavior among youth with higher but not lower risk perceptions. The intervention session was less effective when combined with interviews, particularly among low risk perception youth. Patterns replicated for both interviews. CONCLUSIONS HIV risk behavior assessments may increase resistance to interventions among unmotivated youth and enhance safer sexual behavior among motivated youth. Behavioral assessments may reduce HIV risk among motivated individuals. PMID:25385202

  14. Neurobehavioral Assessment from Fetus to Infant: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale and the Fetal Neurobehavior Coding Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Amy L.; Fallone, Melissa Duncan; Lester, Barry

    2005-01-01

    This review provides an overview and definition of the concept of neurobehavior in human development. Two neurobehavioral assessments used by the authors in current fetal and infant research are discussed: the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale and the Fetal Neurobehavior Coding System. This review will present how the two assessments…

  15. Assessment of Corrosion Behavior of Ductile Irons by Factorial Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surendranathan, A. O.; Narayan Prabhu, K.; Sudhaker Nayak, H. V.

    2009-12-01

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed and alloyed ductile irons (as cast, annealed, and cold worked) in sea water, dilute sulfuric acid, and dilute sodium hydroxide solutions was assessed. Specimen history had a significant effect on the corrosion potential except in ductile iron alloyed with Ni. When the specimens were subjected to different levels of cold working, the corrosion rate was influenced by both the history and the medium. Temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion rate except in the case of unalloyed ductile iron. Factorial experiments indicated that the cold-worked samples were more sensitive to the effect of temperature and composition on the corrosion rate as compared to annealed and as-cast samples. The medium had a significant effect on the corrosion rate in all the cases.

  16. Comparison of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition, and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition.

    PubMed

    Scattone, Dorothy; Raggio, Donald J; May, Warren

    2011-10-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II), and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) were administered to 65 children between the ages of 12 and 42 months referred for developmental delays. Standard scores and age equivalents were compared across instruments. Analyses showed no statistical difference between Vineland-II ABC standard scores and cognitive levels obtained from the Bayley-III. However, Vineland-II Communication and Motor domain standard scores were significantly higher than corresponding scores on the Bayley-III. In addition, age equivalent scores were significantly higher on the Vineland-II for the fine motor subdomain. Implications for early intervention are discussed. PMID:22238860

  17. Identifying youth at risk for psychosis using the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily; Reeves, Gloria; Pitts, Steven C; Schiffman, Jason

    2013-12-01

    Identification of youth at risk for or with early psychosis has become the focus of many research and clinical initiatives, as early intervention may be linked to better long-term outcomes. Efforts to facilitate identification have led to the development of several self-report instruments that intend to quickly assess "attenuated" psychosis, potentially screening people for further evaluation. The widely used Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) includes the atypicality scale, a scale that may be useful for risk screening as it is designed to recognize emerging symptoms of psychosis. The current study aimed to evaluate the utility of the BASC-2 for identifying youth at high clinical risk or with early psychosis within a sample of 70 help-seeking participants aged 12-22. Atypicality scores were compared to risk status (low-risk, high-risk or early psychosis) as determined by the clinician-administered Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS). The relative accuracy of the atypicality scale was evaluated against three self-report screeners specifically designed to identify this population. Results indicate that the BASC-2 atypicality scale may be a useful tool for identifying youth in early stages of psychosis. Moreover, the atypicality scale is comparable if not superior to other specialized risk screening instruments in terms of predictive ability. Given the widespread use of the BASC-2 across educational and mental health settings, evidence for convergent validity between the BASC-2 atypicality scale and SIPS diagnoses has the potential to make screening available to a greater population and facilitate earlier detection and intervention. PMID:24119463

  18. Validating the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirenda, Pat; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in a sample of 287 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine six competing structural models. Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated to examine the associations between factor…

  19. Behavioral Observation Scales for Measuring Children's Distress: The Effects of Increased Methodological Rigor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of increased methodological rigor on the validity of the Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress and on findings concerning whether children habituate to painful procedures. Data were scored with and without refinements. Results indicated that children do habituate but that refinements had little effect on validity. (BH)

  20. An ICF-CY-Based Content Analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Kara; Coster, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and its version for children and youth (ICF-CY), has been increasingly adopted as a system to describe function and disability. A content analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) was conducted to examine congruence with the functioning…

  1. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  2. Impulsivity and the Sexes: Measurement and Structural Invariance of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Before it is possible to test whether men and women differ in impulsivity, it is necessary to evaluate whether impulsivity measures are invariant across sex. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking, with added subscale of positive urgency) is one measure of five…

  3. Psychometric Properties of a Korean Translation of the "Scales of Independent Behavior--Revised"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Su-Je; Paik, Eunhee; Lee, Byoung-In; Yi, Joonsuk

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the psychometric properties of data drawn from the Korean translation of the full "Scales of Independent Behavior--Revised" (SIB-R). In addition, semantic, content, conceptual, and technical equivalence are examined. The participants include 2,763 typically developing children and 406 children with intellectual disabilities…

  4. Approaches to Learning among Head Start Alumni: Structure and Validity of the Learning Behaviors Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikoon, Samuel H.; McDermott, Paul A.; Fantuzzo, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports new evidence for the dimensionality and validity of the Learning Behaviors Scale in samples of Head Start children. A sample of 900 former Head Start children enrolled in public kindergarten and first-grade classrooms was studied using modern techniques to analyze item responses represented as ordered categories. Findings from…

  5. Factorial Validity and Reliability of the Devereux Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, William M.; Bernstein, Sydna M.

    1982-01-01

    The factorial validity and internal consistency reliability of the Devereux Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale were examined with a random sample of elementary school children. Given the problem of multicollinearity that was shown to exist among subscales, the authors suggest caution in the interpretation of Devereux subscales as discrete…

  6. The Psychometric Properties of the Difficult Behavior Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Kozub, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to estimate the psychometric properties of Hastings and Brown's (2002a) Difficult Behavior Self-efficacy Scale. Participants were two samples of physical educators teaching in Korea (n = 229) and the United States (U.S.; n = 139). An initial translation of the questionnaire to Korean and pilot study were conducted along with…

  7. Classification of the Hearing Impaired for Independent Living Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, William R.; Sands, Deanna Iceman

    1990-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was used to classify 118 hearing-impaired persons (88 percent were ages 16-21) into groups based on their ability to be trained in independent living skills. Using cluster analysis, the subjects were placed into three groups according to four domains: communication, daily living, socialization, and maladaptive…

  8. Preliminary Psychometric Evidence of the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Fred W.; DiStefano, Christine A.; Liu, Jin; Cain, Leia K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide psychometric evidence related to the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool" form's (BESS TRS-P) ability to identify emerging problems in preschool children. Reliability and validity associated with screener scores were compared by analyzing teacher ratings of…

  9. The Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale: Dimensionality and External Validity in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Paul A.; Rikoon, Samuel H.; Waterman, Clare; Fantuzzo, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of accurately gauging early childhood approaches to learning, this study reports evidence for the dimensionality and utility of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale for use with disadvantaged preschool children. Data from a large (N = 1,666) sample representative of urban Head Start classrooms revealed three reliable…

  10. Evaluation of the rate of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers across preference assessments.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior. PMID:22219533

  11. Behavioral assay for assessing effects of pollutants on fish chemoreception

    SciTech Connect

    Lemly, A.D.; Smith, R.J.

    1986-04-01

    Behavioral assays are sensitive to sublethal levels of pollution but they usually require highly trained personnel and long observation periods. We describe a system that combines the sensitivity of a behavioral assay with commercially available automated monitoring equipment. The observation system consists of a special aquarium coupled to a recirculating water system, and an Opto-Varimex-Aqua activity tracking meter (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, Ohio) interfaced to a microcomputer. The tracking meter forms an intersecting, planar grid of light beams which, when interrupted by fish movements, is translated into a digitized signal and fed to the computer. The assay is based on the response of fish to natural chemical stimuli such as food odors or pheromones. When these stimulus solutions are injected into the water circulation the response of the fish is monitored by the computer system, which is capable of discriminating and quantifying changes in eight parameters. Normal responses to stimuli are compared with the response of fish that have been exposed to pollutants. We have successfully used this technique to examine effects of reduced pH on the response of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, to chemical feeding stimuli. The system should be easily adapted to any laboratory concerned with testing for effects of toxic substances, and will identify effects of pollution that have thus far been difficult or impossible to assess.

  12. Validity and reliability of the developmental assessment screening scale

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay; Squires, Jane; Yeh, Chia Jung; Heo, Kay H.; Bian, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and validate the 6-year Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) for school-age children. Methods: Parents/caregivers of children 66–78 months were recruited from 6 countries and 15 states in the United States. Similar to other ASQ intervals, the 6-year ASQ has five developmental domains targeted for children from 66 months to 78 months of age. We assessed internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, the scale structure, validity (correlation coefficients), and utility of the 6-year ASQ. The 6-year ASQ screens development in five domains using 30 items. Results: Coefficient alpha measuring internal consistency was 0.97. Test-retest reliability was estimated by having parents complete two ASQ's on the same child within a week interval. Correlations between scores of the two ASQ's reflected stability of scores. Test-retest reliability results were robust with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.94. Factor analysis results resulted in a five factors structure. The Pearson correlations coefficients between the latent variables were moderate to large and statistically significant, P < 0.0001. The 6-year ASQ screens development in five domains using 30 items. The administration time varied from 10 to 60 min with a mean of 15.17 min. General utility result shows that the 6-year ASQ can be used with satisfaction by caregivers, pediatricians, professionals, and parents. Conclusions: Preliminary data on the 6-year ASQ reflected promising results. An easy-to-administer, accurate caregiver-completed screening tool may increase the frequency of screening for school-age children. PMID:27453856

  13. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  14. Could sewage epidemiology be a strategy to assess lifestyle and wellness of a large scale population?

    PubMed

    Santos, Julia M; Jurban, Michael; Kim, Hyesook

    2015-10-01

    The use of sewage epidemiology to estimate the behavior of a large scale population has mainly been used to assess illicit drug use within a community. The systemic oxidative stress marker, 8-isoprostane, is a wildly accepted biomarker for various diseases such as diabetes, and cardiovascular and renal diseases. 8-Isoprostane is detected in urine and, as with illicit drugs, is excreted into urban sewer networks. Initially, we tested the hypothesis that differential 8-isoprostane levels are detected in wastewater of different communities and that 8-isoprostane values adjusted for the flow rate and population size will remain constant over a 2 months period. Sewage samples were collected from three sewage collection points supplied by different communities located in the Detroit metropolitan area and concentration of 8-isoprostane and synthetic plastic component, bisphenol A (BPA), were measured. Levels of 8-isoprostane were constant during the two measured months at each collection point in oppose to BPA levels. When the levels were compared among communities, 8-isoprostane levels in 24h flow and their concentrations per capita in each community varied by more than 5-fold among them. Considering the fact that 8-isoprostane is a biomarker of several diseases, we hypothesize that measurement of 8-isoprostane levels in sewage may serve as a risk assessment tool of oxidative stress-related diseases in a large scale population. Thus, sewage epidemiology can be utilized to obtain an early warning in a community to facilitate intervention for improvement of the community health. PMID:26146131

  15. Assessing the validity and reliability of the perceptions of the Consent To Sex Scale.

    PubMed

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D

    2014-01-01

    Although sexual assault prevention education tends to focus on consent promotion as a means to reduce rates of sexual assault, little is known about how college students consent to sexual activity. The current study aimed to better understand college students' consent via the systematic development of the Consent to Sex Scale (CSS), utilizing mixed methods via three phases and two waves of data collection. In Phase 1, qualitative data were collected from college students (n = 185) to provide a foundation for item writing. In Phase 2, closed-ended items were written for a quantitative instrument and reviewed by a team of experts. In Phase 3, a quantitative survey, including items written in Phase 2, was administered to college students (n = 685); the measure was assessed for its psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analysis was utilized, resulting in a five-factor solution. The CSS and corresponding factors demonstrated high internal consistency reliability and expected gender differences, supporting the construct validity of the measure. The CSS assesses college students' cues for indicating consent to sex, a construct not addressed by previous measures. The validated scale may be useful in future research to better understand how consent relates to other behaviors or constructs.

  16. Dielectric relaxation, resonance and scaling behaviors in Sr3Co2Fe24O41 hexaferrite.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rujun; Jiang, Chen; Qian, Wenhu; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Hao

    2015-08-28

    The dielectric properties of Z-type hexaferrite Sr3Co2Fe24O41 (SCFO) have been investigated as a function of temperature from 153 to 503 K between 1 and 2 GHz. The dielectric responses of SCFO are found to be frequency dependent and thermally activated. The relaxation-type dielectric behavior is observed to be dominating in the low frequency region and resonance-type dielectric behavior is found to be dominating above 10(8) Hz. This frequency dependence of dielectric behavior is explained by the damped harmonic oscillator model with temperature dependent coefficients. The imaginary part of impedance (Z″) and modulus (M″) spectra show that there is a distribution of relaxation times. The scaling behaviors of Z″ and M″ spectra further suggest that the distribution of relaxation times is temperature independent at low frequencies. The dielectric loss spectra at different temperatures have not shown a scaling behavior above 10(8) Hz. A comparison between the Z″ and the M″ spectra indicates that the short-range charges motion dominates at low temperatures and the long-range charges motion dominates at high temperatures. The above results indicate that the dielectric dispersion mechanism in SCFO is temperature independent at low frequencies and temperature dependent at high frequencies due to the domination of resonance behavior.

  17. Copy of Using Emulation and Simulation to Understand the Large-Scale Behavior of the Internet.

    SciTech Connect

    Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Armstrong, Robert C.; Chiang, Ken; Gentile, Ann C.; Lloyd, Levi; Minnich, Ronald G.; Vanderveen, Keith; Van Randwyk, Jamie A; Rudish, Don W.

    2008-10-01

    We report on the work done in the late-start LDRDUsing Emulation and Simulation toUnderstand the Large-Scale Behavior of the Internet. We describe the creation of a researchplatform that emulates many thousands of machines to be used for the study of large-scale inter-net behavior. We describe a proof-of-concept simple attack we performed in this environment.We describe the successful capture of a Storm bot and, from the study of the bot and furtherliterature search, establish large-scale aspects we seek to understand via emulation of Storm onour research platform in possible follow-on work. Finally, we discuss possible future work.3

  18. Multiple-Time Scaling and Universal Behavior of the Earthquake Interevent Time Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiglieri, M.; Godano, C.; Lippiello, E.; Arcangelis, L. de

    2010-04-16

    The interevent time distribution characterizes the temporal occurrence in seismic catalogs. Universal scaling properties of this distribution have been evidenced for entire catalogs and seismic sequences. Recently, these universal features have been questioned and some criticisms have been raised. We investigate the existence of universal scaling properties by analyzing a Californian catalog and by means of numerical simulations of an epidemic-type model. We show that the interevent time distribution exhibits a universal behavior over the entire temporal range if four characteristic times are taken into account. The above analysis allows us to identify the scaling form leading to universal behavior and explains the observed deviations. Furthermore, it provides a tool to identify the dependence on the mainshock magnitude of the c parameter that fixes the onset of the power law decay in the Omori law.

  19. Scaling behavior of individual barkhausen avalanches in nucleation-mediated magnetization reversal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2009-11-09

    We report the scaling behavior of Barkhausen avalanches along the hysteresis loop of a CoCrPt alloy film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for every field step of 200 Oe. Individual Barkhausen avalanches are directly observed via high-resolution soft X-ray microscopy with a spatial resolution of 15 nm. The Barkhausen avalanches exhibit a power-law scaling behavior, where the scaling exponent of the power-law distribution drastically changes from 1 {+-} 0.04 to 1.47 {+-} 0.03 as the applied magnetic field approaches the coercivity of the CoCrPt film. We infer that this is due to the coupling of adjacent domains.

  20. Hall Scaling behavior of Hg- and Tl-based superconducting thin films with columnar defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, W. N.; Chu, C. W.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. U.

    1998-03-01

    We have measured the mixed-state Hall effects of HgBa_2CaCu_2O_6+δ, HgBa_2Ca_2Cu_3O_8+δ, and Tl_2Ba_2CaCu_2O_8+δ thin films with columnar defects. We found the field-independent scaling behavior between the Hall resistivity(ρ_xy) and longitudinal resistivityρ_xx for low and high field regimes. The Hall scaling exponent β in ρ_xy = Aρ_xx^β showed 1.0 ± 0.1 for low field regions, while β showed 2.0 ± 0.05 for high field regions. The observation of β = 1.0 in the low field limits is consistent with the recent theory which is based on the d-wave superconductors. The result will be discussed in the context of the Hall scaling behavior in 2- or 3-dimensional-like systems.

  1. Assessing and Treating Stereotypical Behaviors in Classrooms Using a Functional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Allison L.; Balint-Langel, Kinga; Troughton, Leonard; Langan, Sean; Lodge, Kelsey; Kortemeyer, Sara

    2015-01-01

    For years, the assumption has been that stereotypical behaviors functioned only to provide sensory or automatic reinforcement. However, these behaviors also may serve social functions. Given the unsettled debate, functional behavior assessment and functional analysis can be used to identify the exact function of stereotypical behavior and design…

  2. Assessment and Treatment of Excessive Straightening and Destructive Behavior in an Adolescent Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, David E.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Sweeney, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors such as excessive straightening are commonly observed among individuals with autism. Attempts to prevent these behaviors may increase the likelihood of other problem behaviors. The present study was designed to assess and treat the excessive straightening and associated destructive behaviors of a 16-year-old boy who had been…

  3. A Comparison of Experimental Functional Analysis and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) in the Assessment of Challenging Behavior of Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Olive; Brett, Denise; Leader, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    We compared two functional behavioral assessment methods: the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF; a standardized test) and experimental functional analysis (EFA) to identify behavioral functions of aggressive/destructive behavior, self-injurious behavior and stereotypy in 32 people diagnosed with autism. Both assessments found that self…

  4. Do Balanced Scales Assess Bipolar Constructs? The Case of the STAI Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vautier, Stephane; Pohl, Steffi

    2009-01-01

    Balanced scales, that is, scales based on items whose content is either negatively or positively polarized, are often used in the hope of measuring a bipolar construct. Research has shown that usually balanced scales do not yield 1-dimensional measurements. This threatens their construct validity. The authors show how to test bipolarity while…

  5. A multivariate study of the effects of high-risk factors on performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale.

    PubMed

    Lester, B M; Emory, E K; Hoffman, S L

    1976-06-01

    The Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale was administered to 52 newborn infants. A factor analysis revealed 2 main factors, 1 along an attention-orientation dimension, the other relating to temperament arousal. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that the attention-orientation factor was related to birth weight, age of the mother, and sex and race of the baby. The only variable related to the temperament-arousal factor was 5-min Apgar scor. The study, although exploratory, demonstrates the use of multivariate techniques in the assessment of influences on newborn behavior.

  6. Development and Assessment of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Linnemeyer, Rachel M.; Bahner, Angela D.; Misialek, Leah Hanson

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and the initial psychometric evaluation of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale in two studies. In the first study, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 278) revealed a four-factor scale, accounting for 71.4% of the variance, measuring different aspects of social issue advocacy: Political and Social Advocacy,…

  7. The Prevalence of Food Addiction as Assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pursey, Kirrilly M.; Stanwell, Peter; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Collins, Clare E.; Burrows, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) has been developed to specifically assess food addiction. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction diagnosis and symptom scores, as assessed by the YFAS. Published studies to July 2014 were included if they reported the YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and were published in the English language. Twenty-five studies were identified including a total of 196,211 predominantly female, overweight/obese participants (60%). Using meta-analysis, the weighted mean prevalence of YFAS food addiction diagnosis was 19.9%. Food addiction (FA) diagnosis was found to be higher in adults aged >35 years, females, and overweight/obese participants. Additionally, YFAS diagnosis and symptom score was higher in clinical samples compared to non-clinical counterparts. YFAS outcomes were related to a range of other eating behavior measures and anthropometrics. Further research is required to explore YFAS outcomes across a broader spectrum of ages, other types of eating disorders and in conjunction with weight loss interventions to confirm the efficacy of the tool to assess for the presence of FA. PMID:25338274

  8. The prevalence of food addiction as assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Stanwell, Peter; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L

    2014-10-21

    Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) has been developed to specifically assess food addiction. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction diagnosis and symptom scores, as assessed by the YFAS. Published studies to July 2014 were included if they reported the YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and were published in the English language. Twenty-five studies were identified including a total of 196,211 predominantly female, overweight/obese participants (60%). Using meta-analysis, the weighted mean prevalence of YFAS food addiction diagnosis was 19.9%. Food addiction (FA) diagnosis was found to be higher in adults aged >35 years, females, and overweight/obese participants. Additionally, YFAS diagnosis and symptom score was higher in clinical samples compared to non-clinical counterparts. YFAS outcomes were related to a range of other eating behavior measures and anthropometrics. Further research is required to explore YFAS outcomes across a broader spectrum of ages, other types of eating disorders and in conjunction with weight loss interventions to confirm the efficacy of the tool to assess for the presence of FA.

  9. [Concurrent validation of the suicidal risk assessment scale (R.S.D.) with the Beck's suicidal ideation scale].

    PubMed

    Ducher, J-L; Daléry, J

    2004-01-01

    The prevention of suicide is a top priority in mental health. The determination of high risk suicidal groups is not sufficient. The expressing suicidal ideas is not a protective factor, but in contrary a risk factor to take into account, or even to search and to quantify: 80% of the subjects who attempt to commit suicide or commit suicide express such ideas months before. Several evaluation instruments try to help the practitioners or the research workers in this reasoning. The suicidal risk assessment scale RSD can be cited in particular. It is composed of eleven sections. The 0 level corresponds to the absence of particular ideas of death or suicide. Levels 1 and 2, the presence of ideas of death. Levels 3-4-5, the presence of suicidal ideas. The difference compared to the majority of the other scales consecrated to the same subject, the passif desire of death, occupies a place totally particular in the RSD (level 6). From the level 7, the risk of acting out seems to become more important. It stops being a simple idea of suicide, but becomes a real will of dying, firstly retained by something or someone (level 7), the fear of causing suffering to dear ones or a religious belief., then determined (level 8). Finally, the patient has elaborated a concrete plan (level 9) or he has already started the preparation of acting out (level 10). It is just necessary to evaluate and to note the highest level of the scale. The inclusion of the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and of the Suicidal Ideation Scale by Beck in an international multicenters, phase IV, double-blind study, according to two parallel groups, with a fixed dose of fluoxétine or fluvoxamine for six weeks, allowed to search correlations which could exist between the two scales. The ana-lysis before the beginning of the treatment was done on 108 outpatients depressive, male and female, aged 18 or over. It finds a satisfactory concurrent validity between the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and the

  10. A Behavioral Economic Approach to Assessing Demand for Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand - purchases at lowest price; Omax - max. spent on marijuana; Pmax - price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants “purchased” high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2-weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine its reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  11. A behavioral economic approach to assessing demand for marijuana.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  12. Applying Positive Behavioral Support and Functional Behavioral Assessment in Schools. Technical Assistance Guide 1, Version 1.4.3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugai, George; Horner, Robert H.; Dunlap, Glen; Hieneman, Meme; Lewis, Timothy J.; Nelson, C. Michael; Scott, Terrance; Liaupsin, Carl; Sailor, Wayne; Turnbull, Ann P.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Wickham, Donna; Ruef, Michael; Wilcox, Brennan

    This paper discusses how educators can apply positive behavioral support (PBS) to students with and without disabilities and conduct functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). It begins by describing the challenges that educators face in educating an increasingly heterogeneous population of students, including students with external and internal…

  13. Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention with Emotional/Behaviorally Disordered Students: In Pursuit of State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waguespack, Angela; Vaccaro, Terrence; Continere, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    The application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures for the purposes of developing interventions for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) has received considerable attention since the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this paper is to review the…

  14. Individualizing Functional Assessments for Children with Autism: The Contribution of Perseverative Behavior and Sensory Disturbances to Disruptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Matthew; Richman, David M.; Zarcone, Jennifer; Zarcone, Troy

    2003-01-01

    A functional assessment interview was conducted with care providers of 100 children (ages 2-5) with autism regarding reinforcement contingencies contributing to maintenance of disruptive behavior. Gaining access to perseverative activities and escaping demands while engaged in these activities frequently contributed to disruptive behavior in the…

  15. Using Electronic and Other New Ways To Help Students Improve Their Behavior: Functional Behavioral Assessment at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Kim A.; Tobin, Tary J.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents two case examples to demonstrate how teachers can use functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design behavior support plans. FBA helps a second grade "class clown" to learn new ways to get attention and a first grade "class lawyer" to learn to stop arguing and stay on task (with the help of an electronic record keeping…

  16. A Comparison of Pain Assessment Measures in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease: Visual Analog Scale Versus Numeric Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Myrvik, Matthew P; Drendel, Amy L; Brandow, Amanda M; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Panepinto, Julie A

    2015-04-01

    Given the availability of various pain severity scales, greater understanding of the agreement between pain scales is warranted. We compared Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) pain severity ratings in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) to identify the relationship and agreement between pain scale ratings. Twenty-eight patients (mean ± SD age, 14.65 ± 3.12 y, 50% female) receiving pain interventions within the emergency department completed serial VAS and NRS pain severity ratings every 30 minutes. Data were used to calculate the relationship (Spearman correlation) and agreement (Bland-Altman approach) between the VAS and NRS. One hundred twenty-eight paired VAS-NRS measurements were obtained. VAS and NRS ratings were significantly correlated for the initial assessment (rs = 0.88, P < 0.001) and all assessments (rs = 0.87, P < 0.001). Differences between VAS and NRS means were -0.52 (P = 0.006) for the initial assessment and -0.86 (P < 0.001) across all assessments. The difference between VAS and NRS ratings decreased as pain severity increased across all assessments (P = 0.027), but not the initial assessment. Within pediatric patients with SCD, VAS and NRS ratings were found to trend together; however, VAS scores were found to be significantly lower than NRS scores across assessments. The agreement between the 2 measures improved at increasing levels of pain severity. These findings demonstrate that the VAS and NRS are similar, but cannot be used interchangeably when assessing self-reported pain in SCD.

  17. Assessing reproductive behavior important to fisheries management: a case study with red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Lowerre-barbieri, Susan K; Burnsed, Sarah L Walters; Bickford, Joel W

    2016-06-01

    Spawning site selection and reproductive timing affect stock productivity and structure in marine fishes but are poorly understood. Traditionally, stock assessments measure reproductive potential as spawning stock biomass or egg production and do not include other aspects of reproductive behavior. Red drum make an excellent case study to assess these other aspects, as (1) they are highly fecund, pelagic spawners, like most exploited marine fishes; (2) their life cycle is delineated between nursery (estuarine) and adult (coastal and offshore) habitat; and (3) they are managed at these two spatial scales. This study was conducted from August 2012 to December 2013 and integrates data from multiple methods and spatial scales. Aerial surveys were used for large-scale monitoring of aggregations off two known estuarine nursery areas, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, Florida, USA. Capture-based sampling in Tampa Bay coastal (n = 2581) and estuarine waters (n = 158) was used to assess reproductive state and to confirm coastal spawning. To assess spatial dynamics, we acoustically tagged two population components in the Tampa Bay system, subadults from the estuary (n = 20) and adults from the coastal spawning site (n = 60). Behavioral plasticity was seen in subadult recruitment to coastal habitat, with some subadults maturing and recruiting before or during the spawning season and others (14 of 20 acoustically tagged fish) recruiting at the end of the 2012 spawning season. Both adults and recruited subadults (n = 29) were consequently detected in the Charlotte Harbor array, 132 km to the south. Spawning-site fidelity to the Tampa Bay spawning site occurred at both the population and individual scales. Aggregations consistently occurred in Tampa Bay coastal waters during the spawning season, and approximately two-thirds of tagged adults returned in the 2013 spawning season. A similar proportion of subadults returned to the Tampa Bay spawning site, exhibiting natal homing

  18. Assessing reproductive behavior important to fisheries management: a case study with red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Lowerre-barbieri, Susan K; Burnsed, Sarah L Walters; Bickford, Joel W

    2016-06-01

    Spawning site selection and reproductive timing affect stock productivity and structure in marine fishes but are poorly understood. Traditionally, stock assessments measure reproductive potential as spawning stock biomass or egg production and do not include other aspects of reproductive behavior. Red drum make an excellent case study to assess these other aspects, as (1) they are highly fecund, pelagic spawners, like most exploited marine fishes; (2) their life cycle is delineated between nursery (estuarine) and adult (coastal and offshore) habitat; and (3) they are managed at these two spatial scales. This study was conducted from August 2012 to December 2013 and integrates data from multiple methods and spatial scales. Aerial surveys were used for large-scale monitoring of aggregations off two known estuarine nursery areas, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, Florida, USA. Capture-based sampling in Tampa Bay coastal (n = 2581) and estuarine waters (n = 158) was used to assess reproductive state and to confirm coastal spawning. To assess spatial dynamics, we acoustically tagged two population components in the Tampa Bay system, subadults from the estuary (n = 20) and adults from the coastal spawning site (n = 60). Behavioral plasticity was seen in subadult recruitment to coastal habitat, with some subadults maturing and recruiting before or during the spawning season and others (14 of 20 acoustically tagged fish) recruiting at the end of the 2012 spawning season. Both adults and recruited subadults (n = 29) were consequently detected in the Charlotte Harbor array, 132 km to the south. Spawning-site fidelity to the Tampa Bay spawning site occurred at both the population and individual scales. Aggregations consistently occurred in Tampa Bay coastal waters during the spawning season, and approximately two-thirds of tagged adults returned in the 2013 spawning season. A similar proportion of subadults returned to the Tampa Bay spawning site, exhibiting natal homing

  19. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  20. Encyrtid parasitoids of soft scale insects: biology, behavior, and their use in biological control.

    PubMed

    Kapranas, Apostolos; Tena, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoids of the hymenopterous family Encyrtidae are one of the most important groups of natural enemies of soft scale insects and have been used extensively in biological control. We summarize existing knowledge of the biology, ecology, and behavior of these parasitoids and how it relates to biological control. Soft scale stage/size and phenology are important determinants of host range and host utilization, which are key aspects in understanding how control by these parasitoids is exerted. Furthermore, the nutritional ecology of encyrtids and their physiological interactions with their hosts affect soft scale insect population dynamics. Lastly, the interactions among encyrtids, heteronomous parasitoids, and ants shape parasitoid species complexes and consequently have a direct impact on the biological control of soft scale insects.

  1. Spatial patterns and scaling behaviors of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) distributions and their environment.

    PubMed

    Lander, Michelle E; Logsdon, Miles L; Loughlin, Thomas R; Van Blaricom, Glenn R

    2011-04-01

    Fractal geometry and other multi-scale analyses have become popular tools for investigating spatial patterns of animal distributions in heterogeneous environments. In theory, changes in patterns of animal distributions with changes in scale reflect transitions between the controlling influences of one environmental factor or process over another. In an effort to find linkages between Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and their environment, the objective of this study was to determine if the spatial distribution of Steller sea lions at sea displayed similar scaling properties to the variation of two environmental features, including bathymetry and sea surface temperature (SST). Additionally, distributions of Steller sea lion point patterns were examined with respect to measurements of bathymetric complexity. From February 2000 to May 2004, satellite transmitters were deployed on 10 groups of juvenile Steller sea lions (n=52) at eight different locations within the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska. Indices of fractal dimension were calculated for each group of sea lions using a unit square box-counting method, whereas indices of bathymetry and SST patchiness were derived by conducting a variance ratio analysis over the same scales. Distributions of Steller sea lions at sea displayed self-similar fractal patterns, suggesting that individuals were distributed in a continuous hierarchical set of clumps within clumps across scales, and foraging behavior was likely influenced by a scale invariant mechanism. Patterns of bathymetric variability also were self-similar, whereas patterns of SST variability were scale dependent and failed to retain self-similar spatial structure at larger scales. These results indicate that the distributions of Steller sea lions at sea were more influenced by bathymetry than SST at the scales examined, but scale-dependent patterns in the distribution of Steller sea lions at sea or linkages with SST may have been apparent if analyses

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Sofia; Morato, Pedro; Luckasson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive behavior construct has gained prominent attention in human services over the last several years in Portugal, and its measurement has become an integral part of the assessment of populations with intellectual disability. In Portugal, diagnosis remains exclusively based on IQ measures, although some attention recently has been given to…

  3. Scales and Other Problems in the NAEP Reading Assessment: Critical Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    Two major issues are addressed in this commentary on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading assessment: the design of the reading proficiency scale and interpretation of test data; and the dimensionality of this scale and the possibility of supplying data on specific skill dimensions. An examination of NAEP data and the…

  4. An Analysis of Large-Scale Writing Assessments in Canada (Grades 5-8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelley Stagg; McClay, Jill; Main, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an analysis of large-scale assessments of Grades 5-8 students' writing across 10 provinces and 2 territories in Canada. Theory, classroom practice, and the contributions and constraints of large-scale writing assessment are brought together with a focus on Grades 5-8 writing in order to provide both a broad view of…

  5. Exploratory Mokken Scale Analysis as a Dimensionality Assessment Tool: Why Scalability Does Not Imply Unidimensionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Iris A. M.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Meijer, Rob R.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the number of dimensions and the dimensionality structure of questionnaire data is important in scale evaluation. In this study, the authors evaluate two dimensionality assessment procedures in the context of Mokken scale analysis (MSA), using a so-called fixed lowerbound. The comparative simulation study, covering various…

  6. Multilevel Item Response Modeling: Applications to Large-Scale Assessment of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    The call for standards-based reform and educational accountability has led to increased attention to large-scale assessments. Over the past two decades, large-scale assessments have been providing policymakers and educators with timely information about student learning and achievement to facilitate their decisions regarding schools, teachers and…

  7. Preparing Students with Learning Disabilities for Large-Scale Writing Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Colwell, Ryan P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for teachers to better prepare 3rd through 12th grade students with learning disabilities for large-scale writing assessments. The variation across large-scale writing assessments and the multiple needs of struggling writers indicate the need for test preparation to be embedded within a comprehensive,…

  8. Test Review: Michael H. Epstein and Lori Synhorst "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" Austin, TX--PRO-ED, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drevon, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" (PreBERS), a 42-item family member--or school personnel--completed rating scale designed to measure the behavioral and emotional strengths of preschool children ages 3-0 to 5-11. According to the manual, results can be used to identify preschoolers with limited…

  9. How Many Fidgets in a Pretty Much: A Critique of Behavior Rating Scales for Identifying Students with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert; Maag, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Article describes behavior rating scales and the difficulties in the use of cutoff scores to identify students as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Also described are how problems with interobserver agreement hamper the validity of rating scales and the subsequent conclusions that can be drawn about students' behavior. (RJM)

  10. Structure and mechanical behaviors of protective armored pangolin scales and effects of hydration and orientation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Weng, Z Y; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-01

    As natural flexible dermal armor, pangolin scales provide effective protection against predatory threats and possess other notable properties such as anti-adhesion and wear-resistance. In this study, the structure, mechanical properties, deformation and damage behaviors of pangolin scales were systematically investigated with the effects of hydration and orientation evaluated. The scales are divided into three macro-layers constituted by overlapping keratin tiles with distinct lamellar arrangements which are further composed of lower-ordered lamellae. Both hardness and strength are significantly decreased by hydration; while the plasticity is markedly improved concomitantly, and as such, the mechanical damages are mitigated. The tensile strength invariably approximates to one third of hardness in value. The tensile deformation is dominated by lamellae stretching and pulling out under wet condition, which is distinct from the trans-lamellar fracture in dry samples. The compressive behaviors are featured by pronounced plasticity in both dry and wet scales; and notable strain-hardening capacity is introduced by hydration, especially along the thickness direction wherein kinking occurs. Inter-lamellar cracking is effectively alleviated in wet samples compared with the dry ones and both of them deform by macroscopic buckling. This study may help stimulate possible inspiration for the design of high-performance synthetic armor materials by mimicking pangolin scales. PMID:26703230

  11. Structure and mechanical behaviors of protective armored pangolin scales and effects of hydration and orientation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Weng, Z Y; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-01

    As natural flexible dermal armor, pangolin scales provide effective protection against predatory threats and possess other notable properties such as anti-adhesion and wear-resistance. In this study, the structure, mechanical properties, deformation and damage behaviors of pangolin scales were systematically investigated with the effects of hydration and orientation evaluated. The scales are divided into three macro-layers constituted by overlapping keratin tiles with distinct lamellar arrangements which are further composed of lower-ordered lamellae. Both hardness and strength are significantly decreased by hydration; while the plasticity is markedly improved concomitantly, and as such, the mechanical damages are mitigated. The tensile strength invariably approximates to one third of hardness in value. The tensile deformation is dominated by lamellae stretching and pulling out under wet condition, which is distinct from the trans-lamellar fracture in dry samples. The compressive behaviors are featured by pronounced plasticity in both dry and wet scales; and notable strain-hardening capacity is introduced by hydration, especially along the thickness direction wherein kinking occurs. Inter-lamellar cracking is effectively alleviated in wet samples compared with the dry ones and both of them deform by macroscopic buckling. This study may help stimulate possible inspiration for the design of high-performance synthetic armor materials by mimicking pangolin scales.

  12. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale in a sample of normal French Children: a research note.

    PubMed

    Fombonne, E; Achard, S

    1993-09-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior scale (survey form) was used in a sample of 151 normal children under age 18. Standardized mean scores of French children were comparable to those of the American normative sample. From the age of 6 onwards, French children scored consistently lower in the Daily Living Skills domain though the magnitude of this difference remained moderate. While the overall findings support the cross-cultural stability of the psychometric properties of this instrument, attention is drawn to potential problems in the use of the Vineland scales, with special reference to autistic samples.

  13. Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale-Electronic Version: first examination of reliability, validity, and incremental utility.

    PubMed

    Suchy, Yana; Derbidge, Christina; Cope, Christy

    2005-02-01

    Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (BDS) is a clinical measure previously shown to be related to frontal lobe integrity, executive abilities, and functional independence. Electronic version of the scale (BDS-EV) was developed and its reliability and validity were examined. The BDS-EV, the original BDS, and a brief battery of traditional clinical tests were administered to 55 community-dwelling adults ages 18 to 68. The results yielded high internal consistency and provided support for convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity. Overall, the results demonstrate the feasibility of converting the BDS into an electronic instrument and support continued research and development of this instrument.

  14. Assessing Laptop Use in Higher Education Classrooms: The Laptop Effectiveness Scale (LES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauricella, Sharon; Kay, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted examining the use of laptops in higher education, however, a reliable and valid scale to assess in-class use of laptops has yet to be developed. The purpose of the following study was to develop and evaluate the "Laptop Effectiveness Scale" (LES). The scale consisted of four constructs: academic use and…

  15. Multiple regression and inverse moments improve the characterization of the spatial scaling behavior of daily streamflows in the Southeast United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, William H.; Over, Thomas M.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatial structure of daily streamflow is essential for managing freshwater resources, especially in poorly-gaged regions. Spatial scaling assumptions are common in flood frequency prediction (e.g., index-flood method) and the prediction of continuous streamflow at ungaged sites (e.g. drainage-area ratio), with simple scaling by drainage area being the most common assumption. In this study, scaling analyses of daily streamflow from 173 streamgages in the southeastern US resulted in three important findings. First, the use of only positive integer moment orders, as has been done in most previous studies, captures only the probabilistic and spatial scaling behavior of flows above an exceedance probability near the median; negative moment orders (inverse moments) are needed for lower streamflows. Second, assessing scaling by using drainage area alone is shown to result in a high degree of omitted-variable bias, masking the true spatial scaling behavior. Multiple regression is shown to mitigate this bias, controlling for regional heterogeneity of basin attributes, especially those correlated with drainage area. Previous univariate scaling analyses have neglected the scaling of low-flow events and may have produced biased estimates of the spatial scaling exponent. Third, the multiple regression results show that mean flows scale with an exponent of one, low flows scale with spatial scaling exponents greater than one, and high flows scale with exponents less than one. The relationship between scaling exponents and exceedance probabilities may be a fundamental signature of regional streamflow. This signature may improve our understanding of the physical processes generating streamflow at different exceedance probabilities. 

  16. Scaling, Linking, and Reporting in a Periodic Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Zwick, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A new entry in the testing lexicon is through-course summative assessment, a system consisting of components administered periodically during the academic year. As defined in the Race to the Top program, these assessments are intended to yield a yearly summative score for accountability purposes. They must provide for both individual and group…

  17. The Scaling-Up of Assessment in One Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Given increasing emphasis on assessment and accountability across the globe in higher education, it is clear that individual institutions must take action and provide evidence in response to these concerns. This article provides an example of how one university has developed a central office for assessment, facilitated the development of an…

  18. A Large-Scale Assessment to Support the Process Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Charlotte W.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that writing assessment should reflect current composition pedagogy, and offers a design to assess process writing. Discusses the development of the scoring criteria and the selection of range finders, as well as the standardization of training and scoring procedures. (PRA)

  19. ASSESSING THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF WETLANDS AT THE CATCHMENT SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe an approach to assessing the ecological condition of two classes of wetlands in the Nanticoke River watershed, a subwatershed in the Chesapeake Bay drainage of North America. We used the hydrogeomorphic (HGM) approach to assess the ecological condition of wetlands al...

  20. The effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation-scaling behavior in young adults.

    PubMed

    Fucci, D; Petrosino, L; Banks, M; Zaums, K; Wilcox, C

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation scaling behavior in young adults. Three groups of college students, 10 who liked rock music, 10 who liked big band music, and 10 who liked classical music were tested. Subjects were instructed to assign numerical values to a random series of nine suprathreshold intensity levels of 10-sec, samples of rock music, big band music, and classical music. Analysis indicated that subjects who liked rock music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked big band and classical music. Subjects who liked big band music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked rock music and classical music. All subjects scaled classical music similarly regardless of their musical preferences. Results are discussed in reference to the literature concerned with personality and preference as well as spectrographic analyses of the three different types of music used in this study. PMID:8873212

  1. Dynamic scaling behavior of a growing self-affine fractal interface in a paper-towel-wetting experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, T. H.; Hopkins, A. E.; O'donnell, S. E.

    1996-07-01

    The dynamic scaling behavior of a growing self-affine fractal interface is examined in a simple paper-towel-wetting experiment. A sheet of plain white paper towel is wetted with red food dye solution, and the evolution of the interface is photographed with a 35-mm camera as a function of time. Each snapshot is scanned and digitized to obtain the interface height h(x,t) as a function of time and position. From these the interface width w(L,t) is determined as a function of time t and system size L. It is found that the interface width scales with system size L as w(L,t)~Lα with α=0.67+/-0.04 and scales with time as w(L,t)~tβ with β=0.24+/-0.02. It is also found that average height of the interface scales with time as ~tδ with δ=0.33+/-0.02. These results are assessed in comparison with the predictions of theoretical models and the results of other relevant experiments.

  2. Ten-Year Review of Rating Scales, VII: Scales Assessing Functional Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Nancy C.; Collett, Brent R.; Myers, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This is the seventh in a series of 10-year reviews of rating scales. Here the authors present scales measuring functional impairment, a sequela of mental illness. The measurement of functional impairment has assumed importance with the recognition that symptom resolution does not necessarily correlate with functional improvement.…

  3. Next-Generation Psychiatric Assessment: Using Smartphone Sensors to Monitor Behavior and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Scherer, Emily A.; Wang, Rui; Xie, Haiyi; Campbell, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Optimal mental health care is dependent upon sensitive and early detection of mental health problems. The current study introduces a state-of-the-art method for remote behavioral monitoring that transports assessment out of the clinic and into the environments in which individuals negotiate their daily lives. The objective of this study was examine whether the information captured with multi-modal smartphone sensors can serve as behavioral markers for one’s mental health. We hypothesized that: a) unobtrusively collected smartphone sensor data would be associated with individuals’ daily levels of stress, and b) sensor data would be associated with changes in depression, stress, and subjective loneliness over time. Methods A total of 47 young adults (age range: 19–30 y.o.) were recruited for the study. Individuals were enrolled as a single cohort and participated in the study over a 10-week period. Participants were provided with smartphones embedded with a range of sensors and software that enabled continuous tracking of their geospatial activity (using GPS and WiFi), kinesthetic activity (using multi-axial accelerometers), sleep duration (modeled using device use data, accelerometer inferences, ambient sound features, and ambient light levels), and time spent proximal to human speech (i.e., speech duration using microphone and speech detection algorithms). Participants completed daily ratings of stress, as well as pre/post measures of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and loneliness (Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale). Results Mixed-effects linear modeling showed that sensor-derived geospatial activity (p<.05), sleep duration (p<.05), and variability in geospatial activity (p<.05), were associated with daily stress levels. Penalized functional regression showed associations between changes in depression and sensor-derived speech duration (p<.05), geospatial activity (p<.05), and sleep duration (p<.05). Changes

  4. An Assessment of Self-Echoic Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, John W.; Esch, Barbara E.; McCart, Jordon D.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    In the behavioral literature, self-echoic behavior has been hypothesized to play an important role in, for example, emergent conditional discriminations (e.g., Lowenkron, 1991), emergent verbal operants (Horne & Lowe, 1996), and problem solving (Skinner, 1957). Although early behavioral intervention programs for children with autism emphasize the…

  5. Predicting parenting behaviors from Antisocial Practices content scale scores of the MMPI-2 administered during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, M; Egeland, B

    2000-02-01

    This article examines the relation between scores on the Antisocial Practices (ASP) content scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and parenting behaviors in a sample of low-income women. During pregnancy, 141 women were administered the MMPI-2 and then placed into 1 of 3 groups: an antisocial, nonclinical, or clinical control group. When their children were 13 and 24 months old, antisocial mothers were observed to be less understanding and more hostile and harsh in their parenting styles than mothers in the other groups. The nonclinical and clinical control groups did not differ on any measures. Other MMPI-2 measures of antisocial behavior were not predictive of harsh parenting styles. These findings support the predictive and construct validity of the ASP content scale of the MMPI-2.

  6. Second-order two-scale method for bending behaviors of composite plate with periodic configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guoqing; Cui, Junzhi

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, the second-order two-scale analysis method for bending behaviors of the plate made from composites with 3-D periodic configuration is presented by means of construction way. It can capture the microscopic 3-D mechanics behaviors caused from 3-D micro-structures. First, directly starting from the 3-D elastic plate model of composite materials with 3-D periodic configuration, three cell models are defined, and correspondingly the three classes of cell functions only defined on 3 normalized cells are constructed. And then, the effective homogenization parameters of composites are calculated from those local functions, it leads to a 2-D homogenized laminar plate problem. Next, to solve it the homogenization solution is obtained. Finally, the second-order two-scale solution is constructed from the micro-cell functions and the homogenization solution.

  7. Second-Order Two-Scale Method for Bending Behaviors of Composite Plate with Periodic Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guoqing; Cui, Junzhi

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, the second-order two-scale analysis method for bending behaviors of the plate made from composites with 3-D periodic configuration is presented by means of construction way. It can capture the microscopic 3-D mechanics behaviors caused from 3-D micro-structures. First, directly starting from the 3-D elastic plate model of composite materials with 3-D periodic configuration, three cell models are defined, and correspondingly the three classes of cell functions only defined on 3 normalized cells are constructed. And then, the effective homogenization parameters of composites are calculated from those local functions, it leads to a 2-D homogenized laminar plate problem. Next, to solve it the homogenization solution is obtained. Finally, the second-order two-scale solution is constructed from the micro-cell functions and the homogenization solution.

  8. Performance Assessment of a Large Scale Pulsejet- Driven Ejector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Litke, Paul J.; Schauer, Frederick R.; Bradley, Royce P.; Hoke, John L.

    2006-01-01

    Unsteady thrust augmentation was measured on a large scale driver/ejector system. A 72 in. long, 6.5 in. diameter, 100 lb(sub f) pulsejet was tested with a series of straight, cylindrical ejectors of varying length, and diameter. A tapered ejector configuration of varying length was also tested. The objectives of the testing were to determine the dimensions of the ejectors which maximize thrust augmentation, and to compare the dimensions and augmentation levels so obtained with those of other, similarly maximized, but smaller scale systems on which much of the recent unsteady ejector thrust augmentation studies have been performed. An augmentation level of 1.71 was achieved with the cylindrical ejector configuration and 1.81 with the tapered ejector configuration. These levels are consistent with, but slightly lower than the highest levels achieved with the smaller systems. The ejector diameter yielding maximum augmentation was 2.46 times the diameter of the pulsejet. This ratio closely matches those of the small scale experiments. For the straight ejector, the length yielding maximum augmentation was 10 times the diameter of the pulsejet. This was also nearly the same as the small scale experiments. Testing procedures are described, as are the parametric variations in ejector geometry. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for general scaling of pulsed thrust ejector systems

  9. Study of the Mechanical Behavior of Radially Grown Fivefold Twinned Nanowires on the Atomic Scale.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yonghai; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Zhenyu; Gong, Qihua; Guo, Lin

    2016-07-01

    In situ bending tests and dynamic modeling simulations are for the first time revealing the mechanical behavior of copper nanowires (NW) with radially grown fivefold twin structures on the atomic scale. Combining the simulations with the experimental results it is shown that both the twin boundaries (TBs) and the twin center act as dislocation sources. TB migration and L-locks are readily observed in these types of radially grown fivefold-twin structures. PMID:27231215

  10. Issues in the Application of the Public School Version of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale in School Setting. Field Study of the Efficacy of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale-Public School Version. Substudy 5 of 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    A representative sample of California school psychologists was surveyed to determine the extent of the use of the Adaptive Behavior Scale and the relationship between training in the use of the scale and perceptions of the efficacy of its measures. A large majority of psychologists had used the scale two or fewer times, though 30-45% had been…

  11. Active Teacher Participation in Functional Behavior Assessment for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Risks in General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Debra; Wendland, Maura; Culpepper, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    This study presents functional assessment data from two second-grade students with behavior and academic problems. Functional assessment procedures included interview, observation, functional analysis, and intervention. Functional analysis conditions, conducted by the classroom teacher, with coaching from the researcher, indicated multiple…

  12. Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

    This text presents 13 chapters on the assessment of students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders for the purpose of making educational placement and programming decisions consistent with federal and state diagnostic guidelines. Chapters are grouped into four sections focusing on: basic considerations for assessment of youth in this…

  13. Well integrity assessment under temperature and pressure stresses by a 1:1 scale wellbore experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manceau, J. C.; Tremosa, J.; Audigane, P.; Lerouge, C.; Claret, F.; Lettry, Y.; Fierz, T.; Nussbaum, C.

    2015-08-01

    A new in situ experiment is proposed for observing and understanding well integrity evolution, potentially due to changes that could occur during a well lifetime. The focus is put on temperature and pressure stresses. A small section of a well is reproduced at scale 1:1 in the Opalinus Clay formation, representative of a low permeable caprock formation (in Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, Switzerland). The well-system behavior is characterized over time both by performing hydro-tests to quantify the hydraulic properties of the well and their evolution, and sampling the fluids to monitor the chemical composition and its changes. This paper presents the well integrity assessment under different imposed temperature (17-52°C) and pressure (10-28 bar) conditions. The results obtained in this study confirm the ability of the chosen design and observation scale to estimate the evolution of the well integrity over time, the characteristics of the flow along the well-system and the reasons of the observed evolution. In particular, the estimated effective well permeability is higher than cement or caprock intrinsic permeability, which suggest preferential flow pathways at interfaces especially at the very beginning of the experiment; the significant variations of the effective well permeability observed after setting pressure and temperature stresses indicate that operations could influence well integrity in similar proportions than the cementing process.

  14. The Nature Relatedness Scale: Linking Individuals' Connection with Nature to Environmental Concern and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Elizabeth K.; Zelenski, John M.; Murphy, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Disconnection from the natural world may be contributing to our planet's destruction. The authors propose a new construct, Nature Relatedness (NR), and a scale that assesses the affective, cognitive, and experiential aspects of individuals' connection to nature. In Study 1, the authors explored the internal structure of the NR item responses in a…

  15. Assessing Wellness in College Students: A Validation of the Salubrious Lifestyle Scale of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jeffrey M.; Cooper, Diane L.; Wachs, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    Study is a validation of the two proposed subscales for the Salubrious Lifestyle (SL) Scale of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA). The two subscales, Drug/Alcohol and Exercise/Nutrition, were determined from factor analysis of the original SL scale of the SDTLA. Findings support validation of both subscales. (Contains…

  16. Assessing of IDF curves for hydrological design by simple scaling of 1-day precipitation totals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bara, M.; Kohnová, S.; Szolgay, J.; Gaál, L.; Hlavčová, K.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper the scaling properties of short term extreme rainfall in Slovakia were investigated. The simple scaling theory was applied to the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) characteristics of a short duration rainfall. This method allows for the estimation of the design values of rainfall of selected recurrence intervals and durations shorter than a day by using only the daily data. The scaling behavior of rainfall intensities was examined, and the possibility of using simple scaling in Slovakia was verified. The methodology for the simple scaling of rainfall is demonstrated using an example of the meteorological station in Ilava.

  17. Metal contact effect on the performance and scaling behavior of carbon nanotube thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiye; Dong, Guodong; Tian, Boyuan; Yan, Qiuping; Zhang, Han; Liang, Xuelei; Peng, Lianmao

    2016-05-21

    Metal-tube contact is known to play an important role in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) which are fabricated on individual CNTs. Less attention has been paid to the contact effect in network type carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFTs). In this study, we demonstrate that contact plays an even more important role in CNT-TFTs than in CNT-FETs. Although the Schottky barrier height at the metal-tube contact can be tuned by the work function of the metal, similar to the case in CNT-FETs, the contact resistance (Rc) forms a much higher proportion of the total resistance in CNT-TFTs. Interestingly, the contact resistivity was found to increase with channel length, which is a consequence of the percolating nature of the transport in CNT films, and this behavior does not exist in CNT-FETs and normal 2D Ohmic conductors. Electrical transport in CNT-TFTs has been predicted to scale with channel length by stick percolation theory. However, the scaling behavior is also impacted, or even covered up by the effect of Rc. Once the contact effect is excluded, the covered scaling behavior can be revealed correctly. A possible way of reducing Rc in CNT-TFTs was proposed. We believe the findings in this paper will strengthen our understanding of CNT-TFTs, and even accelerate the commercialization of CNT-TFT technology.

  18. Impedance spectroscopy and scaling behaviors of Sr3Co2Fe24O41 hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rujun; Jiang, Chen; Jian, Jie; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The impedance spectroscopy of Z-type hexaferrite Sr3Co2Fe24O41 (SCFO) has been investigated as a function of temperature from 303 to 503 K. The frequency dependent impedance ( Z ″ ) and modulus ( M ″ ) spectra show that for the air annealed SCFO, the electrical responses of SCFO are thermal activated and there is a distribution of relaxation times. The scaling behaviors of Z ″ and M ″ spectra further suggest that the distribution of relaxation times is temperature independent. The Cole-Cole plots in impedance formalism show that the electrical response of SCFO originates from both the grain and the grain-boundaries. The activation energies for grain and grain boundary are 0.66 eV and 0.67 eV, respectively. The frequency dependent conductivity ( σ ' ) spectra follow the universal power law. The fitting results of σ ' spectra show that the small polaron hopping is the most probable conduction mechanism for SCFO. Moreover, the scaling behavior of σ ' spectra further confirms that the distribution of local electrical response times is temperature independent. The air plus O2 annealed SCFO shows thermally activated electrical responses and scaling behaviors as well. The above results show that although the electrical responses of SCFO are temperature dependent, the relaxation mechanism in SCFO is temperature independent.

  19. A Proposed Model for Selecting Measurement Procedures for the Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Raetz, Paige B; Sellers, Tyra P; Carr, James E

    2016-03-01

    Practicing behavior analysts frequently assess and treat problem behavior as part of their ongoing job responsibilities. Effective measurement of problem behavior is critical to success in these activities because some measures of problem behavior provide more accurate and complete information about the behavior than others. However, not every measurement procedure is appropriate for every problem behavior and therapeutic circumstance. We summarize the most commonly used measurement procedures, describe the contexts for which they are most appropriate, and propose a clinical decision-making model for selecting measurement produces given certain features of the behavior and constraints of the therapeutic environment. PMID:27606232

  20. A Navigation Analysis Tool (NAT) to assess spatial behavior in open-field and structured mazes.

    PubMed

    Jarlier, Frédéric; Arleo, Angelo; Petit, Géraldine H; Lefort, Julie M; Fouquet, Céline; Burguière, Eric; Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2013-05-15

    Spatial navigation calls upon mnemonic capabilities (e.g. remembering the location of a rewarding site) as well as adaptive motor control (e.g. fine tuning of the trajectory according to the ongoing sensory context). To study this complex process by means of behavioral measurements it is necessary to quantify a large set of meaningful parameters on multiple time scales (from milliseconds to several minutes), and to compare them across different paradigms. Moreover, the issue of automating the behavioral analysis is critical to cope with the consequent computational load and the sophistication of the measurements. We developed a general purpose Navigation Analysis Tool (NAT) that provides an integrated architecture consisting of a data management system (implemented in MySQL), a core analysis toolbox (in MATLAB), and a graphical user interface (in JAVA). Its extensive characterization of trajectories over time, from exploratory behavior to goal-oriented navigation with decision points using a wide range of parameters, makes NAT a powerful analysis tool. In particular, NAT supplies a new set of specific measurements assessing performances in multiple intersection mazes and allowing navigation strategies to be discriminated (e.g. in the starmaze). Its user interface enables easy use while its modular organization provides many opportunities of extension and customization. Importantly, the portability of NAT to any type of maze and environment extends its exploitation far beyond the field of spatial navigation.