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Sample records for behavioral assessment scale

  1. Issues in Grouping Items from the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the structure, reliability, stability, validity and usefulness of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) and the results of factor and regression analyses of data collected using the NBAS. (Author/BH)

  2. Issues in Grouping Items from the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the structure, reliability, stability, validity and usefulness of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) and the results of factor and regression analyses of data collected using the NBAS. (Author/BH)

  3. Introduction. Organization and Stability of Newborn Behavior: A Commentary on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazelton, T. Berry

    1978-01-01

    Provides an overview of the development of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), the nature of the instrument and conditions for its proper administration, and issues underlying the use of the NBAS in research (e.g., reliability). The first in a series of articles in a single monograph assessing the NBAS. (BH)

  4. Introduction. Organization and Stability of Newborn Behavior: A Commentary on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazelton, T. Berry

    1978-01-01

    Provides an overview of the development of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), the nature of the instrument and conditions for its proper administration, and issues underlying the use of the NBAS in research (e.g., reliability). The first in a series of articles in a single monograph assessing the NBAS. (BH)

  5. The behavioral assessment scale: a measure of community living skills.

    PubMed

    Ward, Frances

    2007-01-01

    This study reports the development of a community living skills measure of long-term care AIDS residents. Community living skills impact numbers and types of care providers needed. The Behavioral Assessment Scale (BAS) used multiple sources of validity evidence to ensure community living skills construct representation. The BAS was piloted in four diverse long-term care facilities. Nurses rated residents using the BAS and the Nurse Perception Scale (NPS)-another community living skills measure. Researchers rated residents' community living skills through medical record notations (Interdisciplinary Notation Scale [INS]). Reliability coefficients over .6 (p < .001) were reported for the BAS in both the total sample and the individual samples. Evidence-based validity of the BAS was obtained via coefficients from the total sample (.422 [BAS and INS] and .526 [BAS and NPS], with p < .001 for both relationships), Cronbach's alpha (.851 for all community living skills tools), analysis of variance, and regression results. The BAS was substantiated for long-term care practice with AIDS residents.

  6. Contextual Influences on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and Implications for Its Cross-cultural Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Marten; Super, Charles M.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale outside the standard hospital setting introduces variations in the physical and social context that influence scores on some of the behavioral items. (Author/BH)

  7. Assessment of adolescents' victimization, aggression, and problem behaviors: Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Assessing an Assessment: Conceptual considerations, Methodological Issues, and a Perspective on the Future of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Als, Heidelise

    1978-01-01

    Describes the conceptual model of newborn organization underlying the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Argues that while the NBAS allows for the identification of an individual's behavioral repertoire, attempts to synthesize the resulting data have been plagued with difficulties. Briefly outlines an alternative model for…

  9. Assessing an Assessment: Conceptual considerations, Methodological Issues, and a Perspective on the Future of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Als, Heidelise

    1978-01-01

    Describes the conceptual model of newborn organization underlying the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Argues that while the NBAS allows for the identification of an individual's behavioral repertoire, attempts to synthesize the resulting data have been plagued with difficulties. Briefly outlines an alternative model for…

  10. A Multivariate Analysis of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale in Several Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Milton E.; Rourke, Daniel L.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses differences in results of factor analyses of ten diverse samples which have been studied using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Concludes that a single common factor structure accounts for the intercorrelations among NBAS items. (Author/BH)

  11. A Multivariate Analysis of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale in Several Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Milton E.; Rourke, Daniel L.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses differences in results of factor analyses of ten diverse samples which have been studied using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Concludes that a single common factor structure accounts for the intercorrelations among NBAS items. (Author/BH)

  12. Assessment of patient interpersonal behavior: Development and validation of a rating scale.

    PubMed

    Richtberg, Samantha; Jakob, Marion; Höfling, Volkmar; Weck, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Patient in-session interpersonal behavior, as part of the therapeutic alliance, is an important aspect of the psychotherapy process and impacts treatment outcome. In the present study, the development and validation of a rating scale of patient in-session interpersonal behavior is described. A 10-item rating scale, the Assessment Form of Patient Interpersonal Behavior (AFPIB), was developed using an inductive procedure. The AFPIB was then validated in a sample of patients with hypochondriasis (N = 30), by having two independent raters assess patients' interpersonal behaviors shown in videotaped psychotherapy sessions (N = 60). The AFPIB demonstrated good reliability and validity. Thus, the AFPIB seems to be a promising rating scale for the assessment of patient interpersonal behavior shown in psychotherapy sessions.

  13. The Verbal Behavior Assessment Scale (VerBAS): Construct Validity, Reliability, and Internal Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Pieter C.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the psychometric characteristics of the Verbal Behavior Assessment Scale, the 15-item questionnaire was administered to pairs of caregivers of 115 individuals with developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis involving 11 more participants revealed evidence concerning the distinction of three different communicative functions…

  14. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  15. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  16. Psychometric Comparison of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, S.; Iacono, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) are frequently used to assess the learned function of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim was to explore and compare the psychometric properties of the MAS and the QABF. Method: Seventy adults with ID and…

  17. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale as a biomarker of the effects of environmental agents on the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Tronick, E.Z.

    1987-10-01

    The organization of the newborn's brain and the nature of the effects of toxins and pollutants conspire to produce complex and difficult problems for the assessment of the behavioral effects of environmental agents. The newborn's brain can be characterized as relatively undifferentiated, and more vulnerable to, but potentially more capable of recovery from, the effects of environmental agents specific to this time period than it will be later in development. Environmental agents tend to have nonspecific, possibly subtle, effects that invade many areas of newborn functioning. These characteristics of the newborn and the behavioral effects of teratogens make assessment at this point in development difficult. Further exacerbating this difficulty is the nature of development. Development is critically dependent on the care the newborn receives. Distortions of a newborn's behavior can produce disturbances in the caretaking environment, and these caretaking disturbances can amplify the original behavioral distortion and produce other distortions. Attention to these types of effects must be built into an assessment. These considerations lead to the conclusion that an apical assessment of newborn behavior is required. The most standardized, valid, and reliable instrument currently available is the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale developed by Brazelton. It assesses the integrated actions of the infant that function to regulate simultaneously the infant's internal state and exchanges with the animate (caretaking) and inanimate environment. The scale uses a set of reflex and behavioral items to assess the critical domains of infant functioning (e.g., the infant's ability to control his states of consciousness). 52 references.

  18. Concurrent validity of the adaptive behavior scale as assessed by the Vineland Social Maturity Scale.

    PubMed

    Roszkowski, M J

    1980-07-01

    The correlation between the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) and the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (the Vineland) was investigated using a sample of 98 subjects from a state residential facility for mentally retarded individuals. Pearson correlations between the raw scores of the two scales revealed a high degree of association between the Vineland and Part One of the ABS. The correlation between the Vineland total score and ABS Part One sum score equaled .79. The Part One domain correlations ranged from .44 (Physical Development) to .77 (Language Development), with a mean of .64. Part Two of the ABS showed little relationship to the Vineland. The Part Two total score correlation was .11, and the mean Part Two domain correlations was .20.

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Child and Adolescent Behavior Assessment (CABA): A Brief Structured Scale.

    PubMed

    Morin, Amanda Leigh; Miller, Stacy Jo; Smith, Johan R; Johnson, Karen E

    2017-04-01

    Use of valid, affordable, accessible, and brief measures facilitates the assessment of mental health outcomes. The Child and Adolescent Behavior Assessment Scale, a brief, structured scale, assesses problem behavior through patient and/or informant report. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the scale's psychometric properties. In the cross-sectional study presented, a large national sample of youth (aged 5-18) admitted for psychiatric treatment (N = 32,689) was examined. The two major domains of problem behavior assessed were Internalizing and Externalizing. Reliability was good to excellent with alpha levels ranging from 0.874 to 0.917. Additional items measured Risk Behavior (α = 0.648). Subscale total scores correlated well with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children, 9-item version (BPRS-C-9). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor, multidimensional model of problem behavior as satisfactory for child and adolescent use, although further research is required to refine some items for clarity and improved model fit.

  20. The assessment of protective behavioral strategies: comparing the absolute frequency and contingent frequency response scales.

    PubMed

    Kite, Benjamin A; Pearson, Matthew R; Henson, James M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an "absolute frequency" scale (stem: "how many times …"; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationships between types of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Alternatively, a "contingent frequency" scale (stem: "When drinking … how often …"; response scale: never to always) does not conflate frequency of alcohol use with use of PBS; therefore, we hypothesized that use of a contingent frequency scale would result in negative relationships between use of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Two published measures of PBS were used across studies: the Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey (PBSS) and the Strategy Questionnaire (SQ). Across three studies, we demonstrate that when measured using a contingent frequency response scale, PBS measures relate negatively to alcohol-related outcomes in a theoretically consistent manner; however, when PBS measures were measured on an absolute frequency response scale, they were nonsignificantly or positively related to alcohol-related outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the assessment of PBS.

  1. The Efficiency of Behavior Rating Scales to Assess Inattentive-Overactive and Oppositional-Defiant Behaviors: Applying Generalizability Theory to Streamline Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Although the efficiency with which a wide range of behavioral data can be obtained makes behavior rating scales particularly attractive tools for the purposes of screening and evaluation, feasibility concerns arise in the context of formative assessment. Specifically, informant load, or the amount of time informants are asked to contribute to the…

  2. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Icabone, Dona G.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a general assessment of personal and social sufficiency of individuals from birth through adulthood to determine areas of strength and weakness. The instrument assesses communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills. Its administration, standardization, reliability,…

  3. Assessing DUI risk: examination of the Behaviors & Attitudes Drinking & Driving Scale (BADDS).

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jeremy D; Hupp, Stephen D A; Segrist, Daniel J

    2008-07-01

    Despite research findings indicating attitudinal differences among drivers with and without a history of driving under the influence (DUI) offenses, there are no well-established instruments specifically designed to clinically assess drinking and driving attitudes and behaviors among adults. The purpose of this current series of three studies was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Behaviors & Attitudes Drinking & Driving Scale (BADDS). The BADDS was developed in previous studies by the authors and assesses respondents' rationalizations for drinking and driving, likelihood of future drinking and driving, drinking and driving behaviors, and riding with a drinking driver behavior in the previous month. Study 1 (N=179) and Study 2 (N=338) assessed college participants, while Study 3 gathered data from adult DUI offenders (N=160) and non-DUI offenders (N=166). Results indicate good to excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency estimates for BADDS scale scores. Support for the construct validity as well as concurrent and predictive criterion validity of BADDS scores was also demonstrated. Potential applications for the measure, as well as need for future research are described.

  4. Using the Personality Assessment Inventory Antisocial and Borderline Features Scales to Predict Behavior Change.

    PubMed

    Penson, Brittany N; Ruchensky, Jared R; Morey, Leslie C; Edens, John F

    2016-11-01

    A substantial amount of research has examined the developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior and, in particular, the relationship between antisocial behavior and maladaptive personality traits. However, research typically has not controlled for previous behavior (e.g., past violence) when examining the utility of personality measures, such as self-report scales of antisocial and borderline traits, in predicting future behavior (e.g., subsequent violence). Examination of the potential interactive effects of measures of both antisocial and borderline traits also is relatively rare in longitudinal research predicting adverse outcomes. The current study utilizes a large sample of youthful offenders ( N = 1,354) from the Pathways to Desistance project to examine the separate effects of the Personality Assessment Inventory Antisocial Features (ANT) and Borderline Features (BOR) scales in predicting future offending behavior as well as trends in other negative outcomes (e.g., substance abuse, violence, employment difficulties) over a 1-year follow-up period. In addition, an ANT × BOR interaction term was created to explore the predictive effects of secondary psychopathy. ANT and BOR both explained unique variance in the prediction of various negative outcomes even after controlling for past indicators of those same behaviors during the preceding year.

  5. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.

    PubMed

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-12-01

    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Adventure Behavior Seeking Scale

    PubMed Central

    Próchniak, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a new tool—the Adventure Behavior Seeking Scale (ABSS). The Adventure Behavior Seeking Scale was developed to assess individuals’ highly stimulating behaviors in natural environments. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted with 466 participants and resulted in one factor. The internal consistency was 0.80. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed using another sample of 406 participants, and results verified the one-factor structure. The findings indicate that people with a lot of experience in outdoor adventure have a higher score on the ABSS scale than control groups without such experience. The results also suggest that the 8-item ABSS scores were highly related to sensation seeking. The author discusses findings in regard to the ABSS as an instrument to measure outdoor adventure. However, further studies need to be carried out in other sample groups to further validate the scale. PMID:28555018

  7. The motivation of stereotypic and repetitive behavior: examination of construct validity of the motivation assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C

    2008-08-01

    Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or the original 4-factor structure. Some motivators appear to form a unidimensional construct: "to gain attention", "to gain a tangible object", and "to escape". There was evidence that sensory stimulation represents a different construct. Children with intellectual disability were more apt to be motivated by desire to gain a tangible item or attention. Children with the dual diagnoses were more apt to have sensory stimulation or escape from task demand as a motivator for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.

  8. The Brazelton-Neonatal Assessment Scale as a Predictor of One- and Two-Year-Old Mastery Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donal B.; And Others

    This exploratory study investigated whether the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) can predict an infant's behavior on mastery motivation tasks at 1 and 2 years of age. Subjects were 31 normal, full-term infants from white, mostly middle class families. Infants were assessed using the NBAS with Kansas Supplements (NBAS-K) at a…

  9. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  10. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  11. The effect of stereotypies on adaptive skills as assessed with the DASH-II and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    PubMed

    Matson, J L; Kiely, S L; Bamburg, J W

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of the Stereotypy subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II) to adaptive functioning was investigated. Differences in adaptive skills measured with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) for individuals scoring at or above the cutoff of the Stereotypy scale and below the cutoff of the scale were analyzed. Individuals with high stereotypy scores had significantly lower VABS scores. Implications of these findings for assessment and treatment are discussed.

  12. [Pain assessment of tracheal suctioning on brain injury patients by pain behavioral indicator scale (ESCID)].

    PubMed

    López-López, C; Murillo-Pérez, M A; Morales-Sánchez, C; Torrente-Vela, S; Orejana-Martín, M; García-Iglesias, M; Cuenca-Solanas, M; Alted-López, E

    2014-01-01

    To assess pain response on patients with moderate to severe head injury before a common nursing procedure: tracheal suctioning. An observational longitudinal pilot study with consecutive sampling performed from September to December of 2012. Pain was assessed by a pain behavioral indicator scale 5 minutes before, meanwhile and 15 minutes after tracheal suctioning the days 1, 3 and 6 of their intensive care unit (ICU) stay, as well as a non-painful procedure: rubbing with gauze the forearm of the patient. Pseudo-analgesia and hemodynamic variables were also recorded. Descriptive analysis of the variables, inferential statistics with t-student and Anova with SPSS 17.0; statistical tests were considered significant if the critical level observed was less than 5% (P<.05). Pain was assessed on 27 patients. 82% suffered from severe head trauma and 18% moderate. The average pain value during nursing procedure day 1 was 3, 18±2.6, day 3: 2, 59±2 and day 6: 3, 94±2.3. There was a significant increase in mean pain while performing suctioning during the three days of assessment (P<.05); however no significant differences between the average pain value on the three days of the assessment (P>.05) were shown. Data for the painless procedure were significantly different on day 6 (P<.05) CONCLUSION: During tracheal suctioning in patients with head injury in the first 6 days in the ICU, objective mild-moderate pain according to ESCID scale has been detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of Mealtime Behaviors in Rural Overweight Children: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ann M.; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Gillette, Meredith Dreyer; Patton, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study presents results of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) in a sample of rural children with overweight and obesity. Relationships between mealtime behavior and health outcomes are also explored. Methods EFA was used to assess the fit of the BPFAS in a group of 160 treatment-seeking children (Mage = 9.11, SD = 1.77) living in rural Midwest communities. Correlations were also computed between factor scores and select health variables (child body mass index z-score and diet variables). Results The EFA identified a 5-factor solution as the best fitting model (Tucker–Lewis Index = .96, root mean square error of approximation = .05), although several items (i.e., 7 of 25) did not load on any factor. 2 factors were correlated with health variables of interest. Conclusion Study results suggest that certain items on the BPFAS may not be appropriate for use with rural children with pediatric overweight or obesity. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:24326908

  14. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Ryan W; Wainwright, Mark S; Kim, Kwang-Youn; Kidambi, Trilokesh; Gómez, Noé D; Taylor, Terrie; Haldar, Kasturi

    2010-10-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM) models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS) comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field). The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  15. The efficiency of behavior rating scales to assess inattentive-overactive and oppositional-defiant behaviors: applying generalizability theory to streamline assessment.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Robert J; Briesch, Amy M; Gadow, Kenneth D

    2011-02-01

    Although the efficiency with which a wide range of behavioral data can be obtained makes behavior rating scales particularly attractive tools for the purposes of screening and evaluation, feasibility concerns arise in the context of formative assessment. Specifically, informant load, or the amount of time informants are asked to contribute to the assessment process, likely has a negative impact on the quality of data over time and the informant's willingness to participate. Two important determinants of informant load in progress monitoring are the length of the rating scale (i.e., the number of items) and how frequently informants are asked to provide ratings (i.e., the number of occasions). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the dependability of the IOWA Conners Teacher Rating Scale (Loney & Milich, 1982), which is used to differentiate inattentive-overactive from oppositional-defiant behaviors. Specifically, the facets of items and occasions were examined to identify combinations of these sources of error necessary to reach an acceptable level of dependability for both absolute and relative decisions. Results from D studies elucidated a variety of possible item-occasion combinations reaching the criteria for adequate dependability. Recommendations for research and practice are discussed.

  16. The Efficiency of Behavior Rating Scales to Assess Inattentive-Overactive and Oppositional-Defiant Behavior: Applying Generalizability Theory to Streamline Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Although the efficiency with which a wide range of behavioral data can be obtained makes behavior rating scales particularly attractive tools for the purposes of screening and evaluation, feasibility concerns arise in the context of formative assessment. Specifically, informant load, or the amount of time informants are asked to contribute to the assessment process, likely has a negative impact on the quality of data over time and the informant's willingness to participate. Two important determinants of informant load in progress monitoring are the length of the rating scale (i.e., the number of items) and how frequently informants are asked to provide ratings (i.e., the number of occasions). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the dependability of the IOWA Conners Teacher Rating Scale (Loney & Milich, 1982), which is used to differentiate inattentive-overactive from oppositional-defiant behaviors. Specifically, the facets of items and occasions were examined to identify combinations of these sources of error necessary to reach an acceptable level of dependability for both absolute and relative decisions. Results from D studies elucidated a variety of possible item–occasion combinations reaching the criteria for adequate dependability. Recommendations for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21215839

  17. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  18. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  19. The Working Memory Rating Scale: A Classroom-Based Behavioral Assessment of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Kirkwood, Hannah; Elliott, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS), an observer-based rating scale that reflects behavioral difficulties of children with poor working memory. The findings indicate good internal reliability and adequate psychometric properties for use as a screening tool by teachers. Higher…

  20. The Working Memory Rating Scale: A Classroom-Based Behavioral Assessment of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Kirkwood, Hannah; Elliott, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS), an observer-based rating scale that reflects behavioral difficulties of children with poor working memory. The findings indicate good internal reliability and adequate psychometric properties for use as a screening tool by teachers. Higher…

  1. The Motivation of Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior: Examination of Construct Validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.

    2008-01-01

    Construct validity of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (Durand, Crimmins, The Motivation Assessment Scale 1988) was studied using Rasch analysis data from 67 children (246 MASs), with dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disability or with intellectual disability only. Results failed to support the proposed unidimensional construct or…

  2. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry Hank; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT modeling and a nationally representative standardization sample, the item set was reduced to 75 items that provide the most precise adaptive behavior information at the cutoff area determining the presence or not of significant adaptive behavior deficits across conceptual, social, and practical skills. The standardization of the DABS is described and discussed.

  3. Development of a Brief Rating Scale for the Formative Assessment of Positive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cressey, James M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide effective social, emotional, and behavioral supports to all students, there is a need for formative assessment tools that can help determine the responsiveness of students to intervention. Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) is one framework that can provide evidence-based intervention within a 3-tiered model to reach…

  4. Development of a Brief Rating Scale for the Formative Assessment of Positive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cressey, James M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide effective social, emotional, and behavioral supports to all students, there is a need for formative assessment tools that can help determine the responsiveness of students to intervention. Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) is one framework that can provide evidence-based intervention within a 3-tiered model to reach…

  5. A Rapid Murine Coma and Behavior Scale for Quantitative Assessment of Murine Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Ryan W.; Wainwright, Mark S.; Kim, Kwang-Youn; Kidambi, Trilokesh; Gómez, Noé D.; Taylor, Terrie; Haldar, Kasturi

    2010-01-01

    Background Cerebral malaria (CM) is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM) models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. Methodology/Principal Findings A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS) comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. Conclusions/Significance Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field). The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed. PMID:20957049

  6. Prenatal phthalate exposure and performance on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale in a multiethnic birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Engel, Stephanie M; Zhu, Chenbo; Berkowitz, Gertrud S; Calafat, Antonia M; Silva, Manori J; Miodovnik, Amir; Wolff, Mary S

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between prenatal maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and neonatal behavior in their 295 children enrolled in a multiethnic birth cohort between 1998 and 2002 at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Trained examiners administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) to children within 5 days of delivery. We measured metabolites of 7 phthalate esters in maternal urine that was collected between 25 and 40 weeks' gestation. All but two phthalate metabolites were over 95% detectable. We summed metabolites on a molar basis into low and high molecular weight phthalates. We hypothesized the existence of sex-specific effects from phthalate exposure a priori given the hormonal activity of these chemicals. Overall we found few associations between individual phthalate metabolites or their molar sums and most of the BNBAS domains. However, we observed significant sex-phthalate metabolite interactions (p<0.10) for the Orientation and Motor domains and the overall Quality of Alertness score. Among girls, there was a significant linear decline in adjusted mean Orientation score with increasing urinary concentrations of high molecular weight phthalate metabolites (B=-0.37, p=0.02). Likewise, there was a strong linear decline in their adjusted mean Quality of Alertness score (B=-0.48, p<0.01). In addition, boys and girls demonstrated opposite patterns of association between low and high molecular weight phthalate metabolite concentrations and motor performance, with some indication of improved motor performance with increasing concentration of low molecular weight phthalate metabolites among boys. This is the first study to report an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and neurological effects in humans or animals, and as such requires replication.

  7. Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

  8. Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

  9. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  10. Anxiety-like behavior in Rett syndrome: characteristics and assessment by anxiety scales.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Katherine V; Coughlin, Francesca R; O'Leary, Heather M; Bruck, Natalie; Bazin, Grace A; Beinecke, Emily B; Walco, Alexandra C; Cantwell, Nicole G; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by regression of language and motor skills, cognitive impairment, and frequent seizures. Although the diagnostic criteria focus on communication, motor impairments, and hand stereotypies, behavioral abnormalities are a prevalent and disabling component of the RTT phenotype. Among these problematic behaviors, anxiety is a prominent symptom. While the introduction of the Rett Syndrome Behavioral Questionnaire (RSBQ) represented a major advancement in the field, no systematic characterization of anxious behavior using the RSBQ or other standardized measures has been reported. This study examined the profiles of anxious behavior in a sample of 74 girls with RTT, with a focus on identifying the instrument with the best psychometric properties in this population. The parent-rated RSBQ, Anxiety, Depression, and Mood Scale (ADAMS), and Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C), two instruments previously employed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, were analyzed in terms of score profiles, relationship with age and clinical severity, reliability, concurrent validity, and functional implications. The latter were determined by regression analyses with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (Vineland-II) and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), a quality of life measure validated in RTT. We found that scores on anxiety subscales were intermediate in range with respect to other behavioral constructs measured by the RSBQ, ADAMS, and ABC-C. Age did not affect scores, and severity of general anxiety was inversely correlated with clinical severity. We demonstrated that the internal consistency of the anxiety-related subscales were among the highest. Test-retest and intra-rater reliability was superior for the ADAMS subscales. Convergent and discriminant validity were measured by inter-scale correlations, which showed the best profile for the social anxiety subscales. Of these

  11. Pre-Speech Assessment Scale: A Rating Scale for the Measurement of Pre-Speech Behaviors from Birth through Two Years. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Suzanne Evans

    The manual contains the Pre-Speech Assessment Scale (PSAS) intended for use with cerebral palsied and other handicapped children to evaluate behaviors at the birth through 2-year age level. Introductory information covers the development of the PSAS, concepts underlying the PSAS, evaluation procedures, scoring the PSAS, and graphing procedures.…

  12. The Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale (KIPS): A Practical Observational Assessment of Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comfort, Marilee; Gordon, Philip R.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the well-documented role caregiving plays in child development and socialization, family service programs commonly aim to improve parenting. Despite the common emphasis on parenting behavior, few programs regularly assess it, because existing observational tools, designed primarily for research purposes, prove too cumbersome for use in…

  13. [Development on the Diabetes Self-management Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Assessment Scale (DSKAB)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjuan; Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Bo; Li, Changfeng; Feng, Nongping

    2016-01-01

    To develop The Diabetes Self-management Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Scale (DSKAB) with Chinese population social culture character in a good validity and reliability after Delphi method and pilot study. This study based on former knowledge, attitude, and behavior questionnaires, an index list was established through literature search, group discussion, and expert in-depth interviews. Then we identified the core indexes and developed a primary scale through the Delphi. We selected 24 experts who specialized in the field of diabetes related clinical medicine, non-communicable diseases self-management, non-communicable diseases control and prevention, and public health. The consultation tables were delivered by EMS and Email. All the experts were asked to grade the evaluation indexes based on overall consideration finality, scientificity, importance, applicability, and to explain the extent of similarity and the basis of judgment. The core indexes of the scale were determined through the positive coefficient, the degree of concentration, the harmonious coefficient, the authoritative coefficient. We selected 27 diabetes patients from the community, and interviewed them face to face. After finishing the field survey, we organized the staff who investigated the patients to participate the panel discussion, to modify and adjust the items formed the scale knowledge attitude behavior of self-management for patients with diabetes mellitus. Two rounds of Delphi both reclaimed 20 experts(') responses, the positive coefficients were 83% and 100% respectively, the authoritative coefficients were 0.85 ± 0.10 and 0.87 ± 0.09, the harmonious coefficients were 0.16 and 0.23 (χ(2) were 283.49 and 398.00, P<0.001) respectively. We identified 75 core indexes through two-round Delphi, 86.30% (63/75) indexes had the importance of full marks than in 0.50 above, it developed the primary scale which included 100 items. Based on the pilot study, we increased 2 items, deleted 4 items

  14. Development process of an assessment tool for disruptive behavior problems in cross-cultural settings: the Disruptive Behavior International Scale - Nepal version (DBIS-N).

    PubMed

    Burkey, Matthew D; Ghimire, Lajina; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Haroz, Emily; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Systematic processes are needed to develop valid measurement instruments for disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) in cross-cultural settings. We employed a four-step process in Nepal to identify and select items for a culturally valid assessment instrument: 1) We extracted items from validated scales and local free-list interviews. 2) Parents, teachers, and peers (n=30) rated the perceived relevance and importance of behavior problems. 3) Highly rated items were piloted with children (n=60) in Nepal. 4) We evaluated internal consistency of the final scale. We identified 49 symptoms from 11 scales, and 39 behavior problems from free-list interviews (n=72). After dropping items for low ratings of relevance and severity and for poor item-test correlation, low frequency, and/or poor acceptability in pilot testing, 16 items remained for the Disruptive Behavior International Scale-Nepali version (DBIS-N). The final scale had good internal consistency (α=0.86). A 4-step systematic approach to scale development including local participation yielded an internally consistent scale that included culturally relevant behavior problems.

  15. The psychogeriatric and risk behavior assessment scale (PARBAS): a new measure for use with older adults living in the community.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Rossitza; Carignan, Mathieu; Moscovitz, Nona; Demers, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In the context of decreased access to inpatient mental health care, the assessment of risk behavior in older adults living in the community is a growing concern. The purpose of the study was to develop a risk behavior screening tool to help community practitioners plan early intervention for frail older adults with severe mental illness (SMI) referred to community health and social service centers. The initial instrument development involved discussion-based work among practitioners and researchers. It was followed by a content validation phase (involving nine experts), preliminary testing of inter-rater reliability (27 subjects, 12 pairs of raters), and item analysis procedures combining previous data. The psychogeriatric and risk behavior assessment scale (PARBAS) includes 34 items organized in 10 sections of risk behavior: (i) self neglect; (ii) non-compliance; (iii) substance abuse; (iv) risk toward oneself and others; (v) aggressive behavior; (vi) emotional distress; (vii) suicidal behavior; (viii) personal security; (ix) risk of victimization by others and (x) financial security. It can provide professionals with essential information about their clients' risky behaviors, thereby contributing to timely and appropriate preventive interventions. Future research is needed to establish its psychometric properties.

  16. Behavioral assessment of public-speaking anxiety using a modified version of the Social Performance Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Harb, Gerlinde C; Eng, Winnie; Zaider, Talia; Heimberg, Richard G

    2003-11-01

    The current study aimed to extend the evaluation of the utility of the Social Performance Rating Scale (SPRS) [Behav. Res. Ther. 36 (1998) 995]. We examined the utility of a modified SPRS for the behavioral assessment of public-speaking anxiety among patients with social phobia (n = 49). The videotaped performance of public-speaking fearful patients in a public-speaking task was rated using four of the five SPRS ratings and was compared to global ratings by patients and observers, as well as to self-report and clinician-administered measures of social anxiety. The pattern of correlations with criterion measures of social anxiety provided evidence for the convergent and divergent validity of this modified SPRS for the behavioral assessment of public-speaking anxiety.

  17. [Evaluation on the validity and reliability of the Diabetes Self-management Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Assessment Scale (DSKAB)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Dai, Long; Chen, Bo; Feng, Nongping; Wu, Qianhui; Lin, Yonghai; Zhang, Lan; Tan, Dong; Zhang, Jinhua; Tu, Huijuan; Li, Changfeng; Wang, Wenjuan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the validity and reliability of Diabetes Self-management Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Assessment Scale (DSKAB). We selected 460 patients with diabetes in the community, used the scale which was after two rounds of the Delphi method and pilot study. Investigators surveyed the patients by the way of face to face. by draw lots, we selected 25 community diabetes randomly for repeating investigations after one week. The validity analyses included face validity, content validity, construct validity and discriminant validity. The reliability analyses included Cronbach's α coefficient, θ coefficient, Ω coefficient, split-half reliability and test-retest reliability. This study distributed a total of 460 questionnaires, reclaimed 442, qualified 432. The score of the scale was 254.59 ± 28.90, the scores of the knowledge, attitude, behavior sub-scales were 82.44 ± 11.24, 63.53 ± 5.77 and 108.61 ± 17.55, respectively. It had excellent face validity and content validity. The correlation coefficient was from 0.71 to 0.91 among three sub-scales and the scale, P<0.001. The common factor cumulative variance contribution rate of the scale and three sub-scales was from 57.28% to 67.19%, which achieved more than 50% of the approved standard, there was 25 common factors, 91 items of the total 98 items held factor loading ≥0.40 in its relevant common factor, it had good construct validity. The scores of high group and low group in three sub-scales were: knowledge (91.12 ± 3.62) and (69.96 ± 11.20), attitude (68.75 ± 4.51) and (58.79 ± 4.87), behavior (129.38 ± 8.53) and (89.65 ± 11.34),mean scores of three sub-scales were apparently different, which compared between high score group and low score group, the t value were - 19.45, -16.24 and -30.29, respectively, P<0.001, and it had good discriminant validity. The Cronbach's α coefficient of the scale and three sub-scales was from 0.79 to 0.93, the θ coefficient was from 0.86 to 0.95, the Ω coefficient

  18. Rasch analysis of functional assessment scales: an example using pain behaviors.

    PubMed

    McArthur, D L; Cohen, M J; Schandler, S L

    1991-04-01

    Functional assessments associated with rehabilitation frequently rely on scoring systems based upon a limited set of categorical values, arranged in order and intended to represent an underlying performance continuum. Making sense of data generated by these scales is a challenge well met by the Rasch measurement model, which allows detailed investigation of how individuals are likely to perform on a given occasion and indicates whether changes in performance occur in orderly patterns over repeated occasions. Additionally, the Rasch measurement model allows study of the quality of measurement and the degree to which the scoring adequately reflects the underlying, but not directly measurable, continuum. Data gathered at admission and discharge from 330 patients attending a rehabilitation program for chronic low back pain were evaluated using the Rasch measurement model, and the results were contrasted with those from the best available nonparametric technique, ridit analysis.

  19. Assessing Psychopathic Traits and Criminal Behavior in a Young Adult Female Community Sample Using the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Frédéric; Carter, Rachel; Neumann, Craig S

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed psychopathic traits in a nonforensic female population (N = 343). Respondents completed the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-4: Short Form (SRP-SF) and also reported on their Criminal Behavior. The results revealed relatively higher scale elevations for the Interpersonal and Lifestyle SRP-SF facets, compared to the Affective and Antisocial facets. Also, those with a history of Criminal Behavior had significantly higher SRP-SF facet scores on all four psychopathy domains, compared to those without such history. Consistent with a number of previous studies, the structural equation modeling results revealed good fit for the four-factor SRP-SF model. In addition, a super-ordinate SRP-SF factor, which accounted for the majority variance of all four SRP-SF first-order factors, also accounted for 50% of the variance in a latent Criminal Behavior factor. Taken together, findings support use of the SRP-SF to assess psychopathic features in a moderately large sample of Belgium women.

  20. [Study on developing a Brief Version of Diabetes Self-management Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Assessment Scale (DSKAB-SF)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjuan; Wu, Yongze; Feng, Nongping; Chen, Bo; Li, Guangchun; Liu, Jiawu; Liu, Huilin; Yang, Youyuan

    2016-01-01

    To develop a brief version scale with good validity and reliability to evaluate self-management knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) of diabetes patients in a shorter time. 20 authority experts who specialized in the field of diabetes clinical and non-communicable disease self-management, and familiar with the relevant content of diabetes self-management were selected. Face to face and Email consultation methods were applied in two rounds delphi expert consultations to choose items from the Diabetes Self-management Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Assessment Scale (DSKAB, total scale, 98 items). In the first round of expert consultation, experts were asked to select the core items from every dimension and score the extent of familiarity and basis of judgment. In the second round of expert consultation, the significance of the core items which were selected by experts in first round, were graded. The items which entered into the brief scale were determined by harmonious condition of expert opinions. Two rounds of consultation reclaimed 16 and 15 responses respectively, Positive coefficients of experts were 80% and 94% respectively, and both authoritative coefficients were 0.90. In the first round of consultation, experts selected 44.3 ± 6.2 items on average, 42 items were selected according to the integrity of the scale for measuring dimension and content at last. In the second round of consultation, experts thought that the 42 items could measure the important contents of each dimension comprehensive and representative, the item importance scores of knowledge, attitude, and behavior subscale were 8.42 ± 1.17, 8.61 ± 1.24, 8.61 ± 1.02 respectively, and the coordination coefficients of the three subscale were 0.36, 0.20, 0.49 (χ(2) were 89.74, 11.13, 96.03, P<0.05). The total coordination coefficient was 0.38 (χ(2) =199.36, P<0.001), which indicated the concentration of experts(')opinion was acceptable, showed the brief scale with good face validity and

  1. Using Direct Behavior Rating--Single Item Scales to Assess Student Behavior within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faith G.; Patwa, Shamim S.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    An increased emphasis on collecting and using data in schools has occurred, in part, because of the implementation of multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS). Commonly referred to as response to intervention in the academic domain and school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports in the behavioral domain, these initiatives have a…

  2. Cross-Cultural Aspect of Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child: Standardization in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jungeun; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Koh, Yun-Joo; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Hong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Young-Key; Cho, Kyungjin; Lim, Eun-Chung; Park, Jee In

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Our study aimed to examine psychometric properties and cross-cultural utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child (BASC-2 PRS-C) in Korean children. Materials and Methods Two study populations were recruited: a general population sample (n=2115) of 1st to 6th graders from 16 elementary schools and a clinical population (n=219) of 6–12 years old from 5 child psychiatric clinics and an epidemiological sample of autism spectrum disorder. We assessed the validity and reliability of the Korean version of BASC-2 PRS-C (K-BASC-2 PRS-C) and compared subscales with those used for US populations. Results Our results indicate that the K-BASC-2 PRS-C is a valuable instrument with reliability and validity for measuring developmental psychopathology that is comparable to those in Western population. However, there were some differences noted in the mean scores of BASC-2 PRS-C between Korean and US populations. Conclusion K-BASC-2 PRS-C is an effective and useful instrument with psychometric properties that permits measurement of general developmental psychopathology. Observed Korean-US differences in patterns of parental reports of children's behaviors indicate the importance of the validation, standardization and cultural adaptation for tools assessing psychopathology especially when used in populations different from those for which the instrument was originally created. PMID:28120577

  3. The Concurrent Validity of a Behavioral Rating Scale for Assessing Attention Deficit Disorder (DSM III) in Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Joseph P.; Michael, William B.

    1983-01-01

    The Ozawa Behavioral Rating Scale contains six items related to distractibility and nine items related to impulsivity. This validity study showed that the Scale shows statistically significant relationships with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised and the Matching Familiar Figures Test and may be appropriate for identifying…

  4. Issues in multivariate assessment of a large-scale behavioral program

    PubMed Central

    Filipczak, James; Archer, Margaret B.; Neale, Michael S.; Winett, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Several social and research issues directly affected the development and implementation of multivariate assessment in a large community-based applied research program. Examples are drawn from experiences of the Preparation through Responsive Educational Programs Project for disruptive and skill deficient adolescents in suburban, rural, and urban junior high school settings, focusing on the assessment of academic and social skill development and long-term skill maintenance. The social context altered both project treatment and follow-up plans, requiring assessment of potentially unintended effects and decreasing consistency across sites. Future community acceptance of such programs may depend on the investigators' adaptation to diverse community pressures for program conduct and assessment and the measurement of phenomena that are not always directly observable. PMID:16795618

  5. Memorial symptom assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Hwang, Shirley S; Thaler, Howard T; Kasimis, Basil S; Portenoy, Russell K

    2004-04-01

    Patients with advanced illnesses often have multiple symptoms. As interest in palliative care and interventions for symptom control increase, the ability to assess multiple symptoms has become more important. A number of instruments have been developed to meet this need in cancer patients. This article reviews the development and applications of a multidimensional instrument, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has 32 symptoms and three dimensions of frequency, severity, and distress. Shorter versions - The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (32 symptoms with one dimension) and the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (14 symptoms with one dimension), and a version for children aged 7-12 years, have also been developed. A distinctive feature is the summary subscales for physical distress, psychological distress, and The Global Distress Index. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has proven useful in description of symptom epidemiology, the role of symptoms in pain, fatigue, and spirituality; as a predictor of survival, and in proxy assessments of pain. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has been used in studies of cancer and AIDS patients, and patients with advanced medical illnesses. Possible future roles of instruments such as the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale include use in clinical trials, for pharmacoeconomic analyses, definition of symptom clusters and symptom burden, the development of symptom outcome measures, symptom monitoring, and improving care for patients. Continued research is needed for the versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and other symptom instruments in different populations and applications.

  6. Prospective assessment of ictal behavior using the revised Responsiveness in Epilepsy Scale (RES-II)

    PubMed Central

    Bauerschmidt, Andrew; Koshkelashvili, Nika; Ezeani, Celestine C.; Yoo, Ji Yeoun; Zhang, Yan; Manganas, Louis N.; Kapadia, Kailash; Palenzuela, Deanna; Schmidt, Christian C.; Lief, Regina; Kiely, Bridget T.; Choezom, Tenzin; McClurkin, Michael; Shorten, Andrew; Detyniecki, Kamil; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Giacino, Joseph T.; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Impaired consciousness in epilepsy has a significant negative impact on patient quality of life, yet is difficult to study objectively. Here we develop an improved prospective Responsiveness in Epilepsy Scale (RES-II) and report initial results compared to the earlier version of the scale (RES). RES-II is simpler to administer and includes both verbal and nonverbal test items. We evaluated 75 seizures (24 patients) with RES and 34 seizures (11 patients) with RES-II based on video-EEG review. The error rate per seizure by test administrators improved markedly from a mean of 2.01±0.04 with RES to 0.24±0.11 with RES-II. Performance during focal seizures showed a bimodal distribution, corresponding to the traditional complex partial vs. simple partial seizure classification. We conclude that RES-II has improved accuracy and testing efficiency compared to the original RES. Prospective objective testing will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of impaired consciousness in epilepsy. PMID:23201609

  7. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales for the Assessment of Tactical Thinking Mental Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Tactical Thinking Mental Models Jennifer K. Phillips, Jennifer Shafer, Karol G. Ross and Donald A. Cox Klein Associates Scott B. Shadrick U.S. Army...NUMBER 622785 6. AUTHOR(S) 5c. PROJECT NUMBER Jennifer K. Phillips, Jennifer Shafer, Karol G. Ross, Donald A. Cox A790 (Klein Associates), and Scott B...the Assessment of Tactical Thinking Mental Models Jennifer K. Phillips, Jennifer Shafer, Karol G. Ross and Donald A. Cox Klein Associates Scott B

  8. Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Psychometrics and Associations With Child and Parent Variables

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Stephanie L.; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Mirenda, Pat; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    Objective The factor structure and validity of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; Crist & Napier-Phillips, 2001) were examined in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the original BPFAS five-factor model, the fit of each latent variable, and a rival one-factor model. None of the models was adequate, thus a categorical exploratory factor analysis (CEFA) was conducted. Correlations were used to examine relations between the BPFAS and concurrent variables of interest. Results The CEFA identified an acceptable three-factor model. Correlational analyses indicated that feeding problems were positively related to parent-reported autism symptoms, behavior problems, sleep problems, and parenting stress, but largely unrelated to performance-based indices of autism symptom severity, language, and cognitive abilities, as well as child age. Conclusion These results provide evidence supporting the use of the identified BPFAS three-factor model for samples of young children with ASD. PMID:25725217

  9. Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior: II. Scales of Social Adaption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior II (BSAB-II) provides a system for program development and evaluation and for social behavior assessment of profoundly and severely mentally retarded individuals as well as of the younger less retarded and emotionally disturbed individuals. The specimen set consists of six parts: a Manual, a Tally Sheet…

  10. [Construction of Maladaptive Behavior Scale in Japanese].

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Keita; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Shimada, Miyuki; Yaginuma, Kozue; Satoh, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Toru

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate child development, social competence, like intellectual ability, is an important aspect. The social competence of a child is prescribed by behaviors suitable for the society (adaptive behaviors) and behaviors not suitable for the society (maladaptive behaviors). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) have been widely administered to children in a semi-structural interview to evaluate social competence. The Social Competence test (S-M test) widely used in Japan is a translated version of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale for adaptive behaviors. Since only the region of adaptive behaviors was translated into Japanese, we attempted to develop a Maladaptive Behavior Scale in Japanese based on the VABS to evaluate the social competence of children. The Maladaptive Behavior Scale of the VABS was translated into Japanese and back-translated to ensure appropriate translation. It was administered to children belonging to the birth cohort of the Tohoku Study of Child Development at the age of 66 months. The subjects for analysis in this study were 451 children (230 boys, 221 girls). To assess internal consistency, we used the standardized Cronbach alpha coefficient and the result was 0.81. The correlation coefficient between the scores of the S-M test and those of the Maladaptive Behavior Scale was -0.15. The correlation coefficient between the scores of the Child Behavior Checklist at 30 months and those of the Maladaptive Behavior Scale was 0.44. These results suggest that the Maladaptive Behavior Scale may be a reliable instrument for assessing maladaptive behavior in Japanese children.

  11. Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paulette J.

    1990-01-01

    Designed for use with individuals ages 3 months to 44 years, the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) measure adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in such areas as motor skills, social interaction, language, personal self-care, punctuality, destructiveness, and inattention. This paper describes the SIB's administration, scoring,…

  12. Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paulette J.

    1990-01-01

    Designed for use with individuals ages 3 months to 44 years, the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) measure adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in such areas as motor skills, social interaction, language, personal self-care, punctuality, destructiveness, and inattention. This paper describes the SIB's administration, scoring,…

  13. Assessment of Grade-Level Differences in Coping Behavior among Adolescents Using Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal-Point Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine grade-level differences in coping behaviors among adolescents using a probabilistic multidimensional scaling (MDS) single-ideal-point model. Using data from students in middle school and at college, this article illustrated the MDS single-ideal-point model as an alternative to examine students' typical…

  14. Second Year Validation Studies of the Brockton Battery: A Special Needs Assessment for Linguistic Minority Students. (The Tests of Reading Readiness and the Scales of Adaptive Behavior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennett, Kenneth H.

    Procedures are described to determine reliability and validity of the Brockton (Massachusetts) Battery's Tests of Reading Readiness and the Adaptive Behavior Scales, which were developed to assess performance levels of Hispanic, Portuguese, and Cape Verdean normal and high risk children. Among reasons given for development of the instruments are…

  15. Validity of the OSU Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale and the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality with Child Tornado Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda Garner; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Tornadoes and other natural disasters can lead to anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. This study provides further validity for the Oklahoma State University Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-Child Form (OSU PTSDS-CF) by comparing it to the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP).…

  16. Discriminative Validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Parent Rating Scales in Children with Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Paul M.; Schoff, Kristin M.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Abelkop, A. Shayne

    2003-01-01

    Examined discriminative validity of the Parent Rating Scale (PRS) of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992, Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services). Two groups were compared: a cohort with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) (n = 49) and children from the BASC-PRS standardization sample (n = 49) matched…

  17. Validity of the OSU Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale and the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality with Child Tornado Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda Garner; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Tornadoes and other natural disasters can lead to anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. This study provides further validity for the Oklahoma State University Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-Child Form (OSU PTSDS-CF) by comparing it to the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP).…

  18. Second Year Validation Studies of the Brockton Battery: A Special Needs Assessment for Linguistic Minority Students. (The Tests of Reading Readiness and the Scales of Adaptive Behavior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennett, Kenneth H.

    Procedures are described to determine reliability and validity of the Brockton (Massachusetts) Battery's Tests of Reading Readiness and the Adaptive Behavior Scales, which were developed to assess performance levels of Hispanic, Portuguese, and Cape Verdean normal and high risk children. Among reasons given for development of the instruments are…

  19. [Assessment of the validity and reliability of the processes of change scale based on the transtheoretical model of vegetable consumption behavior in Japanese male workers].

    PubMed

    Kushida, Osamu; Murayama, Nobuko

    2012-12-01

    A core construct of the Transtheoretical model is that the processes and stages of change are strongly related to observable behavioral changes. We created the Processes of Change Scale of vegetable consumption behavior and examined the validity and reliability of this scale. In September 2009, a self-administered questionnaire was administered to male Japanese employees, aged 20-59 years, working at 20 worksites in Niigata City in Japan. The stages of change (precontempration, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance stage) were measured using 2 items that assessed participants' current implementation of the target behavior (eating 5 or more servings of vegetables per day) and their readiness to change their habits. The Processes of Change Scale of vegetable consumption behavior comprised 10 items assessing 5 cognitive processes (consciousness raising, emotional arousal, environmental reevaluation, self-reevaluation, and social liberation) and 5 behavioral processes (commitment, rewards, helping relationships, countering, and environment control). Each item was selected from an existing scale. Decisional balance (pros [2 items] and cons [2 items]), and self-efficacy (3 items) were also assessed, because these constructs were considered to be relevant to the processes of change. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was examined using Cronbach's alpha. Its construct validity was examined using a factor analysis of the processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy variables, while its criterion-related validity was determined by assessing the association between the scale scores and the stages of change. The data of 527 (out of 600) participants (mean age, 41.1 years) were analyzed. Results indicated that the Processes of Change Scale had sufficient internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha: cognitive processes=0.722, behavioral processes=0.803). The processes of change were divided into 2 factors: "consciousness raising

  20. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  1. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  2. Adapting the McMaster-Ottawa scale and developing behavioral anchors for assessing performance in an interprofessional Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter.

    PubMed

    Lie, Désirée; May, Win; Richter-Lagha, Regina; Forest, Christopher; Banzali, Yvonne; Lohenry, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Current scales for interprofessional team performance do not provide adequate behavioral anchors for performance evaluation. The Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter (TOSCE) provides an opportunity to adapt and develop an existing scale for this purpose. We aimed to test the feasibility of using a retooled scale to rate performance in a standardized patient encounter and to assess faculty ability to accurately rate both individual students and teams. The 9-point McMaster-Ottawa Scale developed for a TOSCE was converted to a 3-point scale with behavioral anchors. Students from four professions were trained a priori to perform in teams of four at three different levels as individuals and teams. Blinded faculty raters were trained to use the scale to evaluate individual and team performances. G-theory was used to analyze ability of faculty to accurately rate individual students and teams using the retooled scale. Sixteen faculty, in groups of four, rated four student teams, each participating in the same TOSCE station. Faculty expressed comfort rating up to four students in a team within a 35-min timeframe. Accuracy of faculty raters varied (38-81% individuals, 50-100% teams), with errors in the direction of over-rating individual, but not team performance. There was no consistent pattern of error for raters. The TOSCE can be administered as an evaluation method for interprofessional teams. However, faculty demonstrate a 'leniency error' in rating students, even with prior training using behavioral anchors. To improve consistency, we recommend two trained faculty raters per station.

  3. Delusion assessment scales.

    PubMed

    Forgácová, L'ubica

    2008-03-01

    Since the beginning of the 19th century, delusions have been classified mainly by their content or theme. Clinical psychopathological investigation requires additional variables that will allow investigators to describe the structure of delusional experience more accurately. Delusions are multidimensional constructs that may change across the various mental disorders. Several authors have developed rating scales with the aim to measure individual dimensions of delusional structure. In this paper, common rating scales are mentioned and the main characteristics of the Simple Delusional Syndrome Scale (SDSS) are summarized. The SDSS scale consists of 7 items (logical organization, systemization, stability, conviction, influence on the action, extension, and insertion), scored from 1 to 5. Results of the statistical analysis confirm good psychometric characteristics of the scale, Cronbach coefficient alpha=0.8327. The SDSS may contribute to a better understanding and diagnostics of delusional disorders and, using statistical methods, can help quantify the relationship between the delusional syndrome and the primary disease process. The SDSS scale may also be utilized in the assessment of changes occurring in delusional syndromes depending on the therapeutic effect of psychopharmacological drugs.

  4. Which is the appropriate scale to assess the impact of landscape spatial configuration on the diet and behavior of spider monkeys?

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Gómez, José D; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Nicasio-Arzeta, Sergio; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the response of species to changes in landscape configuration is required to design adequate management and conservation strategies. Yet, the most appropriate spatial scale (i.e., landscape size) to assess the response of species to changes in landscape configuration (so-called "scale of effect") is largely unknown. In this paper, we assess the impact of landscape forest cover, forest fragmentation, edge density, and inter-patch isolation distance on the diet and behavior of six communities of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in the fragmented Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. We evaluated the strength of the relationship between each landscape predictor and each response variable within ten different-sized landscapes (range = 50-665 ha) to identify the landscape size that best predicted changes in diet and behavior. The strength of most associations varied across spatial scales, with the 126-ha landscape showing the strongest relationships between landscape predictors and response variables in many cases. Yet forest cover represented the main driver of the diet and behavior of spider monkeys, being positively associated with time traveling and time feeding on wood, but negatively related to time resting and time feeding on leaves. Although weaker, the impact of edge density was opposite to forest cover for most response variables. Forest fragmentation and isolation distance showed the weakest associations with the diet and behavior of this species. Our findings thus indicate that different landscape attributes operate on different response variables at different spatial scales. Therefore, the scale of effects cannot be generalized to all response variables and to all predictors, and a multi-scale analysis will be required to accurately assess the impact of landscape configuration on species' responses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghadam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hamdieh, Mostafa; Montazeri, Ali

    2014-06-13

    Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women's health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women's sexual abstinence.

  6. Development of self-report scales measuring collaborative vs. directive support: Assessing beliefs and behaviors in carers of adults with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Geller, Josie; Iyar, Megumi

    2016-12-01

    Collaboration is more acceptable and likely to produce favorable outcomes when providing care to individuals with eating disorders compared to directive care. We developed two self-report instruments that assess the extent to which carers (e.g., family, friends) of individuals with eating disorders provide collaborative vs. directive support (Support Behaviors Scale; SBH) and the extent to which carers believe that such approaches are helpful (Support Beliefs Scale; SBL). Participants were mothers, fathers, partners, friends and siblings (N=141) of eating disorder patients in hospital or residential treatment. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test measurement models comprising collaborative and directive approaches identified in previous research. A 19-item three-factor model exhibited best fit for each scale and included three distinct caregiving approaches: two that were collaborative (encouraging, concerned), and one that was directive. The scales exhibited acceptable internal consistency. Reported caregiving behaviors (SBH) were correlated with beliefs about caregiving (SBL). The scales can be used to assess caregiving stance and outcomes for interventions aimed at promoting collaboration in carers.

  7. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmar, Roger, D.; Blake, John, I.; Crolly, William, T.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

  8. Transient Cocaine-Associated Behavioral Symptoms Rated with a New Instrument, the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms for Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (SAPS-CIP)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-lang; Kranzler, Henry R.; Gelernter, Joel; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pearson, Deborah; Cubells, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic use of cocaine is associated with a variety of behavioral symptoms. The current report describes the assessment of cocaine-related behavioral symptoms (CRB) using the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms of Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (SAPS-CIP). The CRB section, one of the three domains in the SAPS-CIP, consists of sub-domains, including Aggressive/Agitated Behavior, Repetitive/Stereotyped Behavior, Unusual Social or Sexual Behavior. Severity scores are assigned according to operational criteria, and range from 0 (not present) to 5 (severe). We interviewed 261 unrelated cocaine-abusing adults using the SAPS-CIP, and 243 of them met criteria for inclusion in the study. The proportion of subjects endorsing different classes of CRBs varied across categories, with 109 of 243 (44.9%) subjects reporting aggressive and agitated behaviors, 180 subjects (74.1%) repetitive/stereotyped behaviors, and 192 (79.0%) unusual social/sexual behaviors. A substantial minority of the subjects (10.3-25.1%) reported that they experienced marked-to-severe behavioral symptoms associated with cocaine use. The proportions of subjects endorsing CRB did not differ by ethnic/racial group or by sex. Correlations among the different domains of CRB were strong, but behaviors rated in the CRB section were less well correlated with psychotic symptoms, which were rated in the hallucination and delusion sections of the instrument. A variety of CRBs are common in cocaine-dependent subjects, and many of these are highly intercorrelated. CRBs also correlate with hallucinations and delusions induced by cocaine, but to a lesser degree. Our findings suggest that there may be some common vulnerability factors that contribute to both cocaine-induced psychosis and CRBs. PMID:19874151

  9. [Validity, reliability, and acceptability of the brief version of the self-management knowledge, attitude, and behavior assessment scale for diabetes patients].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y Z; Wang, W J; Feng, N P; Chen, B; Li, G C; Liu, J W; Liu, H L; Yang, Y Y

    2016-07-06

    To evaluate the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the brief version of the self-management knowledge, attitude, and behavior (KAB) assessment scale for diabetes patients. Diabetes patients who were managed at the Xinkaipu Community Health Service Center of Tianxin in Changsha, Hunan Province were selected for survey by cluster sampling. A total of 350 diabetes patients were surveyed using the brief scale to collect data on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of self-management. Content validity was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient between the brief scale and subscales of knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Structure validity was evaluated by factor analysis, and discrimination validity was evaluated by an independent sample t-test between the high-score and low-score groups. Reliability was tested by internal consistency reliability and split-half reliability. The evaluation indexes of internal consistency reliability were Cronbach's α coefficients, θ coefficient, and Ω coefficient. Acceptability was evaluated by valid response rate and completion time of the brief scale. A total of 346(98.9%) valid questionnaires were returned, with average survey time of (11.43±3.4) minutes. Average score of the brief scale was 78.85 ± 11.22; scores of the knowledge, attitude, and behavior subscales were 16.45 ± 4.42, 21.33 ± 2.03, and 41.07 ± 8.34, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients between the brief scale and the knowledge, attitude, and behavior subscales were 0.92, 0.42, and 0.60, respectively; P-values were all less than 0.01, indicating that the face validity and content validity of the brief scale were achieved to a good level. The common factor cumulative variance contribution rate of the brief scale and three subscales was from 53.66% to 61.75%, which achieved more than 50% of the approved standard. There were 11 common factors; 41 of the total 42 items had factor loadings above 0.40 in their relevant common factor, indicating

  10. Interrater Agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Dunlap, Glen; Kincaid, Don

    2014-01-01

    Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence…

  11. Interrater Agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Dunlap, Glen; Kincaid, Don

    2014-01-01

    Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence…

  12. Adapting the McMaster-Ottawa scale and developing behavioral anchors for assessing performance in an interprofessional Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Désirée; May, Win; Richter-Lagha, Regina; Forest, Christopher; Banzali, Yvonne; Lohenry, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Current scales for interprofessional team performance do not provide adequate behavioral anchors for performance evaluation. The Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter (TOSCE) provides an opportunity to adapt and develop an existing scale for this purpose. We aimed to test the feasibility of using a retooled scale to rate performance in a standardized patient encounter and to assess faculty ability to accurately rate both individual students and teams. Methods The 9-point McMaster-Ottawa Scale developed for a TOSCE was converted to a 3-point scale with behavioral anchors. Students from four professions were trained a priori to perform in teams of four at three different levels as individuals and teams. Blinded faculty raters were trained to use the scale to evaluate individual and team performances. G-theory was used to analyze ability of faculty to accurately rate individual students and teams using the retooled scale. Results Sixteen faculty, in groups of four, rated four student teams, each participating in the same TOSCE station. Faculty expressed comfort rating up to four students in a team within a 35-min timeframe. Accuracy of faculty raters varied (38–81% individuals, 50–100% teams), with errors in the direction of over-rating individual, but not team performance. There was no consistent pattern of error for raters. Conclusion The TOSCE can be administered as an evaluation method for interprofessional teams. However, faculty demonstrate a ‘leniency error’ in rating students, even with prior training using behavioral anchors. To improve consistency, we recommend two trained faculty raters per station. PMID:26004993

  13. Scaling behavior of threshold epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2012-05-01

    We study the classic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model for the spread of an infectious disease. In this stochastic process, there are two competing mechanism: infection and recovery. Susceptible individuals may contract the disease from infected individuals, while infected ones recover from the disease at a constant rate and are never infected again. Our focus is the behavior at the epidemic threshold where the rates of the infection and recovery processes balance. In the infinite population limit, we establish analytically scaling rules for the time-dependent distribution functions that characterize the sizes of the infected and the recovered sub-populations. Using heuristic arguments, we also obtain scaling laws for the size and duration of the epidemic outbreaks as a function of the total population. We perform numerical simulations to verify the scaling predictions and discuss the consequences of these scaling laws for near-threshold epidemic outbreaks.

  14. Factor Structure of the Behavior Flexibility Rating Scale (BFRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pituch, Keenan A.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Itchon, Jonathan; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Didden, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The Behavior Flexibility Rating Scale (BFRS) is designed to assess insistence on sameness or lack of behavioral flexibility, which is often associated with autism and other developmental disabilities. This study was designed to assess the factor structure of this scale for a sample of 968 individuals with autism, Asperger's syndrome, and Down…

  15. Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale as a predictor of cognitive development and IQ in full-term infants: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Canals, Josefa; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Esparó, Griselda; Fernández-Ballart, Joan

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive capacity of neonatal behaviour on infant mental and psychomotor development at 4 and 12 months, and infant intelligence at 6 years. Eighty full-term newborns were followed from 3 days until 6 years. Neonatal behaviour was assessed by the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 3 days postpartum, infant mental and psychomotor development was assessed by the Bayley Scales for Infant Development at 4 and 12 months, and child intelligence was assessed by the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at 6 years. Neonatal general irritability was the predictor of mental development at 12 months. Self-regulation behaviours were predictors of psychomotor development at 4 and 12 months and verbal and total intelligence quotient at 6 years. Neonatal orientation was a predictor of performance Wechsler subtests related to visomotor abilities and attention. Neonatal self-regulation behaviours were the best predictors of infant development and intelligence. We suggest that the NBAS could be a useful tool to observe behaviours related to later development in healthy infants. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  16. Testing Students with Special Educational Needs in Large-Scale Assessments – Psychometric Properties of Test Scores and Associations with Test Taking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H.; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are—at the same time—measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L. PMID:26941665

  17. Testing Students with Special Educational Needs in Large-Scale Assessments - Psychometric Properties of Test Scores and Associations with Test Taking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Steffi; Südkamp, Anna; Hardt, Katinka; Carstensen, Claus H; Weinert, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are-at the same time-measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs. We furthermore investigated whether differences in test-taking behavior may explain dissatisfying psychometric properties and measurement non-invariance of test scores within LSAs. We relied on person fit indices and mixture distribution models to identify students with SEN-L for whom test scores with satisfactory psychometric properties and measurement invariance may be obtained. We also captured differences in test-taking behavior related to guessing and missing responses. As a result we identified a subgroup of students with SEN-L for whom competence scores of adequate psychometric quality that are measurement invariant to those of general education students were obtained. Concerning test taking behavior, there was a small number of students who unsystematically picked response options. Removing these students from the sample slightly improved item fit. Furthermore, two different patterns of missing responses were identified that explain to some extent problems in the assessments of students with SEN-L.

  18. Assessing the heterogeneity of aggressive behavior traits: exploratory and confirmatory analyses of the reactive and instrumental aggression Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales.

    PubMed

    Antonius, Daniel; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Shiva, Andrew A; Messinger, Julie W; Maile, Jordan; Siefert, Caleb J; Belfi, Brian; Malaspina, Dolores; Blais, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    The heterogeneity of violent behavior is often overlooked in risk assessment despite its importance in the management and treatment of psychiatric and forensic patients. In this study, items from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) were first evaluated and rated by experts in terms of how well they assessed personality features associated with reactive and instrumental aggression. Exploratory principal component analyses (PCA) were then conducted on select items using a sample of psychiatric and forensic inpatients (n = 479) to examine the latent structure and construct validity of these reactive and instrumental aggression factors. Finally, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on a separate sample of psychiatric inpatients (n = 503) to evaluate whether these factors yielded acceptable model fit. Overall, the exploratory and confirmatory analyses supported the existence of two latent PAI factor structures, which delineate personality traits related to reactive and instrumental aggression.

  19. Psychometric validation of the behavioral indicators of pain scale for the assessment of pain in mechanically ventilated and unable to self-report critical care patients.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Marco, I; Acevedo-Nuevo, M; Solís-Muñoz, M; Hernández-Sánchez, L; López-López, C; Sánchez-Sánchez, M M; Wojtysiak-Wojcicka, M; de Las Pozas-Abril, J; Robleda-Font, G; Frade-Mera, M J; De Blas-García, R; Górgolas-Ortiz, C; De la Figuera-Bayón, J; Cavia-García, C

    2016-11-01

    To assess the psychometric properties of the behavioral indicators of pain scale (ESCID) when applied to a wide range of medical and surgical critical patients. A multicentre, prospective observational study was designed to validate a scale measuring instrument. Twenty Intensive Care Units of 14 hospitals belonging to the Spanish National Health System. A total of 286 mechanically ventilated, unable to self-report critically ill medical and surgical adult patients. Pain levels were measured by two independent evaluators simultaneously, using two scales: ESCID and the behavioral pain scale (BPS). Pain was observed before, during, and after two painful procedures (turning, tracheal suctioning) and one non-painful procedure. ESCID reliability was measured on the basis of internal consistency using the Cronbach-α coefficient. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement were measured. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between ESCID and BPS. A total of 4386 observations were made in 286 patients (62% medical and 38% surgical). High correlation was found between ESCID and BPS (r=0.94-0.99; p<0.001), together with high intra-rater and inter-rater concordance. ESCID was internally reliable, with a Cronbach-α value of 0.85 (95%CI 0.81-0.88). Cronbach-α coefficients for ESCID domains were high: facial expression 0.87 (95%CI 0.84-0.89), calmness 0.84 (95%CI 0.81-0.87), muscle tone 0.80 (95%CI 0.75-0.84), compliance with mechanical ventilation 0.70 (95%CI 0.63-0.75) and consolability 0.85 (95%CI 0.81-0.88). ESCID is valid and reliable for measuring pain in mechanically ventilated unable to self-report medical and surgical critical care patients. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01744717. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Opportunities and challenges for the use of large-scale surveys in public health research: A comparison of the assessment of cancer screening behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Breen, Nancy; Klabunde, Carrie N.; Moser, Richard P.; Leyva, Bryan; Breslau, Erica S.; Kobrin, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale surveys that assess cancer prevention and control behaviors are a readily-available, rich resource for public health researchers. Although these data are used by a subset of researchers who are familiar with them, their potential is not fully realized by the research community for reasons including lack of awareness of the data, and limited understanding of their content, methodology, and utility. Until now, no comprehensive resource existed to describe and facilitate use of these data. To address this gap and maximize use of these data, we catalogued the characteristics and content of four surveys that assessed cancer screening behaviors in 2005, the most recent year with concurrent periods of data collection: the National Health Interview Survey, Health Information National Trends Survey, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and California Health Interview Survey. We documented each survey's characteristics, measures of cancer screening, and relevant correlates; examined how published studies (n=78) have used the surveys’ cancer screening data; and reviewed new cancer screening constructs measured in recent years. This information can guide researchers in deciding how to capitalize on the opportunities presented by these data resources. PMID:25300474

  1. Development and Validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ok, Ahmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) has been a focus of many studies in the field of environmental education, very few scales have been developed to assess children's ERB. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale (CREBS) and also reports the…

  2. Assessing relational schemas in parents of children with externalizing behavior disorders: reliability and validity of the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J; Brennan, John

    2011-02-28

    Direct observational assessment of parent-child interaction is important in clinical intervention with conduct-problem children, but is costly and resource-intensive. We examined the reliability and validity of a brief measure of parents' relational schemas (RSs) regarding their child. Children (aged 4 to 11years) and their families receiving treatment at a clinic for externalizing behavior problems (n=150) or mood/developmental disorders (n=28) were assessed using a multi-method, multi-informant procedure. RSs were coded from Five-Minute Speech Samples (FMSS) using the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale (FAARS), and were compared with directly observed parent-child interaction and questionnaire measures of family and parental dysfunction and conduct problems. Mothers' and fathers' RS scales were internally consistent and could be reliably coded in under 10min. Less positive RSs and more negative RSs were associated with higher rates of child conduct problems, and were more characteristic of the speech samples of parents of children with externalizing disorders, compared with clinic control parents. RSs demonstrated some associations with parenting behavior and measures of family functioning and symptoms of parental psychopathology, and predicted conduct problems independently of observed parental criticism. The results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the FAARS assessment of parental RSs in clinic-referred families. This brief measure of parent-child dynamics appears well-suited to 'real-world' (i.e., community) clinical settings in which intensive methods of observation are often not feasible. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Scaling of prosocial behavior in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbesman, Samuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has examined how various behaviors scale in cities in relation to their population sizes. Behavior related to innovation and productivity has been found to increase per capita as the size of the city increases, a phenomenon known as superlinear scaling. Criminal behavior has also been found to scale superlinearly. Here we examine a variety of prosocial behaviors (e.g., voting and organ donation), which also would be presumed to be categorized into a single class of scaling with population. We find that, unlike productivity and innovation, prosocial behaviors do not scale in a unified manner. We argue how this might be due to the nature of interactions that are distinct for different prosocial behaviors.

  4. A pilot investigation of the Motivation Behaviors Checklist (MBC): An observational rating scale of effort towards testing for baseline sports-concussion assessment.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Amanda R; Merritt, Victoria; Arnett, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    Baseline neuropsychological testing is commonly used in the management of sports-related concussion. However, underperformance due to poor effort could lead to invalid conclusions regarding postconcussion cognitive decline. We designed the Motivation Behaviors Checklist (MBC) as an observational rating scale to assess effort towards baseline neuropsychological testing. Here we present preliminary data in support of its reliability and validity. MBC items were generated based on the consensus of a panel of graduate students, undergraduates, and a clinical neuropsychologist who conduct neuropsychological evaluations for a sports concussion management program. A total of 261 college athletes were administered a standard neuropsychological test battery in addition to the MBC. A subset of evaluations (n= 101) was videotape and viewed by a second rater. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to refine the scale, and reliability and validity were evaluated. EFA revealed that the MBC items represent four latent factors-Complaints, Poor Focus, Psychomotor Agitation, and Impulsivity. Reliability analyses demonstrated that the MBC has good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = .767) and internal consistency (α = .839). The construct validity of the MBC is supported by large correlations with examiners' ratings of effort (ρ = -.623) and medium-sized relationships with cognitive performance and self-ratings of effort (|ρ| between .263 and .345). Discriminant validity was supported by nonsignificant correlations with measures of depression and postconcussion symptoms (ρ = .056 and .082, respectively). These findings provide preliminary evidence that the MBC could be a useful adjunct to baseline neuropsychological evaluations for sports-concussion management.

  5. Behavioral Assessment: Questionnaires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, C. Chrisman

    1980-01-01

    This is a general discussion of the validity, reliability, function, and format of questionnaires designed to measure problem behavior, noncompliance, anxiety, social interaction, hyperactivity, drug use, and sexual behavior. Commonly used questionnaires are cited. (CP)

  6. Evaluating the Chinese Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie Chau Wai; Lam, Gloria Ling Lee; Tang, Debbie Hoi Ming; Graham-Kevan, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the utility of the Chinese version of the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (C-CBS-R) as a measure of controlling behaviors in violent Chinese intimate relationships. Using a mixed-methods approach, in-depth, individual interviews were conducted with 200 Chinese women survivors to elicit qualitative data about their personal experiences of control in intimate relationships. The use of controlling behaviors was also assessed using the C-CBS-R. Interview accounts suggested that the experiences of 91 of the women were consistent with the description of coercive control according to Dutton and Goodman's conceptualization of coercion. Using the split-half validation procedure, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was conducted with the first half of the sample. The area under the curve (AUC) for using the C-CBS-R to identify high control was .99, and the cutoff score of 1.145 maximized both sensitivity and specificity. Applying the cutoff score to the second half gave a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 95%. Overall, the C-CBS-R has demonstrated utility as a measure of controlling behaviors with a cutoff score for distinguishing high from low levels of control in violent Chinese intimate relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Assessing the Strengths of Young Children at Risk: Examining Use of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale with a Head Start Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Annette K.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Trout, Alexandra L.; Synhorst, Lori; Epstein, Michael H.; Allen, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increased need for the development and use of psychometrically acceptable measures to assess the behavioral and emotional strengths of young children served in statewide preschool and Head Start programs. One measure developed to address this need is the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale…

  8. Assessing the Strengths of Young Children at Risk: Examining Use of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale with a Head Start Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Annette K.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Trout, Alexandra L.; Synhorst, Lori; Epstein, Michael H.; Allen, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increased need for the development and use of psychometrically acceptable measures to assess the behavioral and emotional strengths of young children served in statewide preschool and Head Start programs. One measure developed to address this need is the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale…

  9. Evaluating Sensitivity to Behavioral Change Using Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Maggin, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the researchers evaluated the sensitivity of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) for assessing behavior change in response to an intervention. Included in the analyses were data from 20 completed behavioral consultation cases involving a diverse sample of elementary participants and contexts using a common…

  10. Multiscaling behavior of atomic-scale friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannesar, M.; Jamali, T.; Sadeghi, A.; Movahed, S. M. S.; Fesler, G.; Meyer, E.; Khoshnevisan, B.; Jafari, G. R.

    2017-06-01

    The scaling behavior of friction between rough surfaces is a well-known phenomenon. It might be asked whether such a scaling feature also exists for friction at an atomic scale despite the absence of roughness on atomically flat surfaces. Indeed, other types of fluctuations, e.g., thermal and instrumental fluctuations, become appreciable at this length scale and can lead to scaling behavior of the measured atomic-scale friction. We investigate this using the lateral force exerted on the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) when the tip is dragged over the clean NaCl (001) surface in ultra-high vacuum at room temperature. Here the focus is on the fluctuations of the lateral force profile rather than its saw-tooth trend; we first eliminate the trend using the singular value decomposition technique and then explore the scaling behavior of the detrended data, which contains only fluctuations, using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The results demonstrate a scaling behavior for the friction data ranging from 0.2 to 2 nm with the Hurst exponent H =0.61 ±0.02 at a 1 σ confidence interval. Moreover, the dependence of the generalized Hurst exponent, h (q ) , on the index variable q confirms the multifractal or multiscaling behavior of the nanofriction data. These results prove that fluctuation of nanofriction empirical data has a multifractal behavior which deviates from white noise.

  11. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation’s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  12. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation’s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  13. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and Construct Validity of the Resident Choice Assessment Scale with Paid Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behavior in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratti, Victoria; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Crabtree, Jason; Hassiotis, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The Resident Choice Assessment Scale (RCAS) is used to assess choice availability for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The aim of the study was to explore the factor structure, construct validity, and internal consistency of the measure in community settings to further validate this tool. Method: 108 paid carers of adults…

  14. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  15. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  16. Scaling behavior of fragment shapes.

    PubMed

    Kun, F; Wittel, F K; Herrmann, H J; Kröplin, B H; Måløy, K J

    2006-01-20

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the shape of fragments generated by explosive and impact loading of closed shells. Based on high speed imaging, we have determined the fragmentation mechanism of shells. Experiments have shown that the fragments vary from completely isotropic to highly anisotropic elongated shapes, depending on the microscopic cracking mechanism of the shell. Anisotropic fragments proved to have a self-affine character described by a scaling exponent. The distribution of fragment shapes exhibits a power-law decay. The robustness of the scaling laws is illustrated by a stochastic hierarchical model of fragmentation. Our results provide a possible improvement of the representation of fragment shapes in models of space debris.

  17. Correlational Study of the Scales of Independent Behavior and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Joseph J.

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) and the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) were administered to the mothers of 40 preschoolers (23 females and 17 males) in a day care situation. The children ranged in age from 47 to 74 months. Mothers were interviewed to determine if any changes had taken place in the behavior of the children…

  18. Factor Analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…

  19. Factor Analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…

  20. Direct Behavior Rating: An Evaluation of Alternate Definitions to Assess Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra; Jaffery, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    The method of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) incorporates aspects of both systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales to provide an efficient means to collect time series data. This study extended the development and evaluation of DBR Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) as a behavior assessment tool. Eighty-eight undergraduate students used…

  1. Functional Analysis Outcomes and Comparison of Direct Observations and Informant Rating Scales in the Assessment of Severe Behavior Problems of Infants and Toddlers At-Risk for Developmental Delays.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Stephen R; Richman, David M; Abby, Layla; Courtemanche, Andrea B; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Severe problem behaviors, like aggression, self-injury, and repetitive behaviors, in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities often appear during early development and may persist without early intervention. The frequencies of self-injurious behavior, aggression, tantrums, property destruction and stereotyped behavior among 17 infants and toddlers at risk for developmental delays and severe behavior problems were assessed using two methods: 1) direct observation of responses during 10 s partial interval recording during analogue functional analysis and 2) the Behavior Problem Inventory-01 (BPI-01; Rojahn et al, 2001), an informant rating scale. Analogue functional analysis results suggested that the most common function for problem behavior was automatic reinforcement, followed by negative reinforcement in the form of escape from demands. Agreement across the two types of measurement systems as to occurrence of the behaviors reported on the BPI-01 and direct observations during analogue functional analyses was greater than 75% across aggression, self-injury, and stereotyped behavior. Agreement at a more molecular level of the ranking of the most commonly occurring specific behaviors was considerably lower. Results are discussed in terms of future research on identifying conditions that set the occasion for high levels of agreement between indirect and direct measurement systems for severe behavior problems.

  2. The Behavior Observation Scale for Autism (BOS): Factor Analysis of Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, B. J.; And Others

    Data on 36 autistic, 30 mentally retarded (MR), and 22 normal children (23-65 months old) was collected to develop a method of objective behavioral assessment for diagnosing autism and documenting symptom changes over time. Ss were observed and rated on the Behavior Observation Scale, an instrument which contains 67 objectively defined behaviors…

  3. Assessing Social Validity of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Plans: Evidence for the Reliability and Structure of the Primary Intervention Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Driscoll, Steven A.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence for the reliability and structural validity of scores from the Primary Intervention Rating Scale (Lane, Robertson, & Wehby, 2002), an adapted version of the Intervention Rating Profile-15 (Witt & Elliott, 1985) designed to assess faculty's perceptions of social validity of primary prevention plans prior…

  4. The Incremental Utility of Behavioral Rating Scales and a Structured Diagnostic Interview in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Aaron J.; Hoza, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =…

  5. Universal Scaling Law in Human Behavioral Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Toru; Kiyono, Ken; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Nakahara, Rika; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2007-09-01

    We describe the nature of human behavioral organization, specifically how resting and active periods are interwoven throughout daily life. Active period durations with physical activity count successively above a predefined threshold, when rescaled with individual means, follow a universal stretched exponential (gamma-type) cumulative distribution with characteristic time, both in healthy individuals and in patients with major depressive disorder. On the other hand, resting period durations below the threshold for both groups obey a scale-free power-law cumulative distribution over two decades, with significantly lower scaling exponents in the patients. We thus find universal distribution laws governing human behavioral organization, with a parameter altered in depression.

  6. Broadband Behavior Rating Scales as Screeners for Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.; Gross, Amber D.; McReynolds, Brandy M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in…

  7. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Anticipatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Santiago; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2007-01-01

    Papini and Pellegrini (Papini, M. R., & Pellegrini, S. "Scaling relative incentive value in consummatory behavior." "Learning and Motivation", in press) observed that, within limits, the level of consummatory responding of rats exposed to incentive downshifts in the concentration of sucrose solutions was similar when the ratio of test/training…

  8. Development of Democratic Teacher Behavior Scale (DTBS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özcan, Gülsen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop an instrument that could be used to measure democratic teacher behavior in a valid and reliable manner. The research was carried out in fall semester 2014 to 2015 with a total of 500 high school students recruited from four different schools. Expert opinions were obtained to determine the scale's content validity and…

  9. Assessing Teachers' Behavior Support Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Diane; Sugai, George; Simonsen, Brandi; Freeman, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of empirically supported practices and techniques for monitoring and assessing teachers' use of effective behavior support practices. They focus on how teacher preparation programs, administrators, and supervising teachers provide pre-service teachers with helpful feedback on their teaching…

  10. Natural Tracers and Multi-Scale Assessment of Caprock Sealing Behavior: A Case Study of the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Heath; Brian McPherson; Thomas Dewers

    2011-03-15

    The assessment of caprocks for geologic CO{sub 2} storage is a multi-scale endeavor. Investigation of a regional caprock - the Kirtland Formation, San Juan Basin, USA - at the pore-network scale indicates high capillary sealing capacity and low permeabilities. Core and wellscale data, however, indicate a potential seal bypass system as evidenced by multiple mineralized fractures and methane gas saturations within the caprock. Our interpretation of {sup 4}He concentrations, measured at the top and bottom of the caprock, suggests low fluid fluxes through the caprock: (1) Of the total {sup 4}He produced in situ (i.e., at the locations of sampling) by uranium and thorium decay since deposition of the Kirtland Formation, a large portion still resides in the pore fluids. (2) Simple advection-only and advection-diffusion models, using the measured {sup 4}He concentrations, indicate low permeability ({approx}10-20 m{sup 2} or lower) for the thickness of the Kirtland Formation. These findings, however, do not guarantee the lack of a large-scale bypass system. The measured data, located near the boundary conditions of the models (i.e., the overlying and underlying aquifers), limit our testing of conceptual models and the sensitivity of model parameterization. Thus, we suggest approaches for future studies to better assess the presence or lack of a seal bypass system at this particular site and for other sites in general.

  11. Use of Direct Behavior Ratings to Collect Functional Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.; Taylor, Crystal N.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the utility of Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scale (DBR-SIS) methodology in collecting functional behavior assessment data. Specific questions of interest pertained to the evaluation of the accuracy of brief DBR-SIS ratings of behavioral consequences and determination of the type of training…

  12. Scaling behaviors of precipitation over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Li, Nana; Zhao, Xia

    2015-12-01

    Scaling behaviors in the precipitation time series derived from 1951 to 2009 over China are investigated by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The results show that there exists long-term memory for the precipitation time series in some stations, where the values of the scaling exponent α are less than 0.62, implying weak persistence characteristics. The values of scaling exponent in other stations indicate random behaviors. In addition, the scaling exponent α in precipitation records varies from station to station over China. A numerical test is made to verify the significance in DFA exponents by shuffling the data records many times. We think it is significant when the values of scaling exponent before shuffled precipitation records are larger than the interval threshold for 95 % confidence level after shuffling precipitation records many times. By comparison, the daily precipitation records exhibit weak positively long-range correlation in a power law fashion mainly at the stations taking on zonal distributions in south China, upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River, northern part of northeast China. This may be related to the subtropical high. Furthermore, the values of scaling exponent which cannot pass the significance test do not show a clear distribution pattern. It seems that the stations are mainly distributed in coastal areas, southwest China, and southern part of north China. In fact, many complicated factors may affect the scaling behaviors of precipitation such as the system of the east and south Asian monsoon, the interaction between sea and land, and the big landform of the Tibetan Plateau. These results may provide a better prerequisite to long-term predictor of precipitation time series for different regions over China.

  13. Scaling behaviors of precipitation over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Li, Nana; Zhao, Xia

    2017-04-01

    Scaling behaviors in the precipitation time series derived from 1951 to 2009 over China are investigated by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The results show that there exists long-term memory for the precipitation time series in some stations, where the values of the scaling exponent α are less than 0.62, implying weak persistence characteristics. The values of scaling exponent in other stations indicate random behaviors. In addition, the scaling exponent α in precipitation records varies from station to station over China. A numerical test is made to verify the significance in DFA exponents by shuffling the data records many times. We think it is significant when the values of scaling exponent before shuffled precipitation records are larger than the interval threshold for 95 % confidence level after shuffling precipitation records many times. By comparison, the daily precipitation records exhibit weak positively long-range correlation in a power law fashion mainly at the stations taking on zonal distributions in south China, upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River, northern part of northeast China. This may be related to the subtropical high. Furthermore, the values of scaling exponent which cannot pass the significance test do not show a clear distribution pattern. It seems that the stations are mainly distributed in coastal areas, southwest China, and southern part of north China. In fact, many complicated factors may affect the scaling behaviors of precipitation such as the system of the east and south Asian monsoon, the interaction between sea and land, and the big landform of the Tibetan Plateau. These results may provide a better prerequisite to long-term predictor of precipitation time series for different regions over China.

  14. Structure of the Minnesota Developmental Programming System Behavioral Scales, Alternate Form C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wayne P.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Minnesota Developmental Programming System Behavioral Scales, Alternate Form C, designed to assess adaptive behavior of profoundly developmentally disabled individuals, was evaluated using data from 3,487 individuals. (Author/CL)

  15. The Yale Neuropsycho-educational Assessment Scales.

    PubMed

    Shaywitz, S E

    1982-01-01

    The Yale Neuropsychoeducational Assessment Scales (YNPEAS) represent a newly developed tool designed to test the hypothesis that homogeneous subgroups of children with the more subtle neuropsychiatric disorders may be discerned and classified through shared historical, behavioral, familial, anatomic, neuromaturational, and biochemical characteristics. Consisting of a series of parent, physician, and school-related integrated assessment scales, the YNPEAS provide for the creation of a broad, multidimensional data base for each child. A major innovation of the YNPEAS is the provision of a mechanism for the orderly processing of the mass of clinical information into operational statements compatible with DSM-III constructs. This article presents the development of each of the component parts of the YNPEAS while also providing the historical perspective necessary to better comprehend the role of each of the scales. This instrument should be useful to both researcher and clinician as a tool with which to follow the natural history of a phenomenon; relate clinical dimensions across different diagnostic subgroups; and elucidate the genetic, social, and physiological interrelationships in the emergence or continuation of a disorder.

  16. Prospective evaluation of behavioral scales in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Claire; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Volteau, Christelle; Jaulin, Philippe; Lacomblez, Lucette; Damier, Philippe; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Vercelletto, Martine

    2012-01-01

    The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) are widely used in patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Yet, few data are available on the long-term relevance of these scales. Based on a bvFTD population that participated in the Memantine Clinical Trial (NCT00200538), we studied the evolution and correlation between scores obtained on behavioral scales (NPI and FBI), cognitive scales [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS)] and a burden scale [Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI)]. The assessments were performed at 1 year in 41 patients and at 2 years in 23 patients who agreed to participate in this open-label study. The 2-year scores obtained on the FBI were significantly higher than the scores at inclusion while those obtained on the NPI did not change. There were significant correlations between the FBI, and the MDRS and MMSE, especially regarding the negative items. The ZBI correlated with behavioral scales at all stages for positive items. This study based on a large population shows that the FBI is a better tool than the NPI for the long-term assessment of bvFTD patients. Moreover, the FBI allows a distinction to be made between behavioral disturbances that involve cognitive functions from those which have an important impact on caregiver burden. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Fine Scale Baleen Whale Behavior Observed Via Tagging Over Daily Time Scales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Over Daily Time Scales Mark Baumgartner Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Biology Department, MS #33 266 Woods Hole Road Woods Hole, MA 02543...cetacean behavior at intermediate daily time scales. Recent efforts to assess the impacts of sound on marine mammals and to estimate foraging...whale occurrence. Marine Ecology Progress Series 423:167-184. 4 Figure 1. Block diagram of tracking system based on whale-borne Wildlife

  18. Quantum critical scaling behavior of deconfined spinons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Flavio; Kragset, Steinar; Sudbo, Asle

    2008-03-01

    The quantum scaling behavior of deconfined spinons for a class of field theoretic models of quantum antiferromagnets is considered. The competition between the hedgehogs and the Berry phases is discussed from a renormalization group perspective. An important result following from our analysis is the computation of the anomalous dimension for the decay of spin correlations. Our results confirm the expectation that the transition from a N'eel to a valence-bond solid state belongs to a completely new universality class.

  19. Modeling Human Behavior at a Large Scale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Discerning intentions in dynamic human action. Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 5(4):171 – 178, 2001. Shirli Bar-David, Israel Bar-David, Paul C. Cross, Sadie...Limits of predictability in human mobility. Science , 327(5968):1018, 2010. S.A. Stouffer. Intervening opportunities: a theory relating mobility and...Modeling Human Behavior at a Large Scale by Adam Sadilek Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy

  20. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  1. The Development of the Attitude Towards Computerized Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brooke; Caputi, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Test equivalence can be evaluated in terms of four aspects: psychometric, behavioral, experiential, and individual differences (i.e., relativity of equivalence) (Honaker, 1988). This study examined the psychometric properties of the Attitude Towards Computerized Assessment Scale (ATCAS) designed to assess one of these criteria, namely,…

  2. Behavioral Assessment and Interventions in Youth Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ronald E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of behavioral assessment for both descriptive and program evaluation purposes. Notes the use of behavioral assessment to study coaching behaviors and their effects on young athletes. Operant and cognitive-behavioral interventions have proven effective in both athletic and psychosocial outcomes. Discusses unresolved issues and…

  3. Development of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shirley M; Komton, Vilailert; Adegbite-Adeniyi, Clara; Dolansky, Mary A; Hardin, Heather K; Borawski, Elaine A

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric testing of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change (STS-AB). Following item development, initial assessments of understandability and stability of the STS-AB were conducted in a sample of nine adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Exploratory factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB and internal consistency assessments were then done with 359 adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Test-retest reliability of the STS-AB was .71, p = .03; internal consistency reliability was .87. Factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB indicated a one-factor solution with good factor loadings, ranging from .40 to .67. Evidence of construct validity was supported by significant correlations with established measures of variables associated with health behavior change. We provide beginning evidence of the reliability and validity of the STS-AB to measure systems thinking for health behavior change in young adolescents.

  4. An International Assessment of the Emotional and Behavioral Strengths of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Kristiina; Savolainen, Hannu; Kuorelahti, Matti; Epstein, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths has been identified as an important part of the assessment process for children referred for specialized services. The Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2; Epstein, Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: a strength-based approach to assessment. PRO-Ed, Austin, TX, 2004) was developed…

  5. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  6. Analogue Assessment of the Replacement Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio

    2008-01-01

    The use of experimental analyses in determining behavioral function for problems behaviors is well established. Such analyses lead to functional treatment prescriptions for the target problem behavior. However, data indicative of the strength of the replacement behavior are often not collected during a functional behavioral assessment. I examine…

  7. Development of Survey Scales for Measuring Exposure and Behavioral Responses to Disruptive Intraoperative Behavior.

    PubMed

    Villafranca, Alexander; Hamlin, Colin; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Robinson, Sandra; Jacobsohn, Eric

    2017-09-10

    Disruptive intraoperative behavior has detrimental effects to clinicians, institutions, and patients. How clinicians respond to this behavior can either exacerbate or attenuate its effects. Previous investigations of disruptive behavior have used survey scales with significant limitations. The study objective was to develop appropriate scales to measure exposure and responses to disruptive behavior. We obtained ethics approval. The scales were developed in a sequence of steps. They were pretested using expert reviews, computational linguistic analysis, and cognitive interviews. The scales were then piloted on Canadian operating room clinicians. Factor analysis was applied to half of the data set for question reduction and grouping. Item response analysis and theoretical reviews ensured that important questions were not eliminated. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach α. Model fit was examined on the second half of the data set using confirmatory factor analysis. Content validity of the final scales was re-evaluated. Consistency between observed relationships and theoretical predictions was assessed. Temporal stability was evaluated on a subsample of 38 respondents. A total of 1433 and 746 clinicians completed the exposure and response scales, respectively. Content validity indices were excellent (exposure = 0.96, responses = 1.0). Internal consistency was good (exposure = 0.93, responses = 0.87). Correlations between the exposure scale and secondary measures were consistent with expectations based on theory. Temporal stability was acceptable (exposure = 0.77, responses = 0.73). We have developed scales measuring exposure and responses to disruptive behavior. They generate valid and reliable scores when surveying operating room clinicians, and they overcome the limitations of previous tools. These survey scales are freely available.

  8. Assessing wildfire risks at multiple spatial scales

    Treesearch

    Justin Fitch

    2008-01-01

    In continuation of the efforts to advance wildfire science and develop tools for wildland fire managers, a spatial wildfire risk assessment was carried out using Classification and Regression Tree analysis (CART) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The analysis was performed at two scales. The small-scale assessment covered the entire state of New Mexico, while...

  9. Broadband behavior rating scales as screeners for autism?

    PubMed

    Myers, Carl L; Gross, Amber D; McReynolds, Brandy M

    2014-06-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in this study to determine if any of the scales on the instruments could adequately distinguish between children with autism from other clinically referred children. There were four scales from two instruments that resulted in mean scores outside the average range and had statistically significant differences. However, the small mean score differences and analyses of sensitivity and specificity suggest those scales have limited practical usefulness when used by clinicians.

  10. Measurement Properties of Indirect Assessment Methods for Functional Behavioral Assessment: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Phaneuf, Robin L.; Wilczynski, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Indirect assessment instruments used during functional behavioral assessment, such as rating scales, interviews, and self-report instruments, represent the least intrusive techniques for acquiring information about the function of problem behavior. This article provides criteria for examining the measurement properties of these instruments…

  11. Factor Structure of Child Behavior Scale Scores in Peruvian Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Erin L.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Soto, Cesar Merino; Simmons, Crystal S.; Anguiano, Rebecca; Brett, Jeremy; Holman, Alea; Martin, Justin F.; Hata, Heidi K.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior rating scales aid in the identification of problem behaviors, as well as the development of interventions to reduce such behavior. Although scores on many behavior rating scales have been validated in the United States, there have been few such studies in other cultural contexts. In this study, the structural validity of scores on a…

  12. Psychometric development of the hypersexual behavior consequences scale.

    PubMed

    Reid, Rory C; Garos, Sheila; Fong, Timothy

    2012-09-01

    Background and aims The past decade has seen an increased interest in understanding hypersexual behavior and its associated features. Beyond the obvious risks for sexually transmitted infections, there is a paucity of literature examining specific challenges encountered by hypersexual individuals. This study investigated and developed a new scale, the Hypersexual Behavior Consequences Scale (HBCS), to assess the various consequences reported among hypersexual patients. Methods Participants were drawn from a sample of patients recruited in a DSM-5 Field Trial for Hypersexual Disorder (HD). Participants completed the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, a structured diagnostic interview to assess for psychopathology and HD, and self-report measures of personality, life satisfaction, and the initial item pool for the HBCS. Results Factor analysis reduced the HBCS items to a single factor solution which showed high internal consistency and stability over time. Higher HBCS scores were positively correlated with higher levels of emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness and lower levels of satisfaction with life and happiness. HBCS scores among the hypersexual patients were significantly higher than non-hypersexual patients. Conclusions The HBCS possesses good psychometric properties and appears to capture various consequences associated with the DSM-5 proposed criteria for HD. The HBCS can be used to aid clinicians and researchers in identifying consequences associated with hypersexual behavior. The HBCS may also prove a useful tool to guide treatment interventions aimed at reducing the negative impact of hypersexuality in patient populations.

  13. Validated assessment scales for the mid face.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Jean; Flynn, Timothy C; Geister, Thorin L; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Hardas, Bhushan; Himmrich, Silvia; Jones, Derek; Kerscher, Martina; de Maio, Maurício; Mohrmann, Cornelia; Narins, Rhoda S; Pooth, Rainer; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Buchner, Larry; Benter, Ursula; Breitscheidel, Lusine; Carruthers, Alastair

    2012-02-01

    The improvement of aesthetic treatment options for age-related mid face changes, such as volume loss, and the increase in patient expectations necessitates the development of more-complex and globally accepted assessment tools. To develop three grading scales for objective assessment of the infraorbital hollow and upper and lower cheek fullness and to establish the reliability of these scales for clinical research and practice. Three 5-point rating scales were developed to assess infraorbital hollow and upper and lower cheek fullness objectively. Twelve experts rated identical mid face photographs of 50 subjects in two separate rating cycles using the mid face scales. Test responses of raters were analyzed to assess intra- and interrater reliability. Interrater reliability was substantial for the infraorbital hollow, upper cheek fullness, and lower cheek fullness scales. Intrarater reliability was high for all three scales. Both of the cheek fullness scales yielded higher reliabilities when three rather than two views were used to assess the volume changes of the cheek. The mid face scales are reliable tools for valid and reproducible assessment of age-related mid face changes. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Quantifying behaviors of children with Sanfilippo syndrome: The Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Elsa G.; Nestrasil, Igor; Ahmed, Alia; Wey, Andrew; Rudser, Kyle; Delaney, Kathleen; Rumsey, Robin; Haslett, Patrick; Whitley, Chester B.; Potegal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale (SBRS), a 68 item questionnaire, has been developed to assess the behavioral phenotype of children with Sanfilippo syndrome and its progression over time. Fifteen scales rate orality, movement/activity, attention/self-control, emotional function including anger and fear, and social interaction. Items within scales intercorrelate; measures of internal consistency are adequate. Twelve scales are grouped into 4 abnormality clusters: Movement, Lack of fear, Social/emotional and Executive Dysfunction. A Loess age-trajectory analysis showed that Lack of Fear, Social/Emotional and Executive Dysfunction increased steadily with age; Orality and Mood/Anger/Aggression leveled off. Movement peaked around 6 years, then declined as children’s excessive/purposeless actions stopped. Compared with standard scales, SBRS Movement was appropriately associated with the Vineland Motor scale; SBRS Lack of Fear had significant associations with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), indicating a symptom overlap between Sanfilippo syndrome and autism. This suggests that reduced fearfulness may be the most salient/sensitive SBRS marker of disease progression. Volumetric MRI showed that increased Lack of Fear was significantly associated with reduced amygdala volume, consistent with our hypothesis that the behavior seen in Sanfilippo syndrome is a variant of Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Hippocampal volume loss had twice the effect on Social-Emotional Dysfunction as amygdala loss, consistent with a hippocampal role in attachment and social emotions. In conclusion, the SBRS assesses the Sanfilippo behavioral phenotype; it can measure behavior change that accompanies disease progression and/or results from treatment. PMID:25770355

  15. Quantifying behaviors of children with Sanfilippo syndrome: the Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Elsa G; Nestrasil, Igor; Ahmed, Alia; Wey, Andrew; Rudser, Kyle R; Delaney, Kathleen A; Rumsey, Robin K; Haslett, Patrick A J; Whitley, Chester B; Potegal, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale (SBRS), a 68 item questionnaire, has been developed to assess the behavioral phenotype of children with Sanfilippo syndrome and its progression over time. Fifteen scales rate orality, movement/activity, attention/self-control, emotional function including anger and fear, and social interaction. Items within scales intercorrelate; measures of internal consistency are adequate. Twelve scales are grouped into 4 abnormality clusters: Movement, Lack of fear, Social/emotional and Executive Dysfunction. A Loess age-trajectory analysis showed that Lack of Fear, Social/Emotional and Executive Dysfunction increased steadily with age; Orality and Mood/Anger/Aggression leveled off. Movement peaked around 6years, then declined as children's excessive/purposeless actions stopped. Compared with standard scales, SBRS Movement was appropriately associated with the Vineland Motor scale; SBRS Lack of Fear had significant associations with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), indicating a symptom overlap between Sanfilippo syndrome and autism. This suggests that reduced fearfulness may be the most salient/sensitive SBRS marker of disease progression. Volumetric MRI showed that increased Lack of Fear was significantly associated with reduced amygdala volume, consistent with our hypothesis that the behavior seen in Sanfilippo syndrome is a variant of Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Hippocampal volume loss had twice the effect on Social-Emotional Dysfunction as amygdala loss, consistent with a hippocampal role in attachment and social emotions. In conclusion, the SBRS assesses the Sanfilippo behavioral phenotype; it can measure behavior change that accompanies disease progression and/or results from treatment.

  16. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents: laboratory behavioral assessments.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brady; Penfold, Robert B; Patak, Michele

    2008-04-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that defines a range of maladaptive behavioral styles. The present research aimed to identify different dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents from a battery of laboratory behavioral assessments. In one analysis, correlations were examined between two self report and seven laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity. The correlation between the two self report measures was high compared to correlations between the self report and laboratory behavioral measures. In a second analysis, a principal components analysis was performed with just the laboratory behavioral measures. Three behavioral dimensions were identified -- "impulsive decision-making", "impulsive inattention", and "impulsive disinhibition". These dimensions were further evaluated using the same sample with a confirmatory factor analysis, which did support the hypothesis that these are significant and independent dimensions of impulsivity. This research indicates there are at least three separate subtypes of impulsive behavior when using laboratory behavioral assessments with adolescent participants.

  17. The Global Deterioration Scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia.

    PubMed

    Reisberg, B; Ferris, S H; de Leon, M J; Crook, T

    1982-09-01

    Cognitive decline associated with old age and consistent with the diagnosis of primary degenerative dementia is a unique clinical syndrome with characteristic phenomena and progression. The authors describe a Global Deterioration Scale for the assessment of primary degenerative dementia and delineation of its stages. The authors have used the Global Deterioration Scale successfully for more than 5 years and have validated it against behavioral, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiologic measures in patients with primary degenerative dementia.

  18. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Ottmar; John I. Blake; William T. Crolly

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuel beds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for...

  19. Correlation Between Fetal Activity and the Neonatal Behavorial Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Akashi; Minamide, Etsuko

    1984-01-01

    A total of 14 women recorded fetal movements during one week of their pregnancies, and Brazelton Neonatal Behavorial Assessment Scale exams were performed on the infants during their first week of life. Correlations were computed between fetal activity and neonatal behavior. (Author/RH)

  20. Development of a Scale to Measure Learning-Related Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, William M.

    The Classroom Behavior Rating Scale (CBRS) was developed to provide school psychologists and educators with a measure of learning-related classroom behaviors of elementary school students. The initial item pool consisted of 100 behavioral statements reflecting learning-related behaviors such as attention and persistence. These behaviors were…

  1. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000)…

  2. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000)…

  3. Scaling behavior in mitochondrial redox fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Ramanujan, V Krishnan; Biener, Gabriel; Herman, Brian A

    2006-05-15

    Scale-invariant long-range correlations have been reported in fluctuations of time-series signals originating from diverse processes such as heart beat dynamics, earthquakes, and stock market data. The common denominator of these apparently different processes is a highly nonlinear dynamics with competing forces and distinct feedback species. We report for the first time an experimental evidence for scaling behavior in NAD(P)H signal fluctuations in isolated mitochondria and intact cells isolated from the liver of a young (5-month-old) mouse. Time-series data were collected by two-photon imaging of mitochondrial NAD(P)H fluorescence and signal fluctuations were quantitatively analyzed for statistical correlations by detrended fluctuation analysis and spectral power analysis. Redox [NAD(P)H / NAD(P)(+)] fluctuations in isolated mitochondria and intact liver cells were found to display nonrandom, long-range correlations. These correlations are interpreted as arising due to the regulatory dynamics operative in Krebs' cycle enzyme network and electron transport chain in the mitochondria. This finding may provide a novel basis for understanding similar regulatory networks that govern the nonequilibrium properties of living cells.

  4. Teacher Perceptions of the Usability of School-Based Behavior Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faith G.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Fabiano, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of school-based behavior assessments were assessed over the course of a school year. Specifically, the utility and relevance of Direct Behavior Ratings-Single Item Scales, a hybrid direct observation method, relative to two school-based behavioral rating scales, the Social Skills Improvement System-Performance Screening Guide…

  5. Multifractal formalism by enforcing the universal behavior of scaling functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukli, Peter; Nagy, Zoltan; Eke, Andras

    2015-01-01

    Despite its solid foundations, multifractal analysis is still a challenging task. The 'inversed' singularity spectrum is a major pitfall in standard multifractal analyses especially for empirical signals. To resolve this issue, we identified the fan-like convergent geometry of scaling functions yielding a limit value (termed focus) for all moments at the largest scale. Building on this behavior of scaling, we introduce the novel concept of focus-based multifractal formalism. It relies on enforcing this universal behavior when the moment-wise scaling exponents are assessed for the scaling functions. Besides developing focus-based variants of the established multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and the wavelet leader method, we present a novel analytical tool of multifractal signal summation conversion. All methods are extensively tested on exact multifractal signals synthesized by the generalized binomial multifractal model in terms of precision and incidence of 'inversed' singularity spectra. Our focus-based variants never yielded 'inversed' spectra and their precision was found similar to that of standard methods. Our approach allowed computing a moment-wise and a global error parameter describing the impact of finite size effect and degree of multifractality as compared to that of the fitted exact multifractal model. We demonstrate that the standard approach to multifractal analyses contains a central element that is essentially monofractal due to its regression scheme assessing the scaling exponents for each and every moment, separately. Hence these methods can yield reliable estimates only for ideally behaving multifractal signals. In contrast, our focus-based variants due to their genuine multifractal model fitting always yield reliable estimates accompanied by goodness-of-fit statistics. The presented novel multifractal tools offer means of dealing with the consequences of endogenous impurities of potentially multifractal empirical signals.

  6. Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

  7. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children's Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Larissa da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children's behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS) and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204) that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children's behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P < 0.05). Results. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P < 0.001). OSUBRS scores were better correlated with Houpt overall behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children's behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children's behavior during procedures. PMID:28116299

  8. Spanish version of the Children's Ecological Behavior (CEB) scale.

    PubMed

    Collado, Silvia; Corraliza, José A; Sorrel, Miguel A; Evans, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Children's pro-ecological behaviors are usually registered using scales based on the idea of a simple connection between attitudes and behaviors. However, this relationship seems to be more complicated. The Children's Ecological Behavior (CEB) Scale has been proposed as an alternative. Based on the Rasch model, it considers the different efforts needed to conduct a series of behaviors. This paper presents an improved adaptation of the CEB to Spanish population. We back-translated the CEB into Spanish, increased the number of behaviors and collected data from 6- to 12-year-olds, using a game format procedure. The scale can detect differences in the effort needed to perform various behaviors. Children's pro-ecological attitudes and behaviors are positively related. No relationship was found between parents' and children's pro-ecological attitudes and behaviors. The Spanish version of the CEB scale emerges as a reliable tool to measure children's pro-ecological behaviors.

  9. Rating scales for behavioral symptoms in Huntington's disease: Critique and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Tiago A; van Duijn, Erik; Davis, Aileen M; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Busse, Monica; Anderson, Karen E; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Tumas, Vitor; Sampaio, Cristina; Goetz, Chris G; Cubo, Esther; Stebbins, Glenn T; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral symptoms are an important feature of Huntington's disease and contribute to impairment in quality of life. The Movement Disorder Society commissioned the assessment of the clinimetric properties of rating scales in Huntington's disease to make recommendations regarding their use, following previously used standardized criteria. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify the scales used to assess behavioral symptoms in Huntington's disease. For the purpose of this review, 7 behavioral domains were deemed significant in Huntington's disease: irritability, anxiety, depression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, psychosis, and suicidal ideation. We included a total of 27 behavioral rating scales, 19 of which were of a single behavioral domain and the remaining 8 scales included multiple behavioral domains. Three rating scales were classified as "recommended" exclusively for screening purposes: the Irritability Scale for irritability, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for depression. There were no "recommended" scales for other purposes such as diagnosis, severity, or change in time or to treatment. The main challenges identified for assessment of behavioral symptoms in Huntington's disease are the co-occurrence of multiple behavioral symptoms, the particular features of a behavioral symptom in Huntington's disease, and the need to address stage- and disease-specific features, including cognitive impairment and lack of insight. The committee concluded that there is a need to further validate currently available behavioral rating scales in Huntington's disease to address gaps in scale validation for specific behavioral domains and purpose of use. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Psychometric validity and clinical usefulness of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale for an autistic sample.

    PubMed

    Perry, A; Factor, D C

    1989-03-01

    Two prominent assessment measures of adaptive behavior were compared and evaluated in terms of their psychometric properties and their clinical usefulness for autistic children and adolescents. The AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale-School Edition (Lambert & Windmiller, 1981) and the Vineland Adapative Behavior Scales (Sparrow, Balla, & Cicchetti, 1984) were compared in 15 autistic persons aged 8 to 18. Correlations between the two instruments revealed good concurrent validity. The psychometric properties of the tests were similar to those found in samples of mentally retarded persons. The use of adaptive behavior measures for autistic children and adolescents is encouraged. Clinical advantages and disadvantages of the two tests are discussed.

  11. Probabilistic Simulation of Multi-Scale Composite Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    A methodology is developed to computationally assess the non-deterministic composite response at all composite scales (from micro to structural) due to the uncertainties in the constituent (fiber and matrix) properties, in the fabrication process and in structural variables (primitive variables). The methodology is computationally efficient for simulating the probability distributions of composite behavior, such as material properties, laminate and structural responses. Bi-products of the methodology are probabilistic sensitivities of the composite primitive variables. The methodology has been implemented into the computer codes PICAN (Probabilistic Integrated Composite ANalyzer) and IPACS (Integrated Probabilistic Assessment of Composite Structures). The accuracy and efficiency of this methodology are demonstrated by simulating the uncertainties in composite typical laminates and comparing the results with the Monte Carlo simulation method. Available experimental data of composite laminate behavior at all scales fall within the scatters predicted by PICAN. Multi-scaling is extended to simulate probabilistic thermo-mechanical fatigue and to simulate the probabilistic design of a composite redome in order to illustrate its versatility. Results show that probabilistic fatigue can be simulated for different temperature amplitudes and for different cyclic stress magnitudes. Results also show that laminate configurations can be selected to increase the redome reliability by several orders of magnitude without increasing the laminate thickness--a unique feature of structural composites. The old reference denotes that nothing fundamental has been done since that time.

  12. Factors and Clusters for the Brazelton Scale: An Investigation of the Dimensions of Neonatal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Joseph L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the psychometric properties of two procedures for reducing data from the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale: factor and cluster analysis. The sample consisted of 85 male and 77 female newborns. (RH)

  13. Factors and Clusters for the Brazelton Scale: An Investigation of the Dimensions of Neonatal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Joseph L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the psychometric properties of two procedures for reducing data from the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale: factor and cluster analysis. The sample consisted of 85 male and 77 female newborns. (RH)

  14. Validated assessment scale for neck volume.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Gerhard; Carruthers, Alastair; Carruthers, Jean; Flynn, Timothy C; Geister, Thorin L; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Hardas, Bhushan; Himmrich, Silvia; Jones, Derek; Kerscher, Martina; Mohrmann, Cornelia; Narins, Rhoda S; Pooth, Rainer; Rzany, Berthold; Buchner, Larry; Benter, Ursula; Breitscheidel, Lusine; de Maio, Maurício

    2012-02-01

    Sagging of the neck aesthetic area is an important indicator of age. The development of complex and globally accepted tools for proper assessment of the change in neck volume is an essential contribution to aesthetic research and the routine clinical setting. To develop a grading scale for the objective assessment of the neck volume and to establish the reliability of this scale for clinical research and practice. A 5-point rating scale was developed to assess neck volume objectively. Twelve experts rated frontal and lateral neck photographs of 50 subjects in two separate rating cycles using the neck volume scale. Responses of raters were analyzed to assess inter- and intrarater reliability. Interrater reliability for the neck volume scale was almost perfect, with intraclass correlation coefficients for the first and second rating cycles of 0.85 and 0.84, respectively. Intrarater reliability for the neck volume scale was high (0.90) and Pearson correlation coefficients ranged between 0.88 and 0.95 and were statistically significant. The neck volume scale demonstrates optimal reliability for clinical research and practice. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Validated assessment scales for the upper face.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Timothy C; Carruthers, Alastair; Carruthers, Jean; Geister, Thorin L; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Hardas, Bhushan; Himmrich, Silvia; Kerscher, Martina; de Maio, Maurício; Mohrmann, Cornelia; Narins, Rhoda S; Pooth, Rainer; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Buchner, Larry; Benter, Ursula; Fey, Constanze; Jones, Derek

    2012-02-01

    Age-related upper face changes such as wrinkles, lines, volume loss, and anatomic alterations may affect quality of life and psychological well-being. The development of globally accepted tools to assess these changes objectively is an essential contribution to aesthetic research and routine clinical medicine. To establish the reliability of several upper face scales for clinical research and practice: forehead lines, glabellar lines, crow's feet (at rest and dynamic expression), sex-specific brow positioning, and summary scores of forehead and crow's feet areas and of the entire upper face unit. Four 5-point photonumerical rating scales were developed to assess glabellar lines and sex-specific brow positioning. Twelve experts rated identical upper face photographs of 50 subjects in two separate rating cycles using all eight scales. Responses of raters were analyzed to assess intra- and interrater reliability. Interrater reliability was substantial for all upper face scales, aesthetic areas, and the upper face score except for the brow positioning scales. Intrarater reliability was high for all scales and resulting scores. Except for brow positioning, the upper face rating scales are reliable tools for valid and reproducible assessment of the aging process. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Validated assessment scales for the lower face.

    PubMed

    Narins, Rhoda S; Carruthers, Jean; Flynn, Timothy C; Geister, Thorin L; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Hardas, Bhushan; Himmrich, Silvia; Jones, Derek; Kerscher, Martina; de Maio, Maurício; Mohrmann, Cornelia; Pooth, Rainer; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Buchner, Larry; Benter, Ursula; Breitscheidel, Lusine; Carruthers, Alastair

    2012-02-01

    Aging in the lower face leads to lines, wrinkles, depression of the corners of the mouth, and changes in lip volume and lip shape, with increased sagging of the skin of the jawline. Refined, easy-to-use, validated, objective standards assessing the severity of these changes are required in clinical research and practice. To establish the reliability of eight lower face scales assessing nasolabial folds, marionette lines, upper and lower lip fullness, lip wrinkles (at rest and dynamic), the oral commissure and jawline, aesthetic areas, and the lower face unit. Four 5-point rating scales were developed to objectively assess upper and lower lip wrinkles, oral commissures, and the jawline. Twelve experts rated identical lower face photographs of 50 subjects in two separate rating cycles using eight 5-point scales. Inter- and intrarater reliability of responses was assessed. Interrater reliability was substantial or almost perfect for all lower face scales, aesthetic areas, and the lower face unit. Intrarater reliability was high for all scales, areas and the lower face unit. Our rating scales are reliable tools for valid and reproducible assessment of the aging process in lower face areas. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Validated assessment scale for platysmal bands.

    PubMed

    Geister, Thorin L; Bleßmann-Gurk, Birgit; Rzany, Berthold; Harrington, Laura; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Pooth, Rainer

    2013-08-01

    Marked platysmal bands in the neck are an unwelcome sign of aging. Botulinum neurotoxin type A has been used successfully to treat this indication, but there is a need for a validated tool for accurate assessment of dynamic platysmal bands to evaluate treatment efficacy objectively. To develop a scale for objective assessment of dynamic platysmal bands and to validate its use in the clinical setting. A new 5-point photonumeric assessment scale for platysmal bands was developed. Ten experts experienced in aesthetic dermatology used the scale to rate frontal and lateral neck photographs of 50 subjects in two separate validation cycles. Inter- and intrarater reliability of the scale was assessed. The scale comprises five ratings of platysmal band severity ranging from 0 (no relevant prominence of platysmal bands) to 4 (very severe prominence of platysmal bands). Interrater reliability was "almost perfect," with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.81 for the first validation cycle and 0.82 for the second. Mean intrarater reliability was also high (0.89), with Pearson correlation coefficients ranging between 0.87 and 0.91. The new 5-point dynamic platysmal band photonumeric assessment scale is a valuable tool for use in the aesthetic clinical setting. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Pain assessment scales in newborns: integrative review

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Gleicia Martins; Lélis, Ana Luíza Paula de Aguiar; de Moura, Alline Falconieri; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; da Silva, Viviane Martins

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze studies on methods used to assess pain in newborns. DATA SOURCES: Integrative review study of articles published from 2001 to 2012, carried out in the following databases: Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and Cochrane. The sample consisted of 13 articles with level of evidence 5. DATA SYNTHESIS: 29 pain assessment scales in newborns, including 13 one-dimensional and 16 multidimensional, that assess acute and prolonged pain in preterm and full-term infants were available in scientific publications. CONCLUSION: Based on the characteristics of scales, one cannot choose a single one as the most appropriate scale, as this choice will depend on gestational age, type of painful stimulus and the environment in which the infant is inserted. It is suggested the use of multidimensional or one-dimensional scales; however, they must be reliable and validated. PMID:25511005

  19. Lifestyle Assessment: Helping Patients Change Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ciliska, Donna; Wilson, Douglas M. C.

    1984-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, maintain their commitment and teach them the skills needed to effect changes in health behavior.

  20. Diffusion entropy analysis on the scaling behavior of financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Pei-Ling; Yang, Hui-Jie; Yang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhou, Tao

    2006-07-01

    In this paper the diffusion entropy technique is applied to investigate the scaling behavior of financial markets. The scaling behaviors of four representative stock markets, Dow Jones Industrial Average, Standard&Poor 500, Heng Seng Index, and Shang Hai Stock Synthetic Index, are almost the same; with the scale-invariance exponents all in the interval [0.92,0.95]. We also estimate the local scaling exponents which indicate the financial time series is homogenous perfectly. In addition, a parsimonious percolation model for stock markets is proposed, of which the scaling behavior agrees with the real-life markets well.

  1. Measurement in Sensory Modulation: The Sensory Processing Scale Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p < .01) were retained. Feedback from the expert panel also contributed to decisions about retaining items in the scale. CONCLUSION. The SPS Assessment appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

  2. User’s Guide for Tactical Thinking Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    cognitive skills assessment; assessment; cognitive skills evaluation; behaviorally anchored rating scales; scenario- based training assessment; cognitive...settings. T-BARS is intended for scenario- based , experiential training sessions requiring sensemaking and/or decision making, including paper-and-pencil...exercises; desktop simulations or game- based trainers; commander and staff planning or execution exercises; field exercises; tactical exercises without

  3. Multiple site optical recording of transmembrane voltage (MSORTV) in patterned growth heart cell cultures: assessing electrical behavior, with microsecond resolution, on a cellular and subcellular scale.

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, S; Salzberg, B M

    1994-01-01

    We have applied multiple site optical recording of transmembrane voltage (MSORTV) to patterned growth cultures of heart cells to analyze the effect of geometry per se on impulse propagation in excitable tissue, with cellular and subcellular resolution. Extensive dye screening led to the choice of di-8-ANEPPS as the most suitable voltage-sensitive dye for this application; it is internalized slowly and permits optical recording with signal-to-noise ratios as high as 40:1 (measured peak-to-peak) and average fractional fluorescence changes of 15% per 100 mV. Using a x 100 objective and a fast data acquisition system, we could resolve impulse propagation on a microscopic scale (15 microns) with high temporal resolution (uncertainty of +/- 5 microseconds). We could observe the decrease in conduction velocity of an impulse propagating along a narrow cell strand as it enters a region of abrupt expansion, and we could explain this phenomenon in terms of the micro-architecture of the tissue. In contrast with the elongated and aligned cells forming the narrow strands, the cells forming the expansions were aligned at random and presented 2.5 times as many cell-to-cell appositions per unit length. If the decrease in conduction velocity results entirely from this increased number of cell-to-cell boundaries per unit length, the mean activation delay introduced by each boundary can be estimated to be 70 microseconds. Using this novel experimental system, we could also demonstrate the electrical coupling of fibroblasts and endotheloid cells to myocytes in culture. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:7811945

  4. Self-Injurious Behaviors: Assessment and Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E. White

    2003-01-01

    Article examines the diagnosis and assessment of self-injurious behaviors. A classification model for conceptualizing self-injury is discussed, and the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" diagnoses associated with self-injury are addressed. Assessment questions and issues to consider when assessing clients who…

  5. Using Telemedicine to Conduct Behavioral Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Barretto, Anjali; Wacker, David P; Harding, Jay; Lee, John; Berg, Wendy K

    2006-01-01

    We describe the use of telemedicine by the Biobehavioral Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to conduct brief functional analyses for children with developmental and behavioral disorders who live in rural areas of Iowa. Instead of being served at our outpatient facility, participants received initial behavioral assessments in their local schools or social service agencies via videoconference. Case descriptions for 2 participants whose evaluations were conducted via telemedicine, and a brief summary of all outpatient assessments conducted over a 4-year period by the Biobehavioral Service, are provided. This report extends previous applications of functional analysis procedures by examining brief behavioral assessments conducted via telemedicine. PMID:17020213

  6. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Consummatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Mauricio R.; Pellegrini, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Surprising downshifts from more preferred (training incentive) to less preferred incentives (test incentive) are usually accompanied by emotional activation and suppression of conditioned behavior in rats. Two experiments were designed to determine whether consummatory behavior is similarly affected by downshifts of equal proportions. Within…

  7. Assessments of Specific Behavioral Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckner, C. William; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures were used to assess capacity to sustain adaptive responding and discrimination learning ability in 18 psychotic nonverbal children. It was concluded that the measures had good face validity with respect to assessment of discrimination, learning ability, and tolerance for intermittent reinforcement. (SB)

  8. COMPARISONS AND CONTRASTS AMONG DIFFERENT SCALED ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of a regional (multi-state) and local (multi-county) scale assessment was done to evaluate similarities and differences in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of landscape data. The study areas included EP A Region 3 a11d a sub-region spanning North and Sout...

  9. COMPARISONS AND CONTRASTS AMONG DIFFERENT SCALED ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison of a regional (multi-state) and local (multi-county) scale assessment was done to evaluate similarities and differences in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of landscape data. The study areas included EP A Region 3 a11d a sub-region spanning North and Sout...

  10. Psychometric properties of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale, the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis and the Social Performance Survey Schedule in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD), the Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS), and the Social Performance Survey Schedule (SPSS). Data were collected in two community-based groups of adults with mild to profound ID (n = 263). Subscale reliability (internal consistency) ranged from fair to excellent for the ABC, the ADAMS, and the SPSS (mean coefficient α across ABC subscales was .87 (ranging from fair to excellent), the ADAMS subscales .83 (ranging from fair to good), and the SPSS subscales .91 (range from good to excellent). The ADD subscales had generally lower reliability scores with a mean of .59 (ranging from unacceptable to good). Convergent and discriminant validity was determined by bivariate Spearman ρ correlations between subscales of one instrument and the subscales of the other three instruments. For the most part, all four instruments showed solid convergent and discriminant validity. To examine the factorial validity, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were attempted with the inter-item covariance matrix of each instrument. Generally, the data did not show good fits with the measurement models for the SPSS, ABC, or the ADAMS (CFA analyses with the ADD would not converge). However, most of the items on these three instruments had significant loadings on their respective factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Talking bodies: nonverbal behavior in the assessment of depression severity.

    PubMed

    Fiquer, Juliana Teixeira; Boggio, Paulo Sérgio; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2013-09-25

    Evaluations of clinical depression are traditionally based on verbal information. Nonverbal expressive behavior, however, being associated with a person's reflexive responses, may reveal negative emotional or social processes that are not under complete control of the patients. However, investigations of nonverbal behavior in the evaluation of depressed patients are still scarce. This study examines the nonverbal behaviors of a group of Brazilian patients, associating their nonverbal behavior with severity of depression. Forty depressed patients were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after a two-week transcranial direct current stimulation treatment (T1), according to rating scales and through a 21-category Ethogram for assessment of the frequency of nonverbal behaviors displayed during an interview. Behaviors that were related to negative feelings and social disinterest decreased with corresponding clinical improvement and were associated with increased severity of symptoms at T0 and greater negative affect and dissatisfaction at T1. Pro-social behaviors were associated with milder symptoms at T0 and increased after treatment. Facial, head and hand expressive movements stood out as important indicators because of their associations with severity of depression. Duration of behaviors was not assessed and there was not a healthy control group with which to compare the findings. These results support the usefulness of nonverbal behavior as an evaluation technique in the assessment of clinical depression. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An Instance of Convergence of Behavioral Assessments and Inventory Measures of Traditionally Defined Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, James A.; And Others

    One problem in the assessment of personality characteristics is the lack of predictive power of scales across time and situations with respect to overt behavior. Items from two scales of the Edwards Personality Inventory (Articulate and Center of Attention) considered suitable for behavioral assessment, were found to have a relatively high rate of…

  13. Item-Based Psychometrics of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (PreBERS) is an assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in preschoolers with well-established reliability and validity for educational and clinical application in children with and without disabilities. The present study provides further evidence of psychometric rigor for items and…

  14. Technical Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale--Second Edition--Teacher Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Clark, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and validity of scores on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-second edition-teacher version (DBRS-II-T) was analyzed. The DBRS-II-T was designed to assess teacher observations of students referred for behavioral difficulties. The five-factor model fit the data poorly, but convergent and diagnostic validities were excellent.…

  15. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we…

  16. Technical Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale--Second Edition--Teacher Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Clark, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and validity of scores on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-second edition-teacher version (DBRS-II-T) was analyzed. The DBRS-II-T was designed to assess teacher observations of students referred for behavioral difficulties. The five-factor model fit the data poorly, but convergent and diagnostic validities were excellent.…

  17. Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Pediatric Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysocki, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical research literature on behavioral assessment and intervention methods in the context of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The review summarizes the pathophysiology, medical management, and monitoring of pediatric type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Next, the article describes common behavioral barriers to…

  18. Using Telemedicine to Conduct Behavioral Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barretto, Anjali; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay; Lee, John; Berg, Wendy K.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the use of telemedicine by the Biobehavioral Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to conduct brief functional analyses for children with developmental and behavioral disorders who live in rural areas of Iowa. Instead of being served at our outpatient facility, participants received initial behavioral assessments in…

  19. Using Telemedicine to Conduct Behavioral Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barretto, Anjali; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay; Lee, John; Berg, Wendy K.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the use of telemedicine by the Biobehavioral Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to conduct brief functional analyses for children with developmental and behavioral disorders who live in rural areas of Iowa. Instead of being served at our outpatient facility, participants received initial behavioral assessments in…

  20. Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Pediatric Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysocki, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical research literature on behavioral assessment and intervention methods in the context of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The review summarizes the pathophysiology, medical management, and monitoring of pediatric type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Next, the article describes common behavioral barriers to…

  1. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…

  2. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…

  3. Trichotillomania: Behavioral Assessment and Treatment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Brandy L.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the behavioral treatment of Trichotillomania. A brief overview of the diagnosis and assessment of Trichotillomania is provided. Guidelines for a structured clinical evaluation when working with people diagnosed with Trichotillomania are supplied. The most effective behavioral interventions and treatments for working with…

  4. Issues in the Assessment of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehby, Joseph H.

    1994-01-01

    This review describes four major hypotheses related to aggressive behavior and reviews current means for assessment. Hypotheses suggest that aggressive behavior is the result of a social skills deficit, positive or negative reinforcement, environmental deficits, or deficits in the cognitive processing of social stimuli. Changes in assessment…

  5. Developing the Cyber Victimization Experiences and Cyberbullying Behaviors Scales.

    PubMed

    Betts, Lucy R; Spenser, Karin A

    2017-01-01

    The reported prevalence rates of cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors vary. Part of this variation is likely due to the diverse definitions and operationalizations of the constructs adopted in previous research and the lack of psychometrically robust measures. Through 2 studies, the authors developed (Study 1) and evaluated (Study 2) the cyber victimization experiences and cyberbullying behaviors scales. Participants in Study 1 were 393 (122 boys, 171 girls) and in Study 2 were 345 (153 boys, 192 girls) 11-15-year-olds who completed measures of cyber victimization experiences, cyberbullying behaviors, face-to-face victimization experiences, face-to-face bullying behaviors, and social desirability. The 3-factor cyber victimization experiences scale comprised threat, shared images, and personal attack. The 3-factor cyberbullying behaviors scale comprised sharing images, gossip, and personal attack. Both scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity.

  6. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  7. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  8. Scar assessment scales: a dermatologic overview.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Nayla; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-02-01

    This overview critically compares subjective assessment tools and available objective measurement tools with potential devices becoming available. Our goal is to lay out the benefits of each scar assessment scale in order to propose good management skills for scars along with strong metric skills. Classifying a scar is important in daily clinical practice. Ultimately choosing which treatment modality best fits can become a challenge. Scar classification needs a more detailed and systematic approach. We researched all different factors contributing to scar formation to come up with a more detailed criteria. Such factors included pigmentation/vascularity, surface texture, surface area, thickness (scar height), and pliability. Few studies have assessed scars; each provided an assessment scale of their own. Each scale is compared on the basis of accuracy, reliability, convenience in terms of feasibility and price. There remains still no ideal objective measurement out there despite promise seen in subjective evaluation. Method refinement will however accelerate our knowledge and interventions - based on increasing study power with enhanced metrics.

  9. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  10. Development of an assessment of functioning scale for prison environments.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Deborah; Wakai, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a global assessment of functioning (GAF), modified from the DSM Axis V GAF for the prison environment. Focus groups, which were conducted with 36 correctional officers and clinicians in two prisons, provided descriptions of behavior in prison settings to re-align the GAF scale. Face validity was established. It was found that Habitation/Behavior, Social, and Symptoms emerged as important domains of functioning in prison. Gender differences were noted with regard to cleanliness, relationships and coping strategies. The cut-off score was identified at a score where offenders were unable to participate in a disciplinary process due to their mental illness. The structure of prison alters human functioning, requiring different assessment language and ratings to measure perceived behavioral norms and/or expectations. Front-line staff need the ability to observe and communicate behavioral changes quickly and accurately in a prison environment without undue burden upon their workload. This assessment was modified by front-line staff specifically for the prison environment to document quick and frequent assessments of observed changes over time in the offender population.

  11. Scale Effects in Moral Relevance Assessment.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jonas; Rybak, Andrej

    2017-03-01

    Research on moral judgment often employs bipolar rating scales to assess whether the difference between two contrasted options is judged to be morally relevant. We give an account of how different numbers of response options provided on such scales (odd vs. even) change the meaning of the test question by communicating different implicit presuppositions. We demonstrate experimentally that these changes can qualitatively affect the moral relevance judgments that subjects express in response to a given judgment problem. Several alternative explanations in terms of trivial measurement distortion are tested and refuted, and we present suggestive evidence as to what kind of factors might be prone to scale effects. The findings underscore that expressed moral judgments are constructed ad hoc and do not necessarily reflect the content of underlying stable moral commitments. We discuss implications for theories and methodology in moral psychology and in judgment and decision-making research more generally.

  12. Psychometric Properties of the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," the "Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale," the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" and the "Social Performance Survey Schedule" in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W.; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist" (ABC), the "Assessment of Dual…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," the "Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale," the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" and the "Social Performance Survey Schedule" in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W.; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist" (ABC), the "Assessment of Dual…

  14. Scaling behavior of the adiabatic Dicke model

    SciTech Connect

    Liberti, Giuseppe; Plastina, Francesco; Piperno, Franco

    2006-08-15

    We analyze the quantum phase transition for a set of N two-level systems interacting with a bosonic mode in the adiabatic regime. Through the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, we obtain the finite-size scaling expansion for many physical observables and, in particular, for the entanglement content of the system.

  15. Predicting Compliance Behavior from Moral Judgment Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froming, William J.; Cooper, Robert G., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments with college males examined the relationship between moral judgment and compliance in a modified Asch paradigm. Moral judgment was assessed using Kohlberg's dilemmas in one experiment and with Rest's Defining Issues in the second experiment. (Editor/RK)

  16. Common scaling behavior in finance and macroeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, B.; Horvatic, D.; Petersen, A. M.; Njavro, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    2010-08-01

    In order to test whether scaling exists in finance at the world level, we test whether the average growth rates and volatility of market capitalization (MC) depend on the level of MC. We analyze the MC for 54 worldwide stock indices and 48 worldwide bond indices. We find that (i) the average growth rate of the MC and (ii) the standard deviation σ(r) of growth rates r decrease both with MC as power laws, with exponents αw = 0.28 ± 0.09 and βw = 0.12 ± 0.04. We define a stochastic process in order to model the scaling results we find for worldwide stock and bond indices. We establish a power-law relationship between the MC of a country's financial market and the gross domestic product (GDP) of the same country.

  17. Validation of the Preschool and Primary School Form of a Questionnaire Assessing Parents' Childrearing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a validation of a scale that assesses parents' childrearing behavior toward young children. The scale was validated on 565 parents of 2- to 7-year-old children. The current results replicated the factor solution of the original scale designed for parents of school-aged children. The scale demonstrated good psychometric…

  18. Complex scaling behavior in animal foraging patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premachandra, Prabhavi Kaushalya

    This dissertation attempts to answer questions from two different areas of biology, ecology and neuroscience, using physics-based techniques. In Section 2, suitability of three competing random walk models is tested to describe the emergent movement patterns of two species of primates. The truncated power law (power law with exponential cut off) is the most suitable random walk model that characterizes the emergent movement patterns of these primates. In Section 3, an agent-based model is used to simulate search behavior in different environments (landscapes) to investigate the impact of the resource landscape on the optimal foraging movement patterns of deterministic foragers. It should be noted that this model goes beyond previous work in that it includes parameters such as spatial memory and satiation, which have received little consideration to date in the field of movement ecology. When the food availability is scarce in a tropical forest-like environment with feeding trees distributed in a clumped fashion and the size of those trees are distributed according to a lognormal distribution, the optimal foraging pattern of a generalist who can consume various and abundant food types indeed reaches the Levy range, and hence, show evidence for Levy-flight-like (power law distribution with exponent between 1 and 3) behavior. Section 4 of the dissertation presents an investigation of phase transition behavior in a network of locally coupled self-sustained oscillators as the system passes through various bursting states. The results suggest that a phase transition does not occur for this locally coupled neuronal network. The data analysis in the dissertation adopts a model selection approach and relies on methods based on information theory and maximum likelihood.

  19. Use of Direct Behavior Ratings to Collect Functional Assessment Data.

    PubMed

    Kilgus, Stephen P; Kazmerski, Jennifer S; Taylor, Crystal N; von der Embse, Nathaniel P

    2016-05-30

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the utility of Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scale (DBR-SIS) methodology in collecting functional behavior assessment data. Specific questions of interest pertained to the evaluation of the accuracy of brief DBR-SIS ratings of behavioral consequences and determination of the type of training necessary to support such accuracy. Undergraduate student participants (N = 213; 62.0% male; 62.4% White) viewed video clips of students in a classroom setting, and then rated both disruptive behavior and 4 consequences of that behavior (i.e., adult attention, peer attention, escape/avoidance, and access to tangibles/activities). Results indicated training with performance feedback was necessary to support the generation of accurate disruptive behavior and consequence ratings. Participants receiving such support outperformed students in training-only, pretest-posttest, and posttest-only groups for disruptive behavior and all 4 DBR-SIS consequence targets. Future directions for research and implications for practice are discussed, including how teacher ratings may be collected along with other forms of assessment (e.g., progress monitoring) within an efficient Tier 2 assessment model. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Scaling behavior of immersed granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarsid, L.; Delenne, J.-Y.; Mutabaruka, P.; Monerie, Y.; Perales, F.; Radjai, F.

    2017-06-01

    The shear behavior of granular materials immersed in a viscous fluid depends on fluid properties (viscosity, density), particle properties (size, density) and boundary conditions (shear rate, confining pressure). Using computational fluid dynamics simulations coupled with molecular dynamics for granular flow, and exploring a broad range of the values of parameters, we show that the parameter space can be reduced to a single parameter that controls the packing fraction and effective friction coefficient. This control parameter is a modified inertial number that incorporates viscous effects.

  1. Convergent Validity of the Early Childhood Behavior Problem Screening Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Annette K.; Nelson, J. Ron; Epstein, Michael H.; Pederson, Bjorn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the convergent validity of the parent and teacher versions of the Early Childhood Behavior Problem Screening Scale (ECBPSS) with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), respectively. Data were collected on a sample of preschool and kindergarten students (n = 149) from two medium-sized…

  2. Scaling behavior in probabilistic neuronal cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, Kaustubh; Yadav, Avinash Chand; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna

    2013-01-01

    We study a neural network model of interacting stochastic discrete two-state cellular automata on a regular lattice. The system is externally tuned to a critical point which varies with the degree of stochasticity (or the effective temperature). There are avalanches of neuronal activity, namely, spatially and temporally contiguous sites of activity; a detailed numerical study of these activity avalanches is presented, and single, joint, and marginal probability distributions are computed. At the critical point, we find that the scaling exponents for the variables are in good agreement with a mean-field theory.

  3. A Scale for Assessing the Severity of Arousal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Zhang, Bin; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Flamand, Mathilde; Noël de Fontréaux, Alix; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Brion, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arousal disorders may have serious health consequences. Objective: To develop a scale assessing the severity of arousal disorders (Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale, PADSS). Setting: University hospital. Design: Controlled study. Participants: Consecutive patients (older than 15 y), with sleepwalking (SW) and/or sleep terrors (ST), subjects with previous SW/ST, normal controls and patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Intervention: The self-rated scale listed 17 parasomniac behaviors (PADSS-A), assessed their frequency from never to twice or more per night (PADSS-B) and evaluated the consequences (PADSS-C: disturbed sleep, injuries, fatigue, and psychological consequences). The clinimetric properties and face validity of the scale were tested. Results: Half of the 73 patients with SW/ST (more men than women) had injured themselves or others, whereas 15% had concomitant sexsomnia and 23% had amnestic eating behaviors. The total PADSS score (range: 0-50) was 19.4 ± 6.3 (range: 8-36) in this group, 11.7 ± 5.9 in 26 subjects with previous SW/ST, 8.8 ± 3.2 in 26 patients with RBD, and 2.0 ± 3.5 in 53 normal controls (P < 0.05). The PADSS demonstrated high sensitivity (83.6%), specificity (87.8%), internal consistency, and test-retest reliability (0.79). The best cutoff for the total score was at 13/14. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two components: wandering and violence/handling. The complexity of behaviors emerging from N3 sleep (scored on videopolysomnography) positively correlated with scores for the PADSS-total, PADSS-A, PADSS-C, and the “violence/handling” factor. Conclusion: This scale had reasonable psychometric properties and could be used for screening and stratifying patients and for evaluating the effects of treatments. Citation: Arnulf I; Zhang B; Uguccioni G; Flamand M; Noël de Fontréaux A; Leu-Semenescu S; Brion A. A scale for assessing the severity of arousal disorders. SLEEP 2014;37(1):127-136. PMID

  4. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Duffard, R

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone,dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or changes in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. PMID:9182042

  5. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R.

    1996-04-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Standard Errors of Prediction for the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Leslie

    1990-01-01

    Offers standard errors of prediction and confidence intervals for Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) that help in deciding whether variation in obtained scores of scale administered to the same person more than once is a result of measurement error or whether it reflects actual change in examinee's functional level. Presented values were…

  7. The Children's Behavior Rating Scale: A Factor Analytic Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeper, Ronald; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    1986-01-01

    A factor analysis of a revised and expanded 102-item version of the Children's Behavior Scale (CBRS) was conducted to complete development of this teacher rating scale. Results confirmed previous research on the CBRS that indicated that two independent dimensions of cognitive deficits can be identified in teacher ratings. (Author/LMO)

  8. Direct Behavior Rating Instrumentation: Evaluating the Impact of Scale Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faith G.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Schardt, Alyssa A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of two different Direct Behavior Rating--Single Item Scale (DBR-SIS) formats on rating accuracy. A total of 119 undergraduate students participated in one of two study conditions, each utilizing a different DBR-SIS scale format: one that included percentage of time anchors on the DBR-SIS…

  9. A Turkish Version of the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukay-Yuksel, Muge

    2009-01-01

    Intended to enhance social skills instruction in Turkey, the present study highlights the process and outcome of creating a Turkish-language version of the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS), originally developed by Merrell (1993). The social skills of the Turkish pre-and elementary school students were based on the Likert scale. The analyses of…

  10. Toward Oxide Scale Behavior Management At High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Deltombe, R.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.; Dubar, L.

    2011-01-17

    Oxide scales grow freely on bare metallic surface under environmental conditions such as high temperature and oxygen. These act as thermal and mechanical shields, especially during high hot forming processes (>1000 deg. C). But product quality can be impacted by these oxide scales due to scale remaining on product or sticking on tools. Thus the TEMPO laboratory has created an original methodology in order to characterize oxide scale under high temperature, pressure and strain gradients. An experimental device has been developed. The final purpose of this work is to understand the scale behavior as a function of temperature, reduction ratio and steel composition.

  11. Toward Oxide Scale Behavior Management At High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deltombe, R.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.; Dubar, L.

    2011-01-01

    Oxide scales grow freely on bare metallic surface under environmental conditions such as high temperature and oxygen. These act as thermal and mechanical shields, especially during high hot forming processes (>1000° C). But product quality can be impacted by these oxide scales due to scale remaining on product or sticking on tools. Thus the TEMPO laboratory has created an original methodology in order to characterize oxide scale under high temperature, pressure and strain gradients. An experimental device has been developed. The final purpose of this work is to understand the scale behavior as a function of temperature, reduction ratio and steel composition.

  12. Validating the Interpersonal Communication Assessment Scale.

    PubMed

    Klakovich, Marilyn D; Dela Cruz, Felicitas A

    2006-01-01

    Despite the centrality of interpersonal communication in nursing, there are few psychometrically sound instruments to measure the communication competencies of undergraduate and graduate nursing students. This article reports on the development and testing of the Interpersonal Communication Assessment Scale (ICAS), which was designed to assess the communication competencies of students in undergraduate and graduate nursing programs. Retroductive triangulation, using both deductive and inductive methods, and the Model of Relational Competence guided the measure's conceptualization and development. We used responses from 531 (24%) undergraduate and graduate clinical faculty from 246 American Association of Colleges of Nursing member schools for the psychometric testing of the 54-item content-validated and pilot-tested ICAS. Exploratory-factor analysis resulted in a three-factor solution labeled as advocacy, therapeutic use of self, and validation. These factors accounted for 60% of the variance. Items that loaded .60 or higher were retained, resulting in a 23-item scale with a Cronbach's alpha of .96. The ICAS significantly differentiated the communication competencies of beginning and graduating students in both undergraduate and graduate programs. The ICAS was found to have construct validity and internal consistency, underscoring its potential as a formative and summative tool to assess the interpersonal communication competencies of nursing students.

  13. Scaling behavior of adsorption on patchwise bivariate surfaces revisited.

    PubMed

    Bulnes, F; Ramirez-Pastor, A J; Zgrablich, G

    2007-01-30

    The adsorption of gases on patchwise heterogeneous bivariate surfaces is studied. These surfaces are characterized by a collection of strong and weak adsorbing patches with a typical length scale l. Different forms and spatial arrangements of these patches determine different topographies characterized by an effective length, l(eff) = sigmal, where sigma takes values from 1 to 4 for the different topographies considered here. Previous studies showed that the mean square deviation between isotherms corresponding to different values of l(eff) scaled as a power law with exponent alpha, without providing any physical interpretation of such behavior. In the present work, we introduce a different scaling function, chi(l), which is shown to be twice the difference in free energy per site between a reference isotherm and the given isotherm, at half coverage. With this function the scaling behavior and the value of the scaling exponent alpha are determined over the whole range of interparticles interaction energy and adsorptive energy, and for different temperatures, through Monte Carlo simulations. The results are similar to those obtained in previous studies, with a value of alpha which is half the one obtained before due to the different definition of the scaling function, but the present analysis provides a full understanding of the scaling behavior based on the physical significance of the scaling function and the scaling exponent.

  14. A temporal and spatial scaling hypothesis for the behavioral effects of psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Paulus, M P; Geyer, M A

    1991-01-01

    A variety of psychoactive substances (amphetamine, nicotine, scopolamine, apomorphine, lisuride, and MDMA) were tested to examine whether a proposed scaling hypothesis is appropriate for the description of the amount and the structure of rat locomotor paths recorded in the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM). The analytical approach was based on the assumption that the scaling behavior of a few collective variables may characterize sufficiently changes in the animal's behavior induced by different drugs. The temporal scaling exponent alpha, describing the ratio of fast to slow responses in the BPM, sensitively reflected the different stimulant properties of the substances. The spatial scaling exponent d, which relates the average path length to the resolution used to measure consecutive responses, was found to discriminate substances that had been separated previously via qualitative descriptions. Several behavioral response categories emerged from comparisons of the locations of different drugs on a two-dimensional d-a plane. Scopolamine, MDMA, lisuride, and high doses of apomorphine increased a while decreasing d, whereas amphetamine, nicotine, and caffeine produced an increased a with no change or an increase in d. Stereotypies could be identified on the opposite ends of the spatial scaling exponent scale and were interpreted as reflecting two kinds of perseveration. These results suggest that scaling approaches can be used to assess quantitatively the state of the animal based on its locomotor behavior and that the exponents can serve as collective variables providing a macroscopic description based on the microscopic elements of behavior.

  15. Relationship between the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Classroom Edition and the Vineland Social Maturity Scales.

    PubMed

    Britton, W H; Eaves, R C

    1986-07-01

    Results of an investigation of the relationship between the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Classroom Edition (Harrison, 1985) and its predecessor, the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (Doll, 1953) were presented. Subjects were both educable and trainable mentally retarded children. The concurrent validity of the two scales was moderate, r = .57 to .66. Of greater importance was the finding that the mean scores obtained from the newer instrument were significantly lower than the mean scores for the Vineland Social Maturity Scale.

  16. The School Principal's Role in Large-Scale Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul; Tunison, Scott; Viczko, Melody

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an interpretive study in which 25 elementary principals were asked about their assessment knowledge, the use of large-scale assessments in their schools, and principals' perceptions on their roles with respect to large-scale assessments. Principals in this study suggested that the current context of large-scale assessment and…

  17. Atypical Behavior Identification in Large Scale Network Traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Best, Daniel M.; Hafen, Ryan P.; Olsen, Bryan K.; Pike, William A.

    2011-10-23

    Cyber analysts are faced with the daunting challenge of identifying exploits and threats within potentially billions of daily records of network traffic. Enterprise-wide cyber traffic involves hundreds of millions of distinct IP addresses and results in data sets ranging from terabytes to petabytes of raw data. Creating behavioral models and identifying trends based on those models requires data intensive architectures and techniques that can scale as data volume increases. Analysts need scalable visualization methods that foster interactive exploration of data and enable identification of behavioral anomalies. Developers must carefully consider application design, storage, processing, and display to provide usability and interactivity with large-scale data. We present an application that highlights atypical behavior in enterprise network flow records. This is accomplished by utilizing data intensive architectures to store the data, aggregation techniques to optimize data access, statistical techniques to characterize behavior, and a visual analytic environment to render the behavioral trends, highlight atypical activity, and allow for exploration.

  18. Characterizing the Scaling Behavior of Rainfall Using Imperfect Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, O. P.; Barros, A. P.; Sun, X.

    2009-12-01

    Scaling analysis provides a generalized framework to describe the spatial and temporal variability of geophysical states with universal metrics. A key implication of scale invariance for applications in Hydrometeorology is that it is possible to infer the statistical properties of individual processes from observations over a limited range of scales. Besides the limited range of observational scales, one common difficulty in Hydrometeorology, especially in the case of remote sensing observations, is that very few data sets correspond to direct measurements of the processes of interest. Rather, such data sets correspond to estimates (retrievals) derived from related observable states, which implies the need for estimation (retrieval) models to describe the underlying physical and, or statistical relationships. Besides the errors and uncertainties intrinsic to measurement generally, there is therefore in the case of remote sensing an additional pathway to introduce errors, uncertainty and ambiguity. In this presentation we describe recent work focusing on downscaling of rainfall products and characterization of rainfall extremes. First, fractal downscaling was used to address the disparity between the spatial and temporal resolution of existing, and anticipated, satellite-based quantitative precipitation estimates and the need for high spatial resolution in hydrometeorological and hydrological applications using TRMM 3B42 V6 precipitation product (~ 25 km grid spacing) and NCEP Stage IV products (~ 4 km grid spacing). The results show that fractal interpolation performs well with regard to operational QPE skill scores, and does meet the additional requirement of generating structurally consistent fields. However, severe limitations were detected and identified that are specifically associated with the measurement system and retrieval algorithms. Second, a multifractal framework was applied to three distinct types of rainfall data to assess the statistical differences

  19. Addressing Student Problem Behavior: An IEP Team's Introduction to Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Mary Magee; Gable, Robert A.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Nelson, C. Michael; Howell, Kenneth W.

    This paper provides guidelines for conducting a functional behavioral assessment and developing positive behavior intervention plans with students who have behavior disorders or other disabilities in the context of requirements of the 1997 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). After an introduction, rights and…

  20. Rating Scale Items: A Brief Review of Nomenclature, Components, and Formatting to Inform the Development of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Boice, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Ratings scales are a common component of many multisource, multimethod frameworks for socioemotional and behavior assessment of children. There is a modest literature base to support the use of attitudinal, behavioral, and personality rating scales. Much of that historic literature focuses on the characteristics and interpretations of specific…

  1. Rating Scale Items: A Brief Review of Nomenclature, Components, and Formatting to Inform the Development of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Boice, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Ratings scales are a common component of many multisource, multimethod frameworks for socioemotional and behavior assessment of children. There is a modest literature base to support the use of attitudinal, behavioral, and personality rating scales. Much of that historic literature focuses on the characteristics and interpretations of specific…

  2. Toward Increasing Fairness in Score Scale Calibrations Employed in International Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, Maria Elena; von Davier, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the creation of comparable score scales across countries in international assessments. We examine potential improvements to current score scale calibration procedures used in international large-scale assessments. Our approach seeks to improve fairness in scoring international large-scale assessments, which often…

  3. Toward Increasing Fairness in Score Scale Calibrations Employed in International Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, Maria Elena; von Davier, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the creation of comparable score scales across countries in international assessments. We examine potential improvements to current score scale calibration procedures used in international large-scale assessments. Our approach seeks to improve fairness in scoring international large-scale assessments, which often…

  4. Validity and reliability of the Greek version of the Multisource Assessment of Social Competence Scale.

    PubMed

    Magotsiou, Evmorfia; Goudas, Marios; Hasandra, Maria

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Multisource Assessment of Social Competence Scale to the Greek language. The validity and reliability of the scale were examined in three studies with 209, 192, and 147 sixth-grade students, respectively. The subscale structure of the Multisource Assessment of Social Competence Scale was supported through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The hypothesized two main dimensions, Prosocial and Antisocial behavior, were divided into two factors, Cooperating skills and Empathy for Prosocial behavior and Quick-temperedness and Disruptiveness for Antisocial behavior. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were high. Additionally, correlations between each factor and social desirability scores were nonsignificant. The resultant model of the present study is a behavior rating scale that should be considered a reliable choice for assessing Greek middle school students' social skills.

  5. Validity of the Brazilian version of the Venham's behavior rating scale.

    PubMed

    Cademartori, Mariana Gonzalez; Da Rosa, Denise Paiva; Oliveira, Luísa Jardim Correa; Corrêa, Marcos Britto; Goettems, Marília Leão

    2017-03-01

    Venham's Behavior Rating Scale (VBRS) is a measure of uncooperative behavior developed to assess children's responses to dental stress. To evaluate the validity of the Brazilian version of the VBRS. Children aged 7-13 years were invited to participate in this study. Child behavior was concurrently assessed with both the VBRS and the Frankl Scale. A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was plotted to determine the cut-off points of the Brazilian version of the VBRS. Criterion validity was determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Discriminant validity was tested before and after scale dichotomization. A total of 265 children participated in this study. According to the ROC curve, the ≥1 cut-off point was best for this population (SENS 97.4%; SPEC 94.7%). The Brazilian version of the VBRS was significantly correlated with the Frankl Scale (r -0.69; <0.001, r -0.72; <0.001). Child behavior assessed was related to complexity of treatment, type of procedure, use of local anesthesia, and dental fear. The results provide strong evidence for the validity of Brazilian version of the VBRS in behavior assessment of children aged 7-13 years during dental care. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Behavioral Assessment of Chronic Orofacial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Francis J.; Beckham, Jean C.

    1990-01-01

    Orofacial pain is usually evaluated and treated from a biomedical perspective. There is no question that the large majority of individuals having acute orofacial pain benefit from timely and appropriate medical intervention. When orofacial pain persists, however, the likelihood that this pain can influence and be influenced by behavioral factors increases. While some individuals are able to adapt and cope with chronic orofacial pain, others develop significant behavioral problems. These problems may include an overly sedentary lifestyle, dependence on habit-forming narcotic medications, or severe depression or anxiety. The hallmark of the behavioral perspective on chronic pain is the insistence that a careful assessment and treatment of such behavioral problems is just as important as appropriate biomedical intervention.1 PMID:2085202

  7. Methodological Challenges in Research on Sexual Risk Behavior: I. Item Content, Scaling, and Data Analytical Options

    PubMed Central

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of sexual behavior involves many challenges, including how to assess sexual behavior and how to analyze the resulting data. Sexual behavior can be assessed using absolute frequency measures (also known as “counts”) or with relative frequency measures (e.g., rating scales ranging from “never” to “always”). We discuss these two assessment approaches in the context of research on HIV risk behavior. We conclude that these two approaches yield non-redundant information and, more importantly, that only data yielding information about the absolute frequency of risk behavior have the potential to serve as valid indicators of HIV contraction risk. However, analyses of count data may be challenging due to non-normal distributions with many outliers. Therefore, we identify new and powerful data analytical solutions that have been developed recently to analyze count data, and discuss limitations of a commonly applied method (viz., ANCOVA using baseline scores as covariates). PMID:14534027

  8. The Development and Validation of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxhandler, Holly K.; Parrish, Danielle E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article describes the development and validation of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale (RSIPAS). The RSIPAS is designed to assess social work practitioners' self-efficacy, attitudes, behaviors, and perceived feasibility concerning the assessment or integration of clients' religious and spiritual beliefs…

  9. The Development and Validation of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxhandler, Holly K.; Parrish, Danielle E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article describes the development and validation of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale (RSIPAS). The RSIPAS is designed to assess social work practitioners' self-efficacy, attitudes, behaviors, and perceived feasibility concerning the assessment or integration of clients' religious and spiritual beliefs…

  10. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Behavioral Pain Scale.

    PubMed

    Morete, Márcia Carla; Mofatto, Sarah Camargo; Pereira, Camila Alves; Silva, Ana Paula; Odierna, Maria Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Behavioral Pain Scale to Brazilian Portuguese and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this scale. This study was conducted in two phases: the Behavioral Pain Scale was translated and culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese and the psychometric properties of this scale were subsequently assessed (reliability and clinical utility). The study sample consisted of 100 patients who were older than 18 years of age, admitted to an intensive care unit, intubated, mechanically ventilated, and subjected or not to sedation and analgesia from July 2012 to December 2012. Pediatric and non-intubated patients were excluded. The study was conducted at a large private hospital that was situated in the city of São Paulo (SP). Regarding reproducibility, the results revealed that the observed agreement between the two evaluators was 92.08% for the pain descriptor "adaptation to mechanical ventilation", 88.1% for "upper limbs", and 90.1% for "facial expression". The kappa coefficient of agreement for "adaptation to mechanical ventilation" assumed a value of 0.740. Good agreement was observed between the evaluators with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.807 (95% confidence interval: 0.727-0.866). The Behavioral Pain Scale was easy to administer and reproduce. Additionally, this scale had adequate internal consistency. The Behavioral Pain Scale was satisfactorily adapted to Brazilian Portuguese for the assessment of pain in critically ill patients.

  11. Child-focused behavioral assessment and modification.

    PubMed

    Evans, I M

    1999-12-01

    Argues that behavioral principles have been translated into practice with children too literally and that a more integrative framework is required to guide assessment and treatment. The framework advocated is Staats's (1996) psychological behaviorism. This is a consistently behavioristic, positivist paradigm, using multilevel theory to emphasize the integration of social learning, developmental, and personality principles. Psychological behaviorism thus allows for a much more expansive approach than has typically been the case within child behavior therapy. Given the complexity of this perspective, I selected four broad tenets of the theory and suggested their implications for clinical contexts. The further translation from clinical models to specific clinical practices is quite difficult but may yield more flexible and substitutable practices than do unidimensional treatment outcome studies. Of special importance, the principles demonstrate how children themselves can retain the central focus of child behavioral assessment and modification. Specific practices still need to be constructed according to an understanding of the multiple sources of influence on children as well as the culture of childhood itself.

  12. Assessing behavioral toxicity with Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gary L; Cole, Russell D; Williams, Phillip L

    2004-05-01

    Behavior, even in simple metazoans, depends upon integrated processes at the subcellular, cellular, and organismal level, and thus is susceptible to disruption by a broad spectrum of chemicals. Locomotor behavior (movement) of the small free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be useful in assessing toxicity. Recently reported observations suggest that behavioral change (reduced movement) occurs after 4 h of exposure to heavy metals, and that with abbreviated exposure, the concentration-response relationship for Pb (a known neurotoxic metal) differs from that for Cu. In this study, movement was evaluated after 4-h exposures for nine compounds from three chemical classes: organic pesticides, organic solvents, and heavy metals. Concentration-dependent reduction of movement was observed for all test compounds with the exception of mebendazole, for which test concentrations were limited by solubility. Within each chemical class, movement was more sensitive to the neurotoxic compounds than to substances not believed to be neurotoxic, as evidenced by behavioral effective concentration to reduce average worm movement to 50% of the control movement values (e.g., levamisole and chlorpyrifos < mebendazole, ethanol and acetone < dimethylsulfoxide, and Pb and Al < Cu). These observations are discussed as they relate to the use of acute behavioral tests in assessing general chemical toxicity, and the enhanced value of 4-h testing for the detection of neural toxicants.

  13. [Assessment of hyper- and hypodopaminergic behaviors in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Ardouin, C; Chéreau, I; Llorca, P-M; Lhommée, E; Durif, F; Pollak, P; Krack, P

    2009-11-01

    The common perception that Parkinson's disease patients tend to be depressed, anxious, apathetic and harm-avoiding has currently been challenged by the recognition that they can also exhibit a hedonistic, novelty-seeking personality. Thus, Parkinson's disease patients may indulge in their passions in an irresponsible and disinhibited manner, and engage in repetitive, compulsive behaviors that may be harmful and destructive to their social or professional lives. The dopamine dysregulation syndrome includes hypersexuality, pathological gambling, and compulsive shopping; it is associated with addiction to dopaminergic medication. However, not all behavioral changes are necessarily accompanied by a dopaminergic addiction. After antiparkinson treatment is initiated, patients enter a 'honeymoon period' during which changes in mood and behavior reflect a return to the patients' premorbid personality. The increased motivation and higher level of activity in professional as well as leisure activities are considered positive changes by both the patients and their relatives. With prolonged and increased dopaminergic treatment, these positive behavioral changes can become excessive and evolve into nocturnal hyperactivity and stereotyped, repetitive and time consuming behaviors which ultimately disorganize the patient's everyday routine and herald behavioral addictions. These drug-induced behavioral changes are under-appreciated by neurologists and under-reported by the patients who neither complain about the behaviors nor understand the relationship between motivated behavior and dopaminergic medication. For these reasons, we propose a new scale for the assessment of behavior and mood to quantify and track changes related to Parkinson's disease, to dopaminergic medication, and to non-motor fluctuations. This scale is based on the concept of hypo- and hyperdopaminergic mood and behavior. The scale consists of 18 items addressing non-motor symptoms, grouped in four parts

  14. School Social Behavior Scales: an adaptation study of the Portuguese version of the social competence scale from SSBS-2.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Raquel; Carapito, Elsa; Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques Pinto, Alexandra; Lima, Maria Luísa; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa

    2012-11-01

    This study analyses the psychometric proprieties of a Portuguese version of the social competence scale from the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS-2, Merrell, 2002). It is a rating instrument of children and adolescents behavior, to be used by teachers and other school personnel. This scale includes 3 subscales: self-management/compliance, peer relations and academic behavior. In our first sample, 175 teachers rated 344 students from grade 1 through 12. On the second sample 13 teachers rated 251 3rd and 4th grades students. The results from the Portuguese adaptation support the multidimensional structure of the social competence scale from the SSBS-2, although an alternative model demonstrated a better fit to the data than the model originally proposed by the author. The scale showed good internal consistency and good intercorrelations between subscales, as well as between subscales and the total scale. The final model was well replicated in the second sample. These results encourage us to pursue the SSBS-2 Portuguese adaptation, in order to provide a useful and validated instrument for the assessment of social competence and for educational interventions.

  15. Establishment and assessment of code scaling capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jaehyok

    In this thesis, a method for using RELAP5/MOD3.3 (Patch03) code models is described to establish and assess the code scaling capability and to corroborate the scaling methodology that has been used in the design of the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility. It was sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) under the program "PUMA ESBWR Tests". PUMA-E facility was built for the USNRC to obtain data on the performance of the passive safety systems of the General Electric (GE) Nuclear Energy Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). Similarities between the prototype plant and the scaled-down test facility were investigated for a Gravity-Driven Cooling System (GDCS) Drain Line Break (GDLB). This thesis presents the results of the GDLB test, i.e., the GDLB test with one Isolation Condenser System (ICS) unit disabled. The test is a hypothetical multi-failure small break loss of coolant (SB LOCA) accident scenario in the ESBWR. The test results indicated that the blow-down phase, Automatic Depressurization System (ADS) actuation, and GDCS injection processes occurred as expected. The GDCS as an emergency core cooling system provided adequate supply of water to keep the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) coolant level well above the Top of Active Fuel (TAF) during the entire GDLB transient. The long-term cooling phase, which is governed by the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) condensation, kept the reactor containment system that is composed of Drywell (DW) and Wetwell (WW) below the design pressure of 414 kPa (60 psia). In addition, the ICS continued participating in heat removal during the long-term cooling phase. A general Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation approach was discussed in detail relative to safety analyses of Light Water Reactor (LWR). The major components of the CSAU methodology that were highlighted particularly focused on the

  16. Validity and Reliability of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (2nd Edition): Youth Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael H.; Mooney, Paul; Ryser, Gail; Pierce, Corey D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article reports findings of three studies addressing convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the Youth Rating Scale of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition (BERS-2). Method: Pearson product-moment correlations were used in all three studies, the first two addressing convergent validity and the third…

  17. Validity and Reliability of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (2nd Edition): Youth Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael H.; Mooney, Paul; Ryser, Gail; Pierce, Corey D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article reports findings of three studies addressing convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the Youth Rating Scale of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition (BERS-2). Method: Pearson product-moment correlations were used in all three studies, the first two addressing convergent validity and the third…

  18. Universality and scaling in the behavior of coupled Feigenbaum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. P.

    The paper examines the behavior of two symmetrically coupled identical systems, each of which individually is capable of a transition to chaos through period-doubling bifurcations. Scaling relations are established which represent a generalization of the Feigenbaum scaling laws to coupled systems. A universal configuration of zones of various modes is found in a space of three parameters: the Feigenbaum governing parameter and the coefficients of inertial and dissipative types of coupling.

  19. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students

    PubMed Central

    RAEE, HOJAT; AMINI, MITRA; MOMEN NASAB, AMENEH; MALEK POUR, ABDOLRASOUL; JAFARI, MOHAMMAD MORAD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual’s performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7th year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale.  After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant level. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.83). Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57) for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD= 4.49±0.53) for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32) for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students’ learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25512933

  20. An Investigation of the Reliability and Factor Structure of Four New Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.; Siegle, Del; Reis, Sally M.; Gavin, M. Katherine; Sytsma Reed, Rachael E.

    2009-01-01

    Teacher rating scales have been used widely throughout the United States as part of a comprehensive plan for identifying potentially gifted and talented students. The Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics for Superior Students (SRBCSS) are among the most frequently used teacher rating scales to assess the characteristics of and nominate…

  1. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  2. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  3. Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: Two Studies of Convergent Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Ryan, Joseph B.; La Vigne, Steven P.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    As the field of mental health services shifts its focus to early intervention, the need to develop valid and reliable measures of young children's behavioral functioning is clear. Traditional assessment instruments have focused on deficits, problems, and pathologies to the exclusion of strengths and competencies. However, assessing child strengths…

  4. Testing the Classroom Citizenship Behaviors Scale: Exploring the Association of Classroom Citizenship Behaviors and Student Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katt, James; Miller, Ann Neville; Brown, Tim

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of Myers and colleagues' Classroom Citizenship Behavior scale, as well as the relationship between student personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and communication apprehension) and CCBs. Two hundred and thirteen students completed…

  5. An Exploratory Investigation of the Counseling Competencies Scale: A Measure of Counseling Skills, Dispositions, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Witta, E. Lea

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Counseling Competencies Scale (CCS; University of Central Florida Counselor Education Faculty, 2009), an instrument designed to assess trainee competencies as measured in their counseling skills, dispositions, and behaviors. There was strong internal consistency for the 4-factor model for…

  6. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  7. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  8. On the Scaling Behavior of Reliability-Resilience-Vulnerability Indices in Agricultural Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk indices such as reliability-resilience-vulnerability (R-R-V) have been proposed to assess watershed health. In this study, the spatial scaling behavior of R-R-V indices has been explored for five agricultural watersheds in the midwestern United States. The study was conduc...

  9. Applying the Mixed Rasch Model to the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Previous research using creativity assessments has used latent class models and identified multiple classes (a 3-class solution) associated with various domains. This study explored the latent class structure of the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale, which was designed to quantify ideational capacity. A robust state-of the-art technique called the…

  10. Applying the Mixed Rasch Model to the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Previous research using creativity assessments has used latent class models and identified multiple classes (a 3-class solution) associated with various domains. This study explored the latent class structure of the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale, which was designed to quantify ideational capacity. A robust state-of the-art technique called the…

  11. An Exploratory Investigation of the Counseling Competencies Scale: A Measure of Counseling Skills, Dispositions, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Witta, E. Lea

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Counseling Competencies Scale (CCS; University of Central Florida Counselor Education Faculty, 2009), an instrument designed to assess trainee competencies as measured in their counseling skills, dispositions, and behaviors. There was strong internal consistency for the 4-factor model for…

  12. Multidimensionality of Teachers' Graded Responses for Preschoolers' Stylistic Learning Behavior: The Learning-to-Learn Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Paul A.; Fantuzzo, John W.; Warley, Heather P.; Waterman, Clare; Angelo, Lauren E.; Gadsden, Vivian L.; Sekino, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of preschool learning behavior has become very popular as a mechanism to inform cognitive development and promote successful interventions. The most widely used measures offer sound predictions but distinguish only a few types of stylistic learning and lack sensitive growth detection. The Learning-to-Learn Scales was designed to…

  13. Risk assessment of wandering behavior in mild dementia.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Luther, S L; Volicer, L; Algase, D; Beattie, E; Brown, L M; Molinari, V; Moore, H; Joseph, I

    2016-04-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aims to determine the risk factors of wandering-related adverse consequences in community-dwelling persons with mild dementia. These adverse consequences include negative outcomes of wandering (falls, fractures, and injuries) and eloping behavior. We recruited 143 dyads of persons with mild dementia and their caregivers from a veteran's hospital and memory clinic in Florida. Wandering-related adverse consequences were measured using the Revised Algase Wandering Scale - Community Version. Variables such as personality (Big Five Inventory), behavioral response to stress, gait, and balance (Tinetti Gait and Balance), wayfinding ability (Wayfinding Effectiveness Scale), and neurocognitive abilities (attention, cognition, memory, language/verbal skills, and executive functioning) were also measured. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the predictors of these wandering-related adverse consequences. A total of 49% of the study participants had falls, fractures, and injuries due to wandering behavior, and 43.7% demonstrated eloping behaviors. Persistent walking (OR = 2.6) and poor gait (OR = 0.9) were significant predictors of negative outcomes of wandering, while persistent walking (OR = 13.2) and passivity (OR = 2.55) predicted eloping behavior. However, there were no correlations between wandering-related adverse consequences and participants' characteristics (age, gender, race, ethnicity, and education), health status (Charlson comorbidity index), or neurocognitive abilities. Our results highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals so that effective interventions can be developed to reduce or prevent the adverse consequences of wandering. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Construct Validation of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nancy K.; Sass, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Beliefs related to classroom management vary among teachers and play an important role in classrooms. Despite the importance of this construct, valid measures have proven difficult to develop. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS), a short but valid measure of teachers'…

  15. Construct Validation of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nancy K.; Sass, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Beliefs related to classroom management vary among teachers and play an important role in classrooms. Despite the importance of this construct, valid measures have proven difficult to develop. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS), a short but valid measure of teachers'…

  16. NATIONAL-SCALE ASSESSMENT OF AIR TOXICS RISKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The national-scale assessment of air toxics risks is a modeling assessment which combines emission inventory development, atmospheric fate and transport modeling, exposure modeling, and risk assessment to characterize the risk associated with inhaling air toxics from outdoor sour...

  17. NATIONAL-SCALE ASSESSMENT OF AIR TOXICS RISKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The national-scale assessment of air toxics risks is a modeling assessment which combines emission inventory development, atmospheric fate and transport modeling, exposure modeling, and risk assessment to characterize the risk associated with inhaling air toxics from outdoor sour...

  18. Habitat Utilization Assessment - Building in Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Blume, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Habitability, and the associated architectural and design attributes of an environment, is a powerful performance shaping factor. By identifying how inhabitants use an area, we can draw conclusions about what design or architectural attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance. We are analyzing how a crew uses a long duration habitat and work environment during a four-day underwater mission and identifying certain architectural and design attributes that are related to, and potential enablers of, certain crew behaviors. By identifying how inhabitants use the habitat, we can draw conclusions about what habitability attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance (applicable to NASA's Bioastronautics Human Behavior and Performance Critical Path Roadmap question 6.12). This assessment replicates a methodology reported in a chapter titled "Sociokinetic Analysis as a Tool for Optimization of Environmental Design" by C. Adams.' That study collected video imagery of certain areas of a closed habitat during a 91 day test and from that data calculated time spent in different volumes during the mission, and characterized the behaviors occurring in certain habitat volumes thus concluding various rules for design of such habitats. This study assesses the utilization of the Aquarius Habitat, an underwater station, which will support six Aquanauts for a fourteen-day mission during which the crew will perform specific scientific and engineering studies. Video is recorded for long uninterrupted periods of time during the mission and from that data the time spent in each area is calculated. In addition, qualitative and descriptive analysis of the types of behaviors in each area is performed with the purpose of identifying any behaviors that are not typical of a certain area. If a participant uses an area in a way different from expected, a subsequent analysis of the features of that area may result in

  19. Telephone assessment of behavioral inhibition and activation systems.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Meza, Alejandra; Suárez, David; Caseras, Xavier; Haro, Josep Maria; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Torrubia, Rafael

    2009-04-01

    The activity of behavioral inhibition and activation systems (BIS and BAS) has been related to several mental disorders. The availability of a validated questionnaire to assess BIS and BAS over the telephone could aid research. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the procedural validity of telephone administration of the sensitivity to punishment/sensitivity to reward questionnaire (SPSRQ) as a measure of BIS and BAS activity (by means of its two scales: the sensitivity to punishment [SP] scale and the sensitivity to reward [SR] scale). A total of 231 participants were assessed with the SPSRQ twice (over the telephone and in a self-administered format). Intraclass correlation coefficients and kappa indices were calculated. Additionally, possible differences between the mean scores obtained with the two assessment procedures and internal consistency were explored. Telephone and self-assessment of BIS and BAS, by means of the SPSRQ, provided similar results, supporting the procedural validity of telephone administration. A slight but statistically significant tendency (estimated betha = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.33-0.92; p<0.001) toward lower scores was observed for the telephone-administered SP scale and for the interaction "first or second assessment/telephone or self-administered SPSRQ" for the SR scale (p=0.023). The results of the present study support the reliability of telephone assessment of BIS and BAS by means of the SPSRQ. Copyright © 2009 Sociedad Española de Psiquiatría and Sociedad Española de Psiquiatría Biológica. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing the on-task homework behavior of youth with behavior disorders using functional behavioral assessment.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Renee O; Axelrod, Michael I

    2008-11-01

    Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework are needed to increase students' academic success. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures may be helpful for intervention planning; however, there has been limited research on use of FBA with youth with EBD experiencing poor academic performance or task completion problems. In the current study, FBA methods were used to identify the contingencies maintaining the off-task behavior of four youth with behavior problems. Effects of interventions based on functional hypotheses were compared to the effects of interventions not linked to such hypotheses. Discussion focuses on utility of FBA procedures for developing and implementing effective interventions for youth with EBD.

  1. Beyond Behavioral Inhibition: A Computer Avatar Task Designed to Assess Behavioral Inhibition Extends to Harm Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Allen, Michael Todd; Jameson, Molly M; Myers, Catherine E

    2017-01-01

    Personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperamental tendency for avoidance in the face of unfamiliar situations, have been identified as risk factors for anxiety disorders. Personality factors are generally identified through self-report inventories. However, this tendency to avoid may affect the accuracy of these self-report inventories. Previously, a computer based task was developed in which the participant guides an on-screen "avatar" through a series of onscreen events; performance on the task could accurately predict participants' BI, measured by a standard paper and pencil questionnaire (Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition, or AMBI). Here, we sought to replicate this finding as well as compare performance on the avatar task to another measure related to BI, the harm avoidance (HA) scale of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). The TPQ includes HA scales as well as scales assessing reward dependence (RD), novelty seeking (NS) and persistence. One hundred and one undergraduates voluntarily completed the avatar task and the paper and pencil inventories in a counter-balanced order. Scores on the avatar task were strongly correlated with BI assessed via the AMBI questionnaire, which replicates prior findings. Females exhibited higher HA scores than males, but did not differ on scores on the avatar task. There was a strong positive relationship between scores on the avatar task and HA scores. One aspect of HA, fear of uncertainty was found to moderately mediate the relationship between AMBI scores and avatar scores. NS had a strong negative relationship with scores on the avatar task, but there was no significant relationship between RD and scores on the avatar task. These findings indicate the effectiveness of the avatar task as a behavioral alternative to self-report measures to assess avoidance. In addition, the use of computer based behavioral tasks are a viable alternative to paper and pencil self-report inventories

  2. Assessing Specific Sexual Behavior: Instrument Development and Validation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Monica C.; Chaney, J. Don; Chen, W. William; Dodd, Virginia J.; Huang, I-Chan; Sanders, Sadie

    2015-01-01

    Through the use of multi-modal methods, the purpose of this study was to develop and assess measurement properties of an instrument evaluating specific sexual behaviors of college students and the role alcohol intoxication plays in one’s intention to participate in these behaviors. A modified version of N. Krause’s instrument development process was applied to create a behavior-specific instrument assessing oral, vaginal, and anal sex behaviors. The process included a review by expert scholars in relevant fields, cognitive interviews with the target population using screen-capture program Camtasia, piloting to assess measurement scales, and a formal investigation. The applied instrument development process employed screen capture software and web-based surveying in a cost-effective format suitable for mixed-method measurement development. The development and application of the instrument provides a clearer understanding of the relationship between alcohol use and sexual activity and aids in the development of effective public health interventions and policies. PMID:27066593

  3. Lateralized kinematics of predation behavior in a Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Oda, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral lateralization has been documented in many vertebrates. The scale-eating cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis is well known for exhibiting lateral dimorphism in its mouth morphology and lateralized behavior in robbing scales from prey fish. A previous field study indicated that this mouth asymmetry closely correlates with the side on which prey is attacked, but details of this species' predation behavior have not been previously analyzed because of the rapidity of the movements. Here, we studied scale-eating behavior in cichlids in a tank through high-speed video monitoring and quantitative assessment of behavioral laterality and kinematics. The fish observed showed a clear bias toward striking on one side, which closely correlated with their asymmetric mouth morphologies. Furthermore, the maximum angular velocity and amplitude of body flexion were significantly larger during attacks on the preferred side compared to those on the nonpreferred side, permitting increased predation success. In contrast, no such lateral difference in movement elements was observed in acoustically evoked flexion during the escape response, which is similar to flexion during scale eating and suggests that they share a common motor control pathway. Thus the neuronal circuits controlling body flexion during scale eating may be functionally lateralized upstream of this common motor pathway.

  4. Lateralized Kinematics of Predation Behavior in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Oda, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral lateralization has been documented in many vertebrates. The scale-eating cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis is well known for exhibiting lateral dimorphism in its mouth morphology and lateralized behavior in robbing scales from prey fish. A previous field study indicated that this mouth asymmetry closely correlates with the side on which prey is attacked, but details of this species' predation behavior have not been previously analyzed because of the rapidity of the movements. Here, we studied scale-eating behavior in cichlids in a tank through high-speed video monitoring and quantitative assessment of behavioral laterality and kinematics. The fish observed showed a clear bias toward striking on one side, which closely correlated with their asymmetric mouth morphologies. Furthermore, the maximum angular velocity and amplitude of body flexion were significantly larger during attacks on the preferred side compared to those on the nonpreferred side, permitting increased predation success. In contrast, no such lateral difference in movement elements was observed in acoustically evoked flexion during the escape response, which is similar to flexion during scale eating and suggests that they share a common motor control pathway. Thus the neuronal circuits controlling body flexion during scale eating may be functionally lateralized upstream of this common motor pathway. PMID:22238598

  5. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Barbara; Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-11-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km(2)), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km(2)), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km(2)), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality.

  6. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km2), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km2), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km2), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality. PMID:25419085

  7. Short-time scale behavior modeling within long-time scale fuel cycle evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.; Tsvetkov, P.; Lucas, S.

    2012-07-01

    Typically, short-time and long-time scales in nuclear energy system behavior are accounted for with entirely separate models. However, long-term changes in system characteristics do affect short-term transients through material variations. This paper presents an approach to consistently account for short-time scales within a nuclear system lifespan. The reported findings and developments are of significant importance for small modular reactors and other nuclear energy systems operating in autonomous modes. It is necessary to simulate the short time-scale kinetic behavior of the reactor as well as the long time-scale dynamics that occur with fuel burnup. The former is modeled using the point kinetics equations, while the latter is modeled by the Bateman equations. (authors)

  8. Analysis of Geomechanical Behavior for the Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, S C; Carlson, S R; Wagoner, J L

    2001-03-05

    The Drift Scale Test (DST) now underway at Yucca Mountain has been simulated using a Drift Scale Distinct Element (DSDE) model. Simulated deformations show good agreement with field deformation measurements. Results indicate most fracture deformation is located above the crown of the Heated Drift. This work is part of the model validation effort for the DSDE model, which is used to assess thermal-mechanical effects on the hydrology of the rock mass surrounding a potential repository.

  9. Validating the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales-2: Preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Major, Sofia; Seabra-Santos, Maria João; Albuquerque, Cristina P

    2017-06-01

    Social skills deficits and some behavior problems are a well-established issue in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, most of the studies available analyze social skills or behavior problems of children with ASD, but not both. The present study intends to compare the social skills and behavior problems of 32 preschoolers with ASD paired with 32 typically developing preschoolers, as evidence of validity of the Portuguese version of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales - Second Edition (PKBS-2). Each child was rated independently by parents and teachers. Results showed a statistically significant difference in all PKBS-2 scores between the two groups, with the children with ASD rated with fewer social skills and more behavior problems by both informants. The discriminant analysis highlighted the three Social Skills, the Over-Activity/Lack of Attention and Social Withdrawal subscales as more accurate in differentiating between the two groups. The implications of using a single behavior rating scale that can be filled in by different informants (parents and teachers) to assess positive and negative behaviors are emphasized. Furthermore, the usefulness of the PKBS-2 as a screening assessment tool that could be used in clinical practice and intervention with preschoolers with ASD is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acceptability of Functional Behavioral Assessment Procedures to Special Educators and School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Robert E.; Bundock, Kaitlin; Kladis, Kristin; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    This survey study assessed the acceptability of a variety of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures (i.e., functional assessment interviews, rating scales/questionnaires, systematic direct observations, functional analysis manipulations) to a national sample of 123 special educators and a state sample of 140 school psychologists.…

  11. Acceptability of Functional Behavioral Assessment Procedures to Special Educators and School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Robert E.; Bundock, Kaitlin; Kladis, Kristin; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    This survey study assessed the acceptability of a variety of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures (i.e., functional assessment interviews, rating scales/questionnaires, systematic direct observations, functional analysis manipulations) to a national sample of 123 special educators and a state sample of 140 school psychologists.…

  12. [Assessment of dynamic violent behavior risk factors].

    PubMed

    Folino, Jorge Oscar; Cáceres, María Soledad; Campos, María Laura; Silveri, Marina; Ucín, Silvana; Ascazibar, Mariel

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic violent behavior risk factors have special significance since they constitute the main target for preventive intervention. Different dynamic factors as well as violent recidivism were assessed with, among other instruments, the environmental risk (Risk Management) section of the Argentinean version of the HCR-20 in 25 parolees from the Province of Buenos Aires Penitentiary System. Among other findings, the prevalence of the risk factors linked to substance abuse and socioeconomic deprivation, and the heterogeneous perception of the official institutions are very significant. Exposure to destabilizers was the factor most associated with violent recidivism.

  13. The Chinese version of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS): Mokken scaling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hierarchical scales are very useful in clinical practice due to their ability to discriminate precisely between individuals, and the original English version of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale has been shown to contain a hierarchy of items. The purpose of this study was to analyse a Mandarin Chinese translation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale for a hierarchy of items according to the criteria of Mokken scaling. Data from 180 Chinese participants who completed the Chinese translation of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale were analysed using the Mokken Scaling Procedure and the 'R' statistical programme using the diagnostics available in these programmes. Correlation between Mandarin Chinese items and a Chinese translation of the Short Form (36) Health Survey was also analysed. Findings Fifteen items from the Mandarin Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale were retained in a strong and reliable Mokken scale; invariant item ordering was not evident and the Mokken scaled items of the Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale correlated with the Short Form (36) Health Survey. Conclusions Items from the Mandarin Chinese Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale form a Mokken scale and this offers further insight into how the items of the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale relate to the measurement of health-related quality of life people with a myocardial infarction. PMID:22221696

  14. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita

    2013-04-01

    International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries.

  15. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries. PMID:23316097

  16. Prolegomena to the Measurement and Assessment of Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, W. O.

    The evaluation of gross human behavior, its measurement and assessment are discussed. The four-stage approach to behavioral analysis (specification, intervention, assessment, and prevention) is described, using criminal behavior as a case in point. An example is given of assessment-intervention reciprocity, and the three levels of behavioral…

  17. Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

  18. A rating scale for disruptive behavior disorders, based on the DSM-IV item pool.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raul R; Alpert, Murray; Pouget, Enrique; Silva, Victoria; Trosper, Sarah; Reyes, Kimberly; Dummit, Steven

    2005-01-01

    DSM IV includes three clusters of items that are used to establish diagnoses for the Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Attention Deficit, Conduct, and Oppositional Defiant. In this report, we examine the feasibility of using the items in each cluster to form a rating scale. We studied eighty-four consecutive school-aged referrals to an inner-city child and adolescent Psychiatry clinic. Case diagnosis was established with a clinician's KID-SCID assessment. Parents and teachers rated the 41 DSM items on four-point scales, and completed the Conners' Rating Scales, in English or Spanish. In this paper we report psychometrics of the new scale, the Rating Scale for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (RS-DBD), along with the agreement among parents and teachers, and concurrence between the new scales and the relevant Conners' scales. While, the parent and teacher ratings may provide a useful index for severity of behavioral disturbance in the home and school environments, it will not establish a diagnosis. There was a great deal of comorbidity among diagnostic groups.

  19. A risk assessment framework for assessing metallic nanomaterials of environmental concern: aquatic exposure and behavior.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Niall Joseph; Cummins, Enda J

    2011-05-01

    Nanomaterials are finding application in many different environmentally relevant products and processes due to enhanced catalytic, antimicrobial, and oxidative properties of materials at this scale. As the market share of nano-functionalized products increases, so too does the potential for environmental exposure and contamination. This study presents some exposure ranking methods that consider potential metallic nanomaterial surface water exposure and fate, due to nano-functionalized products, through a number of exposure pathways. These methods take into account the limited and disparate data currently available for metallic nanomaterials and apply variability and uncertainty principles, together with qualitative risk assessment principles, to develop a scientific ranking. Three exposure scenarios with three different nanomaterials were considered to demonstrate these assessment methods: photo-catalytic exterior paint (nano-scale TiO₂), antimicrobial food packaging (nano-scale Ag), and particulate-reducing diesel fuel additives (nano-scale CeO₂). Data and hypotheses from literature relating to metallic nanomaterial aquatic behavior (including the behavior of materials that may relate to nanomaterials in aquatic environments, e.g., metals, pesticides, surfactants) were used together with commercial nanomaterial characteristics and Irish natural aquatic environment characteristics to rank the potential concentrations, transport, and persistence behaviors within subjective categories. These methods, and the applied scenarios, reveal where data critical to estimating exposure and risk are lacking. As research into the behavior of metallic nanomaterials in different environments emerges, the influence of material and environmental characteristics on nanomaterial behavior within these exposure- and risk-ranking methods may be redefined on a quantitative basis. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Experimental control of scaling behavior: what is not fractal?

    PubMed

    Likens, Aaron D; Fine, Justin M; Amazeen, Eric L; Amazeen, Polemnia G

    2015-10-01

    The list of psychological processes thought to exhibit fractal behavior is growing. Although some might argue that the seeming ubiquity of fractal patterns illustrates their significance, unchecked growth of that list jeopardizes their relevance. It is important to identify when a single behavior is and is not fractal in order to make meaningful conclusions about the processes underlying those patterns. The hypothesis tested in the present experiment is that fractal patterns reflect the enactment of control. Participants performed two steering tasks: steering on a straight track and steering on a circular track. Although each task could be accomplished by holding the steering wheel at a constant angle, steering around a curve may require more constant control, at least from a psychological standpoint. Results showed that evidence for fractal behavior was strongest for the circular track; straight tracks showed evidence of two scaling regions. We argue from those results that, going forward, the goal of the fractal literature should be to bring scaling behavior under experimental control.

  1. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(NixCoyMnz)O2/Li4Ti5O12 batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112–121°C on anode tab and 139 to 147°C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li+ distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference. PMID:25586064

  2. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-14

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(Ni(x)Co(y)Mn(z))O2/Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(Ni(x)Co(y)Mn(z))O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112-121 °C on anode tab and 139 to 147 °C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li(+) distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference.

  3. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  4. Analysis of geomechanical behavior for the drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, S C; Carlson, S R; Wagoner, J L

    2000-11-17

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is conducting a drift scale heater test, known as the Drift Scale Test (DST), in an alcove of the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DST is a large-scale, long-term thermal test designed to investigate coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical behavior in a fractured, welded tuff rock mass. The general layout of the DST is shown in Figure 1a, along with the locations of several of the boreholes being used to monitor deformation during the test. Electric heaters are being used to heat a planar region of rock that is approximately 50 m long and 27 m wide for 4 years, followed by 4 years of cooling. Both in-drift and ''wing'' heaters are being used to heat the rock. The heating portion of the DST was started in December, 1997, and the target drift wall temperature of 200 C was reached in summer 2000. A drift-scale distinct element model (DSDE) is being used to analyze the geomechanical response of the rock mass forming the DST. The distinct element method was chosen to permit explicit modeling of fracture deformations. Shear deformations and normal mode opening of fractures are expected to increase fracture permeability and thereby alter thermal-hydrologic behavior in the DST. This paper will describe the DSDE model and present preliminary results, including comparison of simulated and observed deformations, at selected locations within the test.

  5. Combining agreement and frequency rating scales to optimize psychometrics in measuring behavioral health functioning.

    PubMed

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; Chan, Leighton; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Jette, Alan M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this article was to investigate optimal functioning of using frequency vs. agreement rating scales in two subdomains of the newly developed Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery: the Mood & Emotions and Behavioral Control scales. A psychometric study comparing rating scale performance embedded in a cross-sectional survey used for developing a new instrument to measure behavioral health functioning among adults applying for disability benefits in the United States was performed. Within the sample of 1,017 respondents, the range of response category endorsement was similar for both frequency and agreement item types for both scales. There were fewer missing values in the frequency items than the agreement items. Both frequency and agreement items showed acceptable reliability. The frequency items demonstrated optimal effectiveness around the mean ± 1-2 standard deviation score range; the agreement items performed better at the extreme score ranges. Findings suggest an optimal response format requires a mix of both agreement-based and frequency-based items. Frequency items perform better in the normal range of responses, capturing specific behaviors, reactions, or situations that may elicit a specific response. Agreement items do better for those whose scores are more extreme and capture subjective content related to general attitudes, behaviors, or feelings of work-related behavioral health functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining the scaling behavior of Delbrueck scattering in experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Kunwar, B.; Bhadra, A; Sen Gupta, S. K.

    2011-09-15

    The conventional perception is that the amplitudes of Delbrueck scattering calculated to all orders in the charge number Z of the target nucleus should exhibit a scaling behavior at high energies. To examine this hypothesis the available experimental data of differential cross sections of elastic scattering in the energy range between 140 MeV and 7.11 GeV are analyzed. It is found that the experimental data do not show scaling characteristics. Such a finding, though apparently against the standard notion, is not unexpected because at high energies Delbrueck scattering is in very forward direction and the theoretical arguments demand that to observe scaling, not only the energy itself but the product of scattering angles and energy also should be very large.

  7. The Child Behavior Scale (CBS) Revisited: A Longitudinal Evaluation of CBS Subscales with Children, Preadolescents, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.; Herald-Brown, Sarah L.; Andrews, Rebecca K.

    2009-01-01

    The Child Behavior Scale (CBS) is a teacher-report instrument that was developed over a decade ago as an alternative to more costly methods for assessing children's behavior and peer relations in school contexts. This investigation was undertaken to clarify how well the CBS achieves its aims with a broader age spectrum of youth (6- to…

  8. Scaling behavior of an airplane-boarding model.

    PubMed

    Brics, Martins; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    An airplane-boarding model, introduced earlier by Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)], is studied with the aim of determining precisely its asymptotic power-law scaling behavior for a large number of passengers N. Based on Monte Carlo simulation data for very large system sizes up to N=2(16)=65536, we have analyzed numerically the scaling behavior of the mean boarding time and other related quantities. In analogy with critical phenomena, we have used appropriate scaling Ansätze, which include the leading term as some power of N (e.g., [proportionality]N(α) for ), as well as power-law corrections to scaling. Our results clearly show that α=1/2 holds with a very high numerical accuracy (α=0.5001±0.0001). This value deviates essentially from α=/~0.69, obtained earlier by Frette and Hemmer from data within the range 2≤N≤16. Our results confirm the convergence of the effective exponent α(eff)(N) to 1/2 at large N as observed by Bernstein. Our analysis explains this effect. Namely, the effective exponent α(eff)(N) varies from values about 0.7 for small system sizes to the true asymptotic value 1/2 at N→∞ almost linearly in N(-1/3) for large N. This means that the variation is caused by corrections to scaling, the leading correction-to-scaling exponent being θ≈1/3. We have estimated also other exponents: ν=1/2 for the mean number of passengers taking seats simultaneously in one time step, β=1 for the second moment of t(b), and γ≈1/3 for its variance.

  9. Fracture behavior of nano-scale rubber-modified epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacigalupo, Lauren N.

    The primary focus of the first portion of this study is to compare physical and mechanical properties of a model epoxy that has been toughened with one of three different types of rubber-based modifier: a traditional telechelic oligomer (phase separates into micro-size particles), a core-shell latex particle (preformed nano-scale particles) and a triblock copolymer (self-assembles into nano-scale particles). The effect of modifier content on the physical properties of the matrix was determined using several thermal analysis methods, which provided insight into any inherent alterations of the epoxy matrix. Although the primary objective is to study the role of particle size on the fracture toughness, stiffness and strength were also determined since these properties are often reduced in rubber-toughened epoxies. It was found that since the CSR- and SBM-modified epoxies are composed of less rubber, thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy were better maintained. In order to better understand the fracture behavior and mechanisms of the three types of rubber particles utilized in this study, extensive microscopy analysis was conducted. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was used to quantify the volume fraction of particles, transmission optical microscopy (TOM) was used to determine plastic damage zone size, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess void growth in the plastic zone after fracture. By quantifying these characteristics, it was then possible to model the plastic damage zone size as well as the fracture toughness to elucidate the behavior of the rubber-modified epoxies. It was found that localized shear yielding and matrix void growth are the active toughening mechanisms in all rubber-modified epoxies in this study, however, matrix void growth was more prevalent. The second portion of this study investigated the use of three acrylate-based triblocks and four acrylate-based diblocks to modify a model epoxy system. By

  10. Probabilistic simulation of multi-scale composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, D. G.; Shiao, M. C.; Singhal, S. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology is developed to computationally assess the probabilistic composite material properties at all composite scale levels due to the uncertainties in the constituent (fiber and matrix) properties and in the fabrication process variables. The methodology is computationally efficient for simulating the probability distributions of material properties. The sensitivity of the probabilistic composite material property to each random variable is determined. This information can be used to reduce undesirable uncertainties in material properties at the macro scale of the composite by reducing the uncertainties in the most influential random variables at the micro scale. This methodology was implemented into the computer code PICAN (Probabilistic Integrated Composite ANalyzer). The accuracy and efficiency of this methodology are demonstrated by simulating the uncertainties in the material properties of a typical laminate and comparing the results with the Monte Carlo simulation method. The experimental data of composite material properties at all scales fall within the scatters predicted by PICAN.

  11. Assessing walking behaviors of selected subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Le Masurier, Guy C; Bauman, Adrian E; Corbin, Charles B; Konopack, James F; Umstattd, Renee M; VAN Emmerik, Richard E A

    2008-07-01

    Recent innovations in physical activity (PA) assessment have made it possible to assess the walking behaviors of a wide variety of populations. Objective measurement methods (e.g., pedometers, accelerometers) have been widely used to assess walking and other prevalent types of PA. Questionnaires suitable for international populations (e.g., the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire) and measurement techniques for the assessment of gait patterns in disabled populations allow for the study of walking and its health benefits among many populations. Results of studies using the aforementioned techniques indicate that children are more active than adolescents and adolescents are more active than adults. Males, particularly young males, are typically more active than females. The benefits associated with regular participation in PA for youth and walking for older adults have been well documented, although improvements in the assessments of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial parameters must be made if we are to fully understand the benefits of walking for people of all ages. Most youth meet appropriate age-related PA activity recommendations, but adults, particularly older adults and adults with disabilities, are less likely to meet PA levels necessary for the accrual of health benefits. International studies indicate variation in walking by culture. It is clear, however, that walking is a prevalent form of PA across countries and a movement form that has great potential in global PA promotion. Continued development of measurement techniques that allow for the study of individualized gait patterns will help us add to the already rich body of knowledge on chronically disabled populations and allow for individual prescriptions for these populations.

  12. Using Course Assessments to Train Teachers in Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavioral Intervention Plan Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Moira A.; Zhang, Jie; Kim, Eun-Joo

    2011-01-01

    As the need to train more teachers to work in inclusive classrooms increases, college instructors should identify and implement course assessments measuring their effectiveness in training practices. Skills in managing the challenging behaviors of students with disabilities, such as autism and emotional disturbances are important for teachers…

  13. Decoupling Shoreline Behavior Over Variable Time and Space Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, C. J.; Plant, N. G.; Henderson, R.; Schwab, W. C.; Nelson, T. R.

    2016-12-01

    A combination of small-scale sediment transport processes and large-scale geologic, oceanographic, and morphologic processes drives shoreline change on time scales ranging from single storm events to decades. The relative importance of storm processes versus geological control on event response and long-term evolution of barrier islands is largely unknown but is important for understanding decadal-scale evolution Here, we investigate the primary controls on shoreline response along Fire Island, NY, a 50-km long barrier island, on timescales that resolve storms and decadal variations over a period of 80 yrs. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is applied to a time series of shoreline positions to identify coherent patterns of shoreline variability that can be correlated to oceanographic or geologic framework parameters to help identify the controlling short-term or long-term processes. The analysis shows that storm response and recovery dominates the shoreline behavior on the largest spatial scales in the form of alternating episodes of shoreline retreat and advance that have a length scale of 1 km. The shoreline response to and recovery from Hurricane Sandy is included in this EOF analysis and indicates that this historic storm is not notable or distinguishable from several other large storms of the prior decade. This suggests that Fire Island is historically, and continues to be, resilient to severe storms. A secondary mode of the EOF analysis supports that the framework geology of the barrier island system, represented by known variations in inner shelf bathymetry, sediment availability, beach-shoreface morphology, and long-term rates of shoreline change, controls multi-decadal shoreline evolution. The geologic processes that control the long-term morphodynamics result in the ends of the island responding in opposite phase to the central portion. A third mode reveals an intermediate-scale pattern that persists over both long and short-term time scales

  14. Laboratory-Scale Internal Wave Apparatus for Studying Copepod Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, S.; Webster, D. R.; Haas, K. A.; Yen, J.

    2016-02-01

    Internal waves are ubiquitous features in coastal marine environments and have been observed to mediate vertical distributions of zooplankton in situ. Internal waves create fine-scale hydrodynamic cues that copepods and other zooplankton are known to sense, such as fluid density gradients and velocity gradients (quantified as shear deformation rate). The role of copepod behavior in response to cues associated with internal waves is largely unknown. The objective is to provide insight to the bio-physical interaction and the role of biological versus physical forcing in mediating organism distributions. We constructed a laboratory-scale internal wave apparatus to facilitate fine-scale observations of copepod behavior in flows that replicate in situ conditions of internal waves in two-layer stratification. Two cases were chosen with density jump of 1 and 1.5 sigma-t units. Analytical analysis of the two-layer system provided guidance to the target forcing frequency needed to generate a standing internal wave with a single dominate frequency of oscillation. Flow visualization and signal processing of the interface location were used to quantify the wave characteristics. The results show a close match to the target wave parameters. Marine copepod (mixed population of Acartia tonsa, Temora longicornis, and Eurytemora affinis) behavior assays were conducted for three different physical arrangements: (1) no density stratification, (2) stagnant two-layer density stratification, and (3) two-layer density stratification with internal wave motion. Digitized trajectories of copepod swimming behavior indicate that in the control (case 1) the animals showed no preferential motion in terms of direction. In the stagnant density jump treatment (case 2) copepods preferentially moved horizontally, parallel to the density interface. In the internal wave treatment (case 3) copepods demonstrated orbital trajectories near the density interface.

  15. Scaling of flow and transport behavior in heterogeneous groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe, Timothy; Yabusaki, Steven

    1998-11-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a detailed synthetic hydraulic conductivity field developed from geological considerations provide insight into the scaling of subsurface flow and transport processes. Flow and advective transport in the highly resolved heterogeneous field were modeled using massively parallel computers, providing a realistic baseline for evaluation of the impacts of parameter scaling. Upscaling of hydraulic conductivity was performed at a variety of scales using a flexible power law averaging technique. A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of varying the scaling exponent on a number of metrics of flow and transport behavior. Flow and transport simulation on high-performance computers and three-dimensional scientific visualization combine to form a powerful tool for gaining insight into the behavior of complex heterogeneous systems. Many quantitative groundwater models utilize upscaled hydraulic conductivity parameters, either implicitly or explicitly. These parameters are designed to reproduce the bulk flow characteristics at the grid or field scale while not requiring detailed quantification of local-scale conductivity variations. An example from applied groundwater modeling is the common practice of calibrating grid-scale model hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity parameters so as to approximate observed hydraulic head and boundary flux values. Such parameterizations, perhaps with a bulk dispersivity imposed, are then sometimes used to predict transport of reactive or non-reactive solutes. However, this work demonstrates that those parameters that lead to the best upscaling for hydraulic conductivity and head do not necessarily correspond to the best upscaling for prediction of a variety of transport behaviors. This result reflects the fact that transport is strongly impacted by the existence and connectedness of extreme-valued hydraulic conductivities, in contrast to bulk flow which depends more strongly on

  16. Refining Neurobehavioral Assessment of the High-Risk Infant Using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Mary C; Miller, Robin J; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Nurses caring for high-risk infants use advanced assessment skills to identify the nature of infant instability and to assure timely intervention. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) is a comprehensive assessment of neurological integrity and behavioral function of infants at risk. Research evidence supports its validity and reliability for clinical and research use. The NNNS offers nurses a neurobehavioral assessment especially suited to high-risk and premature infants. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  17. The Use of Structural Behavioral Assessment to Develop Interventions for Secondary Students Exhibiting Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Structural behavioral assessment (SBA) involves a series of heuristic approaches similar to those used with functional behavioral assessment (FBA). It involves assessing contextual variables that precede the occurrence of a behavior. These variables have also been termed antecedents, setting events, or establishing operations. Once these variables…

  18. The Use of Structural Behavioral Assessment to Develop Interventions for Secondary Students Exhibiting Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Structural behavioral assessment (SBA) involves a series of heuristic approaches similar to those used with functional behavioral assessment (FBA). It involves assessing contextual variables that precede the occurrence of a behavior. These variables have also been termed antecedents, setting events, or establishing operations. Once these variables…

  19. Scales for teachers' assessment of inhibition and security seeking in kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Koomen, H M; Hoeksma, J B; Keller, H F; de Jong, P F

    1999-06-01

    For young children separation from their primary caregivers can give rise to feelings of emotional insecurity, which are manifested by inhibition of behavior and seeking security from a substitute caregiver. The present study examined the quality of two new scales, the Inhibition Scale and the Security Seeking Scale, developed for teachers' assessment of inhibition and security-seeking behaviors. Participants were 121 kindergarten children. Reliability and short-term stability of both scales proved to be good. Relationships with four major dimensions of personality, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Emotional Stability, were examined by means of teachers' judgements on the School Behavior Checklist Revised. The validity of the Inhibition Scale and the Security Seeking Scale was supported by the findings. Scores on both scales appeared to be negatively related to those on Extraversion and Emotional Stability. The negative association with scores on Extraversion was stronger for scores on the Inhibition Scale than for those on the Security Seeking Scale. Neither scale was related to the nonemotional dimension Conscientiousness. In addition, scores on both the Inhibition and Security Seeking Scale appeared negatively related to the time passed since entry into kindergarten.

  20. Linking Large-Scale Reading Assessments: Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    E. A. Hanushek points out in this commentary that applied researchers in education have only recently begun to appreciate the value of international assessments, even though there are now 50 years of experience with these. Until recently, these assessments have been stand-alone surveys that have not been linked, and analysis has largely focused on…

  1. Dynamic Assessment in Phonological Disorders: The Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological…

  2. Dynamic Assessment in Phonological Disorders: The Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological…

  3. Using Web-Based Testing for Large-Scale Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Klein, Stephen P.; Lorie, William

    This paper describes an approach to large-scale assessment that uses tests that are delivered to students over the Internet and that are tailored (adapted) to each student's own level of proficiency. A brief background on large-scale assessment is followed by a description of this new technology and an example. Issues that need to be investigated…

  4. What interval characteristics make a good disease assessment category scale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant pathologists most often obtain quantitative information on disease severity using visual assessments. Category scales have been used for assessing plant disease severity in field experiments, epidemiological studies, and for screening germplasm. The most widely used category scale is the Horsf...

  5. Intrinsic Multi-Scale Dynamic Behaviors of Complex Financial Systems.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Fang-Yan; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The empirical mode decomposition is applied to analyze the intrinsic multi-scale dynamic behaviors of complex financial systems. In this approach, the time series of the price returns of each stock is decomposed into a small number of intrinsic mode functions, which represent the price motion from high frequency to low frequency. These intrinsic mode functions are then grouped into three modes, i.e., the fast mode, medium mode and slow mode. The probability distribution of returns and auto-correlation of volatilities for the fast and medium modes exhibit similar behaviors as those of the full time series, i.e., these characteristics are rather robust in multi time scale. However, the cross-correlation between individual stocks and the return-volatility correlation are time scale dependent. The structure of business sectors is mainly governed by the fast mode when returns are sampled at a couple of days, while by the medium mode when returns are sampled at dozens of days. More importantly, the leverage and anti-leverage effects are dominated by the medium mode.

  6. Intrinsic Multi-Scale Dynamic Behaviors of Complex Financial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fang-Yan; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The empirical mode decomposition is applied to analyze the intrinsic multi-scale dynamic behaviors of complex financial systems. In this approach, the time series of the price returns of each stock is decomposed into a small number of intrinsic mode functions, which represent the price motion from high frequency to low frequency. These intrinsic mode functions are then grouped into three modes, i.e., the fast mode, medium mode and slow mode. The probability distribution of returns and auto-correlation of volatilities for the fast and medium modes exhibit similar behaviors as those of the full time series, i.e., these characteristics are rather robust in multi time scale. However, the cross-correlation between individual stocks and the return-volatility correlation are time scale dependent. The structure of business sectors is mainly governed by the fast mode when returns are sampled at a couple of days, while by the medium mode when returns are sampled at dozens of days. More importantly, the leverage and anti-leverage effects are dominated by the medium mode. PMID:26427063

  7. Co-Curricular Assessment Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldmann, Matthew; Aper, Jeffery P.; Meredith, Sam T.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a scale informed by the construct of emotional intelligence designed to measure student development outcomes identified as co-curricular goals. Supervisors, staff, and coaches provided firsthand accounts of student development outcomes at a small, private, liberal arts work college, generating data on…

  8. Career Assessment and the Comrey Personality Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comrey, Andrew L.

    1995-01-01

    Comrey Personality Scales (CPS) produce Factored Homogeneous Item Dimension scores for eight factors: trust/defensiveness; orderliness/lack of compulsion, social conformity/rebelliousness, activity/lack of energy, emotional stability/neuroticism, extraversion/introversion, mental toughness/sensitivity, and empathy/egocentrism. The CPS include…

  9. Itch assessment scale for the pediatric burn survivor.

    PubMed

    Morris, Vershanna; Murphy, Leticia M; Rosenberg, Marta; Rosenberg, Laura; Holzer, Charles E; Meyer, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Itch Man Scale developed in 2000 by Blakeney and Marvin in assessing the intensity of itch in the pediatric burn patient. Forty-five patients (31 males and 14 females; average age 9.9 ± 5.0 years; and % TBSA burned 41 ± 25%) with an established itch complaint were studied. They were asked to describe the severity of their itch by two independent raters to determine test-retest reliability. Individuals aged 6 years or older were assessed using parental informants. Concurrent validity was determined by comparing three scales to quantify the level of itch: the Itch Man Scale (a 5-point Likert scale), the 5-D Itch Scale (adapted from a scale for peripheral neuropathy), and the Visual Analog Scale for itch. Itch Man Scale ratings collected from independent raters showed a strong correlation (r = .912, P < .0001). The Itch Man Scale also correlated significantly with the Visual Analog Scale, the gold standard for measurement of pruritus (r = .798, P < .0001). The total summated score of the Duration, Degree, Direction, and Disability domains from the 5-D Itch Scale had a significant correlation with the Itch Man Scale (r = .614, P < .0001). The Degree domain is the only individual component with a significant correlation (r = .757, P < .0001). The Itch Man Scale is a reliable and valid tool to assess itching in pediatric burn patients and to quantify postburn pruritus.

  10. Assessing pretreatment reactor scaling through empirical analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Lischeske, James J.; Crawford, Nathan C.; Kuhn, Erik; ...

    2016-10-10

    Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/d continuous reactor. The reactor systems examined were an Automated Solvent Extractor (ASE), Steam Explosion Reactor (SER), ZipperClave(R) reactor (ZCR), and Large Continuous Horizontal-Screw Reactor (LHR). To our knowledge, thismore » is the first such study performed on pretreatment reactors across a range of reaction conditions (time and temperature) and at different reactor scales. The comparative pretreatment performance results obtained for each reactor system were used to develop response surface models for total xylose yield after pretreatment and total sugar yield after pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Near- and very-near-optimal regions were defined as the set of conditions that the model identified as producing yields within one and two standard deviations of the optimum yield. Optimal conditions identified in the smallest-scale system (the ASE) were within the near-optimal region of the largest scale reactor system evaluated. A reaction severity factor modeling approach was shown to inadequately describe the optimal conditions in the ASE, incorrectly identifying a large set of sub-optimal conditions (as defined by the RSM) as optimal. The maximum total sugar yields for the ASE and LHR were 95%, while 89% was the optimum observed in the ZipperClave. The optimum condition identified using the automated and less costly to operate ASE system was within the very-near-optimal space for the total xylose yield of both the ZCR and the LHR, and

  11. Assessing pretreatment reactor scaling through empirical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lischeske, James J.; Crawford, Nathan C.; Kuhn, Erik; Nagle, Nicholas J.; Schell, Daniel J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McMillan, James D.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2016-10-10

    Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/d continuous reactor. The reactor systems examined were an Automated Solvent Extractor (ASE), Steam Explosion Reactor (SER), ZipperClave(R) reactor (ZCR), and Large Continuous Horizontal-Screw Reactor (LHR). To our knowledge, this is the first such study performed on pretreatment reactors across a range of reaction conditions (time and temperature) and at different reactor scales. The comparative pretreatment performance results obtained for each reactor system were used to develop response surface models for total xylose yield after pretreatment and total sugar yield after pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Near- and very-near-optimal regions were defined as the set of conditions that the model identified as producing yields within one and two standard deviations of the optimum yield. Optimal conditions identified in the smallest-scale system (the ASE) were within the near-optimal region of the largest scale reactor system evaluated. A reaction severity factor modeling approach was shown to inadequately describe the optimal conditions in the ASE, incorrectly identifying a large set of sub-optimal conditions (as defined by the RSM) as optimal. The maximum total sugar yields for the ASE and LHR were 95%, while 89% was the optimum observed in the ZipperClave. The optimum condition identified using the automated and less costly to operate ASE system was within the very-near-optimal space for the total xylose yield of both the ZCR and the LHR, and was

  12. Scaling behavior of explosive percolation on the square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziff, Robert M.

    2010-11-01

    Clusters generated by the product-rule growth model of Achlioptas, D’Souza, and Spencer on a two-dimensional square lattice are shown to obey qualitatively different scaling behavior than standard (random growth) percolation. The threshold with unrestricted bond placement (allowing loops) is found precisely using several different criteria based on both moments and wrapping probabilities, yielding pc=0.526565±0.000005 , consistent with the recent result of Radicchi and Fortunato. The correlation-length exponent ν is found to be close to 1. The qualitative difference from regular percolation is shown dramatically in the behavior of the percolation probability P∞ (size of largest cluster), of the susceptibility, and of the second moment of finite clusters, where discontinuities appear at the threshold. The critical cluster-size distribution does not follow a consistent power law for the range of system sizes we study (L≤8192) but may approach a power law with τ>2 for larger L .

  13. Using Functional Assessments To Develop Effective Behavioral Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Soung

    2002-01-01

    All too often, one behavioral intervention is used universally to handle a variety of problem behaviors, regardless of the function of the misbehavior. This article describes how a functional assessment of behavior can be used to identify the purpose of misbehaviors and plan effective behavioral interventions. (Author)

  14. A Behavior Rating Scale for Emotionally Disturbed Students: The Pupil Observation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong-Hugg, Robin L.; And Others

    The paper describes development of the Pupil Observation Schedule (POS), a computer based system which provides a framework for assessing, evaluating, and reporting behavioral progress of emotionally disturbed students. The POS is used to rate five skill areas--computation, language, reading, reference, and psychomotor skills; and nine behavioral…

  15. Scale Refinement and Initial Evaluation of a Behavioral Health Function Measurement Tool for Work Disability Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M.; Chan, Leighton; Rasch, Elizabeth K.; Brandt, Diane E.; Jette, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To use item response theory (IRT) data simulations to construct and perform initial psychometric testing of a newly developed instrument, the Social Security Administration Behavioral Health Function (SSA-BH) instrument, that aims to assess behavioral health functioning relevant to the context of work. Design Cross-sectional survey followed by item response theory (IRT) calibration data simulations Setting Community Participants A sample of individuals applying for SSA disability benefits, claimants (N=1015), and a normative comparative sample of US adults (N=1000) Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Social Security Administration Behavioral Health Function (SSA-BH) measurement instrument Results Item response theory analyses supported the unidimensionality of four SSA-BH scales: Mood and Emotions (35 items), Self-Efficacy (23 items), Social Interactions (6 items), and Behavioral Control (15 items). All SSA-BH scales demonstrated strong psychometric properties including reliability, accuracy, and breadth of coverage. High correlations of the simulated 5- or 10- item CATs with the full item bank indicated robust ability of the CAT approach to comprehensively characterize behavioral health function along four distinct dimensions. Conclusions Initial testing and evaluation of the SSA-BH instrument demonstrated good accuracy, reliability, and content coverage along all four scales. Behavioral function profiles of SSA claimants were generated and compared to age and sex matched norms along four scales: Mood and Emotions, Behavioral Control, Social Interactions, and Self-Efficacy. Utilizing the CAT based approach offers the ability to collect standardized, comprehensive functional information about claimants in an efficient way, which may prove useful in the context of the SSA’s work disability programs. PMID:23542404

  16. Scale dependent behavioral responses to human development by a large predator, the puma.

    PubMed

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Wang, Yiwei; Nickel, Barry; Houghtaling, Paul; Shakeri, Yasaman; Allen, Maximilian L; Kermish-Wells, Joe; Yovovich, Veronica; Williams, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    The spatial scale at which organisms respond to human activity can affect both ecological function and conservation planning. Yet little is known regarding the spatial scale at which distinct behaviors related to reproduction and survival are impacted by human interference. Here we provide a novel approach to estimating the spatial scale at which a top predator, the puma (Puma concolor), responds to human development when it is moving, feeding, communicating, and denning. We find that reproductive behaviors (communication and denning) require at least a 4× larger buffer from human development than non-reproductive behaviors (movement and feeding). In addition, pumas give a wider berth to types of human development that provide a more consistent source of human interference (neighborhoods) than they do to those in which human presence is more intermittent (arterial roads with speeds >35 mph). Neighborhoods were a deterrent to pumas regardless of behavior, while arterial roads only deterred pumas when they were communicating and denning. Female pumas were less deterred by human development than males, but they showed larger variation in their responses overall. Our behaviorally explicit approach to modeling animal response to human activity can be used as a novel tool to assess habitat quality, identify wildlife corridors, and mitigate human-wildlife conflict.

  17. Creation and Validation of the Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale in a Depression Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Adam S.; Schueller, Stephen M.; Lattie, Emily G.; Mohr, David C.

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive and Behavioral Response to Stress Scale (CB-RSS) is a self-report measure of the use and helpfulness of several cognitive and behavioral skills. Unlike other measures that focus on language specific to terms used in therapy, the CB-RSS was intended to tap the strategies in ways that might be understandable to those who had not undergone therapy. The measure was included in a clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression and completed by 325 participants at baseline and end of treatment (18 weeks). Psychometric properties of the scale were assessed through iterative exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. These analyses identified two subscales, cognitive and behavioral skills, each with high reliability. Validity was addressed by investigating relationships with depression symptoms, positive affect, perceived stress, and coping self-efficacy. End of treatment scores predicted changes in all outcomes, with the largest relationships between baseline CB-RSS scales and coping self-efficacy. These findings suggest that the CB-RSS is a useful tool to measure cognitive and behavioral skills both at baseline (prior to treatment) as well as during the course of treatment. Keywords: Development, Validation, Telehealth PMID:26553147

  18. Internal Consistency and Cross-Informant Agreement of the Lithuanian-Translated Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sointu, Erkko T.; Geležiniene, Renata; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nordness, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Educational professionals need assessments that yield psychometrically sound scores to assess students' behavioral and emotional functioning in order to guide data-driven decision-making processes. Rating scales have been found to be effective and economical, and often multiple informant perspectives can be obtained. The agreement between multiple…

  19. Internal Consistency and Cross-Informant Agreement of the Lithuanian-Translated Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sointu, Erkko T.; Geležiniene, Renata; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nordness, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Educational professionals need assessments that yield psychometrically sound scores to assess students' behavioral and emotional functioning in order to guide data-driven decision-making processes. Rating scales have been found to be effective and economical, and often multiple informant perspectives can be obtained. The agreement between multiple…

  20. Behavioral assessment in youth sports: coaching behaviors and children's attitudes.

    PubMed

    Smith, R E; Zane, N W; Smoll, F L; Coppel, D B

    1983-01-01

    To define the characteristics and dimensional patterning of coaching behaviors, 15,449 behaviors of 31 youth basketball coaches were coded in terms of a 10-category system. Post-season attitude and self-esteem data were obtained from players on 23 teams and were related to the behavioral measures. Compared with rates of reinforcement, encouragement, and technical instruction, punitive responses occurred relatively infrequently. Factor analysis of the coaching behaviors indicated that supportive and punitive behavioral dimensions were orthogonal or statistically independent of one another rather than opposite ends of the same dimension. Punitive and instructional categories were part of the same behavior cluster. The relationship between coaching behaviors and the various player attitudes were highly specific in nature. Coaching behaviors accounted for about half of the variance in post-season attitudes toward the coach and the sport, but for significantly less variance in measures of team solidarity and self-esteem. Surprisingly, the rate of positive reinforcement was unrelated to any of the attitudinal measures. Punishment was negatively related to liking for the coach. In general, technical instruction categories were the strongest predictors of basketball player attitudes.

  1. Fine-scale variability in harbor seal foraging behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kenady; Lance, Monique; Jeffries, Steven; Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the variability of foraging behavior within a population of predators is important for determining their role in the ecosystem and how they may respond to future ecosystem changes. However, such variability has seldom been studied in harbor seals on a fine spatial scale (<30 km). We used a combination of standard and Bayesian generalized linear mixed models to explore how environmental variables influenced the dive behavior of harbor seals. Time-depth recorders were deployed on harbor seals from two haul-out sites in the Salish Sea in 2007 (n = 18) and 2008 (n = 11). Three behavioral bout types were classified from six dive types within each bout; however, one of these bout types was related to haul-out activity and was excluded from analyses. Deep foraging bouts (Type I) were the predominant type used throughout the study; however, variation in the use of bout types was observed relative to haul-out site, season, sex, and light (day/night). The proportional use of Type I and Type II (shallow foraging/traveling) bouts differed dramatically between haul-out sites, seasons, sexes, and whether it was day or night; individual variability between seals also contributed to the observed differences. We hypothesize that this variation in dive behavior was related to habitat or prey specialization by seals from different haul-out sites, or individual variability between seals in the study area. The results highlight the potential influence of habitat and specialization on the foraging behavior of harbor seals, and may help explain the variability in diet that is observed between different haul-out site groups in this population.

  2. Scaling behavior of the exchange-bias training effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polisetty, Srinivas; Sahoo, Sarbeswar; Binek, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The dependence of the exchange-bias training effect on temperature and ferromagnetic film thickness is studied in detail and scaling behavior of the data is presented.^ Thickness-dependent exchange bias and its training are measured using the magneto-optical Kerr effect. A focused laser beam is scanned across a Co wedge probing local hysteresis loops of the Co film which is pinned by an antiferromagnetic CoO layer of uniform thickness. A phenomenological theory is best fitted to the exchange-bias training data resembling the evolution of the exchange-bias field on subsequently cycled hysteresis loops. Best fits are done for various temperatures and Co thicknesses. Data collapse on respective master curves is achieved for the thickness and temperature-dependent fitting parameters as well as the exchange bias and coercive fields of the initial hysteresis loops. The scaling behavior is strong evidence for the validity and the universality of the underlying theoretical approach based on triggered relaxation of the pinning layer towards quasi-equilibrium. ^Srinivas Polisetty, Sarbeswar Sahoo, Christian Binek, Phys. Rev. B 76, 184423 (2007).

  3. Scaling behavior of the exchange-bias training effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polisetty, Srinivas; Sahoo, Sarbeswar; Binek, Christian

    2007-11-01

    The dependence of the exchange-bias training effect on temperature and ferromagnetic film thickness is studied in detail and scaling behavior of the data is presented. Thickness-dependent exchange bias and its training are measured using the magneto-optical Kerr effect. A focused laser beam is scanned across a Co wedge probing local hysteresis loops of the Co film which is pinned by an antiferromagnetic CoO layer of uniform thickness. A phenomenological theory is best fitted to the exchange-bias training data resembling the evolution of the exchange-bias field on subsequently cycled hysteresis loops. Best fits are done for various temperatures and Co thicknesses. Data collapse on respective master curves is achieved for the thickness and temperature-dependent fitting parameters as well as the exchange bias and coercive fields of the initial hysteresis loops. The scaling behavior is strong evidence for the validity and the universality of the underlying theoretical approach based on triggered relaxation of the pinning layer towards quasiequilibrium.

  4. Testing the Factor Structure of a Scale to Assess African American Acculturation: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert J.; Brown, Tiffany L.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Snowden, Lonnie; Hines, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Research has pointed to the important role that acculturation plays in understanding a range of physical health behaviors as well as psychological functioning, but only a few studies have attempted to establish reliable and valid measures of African American acculturation. The scale developed by Snowden and Hines (1999) to assess African American…

  5. Testing the Factor Structure of a Scale to Assess African American Acculturation: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert J.; Brown, Tiffany L.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Snowden, Lonnie; Hines, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Research has pointed to the important role that acculturation plays in understanding a range of physical health behaviors as well as psychological functioning, but only a few studies have attempted to establish reliable and valid measures of African American acculturation. The scale developed by Snowden and Hines (1999) to assess African American…

  6. Taxometric Analysis of the Antisocial Features Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Federal Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Geyer, Matthew D.; Duncan, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was subjected to taxometric analysis in a group of 2,135 federal prison inmates. Scores on the three ANT subscales--Antisocial Behaviors (ANT-A), Egocentricity (ANT-E), and Stimulus Seeking (ANT-S)--served as indicators in this study and were evaluated using the…

  7. Taxometric Analysis of the Antisocial Features Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Federal Prison Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Geyer, Matthew D.; Duncan, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was subjected to taxometric analysis in a group of 2,135 federal prison inmates. Scores on the three ANT subscales--Antisocial Behaviors (ANT-A), Egocentricity (ANT-E), and Stimulus Seeking (ANT-S)--served as indicators in this study and were evaluated using the…

  8. NATIONAL-SCALE ASSESSMENT OF AIR TOXICS RISKS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The national-scale assessment of air toxics risks is a modeling assessment which combines emission inventory development, atmospheric fate and transport modeling, exposure modeling, and risk assessment to characterize the risk associated with inhaling air toxics from outdoor sources. This national-scale effort will be initiated for the base year 1996 and repeated every three years thereafter to track trends and inform program development. Provide broad-scale understanding of inhalation risks for a subset of atmospherically-emitted air toxics to inform further data-gathering efforts and priority-setting for the EPA's Air Toxics Programs.

  9. Deciphering landslide behavior using large-scale flume experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Iverson, Richard M.; Iverson, Neal R.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Brien, Dianne L.; Logan, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Landslides can be triggered by a variety of hydrologic events and they can exhibit a wide range of movement dynamics. Effective prediction requires understanding these diverse behaviors. Precise evaluation in the field is difficult; as an alternative we performed a series of landslide initiation experiments in the large-scale, USGS debris-flow flume. We systematically investigated the effects of three different hydrologic triggering mechanisms, including groundwater exfiltration from bedrock, prolonged rainfall infiltration, and intense bursts of rain. We also examined the effects of initial soil porosity (loose or dense) relative to the soil’s critical-state porosity. Results show that all three hydrologic mechanisms can instigate landsliding, but water pathways, sensor response patterns, and times to failure differ. Initial soil porosity has a profound influence on landslide movement behavior. Experiments using loose soil show rapid soil contraction during failure, with elevated pore pressures liquefying the sediment and creating fast-moving debris flows. In contrast, dense soil dilated upon shearing, resulting in slow, gradual, and episodic motion. These results have fundamental implications for forecasting landslide behavior and developing effective warning systems.

  10. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales as a summary of functional outcome of extremely low-birthweight children.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, P; Saigal, S; Szatmari, P; Hoult, L

    1995-07-01

    This study reports moderate to high Pearson correlations between Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) subscale and total scores and a variety of cognitive, academic and motor performance tests on a population of extremely low-birthweight infants assessed at eight years of age. The subscales describe adaptive behaviour in daily living, communication, motor function and socialization, as well as an adaptive behaviour composite score. Because it can provide a norm-referenced description of functional outcomes and can be used to assess all children regardless of disability, the authors believe that the VABS should be applied uniformly by all groups reporting school-age outcome of neonatal intensive-care populations.

  11. Scale refinement and initial evaluation of a behavioral health function measurement tool for work disability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; Haley, Stephen M; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Brandt, Diane E; Jette, Alan M

    2013-09-01

    To use item response theory (IRT) data simulations to construct and perform initial psychometric testing of a newly developed instrument, the Social Security Administration Behavioral Health Function (SSA-BH) instrument, that aims to assess behavioral health functioning relevant to the context of work. Cross-sectional survey followed by IRT calibration data simulations. Community. Sample of individuals applying for Social Security Administration disability benefits: claimants (n=1015) and a normative comparative sample of U.S. adults (n=1000). None. SSA-BH measurement instrument. IRT analyses supported the unidimensionality of 4 SSA-BH scales: mood and emotions (35 items), self-efficacy (23 items), social interactions (6 items), and behavioral control (15 items). All SSA-BH scales demonstrated strong psychometric properties including reliability, accuracy, and breadth of coverage. High correlations of the simulated 5- or 10-item computer adaptive tests with the full item bank indicated robust ability of the computer adaptive testing approach to comprehensively characterize behavioral health function along 4 distinct dimensions. Initial testing and evaluation of the SSA-BH instrument demonstrated good accuracy, reliability, and content coverage along all 4 scales. Behavioral function profiles of Social Security Administration claimants were generated and compared with age- and sex-matched norms along 4 scales: mood and emotions, behavioral control, social interactions, and self-efficacy. Using the computer adaptive test-based approach offers the ability to collect standardized, comprehensive functional information about claimants in an efficient way, which may prove useful in the context of the Social Security Administration's work disability programs. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Scaling behavior of nearly first order magnetic phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, P M G L; Souza, J A

    2011-06-08

    A scaling behavior between heat capacity C*(P) and thermal expansion coefficient times temperature ΩTλ, where λ is a scale factor, is obtained for ferromagnetic La(1 - x)Ca(x)MnO(3) with x = 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.45 compounds. The pressure derivative of the magnetic phase transition temperature obtained through a scaling method is in good agreement with experimental results for all samples. The critical exponents associated with the specific heat (α) for x = 0.25, 0.30, and 0.34 are very close to the phase boundary where continuous phase transitions become discontinuous. This is attributed to strong coupling among the spin, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom, which indicates that the magnetization alone would be a poor choice for the order parameter in these systems. Based on thermodynamic arguments, a phase diagram with diverging, cusp-like, near first order, and first order phase transitions is presented.

  13. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  14. Population-scale assessment endpoints in ecological risk assessment part II: selection of assessment endpoint attributes.

    PubMed

    Landis, Wayne G; Kaminski, Laurel A

    2007-07-01

    Because ecological services often are tied to specific species, the risk to populations is a critical endpoint and important feature of ecological risk assessments. In Part 1 of this series it was demonstrated that population scale assessment endpoints are important expressions of the valued components of ecological structures. This commentary reviews several of the characteristics of populations that can be evaluated and used in population scale risk assessments. Two attributes are evaluated as promising. The 1st attribute is the change in potential productivity of the population over a specified time period. The 2nd attribute is the change in the age structure of a population, expressed graphically or as a normalized effects vector (NEV). The NEV is a description of the change in age structure due to a toxicant or other stressor and appears to be characteristic of specific stressor effects.

  15. College students with Internet addiction decrease fewer Behavior Inhibition Scale and Behavior Approach Scale when getting online.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the reinforcement sensitivity between online and offline interaction. The effect of gender, Internet addiction, depression, and online gaming on the difference of reinforcement sensitivity between online and offline were also evaluated. The subjects were 2,258 college students (1,066 men and 1,192 women). They completed the Behavior Inhibition Scale and Behavior Approach Scale (BIS/BAS) according to their experience online or offline. Internet addiction, depression, and Internet activity type were evaluated simultaneously. The results showed that reinforcement sensitivity was lower when interacting online than when interacting offline. College students with Internet addiction decrease fewer score on BIS and BAS after getting online than did others. The higher reward and aversion sensitivity are associated with the risk of Internet addiction. The fun seeking online might contribute to the maintenance of Internet addiction. This suggests that reinforcement sensitivity would change after getting online and would contribute to the risk and maintenance of Internet addiction. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Multiple time scale behaviors and network dynamics in liquid methanol.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ruchi; Chakravarty, Charusita; Milotti, Edoardo

    2008-07-31

    Canonical ensemble molecular dynamics simulations of liquid methanol, modeled using a rigid-body, pair-additive potential, are used to compute static distributions and temporal correlations of tagged molecule potential energies as a means of characterizing the liquid state dynamics. The static distribution of tagged molecule potential energies shows a clear multimodal structure with three distinct peaks, similar to those observed previously in water and liquid silica. The multimodality is shown to originate from electrostatic effects, but not from local, hydrogen bond interactions. An interesting outcome of this study is the remarkable similarity in the tagged potential energy power spectra of methanol, water, and silica, despite the differences in the underlying interactions and the dimensionality of the network. All three liquids show a distinct multiple time scale (MTS) regime with a 1/ f (alpha) dependence with a clear positive correlation between the scaling exponent alpha and the diffusivity. The low-frequency limit of the MTS regime is determined by the frequency of crossover to white noise behavior which occurs at approximately 0.1 cm (-1) in the case of methanol under standard temperature and pressure conditions. The power spectral regime above 200 cm (-1) in all three systems is dominated by resonances due to localized vibrations, such as librations. The correlation between alpha and the diffusivity in all three liquids appears to be related to the strength of the coupling between the localized motions and the larger length/time scale network reorganizations. Thus, the time scales associated with network reorganization dynamics appear to be qualitatively similar in these systems, despite the fact that water and silica both display diffusional anomalies but methanol does not.

  17. Validated composite assessment scales for the global face.

    PubMed

    Rzany, Berthold; Carruthers, Alastair; Carruthers, Jean; Flynn, Timothy C; Geister, Thorin L; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Hardas, Bhushan; Himmrich, Silvia; Jones, Derek; de Maio, Maurício; Mohrmann, Cornelia; Narins, Rhoda S; Pooth, Rainer; Sattler, Gerhard; Buchner, Larry; Merito, Monica; Fey, Constanze; Kerscher, Martina

    2012-02-01

    Twenty grading scales have been developed to assess age-related facial changes. Until now, the validity with regard to the patient's actual age and the clinical importance of combined measurement tools to describe facial aging was unclear. To investigate the reliability and validity of a total face score and three global face assessment scales for estimated age, estimated aesthetic treatment effort, and signs of aging in the facial units. Descriptive, reliability, correlation, and principal component analyses based on the assessment of 50 subjects by 12 raters using the 20 grading scales and the global face assessment scales. Inter- and intrarater reliability was high for the total face score and for the scales on estimated age and aesthetic treatment effort. Actual age was highly correlated with these three measures. Facial aging was indicated particularly by scales of the lower face. The aesthetic grading scales and global scales on estimated age and aesthetic treatment effort are reliable and valid instruments. The results suggest that a more-comprehensive evaluation of the human face and its age-related changes can help to identify important areas of facial aging and to define optimal aesthetic treatment strategies. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Institutional Racism Scale: Assessing Self and Organizational Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarin, Oscar A.; Gilbert, Renee

    The Institutional Racism Scale (IRS) was developed to assess how individuals look at racism, engage in activities to reduce racism, and view organizational commitment to the reduction of institutional racism. Existing methods for evaluating racism provided a framework for developing the scale. The final instrument generated after testing and…

  19. Psychometric assessment of HIV/STI sexual risk scale among MSM: A Rasch model approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little research has assessed the degree of severity and ordering of different types of sexual behaviors for HIV/STI infection in a measurement scale. The purpose of this study was to apply the Rasch model on psychometric assessment of an HIV/STI sexual risk scale among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods A cross-sectional study using respondent driven sampling was conducted among 351 MSM in Shenzhen, China. The Rasch model was used to examine the psychometric properties of an HIV/STI sexual risk scale including nine types of sexual behaviors. Results The Rasch analysis of the nine items met the unidimensionality and local independence assumption. Although the person reliability was low at 0.35, the item reliability was high at 0.99. The fit statistics provided acceptable infit and outfit values. Item difficulty invariance analysis showed that the item estimates of the risk behavior items were invariant (within error). Conclusions The findings suggest that the Rasch model can be utilized for measuring the level of sexual risk for HIV/STI infection as a single latent construct and for establishing the relative degree of severity of each type of sexual behavior in HIV/STI transmission and acquisition among MSM. The measurement scale provides a useful measurement tool to inform, design and evaluate behavioral interventions for HIV/STI infection among MSM. PMID:21970669

  20. Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

    2015-02-01

    Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability.

  1. Using Multimethod-Multisource Functional Behavioral Assessment for Students with Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stage, Scott A.; Jackson, Hal G.; Moscovitz, Kara; Erickson, Marcia Jensen; Thurman, Stacy Ogier; Jessee, Wyeth; Olson, Erin M.

    2006-01-01

    Using multimethod-multisource functional behavioral assessment (FBA), 3 students (in kindergarten, first grade, and ninth grade) with behavioral disabilities at risk for change of placement received interventions. Indirect assessments included the Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff--Part A & B, the Student-Directed…

  2. Development of a scale to assess concern about falling and applications to treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lusardi, M M; Smith, E V

    1997-01-01

    This study used Rasch methodology to pursue three goals. First, we sought to demonstrate the psychometric limitations of the Falls Efficacy Scale (Tinetti, Richman, & Powell, 1990). Second, we addressed these limitations using a simultaneous calibration of the Falls Efficacy Scale and Mobility Efficacy Scale items. Third, we review previous explorations of the self-efficacy construct in relationship to health behaviors and discuss a possible treatment program based on the simultaneous calibrated items and Social Cognitive Theory. Results indicate that responses from the Falls Efficacy Scale fail to assess the higher ends of the self-efficacy continuum. Simultaneous calibration of items improved this lack of scale definition. This initial work in assessing self-efficacy perceptions provides a theoretical framework for planning treatment programs that may be more cost effective than collecting performance measures.

  3. The Behavior Flexibility Rating Scale-Revised (BFRS-R): Factor Analysis, Internal Consistency, Inter-Rater and Intra-Rater Reliability, and Convergent Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Korzilius, Hubert; Pituch, Keenan; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of the behavior flexibility rating scale-revised (BFRS-R), a new scale intended for assessing behavioral flexibility in individuals with developmental disabilities. Seventy-six direct care staff members and 56 parents completed the BFRS-R for 70 children with developmental disabilities. Factor analysis…

  4. Ivermectin dose assessment without weighing scales.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, N. D.; Cousens, S. N.; Yahaya, H.; Abiose, A.; Jones, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    Described are two alternatives to the weighing of patients for assessing the dose of ivermectin for use in mass chemotherapy campaigns against onchocerciasis. The first method uses height to separate patients into four dosing categories (1/2, 1, 11/2 and 2 tablets), while the second involves estimating one of these dosing categories according to an individual's physical appearance, without making any measurements. Data for the height-based method were obtained from 6373 people who were taking part in a placebo-controlled trial of ivermectin in northern Nigeria. Use of an arbitrary trade-off of approximately 100 people "overdosed" for every person "underdosed" would lead to 0.5% of the population being underdosed by 1/2 tablet, 46.5% being dosed correctly, 51.7% being overdosed by 1/2 tablet, and 1.2% being overdosed by 1 tablet. The physical appearance approach involved three observers and 779 subjects. A total of 82% of the observers' estimates were "correct", with all the incorrect dosing deviating by only 1/2 tablet from the dose that the subjects should have received. PMID:8324855

  5. [Compilation and evaluation of perioperative nursing quality assessment scale].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Yan, Jin; Wang, Jianwen; Ouyang, Wen

    2014-07-01

    To compile and evaluate the Chinese version of perioperative nursing quality assessment scale, detect and verify the reliability and validity of evaluation scale, and establish a scientific evaluation system. We applied Tuija Leinonene and Helena Leino-kilpi scales as the theoretical framework, and established perioperative nursing quality assessment scale by translation, language study, and expert consultation. The questionnaire survey population was 276 patients who had surgery and 200 nurses working in the operating rooms at the 3 Affiliated Hospitals of Central South University. The scale was tested validity and reliability. Perioperative nurse quality evaluation scale consisted of 32 items and 7 dimensions, including body care, receive information, support, respect, medical staff characteristics, environment and nursing process. The test-retest reliability of scale was 0.977 for patients and 0.997 for nurses. The split half reliability of scale was 0.761 for patients and 0.887 for nurses. The Cronbach's α of total scale for the patients was 0.918, and the Cronbach's α of factors was 0.658- 0.838. The Cronbach's α of total scale for the nurses was 0.932, and the Cronbach's α of factors was 0.650-0.836. The correlation coefficient of scale for the patients was 0.363-0.603; the factors and the total correlation coefficient was 0.535-0.788. The correlation coefficient of scale for the nurses was 0.410-0.700; the factors and the total correlation coefficient was 0.743-0.902. The Chinese version of the perioperative nursing quality assessment scale is a measurement instrument with a high level of validity and reliability for Chinese society and can be used to determine the quality of perioperative nursing care in our country.

  6. Ecosystem assessment methods for cumulative effects at the regional scale

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental issues such as nonpoint-source pollution, acid rain, reduced biodiversity, land use change, and climate change have widespread ecological impacts and require an integrated assessment approach. Since 1978, the implementing regulations for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have required assessment of potential cumulative environmental impacts. Current environmental issues have encouraged ecologists to improve their understanding of ecosystem process and function at several spatial scales. However, management activities usually occur at the local scale, and there is little consideration of the potential impacts to the environmental quality of a region. This paper proposes that regional ecological risk assessment provides a useful approach for assisting scientists in accomplishing the task of assessing cumulative impacts. Critical issues such as spatial heterogeneity, boundary definition, and data aggregation are discussed. Examples from an assessment of acidic deposition effects on fish in Adirondack lakes illustrate the importance of integrated data bases, associated modeling efforts, and boundary definition at the regional scale.

  7. Scale Invariance & Emergent Behavior in Spontaneous Activity of Heart Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Netta; Rotstein, Horacio G.; Braun, Erez

    2004-03-01

    Cultured heart cells from newborn rat ventricles have the capacity to beat spontaneously. Long-term noninvasive recordings of beating activity reveal a rich repertoire of behavior that is characterized by variable interspike intervals, sudden rate changes and long intermissions. Statistical analysis of the recorded time series is presented. In particular, scale-invariant fluctuations in the interspike intervals are found both in single cells and in extended networks. A model of single-cell activity in the vicinity of an infinite-period bifurcation captures the main statistical and qualitative features of activity and successfully links single-cell dynamics to emergent network properties. Simulations of nonlinear oscillators and instructive `cartoon models' are presented. Simulations of coupled oscillators are shown to reproduce qualitative signatures of the dynamics in small groups of cells as well as in extended networks. N Cohen, PhD Thesis, Technion, Haifa (2001).

  8. Wear Behavior of Niti Thin Film at Micro-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, K. L.; Sun, Q. P.; Tomozawa, M.; Miyazak, S.

    This paper reports experimental study on the hardness and wear behavior of NiTi Thin Film Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) at micrometer scales. A triboindenter (Hysitron Inc., Minneapolis, USA) was used to conduct a series of indentations under various loads (the corresponding maximum indentation depth from 18.52nm to 333.53nm) and wear by scanning scratch method at temperatures from 25°C to 120°C. It was found that with increasing temperature, the hardness of NiTi thin film increased while its wear resistance decreased. The observed anomalous variation of wear resistance with hardness value is further analyzed by the interplay of phase transition and plasticity.

  9. Inhomogeneous scaling behaviors in Malaysian foreign currency exchange rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniandy, S. V.; Lim, S. C.; Murugan, R.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fractal scaling behaviors of foreign currency exchange rates with respect to Malaysian currency, Ringgit Malaysia. These time series are examined piecewise before and after the currency control imposed in 1st September 1998 using the monofractal model based on fractional Brownian motion. The global Hurst exponents are determined using the R/ S analysis, the detrended fluctuation analysis and the method of second moment using the correlation coefficients. The limitation of these monofractal analyses is discussed. The usual multifractal analysis reveals that there exists a wide range of Hurst exponents in each of the time series. A new method of modelling the multifractal time series based on multifractional Brownian motion with time-varying Hurst exponents is studied.

  10. Comparison between objective measures and parental behavioral rating scales of memory and attention in pediatric endocrinology patients.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine; Young, Danielle; Jernigan, Stephanie; Bryant, William; Stephen, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral rating scales represent one potential method for screening of cognitive functioning in routine clinical care. It is not yet known if objective performance based measures and behavioral rating scales of cognitive functioning completed by parents yield similar information in pediatric endocrinology patients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the associations between performance-based measures and behavioral rating scales of memory and attention/concentration completed by parents of pediatric patients with Type 1 Diabetes or obesity. The sample consisted of 73 pediatric patients with Type 1 Diabetes or obesity (BMI > 95th percentile) ages 6-16 years (mean age = 12.29 years) referred to an outpatient pediatric endocrinology clinic. Youth were administered the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML-2). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the PedsQL Cognitive Functioning Scale. Pearson's Product Moment Correlations were examined among the performance-based measures and behavioral rating scales. All intercorrelations between the performance-based measures and behavioral rating scales completed by parents were in the small range. The only statistically significant (P < 0.05) and approaching medium correlation was between the PedsQL Cognitive Functioning Scale and WRAML-2 Verbal Memory Index (r = 0.28). On behavioral rating scales and performance-based measures of visual memory and attention/concentration, our sample exhibited greater difficulties than healthy youth from previously published data (P < 0.05). One possible explanation for our findings is that behavioral rating scales of attention/concentration and memory completed by parents measure different aspects of cognitive functioning than performance based measures in pediatric patients with Type 1 Diabetes or obesity.

  11. Cross-National Assessment of Adaptive Behavior in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Iliescu, Dragos; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Juliet Honglei

    2013-01-01

    Measures of adaptive behaviors provide an important tool in the repertoire of clinical and school/educational psychologists. Measures that assess adaptive behaviors typically have been built in Western cultures and developed in light of behaviors common to them. Nevertheless, these measures are used elsewhere despite a paucity of data that examine…

  12. Current Advances and Future Directions in Behavior Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Johnson, Austin H.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-tiered problem-solving models that focus on promoting positive outcomes for student behavior continue to be emphasized within educational research. Although substantial work has been conducted to support systems-level implementation and intervention for behavior, concomitant advances in behavior assessment have been limited. This is despite…

  13. The brief psychiatric rating scale: effect of scaling system on clinical response assessment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P A; Buckley, P F; Meltzer, H Y

    1994-10-01

    The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is an 18-item rating scale frequently used to assess change in psychopathology in schizophrenic patients in antipsychotic drug trials. BPRS items may be rated by the use of either a 1 to 7 or 0 to 6 scaling system, with the 1 or 0 rating indicating no pathology, respectively. When percent change in BPRS total score is used as an index of change, measurement considerations indicate that the 0 to 6 scaling system is preferable. Furthermore, when the 1 to 7 scaling system is used, patients whose initial BPRS values fall at the lower end of the range are classified as responders at a lower rate than are patients with higher initial scores. The adoption of the 0 to 6 scaling system for the BPRS and other rating scales, such as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, is advocated.

  14. Influences of Preschooler's Behavior on Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Gordon

    This paper discusses the impact of emerging developmental skills on preschoolers' test performance in reference to preoperational thinking, behavioral controls, and language skills. It is emphasized that some behaviors that occur during the preschool period may suggest pathology when observed in older children but are normal for preschoolers. A…

  15. Risk assessment scales for pressure ulcer prevention: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pancorbo-Hidalgo, Pedro L; Garcia-Fernandez, Francisco Pedro; Lopez-Medina, Isabel Ma; Alvarez-Nieto, Carmen

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports a systematic review conducted to determine the effectiveness of the use of risk assessment scales for pressure ulcer prevention in clinical practice, degree of validation of risk assessment scales, and effectiveness of risk assessment scales as indicators of risk of developing a pressure ulcer. Pressure ulcers are an important health problem. The best strategy to avoid them is prevention. There are several risk assessment scales for pressure ulcer prevention which complement nurses' clinical judgement. However, some of these have not undergone proper validation. A systematic bibliographical review was conducted, based on a search of 14 databases in four languages using the keywords pressure ulcer or pressure sore or decubitus ulcer and risk assessment. Reports of clinical trials or prospective studies of validation were included in the review. Thirty-three studies were included in the review, three on clinical effectiveness and the rest on scale validation. There is no decrease in pressure ulcer incidence was found which might be attributed to use of an assessment scale. However, the use of scales increases the intensity and effectiveness of prevention interventions. The Braden Scale shows optimal validation and the best sensitivity/specificity balance (57.1%/67.5%, respectively); its score is a good pressure ulcer risk predictor (odds ratio = 4.08, CI 95% = 2.56-6.48). The Norton Scale has reasonable scores for sensitivity (46.8%), specificity (61.8%) and risk prediction (OR = 2.16, CI 95% = 1.03-4.54). The Waterlow Scale offers a high sensitivity score (82.4%), but low specificity (27.4%); with a good risk prediction score (OR = 2.05, CI 95% = 1.11-3.76). Nurses' clinical judgement (only considered in three studies) gives moderate scores for sensitivity (50.6%) and specificity (60.1%), but is not a good pressure ulcer risk predictor (OR = 1.69, CI 95% = 0.76-3.75). There is no evidence that the use of risk assessment scales decreases pressure

  16. Brief scales to assess physical activity and sedentary equipment in the home

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing are associated with childhood obesity, while physical activity promotes healthy weight. The role of the home environment in shaping these behaviors among youth is poorly understood. The study purpose was to examine the reliability of brief parental proxy-report and adolescent self-report measures of electronic equipment and physical activity equipment in the home and to assess the construct validity of these scales by examining their relationship to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status of children and adolescents. Methods Participants were adolescents (n = 189; mean age = 14.6), parents of adolescents (n = 171; mean age = 45.0), and parents of younger children (n = 116; parents mean age = 39.6; children's mean age = 8.3) who completed two surveys approximately one month apart. Measures included a 21-item electronic equipment scale (to assess sedentary behavior facilitators in the home, in the child or adolescent's bedroom, and portable electronics) and a 14-item home physical activity equipment scale. Home environment factors were examined as correlates of children's and adolescents' physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status after adjusting for child age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and number of children in the home. Results Most scales had acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations were .54 - .92). Parent and adolescent reports were correlated. Electronic equipment in adolescents' bedrooms was positively related to sedentary behavior. Activity equipment in the home was inversely associated with television time in adolescents and children, and positively correlated with adolescents' physical activity. Children's BMI z-score was positively associated with having a television in their bedroom. Conclusions The measures of home electronic equipment and activity equipment were similarly reliable when reported by parents and by adolescents. Home environment

  17. REDUCING AMBIGUITY IN THE FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Rooker, Griffin W; DeLeon, Iser G; Borrero, Carrie S W; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A; Roscoe, Eileen M

    2015-02-01

    Severe problem behavior (e.g., self-injury and aggression) remains among the most serious challenges for the habilitation of persons with intellectual disabilities and is a significant obstacle to community integration. The current standard of behavior analytic treatment for problem behavior in this population consists of a functional assessment and treatment model. Within that model, the first step is to assess the behavior-environment relations that give rise to and maintain problem behavior, a functional behavioral assessment. Conventional methods of assessing behavioral function include indirect, descriptive, and experimental assessments of problem behavior. Clinical investigators have produced a rich literature demonstrating the relative effectiveness for each method, but in clinical practice, each can produce ambiguous or difficult-to-interpret outcomes that may impede treatment development. This paper outlines potential sources of variability in assessment outcomes and then reviews the evidence on strategies for avoiding ambiguous outcomes and/or clarifying initially ambiguous results. The end result for each assessment method is a set of best practice guidelines, given the available evidence, for conducting the initial assessment.

  18. Mercury transformation behavior on a bench scale coal combustion furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, N.; Fujita, Y.; Tomura, K.; Moritomi, H.; Murakami, E.; Akimoto, A.; Ikeda, S.; Tadakuma, Y.

    2003-05-01

    The mercury release behavior in bituminous coals, and the partitioning rate of mercury in solids and gaseous in flue gases have measured to develop technologies for evaluating the partitioning of mercury in coal combustion process and develop in-situ adsorption and removal technologies using three kinds of experiment equipments - a thermo-balance, a drop-tube furnace (DTF), a bench-scale pulverized coal combustion fumace. The results showed that about 20 to 60% of the mercury in coal was released between 573K and 673K, which was the range of temperature in which the release of the volatile matter of coal began. And more than 90% of the mercury was released at 773K, the temperature at which the release of the volatile matter was completed. The rate of mercury partitioned into bottom ash in a bench-scale pulverized coal combustion furnace was the smallest irrespective of the type of coal. The rate of mercury partitioned into cyclone ash was also low for all types of coal with values generally below 10%. The rest of the mercury was partitioned into mercury in gaseous form, but the rate partitioned into dust, oxidized mercury and elemental mercury varied slightly depending on the flue gas temperature and the type of coal.

  19. Scaling behavior of fully spin-coated TFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Sandip; Kumar, Arvind; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara; Venkataraman, V.

    2017-05-01

    We studied channel scaling behavior of fully spin coated, low temperature solution processed thin film transistor (TFT) fabricated on p++ - Si (˜1021 cm-3) as bottom gate. The solution processed, spin coated 40 nm thick amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) and 50 nm thick amorphous zirconium di-oxide (a-ZrO2) has been used as channel and low leakage dielectric at 350°C respectively. The channel scaling effect of the TFT with different width/length ratio (W/L= 2.5, 5 and 15) for same channel length (L = 10 μm) has been demonstrated. The lowest threshold voltage (Vth) is 6.25 V for the W/L=50/10. The maximum field effect mobility (μFE) has been found to be 0.123 cm2/Vs from W/L of 50/10 with the drain to source voltage (VD) of 10V and 20V gate to source voltage (VG). We also demonstrated that there is no contact resistance effect on the mobility of the fully sol-gel spin coated TFT.

  20. Streamline segment scaling behavior in a turbulent wavy channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubbert, A.; Hennig, F.; Klaas, M.; Pitsch, H.; Schröder, W.; Peters, N.

    2017-02-01

    A turbulent flow in a wavy channel was investigated by tomographic particle-image velocimetry measurements and direct numerical simulations. To analyze the turbulent structures and their scaling behavior in a flow undergoing favorable and adverse pressure gradients, the streamline segmentation method proposed by Wang (J Fluid Mech 648:183-203, 2010) was employed. This method yields joint statistical information about velocity fluctuations and length scale distributions of non-overlapping structures within the flow. In particular, the joint statistical properties are notably influenced by the pressure distribution. Previous findings from flat channel flows and synthetic turbulence simulations concerning the normalized segment length distribution could be reproduced and therefore appear to be largely universal. However, the mean streamline segment length of accelerating and decelerating segments varies within one wavelength typically elongating segments of the type which corresponds to the local mean flow. Furthermore, the local pressure gradient was found to significantly impact local joint streamline segmentation statistics as a main influence on their inherent asymmetry.

  1. Measurement, Sampling, and Equating Errors in Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale assessments, such as state-wide testing programs, national sample-based assessments, and international comparative studies, there are many steps involved in the measurement and reporting of student achievement. There are always sources of inaccuracies in each of the steps. It is of interest to identify the source and magnitude of…

  2. International Large-Scale Assessments: What Uses, What Consequences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background: International large-scale assessments (ILSAs) are a much-debated phenomenon in education. Increasingly, their outcomes attract considerable media attention and influence educational policies in many jurisdictions worldwide. The relevance, uses and consequences of these assessments are often the focus of research scrutiny. Whilst some…

  3. Scaling up Strategies for Change: Change in Formative Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Truus; Feijs, Els

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses some of the results of the CATCH (Classroom Assessment as a basis for Teacher Change) project. CATCH was meant to develop, apply and scale up a professional development programme designed to change teachers' instruction by helping them change their formative assessment practices. The authors focus on the analysis of three…

  4. International Large-Scale Assessments: What Uses, What Consequences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background: International large-scale assessments (ILSAs) are a much-debated phenomenon in education. Increasingly, their outcomes attract considerable media attention and influence educational policies in many jurisdictions worldwide. The relevance, uses and consequences of these assessments are often the focus of research scrutiny. Whilst some…

  5. Changes in daily cognition and behavior of Alzheimer's patients over time: a three-year evaluation using a daily cognition and behavior for Alzheimer's disease scale.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chieko; Yokote, Yoshie; Takahashi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the number of older people with dementia was 2.26 million as of 2010, and Alzheimer's disease accounted for the greatest morbidity rate among older people with dementia. The purposes of this longitudinal study were to assess whether the Daily Cognition and Behavior for Alzheimer's Disease scale might help observe changes in daily cognition and behavior among Alzheimer's disease patients and to determine whether the scale could be used by non-professional caregivers. Data obtained from 111 rater-patient pairs were analysed. The scores for Daily Cognition and Behavior for Alzheimer's Disease used by staff members were compared with those for two other scales designed for professional use. Comparisons were made using one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. The scores for Daily Cognition and Behavior for Alzheimer's Disease indicated a declining pattern similar to those for the other scales. There was no significant difference in scores by rater occupations. Findings suggest Daily Cognition and Behavior for Alzheimer's Disease might help observe changes in daily cognition and behavior among Alzheimer's disease patients, and that Daily Cognition and Behavior for Alzheimer's Disease can be used by non-professional caregivers. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. [French scale validation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire three months after birth].

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Marie; Delmas, Philippe; Carrier, Nathalie; Rabillon, Florence; Couture, Marie-Estelle

    2015-06-01

    Breastfeeding is recognize to be the perfect food of mother and child's health. The child's temperament is one of the factors that may explain pursuing the breastfeeding. Few instruments are available in French to measure this factor. The objective of the study is to present and validate the French translation of the scale "Infant Behavior Questionnaire" (IBQ). The sample consists of 193 primaparous or multiparous women who gave birth in a maternity in Paris. The child's temperament questionnaire was sent by mail three months after the birth. The same questionnaire was sent to a sub-sample of 30 women 15 days later. Analyses were conducted to assess the temporal stability, internal consistency, construct validity and predictive. The different results tend to show a compliant validity to the french scale version. This first IBQ French-language validation is worth pursuing in order to confirm the scale factor structure and participate to studies supporting mothers in their breastfeeding project.

  7. Multi-scale satellite assessment of water availability and agricultural drought: from field to global scales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper discusses a multi-scale remote sensing modeling system that fuses flux assessments generated with TIR imagery collected by multiple satellite platforms to estimate daily surface fluxes from field to global scales. The Landsat series of polar orbiting systems has collected TIR imagery at 6...

  8. Internal Consistency and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) Rating Scale When Used by Teachers and Paraprofessionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Michael E.; Sheng, Yanyan; Chitiyo, Morgan; Brandt, Rachel C.; Howe, Abigail P.

    2014-01-01

    There has been considerable emphasis on indirect functional behavior assessments in school settings. However, little research has evaluated the reliability of these methods to identify behavioral function. One indirect measure, the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) scale, has yet to be extensively studied in school settings, though…

  9. National-Scale Wind Resource Assessment for Power Generation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation describes the current standards for conducting a national-scale wind resource assessment for power generation, along with the risk/benefit considerations to be considered when beginning a wind resource assessment. The presentation describes changes in turbine technology and viable wind deployment due to more modern turbine technology and taller towers and shows how the Philippines national wind resource assessment evolved over time to reflect changes that arise from updated technologies and taller towers.

  10. Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Pituch, Keenan A.; Itchon, Jonathan; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers associate an insistence on sameness or lack of behavioral flexibility with autism and Asperger syndrome, but few studies have sought to identify specific situations in which individuals insist on sameness. Along these lines, we developed the "Behavioral Flexibility Rating Scale" (BFRS) and conducted an Internet survey of parents of…

  11. REDUCING AMBIGUITY IN THE FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Rooker, Griffin W.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Severe problem behavior (e.g., self-injury and aggression) remains among the most serious challenges for the habilitation of persons with intellectual disabilities and is a significant obstacle to community integration. The current standard of behavior analytic treatment for problem behavior in this population consists of a functional assessment and treatment model. Within that model, the first step is to assess the behavior–environment relations that give rise to and maintain problem behavior, a functional behavioral assessment. Conventional methods of assessing behavioral function include indirect, descriptive, and experimental assessments of problem behavior. Clinical investigators have produced a rich literature demonstrating the relative effectiveness for each method, but in clinical practice, each can produce ambiguous or difficult-to-interpret outcomes that may impede treatment development. This paper outlines potential sources of variability in assessment outcomes and then reviews the evidence on strategies for avoiding ambiguous outcomes and/or clarifying initially ambiguous results. The end result for each assessment method is a set of best practice guidelines, given the available evidence, for conducting the initial assessment. PMID:26236145

  12. A Teacher-Report Measure of Children's Task-Avoidant Behavior: A Validation Study of the Behavioral Strategy Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Aunola, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to validate a teacher-report measure of children's task-avoidant behavior, namely the Behavioral Strategy Rating Scale (BSRS), in a sample of 352 Finnish children. In each of the four waves from Kindergarten to Grade 2, teachers rated children's task-avoidant behavior using the BSRS, children completed reading and mathematics…

  13. A Teacher-Report Measure of Children's Task-Avoidant Behavior: A Validation Study of the Behavioral Strategy Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Aunola, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to validate a teacher-report measure of children's task-avoidant behavior, namely the Behavioral Strategy Rating Scale (BSRS), in a sample of 352 Finnish children. In each of the four waves from Kindergarten to Grade 2, teachers rated children's task-avoidant behavior using the BSRS, children completed reading and mathematics…

  14. How reliable is the Spanish bodily harm assessment scale?

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Mayán, Lucía; Represas, Carlos; Miguéns, Xoan; Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol; Febrero-Bande, Manuel; Muñoz-Barús, José Ignacio

    2015-05-01

    The use of scales to quantify or qualify bodily harm resulting from an unintentional car accident has been mandatory in Spain since 1995 and compensation for personal injuries resulting from a traffic accident is calculated according to a legal ruling established by Royal Decree 8/2004 (RDL). This present study assesses the reliability of the scale. Agreement between the evaluations for the same patient by 24 qualified observers following the Royal Decree 8/2004 was measured using the Kappa index. The variables assessed were the days of hospitalization, impeditive days, non impeditive days and the functional and aesthetic sequelae. The application of the Fleiss Kappa index obtained a result of 0.37, indicating a "fair agreement" according to the rating scale proposed by Landis and Koch. This study demonstrates the unreliability of the Spanish medical scale for the assessment of injury as described in the RDL 8/2004. The scale should adopt the measurement systems and clinical classifications of outcomes such as the ASIA, SCI scale or the Daniels scale of neurological injury and allow scientific discussion of the findings of the report. The resulting quantitative value should operate as a reliable indicator of a specific quality of the damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Rasch Rating Scale Methodology to Examine a Behavioral Screener for Preschoolers at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Greer, Fred W.; Kamphaus, R. W.; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A screening instrument used to identify young children at risk for behavioral and emotional difficulties, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool was examined. The Rasch Rating Scale Method was used to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items, respondents, and the response scale.…

  16. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  17. Using Rasch Rating Scale Methodology to Examine a Behavioral Screener for Preschoolers at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Greer, Fred W.; Kamphaus, R. W.; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A screening instrument used to identify young children at risk for behavioral and emotional difficulties, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool was examined. The Rasch Rating Scale Method was used to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items, respondents, and the response scale.…

  18. Assessing severity of delirium by the Delirium Observation Screening Scale.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Alice C; van Munster, Barbara C; Schuurmans, Marieke J; de Rooij, Sophia E

    2011-03-01

    Delirium is the most common acute neuropsychiatric disorder in hospitalized elderly. Assessment of the severity of delirium is important for adjusting medication. The minimal dose of medication is preferable to prevent side effects. Only few nurse based severity measures are available. The aim of this study was to validate a scale developed to assess symptoms of delirium during regular nursing care, the Delirium Observation Screening (DOS) Scale, for monitoring severity of delirium. Delirious patients of 65 years and older were included. Delirium was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria and the Confusion Assessment Method. The DOS Scale was compared to the Dutch version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98). Global cognitive functioning was assessed by the Informant Questionnaire Cognitive Decline in the Elderly-Short Form (IQCODE-SF) and the KATZ-ADL Scale was used for functional impairment. Ninety seven delirious patients were included: 41 hip fracture patients and 56 medical patients. The correlation between total DRS-R-98 scores and DOS Scale scores was 0.67 (p=0.01). For the cognitive impaired group (IQCODE-SF ≥3.9) this correlation was 0.61 (p=0.01); for the group with no global cognitive impairment, this correlation was 0.67 (p=0.01). Correlations between DRS-R-98 and DOS Scale for hypoactive, hyperactive and mixed delirium subtype were 0.40 (p=0.32), 0.44 (p=0.01) and 0.69 (p=0.05), respectively. The DOS Scale is able to measure severity of delirium. In routine daily clinical practice, the DOS Scale is a time-efficient, easy to use and reliable method for measuring and monitoring severity of delirium by nurses. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Development and validation of the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS).

    PubMed

    Rahal, Collin J; Bryant, Judith B; Darkes, Jack; Menzel, Jessie E; Thompson, J Kevin

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to develop and validate a measure to assess an individual's eating-related behaviors related to alcohol consumption, specifically behaviors intended to compensate for calories so that more alcohol could be consumed or restrict calories to enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol consumption. Two hundred and seventy four undergraduate students (n=51 males; 75.2% Caucasian) completed a newly developed scale, the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS), along with measures of eating restriction, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction. An exploratory factor analysis on the CEBRACS revealed the existence of 4 clear-cut factors: alcohol effects, bulimia, dieting and exercise, and restriction. Internal consistency statistics for all subscales ranged from .79 to .95. Pearson product-moment correlations between the CEBRACS and measures of bulimia, restriction, and body dissatisfaction ranged from .04 to .44. T-tests revealed no gender differences in compensatory eating behaviors. Future research directions and limitations of the current study are discussed.

  20. Conceptualizing the Science Curriculum: 40 Years of Developing Assessment Frameworks in Three Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Per Morten

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes conceptualizations in the science frameworks in three large-scale assessments, Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The assessments have a shared history, but have developed different conceptualizations. The…

  1. Conceptualizing the Science Curriculum: 40 Years of Developing Assessment Frameworks in Three Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Per Morten

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes conceptualizations in the science frameworks in three large-scale assessments, Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The assessments have a shared history, but have developed different conceptualizations. The…

  2. Establishing a Scale for Assessing the Social Validity of Skill Building Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Natalie I.; Manston, Lauren; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Scale of Treatment Perceptions (STP), a measure of treatment acceptability targeting skill-building interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This scale utilizes a strength-based approach to intervention assessment, and was established by modifying the Behavior Intervention Rating…

  3. Establishing a Scale for Assessing the Social Validity of Skill Building Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Natalie I.; Manston, Lauren; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Scale of Treatment Perceptions (STP), a measure of treatment acceptability targeting skill-building interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This scale utilizes a strength-based approach to intervention assessment, and was established by modifying the Behavior Intervention Rating…

  4. A typology of time-scale mismatches and behavioral interventions to diagnose and solve conservation problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Robyn S.; Hardisty, David J.; Epanchin-Niell, Rebecca S.; Runge, Michael C.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Urban, Dean L.; Maguire, Lynn A.; Hastings, Alan; Mumby, Peter J.; Peters, Debra P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological systems often operate on time scales significantly longer or shorter than the time scales typical of human decision making, which causes substantial difficulty for conservation and management in socioecological systems. For example, invasive species may move faster than humans can diagnose problems and initiate solutions, and climate systems may exhibit long-term inertia and short-term fluctuations that obscure learning about the efficacy of management efforts in many ecological systems. We adopted a management-decision framework that distinguishes decision makers within public institutions from individual actors within the social system, calls attention to the ways socioecological systems respond to decision makers’ actions, and notes institutional learning that accrues from observing these responses. We used this framework, along with insights from bedeviling conservation problems, to create a typology that identifies problematic time-scale mismatches occurring between individual decision makers in public institutions and between individual actors in the social or ecological system. We also considered solutions that involve modifying human perception and behavior at the individual level as a means of resolving these problematic mismatches. The potential solutions are derived from the behavioral economics and psychology literature on temporal challenges in decision making, such as the human tendency to discount future outcomes at irrationally high rates. These solutions range from framing environmental decisions to enhance the salience of long-term consequences, to using structured decision processes that make time scales of actions and consequences more explicit, to structural solutions aimed at altering the consequences of short-sighted behavior to make it less appealing. Additional application of these tools and long-term evaluation measures that assess not just behavioral changes but also associated changes in ecological systems are needed.

  5. A typology of time-scale mismatches and behavioral interventions to diagnose and solve conservation problems.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robyn S; Hardisty, David J; Epanchin-Niell, Rebecca S; Runge, Michael C; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Urban, Dean L; Maguire, Lynn A; Hastings, Alan; Mumby, Peter J; Peters, Debra P C

    2016-02-01

    Ecological systems often operate on time scales significantly longer or shorter than the time scales typical of human decision making, which causes substantial difficulty for conservation and management in socioecological systems. For example, invasive species may move faster than humans can diagnose problems and initiate solutions, and climate systems may exhibit long-term inertia and short-term fluctuations that obscure learning about the efficacy of management efforts in many ecological systems. We adopted a management-decision framework that distinguishes decision makers within public institutions from individual actors within the social system, calls attention to the ways socioecological systems respond to decision makers' actions, and notes institutional learning that accrues from observing these responses. We used this framework, along with insights from bedeviling conservation problems, to create a typology that identifies problematic time-scale mismatches occurring between individual decision makers in public institutions and between individual actors in the social or ecological system. We also considered solutions that involve modifying human perception and behavior at the individual level as a means of resolving these problematic mismatches. The potential solutions are derived from the behavioral economics and psychology literature on temporal challenges in decision making, such as the human tendency to discount future outcomes at irrationally high rates. These solutions range from framing environmental decisions to enhance the salience of long-term consequences, to using structured decision processes that make time scales of actions and consequences more explicit, to structural solutions aimed at altering the consequences of short-sighted behavior to make it less appealing. Additional application of these tools and long-term evaluation measures that assess not just behavioral changes but also associated changes in ecological systems are needed.

  6. Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans. ERIC/OSEP Digest E571.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Mary K.

    This digest discusses the new requirement under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that Individualized Education Program teams conduct a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and implement behavior intervention plans that include positive behavioral interventions and supports for students with disabilities. It describes the purpose…

  7. The Behavioral Function of Feeding Problems as Assessed by the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Kuhn, David E.; Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita; Cooper, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Differences in subscale scores on the questions about behavioral function (QABF) were assessed for participants identified with pica, rumination, food stealing, food refusal, and mealtime behavior problems (e.g., aggression, self-injurious behavior). The QABF was administered to informants for 125 individuals identified with problematic feeding…

  8. What Is a Functional Behavior Assessment? The "WHY" of a Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities, Marion.

    This guide discusses using Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) to find out why a student is behaving inappropriately and to enable the provision of appropriate positive behavior intervention. It stresses that a FBA goes beyond looking at antecedent behavior and consequence to review everything in the entire environment of the student.…

  9. Technical and Applied Features of Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    When conducted correctly, functional behavior assessments (FBAs) can help professionals intervene with problem behavior using function-based interventions. Despite the fact that researchers have shown that effective interventions are based on function, recent investigators have found that most behavioral intervention plans (BIPs) are written…

  10. The Behavioral Function of Feeding Problems as Assessed by the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Kuhn, David E.; Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita; Cooper, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Differences in subscale scores on the questions about behavioral function (QABF) were assessed for participants identified with pica, rumination, food stealing, food refusal, and mealtime behavior problems (e.g., aggression, self-injurious behavior). The QABF was administered to informants for 125 individuals identified with problematic feeding…

  11. Thermal Behavior of Unusual Local-Scale Features on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; DeSanctis, Maria Cristina; Palomba, Ernesto; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Titus, Timothy; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Li, Jian-Yang; Russell, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    On Vesta, the thermal behavior of areas of unusual albedo seen at the local scale can be related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. Dawn's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) hyperspectral cubes are used to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 180 K. Data acquired in the Survey phase (23 July through 29 August 2011) show several unusual surface features: 1) high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material deposits, 2) spectrally distinct ejecta and pitted materials, 3) regions suggesting finer-grained materials. Some of the unusual dark and bright features were re-observed by VIR in the subsequent High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) phases at increased pixel resolution. In particular, bright and dark surface materials on Vesta, and pitted materials, are currently being investigated by the Dawn team. In this work we present temperature maps and emissivities of several local-scale features that were observed by Dawn under different illumination conditions and different local solar times. To calculate surface temperatures, we applied a Bayesian approach to nonlinear inversion based on the Kirchhoff law and the Planck function, and whose results were compared with those provided by the application of alternative methods. Data from the IR channel of VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower thermal emission, i.e. lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher thermal emission, i.e. higher temperature. This behavior confirms that many of the dark appearances in the VIS mainly reflect albedo variations, and not, for example, shadowing. During maximum daily insolation, dark features in the equatorial region may rise to temperatures greater than 270 K, while brightest features stop at roughly 258 K for similar local solar times. However, pitted

  12. Thermal Behavior of Unusual Local-Scale Features on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; DeSanctis, Maria Cristina; Palomba, Ernesto; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Titus, Timothy; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Li, Jian-Yang; Russell, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    On Vesta, the thermal behavior of areas of unusual albedo seen at the local scale can be related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. Dawn's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) hyperspectral cubes are used to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 180 K. Data acquired in the Survey phase (23 July through 29 August 2011) show several unusual surface features: 1) high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material deposits, 2) spectrally distinct ejecta and pitted materials, 3) regions suggesting finer-grained materials. Some of the unusual dark and bright features were re-observed by VIR in the subsequent High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) phases at increased pixel resolution. In particular, bright and dark surface materials on Vesta, and pitted materials, are currently being investigated by the Dawn team. In this work we present temperature maps and emissivities of several local-scale features that were observed by Dawn under different illumination conditions and different local solar times. To calculate surface temperatures, we applied a Bayesian approach to nonlinear inversion based on the Kirchhoff law and the Planck function, and whose results were compared with those provided by the application of alternative methods. Data from the IR channel of VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower thermal emission, i.e. lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher thermal emission, i.e. higher temperature. This behavior confirms that many of the dark appearances in the VIS mainly reflect albedo variations, and not, for example, shadowing. During maximum daily insolation, dark features in the equatorial region may rise to temperatures greater than 270 K, while brightest features stop at roughly 258 K for similar local solar times. However, pitted

  13. Superinfection Behaviors on Scale-Free Networks with Competing Strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Small, Michael; Liu, Huaxiang

    2013-02-01

    This paper considers the epidemiology of two strains ( I, J) of a disease spreading through a population represented by a scale-free network. The epidemiological model is SIS and the two strains have different reproductive numbers. Superinfection means that strain I can infect individuals already infected with strain J, replacing the strain J infection. Individuals infected with strain I cannot be infected with strain J. The model is set up as a system of ordering differential equations and stability of the disease free, marginal strain I and strain J, and coexistence equilibria are assessed using linear stability analysis, supported by simulations. The main conclusion is that superinfection, as modeled in this paper, can allow strain I to coexist with strain J even when it has a lower basic reproductive number. Most strikingly, it can allow strain I to persist even when its reproductive number is less than 1.

  14. Addressing Student Problem Behavior: An IEP Team's Introduction to Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Mary Magee; Gable, Robert A.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Nelson, C. Michael; Howell, Kenneth W.

    This paper provides guidelines for conducting a functional behavioral assessment and developing positive behavior intervention plans with students who have behavior disorders or other disabilities in the context of requirements of the 1997 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). After an introduction, rights and…

  15. Frequency effects on the scale and behavior of acoustic streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentry, Michael B.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic streaming underpins an exciting range of fluid manipulation phenomena of rapidly growing significance in microfluidics, where the streaming often assumes the form of a steady, laminar jet emanating from the device surface, driven by the attenuation of acoustic energy within the beam of sound propagating through the liquid. The frequencies used to drive such phenomena are often chosen ad hoc to accommodate fabrication and material issues. In this work, we seek a better understanding of the effects of sound frequency and power on acoustic streaming. We present and, using surface acoustic waves, experimentally verify a laminar jet model that is based on the turbulent jet model of Lighthill, which is appropriate for acoustic streaming seen at micro- to nanoscales, between 20 and 936 MHz and over a broad range of input power. Our model eliminates the critically problematic acoustic source singularity present in Lighthill's model, replacing it with a finite emission area and enabling determination of the streaming velocity close to the source. At high acoustic power P (and hence high jet Reynolds numbers ReJ associated with fast streaming), the laminar jet model predicts a one-half power dependence (U ˜P1/2˜ ReJ) similar to the turbulent jet model. However, the laminar model may also be applied to jets produced at low powers—and hence low jet Reynolds numbers ReJ—where a linear relationship between the beam power and streaming velocity exists: U ˜P˜ReJ2. The ability of the laminar jet model to predict the acoustic streaming behavior across a broad range of frequencies and power provides a useful tool in the analysis of microfluidics devices, explaining peculiar observations made by several researchers in the literature. In particular, by elucidating the effects of frequency on the scale of acoustically driven flows, we show that the choice of frequency is a vitally important consideration in the design of small-scale devices employing acoustic streaming

  16. Frequency effects on the scale and behavior of acoustic streaming.

    PubMed

    Dentry, Michael B; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic streaming underpins an exciting range of fluid manipulation phenomena of rapidly growing significance in microfluidics, where the streaming often assumes the form of a steady, laminar jet emanating from the device surface, driven by the attenuation of acoustic energy within the beam of sound propagating through the liquid. The frequencies used to drive such phenomena are often chosen ad hoc to accommodate fabrication and material issues. In this work, we seek a better understanding of the effects of sound frequency and power on acoustic streaming. We present and, using surface acoustic waves, experimentally verify a laminar jet model that is based on the turbulent jet model of Lighthill, which is appropriate for acoustic streaming seen at micro- to nanoscales, between 20 and 936 MHz and over a broad range of input power. Our model eliminates the critically problematic acoustic source singularity present in Lighthill's model, replacing it with a finite emission area and enabling determination of the streaming velocity close to the source. At high acoustic power P (and hence high jet Reynolds numbers ReJ associated with fast streaming), the laminar jet model predicts a one-half power dependence (U∼P1/2∼ ReJ) similar to the turbulent jet model. However, the laminar model may also be applied to jets produced at low powers-and hence low jet Reynolds numbers ReJ-where a linear relationship between the beam power and streaming velocity exists: U∼P∼ReJ2. The ability of the laminar jet model to predict the acoustic streaming behavior across a broad range of frequencies and power provides a useful tool in the analysis of microfluidics devices, explaining peculiar observations made by several researchers in the literature. In particular, by elucidating the effects of frequency on the scale of acoustically driven flows, we show that the choice of frequency is a vitally important consideration in the design of small-scale devices employing acoustic streaming

  17. Rating scales and questionnaires for assessment of sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease: what they inform about?

    PubMed

    Zea-Sevilla, María Ascensión; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    Sleep disorders are very prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include a diversity of disturbances. Rating scales and questionnaires are widely used to assess the presence and severity of the sleep disorders. The objective is to review rating scales and questionnaires used for assessment of sleep disorders in PD. To this purpose, a description and update of the sleep scales reviewed by the ad hoc Movement Disorder Society task force (MDS-TF) and other sleep disorder assessments was performed. Two specific (Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale and Scales for Outcomes in PD Sleep) and two generic scales (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were "Recommended" by the MDS-TF as they were used in PD patients, by researchers others than their developers and properly validated. Two other generic scales (Inappropriate Sleep Composite Score and Stanford Sleepiness Scale), "Suggested" due to incomplete validation, are also reviewed. Other instruments included in this review are three comprehensive PD-specific instruments for assessing multiple domains in addition to sleep problems (e.g., Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire, Non-Motor Symptoms Scale, MDS-UPDRS), and three generic instruments focused on particular disturbances (e.g., International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale, REM behavioral disorders questionnaires), although these latter lack formal validation in PD populations. The "Recommended" instruments cover satisfactorily the needs for screening and evaluation of the nocturnal sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in PD patients. It would be convenient to validate or complete the validation in PD populations of those instruments that cannot be recommended due to the lack of information on their clinimetric attributes.

  18. The Environmental Deprivation Scale (EDS): The Role of Environmental Factors in the Analysis and Prediction of Criminal Behavior and Recidivism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVine, M. D.; And Others

    This report deals with the further validation of the Environmental Deprivation Scale (EDS) as a predictor of criminal behavior and recidivism. The EDS measures the degree of supportive environmental input through 16 items assessing occupation, organizational activities, and interpersonal relationships. The data were obtained in behavioral…

  19. Assessing Adolescents' Anticipated Behavioral and Emotional Responses to Offers of Alcohol and Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…

  20. Assessing Adolescents' Anticipated Behavioral and Emotional Responses to Offers of Alcohol and Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…

  1. Situational Specificity Makes the Difference in Assessment of Youth Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Paul A.; Steinberg, Carrie M.; Angelo, Lauren E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine the ability of contextual information to enhance assessment of behavior problems in schools. Capitalizing on the multisituational structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents, exploratory and confirmatory analyses with a representative national sample (N = 1,400, ages 5-17 years) revealed three unique…

  2. Understanding bulk behavior of particulate materials from particle scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaoliang

    Particulate materials play an increasingly significant role in various industries, such as pharmaceutical manufacturing, food, mining, and civil engineering. The objective of this research is to better understand bulk behaviors of particulate materials from particle scale simulations. Packing properties of assembly of particles are investigated first, focusing on the effects of particle size, surface energy, and aspect ratio on the coordination number, porosity, and packing structures. The simulation results show that particle sizes, surface energy, and aspect ratio all influence the porosity of packing to various degrees. The heterogeneous force networks within particle assembly under external compressive loading are investigated as well. The results show that coarse-coarse contacts dominate the strong network and coarse-fine contacts dominate the total network. Next, DEM models are developed to simulate the particle dynamics inside a conical screen mill (comil) and magnetically assisted impaction mixer (MAIM), both are important particle processing devices. For comil, the mean residence time (MRT), spatial distribution of particles, along with the collision dynamics between particles as well as particle and vessel geometries are examined as a function of the various operating parameters such as impeller speed, screen hole size, open area, and feed rate. The simulation results can help better understand dry coating experimental results using comil. For MAIM system, the magnetic force is incorporated into the contact model, allowing to describe the interactions between magnets. The simulation results reveal the connections between homogeneity of mixture and particle scale variables such as size of magnets and surface energy of non-magnets. In particular, at the fixed mass ratio of magnets to non-magnets and surface energy the smaller magnets lead to better homogeneity of mixing, which is in good agreement with previously published experimental results. Last but not

  3. Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Assessment of Students with ASD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Gena P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses techniques and instruments that are used when conducting a behavioral, social, and emotional assessment of students with autistic spectrum disorders. Functional assessment methods are described, including indirect methods, direct observation, and experimental manipulation. Instruments used to assess depression and…

  4. Legal Requirements for Assessing Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Drasgow, Erik

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the legal requirements of assessing students with disabilities, especially students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). It reviews assessment legislation and litigation in special education and explains specific requirements for assessing students with EBD. The article also examines school districts' obligations…

  5. Synthetic melanin films: Assembling mechanisms, scaling behavior, and structural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorite, Gabriela S.; Coluci, Vitor R.; da Silva, Maria Ivonete N.; Dezidério, Shirlei N.; Graeff, Carlos Frederico O.; Galva~O, Douglas S.; Cotta, Mônica A.

    2006-06-01

    In this work we report on the surface characterization of melanin thin films prepared using both water-based and organic solvent-based melanin syntheses. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of these films suggests that the organic solvent synthesis provides relatively planar basic melanin structures; these basic structures generate surface steps with height in the range of 2-3 nm and small tendency to form larger aggregates. The scaling properties obtained from the AFM data were used to infer the assembling mechanisms of these thin films which depend on the solvent used for melanin synthesis. The behavior observed in organic solvent-based melanin suggests a diffusion-limited aggregation process. Thus films with good adhesion to the substrate and smoother morphologies than water-prepared melanin films are obtained. Electronic structure calculations using a conductorlike screening model were also performed in order to elucidate the microscopic processes of thin film formation. Our results suggest that the agglomerates observed in hydrated samples originate from reaction with water at specific locations on the surface most likely defects on the planar structure.

  6. Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Ecohydrological models are frequently used to assess the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad impacts of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for impacts assessments and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model.

  7. [Development of the Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics].

    PubMed

    Sugawarai, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for assessing the attributes of the heterosexual love of alcoholics. Using the characteristics and categories related to the heterosexual love of alcoholics found in previous research, we created a "Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics" and conducted a survey among 110 alcoholics (80 men and 30 women). The following three factors were extracted from the results: "mutual respect", "superficial intimacy", and "fear of being disliked", A high level of reliability was obtained on the scales indicated below (alpha = 63-82), and concurrent validity was confirmed between these and the Adult Attachment Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory). Further, correlations were found between "mutual respect" and the benefit of heterosexual love in recovery, and between the other two factors and the impediment of heterosexual love, and between the Denial & Awareness Scale (for alcoholic). As this scale can be used to assess the type of heterosexual love of alcoholics, we predict that it will be useful in examining the effects of heterosexual love on recovery and as a tool for offering advice.

  8. High Risk Suicidal Behavior in Veterans - Assessment of Predictors and Efficacy of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    parasuicidal events, treatment compliance, depressed mood, substance abuse and hopelessness. This aim involves recruiting 120 veterans off the...Ideation scale) Secondary Outcome Measures by Treatment Group- Figure 3- Depression (measured by the Beck Depression Scale) Figure 4- Hopelessness...Behavioral Therapy (DBT) vs. treatment as usual (TAU) on suicidal behavior as a primary outcome measure. A second aim of the project is to examine group

  9. Implementing Functional Behavior Assessment in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is aiming to improve special education practices, and inclusive education has been introduced and mandated by national laws in the past few years. However, inclusive practices are challenging for many Thai teachers and schools. Many teachers are unprepared to support students with diverse needs and to deal with behavior problems. To…

  10. Implementing Functional Behavior Assessment in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is aiming to improve special education practices, and inclusive education has been introduced and mandated by national laws in the past few years. However, inclusive practices are challenging for many Thai teachers and schools. Many teachers are unprepared to support students with diverse needs and to deal with behavior problems. To…

  11. The Functional Assessment of School Refusal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Lemos, Amie; Silverman, Jenna

    2004-01-01

    School refusal behavior refers to child-motivated refusal to attend school and/or difficulty attending classes for an entire day (Kearney & Silverman, 1996). As such, the term represents an umbrella construct for many historical ones that have been used to describe youths with problematic absenteeism, including truancy, psychoneurotic truancy,…

  12. [Psychological self-assessment scales in expert investigations].

    PubMed

    Bodenburg, S; Fabra, M

    2011-07-01

    Psychological self-assessment scales are frequently used in expert investigations of psychological disorders. At the same time the validity of these scales in this particular area of use has scarcely been reviewed. The criterion validity of selected self-assessment scales is examined. A total of 159 subjects participated in the study. Self-assessment scales to determine trait character and state variables were used (FIP-R, SVF, STAI, BDI, B-L, IES-R, FDS). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms determined in accordance with DSM-IV-TR and the clinically determined psychopathological findings were the external criteria. The study showed that two subscales of the SVF and the age of the test subjects represent significant predictors for the diagnosis of PTSD supported by DSM-IV-TR. One FPI-R and one SVF subscale have a significant relationship to the psychopathological findings. Of the state variables which were used only BDI displayed a significant relationship to the psychopathological findings. Some of the reviewed trait variables also have sufficient criterion validity for expert assessments. Self-appraisal scales which cover current psychopathological complaints should only be evaluated with reservations.

  13. Use of automated monitoring to assess behavioral toxicology in fish: Linking behavior and physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; DeLonay, A.J.; Beauvais, S.L.; Little, E.E.; Jones, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    We measured locomotory behaviors (distance traveled, speed, tortuosity of path, and rate of change in direction) with computer-assisted analysis in 30 day posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to pesticides. We also examined cholinesterase inhibition as a potential endpoint linking physiology and behavior. Sublethal exposure to chemicals often causes changes in swimming behavior, reflecting alterations in sensory and motor systems. Swimming behavior also integrates functions of the nervous system. Rarely are the connections between physiology and behavior made. Although behavior is often suggested as a sensitive, early indicator of toxicity, behavioral toxicology has not been used to its full potential because conventional methods of behavioral assessment have relied on manual techniques, which are often time-consuming and difficult to quantify. This has severely limited the application and utility of behavioral procedures. Swimming behavior is particularly amenable to computerized assessment and automated monitoring. Locomotory responses are sensitive to toxicants and can be easily measured. We briefly discuss the use of behavior in toxicology and automated techniques used in behavioral toxicology. We also describe the system we used to determine locomotory behaviors of fish, and present data demonstrating the system's effectiveness in measuring alterations in response to chemical challenges. Lastly, we correlate behavioral and physiological endpoints.

  14. Experimental assessment of fractal scale similarity in turbulent flows. Part 3. Multifractal scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederiksen, Richard D.; Dahm, Werner J. A.; Dowling, David R.

    1997-05-01

    Earlier experimental assessments of fractal scale similarity in geometric properties of turbulent flows are extended to assess the applicability of multifractal scale-similarity in the conserved scalar field [zeta](x, t) and in the true scalar energy dissipation rate field [nabla del, Hamilton operator][zeta]·[nabla del, Hamilton operator][zeta](x, t). Fully resolved four-dimensional spatio-temporal measurements from a turbulent flow at Re[lambda][approximate]41 and Re[delta][approximate]3000 are analysed. The utility of various classical constructs for identifying multifractal scale similarity in data records of finite length is examined. An objective statistical criterion based on the maximum allowable scale-to-scale variation L1([epsilon]) in multiplier distributions [left angle bracket]P(M[epsilon])[right angle bracket] obtained from multifractal gauge fields is developed to allow accurate discrimination between multifractal and non-multifractal scaling in finite-length experimental data records. Results from analyses of temporal intersections show that for scales greater than 0.03 [lambda][nu]/u, corresponding to 1.4 [lambda]D/u, the scalar dissipation field clearly demonstrates a scale-invariant similarity consistent with a multiplicative cascade process that can be modelled with a bilinear multiplier distribution. However, the conserved scalar field from precisely the same data does not follow any scale similarity consistent with a multiplicative cascade at scales below 0.5 [lambda][nu]/u. At larger scales, there are indications of a possible scale-invariant similarity in the scalar field, but with a fundamentally different multiplier distribution.

  15. Cultural adaptation of patient and observational outcome measures: a methodological example using the COMFORT behavioral rating scale.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Randi Dovland; Jylli, Leena; Ambuel, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    There is little empirical evidence regarding the translation and cultural adaptation of self-report and observational outcome measures. Studies that evaluate and further develop existing practices are needed. This study explores the use of cognitive interviews in the translation and cultural adaptation of observational measures, using the COMFORT behavioral scale as an example, and demonstrates a structured approach to the analysis of data from cognitive interviews. The COMFORT behavioral scale is developed for assessment of distress and pain in a pediatric intensive care setting. Qualitative, descriptive methodological study. One general public hospital trust in southern Norway. N=12. Eight nurses, three physicians and one nurse assistant, from different wards and with experience caring for children. We translated the COMFORT behavior scale into Norwegian before conducting individual cognitive interviews. Participants first read and then used the translated version of the COMFORT behavioral scale to assess pain based on a 3-min film vignette depicting an infant in pain/distress. Two cognitive interview techniques were applied: Thinking Aloud (TA) during the assessment and Verbal Probing (VP) afterwards. In TA the participant verbalized his/her thought process while completing the COMFORT behavioral scale. During VP the participant responded to specific questions related to understanding of the measure, information recall and the decision process. We audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed interviews using a structured qualitative method (cross-case analysis based on predefined categories and development of a results matrix). Our analysis revealed two categories of problems: (1) Scale problems, warranting a change in the wording of the scale, including (a) translation errors, (b) content not understood as intended, and (c) differences between the original COMFORT scale and the revised COMFORT behavioral scale; and (2) Rater-context problems caused by (a

  16. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, Bo; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to

  17. The development of an annoyance scale for community noise assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, N.

    1981-01-01

    The development of an annoyance scale for use in community noise assessment is described. In previous studies in which annoyance scales have been used descriptors, intervals, and metrics have been variable and non-standard. Such variability may be a serious shortcoming in comparing studies of assessment of noise reactions. It is not clear how many semantic distinctions can be made to describe subjective reactions to noise, especially the degree of annoyance. There is also great variability in language use reflecting educational, social class, regional and sub-cultural differences. Finally, scaling annoyance responses ordinally, when the underlying intervals are skewed, may seriously distort relationships when analyzed with parametric statistics. In the research described here, an attempt has been made to produce a standardized annoyance scale with descriptors marking clear semantic distinctions, roughly equidistant from each other, and having wide acceptability. Using the Thurstone scaling method, 51 subjects from both high and low educational backgrounds were asked to rate 43 different descriptors of annoyance. The results show that six to seven semantic distinctions can be made. Seven descriptors which mark off roughly equal-sized intervals and which show the greatest agreement are chosen for an annoyance scale. It is felt that the use of such a scale may be more useful in comparing subjective response to noise. Data from a survey lend support to this.

  18. INSTRUMENTS OF HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Seyed-Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior is a complex activity affecting all aspects of human's life. Risky sexual behaviors impose negative outcomes on family, relationships and health. Unsafe sex is the second most leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. Valid and reliable tools for assessment of risky sexual behaviors are necessary for implementing preventive measures. we searched Medline and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, with the keywords of "risky sexual behavior assessment", "sexual risk assessment", "high risk sexual behavior", "sexual risk taking". By reviewing references of the articles, some complementary studies were added. Assessment can be performed by questionnaire or non-questionnaire instruments. Questionnaires vary depending on their target population, evaluation of risky sexual behavior as a whole or focusing on an associated risk factor. In order to avoid usual biases in self reports, objective biomarker assessment of unprotected sex are employed. These markers include prostate specific antigen, chromosome Y DNA and Seminogelin. Risky sexual behavior can be assessed by various subjective and objective methods. While self-reports are more feasible, objective methods offer a higher degree of reliability. Further studies for finding more feasible methods of using biomarkers are recommended.

  19. The Sadomasochism Checklist: A Tool for the Assessment of Sadomasochistic Behavior.

    PubMed

    Weierstall, Roland; Giebel, Gilda

    2017-04-01

    Various scientific disciplines devoted to the study of sexual behavior are concerned with the understanding of sadomasochistic (SM) practices. However, only a fragmented body of theories, opinions, and studies is available, which limits the systematic study of this field. Empirical studies and tools for the assessment of SM tendencies are particularly sparse. Our aim was to develop a comprehensive tool for the assessment of an individual's engagement in SM practices. A comprehensive 24-item checklist of different types of SM play was generated with the assistance of members of the German SM community, covering both a dominance scale and a submission scale. The sadomasochism checklist was administered in an online study to a sample of 652 adults (345 female, 307 male), with 527 participants being active members in the SM community. Both the frequency of SM behavior and the attraction to the types of SM practices were assessed. Results revealed a one-factor structure for the dominance as well as the submission scale. The distinction between different types of practices (soft play, domination/submission, beating, toys, breath and bodily fluids) was confirmed using principal component analysis. Cronbach's alpha was appropriate. The total scores for the dominance and the submission scale distinguish between participants with different preferences for dominant and submissive practices. The newly developed scale is a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of the frequency of and attraction to SM behavior. It aims to provide the basis for future systematic studies on sadomasochism.

  20. Behavioral Assessment of Prelingually Deaf Children Before Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Horn, David L.; Pisoni, David B.; Sanders, Mary; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To determine whether scores from a behavioral assessment of prelingually deafened children who present for cochlear implant surgery are predictive of audiological outcomes Study Design Retrospective review of longitudinal data collected from 42 children with prelingual hearing loss who presented for a cochlear implant before age 5 years. Methods The Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS) was administered during the preimplant workup. Standardized scores reflect daily living skills, socialization, and motor development compared with a normative sample. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether any subject variables were related to VABS scores. Mixed-model analyses were computed to determine whether preimplant VABS scores were predictive of longitudinal spoken-language data obtained after cochlear implant surgery. Results Motor scores tended to be higher than nonmotor scores. Nonmotor scores were significantly lower than the normative mean and decreased with testing age. Children with acquired deafness demonstrated lower motor scores than children with congenital causes. Children with higher motor scores demonstrated significantly higher performance on language, vocabulary, and word recognition tests than children with lower motor scores. Nonmotor domains were not as robustly related to spoken-language measures, although similar trends were observed Conclusion Profound deafness and language delay may confound the assessment of daily living skills and socialization in the population studied. Motor development appears to proceed normally in prelingually deafened children and is a preimplant predictor of spoken-language outcome in young infants and children with cochlear implants, a finding consistent with the large body of work establishing links between perceptual-motor and language development. PMID:16148703

  1. Impulsivity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Subtype Classification Using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale

    PubMed Central

    Derefinko, Karen J.; Lynam, Donald R.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the classification accuracy of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS) in discriminating several attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, including predominantly inattentive type (ADHD/I), combined type (ADHD/C), and combined type with behavioral problems (ADHD/ODD), between each other and a non-ADHD control group using logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 88 children ranging in age from 9.0 years to 12.8 years, with a mean of 10.9 years. Children were predominantly male (74%) and Caucasian (86%) and in grades 3–7. Results indicated that the UPPS performed well in classifying ADHD subtypes relative to traditional diagnostic measures. In addition, analyses indicated that differences in symptoms between subtypes can be explained by specific pathways to impulsivity. Implications for the assessment of ADHD and conceptual issues are discussed. PMID:21765593

  2. Impulsivity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Subtype Classification Using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale.

    PubMed

    Miller, Drew J; Derefinko, Karen J; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the classification accuracy of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS) in discriminating several attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, including predominantly inattentive type (ADHD/I), combined type (ADHD/C), and combined type with behavioral problems (ADHD/ODD), between each other and a non-ADHD control group using logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 88 children ranging in age from 9.0 years to 12.8 years, with a mean of 10.9 years. Children were predominantly male (74%) and Caucasian (86%) and in grades 3-7. Results indicated that the UPPS performed well in classifying ADHD subtypes relative to traditional diagnostic measures. In addition, analyses indicated that differences in symptoms between subtypes can be explained by specific pathways to impulsivity. Implications for the assessment of ADHD and conceptual issues are discussed.

  3. Assessment of Social Behavior in Children with Autism: The Development of the Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Jennifer M.; Callahan, Emily H.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

    2011-01-01

    There are a limited number of assessments available to examine social skills deficits in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children (BASYC) was developed as a direct assessment of social deficits in young children with ASD relative to children without ASD. The BASYC is a…

  4. Where Are We: A Systematic Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of Pain Assessment Scales for Use in Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jinbing; Jiang, Nan

    2015-08-01

    Systematic pain assessment using reliable and valid pain scales is the foundation for optimal pain management in children. To evaluate the available scales for pain assessment in Chinese children, we systematically evaluated the psychometric properties of pain measurements used in Chinese children. We searched Chinese- and English-language databases from their inception to September 2013. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the psychometric properties of pain measures were examined in Chinese children (aged 0-18 years). Two bilingual reviewers independently evaluated the psychometric properties of the identified pain scales by a revised 11-item coding system. In all, 6 studies involving 775 participants were included in this review with six pain scales examined, including the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) Scale, COMFORT-Behavior Scale, Asian Version of Oucher Scale, Pain Observation Scale for Young Children (POCIS), Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) and Pain Assessment Scale for Preterm Infants (PASPI). The FLACC, COMFORT-Behavior Scale, and PASPI had very good psychometric qualities when administered in Chinese children; the Asian Version of Oucher Scale and POCIS showed acceptable to good psychometric qualities; and the NFCS had unacceptable psychometric qualities. Further psychometric testing of these observational measures and self-report pain scales in particular are needed among Chinese children of various age groups and in different pain situations. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional Assessment of Problem Behaviors in Applied Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchak, MaryAnn

    1993-01-01

    This article offers a framework for assessing problem behaviors in classroom settings. It explains three prerequisite steps (identification, prioritization, and delineation of operational definitions) and three methods for formulating hypotheses (structured interviews, systematic observations, and experimental functional analyses). (DB)

  6. Development and Construct Validation of the Mentor Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Pascale; Larose, Simon; Tarabulsy, George; Feng, Bei; Forget-Dubois, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Researchers suggest that certain supportive behaviors of mentors could increase the benefits of school-based mentoring for youth. However, the literature contains few validated instruments to measure these behaviors. In our present study, we aimed to construct and validate a tool to measure the supportive behaviors of mentors participating in…

  7. Development and Construct Validation of the Mentor Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Pascale; Larose, Simon; Tarabulsy, George; Feng, Bei; Forget-Dubois, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Researchers suggest that certain supportive behaviors of mentors could increase the benefits of school-based mentoring for youth. However, the literature contains few validated instruments to measure these behaviors. In our present study, we aimed to construct and validate a tool to measure the supportive behaviors of mentors participating in…

  8. School Refusal Behavior: Classification, Assessment, and Treatment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses diagnostic and functional classification, assessment, and treatment approaches for school refusal behavior. Diagnostic classification focuses on separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, depression, and truancy. Functional classification focuses on the maintaining consequences of the behavior, such as avoidance of…

  9. The Eating and Exercise Behavior Questionnaire: A Validity Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Jeffrey E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three studies assessing the Eating and Exercise Behavior Questionnaire indicated that it is reliable and useful in studying the eating patterns of the obese, differences in behavioral cue responses to eating, and multiple and single session weight loss training effectiveness.The research utility of the instrument is discussed. (CB)

  10. Social Behavioral Assessment and Intervention: Observations and Impressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    The author was favorably impressed with the breadth, scope, and quality of the articles in this issue that dealt with the various aspects and correlates of social behavioral functioning as well as assessment and intervention considerations. Each of these articles dealt with a unique aspect of social behavioral functioning in children and youth and…

  11. Writing Assessment's "Debilitating Inheritance": Behaviorism's Dismissal of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maja Joiwind

    2013-01-01

    In this project, I examine the legacy of behaviorism's dismissal of experience on contemporary writing assessment theory and practice within the field of composition studies. I use an archival study of John B. Watson's letters to Robert Mearns Yerkes to establish behaviorism's systematic denial of experience and its related constructs: mind,…

  12. Writing Assessment's "Debilitating Inheritance": Behaviorism's Dismissal of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maja Joiwind

    2013-01-01

    In this project, I examine the legacy of behaviorism's dismissal of experience on contemporary writing assessment theory and practice within the field of composition studies. I use an archival study of John B. Watson's letters to Robert Mearns Yerkes to establish behaviorism's systematic denial of experience and its related constructs: mind,…

  13. Human behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Kobayashi, Susumu; Hong, Zhen; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Wen, Guoqiang; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally classified as a movement disorder because patients mainly complain about motor symptoms. Recently, non-motor symptoms of PD have been recognized by clinicians and scientists as early signs of PD, and they are detrimental factors in the quality of life in advanced PD patients. It is crucial to comprehensively understand the essence of behavioral assessments, from the simplest measurement of certain symptoms to complex neuropsychological tasks. We have recently reviewed behavioral assessments in PD research with animal models (Asakawa et al., 2016). As a companion volume, this article will systematically review the behavioral assessments of motor and non-motor PD symptoms of human patients in current research. The major aims of this article are: (1) promoting a comparative understanding of various behavioral assessments in terms of the principle and measuring indexes; (2) addressing the major strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral assessments for a better selection of tasks/tests in order to avoid biased conclusions due to inappropriate assessments; and (3) presenting new concepts regarding the development of wearable devices and mobile internet in future assessments. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of improving the assessments for non-motor symptoms because of their complex and unique mechanisms in human PD brains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales--survey form, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development with infants evaluated for developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Raggio, D J; Massingale, T W

    1993-12-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales is an extensive revision of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale; however, research comparing the two scales with different populations and measures of intelligence is limited. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales--Survey Form, the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, and the mental scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to 44 infants referred for evaluation of developmental delay. The differences between means were compared and shared variance examined. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales--Survey Form scores were significantly higher than those of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Bayley Mental Development Index. No significant differences were found between the means of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Development Index. Correlations were .59 between the Bayley Index and scores on the Vineland--Survey Form and .72 between the Bayley Index and the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. Between versions of the Vineland scale r = .39. Implications for diagnosis and educational classification are discussed.

  15. Family doctors' views of pharmaceutical sales representatives: assessment scale development.

    PubMed

    Kersnik, Janko; Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Petek-Ster, Marija; Tusek-Bunc, Ksenija; Poplas-Susic, Tonka; Kolsek, Marko

    2011-08-01

    The prescribing patterns depend on the physicians' attitudes and their subjective norms towards prescribing a particular drug, as well as on their personal experience with a particular drug. The physicians are affected by their interactions with pharmaceutical industry. The objectives were to develop a scale for assessment of pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) by the family doctors (FDs) and to determine factors for their evaluation. Cross-sectional anonymous postal study. We included a random sample of 250 Slovenian FDs. Settings. Slovenian FDs' surgeries. The score of various items regarding FDs' assessment of PSRs on a 7-point Likert scale. We got 163 responses (65.2% response rate). The most important characteristic of PSRs, as rated by respondents on the scale from 1 to 7, was the fact that they did not mislead when presenting products' information. The second most important characteristic was the ability to provide objective information about the product. The first three most important characteristics, as rated by the respondents by themselves, were 'Shows good knowledge on the promoted subject', 'Provides objective product information' and 'Makes brief and exact visits'. Cronbach's alpha of the composite scale was 0.844. Factor analysis revealed three PSRs' factors: selling skills, communicating skills and sense of trustworthiness. FDs evaluate PSRs mainly by their managerial skills and trustworthiness. The scale proved to be a reliable tool for assessing PSRs by FDs.

  16. The Incremental Validity of a Short Form of the Ideational Behavior Scale and Usefulness of Distractor, Contraindicative, and Lie Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.; Walczyk, Jeffrey John; Acar, Selcuk; Cowger, Ernest L.; Simundson, Melissa; Tripp, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an empirical refinement of the "Runco Ideational Behavior Scale" (RIBS). The RIBS seems to be associated with divergent thinking, and the potential for creative thinking, but it was possible that its validity could be improved. With this in mind, three new scales were developed and the unique benefit (or…

  17. The Incremental Validity of a Short Form of the Ideational Behavior Scale and Usefulness of Distractor, Contraindicative, and Lie Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.; Walczyk, Jeffrey John; Acar, Selcuk; Cowger, Ernest L.; Simundson, Melissa; Tripp, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an empirical refinement of the "Runco Ideational Behavior Scale" (RIBS). The RIBS seems to be associated with divergent thinking, and the potential for creative thinking, but it was possible that its validity could be improved. With this in mind, three new scales were developed and the unique benefit (or…

  18. The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire very short scale: Psychometric properties and development of a one-item temperament scale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little research has been conducted on the psychometrics of the very short scale (36 items) of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, and no one-item temperament scale has been tested for use in applied work. In this study, 237 United States caregivers completed a survey to define their child’s behav...

  19. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  20. Predictive validity of the MMPI-2 clinical, PSY-5, and RC scales for therapy disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Wubbo; Tiemens, Bea G; Verheul, Roel; Meerman, Anke; Egger, Jos; Hutschemaekers, Giel

    2012-11-01

    Impulsive acts, parasuicidal behavior, and other therapy disruptive incidents occur frequently in the treatment of patients with personality disorders and increase the risk that patients will drop out of treatment. This study examined the predictive validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) and Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales for therapy disruptive behavior and compared them with the original clinical scales. Using an inventory, the treatment staff recorded the therapy disruptive behavior of 104 patients with personality disorders who were receiving inpatient psychotherapy. Both the RC and the PSY-5 scales predicted several categories of therapy disruptive behavior, and both scales predicted more categories of therapy disruptive behavior than the original clinical scales. Anger outbursts were predicted especially well by a combination of two of the RC scales. The information about the MMPI-2 obtained in this study may be helpful in case formulation when initiating inpatient treatment for patients with personality disorders.

  1. Assessment of Environment-Therapy Systems: The Group Atmosphere Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbergeld, Sam; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The Group Atmosphere Scale (GAS) was developed to measure systematically the psychosocial environment of therapy groups. Twelve content subscales, each containing 10 true-false items, assess the consensual psychosocial environment. Several of these serve as indicators of group cohesion and conformity. The GAS makes feasible a comparison of…

  2. Improving the Utility of Large-Scale Assessments in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, W. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Principals and teachers do not use large-scale assessment results because the lack of distinct and reliable subtests prevents identifying strengths and weaknesses of students and instruction, the results arrive too late to be used, and principals and teachers need assistance to use the results to improve instruction so as to improve student…

  3. Large-Scale Assessments and Educational Policies in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiani, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Despite Italy's extensive participation in most large-scale assessments, their actual influence on Italian educational policies is less easy to identify. The present contribution aims at highlighting and explaining reasons for the weak and often inconsistent relationship between international surveys and policy-making processes in Italy.…

  4. Large-Scale Assessments and Educational Policies in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiani, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Despite Italy's extensive participation in most large-scale assessments, their actual influence on Italian educational policies is less easy to identify. The present contribution aims at highlighting and explaining reasons for the weak and often inconsistent relationship between international surveys and policy-making processes in Italy.…

  5. Assessing Laptop Use in Higher Education: The Laptop Use Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin; Lauricella, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The laptop computer is considered one of the most used and important technological devices in higher education, yet limited systematic research has been conducted to develop a measure of laptop use in college and university. The purpose of the following study was to develop a research-based, theoretically grounded scale to assess student use of…

  6. Teachers' Rooms Environmental Assessment Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Suna

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' rooms are important parts of educational environments, as the quality of the physical-spatial and psychosocial conditions may affect the personal and occupational developments of teachers as well as the education processes. In Study 1 (n = 245), a Teachers' Rooms-Environmental Assessment Scale (TREAS) measure of the current conditions of…

  7. Large-Scale Assessment and English Language Learners with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kristin K.; Ward, Jenna M.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Christensen, Laurene L.

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights a set of principles and guidelines, developed by a diverse group of specialists in the field, for appropriately including English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities in large-scale assessments. ELLs with disabilities make up roughly 9% of the rapidly increasing ELL population nationwide. In spite of the small overall…

  8. Assessing Laptop Use in Higher Education: The Laptop Use Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin; Lauricella, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The laptop computer is considered one of the most used and important technological devices in higher education, yet limited systematic research has been conducted to develop a measure of laptop use in college and university. The purpose of the following study was to develop a research-based, theoretically grounded scale to assess student use of…

  9. A mechanistic assessment of nutrient flushing at the catchment scale

    Treesearch

    Willem J. van Verseveld; Jeffrey J. McDonnell; Kate Lajtha

    2008-01-01

    This paper mechanistically assesses the flushing mechanism of DOC, DON, and DIN at the hillslope and catchment scales during two storm events, in a small catchment (WS10), H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Using a combination of natural tracer and hydrometric data, and end-member mixing analysis, we were able to describe the...

  10. Classification of the hearing impaired for independent living using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, W R; Sands, D I

    1990-12-01

    Training hearing-impaired persons in independent living skills has become a focus of education and rehabilitation programs for the hearing impaired. Yet, few programs and assessment instruments are designed to evaluate a person's potential for acquiring independent living skills. In this study, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was used to classify 118 hearing-impaired persons in groups based on their ability to be trained in independent living skills. Cluster analysis was used to group the subjects according to four domains: communication, daily living, socialization, and maladaptive behavior. The results indicate that the behavior scale can be used to classify hearing-impaired persons according to their ability to acquire independent living skills. The cluster analysis resulted in three groups. The persons in the lowest group did not have the most severe hearing losses, but they were more likely to have additional handicaps. This suggests that additional handicaps may be more important than degree of hearing loss in determining whether hearing-impaired persons can acquire independent living skills.

  11. Architecture of idiotypic networks: Percolation and scaling Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brede, Markus; Behn, Ulrich

    2001-07-01

    We investigate a model where idiotypes (characterizing B lymphocytes and antibodies of an immune system) and anti-idiotypes are represented by complementary bit strings of a given length d allowing for a number of mismatches (matching rules). In this model, the vertices of the hypercube in dimension d represent the potential repertoire of idiotypes. A random set of (with probability p) occupied vertices corresponds to the expressed repertoire of idiotypes at a given moment. Vertices of this set linked by the above matching rules build random clusters. We give a structural and statistical characterization of these clusters, or in other words of the architecture of the idiotypic network. Increasing the probability p one finds at a critical p a percolation transition where for the first time a large connected graph occurs with probability 1. Increasing p further, there is a second transition above which the repertoire is complete in the sense that any newly introduced idiotype finds a complementary anti-idiotype. We introduce structural characteristics such as the mass distribution and the fragmentation rate for random clusters, and determine the scaling behavior of the cluster size distribution near the percolation transition, including finite size corrections. We find that slightly above the percolation transition the large connected cluster (the central part of the idiotypic network) consists typically of one highly connected part and a number of weakly connected constituents and coexists with a number of small, isolated clusters. This is in accordance with the picture of a central and a peripheral part of the idiotypic network and gives some support to idealized architectures of the central part used in recent dynamical mean field models.

  12. Scaling behavior of VO2peak in trained wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Batterham, Alan M; Tolfrey, Keith

    2003-12-01

    To examine the scaling behavior of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in wheelchair athletes, adjusting for known covariates. Body mass, VO2peak, and an estimate of adiposity (sum of four skinfolds) were determined in a sample of 45 highly trained wheelchair basketball and racing athletes. The participants were classified as possessing either "high" or "low" trunk stability and balance using recognized sporting classifications. A wheelchair ergometer was used to obtain the VO2peak measurements. The relationship between VO2peak and body mass was obtained via a nonlinear allometric model with the sum of four skinfolds, trunk stability and balance, and chronological age entered as covariates. The point estimate exponent for body mass was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.54-1.10). After controlling for the influence of body mass, adiposity, and age, the wheelchair athletes with greater trunk stability and balance had on average an 11% greater VO2peak. The regression model explained 54% of the sample variance in VO2peak. The obtained mass exponent of 0.82 is congruent with that predicted from the multiple-causes allometric cascade model and consideration of the physiological characteristics of spinal cord injured athletes. To compare the body size-independent VO2peak values of athletes within the study sample, the mass exponent of 0.82 may be adopted (i.e., mL x kg(-0.82) x min(-1)). The uncertainty in the point estimate, reflected in the relatively wide 95% CI, highlights the need for further research with larger samples to increase the precision of estimation.

  13. Animal behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Hong, Zhen; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Villarreal, Sebastian J; Onoe, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is traditionally classified as a movement disorder. Patients typically suffer from many motor dysfunctions. Presently, clinicians and scientists recognize that many non-motor symptoms are associated with PD. There is an increasing interest in both motor and non-motor symptoms in clinical studies on PD patients and laboratory research on animal models that imitate the pathophysiologic features and symptoms of PD patients. Therefore, appropriate behavioral assessments are extremely crucial for correctly understanding the mechanisms of PD and accurately evaluating the efficacy and safety of novel therapies. This article systematically reviews the behavioral assessments, for both motor and non-motor symptoms, in various animal models involved in current PD research. We addressed the strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral tests and their appropriate applications. Moreover, we discussed potential mechanisms behind these behavioral tests and cautioned readers against potential experimental bias. Since most of the behavioral assessments currently used for non-motor symptoms are not particularly designed for animals with PD, it is of the utmost importance to greatly improve experimental design and evaluation in PD research with animal models. Indeed, it is essential to develop specific assessments for non-motor symptoms in PD animals based on their characteristics. We concluded with a prospective view for behavioral assessments with real-time assessment with mobile internet and wearable device in future PD research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing Vulnerability to Drought on a pan-European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; González-Tánago, Itziar; Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    During the past decade, a number of theoretical frameworks have been defined within the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change communities to assess drought vulnerability at different scales, sectors, socio-political contexts, and geo-climatic conditions. However, there is still little consensus around the criteria, dimensions and factors used in these assessments; and none of them has been applied at a pan-European scale. This is due to a triple complexity. Firstly, drought as a natural hazard is a complex phenomenon due to the difficulty of determining its onset and its multiscale, multifaceted and dynamic nature. Secondly, there is an on-going debate regarding the concept of vulnerability and its constitutive elements, together with an important diversity of theoretical approaches to assess it. Finally, Europe's diversity in bioclimatic conditions, national water use practice and water use policies adds a challenging characteristic for working on pan-European scale. This work addresses the challenge of defining a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability factors to drought at a pan-European scale. For this purpose, we first review existing conceptual frameworks as well as of past initiatives for drought vulnerability assessment. The literature review showed that the high complexity of drought vulnerability assessment requires a clear definition of the concept of vulnerability and the associated terms, and that, before undertaking any assessment, it is necessary to clearly define the "vulnerable unit" i.e. replying to the questions 'whose vulnerability is being assessed?' and 'vulnerability to what type of impact?'. In this context, this work proposes the application of a factor-based approach, consisting in the analysis of significant factors that influence vulnerability in the context of specific situations of potential vulnerability. Those situations are framed within the specific drought characteristics of four different geoclimatic macro

  15. Development and validation of a scale to measure Latino parenting strategies related to children's obesigenic behaviors. The parenting strategies for eating and activity scale (PEAS).

    PubMed

    Larios, Sandra E; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Arredondo, Elva M; Baquero, Barbara; Elder, John P

    2009-02-01

    Research has shown that children's dietary and activity-related behaviors are shaped by the family environment and parenting behaviors. The present study describes the development and validation of a bilingual (Spanish and English) scale assessing parenting strategies associated with children's dietary and activity-related behaviors in the home. Items were generated from focus groups with Latina mothers and a review of the literature, and two different samples were used to assess the scale's psychometric properties, including an examination of predictive validity using measured child body mass index. Factor analysis of the first sample (N=91) yielded a 5-factor solution (limit setting, monitoring, discipline, control and concern) and accounted for 65% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analyses on a second sample of Latina mothers recruited into a childhood obesity prevention study (N=714) showed that a 26-item 5-factor solution (limit setting, monitoring, discipline, control and reinforcement) provided the best fit for the data. Parenting strategies characterized as controlling were associated with a lower BMI among children. After using multiple samples and establishing its validity, the parenting strategies for eating and activity scale (PEAS) was found to be valid and reliable in measuring Latino parenting strategies related to children's dietary and activity-related behaviors.

  16. Comparison of Different Symptom Assessment Scales for Multiple System Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Masaaki; Yabe, Ichiro; Oba, Koji; Sakushima, Ken; Mito, Yasunori; Takei, Asako; Houzen, Hideki; Tsuzaka, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Kazuto; Maruo, Yasunori; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2016-04-01

    To identify the most sensitive scale for use in clinical trials on multiple system atrophy (MSA), a short and sensitive scale is needed for MSA clinical trials. Potential candidates are the Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS), Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), MSA Health-Related Quality of Life scale (MSA-QoL), and Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Autonomic questionnaire (SCOPA-AUT). We enrolled patients with MSA from eight hospitals in Hokkaido, Japan. Board-certified neurologists assessed each patient at 6-month intervals and scored them on the UMSARS, SARA, BBS, MSA-QoL, and SCOPA-AUT. Score changes were evaluated using the standardized response mean (SRM). The correlation between disease duration and each score was examined. The first evaluation was conducted on 85 patients (60 patients with MSA cerebellar ataxia dominant subtype [MSA-C] and 25 patients with MSA Parkinsonism-dominant subtype [MSA-P]). Sixty-nine patients were examined after 6 months and 63 patients after 12 months. The UMSARS Part 4 had the largest SRM after 6 months and the SARA after 12 months. SRMs for MSA-P, the shorter duration group, and the early-onset group were larger than were those for MSA-C, the longer duration group, and the late-onset group. SRMs for items regarding skilled hand activities, walking, and standing were relatively large. Our study indicates that the UMSARS (parts 2 and 4), SARA, and BBS are sensitive scales for evaluating MSA progression over 12 months. Items with large SRMs effectively evaluated short-term changes.

  17. Stereotypy I: a review of behavioral assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rapp, John T; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we review definitional issues related to stereotypy, behavioral interpretations of stereotypy, procedures for determining operant function(s) of stereotypy, and behavioral interventions for stereotypy. In general, a preponderance of the assessment literature suggests that most forms of stereotypy are maintained by automatic reinforcement. Review of the treatment literature suggests that antecedent (e.g., environmental enrichment) and consequent (e.g., differential reinforcement of alternative behavior) interventions produce at least short-term reductions in stereotypy. Suggestions for further assessment and treatment of stereotypy are provided.

  18. Full scale assessment of pansharpening methods and data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiazzi, B.; Alparone, L.; Baronti, S.; Carlà, R.; Garzelli, A.; Santurri, L.

    2014-10-01

    Quality assessment of pansharpened images is traditionally carried out either at degraded spatial scale by checking the synthesis property ofWald's protocol or at the full spatial scale by separately checking the spectral and spatial consistencies. The spatial distortion of the QNR protocol and the spectral distortion of Khan's protocol may be combined into a unique quality index, referred to as hybrid QNR (HQNR), that is calculated at full scale. Alternatively, multiscale measurements of indices requiring a reference, like SAM, ERGAS and Q4, may be extrapolated to yield a quality measurement at the full scale of the fusion product, where a reference does not exist. Experiments on simulated Pĺeiades data, of which reference originals at full scale are available, highlight that quadratic polynomials having three-point support, i.e. fitting three measurements at as many progressively doubled scales, are adequate. Q4 is more suitable for extrapolation than ERGAS and SAM. The Q4 value predicted from multiscale measurements and the Q4 value measured at full scale thanks to the reference original, differ by very few percents for six different state-of-the-art methods that have been compared. HQNR is substantially comparable to the extrapolated Q4.

  19. Comparison of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Survey Form age equivalent and standard score with the Bayley Mental Development Index.

    PubMed

    Raggio, D J; Massingale, T W; Bass, J D

    1994-08-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Survey Form standard score, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Survey Form age equivalent and Bayley scales' Mental Development Index were given to 44 high-risk infants age 12 mo. and suspected of developmental delay. The VABS-Survey Form, a revision of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale is frequently used in assessment of developmental delay; however, questions have arisen as to whether the standard score or age equivalent is the better measure. A developmental quotient based on VABS-SF age equivalent and VABS-SF standard score was compared with the Bayley Mental Development Index. The mean VABS-SF standard score was significantly higher than the age equivalent quotient and the Bayley Mental Development Index. Implications for the use of VABS-SF age equivalent in evaluating such infants are discussed.

  20. Item-response-theory analysis of two scales for self-efficacy for exercise behavior in people with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, Thelma J; Edwards, Michael C; Callahan, Leigh F

    2011-07-01

    Benefits of physical activity for those with arthritis are clear, yet physical activity is difficult to initiate and maintain. Self-efficacy is a key modifiable psychosocial determinant of physical activity. This study examined two scales for self-efficacy for exercise behavior (SEEB) to identify their strengths and weaknesses using item response theory (IRT) from community-based randomized controlled trials of physical activity programs in adults with arthritis. The 2 SEEB scales included the 9-item scale by Resnick developed with older adults and the 5-item scale by Marcus developed with employed adults. All IRT analyses were conducted using the graded-response model. IRT assumptions were assessed using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The IRT analyses indicated that these scales are precise and reliable measures for identifying people with arthritis and low SEEB. The Resnick SEEB scale is slightly more precise at lower levels of self-efficacy in older adults with arthritis.

  1. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Neonatal Behavior: A Large-Scale Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Laura R.; Paster, Rachel L.; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Shenassa, Edmond; Buka, Stephen; Niaura, Raymond; Rosenblith, Judy F.; Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of prospectively-measured smoking during pregnancy on aspects of neonatal behavior in a large, community sample. Patients and Methods Participants were mothers and infants from the Providence Cohort of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project enrolled between 1960 and 1966. Mothers with pregnancy/medical complications and infants with medical complications and/or born premature or low birthweight were excluded. The final sample included 962 mother-infant pairs, of whom 23% were African-American. Maternal smoking was measured prospectively at each prenatal visit. Neonatal behavior was assessed using the Graham-Rosenblith Behavioral Examination of the Neonate. Items from the examination were reduced to three subscales: irritability, muscle tone, response to respiratory challenge. Results Sixty-two percent of the sample reported smoking during pregnancy with 24% of smokers reporting smoking a pack per day or more. We found a significant influence of maternal smoking exposure (none, moderate/less than a pack per day, heavy/pack a day or more) on irritability and muscle tone in the neonate (p's<.005), with exposed infants showing greater irritability and hypertonicity. Effects remained significant after controlling for significant covariates: maternal socioeconomic status, age and race, and infant birthweight and age (p's<.001). Post hoc tests suggested particular effects of heavy smoking on increased infant irritability, but both moderate and heavy smoking exposure on increased muscle tone. Conclusions In a large, community sample, exposure to maternal smoking was associated with increased irritability and hypertonicity in neonates. Exposure to maternal smoking did not influence neonatal response to respiratory challenge. This study is the largest-scale investigation to date of effects of maternal smoking (heavy and moderate) on examiner-assessed neonatal behavior. Given associations between both maternal smoking and infant

  2. [Factor structure analysis of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scale scores in Spanish population].

    PubMed

    Benítez Muñoz, Juan Luis; Pichardo Martínez, María del Carmen; García Berbén, Trinidad; Fernández Cabezas, María; Justicia Justicia, Fernando; Fernández de Haro, Eduardo

    2011-04-01

    Social competence and antisocial behavior in children are interesting variables for researchers and educators. Nonetheless, there are few assessment instruments capable of measuring the two constructs in small children. The aim of this study is to verify the structural validity of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scale for Teachers and Caregivers (PKBS-2), in order to determine the theoretical model that best fits the data from a Spanish sample. 1509 children from preschool education (741 males and 768 females) from 3 to 6 years old (M= 3.78; SD= 0.815) participated in the study. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS-15.0) and the Structural Equations Program (EQS 6.1). The resulting models of social skills and behavioral problems show adequate fit indexes, statistically significant loadings, and a high internal consistency index (Cronbach's alpha). Lastly, the structural model confirms a two-factor structure: a first factor of Social Skills, comprising three variables (social cooperation, social interaction, and social independence), and a second factor of Behavior Problems, comprising two variables (externalization and internalization of problems).

  3. Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior…

  4. The Scale of Independent Behavior and Revised Vineland: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Helene; And Others

    The relationship between the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) was investigated, with 53 children as subjects. Specifically, the study sought to examine the convergent and discriminant validities of the long forms of the SIB and the VABS and to ascertain the accuracy of classification of…

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior…

  6. Refining a self-assessment of informatics competency scale using Mokken scaling analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare environments are increasingly implementing health information technology (HIT) and those from various professions must be competent to use HIT in meaningful ways. In addition, HIT has been shown to enable interprofessional approaches to health care. The purpose of this article is to describe the refinement of the Self-Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies Scale (SANICS) using analytic techniques based upon item response theory (IRT) and discuss its relevance to interprofessional education and practice. In a sample of 604 nursing students, the 93-item version of SANICS was examined using non-parametric IRT. The iterative modeling procedure included 31 steps comprising: (1) assessing scalability, (2) assessing monotonicity, (3) assessing invariant item ordering, and (4) expert input. SANICS was reduced to an 18-item hierarchical scale with excellent reliability. Fundamental skills for team functioning and shared decision making among team members (e.g. "using monitoring systems appropriately," "describing general systems to support clinical care") had the highest level of difficulty, and "demonstrating basic technology skills" had the lowest difficulty level. Most items reflect informatics competencies relevant to all health professionals. Further, the approaches can be applied to construct a new hierarchical scale or refine an existing scale related to informatics attitudes or competencies for various health professions.

  7. Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

  8. Behavior of local dissipation scales in turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sean; Hultmark, Marcus; Schumacher, Joerg; Yakhot, Victor; Smits, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    Classically, dissipation of turbulence has been thought to occur around the Kolmogorov scales. However, the Kolmogorov scales are prescribed using mean dissipation rate, whereas dissipation is spatially intermittent. It therefore seems natural to instead describe dissipation using a continuum of local length scales rather than a single scale. By connecting a local dissipation scale η to the velocity increment across this scale δuη, it is possible to derive a probability density function (PDF) of η which show how the dissipation is contained in scales larger and smaller than the Kolmogorov scale. Here we present a comparison between measured PDFs in turbulent pipe flow, the analytically derived PDF, and PDFs determined from direct numerical simulation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. It was found that there is good general agreement between experiment, simulation and theory amongst both homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent flows, pointing to universality in the dissipation scales amongst different flows. It was also found that the PDFs are invariant with distance from the wall except for a region very near the wall (y^+<80), where dissipation was found to occur at increasingly larger length scales as the wall is approached.

  9. Reliability and validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Michael R; Dill, Charles A; Shin, Jin Y; Nguyen, Viet Nhan

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition Survey Forms Manual. AGS Publishing] and its psychometric properties in Vietnamese culture. The 1984 version of VABS was translated and adapted to form the Vietnamese version of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VVABS). The scale was administered to 120 Vietnamese mothers of non-disabled preschool-age children enrolled in kindergarten programs. It was found that the VVABS has acceptable levels of internal consistency reliability and construct validity, and could discriminate successfully between Vietnamese children with intellectual disabilities from those of typical development. The results that were comparable to the VABS indicate a successful adaptation of the construct and measure of adaptive behavior to a non-western culture.

  10. Scaling behavior in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection revealed by conditional structure functions.

    PubMed

    Ching, Emily S C; Tsang, Yue-Kin; Fok, T N; He, Xiaozhou; Tong, Penger

    2013-01-01

    We show that the nature of the scaling behavior can be revealed by studying the conditional structure functions evaluated at given values of the locally averaged thermal dissipation rate. These conditional structure functions have power-law dependence on the value of the locally averaged thermal dissipation rate, and such dependence for the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling is different from the other scaling behaviors. Our analysis of experimental measurements verifies the power-law dependence and reveals the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling behavior at the center of the bottom plate of the convection cell.

  11. Social Desirability and Behavior Rating Scales: An Exploratory Study with the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…

  12. Social Desirability and Behavior Rating Scales: An Exploratory Study with the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…

  13. Development of the Behavioral Evaluation of Disorders of Sleep Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    We describe the development, preliminary psychometric properties, and cross-validation of the Behavioral Evaluation of Disorders of Sleep (BEDS: Schreck 1997/1998). Parental reports of problem sleep behavior in elementary school aged children 5 years to 12 years were collected for two samples. With the first sample, an exploratory factor analysis…

  14. Development of the Behavioral Evaluation of Disorders of Sleep Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    We describe the development, preliminary psychometric properties, and cross-validation of the Behavioral Evaluation of Disorders of Sleep (BEDS: Schreck 1997/1998). Parental reports of problem sleep behavior in elementary school aged children 5 years to 12 years were collected for two samples. With the first sample, an exploratory factor analysis…

  15. Relevance of Functional Behavioral Assessment Research for School-Based Interventions and Positive Behavioral Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Olson-Tinker, Heidi; Dolstra, Lisa; McLaughlin, Veronica; Van, Mai

    2004-01-01

    The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandate the use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral supports and interventions for students with disabilities. Although much progress has been made in our understanding of functional analysis over the past 15 years, the extent to which these…

  16. Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans: Legal Requirements and Professional Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lauren W.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2017-01-01

    Functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) are critical components in the education of students with, or at risk for, emotional disturbance (ED). The purpose of this article is to compare the legal requirements with the professional requirements for FBAs and BIPs. The comparison is first according to the…

  17. Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Occasioned by Interruption of Free-Operant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Bowman, Lynn G.; Jennett, Heather K.

    2007-01-01

    The current study describes the assessment and treatment of the problem behavior of 3 individuals with autism for whom initial functional analysis results were inconclusive. Subsequent analyses revealed that the interruption of free-operant behavior using "do" requests (Study 1) as well as "do" and "don't" requests (Study 2) occasioned problem…

  18. A New IDEA Mandate: The Use of Functional Assessment of Behavior and Positive Behavior Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses requirements under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments of 1997 for functional assessments of behavior (FABs) and provision of positive behavioral supports (PBSs). It describes steps in implementing FABs and examples of appropriate PBSs with students with disabilities. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  19. State Special Education Laws for Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive search identified 31 state statutes and regulations specific to functional behavioral assessments (FBA) and behavior intervention plans (BIP) in the special education context. A systematic tabulation of the state law provisions that exceed the rather narrow foundation requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act…

  20. [Analysis of risk assessment scales for pressure ulcer].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pina, Josefa Patricia; Richart-Martínez, Miguel; Guirao-Goris, Josef Adolf; Duarte-Climents, Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    To perform a literature review of the scales and instruments used to assess the risk of developing a pressure ulcer (RPU) in the adult and elderly population and to analyze whether these scales meet the criteria of validity and reliability. To determine whether a specific scale has been developed for use in the domiciliary care setting and adapted to the Spanish environment. We performed a descriptive study with a search of the CUIDEN, IME, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases between January 1990 and December 2005. A specifically-designed form was used to register the variables. Data extraction was performed by a single person. The key words used were pressure ulcer, decubitus ulcer, pressure sore, risk evaluation scales, validity, sensitivity, specificity and reliability and their equivalents in Spanish. Complete descriptions of 22 instruments and studies of the validity and/or reliability of 15 instruments were found. At present, and based on the results of this review, the RPU scale that has shown the greatest validity and reliability is the Braden-Bergstrom scale.