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  1. The diameter and albedo of 1943 Anteros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.; Tedesco, E. F.; Tholen, D. J.; Tokunaga, A.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Kowal, C.

    1981-01-01

    The results of broadband visual and infrared photometry of the Apollo-Amor asteroid 1943 Anteros during its 1980 apparition are reported. By means of a radiometric model, a diameter of 2.3 + or - 0.2 km and a visual geometric albedo of 0.13 + or - 0.03 is calculated. The albedo and reflectance spectrum of Anteros imply that it is a type S asteroid. Thus, Anteros may have a silicate surface similar to other Apollo-Amor asteroids as well as some stony-iron meteorites.

  2. Optimization of exposure index values for the antero-posterior pelvis and antero-posterior knee examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, M. L.; Rainford, L.; Last, J.; Brennan, P. C.

    2009-02-01

    Introduction The American Association of Medical Physicists is currently standardizing the exposure index (EI) value. Recent studies have questioned whether the EI value offered by manufacturers is optimal. This current work establishes optimum EIs for the antero-posterior (AP) projections of a pelvis and knee on a Carestream Health (Kodak) CR system and compares these with manufacturers recommended EI values from a patient dose and image quality perspective. Methodology Human cadavers were used to produce images of clinically relevant standards. Several exposures were taken to achieve various EI values and corresponding entrance surface doses (ESD) were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Image quality was assessed by 5 experienced clinicians using anatomical criteria judged against a reference image. Visualization of image specific common abnormalities was also analyzed to establish diagnostic efficacy. Results A rise in ESD for both examinations, consistent with increasing EI was shown. Anatomic image quality was deemed to be acceptable at an EI of 1560 for the AP pelvis and 1590 for the AP knee. From manufacturers recommended values, a significant reduction in ESD (p=0.02) of 38% and 33% for the pelvis and knee respectively was noted. Initial pathological analysis suggests that diagnostic efficacy at lower EI values may be projection-specific. Conclusion The data in this study emphasize the need for clinical centres to consider establishing their own EI guidelines, and not necessarily relying on manufacturers recommendations. Normal and abnormal images must be used in this process.

  3. Generation of a second eye by embryonic transplantation of the antero-ventral hemicephalon.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takuma; Yasuda, Kunio; Araki, Masasuke

    2009-10-01

    Vertebrate ocular morphogenesis requires proper dorso-ventral polarity within the optic vesicle, and loss of dorso-ventral polarity results in failure of optic cup formation and domain specification, as shown by a reverse transplantation of the optic vesicle. We have shown previously that the ocular development depends not only on the signal within the antero-ventral optic vesicle but also on the extraocular signals. In the present study, using embryonic transplantation of a discrete portion of the embryonic chick brain, we demonstrate formation of a second eye from the antero-ventral hemicephalon when it was transplanted in the antero-dorsal hemicephalon of the host embryo. The transplant consists of an antero-ventral quadrant of the optic vesicle and the surrounding part of the anterior cephalon. The original dorso-ventral polarity of the transplant was once cancelled and re-established in accordance with that of the host embryo. Neither dorsal nor ventral cephalic halves in isolation did not develop into entire eye structures under the culture condition; the dorsal halves developed merely into the retinal pigmented epithelium and the ventral halves into the neural retina alone. The present study clearly suggests that extraocular dorsal and ventral signals counterbalance each other to specify the polarity of the optic vesicle.

  4. Antero-posterior Duplicate Exstrophy with a Wet Bladder Plate: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Nirali Chirag; Raj, Prince; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Variants of exstrophy are rare anomalies seen in the spectrum of bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex. We present a rare case of duplicate exstrophy with a wet bladder plate. This is a deviation from the classical description of antero-posterior duplicate exstrophy that is associated with a dry bladder plate. PMID:27433455

  5. The arm posture in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy is mainly related to antero-posterior gait instability.

    PubMed

    Meyns, Pieter; Duysens, Jacques; Desloovere, Kaat

    2016-09-01

    In this observational case-control study we aimed to determine whether altered arm postures in children with unilateral CP (uniCP) are related to gait instability in a specific direction. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral Foot Placement Estimator instability measures and arm posture measures (vertical and antero-posterior hand position, sagittal and frontal upper arm elevation angle) were determined in eleven uniCP (7 years-10 months) and twenty-four typically developing children (9 years-6 months) at two walking speeds. Spearman-rank correlation analyses were made to examine the relationship between antero-posterior and medio-lateral arm posture and gait instability. Arm posture in both planes was related to antero-posterior instability (e.g. sagittal and frontal upper arm elevation angle correlated moderately with antero-posterior instability; R=0.41, p<0.001, R=-0.47, p<0.001). In uniCP, increased antero-posterior instability was associated with a higher (R=-0.62, p=0.002) and more frontal position of the hemiplegic hand (R=-0.58, p=0.005), while the non-hemiplegic upper arm was rotated more backward (R=0.63, p=0.002) and both upper arms rotated more sideways (hemiplegic: R=-0.58, p=0.004; non-hemiplegic: R=-0.55, p=0.008). The altered non-hemiplegic (sagittal and frontal) arm posture in uniCP may be a compensation to reduce antero-posterior gait instability.

  6. Missions to the asteroid Anteros and the space of true anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulkower, N. D.; Ross, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three opportunities for missions to rendezvous ballistically with the earth-crossing asteroid Anteros are studied to illustrate the requirements for a trip to a near-earth minor planet. The rationale, sample payload, spacecraft requirements and trajectory characteristics of these opportunities are typical of a rendezvous mission to an accessible near-earth object. Round trip ballistic trajectories to return small samples of the asteroid with launch dates between 1985 and 2000 are also presented. Contours of minimum total delta drawn in the space of launch and arrival true anomalies, given the designation Prime Rib curves, are introduced as a useful tool for mission design.

  7. Perception of facial profile attractiveness of different antero-posterior and vertical proportions.

    PubMed

    Abu Arqoub, Sarah H; Al-Khateeb, Susan N

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the influence of changing the antero-posterior (AP) and vertical proportions of the lower face on the rankings of facial attractiveness. Four hundred and fifty-four (219 males and 235 females) native Jordanians of various ages and professions rated the attractiveness of a sequence of antero-posteriorly and vertically altered male and female profile images. Attractiveness ranking scores were obtained from the visual assessment of these digitally altered male and female profile images that represented a range of AP and vertical lower facial proportions. The mean and standard deviation (SD) for the rank scores were calculated. Statistical analyses were employed for comparison between the different age groups, genders, and professions. A Class I male profile with a normal lower face height and Class I female profile with a reduced lower face height were ranked as the most attractive. Class II male and female profiles with increased lower face heights were ranked as least attractive. As the vertical and AP dimensions diverged from normal, attractiveness decreased. Images with Class II profile features and increased lower face heights were considered less attractive than corresponding images with Class III profile features and reduced lower face heights. Gender had a limited influence on the perception of attractiveness. A significant difference was found between dentists and lay people in the perception of profile attractiveness.

  8. Antero-posterior activity changes in the superficial masseter muscle after exposure to experimental pain.

    PubMed

    Türp, Jens C; Schindler, Hans J; Pritsch, Maria; Rong, Qiguo

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this randomized, controlled, double-blind study was to examine how the activation pattern of the masseter muscle changes during natural function when experimental pain is induced in a discrete anterior area of the muscle. In 20 subjects, three bipolar surface electrodes and three intramuscular fine-wire electrodes (antero-posterior mapping) were simultaneously attached above and in the right masseter muscle to record the electromyographic (EMG) activity during unilateral chewing before and after infusion of a 0.9% isotonic and 5% hypertonic saline bolus in the anterior area of the muscle. The activity of the contralateral masseter muscle was registered by surface electrodes. In addition, the development of pain intensity was quantitatively measured with a numerical rating scale (NRS). While both saline concentrations caused pain, the hypertonic solution evoked stronger pain. The experiments also provided evidence of a significant although differential activity reduction of the ipsilateral masseter muscle in the antero-posterior direction. The activity reduction decreased with increasing distance from the location of the infusion. The results support the idea that the strategy of differential activation protects the injured muscle while simultaneously maintaining optimal function.

  9. Open antero-lateral dislocation of the elbow. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Juan A; Roy, Bibas R; Shaw, David L

    2002-01-01

    Background Open dislocations are infrequent, often associated with damage to the neuro vascular structures. We present an unusual case of an open antero-lateral dislocation of the elbow, which was not associated with any vascular or neural injury. Case presentation A 34 year female dance instructor sustained an open dislocation of her elbow. Surgical exploration was undertaken. No major neurovascular injury was present. There was almost complete disruption of all the muscular and ligamentous attachments to the distal humerus and the proximal radius and ulna, which were not formally repaired during surgery. The elbow was found to be very unstable, and was placed in a back slab. The functional recovery was complete in about six months, the patient regaining full range of elbow movement. Elbow dislocations without associate fractures are adequately treated by manipulation and reduction, in spite of the almost complete disruption of the soft tissues around the joint. PMID:11806760

  10. Comparison of Japanese and European overbite depth indicator and antero-posterior dysplasia indicator values.

    PubMed

    Freudenthaler, Josef; Celar, Ales; Kubota, Mitsuyoshi; Akimoto, Susumu; Sato, Sadao; Schneider, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated cephalometric differences between 113 Japanese (43 males and 70 females, aged 14.1 ± 5 years) and 106 European subjects (36 males and 70 females, aged 13.5 ± 7.3 years) using two compound angular measurements and their single components: the overbite depth indicator (ODI) for the assessment of vertical skeletal relationships and the antero-posterior dysplasia indicator (APDI) for an evaluation of sagittal dysgnathia. Both populations were assigned to groups representing Angle Classes I, II, and III, and an anterior open bite (AOB) group. Two sample t- and Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests were performed (P < 0.05). The ODI values showed no statistically significant differences between the Japanese and European samples. The Japanese sample showed a significantly smaller APDI but only in the Class II group. In the Japanese Class II and III subjects, the malocclusion patterns were more pronounced than those in the Caucasian sample (overbite, overjet, and APDI).

  11. Comparison of cephalometric norms between Japanese and Caucasian adults in antero-posterior and vertical dimension.

    PubMed

    Ioi, Hideki; Nakata, Shunsuke; Nakasima, Akihiko; Counts, Amy L

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine Japanese cephalometric norms in the antero-posterior and vertical dimension, and to test the hypothesis that there are racial differences in cephalometric measurements between Japanese and Caucasian norms. Radiographs were obtained from 25 healthy Japanese males (aged 25.1 +/- 2.7 years) and 24 healthy Japanese females (aged 23.6 +/- 1.3 years). Inclusion criteria were an ANB angle between 2 and 5 degrees, a normal occlusion with minor or no crowding, all teeth present except third molars, no previous orthodontic treatment, and no prosthetic replacement of teeth. Two angular and five linear measurements were constructed for the skeletal hard tissue analysis, one angular and six linear measurements for the dental hard tissue analysis, and two angular and seven linear measurements for the soft tissue analysis. The mean and standard deviations for the hard and soft tissue measurements were determined for each gender. Unpaired t-tests were used to determine the mean differences for each cephalometric measurement between the Japanese and the Caucasians. In the antero-posterior dimension, the Japanese subjects had a significantly more retruded chin position (P < 0.001), typically protruding mandibular incisors, and protruded lip positions compared with the Caucasian norms. In the vertical dimension, the Japanese had a significantly steeper mandibular plane (P < 0.01). The Japanese females had a significantly larger lower face height and increased dental height (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that these cephalometric measurements might be helpful to formulate treatment plans for Japanese patients.

  12. The changes of lumbar muscle flexion-relaxation phenomenon due to antero-posteriorly slanted ground surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hu, Boyi; Ning, Xiaopeng; Dai, Fei; Almuhaidib, Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    Uneven ground surface is a common occupational injury risk factor in industries such as agriculture, fishing, transportation and construction. Studies have shown that antero-posteriorly slanted ground surfaces could reduce spinal stability and increase the risk of falling. In this study, the influence of antero-posteriorly slanted ground surfaces on lumbar flexion-relaxation responses was investigated. Fourteen healthy participants performed sagittally symmetric and asymmetric trunk bending motions on one flat and two antero-posteriorly slanted surfaces (-15° (uphill facing) and 15° (downhill facing)), while lumbar muscle electromyography and trunk kinematics were recorded. Results showed that standing on a downhill facing slanted surface delays the onset of lumbar muscle flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP), while standing on an uphill facing ground causes lumbar muscle FRP to occur earlier. In addition, compared to symmetric bending, when performing asymmetric bending, FRP occurred earlier on the contralateral side of lumbar muscles and significantly smaller maximum lumbar flexion and trunk inclination angles were observed. Practitioner Summary: Uneven ground surface is a common risk factor among a number of industries. In this study, we investigated the influence of antero-posteriorly slanted ground surface on trunk biomechanics during trunk bending. Results showed the slanted surface alters the lumbar tissue load-sharing mechanism in both sagittally symmetric and asymmetric bending.

  13. [Comparation of the antero-lateral and posterior approaches in primary total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Macedo, C A; Galia, C R; Rosito, R; Valin, M R; Kruel, A V; Muller, L; Rodríguez, F A

    1999-01-01

    Comparison between the antero-lateral and posterior approaches in primary total hip arthroplasty. In this retrospective study, 184 patients were enrolled, 95 submitted to the anterolateral (Watson jones) and 89 to the posterior approach (Moore) from June 1993 to June 1997. The outcomes assessed were perioperative data (operative time, hospital stay, time from surgery until hospital discharge, surgical bleeding and the need for blood transfusion), as well as late complications (deep venous thrombosis DVP, pulmonary embolism, periopheral nerve injury, prothesis instability and others). Both groups did not differ in terms of preoperative parameters. Those submitted to the posterior approach had shorter operative times (p < 0.001), as well as reduced bleeding (p < 0.05) and need for blood transfusion (p < 0.001) during surgery. The outcomes, such as late complications, had similar reduced frequency in both groups. The posterior approach has been successfully applied in our service and proves to be an excellent alternative surgical access to the total hip arthroplasty.

  14. Paradoxes of the first-night effect: a quantitative analysis of antero-posterior EEG topography.

    PubMed

    Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; Piergianni, Assunta; Fratello, Fabiana; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2004-05-01

    The first-night effect (FNE) is a common issue in sleep research. Being considered fragmented and poorly efficient, the adaptation night is discarded for data analysis. The present study aims to provide a quantitative and topographical EEG analysis of this phenomenon. Eight healthy subjects slept for two consecutive nights (adaptation (AD) and baseline (BSL)), and their polysomnography was visually scored and then submitted to spectral power analysis. The results showed a decreased quality and quantity of first-night sleep as indicated by more stage 1 and intrasleep wake, paralleled by a reduced sleep efficiency and a longer sleep onset latency. On the other hand, EEG quantitative data showed a more complex and apparently paradoxical picture. An increase in delta power was observed, particularly over the central areas during the first night, paralleled by an increased power in beta bin frequencies solely at posterior scalp locations. These results have been interpreted as caused by, respectively, a reduced total sleep time during the adaptation night and a cortical hyperactivity, typical of psychophysiological insomnia. The present results confirm the need to exclude the laboratory sleep adaptation night from data analysis since it is not a reliable index of sleep on subsequent nights as regards both visual scoring and quantitative EEG analysis. Finally, regional differences between REM and NREM sleep have been confirmed. This is the first attempt to evaluate the FNE with a quantitative approach to the antero-posterior EEG topography, providing both a Hz-by-Hz and a classical EEG band-based analysis.

  15. Divergent abdominal bristle patterns in two distantly related drosophilids: antero-posterior variations and sexual dimorphism in a modular trait.

    PubMed

    Araripe, Luciana O; Yassin, Amir; Klaczko, Louis Bernard; Moréteau, Brigitte; David, Jean R

    2008-10-01

    The number of neurosensory bristles on abdominal sternites of Drosophila is a most investigated trait for quantitative genetic studies. However, the developmental pattern expressed on successive segments in both sexes has remained so far a neglected field. We explored three aspects of this general problem with an isofemale line design: comparing two distantly related species, Drosophila melanogaster and Zaprionus indianus, investigating bristle number variation along the antero-posterior axis, and analysing the sexual dimorphism. Antero-posterior variations could be analysed from segment A2 to A7 in females, and A2-A5 in males. In D. melanogaster, males and females showed parallel changes with a consistently lower number in males. In Z. indianus females the number was quite stable along the abdomen, while in males an important antero-posterior increase was found. The sexual dimorphism was further analysed by considering the female-male correlation and the female/male ratio. The results suggest that sternite bristle number is determined by several developmental genetic systems. One is acting along the antero-posterior axis and may be associated to a gradient, since the genetic correlation decreases when more distant segments are compared. Another is acting in the same way on most segments of both sexes, since the female-male genetic correlation is similar between homologous and non-homologous segments. Finally, genes with specific sex effects are acting on A7 in females of both species, and on A5 in Z. indianus males. The overall architecture of female and male abdomen seems to be constrained by the development of reproductive organs. A large difference between species suggests, however, that the sexual dimorphism of abdominal bristle number is not evolutionarily constrained.

  16. Mandibular third molar space in different antero-posterior skeletal patterns.

    PubMed

    Abu Alhaija, E S J; AlBhairan, H M; AlKhateeb, S N

    2011-10-01

    Retromolar space has long been identified as a major factor in the aetiology of mandibular third molar impaction. The aims of this study were to compare mandibular third molar space between the different antero-posterior (A-P) skeletal patterns, between erupted and impacted third molars in the different A-P skeletal patterns, and to report on the status of third molar eruption/impaction among the studied subjects. A total of 432 mandibular third molars in 270 subjects (132 females and 138 males) were investigated from dental pantomograms (DPTs) and lateral cephalograms (LC). The average age for the total sample was 20.80 ± 2.03 years. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their ANB angle as follows: skeletal Class I (144 third molars in 90 subjects), skeletal Class II (145 third molars in 95 subjects), and skeletal Class III (143 third molars in 85 subjects). Each group was subdivided into impacted and erupted subgroups. DPT and LC were traced and the following variables were measured: retromolar space width, third molar width and angulation, β angle, second molar angulation, mandibular length, and gonial angle. Independent t-test, analysis of variance, and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Retromolar space width in the Class III subjects was smaller than in the Class I subjects (P < 0.05). Mandibular third molars were recorded as impacted in 26, 32, and 42 per cent of the Class I, II, and III subjects, respectively (P < 0.001). The impacted groups had a reduced retromolar space width, increased β angle, and reduced third molar angulation in all A-P skeletal patterns. Class III subjects showed increased mandibular third molar impaction with reduced retromolar space width.

  17. Learning to tune the antero-posterior propulsive forces during walking: a necessary skill for mastering upright locomotion in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Bril, Blandine; Dupuy, Lucile; Dietrich, Gilles; Corbetta, Daniela

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the process of learning to walk from a functional perspective. To move forward, one must generate and control propulsive forces. To achieve this, it is necessary to create and tune a distance between the centre of mass (CoM) and the centre of pressure (CoP) along the antero-posterior axis. We hypothesize that learning to walk consists of learning how to calibrate these self-generated propulsive forces to control such distance. We investigated this question with six infants (three girls and three boys) who we followed up weekly for the first 8 weeks after the onset of walking and then biweekly until they reached 14-16 weeks of walking experience. The infants' walking patterns (kinematics and propelling forces) were captured via synched motion analysis and force plate. The results show that the distance between the CoM and the CoP along the antero-posterior axis increased rapidly during the first months of learning to walk and that this increase was correlated with an increase in velocity. The initial small values of (CoM-CoP) observed at walking onset, coupled with small velocity are interpreted as the solution infants adopted to satisfy a compromise between the need to generate propulsive forces to move forward while simultaneously controlling the disequilibrium resulting from creating a with distance between the CoM and CoP.

  18. Last instar larvae and pupae of Ourocnemis archytas and Anteros formosus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae), with a summary of known host plants for the tribe Helicopini.

    PubMed

    Mota, Luísa L; Kaminski, Lucas A; Freitas, André V L

    2014-07-21

    Last instar larvae and pupae of Ourocnemis archytas (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) are described for the first time and compared with those of Anteros formosus, which are also described in detail. Last instars of both species present body covered with long white plumose setae, a row of orange balloon setae on the prothoracic shield, and clusters of perforated cupola organs (PCOs) near the spiracles; differences are the black cephalic capsule, the placement and format of balloon setae cluster, and the presence of enlarged black tips on some plumose setae. Pupae of O. archytas resemble that of Anteros, covered with the last instar setae and with no balloon setae. Characteristics of the immature stages of these two genera could be useful to establish the still unresolved relationship between them. A summary of the host plants of Helicopini is presented, showing a polyphagous pattern for Anteros, recorded in 21 host plant families, which contrasts with the specialized diet observed in Helicopis and Sarota. 

  19. The antero-inferior (transmuscular) approach for arthroscopic repair of the Bankart lesion: an anatomic and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Resch, H; Wykypiel, H F; Maurer, H; Wambacher, M

    1996-06-01

    In order to find a direct approach to the antero-inferior third of the glenoid rim, an anatomic study was performed on a total of 89 shoulders (48 cadavers). To obtain defined reference points for the anterior inferior third of the glenoid cavity, it was compared with the hour markings on a clock face. The 4:30 position on the right shoulder and the 7:30 position on the left shoulder were defined as the relevant reference points. The average distance between the palpable end of the coracoid process and the 4:30 and 7:30 positions was 19 mm. The average distance to the point of intersection of the musculocutaneous nerve with the medial margin of the conjoined tendon was more than 5 cm, and was never less than 2 cm. The average distance of the axillary nerve from the 4:30 position was 2.5 cm in the horizontal plane, with a minimum of 1.5 cm. Radially, the average distance of the axillary nerve was 1.7 cm, with a minimum of 1.3 cm. The anatomic study was followed by a clinical study of 264 patients. An antero-inferior portal located maximum 2 cm distal from the palpable coracoid tip was selected for the introduction of a trocar sheath and blunt trocar, passing through the subscapularis muscle to access the antero-inferior area of the glenoid rim. As additional protection for the musculocutaneous nerve, the direction of the trocar was adjusted during introduction. Reattachment of the labrum-capsule complex was performed extra-articularly. In all cases, at least one implant was located inferior to the 4:30 or 7:30 position. No neurovascular complications arose out of the choice of portal. Out of the 264 patients, the first 100 shoulders (98 patients) were followed-up after an average time of 35 months (18 to 62 months). The recurrence rate was 9%. Excluding the first 30 shoulders (30 patients) from the development phase of the technique, the recurrence rate is only 5.7%. The rate of return to overhead sports activities was 62% and to collision sports activities 70%.

  20. A new technique to avoid articular cartilage injury in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction through far antero-medial portal.

    PubMed

    Kamei, G; Ochi, M; Usman, M A; Mahmoud, E H

    2014-11-01

    Far antero-medial (FAM) portal technique is usually used in our department in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction when drilling the femoral tunnel. Although the FAM portal technique carries potential risks, such as cartilage injury of the lateral femoral condyle, peroneal nerve injury and blow out of the lateral femoral condyle's posterior wall, these problems were resolved in a cadaveric study, in which 110°-120°knee flexion was recommended when drilling the femoral tunnel. However, there is a potential risk of injuring the cartilage of the medial femoral condyle especially when drilling the postero-lateral bundle. A new method is proposed to ensure that the femoral tunnel drilling does not damage the cartilage of the medial femoral condyle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The homeodomain protein CePHOX2/CEH-17 controls antero-posterior axonal growth in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Pujol, N; Torregrossa, P; Ewbank, J J; Brunet, J F

    2000-08-01

    An essential aspect of a neuron's identity is the pattern of its axonal projections. In C. elegans, axons extend either longitudinally or circumferentially in response to distinct molecular cues, some of which have been identified. It is currently unclear, however, how the differential capacity to respond to these cues is transcriptionally implemented in distinct neuronal subtypes. Here, we characterise a C. elegans paired-like homeobox gene, CePhox2/ceh-17, expressed in five head neurons, ALA and the 4 SIAs, all of which project axons towards the tail along the lateral and sublateral cords. Abrogation of ceh-17 function, while leaving intact many phenotypic traits of these neurons, disrupts their antero-posterior axonal elongation beyond the mid-body region. Conversely, ectopic expression of ceh-17 in the mechanoreceptors, several of which are known to pioneer their tract, leads to exaggerated longitudinal axonal outgrowth. Thus, ceh-17 is a novel gene involved in fasciculation-independent longitudinal axonal navigation.

  2. Thalamic atrophy in antero-medial and dorsal nuclei correlates with six-month outcome after severe brain injury☆

    PubMed Central

    Lutkenhoff, Evan S.; McArthur, David L.; Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M.; Vespa, Paul M.; Monti, Martin M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary and secondary damage to neural tissue inflicted by traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability. The secondary processes, in particular, are of great clinical interest because of their potential susceptibility to intervention. We address the dynamics of tissue degeneration in cortico-subcortical circuits after severe brain injury by assessing volume change in individual thalamic nuclei over the first six-months post-injury in a sample of 25 moderate to severe traumatic brain injury patients. Using tensor-based morphometry, we observed significant localized thalamic atrophy over the six-month period in antero-dorsal limbic nuclei as well as in medio-dorsal association nuclei. Importantly, the degree of atrophy in these nuclei was predictive, even after controlling for full-brain volume change, of behavioral outcome at six-months post-injury. Furthermore, employing a data-driven decision tree model, we found that physiological measures, namely the extent of atrophy in the anterior thalamic nucleus, were the most predictive variables of whether patients had regained consciousness by six-months, followed by behavioral measures. Overall, these findings suggest that the secondary non-mechanical degenerative processes triggered by severe brain injury are still ongoing after the first week post-trauma and target specifically antero-medial and dorsal thalamic nuclei. This result therefore offers a potential window of intervention, and a specific target region, in agreement with the view that specific cortico-thalamo-cortical circuits are crucial to the maintenance of large-scale network neural activity and thereby the restoration of cognitive function after severe brain injury. PMID:24273723

  3. Combined arthroscopic tenodesis of the long head of biceps and rotator cuff repair in antero-superior cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Uschok, S; Herrmann, S; Pauly, S; Perka, C; Greiner, S

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the functional and cosmetic results following fixation of the long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon at the antero-medial footprint anchor of a rotator cuff reconstruction, using the "lasso-loop" technique. 39 patients with a mean age of 62 years with a rotator cuff tear and associated lesion of the LHB tendon were included in this study. Besides rotator cuff repair in an arthroscopic anchor technique, all patients received additional LHB tenodeses using the lasso-loop technique. Clinical follow-up consisted of the Constant score (CS), LHB score, DASH score, and WORC index. Relevant sub-items, such as elbow flexion strength and cosmesis, were compared to the contralateral arm. At an average follow-up of 22 months (11-39 months), the CS resulted in an average of 81 points. The biceps-specific LHB score showed a mean value of 89 points. The analysis of the DASH score showed an average of 16.9 points and the analysis of the WORC index showed an average result of 79.7 %. Distalization of the biceps muscle was objectively in three cases (7.7 %) (as observed by the examiner) and subjectively in one of those cases (as noted by the patient). There was a loss in elbow flexion strength compared to the contralateral side; however, this loss was not statistically significant and not associated with clinical apparent re-tear or insufficiency of the tenodesis. The arthroscopic lasso-loop tenodesis of the LHB tendon is a time and cost-efficient technique. No additional anchor is needed when included in the rotator cuff repair. Functional and cosmetical results as well as results from the biceps-specific LHB score were good to excellent. The loss in elbow flexion strength is most likely associated with concomitant rotator cuff lesion. The lasso-loop fixation technique of the LHB tendon using the antero-medial footprint anchor in rotator cuff tears is a reliable and cost-efficient procedure. III.

  4. Displacement pattern of the anterior segment using antero-posterior lingual retractor combined with a palatal plate

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyung-Won; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Kyung A; Park, Ki-Ho; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the effects of two appliances on the en masse retraction of the anterior teeth anchored by temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs). Methods The sample comprised 46 nongrowing hyperdivergent adult patients who planned to undergo upper first premolar extraction using lingual retractors. They were divided into three groups, based on the lingual appliance used: the C-lingual retractor (CLR) group (group 1, n = 16) and two antero-posterior lingual retractor (APLR) groups (n = 30, groups 2 and 3). The APLR group was divided by the posterior tube angulation; posterior tube parallel to the occlusal plane (group 2, n = 15) and distally tipped tube (group 3, n = 15). A retrospective clinical investigation of the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue relationships was performed using lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained pretreatment and post en masse retraction of the anterior teeth. Results All groups achieved significant incisor and canine retraction. The upper posterior teeth did not drift significantly during the retraction period. The APLR group had less angulation change in the anterior dentition, compared to the CLR group. By changing the tube angulation in the APLR, the intrusive force significantly increased in the distally tipped tube of group 3 patients and remarkably reduced the occlusal plane angle. Conclusions Compared to the CLR, the APLR provides better anterior torque control and canine tipping while achieving bodily translation. Furthermore, changing the tube angulation will affect the amount of incisor intrusion, even in patients with similar palatal vault depth, without the need for additional TSADs. PMID:26629475

  5. Registration of 'Antero' Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ’Antero’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 667743) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2012 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Univ...

  6. Torsion and antero-posterior bending in the in vivo human tibia loading regimes during walking and running.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng-Fei; Sanno, Maximilian; Ganse, Bergita; Koy, Timmo; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Müller, Lars Peter; Rittweger, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Bending, in addition to compression, is recognized to be a common loading pattern in long bones in animals. However, due to the technical difficulty of measuring bone deformation in humans, our current understanding of bone loading patterns in humans is very limited. In the present study, we hypothesized that bending and torsion are important loading regimes in the human tibia. In vivo tibia segment deformation in humans was assessed during walking and running utilizing a novel optical approach. Results suggest that the proximal tibia primarily bends to the posterior (bending angle: 0.15°-1.30°) and medial aspect (bending angle: 0.38°-0.90°) and that it twists externally (torsion angle: 0.67°-1.66°) in relation to the distal tibia during the stance phase of overground walking at a speed between 2.5 and 6.1 km/h. Peak posterior bending and peak torsion occurred during the first and second half of stance phase, respectively. The peak-to-peak antero-posterior (AP) bending angles increased linearly with vertical ground reaction force and speed. Similarly, peak-to-peak torsion angles increased with the vertical free moment in four of the five test subjects and with the speed in three of the test subjects. There was no correlation between peak-to-peak medio-lateral (ML) bending angles and ground reaction force or speed. On the treadmill, peak-to-peak AP bending angles increased with walking and running speed, but peak-to-peak torsion angles and peak-to-peak ML bending angles remained constant during walking. Peak-to-peak AP bending angle during treadmill running was speed-dependent and larger than that observed during walking. In contrast, peak-to-peak tibia torsion angle was smaller during treadmill running than during walking. To conclude, bending and torsion of substantial magnitude were observed in the human tibia during walking and running. A systematic distribution of peak amplitude was found during the first and second parts of the stance phase.

  7. Torsion and Antero-Posterior Bending in the In Vivo Human Tibia Loading Regimes during Walking and Running

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng-Fei; Sanno, Maximilian; Ganse, Bergita; Koy, Timmo; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Müller, Lars Peter; Rittweger, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Bending, in addition to compression, is recognized to be a common loading pattern in long bones in animals. However, due to the technical difficulty of measuring bone deformation in humans, our current understanding of bone loading patterns in humans is very limited. In the present study, we hypothesized that bending and torsion are important loading regimes in the human tibia. In vivo tibia segment deformation in humans was assessed during walking and running utilizing a novel optical approach. Results suggest that the proximal tibia primarily bends to the posterior (bending angle: 0.15°–1.30°) and medial aspect (bending angle: 0.38°–0.90°) and that it twists externally (torsion angle: 0.67°–1.66°) in relation to the distal tibia during the stance phase of overground walking at a speed between 2.5 and 6.1 km/h. Peak posterior bending and peak torsion occurred during the first and second half of stance phase, respectively. The peak-to-peak antero-posterior (AP) bending angles increased linearly with vertical ground reaction force and speed. Similarly, peak-to-peak torsion angles increased with the vertical free moment in four of the five test subjects and with the speed in three of the test subjects. There was no correlation between peak-to-peak medio-lateral (ML) bending angles and ground reaction force or speed. On the treadmill, peak-to-peak AP bending angles increased with walking and running speed, but peak-to-peak torsion angles and peak-to-peak ML bending angles remained constant during walking. Peak-to-peak AP bending angle during treadmill running was speed-dependent and larger than that observed during walking. In contrast, peak-to-peak tibia torsion angle was smaller during treadmill running than during walking. To conclude, bending and torsion of substantial magnitude were observed in the human tibia during walking and running. A systematic distribution of peak amplitude was found during the first and second parts of the stance phase. PMID

  8. Comparison of outcome after anatomic double-bundle and antero-medial portal non-anatomic single-bundle reconstruction in ACL-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Karikis, Ioannis; Ahldén, Mattias; Casut, Abraham; Sernert, Ninni; Kartus, Jüri

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with non-anatomic single-bundle reconstruction. In a prospective consecutive series, 94 unselected patients [45 anatomic double-bundle (ADB) and 49 non-anatomic single-bundle (SB)] underwent ACL reconstruction involving hamstring tendon autograft, interference screw fixation on both the femoral and tibial side and drilling the femoral tunnel(s) through the antero-medial portal in both groups. In the ADB group, the remnants of the ACL were identified and the grafts were placed anatomically. In the SB group, traditional placement of the graft was performed in a less anatomic manner. Pre-operatively, the groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, time between injury and operation and associated injuries. One independent physiotherapist performed all the pre-operative and post-operative assessments. The follow-up period was 26 (22-34) and 24 (23-30) months in the ADB and SB groups, respectively (p = 0.005). At follow-up, 78 % in the ADB group and 74 % in the SB group had a negative pivot-shift test (n.s.). The KT-1000 134N measurements were 2 (-5 to 10.5) and 2 (-4 to 7) mm in the ADB and SB groups, respectively (n.s.). At follow-up, the extension deficit was significantly larger in the ADB group than in the SB group (p = 0.001). The Tegner activity scale was significantly higher in the ADB group both pre-operatively and at follow-up (p = 0.03 and p = 0.004). In overall terms, both groups had improved significantly at the two-year follow-up. In an unselected group of ACL-injured patients, anatomic double-bundle reconstruction did not result in better rotational or antero-posterior stability measurements than antero-medial portal non-anatomic single-bundle reconstruction at the two-year follow-up. III.

  9. Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Antero-Medial Prefrontal Cortex Sub-Regions in Major Depression and Relationship to Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Sawaya, Helen; Johnson, Kevin; Schmidt, Matthew; Arana, Ashley; Chahine, George; Atoui, Mia; Pincus, David; George, Mark S.; Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Major depressive disorder has been associated with abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (FC), especially in cognitive processing and emotional regulation networks. Although studies have found abnormal FC in regions of the default mode network (DMN), no study has investigated the FC of specific regions within the anterior DMN based on cytoarchitectonic subdivisions of the antero-medial pre-frontal cortex (PFC). Studies from different areas in the field have shown regions within the anterior DMN to be involved in emotional intelligence. Although abnormalities in this region have been observed in depression, the relationship between the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) function and emotional intelligence has yet to be investigated in depressed individuals. Methods: Twenty-one medication-free, non–treatment resistant, depressed patients and 21 healthy controls underwent a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging session. The participants also completed an ability-based measure of emotional intelligence: the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. FC maps of Brodmann areas (BA) 25, 10m, 10r, and 10p were created and compared between the two groups. Results: Mixed-effects analyses showed that the more anterior seeds encompassed larger areas of the DMN. Compared to healthy controls, depressed patients had significantly lower connectivity between BA10p and the right insula and between BA25 and the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex. Exploratory analyses showed an association between vmPFC connectivity and emotional intelligence. Conclusions: These results suggest that individuals with depression have reduced FC between antero-medial PFC regions and regions involved in emotional regulation compared to control subjects. Moreover, vmPFC functional connectivity appears linked to emotional intelligence. PMID:25744282

  10. [Three-column plate internal fixation for the treatment of complex tibial plateau fracture through antero-midline and postero-medial approaches].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Li, Gang; Yang, Yong; Gao, Chun-Hong; Luo, Yong-Quan; Luo, Jun-Jun

    2014-11-01

    To study technique and clinical therapeutic effects of internal fixation with three-column plates for the treatment of complex tibial plateau fractures through antero-midline and postero-medial approaches. From January 2010 to December 2012, 28 patients with complex tibial plateau fractures were treated with internal fixation using three-column plates through antero-midline and postero-medial approaches. There were 17 males and 11 females, with an average age of 45.3 years old (ranged, 28 to 64 years old). Twelve patients had injuries in the left side and 16 patients had injuries in the right side. According to Schatzker classification, 12 patients were type V, 16 patients were type VI. According to three-column classification, all the patients had injuries of lateral, medial and posterior columns. The mean interval from injury to operation was 9.4 days (ranged, 6 to 15 days). The main clinical symptoms were knee joint swelling, deformity and limitation of motion before operation. The X-ray and CT showed all patients had complex tibial plateau fractures, which involved in the lateral, medial and posterior columns. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by fracture healing time, hospital for special surgery knee score (HSS) at one year after operation. The indexes such as tibial plateau-tibial shaft angle (TPA), posterior slope angle (PA) and femoral-tibial angle (FfA) were compared between immediate postoperation and one year after operation. All incisions primarily healed without postoperative complications such as infection and cutaneous necrosis. All the patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 12 to 24 months, with a mean of 18.1 months. The bone union time ranged from 5 to 10 months (mean, 7.8 months) after operation. Knee joint swelling and pain disappeared after bony union, and joint function completely recovered. The results of hospital for special surgery knee score (HSS) was 27.81 ± 2.17 in pain, 19.52 ± 2.05 in function,15.82 ± 1.73 in

  11. Angiographic Assessment of the Right Hepatic Artery for Encasement by Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Comparison Between Antero-Posterior and Right Anterior Oblique Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Hiroyoshi; Iwata, Ryoko; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2001-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of right anterior oblique (RAO) arteriography for evaluating encasement of the right hepatic artery (RHA) by hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods: Celiac arteriography was performed in both the antero-posterior (AP) and RAO projection in ten patients with cholangiocarcinoma. The lengths of the arteries between the bifurcation of the anterior and posterior branch of the liver and the following points were measured: (a) the bifurcation of the left and right hepatic artery (AP-LR), (b) the bifurcation of the proper hepatic artery and the gastroduodenal artery (AP-PG). Additionally, image quality in investigating the invasion of the RHA was evaluated.Results: On the AP images, the average lengths of AP-LR and AP-PG were 24.5 {+-} 5.1 mm and 30.0 {+-} 4.9 mm, respectively. On RAO images, the lengths were 28.2 {+-} 4.6 mm and 32.7 {+-} 4.8 mm, respectively. Every length was different between the two projections (p < 0.01). In 6 of 10 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, images in RAO projections were superior to AP images for evaluation of encasement.Conclusion: We conclude that angiography obtained in the RAO projection yields images that are superior to those obtained in the conventional AP projection for assessment of RHA encasement.

  12. Knee stability, athletic performance and sport-specific tasks in non-professional soccer players after ACL reconstruction: comparing trans-tibial and antero-medial portal techniques

    PubMed Central

    Tudisco, Cosimo; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Cosentino, Andrea; Chiozzi, Federica; Piva, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background a wrong position of bone tunnels, in particular on the femur, is one of the most frequent causes of a failed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Several studies demonstrated that drilling the femoral tunnel through the antero-medial portal (AMP) allows a more anatomical placement on the lateral femoral condyle and higher knee stability, compared to trans-tibial (TT) technique. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate two groups of soccer players operated on for ACL reconstruction according to either one of these two techniques. Methods two groups of non-professional soccer players operated on for a single bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstrings autograft using either a TT (20 patients) or an AMP (23 patients) technique were retrospectively evaluated with KT-1000 arthrometer, manual pivot shift test, isokinetic test, the incremental treadmill-running test, athletic and sport specific tasks, and knee scores (IKDC, Lysholm and KOOS). Results the AMP group showed better results at pivot shift test and KOOS, but lower flexion angles at single leg squat test. There were no differences in all the other considered outcomes. Conclusions the better rotational stability of the knee achieved in AMP group did not lead to significantly better clinical and functional results in our patients. Level of evidence III. Treatment study Case-control study. PMID:26605191

  13. Antero-posterior (AP) pelvis x-ray imaging on a trolley: Impact of trolley design, mattress design and radiographer practice on image quality and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Tugwell, J R; England, A; Hogg, P

    2017-08-01

    Physical and technical differences exist between imaging on an x-ray tabletop and imaging on a trolley. This study evaluates how trolley imaging impacts image quality and radiation dose for an antero-posterior (AP) pelvis projection whilst subsequently exploring means of optimising this imaging examination. An anthropomorphic pelvis phantom was imaged on a commercially available trolley under various conditions. Variables explored included two mattresses, two image receptor holder positions, three source to image distances (SIDs) and four mAs values. Image quality was evaluated using relative visual grading analysis with the reference image acquired on the x-ray tabletop. Contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was calculated. Effective dose was established using Monte Carlo simulation. Optimisation scores were derived as a figure of merit by dividing effective dose with visual image quality scores. Visual image quality reduced significantly (p < 0.05) whilst effective dose increased significantly (p < 0.05) for images acquired on the trolley using identical acquisition parameters to the reference image. The trolley image with the highest optimisation score was acquired using 130 cm SID, 20 mAs, the standard mattress and platform not elevated. A difference of 12.8 mm was found between the image with the lowest and highest magnification factor (18%). The acquisition parameters used for AP pelvis on the x-ray tabletop are not transferable to trolley imaging and should be modified accordingly to compensate for the differences that exist. Exposure charts should be developed for trolley imaging to ensure optimal image quality at lowest possible dose. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [L5 sciatica caused by the compression of the lumbo-sacral trunk of osseous origin at the sacro-iliac level. Treatment by an antero-lateral subperitoneal approach].

    PubMed

    Chataigner, H; Onimus, M

    1998-07-01

    A 42 years old patient presented with a 4 years history of a left L5 sciatica unresponsive to a previous L4-L5 surgical decompression. CT scan showed a solid tumor developed on the anterior aspect of the sacro-iliac joint, in contact with the lumbo-sacral trunk. An antero-lateral extraperitoneal approach was performed, with progressive subperitoneal dissection along the inner aspect of the iliac wing to the sacro-iliac joint and sacral ala. The exostosis was removed with "en block" excision, Postoperatively pain completely disappeared. Considerations are made on the mechanism of the compression as well as on the surgical approach performed.

  15. The influence of corrective exercises in a water environment on the shape of the antero-posterior curves of the spine and on the functional status of the locomotor system in children with Io scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, Katarzyna; Zawadzka, Dominika; Hawrylak, Arletta; Bocheńska, Anna; Skolimowska, Beata; Małachowska-Sobieska, Monika

    2009-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in studies examining the importance of the aquatic environment in non-invasive treatment of scoliosis. The water environment is an important element in the correction of body posture abnormalities. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of corrective exercises in a water environment on the shape of the antero-posterior curves of the spine and on the functional status of the locomotor system of children with Io scoliosis. The study involved a group of 94 children aged 8-13 years with Cobb Io scoliosis. Computer-aided photogrammetry was used to analyse the shape of the antero-posterior curves of the spine. The functional evaluation of the children's musculoskeletal system involved several functional tests: the Dega wall test, Thomas test, Lasegue test, and Kraus-Weber test. The tests were carried out twice: before a 6-month programme of corrective exercises in a water environment, and immediately on completion of the rehabilitation programme. The programme included swimming and corrective exercises in water. A statistical analysis of the dimensions of the anterio-posterior curves of the spine revealed a significant increase in the total length of the spine and the length of thoracic kyphosis. Besides, the bending angle of the trunk, the angle of thoracic kyphosis and the angle of lumbar lordosis were reduced. The analysis also showed an increase in the bending angle of the upper spine. Shoulder mobility also increased significantly following the programme of corrective aquatic exercises. 1. The programme of corrective exercises had an influence on the length and angle of thoracic kyphosis. 2. The muscle strength of the lower part of the erector spinae also increased, as did shoulder mobility measured by the Dega test.

  16. Comparison of conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma for photons using a male adult voxel simulator in sitting and standing posture with geometry of irradiation antero-posterior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeano, D. C.; Cavalcante, F. R.; Carvalho, A. B.; Hunt, J.

    2014-02-01

    The dose conversion coefficient (DCC) is important to quantify and assess effective doses associated with medical, professional and public exposures. The calculation of DCCs using anthropomorphic simulators and radiation transport codes is justified since in-vivo measurement of effective dose is extremely difficult and not practical for occupational dosimetry. DCCs have been published by the ICRP using simulators in a standing posture, which is not always applicable to all exposure scenarios, providing an inaccurate dose estimation. The aim of this work was to calculate DCCs for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma (H/Kair) using the Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code and the VOXTISS8 adult male voxel simulator in sitting and standing postures. In both postures, the simulator was irradiated by a plane source of monoenergetic photons in antero-posterior (AP) geometry. The photon energy ranged from 15 keV to 2 MeV. The DCCs for both postures were compared and the DCCs for the standing simulator were higher. For certain organs, the difference of DCCs were more significant, as in gonads (48% higher), bladder (16% higher) and colon (11% higher). As these organs are positioned in the abdominal region, the posture of the anthropomorphic simulator modifies the form in which the radiation is transported and how the energy is deposited. It was also noted that the average percentage difference of conversion coefficients was 33% for the bone marrow, 11% for the skin, 13% for the bone surface and 31% for the muscle. For other organs, the percentage difference of the DCCs for both postures was not relevant (less than 5%) due to no anatomical changes in the organs of the head, chest and upper abdomen. We can conclude that is important to obtain DCCs using different postures from those present in the scientific literature.

  17. Comparison of conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma using a sitting and standing female adult voxel simulators exposure to photons in antero-posterior irradiation geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, F. R.; Galeano, D. C.; Carvalho Júnior, A. B.; Hunt, J.

    2014-02-01

    Due to the difficulty in implementing invasive techniques for calculations of dose for some exposure scenarios, computational simulators have been created to represent as realistically as possible the structures of the human body and through radiation transport simulations to obtain conversion coefficients (CCs) to estimate dose. In most published papers simulators are implemented in the standing posture and this may not describe a real scenario of exposure. In this work we developed exposure scenarios in the Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code using a female simulator in standing and sitting postures. The simulator was irradiated in the antero-posterior (AP) geometry by a plane source of monoenergetic photons with energy from 10 keV to 2 MeV. The conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma (HT/Kair) were calculated for both scenarios and compared. The results show that the percentage difference of CCs for the organs of the head and thorax was not significant (less than 5%) since the anatomic position of the organs is the same in both postures. The percentage difference is more significant to the ovaries (71% for photon energy of 20 keV), to the bladder (39% at 60 keV) and to the uterus (37% at 100 keV) due to different processes of radiation interactions in the legs of the simulator when its posture is changed. For organs and tissues that are distributed throughout the entire body, such as bone (21% at 100 keV) and muscle (30% at 80 keV) the percentage difference of CCs reflects a reduction of interaction of photons with the legs of the simulator. Therefore, the calculation of conversion coefficients using simulators in the sitting posture is relevant for a more accurate dose estimation in real exposures to radiation.

  18. Antero-posterior lingual sliding retraction system for orthodontic correction of hyperdivergent Class II protrusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This report introduces a lingual bonded retraction system (Kinematics of Lingual Bar on Non-Paralleling Technique, KILBON) for efficient sliding mechanics combined with vertical control of the anterior and posterior teeth, which is suitable for Class II hyperdivergent patients. Methods Design and biomechanics of the KILBON System were described. Two adults with hyperdivergent class II malocclusion were treated with the KILBON system and temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs) on the palate. The first patient was treated with conventional KILBON system on the upper arch and detailed with lingual appliances. The second patient showed the modified design of the KILBON when applied to a low palatal vault. Results A large amount of intrusion and retraction of the anterior teeth and simultaneous intrusion of the posterior segment were achieved in short treatment time. Concomitant counterclockwise rotation of the mandible improved the esthetic profile. Periodontal support without dehiscence or bone loss was confirmed on anterior region in spite of large amount of retraction. Conclusions This report presented a lingual retraction system that provides simple and effective vertical and sagittal control of both anterior and posterior teeth. The biomechanics are dependable for correcting a dentoalveolar protrusion in a patient with Class II hyperdivergent skeletal pattern. PMID:24897979

  19. Critical analysis of extra peritoneal antero-lateral approach for lumbar plexus.

    PubMed

    Martins, Roberto Sérgio; Monaco, Bernardo Assumpção; Siqueira, Mario Gilberto; Foroni, Luciano; Heise, Carlos Otto; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2011-08-01

    Lesions of lumbar plexus are uncommon and descriptions of surgical access are derived from vertebral spine approaches. The extraperitoneal anterolateral approach to the lumbar plexus was performed in six adult fresh cadavers. The difficulties on dissection were related. An exposure of all distal elements of lumbar plexus was possible, but a cranial extension of the incision was needed to reach the iliohypogastric nerve in all cases. Ligation of vessels derived from common iliac artery was necessary for genitofemoral and obturator nerves exposure in two cases. The most proximal part of the lumbar roots could be identified only after dissection and clipping of most lumbar vessels. The extraperitoneal anterolateral approach allows appropriate exposure of terminal nerves of lumbar plexus laterallly to psoas major muscle. Cranial extension of the cutaneous incision may be necessary for exposure of iliohypogastric nerve. Roots exposure increases the risk of vascular damage.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Synthetic GALEX photometry for IUE sources (Beitia-Antero+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beitia-Antero, L.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic photometry in the GALEX bands for stellar sources observed with the IUE in low dispersion mode is provided. Only high signal-to-noise ratio photometric observations have been used (see bibliographic reference). There are two catalogues: maincat contains synthetic magnitudes for non-variable stars; fuvvar contains synthetic FUV magnitudes for variable stars. Non-variable means that no variation in the UV flux has been detected by IUE. For each entry, coordinates, FUV and NUV magnitudes and magnitude errors are provided. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS: maincat includes FUV and/or NUV synthetic magnitudes for 1722 stars. FUV magnitude is provided for 1628 sources, ranging from FUV=1.81 to FUV=18.65mag. NUV magnitude is provided for 999 stars, ranging from NUV=3.34 to NUV=17.74mag. Also the number of observations used for the calculation is indicated. fuvvar includes FUV synthetic magnitude and error as well as observation date and time for each one of the 88 variable sources in FUV. (2 data files).

  1. Antero-ventral internal pallidum stimulation improves behavioral disorders in Lesch-Nyhan disease.

    PubMed

    Cif, Laura; Biolsi, Brigitte; Gavarini, Sophie; Saux, Aude; Robles, Santiago Gil; Tancu, Cornel; Vasques, Xavier; Coubes, Philippe

    2007-10-31

    The Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase, a purine salvage enzyme. Affected individuals exhibit a characteristic neurobehavioral disorder with delayed acquisition of motor skills, dystonia, severe self-mutilations, and aggressive behavior. Deep brain stimulation has been previously proposed for controlling isolated involuntary movements and psychiatric disorders. We applied a double bilateral simultaneous stimulation to limbic and motor internal pallidum in one patient for controlling both behavioral and movement disorders, respectively. The injurious compulsions disappeared; dystonia and dyskinesia were decreased at 28 months follow-up. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  2. The Effects of Computer-Aided Antero-Posterior Forehead Movement on Ratings of Facial Attractiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Dental Corps United States Navy A manuscript submitted to the faculty of the Comprehensive Dentistry Graduate Program Naval Postgraduate Dental ...Biology June 2015 Naval Postgraduate Dental School Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Bethesda, Maryland CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL...CAPT, DC, USN Dean, Naval Postgraduate Dental School ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special Thanks To: • CAPT Marc Arena • CDR Sennay Stefanos • LCDR Jayson

  3. The antero-lateral approach with corpectomy in the management of the ventral meningioma of the spinal canal.

    PubMed

    Radek, Maciej; Grochal, Marek; Tomasik, Bartłomiej; Radek, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the anterior approach to cervical spine, which enabled complete resection of tumor located in the anterior part of the spinal canal. Considering there are not many reports in the literature, the authors present a case of a meningioma at the level C5-C6 resected with good result through anterolateral approach. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between autologous bone graft osteointegration and correction loss after antero-posterior spondylodesis of traumatic vertebral body fracture.

    PubMed

    Kubosch, D; Konstantinidis, L; Helwig, P; Hirschmüller, A; Strohm, P C; Südkamp, N P

    2015-04-01

    A common method to restore the sagittal alignment and stabilize the spinal column is a dorso-ventral spondylodesis. It is assumed that correction loss after posttraumatic spondylodesis results from inadequate incorporation of the autologous iliac crest graft. Retrospective documentation of patients with unstable vertebral body fractures of the thoracic or lumbar spine with concomitant rupture of at least one adjacent intervertebral disk who received surgical treatment at our institution from 2000 to 2006. Followed by analysis of the computer tomography documentation of a total of 142 patients with unstable vertebral body fracture stabilized by posterior internal fixator and anterior iliac crest spondylodesis. The following mean angle changes were derived from the second series of CT scans performed on average 283 days after anterior spondylodesis: vertebral wedge angle (VWA): 2.1°; segmental kyphotic angle: 4.9°; adjusted-SKA: 4.8°; sagittal index (SI): -0.04; segmental-scoliotic-angle (SSA): 0°; adjusted-SSA: 0°. Changes in VWA, both SKAs and SI postoperatively and prior to ME, were statistically significant (P<0.05). The McAfee fusion assessment of the graft showed: full fusion: cranial 64%, caudal 47%; partial fusion: cranial 20.5%, caudal 29%; lysis: cranial 8.5%, caudal 17%; graft resorption: 7%. No correlation was found between the above-mentioned angle changes and fusions grade. The importance of radiological evidence of fusion deficiency is questionable, because the extent of fusion only has a minimal effect on correction loss. Level IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural brain alterations before mild cognitive impairment in ADNI: validation of volume loss in a predefined antero-temporal region.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles D; Andersen, Anders H; Gold, Brian T

    2012-01-01

    Volume losses in the medial temporal lobe, posterior cingulated, and orbitofrontal region have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Smaller reductions in similar regions have also been reported in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a canonical precursor to AD. We previously demonstrated that volume loss in bilateral anteromedial temporal lobe is present at baseline in longitudinally followed normal subjects who later developed MCI or AD. In this study we compared grey matter volumes within this predefined anteromedial temporal region (AMTR) at baseline between: 1) normal subjects enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) who subsequently developed cognitive complaints as reflected in a CDR memory box score of 0.5; and 2) normal subjects who remained normal over a median of 48 months of follow-up (CDR sum of boxes 0). We found significantly decreased volume within AMTR in the ADNI memory complainers. To relate AMTR results to those from conventional anatomy, we demonstrate that volumes extracted with the ICBM amygdala region had the best correspondence with AMTR volumes. In contrast, regions that have demonstrated volume loss in frank MCI and AD in ADNI, e.g., the posterior cingulate, did not show volume loss. These findings provide independent confirmation that volume changes preceding MCI occur in AMTR, a region of overlap between amygdala and anterior hippocampus.

  6. How to best measure femoral length and lateralisation after total hip arthroplasty on antero-posterior pelvic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Nicolas; Jacquot, Laurent; Boulard, Laurent; Reynaud, Patrick; Saffarini, Mo; Lustig, Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    Various methods exist for measuring limb length and lateralisation after total hip arthroplasty. Most of them utilise standard anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs, but their results can be affected by patient position during imaging and thus the position of the lower limb on the coronal plane. The aim of this study is to evaluate how commonly used measuring methods of limb lengthening and femoral offset are affected by the position of the lower limb in the coronal plane. A standing pelvic AP radiograph post implantation of a right total hip prosthesis was digitised. The right femur and its femoral stem were digitally segmented, such that they could be positioned orthogonal to the pelvis horizontal reference, with 10° of adduction, and with 10° of abduction, with respect to the centre of rotation. Various limb lengths and implant lateralisation were also digitised. We obtained nine x-rays differing one to three variables. Twice four independent surgeons performed three femoral length measurement methods and femoral offset measurement methods. Intra and inter-observer error as well as the effect of the femoral position on the measurements were studied. With respect to length measurements, the distance between the centre of rotation (C) and the tip of the lesser trochanter (LT) increased by 3 mm per cm of lateralisation. This measurement was not affected by the hip position in abduction or adduction. The distance between the tip of the lesser or greater trochanter (GT) and the horizontal passing through the centre of rotation was strongly affected by the hip position in abduction or adduction. With respect to offset, the distance between the centre of rotation and the greater trochanter (C-GT) was the most consistent and was not affected by variations in lengths or femoral axis. At the level of the lesser trochanter, the distance of the femoral anatomical axis and to Perkin's line was heavily influenced by the femoral position. The C-LT distance was consistent in measuring limb length and the C-GT distance was reliable in determining femoral offset regardless of the relative position of the femur.

  7. Correlation of Beta Angle with Antero-Posterior Dysplasia Indicators and FMA: An Institution Based Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurinder; Verma, Sanjeev; Singh, Devinder Preet; Yadav, Achla Bharti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beta angle utilizes three skeletal landmarks – point A, point B, and point C (the apparent axis of the condyle). It is formed between A-B line and point A perpendicular to C-B line. Further this angle indicates the severity and the type of skeletal dysplasia in the sagittal dimension and it changes with the growth pattern of the patient. Hence, it is important to study the dependence of beta angle on the growth pattern. Aim The present study was designed to evaluate the correlation of Beta angle with point A–Nasion–point B (ANB) angle, points A and B to palatal plane (App-Bpp), Wit’s appraisal and Maxillary-Mandibular plane angle Bisector (MMB) and Frankfort-Mandibular plane Angle (FMA) in Skeletal Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusion groups. Materials and Methods Pre-treatment lateral head cephalo-grams of 120 subjects in age group of 15-25 years were obtained. Three skeletal Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusion groups (40 each) were assorted on the basis of ANB, MMB, App-Bpp, Wit’s appraisal and FMA. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean differences were calculated to compare the study groups. Bivariate correlations among different parameters of these groups were obtained. Results Normal values of beta angle in skeletal Class I group, skeletal Class II group and skeletal Class III group was 31.33±3.25, 25.28±4.28 and 40.93±4.55 respectively. Overall beta angle showed a strong correlation with all parameters of anterio-posterior dysplasia indicators except FMA. Conclusion Beta angle shows weak correlation with FMA and is not affected by growth pattern/jaw rotation. The normal values are in same range irrespective of the differences in craniofacial morphology. PMID:28050509

  8. 77 FR 26536 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Pipeline Company LLC. Description: Antero 2 to Tenaska 461 Capacity Release Negotiated Rate Agreement.../12. Docket Numbers: RP12-643-000. Applicants: Bison Pipeline LLC. Description: Bison Pipeline LLC...

  9. Department of Veterans Affairs, Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Volume 30, Number 2, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    1992. 114. The Anterior Cruciate Ligament -Deficient Knee Contact: Malachy P. McHugh, Nicholas Institute of with Varus Alignment: An Analysis of Gait...Sigfridsgatan 85, S-41267 on the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Vivo. Gothenburg, Sweden Beynnon BD, et al., J Bone Joint Surg 74A(9):1298- 1312, 1992. 128...at antero-lateral distal and antero-lateral proximal demands on residual limb soft tissues. Rather than sites. Anterior resultant shear angles were

  10. A sit-ski design aimed at controlling centre of mass and inertia.

    PubMed

    Langelier, Eve; Martel, Stéphane; Millot, Anne; Lessard, Jean-Luc; Smeesters, Cécile; Rancourt, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces a sit-ski developed for the Canadian Alpine Ski Team in view of the Vancouver 2010 Paralympic games. The design is predominantly based on controlling the mass distribution of the sit-ski, a critical factor in skiing performance and control. Both the antero-posterior location of the centre of mass and the sit-ski moment of inertia were addressed in our design. Our design provides means to adjust the antero-posterior centre of mass location of a sit-ski to compensate for masses that would tend to move the antero-posterior centre of mass location away from the midline of the binding area along the ski axis. The adjustment range provided is as large as 140 mm, thereby providing sufficient adaptability for most situations. The suspension mechanism selected is a four-bar linkage optimised to limit antero-posterior seat movement, due to suspension compression, to 7 mm maximum. This is about 5% of the maximum antero-posterior centre of mass control capacity (151 mm) of a human participant. Foot rest inclination was included in the design to modify the sit-ski inertia by as much as 11%. Together, these mass adjustment features were shown to drastically help athletes' skiing performance.

  11. The Human Sense of the Head's Polarity Is Influenced by Changes in the Magnitude of Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribukait, Arne; Eiken, Ola

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation concerns the integrity of a primary mental function, the egocentric frame of reference and the sense of polarity of one's own head. The visually perceived eye level (VPEL) and the subjective antero-posterior axis of the head were measured by means of a visual indicator in darkness during two stimulus conditions: static…

  12. Spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica in a female: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Lonkar, Yeshwant; Amale, Amar; Acharya, Sourya; Banode, Pankaj; Yeola, Meenakshi

    2012-01-01

    Meralgia paresthetica presents as tingling sensation in the antero-lateral aspect of thigh. It occurs due to compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh. Proximal spinal lesions may present as meralgia paresthetica due to radiculopathy. We present a rare case of spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica. PMID:24082690

  13. Spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica in a female: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Lonkar, Yeshwant; Amale, Amar; Acharya, Sourya; Banode, Pankaj; Yeola, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    Meralgia paresthetica presents as tingling sensation in the antero-lateral aspect of thigh. It occurs due to compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh. Proximal spinal lesions may present as meralgia paresthetica due to radiculopathy. We present a rare case of spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica.

  14. One-Year Post-Operative Stability of Lefort I Osteotomies Using Resorbable Fixation: A Retrospective Analysis of Diverse Facial Patterns on Skeletal Relapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    impaction for vertical maxillary excess (Schendel, 1976). Cephalometric analysis 14 months post-operatively revealed a tendency of the maxilla to further...operative and one-year post-operative lateral cephalometric radiographs to horizontal (Frankfort horizontal) and vertical (Nasion perpendicular... cephalometric radiographs. Edward Angle originally described a classification system of malocclusion in the antero- posterior dimension that is still

  15. The Human Sense of the Head's Polarity Is Influenced by Changes in the Magnitude of Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribukait, Arne; Eiken, Ola

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation concerns the integrity of a primary mental function, the egocentric frame of reference and the sense of polarity of one's own head. The visually perceived eye level (VPEL) and the subjective antero-posterior axis of the head were measured by means of a visual indicator in darkness during two stimulus conditions: static…

  16. Which Foetal-Pelvic Variables Are Useful for Predicting Caesarean Section and Instrumental Assistance?

    PubMed

    Frémondière, P; Thollon, L; Adalian, P; Delotte, J; Marchal, F

    2017-01-01

    To assess the variables useful to predict caesarean delivery (CD) and instrumental assistance, through the analysis of a large number of foetal-pelvic variables, using discriminant analysis. One hundred and fourteen pregnant women were included in this single-centre prospective study. For each mother-foetus pair, 43 pelvic and 18 foetal variables were measured. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis was performed to identify foetal-pelvic variables that could statistically separate the 3 delivery modality groups: spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD), CD, and instrument-assisted delivery (IAD). For the SVD versus CD model, voluminous foetuses and women with a narrow pelvic inlet had a greater risk for requiring CD. The most efficient variables for discrimination were the transverse diameter and foetal weight. The antero-posterior inlet and obstetric conjugate were considered in this model, with the former being a useful variable but not the latter. For the SVD versus IAD model, the most important variables were the foetal variables, particularly the bi-parietal diameter. Women with a reduced antero-posterior outlet diameter and a narrow pubic arch were more at risk of requiring an IAD. The antero-posterior inlet was an efficient variable unlike the obstetric conjugate. The obstetric conjugate diameter should no longer be considered a useful variable in estimating the arrest of labour. Antero-posterior inlet diameter was a sagittal variable that should be taken into account. The comparison of sub-pubic angle and bi-parietal and antero-posterior outlet diameters was useful in identifying a risk of requiring instrumental assistance. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Comparative analysis of the relationship between anterior and posterior corneal shape analyzed by Scheimpflug photography in normal and keratoconus eyes.

    PubMed

    Montalbán, Raúl; Alio, Jorge L; Javaloy, Jaime; Piñero, David P

    2013-06-01

    To analyze and compare the relationship between anterior and posterior corneal shape evaluated by a tomographic system combining the Scheimpflug photography and Placido-disc in keratoconus and normal healthy eyes, as well as to evaluate its potential diagnostic value. Comparative case series including a sample of 161 eyes of 161 subjects with ages ranging from 7 to 66 years and divided into two groups: normal group including 100 healthy eyes of 100 subjects, and keratoconus group including 61 keratoconus eyes of 61 patients. All eyes received a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including an anterior segment analysis with the Sirius system (CSO). Antero-posterior ratios for corneal curvature (k ratio) and shape factor (p ratio) were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate if some antero-posterior ratios combined with other clinical parameters were predictors of the presence of keratoconus. No statistically significant differences between groups were found in the antero-posterior k ratios for 3-, 5- and 7-mm diameter corneal areas (p ≥ 0.09). The antero-posterior p ratio for 4.5- and 8-mm diameter corneal areas was significantly higher in the normal group than in the keratoconus group (p<0.01). The k ratio for 3, 5, and 7 mm was significantly higher in the keratoconus grade IV subgroup than in the normal group (p<0.01). Furthermore, significant differences were found in the p ratio between the normal group and the keratoconus grade II subgroup (p ≤ 0.01). Finally, the logistic regression analysis identified as significant independent predictors of the presence of keratoconus (p<0.01) the 8-mm anterior shape factor, the anterior chamber depth, and the minimal corneal thickness. The antero-posterior k and p ratios are parameters with poor prediction ability for keratoconus, in spite of the trend to the presence of more prolate posterior corneal surfaces compared to the anterior in keratoconus eyes.

  18. Normal orbit skeletal changes in adolescents as determined through cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, B; Flores-Mir, C; Lagravère, M O

    2016-11-10

    To determine three-dimensional spatial orbit skeletal changes in adolescents over a 19 to 24 months observation period assessed through cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The sample consisted of 50 adolescents aged 11 to 17. All were orthodontic patients who had two CBCTs taken with an interval of 19 to 24 months between images. The CBCTs were analyzed using the third-party software Avizo. Sixteen anatomical landmarks resulting in 24 distances were used to measure spatial structural changes of both orbits. Reliability and measurement error of all landmarks were calculated using ten CBCTs. Descriptive and t-test statistical analyses were used to determine the overall changes in the orbits. All landmarks showed excellent reliability with the largest measurement error being the Y-coordinate of the left most medial point of the temporalis grooves at 0.95 mm. The mean differences of orbital changes between time 1 and time 2 in the transverse, antero-posterior and vertical directions were 0.97, 0.36 and 0.33 mm respectively. Right to left most antero-inferior superior orbital rim distance had the greatest overall transverse change of 4.37 mm. Right most posterior point of lacrimal crest to right most postero-lateral point of the superior orbital fissure had the greatest overall antero-posterior change of 0.52 mm. Lastly, left most antero-inferior superior orbital rim to left most antero-superior inferior orbital rim had the greatest overall vertical change of 0.63 mm. The orbit skeletal changes in a period of 19-24 months in a sample of 11-17 year olds were statistically significant, but are not considered to be clinically significant. The overall average changes of orbit measurements were less than 1 mm.

  19. A study on digital diseases of cattle in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mahin, L; Chadli, M; Addi, A

    1986-01-01

    Digital diseases of cattle, as defined by the "International Council on Digital Diseases of the Ruminants" were studied on 32 farms with various management systems in Morocco. This study involved 953 cattle without lameness for claw examination and 89 lame cattle for detailed clinical examination and semiological trimming of the eight claws. Claw deformities, interdigital dermatitis and ungular erosion, chronic diffuse aseptic pododermatitis, circumscribed pododermatitis and deep digital diseases were described regarding their prevalence and clinical characteristics, including their distribution on fore and hind limbs, and on antero-medial, antero-lateral, postero-medial and postero-lateral claws. Interrelationships between different digital diseases and relationships between some digital diseases and environmental factors were searched by correlation studies. The results are compared with the characteristics of the same digital diseases in other countries.

  20. Does the mitral annulus shrink or enlarge during systole? A real-time 3D echocardiography study.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Jun; Jeon, Min-Jae; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Park, Keum-Soo; Lee, Woo-Hyung

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to explore the geometrical changes of the mitral annulus during systole. The 3D shape of the mitral annulus was reconstructed in 13 normal subjects who had normal structure of the mitral apparatus using real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) and 3D computer software. The two orthogonal (antero-posterior and commissure-commissure) dimensions, the areas (2D projected and 3D surface) and the non-planarity of the mitral annulus were estimated during early, mid and late systole. We demonstrated that the MA had a "saddle shape" appearance and it consistently enlarged mainly in the antero-posterior direction from early to late systole with lessening of its non-planarity, as was determined by 3D reconstruction using RT3DE and 3D computer software.

  1. Freezing and hypokinesia of gait induced by stimulation of the subthalamic region.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Giorgio; Lopiano, Leonardo; Zibetti, Maurizio; Cinquepalmi, Annina; Fronda, Chiara; Bergamasco, Bruno; Ducati, Alessandro; Lanotte, Michele

    2007-07-15

    We report a case of a Parkinson's disease patient treated by bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, who developed freezing and hypokinesia of gait induced by stimulation through a left-side misplaced electrode which was more antero-medial than the planned trajectory. Subsequently, correct repositioning of the left electrode afforded complete relief of gait disturbances. Freezing and hypokinesia of gait may be side effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic region due to current spreading antero-medially to the subthalamic nucleus. These side effects are not subject to habituation and restrict any increase in stimulation parameters. We hypothesize that pallidal projections to the pedunculopontine nucleus could be responsible for these gait disturbances in our patient.

  2. Sonic hedgehog-expressing cells in the developing limb measure time by an intrinsic cell cycle clock.

    PubMed

    Chinnaiya, Kavitha; Tickle, Cheryll; Towers, Matthew

    2014-07-08

    How time is measured is an enduring issue in developmental biology. Classical models of somitogenesis and limb development implicated intrinsic cell cycle clocks, but their existence remains controversial. Here we show that an intrinsic cell cycle clock in polarizing region cells of the chick limb bud times the duration of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression, which encodes the morphogen specifying digit pattern across the antero-posterior axis (thumb to little finger). Timing by this clock starts when polarizing region cells fall out of range of retinoic acid signalling. We found that timing of Shh transcription by the cell cycle clock can be reset, thus revealing an embryonic form of self-renewal. In contrast, antero-posterior positional values cannot be reset, suggesting that this may be an important constraint on digit regeneration. Our findings provide the first evidence for an intrinsic cell cycle timer controlling duration and patterning activity of a major embryonic signalling centre.

  3. [3-dimensional approach to spinal deformities. Application to the study of the prognosis of pediatric scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Graf, H; Hecquet, J; Dubousset, J

    1983-01-01

    The authors have utilized a computer for a spatial analysis of deformities of the spine using antero-posterior and lateral radiographs. The posterior limits of the sacral plateau and the centre of each vertebral plateau was demarcated on the antero-posterior radiograph. The posterior margin of each vertebra was demarcated on the lateral radiograph. With this information, the computer can make a picture as if the spine were seen from above and vertebral rotation can be assessed. The vertebrae are of different colours according to their level. Thirty cases have been studied and six types of infantile scoliosis defined - scoliosis with a localised hyper-rotation like a hairpin, scoliosis with rotary dislocation at the junction of two rotational levels, infantile scoliosis with a moderate curve, progressive scoliosis, benign scoliosis and spontaneously regressive scoliosis of the newborn. This study was shown that prognostic features were in accordance with classical assessments.

  4. [Physiopathology of mitral mechanics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Groupe de travail "Cardiomyopathies et insuffisance cardiaque" de la Société Française de Cardiologie].

    PubMed

    Hagège, A; Desnos, M; Komajda, M; Dubourg, O; Isnard, R; Guicheney, P; Schwartz, K; Lévine, R A

    1994-10-01

    Ventricular hypertrophy, the only indisputable phenotypical marker of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, is the basis of the physiopathology and treatment of the disease. Mitral valve abnormalities are usually considered to be secondary to the hypertrophy but the genesis of systolic anterior motion by the Venturi effect has been questioned by many clinical and experimental observations. Abnormalities of the mitral valve apparatus may in themselves (elongation of the valves, antero-internal malposition of the mitral papillary muscles and/or hyperlaxicity of antero-internal corhdae tendinae) create systolic anterior motion or subaortic obstruction in the absence of septal hypertrophy and/or increased subaortic flow velocities. Anatomo-clinical studies have confirmed this hypothesis: a high prevalence of mitral valve disease (increased valvular surface and length) has been found in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The recognition of these abnormalities is of value from the therapeutic (mitral valvuloplasty) diagnostic (in borderline cases) and genetic (when the primary nature of the abnormalities is confirmed) points of view.

  5. Sonic hedgehog-expressing cells in the developing limb measure time by an intrinsic cell cycle clock

    PubMed Central

    Chinnaiya, Kavitha; Tickle, Cheryll; Towers, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    How time is measured is an enduring issue in developmental biology. Classical models of somitogenesis and limb development implicated intrinsic cell cycle clocks, but their existence remains controversial. Here we show that an intrinsic cell cycle clock in polarizing region cells of the chick limb bud times the duration of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression, which encodes the morphogen specifying digit pattern across the antero-posterior axis (thumb to little finger). Timing by this clock starts when polarizing region cells fall out of range of retinoic acid signalling. We found that timing of Shh transcription by the cell cycle clock can be reset, thus revealing an embryonic form of self-renewal. In contrast, antero-posterior positional values cannot be reset, suggesting that this may be an important constraint on digit regeneration. Our findings provide the first evidence for an intrinsic cell cycle timer controlling duration and patterning activity of a major embryonic signalling centre. PMID:25001275

  6. Gradients of signalling in the developing limb.

    PubMed

    Towers, Matthew; Wolpert, Lewis; Tickle, Cheryll

    2012-04-01

    The developing limb is one of the first systems where it was proposed that a signalling gradient is involved in pattern formation. This gradient for specifying positional information across the antero-posterior axis is based on Sonic hedgehog signalling from the polarizing region. Recent evidence suggests that Sonic hedgehog signalling also specifies positional information across the antero-posterior axis by a timing mechanism acting in parallel with graded signalling. The progress zone model for specifying proximo-distal pattern, involving timing to provide cells with positional information, continues to be challenged, and there is further evidence that graded signalling by retinoic acid specifies the proximal part of the limb. Other recent papers present the first evidence that gradients of signalling by Wnt5a and FGFs govern cell behaviour involved in outgrowth and morphogenesis of the developing limb.

  7. Pattern Formation in Vertebrate Limbs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-08

    proximo - distal gradient of increasing cell density (Summerbell & Wolpert, 1972). The proximal to distal mitotic gradient is formed when the... proximo -distal sequencing of the skeletal elements must be programmed in the mesoderm. Until the signal morphogens are identified, the 21...antero-posterior and dorsa-ventral axis are set by the value (0 to 12, 0=12) given to a cellon the ct rcumference of an ellipse. The proximo -distal value

  8. [Surgical treatment of congenital deformities of the thoracic wall].

    PubMed

    Coman, C

    1977-01-01

    The author describes an original procedure for the correction of deformities of the antero-lateral thoracic wall, stressing the tactical and technical principles. The mandatory operational steps are the following: wide chondrectomy, borad retrosternal separation of the periost, transversal osteotomy of the sternum and contention by metalic blades placed behind the sternum. The author stresses the surgical indications in all anterolateral deformities of the thorax and considers that the best age for performing the correction is after 10-12 years.

  9. Rivaroxaban Rebound Acute Coronary Event: A Post Marketing Experience

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ajay; Patel, Amish; Mufti, Omar; Jbara, Yaser; Jabbar, Ali Abdul

    2013-01-01

    We present a 65-year-old male who received rivaroxaban therapy prior to and after left knee replacement surgery. The patient developed generalized weakness soon after stopping rivaroxaban. An electrocardiogram showed acute infero-lateral ischemia and an echocardiogram reported an akinetic antero-apical wall segment, an apical clot and a reduced systolic function. A subsequent coronary angiogram revealed two-vessel coronary artery thrombosis. The case illustrates a temporal relationship of coronary thrombosis following rivaroxaban cessation.

  10. Decreased Default Mode Network connectivity correlates with age-associated structural and cognitive changes

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Piñeiro, Didac; Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Fernández-Cabello, Sara; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M.; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Solana, Elisabeth; Bargalló, Núria; Junqué, Carme; Ros, Emilio; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2014-01-01

    Ageing entails cognitive and motor decline as well as brain changes such as loss of gray (GM) and white matter (WM) integrity, neurovascular and functional connectivity alterations. Regarding connectivity, reduced resting-state fMRI connectivity between anterior and posterior nodes of the Default Mode Network (DMN) relates to cognitive function and has been postulated to be a hallmark of ageing. However, the relationship between age-related connectivity changes and other neuroimaging-based measures in ageing is fragmentarily investigated. In a sample of 116 healthy elders we aimed to study the relationship between antero-posterior DMN connectivity and measures of WM integrity, GM integrity and cerebral blood flow (CBF), assessed with an arterial spin labeling sequence. First, we replicated previous findings demonstrating DMN connectivity decreases in ageing and an association between antero-posterior DMN connectivity and memory scores. The results showed that the functional connectivity between posterior midline structures and the medial prefrontal cortex was related to measures of WM and GM integrity but not to CBF. Gray and WM correlates of anterio-posterior DMN connectivity included, but were not limited to, DMN areas and cingulum bundle. These results resembled patterns of age-related vulnerability which was studied by comparing the correlates of antero-posterior DMN with age-effect maps. These age-effect maps were obtained after performing an independent analysis with a second sample including both young and old subjects. We argue that antero-posterior connectivity might be a sensitive measure of brain ageing over the brain. By using a comprehensive approach, the results provide valuable knowledge that may shed further light on DMN connectivity dysfunctions in ageing. PMID:25309433

  11. [The reduction of the dose to the lung in whole-body irradiation with cobalt-60 gamma rays (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hochhäuser, E; Balk, O A

    1980-09-01

    In order to reduce the exposure of the lung and oesophagus during whole-body irradiation with cobalt-60 gamma rays the dose rate delivered to the lungs and the neck is diminished by means of a filter. Because of its special shape, sternum and columna vertebralis obtain the unreduced dose. The filter is constructed for irradiation in antero-posterior direction. A fixed position of the patient is not necessary.

  12. [Jaws of herbivorous mammals].

    PubMed

    Konishi, Shogo

    2005-08-01

    The jaws of herbivorous mammals are characterized by their large occlusal surface of the molar; high crown of the molar; long snout; etc. However, elephants, the biggest herbivorous mammal, have other characteristics. In the evolutionary trends of proboscidean skulls, concomitant with the increase in tusk size comes on the enlargement, antero-posterior shortening, dorso-ventral elongation of the cranium with increasing cheek teeth size. Naturally, the jaw follows the same evolutionary trends as the cranium.

  13. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Limb Development

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Cheryll; Towers, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The gene encoding the secreted protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the polarizing region (or zone of polarizing activity), a small group of mesenchyme cells at the posterior margin of the vertebrate limb bud. Detailed analyses have revealed that Shh has the properties of the long sought after polarizing region morphogen that specifies positional values across the antero-posterior axis (e.g., thumb to little finger axis) of the limb. Shh has also been shown to control the width of the limb bud by stimulating mesenchyme cell proliferation and by regulating the antero-posterior length of the apical ectodermal ridge, the signaling region required for limb bud outgrowth and the laying down of structures along the proximo-distal axis (e.g., shoulder to digits axis) of the limb. It has been shown that Shh signaling can specify antero-posterior positional values in limb buds in both a concentration- (paracrine) and time-dependent (autocrine) fashion. Currently there are several models for how Shh specifies positional values over time in the limb buds of chick and mouse embryos and how this is integrated with growth. Extensive work has elucidated downstream transcriptional targets of Shh signaling. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how antero-posterior positional values are encoded and then interpreted to give the particular structure appropriate to that position, for example, the type of digit. A distant cis-regulatory enhancer controls limb-bud-specific expression of Shh and the discovery of increasing numbers of interacting transcription factors indicate complex spatiotemporal regulation. Altered Shh signaling is implicated in clinical conditions with congenital limb defects and in the evolution of the morphological diversity of vertebrate limbs. PMID:28293554

  14. Spherical lenses and prisms lead to postural instability in both dyslexic and non dyslexic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kapoula, Zoi; Gaertner, Chrystal; Matheron, Eric

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy as to whether dyslexic children present systematic postural deficiency. Clinicians use a combination of ophthalmic prisms and proprioceptive soles to improve postural performances. This study examines the effects of convergent prisms and spherical lenses on posture. Fourteen dyslexics (13-17 years-old) and 11 non dyslexics (13-16 years-old) participated in the study. Quiet stance posturography was performed with the TechnoConcept device while subjects fixated a target at eye-level from a distance of 1_m. Four conditions were run: normal viewing; viewing the target with spherical lenses of -1 diopter (ACCOM1) over each eye; viewing with -3 diopters over each eye (ACCOM3); viewing with a convergent prism of 8 diopters per eye. Relative to normal viewing, the -1 lenses increased the surface of body sway significantly whereas the -3 diopter lenses only resulted in a significant increase of antero-posterior body sway. Thus, adolescents would appear to cope more effectively with stronger conflicts rather than subtle ones. The prism condition resulted in a significant increase in both the surface and the antero-posterior body sway. Importantly, all of these effects were similar for the two groups. Wavelet analysis (time frequency domain) revealed high spectral power of antero-posterior sway for the prism condition in both groups. In the ACCOM3 condition, the spectral power of antero-posterior sway decreased for non dyslexics but increased for dyslexics suggesting that dyslexics encounter more difficulty with accommodation. The cancelling time for medium range frequency (believed to be controlled by the cerebellum), was shorter in dyslexics, suggesting fewer instances of optimal control. We conclude that dyslexics achieve similar postural performances albeit less efficiently. Prisms and lenses destabilize posture for all teenagers. Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to improve their

  15. Spherical Lenses and Prisms Lead to Postural Instability in Both Dyslexic and Non Dyslexic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kapoula, Zoi; Gaertner, Chrystal; Matheron, Eric

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy as to whether dyslexic children present systematic postural deficiency. Clinicians use a combination of ophthalmic prisms and proprioceptive soles to improve postural performances. This study examines the effects of convergent prisms and spherical lenses on posture. Fourteen dyslexics (13–17 years-old) and 11 non dyslexics (13–16 years-old) participated in the study. Quiet stance posturography was performed with the TechnoConcept device while subjects fixated a target at eye-level from a distance of 1_m. Four conditions were run: normal viewing; viewing the target with spherical lenses of −1 diopter (ACCOM1) over each eye; viewing with −3 diopters over each eye (ACCOM3); viewing with a convergent prism of 8 diopters per eye. Relative to normal viewing, the −1 lenses increased the surface of body sway significantly whereas the −3 diopter lenses only resulted in a significant increase of antero-posterior body sway. Thus, adolescents would appear to cope more effectively with stronger conflicts rather than subtle ones. The prism condition resulted in a significant increase in both the surface and the antero-posterior body sway. Importantly, all of these effects were similar for the two groups. Wavelet analysis (time frequency domain) revealed high spectral power of antero-posterior sway for the prism condition in both groups. In the ACCOM3 condition, the spectral power of antero-posterior sway decreased for non dyslexics but increased for dyslexics suggesting that dyslexics encounter more difficulty with accommodation. The cancelling time for medium range frequency (believed to be controlled by the cerebellum), was shorter in dyslexics, suggesting fewer instances of optimal control. We conclude that dyslexics achieve similar postural performances albeit less efficiently. Prisms and lenses destabilize posture for all teenagers. Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to

  16. SYNDROME IN QUESTION*

    PubMed Central

    Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Jasso-Olivares, Julio Cesar; Chiacchio, Nilton Gioia Di; Jacinto, José Antonio; Restrepo, Maria Victoria Suárez

    2015-01-01

    The Iso-Kikuchi Syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nail dysplasia involving the index fingers, including micronychia, polyonychia, anonychia, irregular lunula, malalignment and hemionychogryphosis. On the antero-posterior image, radiologic examination reveals a narrowing of the distal phalanx. The lateral image shows a Y-shaped bifurcation of the distal phalanx. We report a case of a patient with typical clinical and radiologic signs of Iso-Kikuchi Syndrome. PMID:26131880

  17. Managing shoulder dystocia.

    PubMed

    Brew, J

    1993-01-01

    In midwifery textbooks not much has been written about the management of shoulder dystocia, although it sometimes occurs, and midwives conducting the delivery have to know how to manage it. Should dystocia occurs when the shoulders are stuck in the antero-posterior diameter of the outlet. Sometimes the shoulders fail to rotate into the antero-posterior diameter; in this situation the shoulders are in the oblique diameter of the outlet. This usually happens when the baby is big, weighing more than 4 kilograms. In such cases, the head is big, and it is difficult to deliver the face and the chin. The woman should be in lithotomy position, with the buttocks slightly beyond the end of the bed. The baby's air passages should be sucked of mucus and liquid, so that respiration is initiated. A wide episiotomy should be performed to enlarge the outlet. If the shoulders are in the oblique diameter of the outlet, the midwife should correct the position by hooking a finger into the anterior axilla and rotate the shoulders forward to the antero-posterior diameter of the outlet, before attempting to deliver the shoulders. The next step is the delivery of the posterior shoulder. The midwife puts a finger into the axilla of the posterior shoulder, and by gentle traction downwards, the posterior shoulder is freed. After this, the anterior shoulder is delivered the normal way. This can be aided by applying pressure on the anterior shoulder above the pubic. If the above management fails, then the assistance of the obstetrician must be sought. It is important to recognize large babies before birth in order to initiate appropriate measures before the woman goes into labor. During delivery, the shoulders must be rotated into the antero-posterior diameter of the outlet before attempting to deliver them.

  18. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Limb Development.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Cheryll; Towers, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The gene encoding the secreted protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the polarizing region (or zone of polarizing activity), a small group of mesenchyme cells at the posterior margin of the vertebrate limb bud. Detailed analyses have revealed that Shh has the properties of the long sought after polarizing region morphogen that specifies positional values across the antero-posterior axis (e.g., thumb to little finger axis) of the limb. Shh has also been shown to control the width of the limb bud by stimulating mesenchyme cell proliferation and by regulating the antero-posterior length of the apical ectodermal ridge, the signaling region required for limb bud outgrowth and the laying down of structures along the proximo-distal axis (e.g., shoulder to digits axis) of the limb. It has been shown that Shh signaling can specify antero-posterior positional values in limb buds in both a concentration- (paracrine) and time-dependent (autocrine) fashion. Currently there are several models for how Shh specifies positional values over time in the limb buds of chick and mouse embryos and how this is integrated with growth. Extensive work has elucidated downstream transcriptional targets of Shh signaling. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how antero-posterior positional values are encoded and then interpreted to give the particular structure appropriate to that position, for example, the type of digit. A distant cis-regulatory enhancer controls limb-bud-specific expression of Shh and the discovery of increasing numbers of interacting transcription factors indicate complex spatiotemporal regulation. Altered Shh signaling is implicated in clinical conditions with congenital limb defects and in the evolution of the morphological diversity of vertebrate limbs.

  19. The development of the orbital region of Caretta caretta (Chelonia, Reptilia).

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, S

    1987-01-01

    In the development of the orbital region of the Caretta chondrocranium, the rearrangement of the several eye muscles seems to be correlated with the apparent anterior shift of the neurocranial element, the pila metoptica. The pila consists of the main part, the supratrabecular cartilage, and five processes, the superior, middle, anteromedial, antero-inferior and the postero-inferior. The superior process forms the attachment of the superior rectus muscle and, together with the muscle, moves anteriorly during development. In the course of the anterosuperior shift of the inferior rectus muscle, the antero-inferior process degenerates and the anteromedial process is newly formed. The postero-inferior process gives origin to the posterior rectus muscle and regresses as a result of the upward shift of the muscle. All these changes are the result of the secondary arrangement of the eye muscles gathered around the secondary optic foramen which has been newly formed through the pila metoptica deformation. The elevation of the optic nerve which is brought about through the formation of the interorbital septum, is another factor that brings about the above changes. Because of these changes, the anterior part of the cranial flexure, the pila metoptica, lies in a longitudinal plane and consequently it, as well as the cavum epiptericum, is obliterated and a large antero-inferiorly opening extracranial space, the orbit of the reptile, is produced. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 PMID:3446659

  20. Correlation between maximum bite force and craniofacial morphology of young adults in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sondang, P; Kumagai, H; Tanaka, E; Ozaki, H; Nikawa, H; Tanne, K; Hamada, T

    2003-11-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between maximum bite force and craniofacial morphology. Sixty-four Indonesian female dental students aged 19-27 years with normal occlusion served as the subjects. The Dental Prescale System was used to measure the maximum bite force using a pressure sensitive sheets while craniofacial morphology measurements were determined from conventional lateral radiograms. The antero-posterior and right-left position of the occlusal load centre (the OLC) were measured also. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between bite force and craniofacial morphology while correlation analysis was used to evaluate the antero-posterior position of the OLC related to craniofacial morphology. Fifty-five per cent of the bite force could be explained by variations in the posterior facial height, gonial angle, antero-posterior size of the maxilla, and posterior length of the cranial base. The result showed a larger bite force implies a greater posterior facial height, smaller gonial angle, larger maxilla and straighter posterior length of the cranial base. This study suggests that among Indonesians, maximum bite force could be explained by craniofacial morphology as found in Caucasians. In addition, we proposed a clinical standard of the OLC for the comprehensive evaluation of occlusion.

  1. [The assessment of changes in radiological parameters of acetabulum of the hip joint according to position of the pelvis].

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Emil; Sibiński, Marcin; Sobala, Wojciech; Synder, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the repeatability of selected radiological parameters in the assessment of mild forms of developmental dysplasia of the hip and to evaluate the changes of the parameters according the position of the pelvis. Retrospective review of radiographs of 98 hips (49 children) was done in antero-posterior and Lauenstein position. Among them 59 hips were treated for type II hip dysplasia according to Graf. At the latest follow-upthe mean age was 9.1 years (range from 4 to 15 years). On radiographs in antero-posterior position of the hips mean rotation index (Tönnis-Brunken index) was 1.0, and on radiographs in Lange position was 0.98 and had no influence on measured parameters. On radiographs in antero-posterior position pelvis was more in forward rotation than in Lange position. With the pelvis in more forward rotation (measured using Ball-Kommend index) the value of Lequesne and Ullmanna-Sharp angles were decreased and Wiberg angle was increased. The angles had good repeatability. The other parameters: acetabular index, decentration distance and Idelberg-Frank angle were not statistically related to Ball-Kommend index. Idelberg-Frank angle had satisfactory repeatability but acetabular index and decentration distance had poor repeatability. Considering above mentioned characteristics of Idelberg-Frank angle, this parameter may be a useful tool for assessment of the hip.

  2. [Examination of dynamic body balance using the body tracking test in cases of vestibular neuronitis].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomoe; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Nomura, Toshiyuki; Ohwada, Satoko; Takazawa, Rio; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Shigeta, Fuyuko

    2008-09-01

    Body Tracking Test (BTT) is a testing method of the dynamic body balance function wherein movement of the center of gravity in accordance with a moving visual target stimulus is examined to evaluate the tracking function of the body. The objects were the patients who were diagnosed as having vestibular neuronitis at the Department of Otolaryngology in Toho University medical center Sakura hospital, and were undergoing hospital treatment. Lateral BTT was performed in 31 subjects, and antero-posterior (A-P) BTT in 45 subjects. Although gaze nystagmus was noted, inspection was enforced when a standing position posture was possible. In lateral BTT, the average (cm/second) horizontal direction body sway speed was compared, however, no clear lateral difference was noted. In the antero-posterior (A-P) BTT, it inquired using the direction body sway average center displacement (cm) of X. Deviation was seen by the affected side in stabilometry. Deviation was seen by the unaffected side in the antero-posterior (A-P) BTT. This phenomenon differs from the deviation pattern until now and is considered to involve participation of the higher centers.

  3. Effect of hold depth and grip technique on maximal finger forces in rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Amca, Arif Mithat; Vigouroux, Laurent; Aritan, Serdar; Berton, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how the commonly used climbing-specific grip techniques and hold depths influence the finger force capacities. Ten advanced climbers performed maximal voluntary force on four different hold depths (from 1 to 4 cm) and in two force directions (antero-posterior and vertical) using three grip techniques (slope, half crimp and full crimp). A specially designed platform instrumented with a 6-degrees-of-freedom (DoF) force/torque sensor was used to record force values. Results showed that the maximal vertical forces differed significantly according to the hold depth and the grip technique (ranged from 350.8 N to 575.7 N). The maximal vertical forces increased according to the hold depth but the form of this increase differed depending on grip technique. These results seemed to be more associated with finger-hold contact/interaction than with internal biomechanical factors. Similar results were revealed for antero-posterior forces (ranged from 69.9 N to 138.0 N) but, it was additionally noted that climbers have different hand-forearm posture strategies with slope and crimp grip techniques when applying antero-posterior forces. This point is important as it could influence the body position adopted during climbing according to the chosen grip technique. For trainers and designers, a polynomial regression model was proposed in order to predict the mean maximal force based on hold depth and adopted grip technique.

  4. Walking with robot assistance: the influence of body weight support on the trunk and pelvis kinematics.

    PubMed

    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Knaepen, Kristel; Michielsen, Marc; Hens, Gerrit; Clijsen, Ron; Goossens, Maggie; Buyl, Ronald; Meeusen, Romain; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2015-05-01

    The goal was to assess in healthy participants the three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and the trunk during robot-assisted treadmill walking (RATW) at 0%, 30% and 50% body weight support (BWS), compared with treadmill walking (TW). 18 healthy participants walked (2 kmph) on a treadmill with and without robot assistance (Lokomat; 60% guidance force; 0%, 30% and 50% BWS). After an acclimatisation period (four minutes), trunk and pelvis kinematics were registered in each condition (Polhemus Liberty [240 Hz]). The results were analysed using a repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction, with the level of suspension as within-subject factor. During RATW with BWS, there were significantly (1) smaller antero-posterior and lateral translations of the trunk and the pelvis; (2) smaller antero-posterior flexion and axial rotation of the trunk; (3) larger lateral flexion of the trunk; and (4) larger antero-posterior tilting of the pelvis compared with TW. There are significant differences in trunk and pelvis kinematics in healthy persons during TW with and without robot assistance. These data are relevant in gait rehabilitation, relating to normal balance regulation. Additional research is recommended to further assess the influence of robot assistance on human gait. The trunk and pelvis moves in a different way during walking with robot assistance. The data suggest that the change in movement is due to the robot device and the harness of the suspension system more than due to the level of suspension itself.

  5. Topographically Organized Projection to Posterior Insular Cortex from the Posterior Portion of the Ventral Medial Nucleus (VMpo) in the Long-tailed Macaque Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Craig, A.D. (Bud)

    2014-01-01

    Prior anterograde tracing work identified somatotopically organized lamina I trigemino- and spino-thalamic terminations in a cytoarchitectonically distinct portion of posterolateral thalamus of the macaque monkey, named the posterior part of the ventral medial nucleus (VMpo; Craig, 2004b). Microelectrode recordings from clusters of selectively thermoreceptive or nociceptive neurons were used to guide precise micro-injections of various tracers in VMpo. A prior report (Craig and Zhang, 2006) described retrograde tracing results, which confirmed the selective lamina I input to VMpo and the antero-posterior (head to foot) topography. The present report describes the results of micro-injections of anterograde tracers placed at different levels in VMpo, based on the antero-posterior topographic organization of selectively nociceptive units and clusters over nearly the entire extent of VMpo. Each injection produced dense, patchy terminal labeling in a single coherent field within a distinct granular cortical area centered in the fundus of the superior limiting sulcus. The terminations were distributed with a consistent antero-posterior topography over the posterior half of the superior limiting sulcus. These observations demonstrate a specific VMpo projection area in dorsal posterior insular cortex that provides the basis for a somatotopic representation of selectively nociceptive lamina I spinothalamic activity. These results also identify the VMpo terminal area as the posterior half of interoceptive cortex; the anterior half receives input from the vagal-responsive and gustatory neurons in the basal part of the ventral medial nucleus (VMb). PMID:23853108

  6. The Sonic hedgehog gradient in the developing limb.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Cheryll; Barker, Heather

    2013-01-01

    A gradient of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) plays a major role in specifying the antero-posterior pattern of structures that develop in the distal part of the vertebrate limb, in particular, the antero-posterior pattern of the digits. Classical embryological experiments identified the polarizing region (or zone of polarizing activity, ZPA), a signaling region at the posterior margin of the early chick wing bud and, consistent with a model in which production of a diffusible morphogen specifies antero-posterior positional information, polarizing region signaling was shown to be dose dependent and long range. It is now well established that the vertebrate hedgehog gene, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which encodes a secreted protein, is expressed in the polarizing region of the chick wing and that Shh signaling has the same characteristics as polarizing region signaling. Shh expression at the posterior of the early limb bud and the mechanism of Shh signal transduction are conserved among vertebrates including mammals. However, it is unlikely that a simple Shh gradient is responsible for digit pattern formation in mammalian limbs and there is still little understanding of how positional information specified by Shh signaling is encoded and translated into digit anatomy. Alterations in Shh signaling underlie some congenital limb abnormalities and also changes in timing and extent of Shh signaling appear to be related to the evolution of morphological diversity of vertebrate limbs.

  7. The influence of colour and sound on neuronal activation during visual object naming.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J

    2008-11-19

    This paper investigates how neuronal activation for naming photographs of objects is influenced by the addition of appropriate colour or sound. Behaviourally, both colour and sound are known to facilitate object recognition from visual form. However, previous functional imaging studies have shown inconsistent effects. For example, the addition of appropriate colour has been shown to reduce antero-medial temporal activation whereas the addition of sound has been shown to increase posterior superior temporal activation. Here we compared the effect of adding colour or sound cues in the same experiment. We found that the addition of either the appropriate colour or sound increased activation for naming photographs of objects in bilateral occipital regions and the right anterior fusiform. Moreover, the addition of colour reduced left antero-medial temporal activation but this effect was not observed for the addition of object sound. We propose that activation in bilateral occipital and right fusiform areas precedes the integration of visual form with either its colour or associated sound. In contrast, left antero-medial temporal activation is reduced because object recognition is facilitated after colour and form have been integrated.

  8. Femoral sizing in total knee arthroplasty is rotation dependant.

    PubMed

    Koninckx, Angelique; Deltour, Arnaud; Thienpont, Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    The mismatch between the medio-lateral (ML) and the antero-posterior (AP) size of femoral components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been linked to gender, ethnicity, morphotype and height differences in patients. The hypothesis of this study was that the AP size measurement of a femoral component increases with more external rotation in posterior referencing TKA. During a 2-year period, 201 patients were included in this prospective study. The AP distance of the distal femur was measured with an AP sizer of the Vanguard (Biomet, Warsaw, US) knee system. This AP sizer allows to dial in external rotation by 1° increments and to determine the femoral size with an anterior boom. AP size was noted at 0°, 3° and 5° of external rotation and then compared for ML matching. Antero-posterior and corresponding ML sizes match perfectly for the Vanguard at 0° of external rotation and a central boom position on the anterior femoral surface. Then, the anterior boom was positioned on the antero-lateral cortex and the AP size increased a mean (SD) 1 (0.5) mm. With 3° of external rotation, the AP size increased a mean (SD) 2.3 (0.4) mm and for 5° a mean (SD) 3.8 (0.3) mm (P < 0.05). This increase in AP size resulted in ML overhang of 2.2 (1.2) mm for 3° and 4.8 (2.6) mm for 5° (P < 0.05). Antero-posterior size measurement of the distal femur is determined by the anatomy of the anterior surface with a higher antero-lateral cortex and the amount of external rotation that is dialled in during surgery. Since these parameters vary case per case, the availability of narrow components offers more surgical options to the surgeon and its importance extends beyond the gender aspect allowing different amounts of external rotation to be used without ML overhang. II.

  9. How the embryo makes a limb: determination, polarity and identity.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Cheryll

    2015-10-01

    The vertebrate limb with its complex anatomy develops from a small bud of undifferentiated mesoderm cells encased in ectoderm. The bud has its own intrinsic polarity and can develop autonomously into a limb without reference to the rest of the embryo. In this review, recent advances are integrated with classical embryology, carried out mainly in chick embryos, to present an overview of how the embryo makes a limb bud. We will focus on how mesoderm cells in precise locations in the embryo become determined to form a limb and express the key transcription factors Tbx4 (leg/hindlimb) or Tbx5 (wing/forelimb). These Tbx transcription factors have equivalent functions in the control of bud formation by initiating a signalling cascade involving Wnts and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and by regulating recruitment of mesenchymal cells from the coelomic epithelium into the bud. The mesoderm that will form limb buds and the polarity of the buds is determined with respect to both antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axes of the body. The position in which a bud develops along the antero-posterior axis of the body will also determine its identity - wing/forelimb or leg/hindlimb. Hox gene activity, under the influence of retinoic acid signalling, is directly linked with the initiation of Tbx5 gene expression in the region along the antero-posterior axis of the body that will form wings/forelimbs and determines antero-posterior polarity of the buds. In contrast, Tbx4 expression in the regions that will form legs/hindlimbs is regulated by the homeoprotein Pitx1 and there is no evidence that Hox genes determine antero-posterior polarity of the buds. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling determines the region along the dorso-ventral axis of the body in which both wings/forelimbs and legs/hindlimbs develop and dorso-ventral polarity of the buds. The polarity of the buds leads to the establishment of signalling regions - the dorsal and ventral ectoderm, producing Wnts and BMPs

  10. Center of pressure displacements during gait initiation in individuals with obesity.

    PubMed

    Cau, Nicola; Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Precilios, Helmer; Tacchini, Elena; Santovito, Cristina; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2014-05-07

    Obesity is known to affect balance and gait pattern increasing the risk of fall and injury as compared to the lean population. Such risk is particularly high during postural transitions. Gait initiation (GI) is a transient procedure between static upright posture and steady-state locomotion, which includes anticipatory antero-posterior and lateral movements. GI requires propulsion and balance control. The aim of this study was to characterise quantitatively the strategy of obese subjects during GI using parameters obtained by the Center of Pressure (CoP) track. 20 obese individuals and 15 age-matched healthy subjects were tested using a force platform during the initiation trials. CoP plots were divided in different phases, which identified the anticipatory postural adjustments (APA1, APA2) and a movement phase (LOC). Duration, length and velocity of the CoP trace in these phases were calculated and compared. The results show that the main characteristic of GI in obese participants is represented by a higher excursion in medio-lateral direction. This condition lead to longer APA length and duration, which are statistical significant during APA2 when compared to control subjects. We also found longer duration of APA1 and LOC phases. In terms of velocity, most of the phases were characterised by a reduced CoP velocity in antero-posterior direction and faster movement in medio-lateral direction as compared to the control group. Our findings provide novel evidence in GI in obese subjects that may serve for developing exercise programs aimed at specifically improving balance in both the antero-posterior and lateral directions. Such programs together with weight management may be beneficial for improving stability during postural transitions and reducing risk of fall in this population.

  11. Does a mineral wristband affect balance? A randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Beckman, Anders; Persson, Liselott

    2015-06-26

    Having good balance is a facilitating factor in the performance of everyday activities. Good balance is also essential in various sport activities in order to both get results and prevent injury. A common measure of balance is postural sway, which can be measured both antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally. There are several companies marketing wristbands whose intended function is to improve balance, strength and flexibility. Randomized controlled trials have shown that wristbands with holograms have no effect on balance but studies on wristbands with minerals seem to be lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate if the mineral wristband had any effect on postural sway in a group of healthy individuals. Randomized, controlled, double-blind study. The study group consisted of 40 healthy persons. Postural sway was measured antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally on a force plate, to compare: the mineral wristband, a placebo wristband, and without any wristband. The measurements were performed for 30 s, in four situations: with open eyes and closed eyes, standing on a firm surface and on foam. Analyses were made with multilevel technique. The use of wristband with or without minerals did not alter postural sway. Closed eyes and standing on foam both prolonged the dependent measurement, irrespective if it was medio-lateral or antero-posterior. Wearing any wristband (mineral or placebo) gave a small (0.22-0.36 mm/s) but not statistically significant reduction of postural sway compared to not wearing wristband. This study showed no effect on postural sway by using the mineral wristband, compared with a placebo wristband or no wristband. Wearing any wristband at all (mineral or placebo) gave a small but not statistically significant reduction in postural sway, probably caused by sensory input.

  12. Iliac Bone Grafting of the Intact Glenoid Improves Shoulder Stability with Optimal Graft Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Willemot, Laurent B.; Eby, Sarah F.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Debeer, Phillipe; Victor, Jan; An, Kai-Nan; Verborgt, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone grafting procedures are increasingly popular for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability. In cases with high risk of recurrence, open coracoid transplantation is preferred but can be technically demanding. Free bone graft glenoid augmentation may be an alternative strategy for high-risk patients without significant glenoid bone loss. This biomechanical cadaver study aims to assess the stabilizing effect of free iliac crest bone grafting of the intact glenoid and the importance of sagittal graft position. Methods Eight fresh frozen cadaver shoulders were tested. The bone graft was fixed on the glenoid neck at three sagittal positions (50%, 75% and 100% below the glenoid equator). Displacement and reaction force were monitored with a custom device while translating the humeral head over the glenoid surface in both anterior and antero-inferior direction. Results Peak force (PF) increased significantly from the standard labral repair to the grafted conditions in both anterior (14.7 (±5.5 N) vs. 27.3 (±6.9 N)) and antero-inferior translation (22.0 (±5.3 N) vs. 29.3 (±6.9 N)). PF was significantly higher for the grafts at the 50% and 75% positions, compared to the grafts 100% below the equator with anterior translation. Antero-inferior translation resulted in significantly higher values for the 100% and 75% positions compared to the 50% position. Conclusions This biomechanical study confirms improved anterior glenohumeral stability after iliac crest bone graft augmentation of the anterior glenoid. The results also demonstrate the importance of bone graft position in the sagittal plane, with the ideal position determined by the direction of dislocation. PMID:25457786

  13. Center of pressure displacements during gait initiation in individuals with obesity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is known to affect balance and gait pattern increasing the risk of fall and injury as compared to the lean population. Such risk is particularly high during postural transitions. Gait initiation (GI) is a transient procedure between static upright posture and steady-state locomotion, which includes anticipatory antero-posterior and lateral movements. GI requires propulsion and balance control. The aim of this study was to characterise quantitatively the strategy of obese subjects during GI using parameters obtained by the Center of Pressure (CoP) track. Methods 20 obese individuals and 15 age-matched healthy subjects were tested using a force platform during the initiation trials. CoP plots were divided in different phases, which identified the anticipatory postural adjustments (APA1, APA2) and a movement phase (LOC). Duration, length and velocity of the CoP trace in these phases were calculated and compared. Results and discussion The results show that the main characteristic of GI in obese participants is represented by a higher excursion in medio-lateral direction. This condition lead to longer APA length and duration, which are statistical significant during APA2 when compared to control subjects. We also found longer duration of APA1 and LOC phases. In terms of velocity, most of the phases were characterised by a reduced CoP velocity in antero-posterior direction and faster movement in medio-lateral direction as compared to the control group. Conclusions Our findings provide novel evidence in GI in obese subjects that may serve for developing exercise programs aimed at specifically improving balance in both the antero-posterior and lateral directions. Such programs together with weight management may be beneficial for improving stability during postural transitions and reducing risk of fall in this population. PMID:24885764

  14. Positional abnormalities during sleep in children affected by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: the putative role of kinetic muscular chains.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Marco; Gimigliano, Francesca; Fiordelisi, Giovanni; Ruberto, Maria; Esposito, Maria

    2013-08-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) are disorders of breathing during sleep characterized by prolonged partial upper airway obstruction, intermittent complete or partial obstruction (obstructive apnea or hypopnea), or both prolonged and intermittent obstruction that disrupts normal ventilation during sleep, normal sleep patterns, or both. Children with OSAS may sleep in unusual positions, such as seated or with neck hyperextended, even if the neck position is not the only unusual posture or the special sleeping positions that is possible to detect in children with SRBD. We have hypothesized that the assumption of unusual posture during sleep, in particular legs retracting or crossing during sleep, could be a way to enlarge the diaphragmatic excursion and promoting the alveolar gas exchanges avoiding the stress of the antero-lumbar and prevertebral muscular chains in SRBD subjects. We have hypothesized that the assumption of unusual posture during sleep, in particular legs retracting or crossing during sleep, could be a way to enlarge the diaphragmatic excursion and promoting the alveolar gas exchanges avoiding the stress of the antero-lumbar and prevertebral muscular chains in SRBD subjects. We can postulate that the prevertebral and antero-lumbar muscular chains could be oversolicited during the apnoic events, and the assumption of abnormal posture could be interpreted as a way to relax or diminish the strain or muscular stress caused by the apneas. The consequence of this hypothesis could be summarized in the concept that a specific rehabilitation or muscular program to improve the tone of this kinetic chain, could be useful to limit the effect nocturnal or diurnal of this so impacting syndrome.

  15. Right Ventricular Remodeling Determines Tricuspid Valve Geometry and the Severity of Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation: A Real-Time 3-Dimensional Echocardiography Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Dae-Hee; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Right ventricle (RV) remodeling can determine tricuspid valve (TV) geometry and the severity of functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR). Subjects and Methods In 53 patients with various degrees of functional TR and in sinus rhythm, RV and TV geometries were analyzed using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography, including tenting angles of 3 leaflets, septal-lateral and antero-posterior tricuspid annulus diameters and inlet RV dimensions, mid-RV septal-lateral dimension, and the distance between annulus and apex. A mid-systole frame when the TV tenting is smallest was selected for the analysis. RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were measured. The severity of functional TR was determined by distal jet area. Results TR distal jet area was mainly determined by septal-lateral annulus diameter (p<0.001) RV inlet dimension (p=0.015), RV end-systolic volume (p=0.010), septal (p=0.019), and anterior leaflet tenting angles (p=0.045) by multiple stepwise linear regression analysis. Leaflet tenting angles were mainly determined by septal-lateral RV inlet dimension. Septal-lateral annulus diameter was determined by septal-lateral RV inlet dimension (p<0.001) and mid RV dimension (p=0.033), whereas antero-posterior annulus diameter was determined by antero-posterior RV inlet dimension (p<0.001). Conclusion Functional TR severity is determined by septal-lateral annulus and RV dilation, and tenting of septal and anterior leaflets. TV leaflet tenting is mainly determined by septal-lateral RV inlet dilation, and tricuspid annulus dilation is closely linked with inlet RV dilation. PMID:20967146

  16. [Current concepts in perinatal brachial plexus palsy. Part 2: late phase. Shoulder deformities].

    PubMed

    Dogliotti, Andrés Alejandro

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of obstetric brachial palsy is high and their sequelaes are frequent. Physiotherapy, microsurgical nerve reconstruction and secondary corrections are used together to improve the shoulder function. The most common posture is shoulder in internal rotation and adduction, because of the antagonist weakness. The muscle forces imbalance over the osteoarticular system, will result in a progressive glenohumeral joint deformity which can be recognized with a magnetic resonance image. Tendon transfers of the internal rotators towards the external abductor/rotator muscles, has good results, but has to be combined with antero-inferior soft-tissue releases, if passive range of motion is limited.

  17. Space Research Program on Planarian Schmidtea Mediterranea's Establishment of the Anterior-Posterior Axis in Altered Gravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auletta, G.; Adell, T.; Colagè, I.; D'Ambrosio, P.; Salò, E.

    2012-12-01

    Planarians of the species Schmidtea mediterranea are a well-established model for regeneration studies. In this paper, we first recall the morphological characters and the molecular mechanisms involved in the regeneration process, especially focussing on the Wnt pathway and the establishment of the antero-posterior axial polarity. Then, after an assessment of a space-experiment (run in 2006 on the Russian Segment of the International Space Station) on planarians of the species Girardia tigrina, we present our experimental program to ascertain the effects that altered-gravity conditions may have on regeneration processes in S. mediterrnea at the molecular and genetic level.

  18. A new species of Labidocera (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) collected from Okinawa, southwestern Japan, with establishment of five Indo-West Pacific species groups in the L.detruncata species complex.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Labidocerachuraumi sp. n. is described from Okinawa, southwestern Japan. The female of the new species differs from other congeners in genital compound somite with right postero-lateral and left antero-lateral processes. The male is distinguished from other congeners by the structure of the fifth leg. This new species is assigned to a newly proposed species group, the Labidoceramadurae species group, within the Labidoceradetruncata species complex. In this species complex five Indo-West Pacific species groups are recognized (cervi, detruncata, gangetica, madurae, and pavo) and defined on the basis of difference in sexual dimorphism.

  19. [Paraclinical diagnostic procedures in micro- and macrotraumas of the shoulder. Indications for echography and CT scanning].

    PubMed

    Annaert, J M; Peetrons, P; Famaey, J P

    1990-03-01

    A careful physical examination is absolutely necessary as a first evaluation of all disorders of the shoulder before performing any imaging technique that must be chosen according to the kind of suspected pathology. The best indications for performing an arthroscanner are the intraarticular lesions such as injuries of the glenoid labrum and of the articular capsule. Echography is the most performing technique for bicipital and rotator cuff tendinitis. CT scan helps to understand the antero-internal retro-coracoidal impingment syndromes as well as uninterpretable bone lesions at standard radiography. Arthrography and arthro-pneumo-tomography are very useful for presurgical assessment of rotator cuff tears.

  20. Left posterolateral strangulated congenital diaphragmatic hernia in children: About a case at the Charles de Gaulle Paediatric Teaching Hospital in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Bandré, Emile; Wandaogo, Albert; Ouedraogo, Isso; Napon, Madina; Béré, Bernadette; Kabré, Yvette; Lamita Tapsoba, Toussaint Wend; Ouédraogo, Francis Somkieta

    2015-01-01

    Late presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia is uncommon. It poses considerable diagnostic challenges when it strangulates. The authors report a case of a left posterolateral strangulated congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a 5-year-old child diagnosed at the stage of acute intestinal occlusion with intestinal necrosis and managed successfully. A strangulated congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be suspected in the case of an association of sudden-onset respiratory and digestive manifestations with no sign of trauma or specific pulmonary history. It then requires an antero posterior thoracic X-ray or, even better, a thoracic-abdominal scan to confirm the diagnosis.

  1. [Post-stripping telangiectasis].

    PubMed

    Hutinel, B; Maraval, M

    1985-01-01

    These telangiectasia appear between one and six months after the operation, especially in cases of capillary fragility. The most common localizations are the antero-internal and external sides of the thighs and knees. Unnecessary strippings, of continent saphenous veins, are the most frequent cause of these. Their prevention consists of the least possible traumatising stripping, using a fine stripper, a very rigorous post-operative support, and the wearing of light varicose stockings or tights for between one and three months. The treatment using microsclerosis, often delicate, should not be undertaken before six months.

  2. Bobble-head doll syndrome in an 80-year-old man, associated with a giant arachnoid cyst of the lamina quadrigemina, treated with endoscopic ventriculocystocisternotomy and cystoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Castro, Jorge Octavio; Morales-Briceño, Hugo; Sandoval-Bonilla, Bayron; Gallardo-Ceja, David; Venegas-Cruz, Miguel Angel; Estrada-Estrada, Eric Misael; Contreras-Mota, Marisol; Guinto-Balanzar, Gerardo; Garcia-Lopez, Rabindranath

    2017-08-01

    Bobble-head doll syndrome (BHDS) is a rare entity, characterized by antero-posterior head bobbing, which is of the type "yes-yes." Less frequently, having a head movement of the type "no-no" is described. We report an unusual case of an 80-year-old man with a cystic mass of the lamina quadrigemina, extending to the posterior fossa. We conclude that ventriculocystocisternotomy associated with a cystoperitoneal shunt is an effective treatment for a symptomatic giant arachnoid cyst in the lamina quadrigemina.

  3. Particular adaptations to potentially slippery surfaces: the effects of friction on consecutive postural adjustments (CPA).

    PubMed

    Memari, Sahel; Le Bozec, Serge; Bouisset, Simon

    2014-02-21

    This research deals with the postural adjustments that occur after the end of voluntary movement ("consecutive postural adjustments": CPAs). The influence of a potentially slippery surface on CPA characteristics was considered, with the aim of exploring more deeply the postural component of the task-movement. Seven male adults were asked to perform a single step, as quickly as possible, to their own footprint marked on the ground. A force plate measured the resultant reaction forces along the antero-posterior axis (R(x)) and the centre of pressure (COP) displacements along the antero-posterior and lateral axes (Xp and Yp). The velocity of the centre of gravity (COG) along the antero-posterior axis and the corresponding impulse (∫R(x)dt) were calculated; the peak velocity (termed "progression velocity": V(xG)) was measured. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) along the progression axis (pμ(x)) was determined. Two materials, differing by their COF, were laid at foot contact (FC), providing a rough foot contact (RoFC), and a smooth foot contact (SmFC) considered to be potentially slippery. Two step lengths were also performed: a short step (SS) and a long step (LS). Finally, the subjects completed four series of ten steps each. These were preceded by preliminary trials, to allow them to acquire the necessary adaptation to experimental conditions. The antero-posterior force time course presented a positive phase, that included APAs ("anticipatory postural adjustments") and step execution (STEP), followed by a negative one, corresponding to CPAs. The backward impulse (CPI) was equal to the forward one (BPI), independently of friction and progression velocity. Moreover, V(xG) did not differ according to friction, but was faster when the step length was greater. Last CPA peak amplitudes (pCPA) were significantly greater and CPA durations (dCPA) shorter for RoFC and conversely for SmFC, contrary to APA. Finally, the results show a particular adaptation to the

  4. A Rare Presentation of Os Odontoideum with Multiple Vertebral Fusion in Type III Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shabana; Roy, Tanushree; Ghosal Sen, Tanwi; Gupta, Indrajit

    2014-09-01

    An abnormal atlas and axis with presence of os odontoideum and fusion of multiple vertebrae were noted in an intact skeleton, in the osteology museum of the Department of Anatomy of North Bengal Medical College, West Bengal, India.These multiple abnormalities at various levels along with increased thickness of antero-posterior arch of atlas pointed towards the congenital nature of the anomalies, possibly due to Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). These unusual findings denote a developmental background of the manifestations.The cervical instability, resultant neurodeficit and impairment of quality of life of the affected individuals, which are inherent in such cases, reveal their clinical importance.

  5. A new method for calculating the distribution of radioactivity in man measured with a whole-body counter

    SciTech Connect

    Novario, R.; Conte, L. )

    1990-05-01

    A whole-body counter with a scanning bed and two opposite (antero-posterior) probes was used to obtain profiles of count rates of radioactivity held in the whole body. The distribution of the activity in the patient was calculated by solving an overdetermined system (more equations than unknowns) of linear equations with the Chebyshev method, the least-squares method, and an iterative method. The iterative method gave the best results, especially in the case of distributions with peaks of radioactivity. Some in-vivo applications of the method are presented.

  6. Access to a three-dimensional measure of vertebral axial rotation.

    PubMed

    Hecquet, J; Legaye, J; Duval-Beaupère, G

    1998-01-01

    Scoliotic curvatures can only be assessed through three-dimensional (3D) procedures. Measurement of the axial vertebral rotation appears to be of primary importance for such techniques. Nevertheless, traditional methods are based only on 2D data, obtained through antero-posterior radiographic projections of the spine. A 3D method is described in this study, taking into account the sagittal tilt of the vertebrae. Only such a measurement provides a real 3D method for a true appraisal of the scoliotic spine. The practical implications are developed.

  7. [Topographic correlations between the Chinese craniopuncture zones and the cerebral gyri].

    PubMed

    Pradal, D; Lopez, F; Bossy, J; Grimal, J

    1979-12-01

    Scalp acupuncture being a new chinese therapy in some nervous diseases, the authors establish here topographic relations between its areas and cerebral gyri. These areas are bordered by two main lines: the first is a medial antero-posterior line, the second is a transversal line joining the middle of the brow to the external occipital tuberosity. Brain extraction was possible after congelation. The sulci were injected by three different methods (aluminium wire, red lead and thick barium). Radiological research showed a close relationship between stimulation areas used in scalp acupuncture and neurological knowledge.

  8. DKK3 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    DKK3, a member of the dickkopf family, is a secreted protein containing two cysteine rich regions and involved in embryonic development through its interactions with the Wnt signaling pathway. The expression of the DKK3 gene is decreased in a variety of cancer cell lines and it may function as a tumor suppressor gene. DKKs play an important role in vertebrate development, where they locally inhibit Wnt regulated processes such as antero-posterior axial patterning, limb development, somitogenesis and eye formation. In the adult, Dkks are implicated in bone formation and bone disease, cancer and Alzheimer disease. Highest expression in heart, brain, and spinal cord.

  9. Pilot study: Assessing repeatability of the EcoWalk platform resistive pressure sensors to measure plantar pressure during barefoot standing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zequera, Martha; Perdomo, Oscar; Wilches, Carlos; Vizcaya, Pedro

    2013-06-01

    Plantar pressure provides useful information to assess the feet's condition. These systems have emerged as popular tools in clinical environment. These systems present errors and no compensation information is presented by the manufacturer, leading to uncertainty in the measurements. Ten healthy subjects, 5 females and 5 males, were recruited. Lateral load distribution, antero-posterior load distribution, average pressure, contact area, and force were recorded. The aims of this study were to assess repeatability of the EcoWalk system and identify the range of pressure values observed in the normal foot. The coefficient of repeatability was less than 4% for all parameters considered.

  10. New species of Isotomiella Bagnall, 1939 from Southeast of Brazil (Collembola, Isotomidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Mendonça, Maria Cleide; Abrantes, Eduardo A.; Neves, Ana Carolina R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Isotomiella Bagnall, 1939 are described and illustrated, the first: Isotomiella macedoi sp. n., based on males and females, from the “Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos” (Teresópolis municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro) differs from the other by tibiotarsus III thickened and blunt and two antero-lateral chaetae of labrum strongly thickened. The second species Isotomiella uai sp. n. from “Serra da Gandarela”, (Caeté municipality, State of Minas Gerais) differs from the other by presence of short sensilla on antennal IV and tergites, two anterolabral chaetae thickened and falcate mucro. PMID:23226958

  11. [Effects of temperature on Keratella quadrata life table demography and morphometric characteristics].

    PubMed

    Ge, Ya-Li; Xi, Yi-Long; Ma, Jie; Xu, Dan-Dan

    2011-05-01

    By the method of individual culture, this paper studied the effects of temperature (10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 25 degrees C) on the life table demography (net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of population increase, generation time, average lifespan, and proportion of mictic offspring) and the offspring morphometric characteristics (body length, body width, antero-median spine length, left and right antero-lateral spine lengths, left and right posterior-spine lengths, and posterior spine number) of two posterior-spined, single posterior-spined, and zero posterior-spined morphotypes of Keratella quadrata. All the test life table demographic parameters and offspring morphometric parameters differed with morphotype and temperature, and their responses to elevated temperature differed with morphotype. Temperature had significant effects on the intrinsic rate of population increase, generation time, average lifespan, and the offspring morphometric parameters (P < 0.05); morphotype had significant effects on the offspring body length, antero-median spine length, and left and right posterior-spine lengths (P < 0.05) but less effects on the life table demography (P > 0.05); and the interaction of temperature and morphotype had significant effects on the generation time and all the offspring morphometric parameters (P < 0.05). Among the three morphotypes, the two posterior-spined morphotype had shorter offspring body length (122.1+/- 0.6 microm) than the zero and single posterior-spined morphotypes (126.3 +/- 0.7 microm and 125.1 +/- 0.7 microm, respectively). The offspring antero-median spine length (32.5 +/- 0.3 microm) of the two posterior-spined morphotype was longer than that of the zero and single posterior-spined morphotypes (31.1 +/- 0.3 microm and 30.8 +/- 0.3 microm, respectively). The offspring left and right posterior-spine lengths of the two posterior-spined morphotype (31.2 +/- 1.0 microm and 32.3 +/- 0.9 microm, respectively) were similar

  12. PubMed Central

    Pellini, R.; Mercante, G.; Pichi, B.; Manciocco, V.; Marchesi, P.; Ferreli, F.; Spriano, G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY In the last decade, the antero-lateral thigh free flap (ALT) has become the most popular free flap for tongue reconstruction because of less donor site morbidity and better cosmetic outcomes. However, fascio-cutaneous ALT may be insufficient to reconstruct major tongue defects, while its muscular-cutaneous variant (using the vastus lateralis muscle) may be too bulky. The present study describes our preliminary experience of tongue reconstruction with vastus lateralis myofascial flap, which could potentially offer unique advantages in head and neck reconstruction including adequate bulk when needed, optimal functional results and obliteration of dead space thus preventing fistulas and infections with minimal morbidity. PMID:27734986

  13. Left posterolateral strangulated congenital diaphragmatic hernia in children: About a case at the Charles de Gaulle Paediatric Teaching Hospital in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Bandré, Emile; Wandaogo, Albert; Ouedraogo, Isso; Napon, Madina; Béré, Bernadette; Kabré, Yvette; Tapsoba, Toussaint Wend Lamita; Ouédraogo, Francis Somkieta

    2015-01-01

    Late presentation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia is uncommon. It poses considerable diagnostic challenges when it strangulates. The authors report a case of a left posterolateral strangulated congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a 5-year-old child diagnosed at the stage of acute intestinal occlusion with intestinal necrosis and managed successfully. A strangulated congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be suspected in the case of an association of sudden-onset respiratory and digestive manifestations with no sign of trauma or specific pulmonary history. It then requires an antero posterior thoracic X-ray or, even better, a thoracic-abdominal scan to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:25659558

  14. [Characteristics of foot blood supply in rigidity of the great toe].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, A A; Kramarenko, G N; Istomina, I S

    1991-07-01

    By means of angiography, made in 20 patients with rigidity of the first toes due to osteoarthrosis, there have been revealed chronic deficiency of blood circulation in the foot tissues, especially in its antero-internal section. Blood circulation deficiency is due either to the congenital anomaly of the foot vessels or to the consequences of their traumatic injuries. Blood supply deficiency results in degenerative-dystrophic changes of the first metatarsophalangeal articulations with development of their rigidity, aggravated by post-ischemic contracture of the foot muscles.

  15. [Bilateral calcifying tendinitis of the long tendon of the biceps associated with a SLAP lesion].

    PubMed

    Mayayo Sinués, Esteban; Soriano Guillén, Antonia Pilar; Vela Marín, Ana Carmen; Martínez Pérez, Belén

    2010-01-01

    Calcifying tendinitis is a common disorder related to deposition of hidroxyapatite crystals, which is most common around the shoulder joint, involving the supraespinosus tendon. It can however, affect almost any tendon at its insertion. Clinical features are variable and include pain and inflammation that often resolves spontaneously. We present a case of bilateral calcifying tendinitis of the long head of the biceps tendon at its insertion on the superior glenoid rim associated with superior labrum antero-posterior tears (SLAP) confirmed by arthroscopy. Calcium deposits were surgically removed and the SLAP lesions were repaired.

  16. Surgery for obstructive sleep apnea: sleep endoscopy determinants of outcome.

    PubMed

    Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; Safiruddin, Faiza; Ravesloot, Madeline; Zakynthinos, Spyros; de Vries, Nico

    2012-11-01

    Although drug-induced sleep endoscopy is often employed to determine the site of obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who will undergo upper airway surgery, it remains unknown whether its findings are associated with surgical outcome. This study tested the hypothesis that drug-induced sleep endoscopy variables can predict the outcome of upper airway surgery in OSA patients. Case series retrospective analysis. Forty-nine OSA patients (41 male; mean apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] 30.9 ± 18.5 events/hour) underwent propofol-induced sleep endoscopy followed by upper airway surgery (palatal surgery, and/or radiofrequency ablation of the tongue base, and/or hyoid suspension) and subsequently a follow-up polysomnography to assess surgical outcome. Twenty-three patients (47%) were responders, and twenty-nine were nonresponders (53%). Nonresponders had a higher occurrence of complete or partial circumferential collapse at velum and complete antero-posterior collapse at tongue base or epiglottis in comparison with responders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that among baseline clinical and polysomnographic characteristics (e.g., AHI, body mass index) and sleep endoscopy findings, the presence of complete circumferential collapse at velum, and of complete antero-posterior collapse at tongue base were the only independent predictors of upper airway surgery failure. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy can be used to predict higher likelihood of response to upper airway surgery in OSA. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging after operative repair of achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, N; Thorpe, A P; Smith, E W

    2001-06-01

    We performed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in 16 consecutive patients who had undergone open repair of a unilateral Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) at an average of 32.5 (SD 3.2) (range 29-36) months from the operation. We measured the widest antero-posterior diameter of the tendon, the longest distance between the insertion of the Achilles tendon on the calcaneum and the musculo-tendinous junction of the soleus muscle on the Achilles tendon, the distance between the insertion of the Achilles tendon on the calcaneum and the point of maximal width of the tendon. We also ascertained whether areas of altered signal were present in and around the tendon. The operated tendons were always significantly thicker than the non-operated ones. There was a non-significant trend for the other measurements to be greater in the operated tendons. In five patients, areas of dishomogeneous signal were present in the operated tendon. These areas were less than 25% of the antero-posterior diameter of the tendon, and were clinically silent. These findings probably represent normal features of long-term tendon healing following open repair of an ATR.

  18. Gait initiation is dependent on the function of the paretic trailing limb in individuals with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tokuno, Craig D.; Eng, Janice J.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the gait initiation task between individuals with chronic stroke and age-matched healthy controls, to determine whether the observed differences between groups could be attributed to the presence of a stroke or to differences in gait initiation speed, and to establish the gait initiation variables that relate with a faster gait initiation speed. All subjects initiated gait at their preferred speed, while control subjects were also asked to initiate gait at a speed that was comparable to the stroke group. It was found that while many temporal and kinetic differences were observed between the two groups, most were simply due to differences in gait initiation speed. Two variables that remained different when speed was controlled were the magnitude of the antero-posterior impulse generated by the paretic limb when it was used as either the leading or trailing limb. Kinetic parameters of the trailing limb (i.e. peak antero-posterior force and impulse) were also found to correlate with the gait initiation speed for the non-paretic lead limb condition. The results suggest that the propulsive function of the paretic limb when used as the trailing limb is a key area to address in the rehabilitation of gait initiation for individuals with stroke. PMID:16488149

  19. Cranial base and maxillary changes in patients treated with Frankel’s functional regulator (1b)

    PubMed Central

    Alió-Sanz, Juan J.; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Lorenzo-Pernía, Jose; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess cranial base and maxillary growth in patients with Class II-type I malocclusions when treated with Frankel’s functional regulator (FR-1b). Study Design: The treatment group was made up of 43 patients that were divided into two groups: prepubescent (n: 28), and pubescent (n: 15). The control group included 40 patients who did not receive any kind of treatment and were likewise divided into a prepubescent group (n: 19), and a pubescent group (n: 21). A computerized cephalometric study was carried out and superimpositions were done in order to assess the antero-posterior, vertical and rotational movement of the maxilla. Results: The results indicate that anterior cranial length is not affected by the regulator but the cranial deflection of the treatment group was diminished. Although a slight counterclockwise rotation effect on the upper jaw was observed due to treatment, no growth restriction of the maxilla in a vertical or antero-posterior direction was observed compared to other non-treated Class II-type I malocclusion patients. Conclusion: The functional regulator does not have any effect on anterior cranial length, but it does affect the angulation of the cranial base. According to our results, the appliance has demonstrated a flattening effect of the cranial base (p<0.05) in the treated sample. The functional regulator induces counterclockwise rotation rather than vertical or sagittal changes in the maxilla. Key words:Orthodontics, frankel regulator, class II treatment, cephalometry, superimposition. PMID:22322486

  20. Influence of speed variation and age on ground reaction forces and stride parameters of children's normal gait.

    PubMed

    Diop, M; Rahmani, A; Belli, A; Gautheron, V; Geyssant, A; Cottalorda, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of both age and speed on ground reaction forces and temporal parameters during normal gait in children. Fifteen children aged 4-6 years (group 1), 16 aged 6-8 years (group 2), and 16 aged 8-10 years (group 3) walked at 2.7 km/h, 3.6 km/h, and 4.5 km/h on a treadmill. For each child thirty successive steps were recorded. The influence of speed and age on normalized gait parameters was examined with two-way analysis of variance. The first vertical peak force (Fz1) and all the antero-posterior forces of group 1 were higher than those of the other groups for the three speeds. The minimum vertical force (Fz2), the second vertical peak force (Fz3), and the duration of stride and stance were significantly higher in groups 2 and 3. For all the groups, Fz1 and all the antero-posterior forces increased with the speed while Fz2, stride, stance, and double-stance duration decreased. Fz3 was not influenced by speed variation. The results of this study show that age and walking speed influence ground reaction forces and stride time parameters in 4- to 10-year-old children.

  1. The animal body plan, the prototypic body segment, and eye evolution.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    Developmental genetics of Drosophila continue to have a great impact on our understanding of evolution. The specification of the body plan involves four conceptual steps: 1) Localization of maternal mRNAs in the egg cytoplasm. 2) Translation of these RNAs and formation of morphogen gradients. 3) Subdivision of the antero-posterior gradient into a repetitive pattern of body segments. 4) Assignment of a specific identity to each segment by the Hox genes. The discovery of the Hox genes has uncovered a universal principle shared by all bilaterians; they serve as master control genes specifying organization along the antero-posterior axis. The ancestral arthropods presumably consisted of a series of more or less identical segments, which may be represented by recently discovered precambrian Lobopodia which have a pair of legs and a pair of eyes in each segment. The progressive divergence of Hox genes has led to progressive cephalization and caudalization. From the amino acid sequences of the clustered homeodomains we can deduce that the mesothoracic segment represents the prototype from the more anterior and the more posterior segments evolved. Pax6 has been identified as a master control gene for eye development in all bilaterians. Since Pax6 is involved in eye development in all bilaterian phyla, this argues strongly for a monophyletic origin of the metazoan eye. With the same tool box of transcription factors all the different eye-types can be constructed.

  2. Posterior subscapular dissection: An improved approach to the brachial plexus for human anatomy students.

    PubMed

    Hager, Shaun; Backus, Timothy Charles; Futterman, Bennett; Solounias, Nikos; Mihlbachler, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    Students of human anatomy are required to understand the brachial plexus, from the proximal roots extending from spinal nerves C5 through T1, to the distal-most branches that innervate the shoulder and upper limb. However, in human cadaver dissection labs, students are often instructed to dissect the brachial plexus using an antero-axillary approach that incompletely exposes the brachial plexus. This approach readily exposes the distal segments of the brachial plexus but exposure of proximal and posterior segments require extensive dissection of neck and shoulder structures. Therefore, the proximal and posterior segments of the brachial plexus, including the roots, trunks, divisions, posterior cord and proximally branching peripheral nerves often remain unobserved during study of the cadaveric shoulder and brachial plexus. Here we introduce a subscapular approach that exposes the entire brachial plexus, with minimal amount of dissection or destruction of surrounding structures. Lateral retraction of the scapula reveals the entire length of the brachial plexus in the subscapular space, exposing the brachial plexus roots and other proximal segments. Combining the subscapular approach with the traditional antero-axillary approach allows students to observe the cadaveric brachial plexus in its entirety. Exposure of the brachial dissection in the subscapular space requires little time and is easily incorporated into a preexisting anatomy lab curriculum without scheduling additional time for dissection.

  3. Mental imagery. Effects on static balance and attentional demands of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hamel, M F; Lajoie, Yves

    2005-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of mental imagery in improving motor performance. However, no research has studied the effectiveness of such a technique on static balance in the elderly. This study evaluated the efficiency of a mental imagery technique, aimed at improving static balance by reducing postural oscillations and attentional demands in the elderly. Twenty subjects aged 65 to 90 years old, divided into two groups (8 in Control group and 12 in Experimental group) participated in the study. The experimental participants underwent daily mental imagery training for a period of six weeks. Antero-posterior and lateral oscillations, reaction times during the use of the double-task paradigm were measured, and the Berg Balance Scale, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and VMIQ questionnaire were answered during both pre-test and post-test. Attentional demands and postural oscillations (antero-posterior) decreased significantly in the group with mental imagery training compared with those of the Control group. Subjects in the mental imagery group became significantly better in their aptitudes to generate clear vivid mental images, as indicated by the VMIQ questionnaire, whereas no significant difference was observed for the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale or Berg Scale. The results support psychoneuromuscular and motor coding theories associated with mental imagery.

  4. The so-called death drive, an indispensable force for any subjective life.

    PubMed

    Penot, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    The psychoanalytic movement has difficulty in overcoming the malaise bequeathed by what Freud wanted to call the 'death drive'. This term remains doubly problematic: first because the indispensable antagonist of Eros-binding cannot be reduced to a particular drive; and secondly because this Anteros plays a vital role in subjectivization. The Freudian idea of the 'death drive' has in addition the drawback of confusing dissociative thrust (unbinding) with the aggressive component of libidinal cathexis. Now it is precisely the lack of articulation between them that leads to deconstructing it. For it is constantly observed that in the psychic register aggression is much more fixing than unbinding. The essential role of Anteros/unbinding in the process of subjectivization can be illustrated through several key operations in subjective development: sublimatory activity and its renunciation of pleasure-discharge, the work of mourning opposed to melancholic fixation, the intricating-unbinding parental function, and finally the psychoanalytic treatment and its work of analysis. This means we should cease to anathematize the dynamic component of unbinding as 'of death' and seek to explain the concept of subjectivization better. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  5. Inter-tissue mechanical stress affects Frizzled-mediated planar cell polarity in the Drosophila notum epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Olguín, Patricio; Glavic, Alvaro; Mlodzik, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Summary Frizzled/Planar Cell Polarity (Fz/PCP) signaling controls the orientation of sensory bristles and cellular hairs (trichomes) along the antero-posterior axis of the Drosophila thorax (notum) [1–4]. A subset of the trichome-producing notum cells differentiate as “tendon cells”, serving as attachment sites for the indirect flight muscles (IFMs) to the exoskeleton [5]. Through the analysis of chascon (chas), a gene identified by its ability to disrupt Fz/PCP signaling under overexpression conditions, and jitterbug (jbug)/filamin [6], we show that maintenance of antero-posterior planar polarization requires the notum epithelia to balance mechanical stress generated by the attachment of the IFMs. chas is expressed in notum tendon cells and its loss-of-function disturbs cellular orientation at and near the regions where IFMs attach to the epidermis. This effect is independent of the Fz/PCP and fat (ft)/dachsous (ds) systems [7]. The chas phenotype arises during normal shortening of the IFMs [8] and is suppressed by genetic ablation of the IFMs. chas acts through jbug/filamin and cooperates with MyosinII to modulate the mechano-response of notum tendon cells. These observations support the notion that the ability of epithelia to respond to mechanical stress generated by interaction(s) with other tissues during development/organogenesis influences the maintenance of its shape and PCP features. PMID:21276726

  6. Hyperbolic symmetry breaking and its role in the establishment of the body plan of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Vincent; Boryskina, Olena P; Al-Kilani, Alia

    2011-07-01

    This Note presents experimental evidence that a hyperbolic tissue flow plays an important role in the establishment of the organization plan of vertebrates. We have followed the development of chicken embryos from the gastrula stage up to the moment when the body plan is recognizable. We have found that establishment of this plan occurs in the presence of a uniform tissue flow which at all stages presents a hyperbolic pattern. The flow is bidirectional in the antero-posterior direction, with a fixed point (stagnation point of the flow) which is a point of zero speed in all directions, in the reference frame of the egg. This stagnation point of the flow is located at the level of the presumptive yolk stalk of the chicken (analogous to the mammal navel). On either sides (left and right) of the body, the flow is also bidirectional. The antero-posterior bidirectionality and the left-right bidirectionality result in splitting of the embryo into four domains with vortex-like flow, with partial mirror symmetry between the left/right halves and top/bottom ones. The center of symmetry is the stagnation point. The broken symmetry of the flow is up-scaled in the adult animal. Areas with straightforward tissue movement are the ones where axial structures develop. The lateral domains with vortex-like flow colocalize with the future limb plates.

  7. The changes of relative position of the thoracic aorta after anterior or posterior instrumentation of type I Lenke curve in adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijun; Zhu, Zezhang; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Bin; Chu, Winnie C W; Cheng, Jack C Y; Qiu, Yong

    2008-08-01

    The risk of impingement of the aorta associated with thoracic vertebral screw or pedicle screw instrumentation in the treatment of thoracic scoliosis has been an important concern. To understand this phenomenon more systematically, the relative position of the aorta with reference to the thoracic vertebrae in right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) following anterior and posterior spinal instrumentation was analyzed in detail quantitatively; 34 patients underwent anterior (n = 14) or posterior (n = 20) spinal instrumentation were recruited in the present study. The relative position of the thoracic aorta, vertebral rotation, apical vertebral translation and thoracic kyphosis were measured from pre- and post-operative CT images from T5 to T12. The aorta was found to shift antero-medially in the anterior instrumentation group but not in the posterior spinal instrumentation group. It is likely that the disc removal, soft tissue release and spontaneous vertebral derotation of the scoliosis could account for the antero-medial shifting of the aorta. By the shifting, the space for contralateral screw penetration was reduced.

  8. Gross morphometric study of the eyeball and tongue of the Nigerian local dog.

    PubMed

    Igado, Olumayowa Olawumi

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the morphometry of two sense organs, the eyeball and tongue, of the Nigerian local dog (11 males, 14 females), all aged 2 years and above. The samples were grouped according to gender and weight (up to 12 kg or above that weight). The average values obtained for the weights of the left and right eyeballs and the tongue were 3.77 +/- 0.51 g, 3.68 +/- 0.74 g and 2.96 +/- 0.38 g respectively, while the length of the tongue, its thickness and width at the root and apex were 14.20 +/- 2.29 cm, 0.87 +/- 0.30 cm, and 0.21 +/- 0.05 cm respectively. The circumferences of the eyeballs (antero-posterior, mediolateral and peri-orbital) were all found to be higher in females, except the antero-posterior circumference of left eye, in spite of heavier eyeballs in males. Also, the females showed a wider rima oris and higher values for most of the tongue measurements. A positive correlation existed between the weight of the animal and that of the head and tongue, while a negative correlation was observed between the body weight and the weight of the eyeballs. This report highlights the presence of sexual dimorphism and mild lateral asymmetry in this rarely reported breed of dog. The data obtained from this study may find application in feeding physiology, ophthalmic clinical manipulations and comparative anatomy.

  9. [AICA anatomic variation as a factor of worse prognosis for the surgical treatment of hemi-facial spasm].

    PubMed

    Reizinho, Carla; Casimiro, Miguel; Luís, Ana; Dominguez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm is a neurovascular compression syndrome. These consist in a contacting vessel (most often an artery) to a cranial nerve in cerebelar-pontine angle. The most common is trigeminal neuralgia caused by contact between the superior cerebellar artery and the trigeminal nerve, and less commonly hemifacial spasm, vertiginous syndrome by contact of the antero inferior cerebelar artery with the eighth cranial nerve, glossopharyngeal neuralgia by contact of the postero inferior cerebelar artery and the IX cranial nerve, etc. These syndromes typically occur after the fifth decade of life, when the arterial tortuosity increases due to the arteriosclerosis process. They are however associated anatomical variations of the origin and course of the arteries, which facilitate contact with the nerves of the cerebellar-pontine angle. In hemifacial spasm, the vessel most often related is antero inferior cerebelar and the authors describe a case of a rare anatomical variant in the course of the artery that motivated the development of the disease, which was identified intraoperatively on a surgical approach to the cerebellar-pontine for vascular microdescompression.

  10. Anatomy of the middle rectal artery: a review of the historical literature.

    PubMed

    Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Ishihara, Soichiro; Murono, Koji; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    The middle rectal artery is a very important anatomical structure in rectal cancer surgery. It is the only vessel that penetrates through the proper rectal fascia into the pelvic cavity, and therefore threatens the integrity of total mesorectal excision. Moreover, it is very closely related to the lateral lymphatic drainage root. The definition of the middle rectal artery is ambiguous, and different frequencies, origins, and trajectories have been reported in various papers. The frequency of the middle rectal artery is reported to range from 12 to 97 %. Traditionally, the middle rectal artery is described as an artery that penetrates the pelvic plexus from the lateral side along with the lateral ligament; the frequency of this lateral type of middle rectal artery ranges from 20 to 30 %. However, the reports that describe higher frequency values also consider another type of middle rectal artery, which penetrates the neuro-vascular bundle from the antero-lateral direction; this antero-lateral type of middle rectal artery tends to be a small vessel, and frequently forms a common trunk with the prostatic artery. With advancements in endoscopic surgery, the knowledge of the precise anatomy of this structure is becoming more crucial for optimal rectal cancer surgery.

  11. Ultrasound-guided alcohol neurolysis of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve for intractable meralgia paresthetica: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Arif; Arora, Divesh; Kochhar, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is a rare sensory entrapment neuropathy which leads to burning, tingling and numbness in the antero-lateral aspect of thigh. Mostly it runs a benign course, and responds to conservative measures. We present a case series of six patients with intractable meralgia paresthetica with severe pain over antero-lateral thigh along the distribution of lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh which was further confirmed by nerve conduction study. These patients did not respond to the oral anti-neuropathic medications. The two successive diagnostic lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block not only had confirmed the diagnosis but also provided pain relief for a few days. Then the ultrasound-guided lateral femoral cutaneous nerve neurolysis was done using 50% alcohol. In all the patients, there were more than 50% decrease in pain intensity and improvement in quality of life after the procedure, and the relief and improvement were maintained for up to 12 weeks. This case series shows ultrasound-guided lateral femoral cutaneous nerve neurolysis is a safe and effective treatment for intractable meralgia paresthetica and also provides prolonged pain relief and is a good option in avoiding the surgery. Summary points The literature on neurolysis is rare, with only few case reports. This is the first case series on this topic, and it will greatly improve the evidence that ultrasound-guided neurolysis can also be used for intractable meralgia paresthetica patients who do not respond to conservative measures before proceeding to surgery. PMID:27867513

  12. Ultrasound-guided alcohol neurolysis of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve for intractable meralgia paresthetica: a case series.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Arif; Arora, Divesh; Kochhar, Amit Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is a rare sensory entrapment neuropathy which leads to burning, tingling and numbness in the antero-lateral aspect of thigh. Mostly it runs a benign course, and responds to conservative measures. We present a case series of six patients with intractable meralgia paresthetica with severe pain over antero-lateral thigh along the distribution of lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh which was further confirmed by nerve conduction study. These patients did not respond to the oral anti-neuropathic medications. The two successive diagnostic lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block not only had confirmed the diagnosis but also provided pain relief for a few days. Then the ultrasound-guided lateral femoral cutaneous nerve neurolysis was done using 50% alcohol. In all the patients, there were more than 50% decrease in pain intensity and improvement in quality of life after the procedure, and the relief and improvement were maintained for up to 12 weeks. This case series shows ultrasound-guided lateral femoral cutaneous nerve neurolysis is a safe and effective treatment for intractable meralgia paresthetica and also provides prolonged pain relief and is a good option in avoiding the surgery. Summary points The literature on neurolysis is rare, with only few case reports. This is the first case series on this topic, and it will greatly improve the evidence that ultrasound-guided neurolysis can also be used for intractable meralgia paresthetica patients who do not respond to conservative measures before proceeding to surgery.

  13. Dorsal hippocampus: a site of action of neuropeptides on avoidance behavior?

    PubMed

    Greidanus, T B; De Wied, D

    1976-01-01

    Vasopressin and ACTH 4-10 induce a dose dependent long-term, respectively short-term inhibition of extinction of a pole jumping avoidance response in animals with sham lesions in the antero-dorsal hippocampus. Small lesions, causing a restricted damage in this area of the brain, partly inhibit the behavioral effect of vasopressin. Extensive lesions in the antero-dorsal hippocampus completely prevent the inhibitory effects of vasopressin and of ACTH 4-10 on extinction of the avoidance response. The extensive lesions in the dorsal hippocampus complex do not interfere with the rate of extinction, but acquisition of the response is retarded. These observations do not allow the conclusion that the hippocampal complex is the locus of action of neuropeptides in relation to avoidance behavior; it is more likely that this brain region is but one site of behavioral action of these hormones, and that the limbic system needs to be intact to permit the neuropeptides to exert their behavioral effects.

  14. Identification and description of the axillary web syndrome (AWS) by clinical signs, MRI and US imaging.

    PubMed

    Leduc, O; Fumière, E; Banse, S; Vandervorst, C; Clément, A; Parijs, T; Wilputte, F; Maquerlot, F; Ezquer Echandia, M; Tinlot, A; Leduc, A

    2014-12-01

    The Axillary Web Syndrome (AWS) follows surgery for breast neoplasia and consists of one, or more frequently two or three, cords of subcutaneous tissue. Cords originate from the axilla, spread to the antero-medial surface of the arm down to the elbow and then move into the antero-medial aspect of the forearm and sometimes into the root of the thumb. The purpose of this study was to compare two techniques, ultrasound (US) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for their sensitivity and accuracy in identifying AWS cords and to provide insights to the origin of this pathology. US examinations were performed on fifteen patients using a high frequency probe (17 MHz). We first palpated and marked the cord with location aided by maximum abduction. To identify the cord with MRI (1.5 Tesla), a catheter filled with a gel detectable under MRI was placed on the skin at the site of the cord. We found that in some US cases, the dynamic abduction maneuver was essential to facilitate detection of the cord. This dynamic method on ultrasound confirmed the precise location of the cord even if it was located deeper in the hypodermis fascia junction. US and MRI images revealed features of the cords and surrounding tissues. Imaging the cords was difficult with either of the imaging modalities. However, US seemed to be more efficient than MRI and allowed dynamic evaluation. Overall analysis of our study results supports a lymphatic origin of the AWS cord.

  15. Relationship between static and dynamic balance abilities in Italian professional and youth league soccer players.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Arippa, Federico; Leban, Bruno; Corona, Federica; Ibba, Gianfranco; Todde, Francesco; Scorcu, Marco

    2015-08-01

    To assess the existence of correlations between static and dynamic balance abilities in young and professional elite soccer players. Cross-sectional. Fifty-one elite players who regularly compete at national level divided into two groups: Professional (age 18-34, n = 20) and Under 15-17 (age 14-16, n = 31). Dynamic balance was assessed for the case of a single-leg landing task by means of vertical time to stabilization (TTS) and postural sway calculated on the basis of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories (sway area, COP displacements in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction, COP path length). The same parameters were also measured for a 20 s one-legged stance to assess static balance abilities. No significant correlations were found between static and dynamic balance parameters except for TTS and COP displacements in the antero-posterior direction (r = 0.29, p = 0.003). Professional players are characterized by lower TTS in comparison with youth leagues players (0.767 vs. 1.188 s for the dominant limb, p < 0.001) and exhibit reduced sway area (of 34-40%, p < 0.05) for both conditions tested. The assessment of balance in soccer players should be performed with both dynamic and static tests, considering that the postural control performances in the two cases are not related. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of the default mode functional connectivity in normal ageing and Alzheimer's disease using resting state fMRI with a combined approach of entropy-based and graph theoretical measurements.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Paule-Joanne; Maiz, Sofiane; Coynel, David; Doyon, Julien; Messé, Arnaud; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Sarazin, Marie; Perlbarg, Vincent; Habert, Marie-Odile; Benali, Habib

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive decline in normal ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD) emerges from functional disruption in the coordination of large-scale brain systems sustaining cognition. Integrity of these systems can be examined by correlation methods based on analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Here we investigate functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in normal ageing and AD using resting state fMRI. Images from young and elderly controls, and patients with AD were processed using spatial independent component analysis to identify the DMN. Functional connectivity was quantified using integration and indices derived from graph theory. Four DMN sub-systems were identified: Frontal (medial and superior), parietal (precuneus-posterior cingulate, lateral parietal), temporal (medial temporal), and hippocampal (bilateral). There was a decrease in antero-posterior interactions (lower global efficiency), but increased interactions within the frontal and parietal sub-systems (higher local clustering) in elderly compared to young controls. This decreased antero-posterior integration was more pronounced in AD patients compared to elderly controls, particularly in the precuneus-posterior cingulate region. Conjoint knowledge of integration measures and graph indices in the same data helps in the interpretation of functional connectivity results, as comprehension of one measure improves with understanding of the other. The approach allows for complete characterisation of connectivity changes and could be applied to other resting state networks and different pathologies.

  17. Does the Eastman correction over- or under-adjust ANB for positional changes of N?

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, J M; Cobourne, M T; Sherriff, M; Bister, D

    2012-12-01

    Cephalometric analyses are useful for planning and provision of orthodontic treatment. A and B points are used to resemble the anterior part of maxilla and mandible and N represents the anterior part of the cranial base. The position of N may influence measurements of SNA, SNB, and ANB and changes of N in the antero-posterior plane are thought to have a larger influence on the above measurements than vertical ones. Several methods have been proposed to address this issue, such as the Wits appraisal, the 'Individualized ANB', and the 'Eastman correction'; the latter is mainly used in the UK. This study used a geometrical model of a lateral cephalogram with standard Caucasian average values for SN length, position of A and B points for male and female patients. Linear and angular measurements were digitized using Dolphin™ Imaging software. N was moved in antero-posterior and vertical planes and subsequent changes of SNA, SNB, and ANB were measured and the Eastman correction applied. The correction overestimated the SNA and ANB values in the opposite direction to the directly measured SNA and ANB when N moved posteriorly towards S: The directly measured values tended to show a Class II relationship but the correction indicated a Class III skeletal base. As N moved anteriorly, the Eastman correction overestimated the measured Class III skeletal relationship; SNA did not fall below 81 for correction in the opposite direction. Vertical positional changes had little impact on the underlying ANB and correction was not indicated clinically.

  18. Impaired vertical postural control and proprioceptive integration deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vaugoyeau, M; Viel, S; Assaiante, C; Amblard, B; Azulay, J P

    2007-05-11

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how the orientation and stabilization components of postural control may be affected as the result of the impaired proprioceptive integration possibly occurring in Parkinson's disease. To determine the proprioceptive contribution to postural control, parkinsonian patients and control subjects were asked to maintain vertical stance while very slow sinusoidal oscillations were being applied in the lateral and antero-posterior planes to the platform on which they were standing. The amplitude and frequency of their movements were kept below the semicircular canal perception threshold. Data were collected with the ELITE automatic motion analyzer and the two postural components (orientation and segmental stabilization) were analyzed at head and trunk levels while the subjects were performing the task with their eyes open and closed. The results show that 1) the parkinsonian groups' performances were affected in terms of both the postural orientation and stabilization components in comparison with the control group, 2) the use of vision improved the parkinsonian patients' postural performances, and 3) both parkinsonian patients and control subjects achieved better postural performances when antero-posterior perturbations rather than lateral perturbations were applied to the foot support. These results suggest that Parkinson's disease is associated with proprioceptive impairment, which may be an important factor contributing to these patients' postural deficits. On the basis of these results, the visual dependence observed in parkinsonian patients is re-defined as an adaptive strategy partly compensating for the impaired proprioception.

  19. Thalamic Shape and Cognitive Performance in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Changtae; Lee, Chang-Uk; Won, Wang Yeon; Joo, Soo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate thalamic shape alterations and their relationships with various episodic memory impairments in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods We compared volumes and morphological alterations of the thalamus between aMCI subjects and healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between thalamic deformations and various memory impairments in aMCI subjects using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Results The normalized left thalamic volumes of the aMCI group were significantly smaller than those of the healthy control group (p<0.0001). aMCI subjects exhibited significant thalamic deformations in the left thalamic dorso-medial and antero-medial areas compared with healthy individuals. CERAD-K Word List Memory scores were significantly correlated with the left dorso-medial areas in aMCI subjects. There were no significant correlations between verbal fluency, Boston naming test, constructional praxis, Word List Recognition, and Visuospatial Recall scores and thalamic shape in aMCI subjects. Verbal delayed recall scores were also significantly correlated with the left dorso-medial areas in the aMCI group. Conclusion Structural alterations in the thalamic deformations in the left dorso-medial and antero-medial areas might be core underlying neurobiological mechanisms of thalamic dysfunction related to Word List Memory and delayed verbal recall in individuals with aMCI. PMID:27757128

  20. Gait initiation is dependent on the function of the paretic trailing limb in individuals with stroke.

    PubMed

    Tokuno, Craig D; Eng, Janice J

    2006-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the gait initiation task between individuals with chronic stroke and age-matched healthy controls, to determine whether the observed differences between groups could be attributed to the presence of a stroke or to differences in gait initiation speed, and to establish the gait initiation variables that relate with a faster gait initiation speed. All subjects initiated gait at their preferred speed, while control subjects were also asked to initiate gait at a speed that was comparable to the stroke group. It was found that while many temporal and kinetic differences were observed between the two groups, most were simply due to differences in gait initiation speed. Two variables that remained different when speed was controlled were the magnitude of the antero-posterior impulse generated by the paretic limb when it was used as either the leading or trailing limb. Kinetic parameters of the trailing limb (i.e. peak antero-posterior force and impulse) were also found to correlate with the gait initiation speed for the non-paretic lead limb condition. The results suggest that the propulsive function of the paretic limb when used as the trailing limb is a key area to address in the rehabilitation of gait initiation for individuals with stroke.

  1. A biomechanical model of rock drilling in the piddock Barnea candida (Bivalvia; Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Nederlof, Ralf; Muller, Mees

    2012-11-07

    The bivalve Barnea candida (Pholadacea) makes its burrow in clay, soft rock and peat. Barnea has developed a number of adaptations to accommodate this lifestyle. Four muscles enable burrowing. These are situated around a dorsal pivot in such a way that the piddock is able to rotate the shells around two approximate orthogonal axes. The anterior adductor muscle anterior (AAM-A) and the posterior adductor muscle rotate the shells around a dorso-ventral axis; the anterior adductor muscle posterior (AAM-P) and the ventral adductor muscle rotate the shells around an antero-posterior axis. The AAM-A and the AAM-P have evolved from a single anterior adductor muscle and are attached to a piece of the shell that is folded inside out, the umbonal reflection. At the dorsal side of the piddock, the shell margins are reduced. This prevents collision of these margins during movement. Electrical stimulation experiments revealed that the opening of the antero-ventral side of the piddock is faster than its closure. These results were incorporated into a computer model that could simulate shell movements. The computer model allowed predictions about the shapes of burrows and scrape marks. As in Nature, simulated burrows had a long droplet shape with straight scrape marks.

  2. Orchestrating A/P and D/V guidance - A Wnt/Netrin tale.

    PubMed

    Levy-Strumpf, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    While ample information was gathered in identifying guidance cues and their downstream mediators, very little is known about how the information from multiple extracellular cues is intracellularly to generate normal patterning. Netrin and Wnt signaling pathways play key roles in normal development as well as in malignancies. In C. elegans, as in vertebrates, dorso-ventral (D/V) graded distributions of UNC-6/Netrin and antero-posterior (A/P) graded distributions of Wnts provide instructive polarity information to guide cells and axons along their respective gradients. In this commentary, I will discuss recent findings demonstrating that these 2 signaling pathways also function redundantly to regulate polarity orthogonal to the axis of their gradation. Thus, Wnt signaling components contribute to D/V polarity, while Netrin signaling components contribute to A/P polarity and their joint action collaboratively governs migratory transitions from one axis to the other. These findings pave the way to unraveling broader roles of Wnt and Netrin signaling pathways, roles that are masked due to their redundant nature, and provide a conceptually novel view of how antero-posterior and dorso-ventral guidance mechanisms are orchestrated to establish polarity in multiple biological processes.

  3. [Ejaculation capacity in spinal cord injured patients carrying an endo-urethral stent for incontinentation: Descriptive study].

    PubMed

    Tamarelle, B; Charvier, K; Del Aguila, C; Courtois, F; Rode, G; Ruffion, A

    2015-06-01

    To assess the impact of endo-urethral stent (EUP) of incontinentation in spinal cord injured (SCI) men on ejaculation capacity. Presence of ejaculation after EUP. Modification on ejaculation type, stimulation mode, possibility of sperm conservation in the same population. A descriptive monocentric study including SCI subjects which underwent placement or change of temporary (Mémokath™ or Allium™) or definitive (Mémotherm™) EUP between January 2004 and January 2014 with at least one ejaculatory test. Are identified for each patient: the presence of ejaculation, type of ejaculation, stimulation mode used, number of frozen specimen and results from semen analysis. Over 11 men with tetraplegia, complete for motricity, there were 8 (72%) for whom ejaculation was possible after laying EUP. Of these, 6 (55%) had an antegrade or antero-retrograde ejaculation. It was not possible to make a freezing straw in four of them due to infection of semen (2) or terato-oligo-astenospermia (1) or absence of reproductive project (1). In this small sample, it was found that over 70% ejaculation have been preserved after laying EUP and more than 50% with antegrade or antero-retrograde ejaculation. A larger study would identify how EUP may alter the ejaculatory capacity or quality of the ejaculate. 4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of Shh signalling in the chick wing gives insights into digit patterning and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In an influential model of pattern formation, a gradient of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling in the chick wing bud specifies cells with three antero-posterior positional values, which give rise to three morphologically different digits by a self-organizing mechanism with Turing-like properties. However, as four of the five digits of the mouse limb are morphologically similar in terms of phalangeal pattern, it has been suggested that self-organization alone could be sufficient. Here, we show that inhibition of Shh signalling at a specific stage of chick wing development results in a pattern of four digits, three of which can have the same number of phalanges. These patterning changes are dependent on a posterior extension of the apical ectodermal ridge, and this also allows the additional digit to arise from the Shh-producing cells of the polarizing region – an ability lost in ancestral theropod dinosaurs. Our analyses reveal that, if the specification of antero-posterior positional values is curtailed, self-organization can then produce several digits with the same number of phalanges. We present a model that may give important insights into how the number of digits and phalanges has diverged during the evolution of avian and mammalian limbs. PMID:27702785

  5. Human ocular biometry☆

    PubMed Central

    Augusteyn, Robert C.; Nankivil, Derek; Mohamed, Ashik; Maceo, Bianca; Pierre, Faradia; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine growth of the human eye globe and cornea from early in gestation to late in adult life. Globe antero-posterior length, horizontal and vertical diameters, corneal horizontal and vertical (white to white) diameters and posterior pole to limbus distances were measured using digital calipers (±0.01 mm) in 541 postmortem eyes. Additional pre- and postnatal data for some of the dimensions were obtained from the literature. All dimensions examined increase rapidly during prenatal development but postnatal growth differs. Growth of globe antero-posterior length, vertical and horizontal diameters as well as corneal vertical and horizontal diameters stops within 1 year after birth. Logistic analysis is consistent with an asymptotic prenatal growth mode and no further growth after its completion around 1 year after birth. Horizontal and vertical globe diameters are the same at all ages but the corneal horizontal diameter is always larger than the vertical diameter. No differences could be detected between males and females in any of the ocular dimensions. Globe and corneal growth take place primarily during the prenatal growth mode and dimensions reach their maxima, shortly after birth. It is suggested that cessation of a growth stimulating signal at birth marks the end of the prenatal growth mode and that the small increases over the next year are due to cells already stimulated. Male and female eyes of the same age have the same globe and cornea dimensions. PMID:22819768

  6. Role of the Onecut transcription factors in pancreas morphogenesis and in pancreatic and enteric endocrine differentiation.

    PubMed

    Vanhorenbeeck, Vinciane; Jenny, Marjorie; Cornut, Jean-François; Gradwohl, Gérard; Lemaigre, Frédéric P; Rousseau, Guy G; Jacquemin, Patrick

    2007-05-15

    The Onecut (OC) transcription factor HNF-6 (OC-1) is required during embryogenesis for pancreatic specification, morphogenesis and endocrine differentiation. In mammals, HNF-6 has two paralogs, OC-2 and OC-3, which share DNA-binding and transcriptional activation properties and have expression patterns that overlap with that of HNF-6. This suggested that OC-2 and OC-3 play redundant roles with HNF-6 in pancreas development. Here, we have addressed this hypothesis by analyzing the phenotype of mice knockout for the Onecut factors. We found that neither OC-2 nor OC-3 is required for pancreas specification. However, OC-2 plays partially redundant roles with HNF-6 in pancreas morphogenesis and in the differentiation of endocrine precursors. As similar molecular events drive endocrine differentiation in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract, we also investigated if Onecut factors are involved in enteroendocrine differentiation. OC-2 and OC-3 were found to delineate specific antero-posterior regions of the gut around embryonic day 12.5. Later on, OC2 was expressed in several gut cell types, whereas OC-3 behaved as a specific marker of the enteroendocrine lineage. However, OC-2 and OC-3, alone or in combination, were dispensable for gut development and enteroendocrine differentiation. In conclusion, our data reveal partially redundant roles for HNF-6 and OC-2 in developing pancreas and identify new markers for antero-posterior patterning of the gut and for enteroendocrine differentiation.

  7. Postural control in dyslexic and non-dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Kapoula, Zoï; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2007-09-01

    Postural control relies to visual-motion processing (afferent or efferent) and this is thought to be deficient in dyslexics. There is a controversy between clinic and fundamental studies as to the presence of posture abnormalities in dyslexics. To explore further this issue, this study examines posture stability in quite stance in 13 dyslexics (mean age: 13.5 years) and in 13 non-dyslexics (mean age: 13 years). Experiment 1 shows that, similarly to adults and elderly, all children (dyslexics and non-dyslexics), present better stability at near distance (i.e. smaller surface area of the COP, smaller lateral and antero-posterior oscillations). This could be due to reduced angular size of retinal motion signals at far, but also to convergence relaxation. Importantly, the surface area of the COP, lateral and antero-posterior oscillations are significantly higher in dyslexics. Experiment 2 examines posture stability while subjects make active vergence movements between a far and a near target. For many dyslexics, moving the eyes back and forth in depth rather improved postural stability. The only significant difference was that the lateral oscillations were still higher in dyslexics. Experiment 3 uses eye movement recordings (video-oculography) and demonstrates that dyslexics have problems with maintaining stable the angle of vergence for a prolonged period. We conclude that mild postural instability may exist in dyslexics but it could be improved by oculomotor and attention processes.

  8. Analysis of walking variability through simultaneous evaluation of the head, lumbar, and lower-extremity acceleration in healthy youth

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Haruki; Nagano, Akinori; Luo, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify whether walking speed affects acceleration variability of the head, lumbar, and lower extremity by simultaneously evaluating of acceleration. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty young individuals recruited from among the staff at Kurashiki Heisei Hospital participated in this study. Eight accelerometers were used to measure the head, lumbar and lower extremity accelerations. The participants were instructed to walk at five walking speeds prescribed by a metronome. Acceleration variability was assessed by a cross-correlation analysis normalized using z-transform in order to evaluate stride-to-stride variability. [Results] Vertical acceleration variability was the smallest in all body parts, and walking speed effect had laterality. Antero-posterior acceleration variability was significantly associated with walking speed at sites other than the head. Medio-lateral acceleration variability of the bilateral hip alone was smaller than the antero-posterior variability. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that the effect of walking speed changes on the stride-to-stride acceleration variability was individual for each body parts, and differs among directions. PMID:27390419

  9. The Role of the Human Entorhinal Cortex in a Representational Account of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Heidrun; Sommer, Tobias; Peters, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Connectivity studies in animals form the basis for a representational view of medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions. In this view, distinct subfields of the entorhinal cortex (EC) relay object-related and spatial information from the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices (PRC, PHC) to the hippocampus (HC). Relatively recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methodology allow examining properties of human EC subregions directly. Antero-lateral and posterior-medial EC subfields show remarkable consistency to their putative rodent and nonhuman primate homologs with regard to intra- and extra-MTL functional connectivity. Accordingly, there is now evidence for a dissociation of object-related vs. spatial processing in human EC subfields. Here, variance in localization may be integrated in the antero-lateral vs. posterior-medial distinction, but may additionally reflect process differences. Functional results in rodents further suggest material-specific representations may be more integrated in EC compared to PRC/PHC. In humans, however, evidence for such a dissociation between EC and PRC/PHC is lacking. Future research may elucidate on the unique contributions of human EC to memory, especially in light of its high degree of intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity. A thorough characterization of EC subfield function may not only advance our understanding of human memory, but also have important clinical implications. PMID:26635581

  10. A three-dimensional analysis of the effect of atopy on face shape

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Stephen; Popat, Hashmat; Toma, Arshed M.; Playle, Rebecca; Pickles, Timothy; Zhurov, Alexei I.; Marshall, David; Rosin, Paul L.; Henderson, John

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has been widely used to analyse facial morphology and has revealed an influence of some medical conditions on craniofacial growth and morphology. The aim of the study is to investigate whether craniofacial morphology is different in atopic Caucasian children compared with controls. Study design included observational longitudinal cohort study. Atopy was diagnosed via skin-prick tests performed at 7.5 years of age. The cohort was followed to 15 years of age as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A total of 734 atopic and 2829 controls were identified. 3D laser surface facial scans were obtained at 15 years of age. Twenty-one reproducible facial landmarks (x, y, z co-ordinates) were identified on each facial scan. Inter-landmark distances and average facial shells for atopic and non-atopic children were compared with explore differences in face shape between the groups. Both total anterior face height (pg–g, pg–men) and mid-face height (Is–men, sn–men, n–sn) were longer (0.6 and 0.4mm respectively) in atopic children when compared with non-atopic children. No facial differences were detected in the transverse and antero-posterior relationships. Small but statistically significant differences were detected in the total and mid-face height between atopic and non-atopic children. No differences were detected in the transverse and antero-posterior relationships. PMID:25257926

  11. Two column lesions in the thoracolumbar junction: anterior, posterior or combined approach? A comparative biomechanical in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Bence, Tibor; Schreiber, Ulrich; Grupp, Thomas; Steinhauser, Erwin; Mittelmeier, Wolfram

    2007-06-01

    There are various surgical techniques for the treatment of spinal fractures in the thoracolumbar region. Several implants have been developed for anterior or posterior instrumentation. Optimal treatment of unstable thoracolumbar osseous and ligamentous injuries remains controversial. To compare the stabilizing effects of an antero-lateral, thoracoscopically implantable plate system (macsTL, Aesculap, Germany) with the stability provided by a fixateur interne (SOCON, Aesculap, Germany), this in vitro investigation examined six human bisegmental (T12-L2) spinal units. Specimens were tested intact, and with simulation of osseous lesions in the anterior and ligamentous lesions in the posterior column (combined A/B-fracture). While loaded in the main anatomical planes such as flexion/extension, left and right lateral bending and left and right axial rotation with a bending moment of 7.5 Nm in a special testing jigs, motion analysis was performed. Quantitative interpretation of the stabilizing effect was achieved using a contactless three-dimensional motion analysis system. Each specimen was tested in four different scenarios: the first step measured movements of intact spinal segments. For the second step, specimens underwent simulation of combined A/B-fracture provided with bisegmental (T12/L2) antero-lateral fixation and bone strut graft from the iliac crest. For the third step, segments were additionally stabilized by the fixateur interne. The last measurement (fourth step) was performed after removing the anterior instrumentation. Range of motion (ROM) values were compared and statistically evaluated. Compared to the intact specimens the anterior instrumentation of the combined lesion, simulated A/B-fracture, leads to a stabilizing effect in flexion/extension and lateral bending. In contrast to these findings the torsional instability increased for the upper segment and bisegmentally. A maximum rigidity, beyond intact values, was registered for each anatomical plane

  12. Moore I postero-medial articular tibial fracture in alpine skiers: Surgical management and return to sports activity.

    PubMed

    Morin, Vincent; Pailhé, Régis; Sharma, Akash; Rouchy, René-Christopher; Cognault, Jérémy; Rubens-Duval, Brice; Saragaglia, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    Over the past 10 years, like many authors, we observed an increasing number of Moore I tibial plateau fractures related to alpine skiing for which the surgeon may face difficult choices regarding surgical approach and fixation means. Some authors have recently been suggesting a posterior approach associated to open reduction and osteosynthesis by a buttress plate. But in our knowledge there is no specific study on sports activity recovery after Moore I tibial fractures. The aim of this work was to assess sports activities and clinical outcomes after surgically treated Moore I tibial plateau fractures in an athletic population of skiers. We conducted a prospective case series between 2012 and 2014. This included fifteen patients aged 39.6±7 years whom presented with a Moore I tibial plateau fracture during a skiing accident. 12 cases (80%) presented with an associated tibial spine fracture. Treatment consisted of a standard antero-medial approach, with a medial para patellar arthrotomy to allow direct visualisation of articular reduction and spinal fixation. Two or three 6.5mm long cancellous bone screws were placed antero-posteriorly so as to ensure perfect compression of the fracture site. Radiological and functional results were assessed by an independent observer (Lysholm-Tegner, UCLA, KOOS scores) at the longest follow-up. Mean follow-up was 18.2±6 months (12-28). An immediate postoperative anatomical reduction was achieved in all cases and remained stable in time. At last follow-up Lysholm mean score was 85±14 points (59-100), UCLA score was 7.3±1.6 (4-10) and Tegner score was 4.6±1.3 (3-6). Mean KOOS score was 77±15 (54-97). 87% of patients had resumed their skiing activity and 93% were satisfied or very satisfied from their post-operative surgical outcome. We observed no pseudarthrosis or secondary varus displacement. In our series 87% of patients had resumed back to their sporting activities. Surgical management of Moore I tibial plateau fractures by

  13. Listening to speech recruits specific tongue motor synergies as revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation and tissue-Doppler ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Ausilio, A; Maffongelli, L; Bartoli, E; Campanella, M; Ferrari, E; Berry, J; Fadiga, L

    2014-01-01

    The activation of listener's motor system during speech processing was first demonstrated by the enhancement of electromyographic tongue potentials as evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over tongue motor cortex. This technique is, however, technically challenging and enables only a rather coarse measurement of this motor mirroring. Here, we applied TMS to listeners' tongue motor area in association with ultrasound tissue Doppler imaging to describe fine-grained tongue kinematic synergies evoked by passive listening to speech. Subjects listened to syllables requiring different patterns of dorso-ventral and antero-posterior movements (/ki/, /ko/, /ti/, /to/). Results show that passive listening to speech sounds evokes a pattern of motor synergies mirroring those occurring during speech production. Moreover, mirror motor synergies were more evident in those subjects showing good performances in discriminating speech in noise demonstrating a role of the speech-related mirror system in feed-forward processing the speaker's ongoing motor plan.

  14. The enigmatic primitive streak: prevailing notions and challenges concerning the body axis of mammals

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    The primitive streak establishes the antero-posterior body axis in all amniote species. It is thought to be the conduit through which mesoderm and endoderm progenitors ingress and migrate to their ultimate destinations. Despite its importance, the streak remains poorly defined and one of the most enigmatic structures of the animal kingdom. In particular, the posterior end of the primitive streak has not been satisfactorily identified in any species. Unexpectedly, and contrary to prevailing notions, recent evidence suggests that the murine posterior primitive streak extends beyond the embryo proper. In its extraembryonic site, the streak creates a node-like cell reservoir from which the allantois, a universal caudal appendage of all amniotes and the future umbilical cord of placental mammals, emerges. This new insight into the fetal/umbilical relationship may explain the etiology of a large number of umbilical-associated birth defects, many of which are correlated with abnormalities of the embryonic midline. PMID:19609969

  15. A case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Malley, Tamir; Watson, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the case of a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who was admitted to hospital for an elective autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant after cytotoxic treatment with lomustine, cytarabine, cyclophosphomide and etoposide (LACE). On the final day of chemotherapeutic treatment, she developed sudden onset dyspnoea. Electrocardiography confirmed acute antero-lateral T-wave inversion. She went onto have coronary angiography that demonstrated unobstructed coronary arteries. Left ventriculography demonstrated apical ballooning, consistent with Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy. The link between chemotherapy and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy has become increasingly recognized in recent years, although causality remains to be established and the mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. PMID:27066260

  16. Current dipole orientation and distribution of epileptiform activity correlates with cortical thinning in left mesiotemporal epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Reinsberger, Claus; Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J.; Woo Lee, Jong; Dworetzky, Barbara A.; Bromfield, Edward B.; Hamiwka, Lorie; Bourgeois, Blaise F.; Golby, Alexandra J.; Madsen, Joseph R.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate cortical architecture in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with respect to electrophysiology, we analyze both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 patients with left MTLE. We divide the patients into two groups: 9 patients (Group A) had vertically oriented antero-medial equivalent current dipoles (ECDs). 10 patients (Group B) had ECDs that were diversely oriented and widely distributed. Group analysis of MRI data showed widespread cortical thinning in Group B compared with Group A, in the left hemisphere involving the cingulate, supramarginal, occipito-temporal and parahippocampal gyri, precuneus and parietal lobule, and in the right hemisphere involving the fronto-medial, -central and -basal gyri and the precuneus. These results suggest that regardless of the presence of hippocampal sclerosis, in a subgroup of patients with MTLE a large cortical network is affected. This finding may, in part, explain the unfavorable outcome in some MTLE patients after epilepsy surgery. PMID:20472073

  17. Current dipole orientation and distribution of epileptiform activity correlates with cortical thinning in left mesiotemporal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Reinsberger, Claus; Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J; Lee, Jong Woo; Dworetzky, Barbara A; Bromfield, Edward B; Hamiwka, Lorie; Bourgeois, Blaise F; Golby, Alexandra J; Madsen, Joseph R; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate cortical architecture in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with respect to electrophysiology, we analyze both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 patients with left MTLE. We divide the patients into two groups: 9 patients (Group A) have vertically oriented antero-medial equivalent current dipoles (ECDs). 10 patients (Group B) have ECDs that are diversely oriented and widely distributed. Group analysis of MRI data shows widespread cortical thinning in Group B compared with Group A, in the left hemisphere involving the cingulate, supramarginal, occipitotemporal and parahippocampal gyri, precuneus and parietal lobule, and in the right hemisphere involving the fronto-medial, -central and -basal gyri and the precuneus. These results suggest that regardless of the presence of hippocampal sclerosis, in a subgroup of patients with MTLE a large cortical network is affected. This finding may, in part, explain the unfavorable outcome in some MTLE patients after epilepsy surgery.

  18. On pelvic reference lines and the MR evaluation of genital prolapse: a proposal for standardization using the Pelvic Inclination Correction System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L.; Ashton-Miller, J. A.; DeLancey, J. O. L.

    2014-01-01

    Five midsagittal pelvic reference lines have been employed to quantify prolapse using MRI. However, the lack of standardization makes study results difficult to compare. Using MRI scans from 149 women, we demonstrate how use of existing reference lines can systematically affect measurements in three distinct ways: in oblique line systems, distances measured to the reference line vary with antero-posterior location; soft issue-based reference lines can underestimate organ movement relative to the pelvic bones; and systems defined relative to the MR scanner are affected by intra- and interindividual differences in the pelvic inclination angle at rest and strain. Thus, we propose a standardized approach called the Pelvic Inclination Correction System (PICS). Based on bony structures and the body axis, the PICS system corrects for variation in pelvic inclination, at rest of straining, and allows for the standardized measurement of organ displacement in the direction of prolapse. PMID:23640002

  19. Grading of degenerative disk disease and functional impairment: imaging versus patho-anatomical findings

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Degenerative instability affecting the functional spinal unit is discussed as a cause of symptoms. The value of imaging signs for assessing the resulting functional impairment is still unclear. To determine the relationship between slight degrees of degeneration and function, we performed a biomechanical study with 18 multisegmental (L2-S2) human lumbar cadaveric specimens. The multidirectional spinal deformation was measured during the continuous application of pure moments of flexion/extension, bilateral bending and rotation in a spine tester. The three flexibility parameters neutral zone, range of motion and neutral zone ratio were evaluated. Different grading systems were used: (1) antero-posterior and lateral radiographs (degenerative disk disease) (2) oblique radiographs (facet joint degeneration) (3) macroscopic and (4) microscopic evaluation. The most reliable correlation was between the grading of microscopic findings and the flexibility parameters; the imaging evaluation was not as informative. PMID:18839226

  20. Non-extraction therapy in maxillary deficiency cases.

    PubMed

    Gomez, C E

    1997-01-01

    Combined orthodontic and surgical management of maxillary deficiency with a Class III profile has accomplished efficient treatment and predictable results. Also, orthodontic/orthopedic therapy can give good results; but, in any case, if one of either or a combined therapy is selected, the orthodontist has to be sure of the correct diagnosis. The cephalometric analyses have to be done with care as it is possible to find contradictions among different analyses, especially in the A/P aspect. The Wits appraisal shows good capacity for determining the antero-posterior maxillomandibular relationship because it is sensitive to the osseous dimensional variants and lower anterior facial height. Nevertheless, it is a supplementary evaluation requiring additional data for the localization of the deformity.

  1. A new species of Shaanxispira (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the upper Miocene of China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qinqin; He, Wen; Chen, Shanqin

    2014-05-08

    A new species of the bovid Shaanxispira, from the upper Miocene deposits of the Linxia Basin, Gansu Province, China, is described here. Shaanxispira is endemic to Northern China and was previously known only from the Lantian area, Shaanxi Province, by two species, S. chowi and S. baheensis. The new species, S. linxiaensis nov. sp., is of early Bahean in age, slightly older than the species from the Lantian area. The horn-cores of the new species are more derived, with large wing-shaped antero-medial keels, suggesting the occurrence of a different lineage of Shaanxispira in the Linxia Basin. Although Shaanxispira has homonymously twisted horn-cores, it is not closely related to other late Miocene bovids with homonymously twisted horn-cores, like Oioceros and Samotragus. Its phylogenetic status is still in debate, but might be more closely related to the late Miocene "ovibovines." 

  2. Reconstructive surgery for the post-hemiepiphysiodesis residual deformity in congenital scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Tauchi, Ryoji; Tsuji, Taichi; Ohara, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Saito, Toshiki; Nohara, Ayato; Sugawara, Ryo; Imagama, Shiro; Kawakami, Noriaki

    2013-07-01

    Spinal hemiepiphysiodesis is a well-known surgical procedure for correcting angular deformity in which the anterior and/or posterior epiphyseal plates of several vertebrae are fused on the convex side of the curvature with the expectation of spontaneous correction through continued growth of the concave side. We report on a patient with congenital scoliosis that had problems after hemiepiphysiodesis and required a salvage, reconstructive, antero-posterior combined surgery with instrumentation and osteotomy. After hemiepiphysiodesis, a marked fusion mass and a loss of bony landmarks made osteotomy and correction with a salvage surgery extremely difficult. We suggest that confirming the fusion area after hemiepiphysiodesis and determining the appropriate osteotomy site by 3D reconstruction images are important before salvage operations.

  3. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylates kinesin light chains and negatively regulates kinesin-based motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfini, Gerardo; Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Elluru, Ravindhra; Ratner, Nancy; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane-bounded organelles (MBOs) are delivered to different domains in neurons by fast axonal transport. The importance of kinesin for fast antero grade transport is well established, but mechanisms for regulating kinesin-based motility are largely unknown. In this report, we provide biochemical and in vivo evidence that kinesin light chains (KLCs) interact with and are in vivo substrates for glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Active GSK3 inhibited anterograde, but not retrograde, transport in squid axoplasm and reduced the amount of kinesin bound to MBOs. Kinesin microtubule binding and microtubule-stimulated ATPase activities were unaffected by GSK3 phosphorylation of KLCs. Active GSK3 was also localized preferentially to regions known to be sites of membrane delivery. These data suggest that GSK3 can regulate fast anterograde axonal transport and targeting of cargos to specific subcellular domains in neurons.

  4. Ultrasound thyroid evaluation in thalassemic patients: correlation between the aspects of thyroidal stroma and function.

    PubMed

    Pitrolo, Lorella; Malizia, Graziella; Lo Pinto, Carmela; Malizia, Velia; Capra, Massimo

    2004-12-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine complications in thalassemic patients, usually appearing in the second decade of life related to iron overload. Ultrasonography is one of the techniques most frequently used to evaluate the volume and structure of the gland. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possible correlation between thyroid function and its appearance on ultrasound in 45 thalassemic patients. We found reduced antero-posterior diameter of the thyroid in 12 patients (26.6%), reduced echogenicity of the glandular tissue in 24 patients (46.6%), and diffuse spotty echogenicity in 15 patients (33.3%). In our opinion, these patterns may be useful to indicate the need for further diagnostic evaluation of thyroid function. Follow-up studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  5. Neglected anterior dislocation of shoulder with large Hillsach's lesion & deficient glenoid: Treated by autogenous bone graft & modified Latarjet procedure☆

    PubMed Central

    Peshin, Chetan; Jangira, Vivek; Gupta, Ravi Kumar; Jindal, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Neglected anterior dislocation of shoulder is rare in spite of the fact that the anterior dislocation of the shoulder is seen in around 90% of the acute cases. Most of the series of neglected dislocation describe posterior dislocation to be far more common.1,2 We hereby report a case of the neglected anterior shoulder dislocation in a 15 year old boy who had a history of epilepsy. There was a large Hill Sachs lesion in humeral head which was impacted in glenoid inferiorly and glenoid was eburnated at that margin. The humeral head was reconstructed with a tricortical iliac graft. Glenoid was reconstructed by transfer of coracoids process of scapula to antero-inferior glenoid (modified Latarjet procedure). This case is unique because management of humeral head defect with bone graft is not mentioned in anterior dislocation. PMID:26566343

  6. [Rotator cuff ruptures with predominant involvement of the subscapular tendon].

    PubMed

    Nérot, C; Jully, J L; Gérard, Y

    Among the all rotator cuff tears, the subscapularis lesions are quite rare. But a careful analysis leads to recognize them specially in case of antero-medial impingement between the coracoid process and the head of the humerus. This study of 25 observations where the rupture of the subscapularis was the predominant lesion, allows to emphasize some characteristics of them. The patients are often younger than for the other ruptures, a traumatic experience is not rare at the beginning of the history, the pain is usually the first symptom before the functional disability, the alterations of the rotator-interval and of the biceps tendon are very frequent, the arthroscanner is a very good help for the diagnosis and satisfying stitches are possible in case of early diagnoses. Lastly, the prognosis of these limited lesions is quite different than the one of very large cuff tears including the suscapularis tendon.

  7. [Imaging of the wrist and of the hand: what is the best modality?].

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, F; Dubert, T; Frot, B; Laredo, J D

    2001-03-01

    The authors describe the indications for radiologic explorations in case of traumatic as well as non-traumatic conditions. In case of trauma of the wrist, the radiologic exploration looks for a fracture, a dislocation or a ligament injury. Initially, postero-antérior and lateral views must be completed with an antero-posterior view, a scaphoid incidence and an oblique view. This initial examination can be completed secondarily by specific views for the carpal bones, dynamic X-Rays, CT scan or arthro CT scan. In non-traumatic cases, radiologic explorations look for osteo-articular or soft tissue abnormalities specific of a inflammatory or degenerative disease. The initial incidence is a postero-anterior view of both hands. It can be completed secondarly by other explorations (other X-Rays, Ultra-sound, CT scan or MRI).

  8. Application of circular statistics in the study of crack distribution around cemented femoral components.

    PubMed

    Mann, Kenneth A; Gupta, Sameer; Race, Amos; Miller, Mark A; Cleary, Richard J

    2003-08-01

    Cemented stem constructs were loaded in cyclic fatigue using stair climbing loading and the resulting fatigue damage to the cement mantle was determined in terms of angular position of crack and crack length. Techniques from circular statistics were used to determine if the distribution of micro-cracks was uniform. With a designated orientation of 0 degrees -90 degrees -180 degrees -270 degrees indicating lateral-anterior-medial-posterior anatomic directions, the overall distribution of cracks was not uniform (p<0.05) with a mean crack direction in the postero-medial (249 degrees) quadrant of the mantle. The crack angular distribution for proximal (postero-medial; 251 degrees) and distal (antero-medial; 112 degrees) regions of the cement mantle was also different (p<0.025). These findings suggest that the location of cement damage depends on anatomic position and appears to correspond with the tensile stress field in the cement mantle.

  9. Vastus lateralis myofascial free flap in tongue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pellini, R; De Virgilio, A; Mercante, G; Pichi, B; Manciocco, V; Marchesi, P; Ferreli, F; Spriano, G

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the antero-lateral thigh free flap (ALT) has become the most popular free flap for tongue reconstruction because of less donor site morbidity and better cosmetic outcomes. However, fascio-cutaneous ALT may be insufficient to reconstruct major tongue defects, while its muscular-cutaneous variant (using the vastus lateralis muscle) may be too bulky. The present study describes our preliminary experience of tongue reconstruction with vastus lateralis myofascial flap, which could potentially offer unique advantages in head and neck reconstruction including adequate bulk when needed, optimal functional results and obliteration of dead space thus preventing fistulas and infections with minimal morbidity. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  10. Abdominal wall reconstruction after resection of an enterocutaneous fistula with an island pedicled anterolateral thigh perforator flap. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ali, F; Safawi, E B; Zakaria, Z; Basiron, N

    2013-01-01

    Entero-cutaneous fistula resulting from a locally invasive large bowel carcinoma is a difficult surgical challenge. En-bloc resection of the involved organs and the entero-cutaneous fistula tract with a healthy tissue margin will result in a composite abdominal wall defect that requires closure. Reconstructive surgical options include primary closure, components separation and the use of local, regional or free flaps with or without prosthetic mesh. We report a case of an abdominal enterocutaneous fistula secondary to a locally invasive sigmoid carcinoma, which was reconstructed with a pedicled antero-lateral thigh perforator (ALT) flap. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a malignant entero-cutaneous fistula, which was reconstructed with an ALT flap.

  11. A problematic early tetrapod from the Mississippian of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomson, K.S.; Shubin, N.S.; Poole, F.G.

    1998-01-01

    We report here the discovery of a new taxon of Paleozoic tetrapod from the Late Mississippian of Nevada (330-340 Ma). It has a unique vertebral column with principal centra having vertical anterior and posterior faces, ventrally incomplete accessory centra located antero-dorsally in each centrum, and enlarged presacral/sacral vertebrae. The head and pectoral girdle were not preserved but the large femur, robust pelvic girdle and enlarged sacral vertebrae possibly indicate a terrestrial mode of life. This new form significantly extends the western geographic range of known Mississippian tetrapods. It presents a mosaic of primitive and derived features, indicating that continued revision of traditional accounts of vertebral homology and the early diversifications of Paleozoic tetrapods will be necessary.

  12. Astrometric observations of comets and asteroids and subsequent orbital investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccrosky, R. E.; Marsden, B. G.

    1986-01-01

    During the past year some 500 observations were made on 66 nights and published on the MPCs (Minor Planet Circulars/Minor Planets and Comets). In addition, a handful of measurements of earlier plates were completed and published. 121 of the observations published referred to comets. Of special importance were observations of comets (P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley) in connection with the NASA ICE and ESA Giotto missions, but a special effort was made to get good coverage of almost all of the observable comets. Observations were also made of (2060) Chiron and of the earth-approaching objects (1627) Ivar, (1866) Sisyphys, (1943) Anteros, (3362) 1984 QA, 1985 JA, PA, TB and WA, and 1986 DA and EB. 46 minor planets were given permanent numbers entirely as a result of the observations.

  13. Therapeutic effects of a horse riding simulator in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Silva e Borges, Maria Beatriz; Werneck, Maria José da Silva; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes; Gandolfi, Lenora; Pratesi, Riccardo

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of horse ridding simulator on the sitting postural control of children with spastic diplegia. Forty children were randomly divided in a group using the simulator (RS) and a group performing conventional physical therapy (CT). FScan/Fmat equipment was used to register maximal displacement in antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions with children in sitting position. At the pre and post intervention stage both groups were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and, after intervention, by the AUQEI questionnaire (Autoquestionnaire Qualité de vie Enfant Image). Comparison between groups disclosed statistically significant pos-intervention improvement both in the AP (p<0.0001) as in the ML (p<0.0069) direction in the RS group. The horse ridding simulator produced significant improvement in the postural control of children in sitting position, additionally showing a higher motor functionality and a better acceptance of the therapeutic intervention.

  14. Anterior dislocation of the shoulder associated with Bankart lesion in a patient with Poland's syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, P; Schnurr, C; Hackenbroch, M; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2010-02-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital entity characterized by unilateral partial or total hypoplasia of the major pectoralis muscle, breast and/or ipsilateral hand abnormalities. It has been reported in association with various structural and functional abnormalities. We report about a 23-year-old male kick-boxer with Poland's syndrome who presented in our department the history of two traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations due to boxing and self-reductions. Physical examination showed an instability of the left shoulder, and the MRI scans demonstrated a Bankart lesion. The patient had been treated with an arthroscopic Bankart repair; reattachment of the detached antero-inferior labrum down to the glenoid and repairing of the inferior gleno-humeral ligament complex. To our knowledge this is a first case report of a patient presenting with traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations due to kick-boxing associated with Poland's syndrome.

  15. Lemaire extraarticular plasty in anterolateral knee instability

    PubMed Central

    Paús, Vicente; Graieb, Ariel; Torrengo, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Anterolateral instability of the knee results from injury to the lateral capsular complex and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), and it should not be considered an isolated injury. Over the past years these structures have received renewed interest. The anterolateral ligament (ALL) recently described extends from the lateral side of the lateral femoral condyle to the antero-lateral edge of the tibia, and it is supposed to play a major role in anterolateral stability. ACL extra-articular tenodesis, initially developed as a single procedure, is now complementary to intra-articular plasty. Our indications are: pure rotational instability, symptomatic instability in non-athletes, and revision surgery. Lemaire-type plasty and post-opeartive care are described in detail. We suggest thorough patient history and clinical examination prior to surgical decision. Lemaire-type plasty effectively controls anterolateral instability.

  16. Myths and realities in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Fleming, P S; Springate, S D; Chate, R A C

    2015-02-16

    Comprehensive orthodontic treatment typically comprises an initial phase of alignment over a period of four to six months, followed by vertical, transverse and antero-posterior corrections, space closure, finishing and detailing to enhance dental and facial aesthetics and function. Each course of treatment involves a series of decisions and alternatives relating to objectives, appliance design and treatment mechanics. In recent years there has been increasing interest in short-term approaches to treatment with more limited objectives and the avoidance of phases traditionally considered integral to successful treatment. In this review the veracity of accepted truths in orthodontics are discussed; specifically, the importance of initial molar relationship, final incisor relationship, the merits of orthodontic extractions, anticipated treatment times, the value of modern fixed appliance systems, the importance of torque expression and the relative merits of bonded retainers and inter-proximal reduction are considered.

  17. Gait motion analysis in the unrestrained condition of trans-femoral amputee with a prosthetic limb.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuichiro; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Uno, Ryuji; Matsuda, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Youtaro; Inoue, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Trans-femoral amputees must regain moving pattern by refined rehabilitation program using ground reaction forces, joint angles and joint moments applied on a prosthetic limb. On the other hand, understanding those loads and kinematic variables is indispensable for gait analysis based on the biomechanical consideration of trans-femoral amputees. However, conventional prosthetic gait training systems cannot measure long continuous walking motions. In this paper, ground reaction forces and kinematic parameters applied on trans-femoral prosthesis are measured by the prosthetic gait motion analysis system using mobile force plate and attitude sensor for the unrestrained gait measurement. As a result of the experiments, the patterns of antero-posterior axis ground reaction forces and joint moments about the medio-lateral axis are remarkably different among the five activities. Finally, the effectiveness of the developed prosthetic gait training system to consider biomechanics and kinematics in trans-femoral prosthesis is validated.

  18. The asteroid rendezvous spacecraft. An adaptation study of TIROS/DMSP technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using the TIROS/DMSP Earth orbiting meteorological satellite in application to a near Earth asteroid rendezvous mission. System and subsystems analysis was carried out to develop a configuration of the spacecraft suitable for this mission. Mission analysis studies were also done and maneuver/rendezvous scenarios developed for baseline missions to both Anteros and Eros. The fact that the Asteroid mission is the most complex of the Pioneer class missions currently under consideration notwithstanding, the basic conclusion very strongly supports the suitability of the basic TIROS bus for this mission in all systems and subsystems areas, including science accommodation. Further, the modifications which are required due to the unique mission are very low risk and can be accomplished readily. The key issue is that in virtually every key subsystem, the demands of the Asteroid mission are a subset of the basic meteorological satellite mission. This allows a relatively simple reconfiguration to be accomplished without a major system redesign.

  19. Temporal evolution of pneumothorax: respiratory mechanical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, E; Barboza, A P; Ciminelli, P B; Alcântara, B J; Berti, M; Oliveira-Neto, J; Capelozzi, V L; Zin, W A; Rocco, P R

    2000-01-01

    Respiratory mechanics, chest wall configuration, and lung morphometry were determined in rats before and at 30 (PTX.30) and 60 (PTX.60) min after pneumothorax induction (intrathoracic injection of 8 ml of room air; 50% collapse). Pneumothorax increased respiratory system and lung elastances and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous pressures in both groups, but respiratory system and lung resistive pressures increased only in PTX.60 group. Antero-posterior diameters at the third intercostal space and xiphoid levels, circumference at xiphoid level, and thoracic cephalo-caudal diameter increased significantly after pneumothorax induction independently of temporal evolution. In both groups lung collapse, hyperinflation, and interstitial and alveolar edema were present. Additionally, in PTX.60 group the central airways calibre diminished in relation to PTX.30. In conclusion pneumothorax yields changes in respiratory system and lung elastic and viscoelastic parameters, which are related to alveolar collapse and edema, respectively. Temporal evolution of pneumothorax also leads to changes in lung resistive pressure, probably because of airway narrowing.

  20. Distraction osteogenesis: application to dentofacial orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Yen, S L

    1997-12-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a surgical-orthopedic method for lengthening bone by separating or distracting a fracture callus. This technique has a long history in limb lengthening and has recently been used to lengthen mandibles and maxillae in human patients. Distraction osteogenesis represents a powerful method of producing unlimited quantities of living bone which can be formed along any plane of space. Because this method uses local host tissue, it offers many advantages over bone grafting. In the author's experience, large (10-22 mm) antero-posterior and vertical corrections of mandibles can be achieved using this technique. The purpose of this article is to review its biological basis and discuss recent clinical applications. This article reviews the history, theory, current management, and limitations of distraction osteogenesis in treating craniofacial anomalies.

  1. Typical and atypical neurodevelopment for face specialization: An fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jane E.; Zhu, Xun; Gundran, Andrew; Davies, Faraday; Clark, Jonathan D.; Ruble, Lisa; Glaser, Paul; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their relatives process faces differently from typically developed (TD) individuals. In an fMRI face-viewing task, TD and undiagnosed sibling (SIB) children (5–18 years) showed face specialization in the right amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), with left fusiform and right amygdala face specialization increasing with age in TD subjects. SIBs showed extensive antero-medial temporal lobe activation for faces that was not present in any other group, suggesting a potential compensatory mechanism. In ASD, face specialization was minimal but increased with age in the right fusiform and decreased with age in the left amygdala, suggesting atypical development of a frontal-amygdala-fusiform system which is strongly linked to detecting salience and processing facial information. PMID:25479816

  2. Anaphylaxis: lack of hospital doctors' knowledge of adrenaline (epinephrine) administration in adults could endanger patients' safety.

    PubMed

    Droste, J; Narayan, N

    2012-06-01

    Adrenaline (epinephrine) is the first line drug to be given in anaphylaxis and can save patients' lives. Conversely, incorrect administration of adrenaline in anaphylaxis has caused patients serious harm, including death. We compared the survey results of doctors' knowledge of adrenaline administration in adults of two District General Hospitals Trusts in England and found, that from 284 Hospital Doctors, 14.4% (n = 41) would administer adrenaline as recommended by published anaphylaxis guidelines. This survey comparison shows that a significant number of hospital doctors, regardless of seniority and specialty, have an educational deficit regarding correct administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) administration in adults with anaphylaxis. Multilevel strategies to educate doctors and prevent patient harm are needed. We propose a mnemonic for remembering the recommended treatment for anaphylaxis in the adult: "A Thigh 500" forAdrenaline into the antero-lateral thigh, 500 micrograms.

  3. Listening to speech recruits specific tongue motor synergies as revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation and tissue-Doppler ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    D'Ausilio, A.; Maffongelli, L.; Bartoli, E.; Campanella, M.; Ferrari, E.; Berry, J.; Fadiga, L.

    2014-01-01

    The activation of listener's motor system during speech processing was first demonstrated by the enhancement of electromyographic tongue potentials as evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over tongue motor cortex. This technique is, however, technically challenging and enables only a rather coarse measurement of this motor mirroring. Here, we applied TMS to listeners’ tongue motor area in association with ultrasound tissue Doppler imaging to describe fine-grained tongue kinematic synergies evoked by passive listening to speech. Subjects listened to syllables requiring different patterns of dorso-ventral and antero-posterior movements (/ki/, /ko/, /ti/, /to/). Results show that passive listening to speech sounds evokes a pattern of motor synergies mirroring those occurring during speech production. Moreover, mirror motor synergies were more evident in those subjects showing good performances in discriminating speech in noise demonstrating a role of the speech-related mirror system in feed-forward processing the speaker's ongoing motor plan. PMID:24778384

  4. A synovial ganglion of the knee: two cases in athletes.

    PubMed

    Dragoni, S; Giombini, A; Di Cesare, A; Ripani, M

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the study is to describe two cases of proximal tibiofibular ganglion cysts in high level athletes. In May 2003 and March 2005 two athletes (one tennis player in the top eighty of the Italian national ranking and a gymnast belonging to the Italian rhythmic gymnastics national team) were referred to our institution complaining of postero-lateral knee discomfort and the presence of localized swelling over the fibular head and the antero-lateral aspect of the leg, with a clinically suspected diagnosis of ganglion cyst of the proximal tibiofibular joint. Ultrasonography clearly detected the fluid-filled structures while magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis, also showing precisely the anatomic relationship between the ganglions and the surrounding structures. Both athletes underwent surgical excision and the histological examination was compatible with a proximal tibiofibular joint ganglion cyst; as yet they have had no recurrence.

  5. Mark III Space Suit Mobility: A Reach Evaluation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Sherry S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Onady, Elizabeth A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the reach envelope and field of vision (FOV) for a subject wearing a Mark III space suit was requested for use in human-machine interface design of the Science Crew Operations and Utility Testbed (SCOUT) vehicle. The reach and view of two suited and unsuited subjects were evaluated while seated in the vehicle using 3-dimensional position data collected during a series of reaching motions. Data was interpolated and displayed in orthogonal views and cross-sections. Compared with unsuited conditions, medio-lateral reach was not strongly affected by the Mark III suit, whereas vertical and antero-posterior reach were inhibited by the suit. Lateral FOV was reduced by approximately 40 deg. in the suit. The techniques used in this case study may prove useful in human-machine interface design by providing a new means of developing and displaying reach envelopes.

  6. Description of Paeon asymboli n. sp. (Copepoda: Sphyriidae), parasitic on Asymbolus spp. (catsharks) and a new host record for P. australis Kabata, 1993.

    PubMed

    Turner, T B; Kyne, P M; Bennett, M B

    2003-11-01

    Paeon asymboli n. sp. (Copepoda: Sphyriidae) is described and illustrated from two female specimens taken from the gills of a grey spotted catshark Asymbolus analis (Ogilby) and an orange spotted catshark A. rubiginosus (Last, Gomon & Gledhill) (Scyliorhinidae) from off southeastern Queensland, Australia. The key features for identification are: a pear-shaped trunk, longer than it is wide, along with a cephalothorax characterised by two large ventral papillae, projecting laterally and supporting a number of secondary lobes; a single mid-line, sub-conical papilla located antero-dorsal to the ventral papillae; an anterior surface bearing two prominent stalked papillae; and an absence of posterolateral lobular processes. P. australis Kabata, 1993 is recorded for the first time from the eastern shovelnose ray Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw & Nodder) (Rhinobatidae).

  7. Gradients, waves and timers, an overview of limb patterning models.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Irene; Torres, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate limb represents one of the oldest and most studied models in developmental and regenerative biology. Starting with classical experimental embryology and regenerative studies, its relevance in understanding biological mechanisms has expanded through the molecular biology era and now leads systems biology approaches in organogenesis. Limb patterning is organized along three main orthogonal axes; proximo-distal (P-D), antero-posterior (A-P) and dorso-ventral (D-V). Considerable heterogeneity has been found for the mechanisms involved in patterning these three axes, including signal gradients, cell-intrinsic timers and Turing-type signalling wave formation. Here we concentrate on reviewing patterning mechanisms along the P-D and A-P axes, in which different mechanisms converge and interact to pattern segmented structures.

  8. Processing syntactic relations in language and music: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Patel, A D; Gibson, E; Ratner, J; Besson, M; Holcomb, P J

    1998-11-01

    In order to test the language-specificity of a known neural correlate of syntactic processing [the P600 event-related brain potential (ERP) component], this study directly compared ERPs elicited by syntactic incongruities in language and music. Using principles of phrase structure for language and principles of harmony and key-relatedness for music, sequences were constructed in which an element was either congruous, moderately incongruous, or highly incongruous with the preceding structural context. A within-subjects design using 15 musically educated adults revealed that linguistic and musical structural incongruities elicited positivities that were statistically indistinguishable in a specified latency range. In contrast, a music-specific ERP component was observed that showed antero-temporal right-hemisphere lateralization. The results argue against the language-specificity of the P600 and suggest that language and music can be studied in parallel to address questions of neural specificity in cognitive processing.

  9. Frontal predominance of a relative increase in sleep delta and theta EEG activity after sleep loss in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cajochen, C.; Foy, R.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation (40 h) on topographic and temporal aspects of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep was investigated by all night spectral analysis in six young volunteers. The sleep-deprivation-induced increase of EEG power density in the delta and theta frequencies (1-7 Hz) during nonREM sleep, assessed along the antero-posterior axis (midline: Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz), was significantly larger in the more frontal derivations (Fz, Cz) than in the more parietal derivations (Pz, Oz). This frequency-specific frontal predominance was already present in the first 30 min of recovery sleep, and dissipated in the course of the 8-h sleep episode. The data demonstrate that the enhancement of slow wave EEG activity during sleep following extended wakefulness is most pronounced in frontal cortical areas.

  10. Alcohol neurolysis of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve for recurrent meralgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chee Kean; Phui, Vui Eng; Saman, Mat Ariffin

    2012-01-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is an entrapment mononeuropathy of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, which results in localized area of paresthesia and numbness on the anterolateral aspect of the thigh. We describe the use of alcohol neurolysis of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in a 74-year-old female who presented with paresthesia over antero-lateral aspect of her left thigh, which was consistent with meralgia paresthetica. Diagnostic block with local anaesthetic confirmed the diagnosis but only archieved temporary pain relief. Alcohol neurolysis was then offered and patient responded well with no complication. The patient experienced prolonged pain relief at 6-month follow-up, with return of ability to ambulate and perform daily activity. Alcohol neurolysis of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve is safe, effective and able to provide sustained pain relief for recurrent meralgia paresthetica.

  11. Digital development and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Ezquerro, JJ; Tickle, C

    2003-01-01

    Signalling interactions between the polarizing region, which produces SHH, and the apical ectodermal ridge, which produces FGFs, are essential for outgrowth and patterning of vertebrate limbs. However, mechanisms that mediate translation of early positional information of cells into anatomy remain largely unknown. In particular, the molecular and cellular basis of digit morphogenesis are not fully understood, either in terms of the formation of the different digits along the antero-posterior axis or in the way digits stop growing once pattern formation has been completed. Here we will review recent data about digit development. Manipulation of morphogenetic signals during digit formation, including application of SHH interdigitally, has shown that digit primordia possess a certain plasticity, and that digit anatomy becomes irreversibly fixed during morphogenesis. The process of generation of joints and thus segmentation and formation of digit tips is also discussed. PMID:12587920

  12. Extra Corporeal Fixation of Fractured Mandibular Condyle

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy K, Vandana; Kengagsubbiah, Srivatsa; V, Sathyabhama; Priya, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Condylar fracture is the second most common site in the mandibular fractures. Motor vehicle accident and fall are the major causes of such fractures. Because of the anatomical weakness of the condyle and the shape of the condylar head the antero-medial dislocation of the condyle is common. Open reduction and closed reduction is always debatable. The open reduction will bring back the normal function much earlier than closed reduction. Medially dislocated condylar fracture fragments are always managed with open method. In superior or high condylar fractures,exact reduction with conventional open reduction can be difficult due to the limited surgical and visual fields. In such cases extracorporeal fixation of condyle using vertical ramus osteotomy may be better choice to achieve perfect alignment and absolute maintaince of vertical height of the ramus and facial symmetry. We here present a case of extracorporeal fixation of unilateral left high condylar fracture. PMID:25386546

  13. [Antianginal efficacy of ivabradine in a very old patient with aortic stenosis: effects on cardiac output and transvalvular aortic gradients].

    PubMed

    Nervo, Elisabetta; Menditto, Elena; Taglieri, Camillo; Lombardo, Enrico; Piccolo, Salvatore; Feola, Mauro

    2010-09-01

    Ivabradine is a selective I(f) current inhibitor in the sinus node that decreases heart rate without negative inotropic effects. We report the case of an 88-year-old diabetic patient with arterial hypertension and peripheral arterial disease who experienced an antero-lateral non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction following post-surgical anemia. After admission, the patient complained of anginal pain at rest with ischemic alterations of ST-T at the ECG and mild increase in troponin T levels. According to the clinical status, the association of ivabradine with beta-blockers was started. The addition of ivabradine reduced heart rate, improved symptoms (CCS class I-II) without modifying the main hemodynamic (non-invasively measured cardiac output, stroke volume and cardiac index) and echocardiographic parameters (left ventricular ejection fraction and aortic transvalvular gradients). In conclusion, the antianginal effect of ivabradine seems to be sure in very old ischemic patients with aortic stenosis.

  14. Frontal predominance of a relative increase in sleep delta and theta EEG activity after sleep loss in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cajochen, C.; Foy, R.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation (40 h) on topographic and temporal aspects of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep was investigated by all night spectral analysis in six young volunteers. The sleep-deprivation-induced increase of EEG power density in the delta and theta frequencies (1-7 Hz) during nonREM sleep, assessed along the antero-posterior axis (midline: Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz), was significantly larger in the more frontal derivations (Fz, Cz) than in the more parietal derivations (Pz, Oz). This frequency-specific frontal predominance was already present in the first 30 min of recovery sleep, and dissipated in the course of the 8-h sleep episode. The data demonstrate that the enhancement of slow wave EEG activity during sleep following extended wakefulness is most pronounced in frontal cortical areas.

  15. Review of early clinical results and complications associated with oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF).

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Maharaj, Monish; Assem, Yusuf; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-09-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion represents an effective surgical intervention for patients with lumbar degenerative diseases, spondylolisthesis, disc herniation, pseudoarthrosis and spinal deformities. Traditionally, conventional open anterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion techniques have been employed with excellent results, but each with their own advantages and caveats. Most recently, the antero-oblique trajectory has been introduced, providing yet another corridor to access the lumbar spine. Termed the oblique lumbar interbody fusion, this approach accesses the spine between the anterior vessels and psoas muscles, avoiding both sets of structures to allow efficient clearance of the disc space and application of a large interbody device to afford distraction for foraminal decompression and endplate preparation for rapid and thorough fusion. This review aims to summarize the early clinical results and complications of this new technique and discusses potential future directions of research.

  16. Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography based comparison of condylar position and morphology according to the vertical skeletal pattern

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Young; Kim, Ji-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare condylar position and morphology among different vertical skeletal patterns. Methods Diagnostic cone-beam computed tomography images of 60 adult patients (120 temporomandibular joints) who visited the orthodontic clinic of Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital were reviewed. The subjects were divided into three equal groups according to the mandibular plane angle: hypodivergent, normodivergent, and hyperdivergent groups. Morphology of the condyle and mandibular fossa and condylar position were compared among the groups. Results The hypodivergent and hyperdivergent groups showed significant differences in superior joint spaces, antero-posterior condyle width, medio-lateral condyle width, condyle head angle, and condylar shapes. Conclusions Condylar position and morphology vary according to vertical facial morphology. This relationship should be considered for predicting and establishing a proper treatment plan for temporomandibular diseases during orthodontic treatment. PMID:25798412

  17. Subcoracoid impingement and subscapularis tendon: is there any truth?

    PubMed Central

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Massari, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Subcoracoid impingement and stenosis have been described related to anterior shoulder pain and subscapularis tendon tears, but the pathogenesis and related treatment of this condition has still not been explained properly. Variability of coracoid morphology has been described and both traumatic and iatrogenic factors can modify it. Some authors referred this to a primary narrow coracohumeral distance with different threshold values defined as increased risk factor for subscapularis and antero-superior RC tear; opposite theories stated that the stenosis is secondary to an anterosuperior translation of the humeral head toward the coracoid due to degenerative changes of the rotator cuff tendons. Limited coracoplasty can be performed when related risk factors are identified; however no clear consensus arises from specific literature review and extensive clinical and instrumental examination of the patient should be performed in order to identify specific risk factors for subscapularis tendon pathology and, subsequently, tailor the proper approach. PMID:23888292

  18. Subcoracoid impingement and subscapularis tendon: is there any truth?

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Massari, Leo

    2013-04-01

    Subcoracoid impingement and stenosis have been described related to anterior shoulder pain and subscapularis tendon tears, but the pathogenesis and related treatment of this condition has still not been explained properly. Variability of coracoid morphology has been described and both traumatic and iatrogenic factors can modify it. Some authors referred this to a primary narrow coracohumeral distance with different threshold values defined as increased risk factor for subscapularis and antero-superior RC tear; opposite theories stated that the stenosis is secondary to an anterosuperior translation of the humeral head toward the coracoid due to degenerative changes of the rotator cuff tendons. Limited coracoplasty can be performed when related risk factors are identified; however no clear consensus arises from specific literature review and extensive clinical and instrumental examination of the patient should be performed in order to identify specific risk factors for subscapularis tendon pathology and, subsequently, tailor the proper approach.

  19. The application of chaetotaxy in the discrimination of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Gyrodactylidae: Monogenea) from species of the genus parasitising British salmonids.

    PubMed

    Shinn, A P; Sommerville, C; Gibson, D I

    1998-05-01

    The chaetotaxy of argentophilic structures on three species of the monogenean genus Gyrodactylus was investigated in an attempt to distinguish species of this genus. Maps were prepared for Gyrodactylus salaris from Scandinavia and compared with two native species of Gyrodactylus parasitising salmonids in Britain, namely Gyrodactylus derjavini and Gyrodactylus truttae. The maps were subsequently refined and analysed for zones of homology and differentiation. The results demonstrate that G. salaris can be readily distinguished by this technique, which is, therefore, of great potential value in the identification of this notifiable pathogen. The key aggregations of sensilla discriminating G. salaris are, ventrally, the antero-ventral set, the medio-lateral set and the postero-lateral set, and, dorsally, the postero-dorsal set.

  20. On pelvic reference lines and the MR evaluation of genital prolapse: a proposal for standardization using the Pelvic Inclination Correction System.

    PubMed

    Betschart, C; Chen, L; Ashton-Miller, J A; Delancey, J O L

    2013-09-01

    Five midsagittal pelvic reference lines have been employed to quantify prolapse using MRI. However, the lack of standardization makes study results difficult to compare. Using MRI scans from 149 women, we demonstrate how use of existing reference lines can systematically affect measurements in three distinct ways: in oblique line systems, distances measured to the reference line vary with antero-posterior location; soft issue-based reference lines can underestimate organ movement relative to the pelvic bones; and systems defined relative to the MR scanner are affected by intra- and interindividual differences in the pelvic inclination angle at rest and strain. Thus, we propose a standardized approach called the Pelvic Inclination Correction System (PICS). Based on bony structures and the body axis, the PICS system corrects for variation in pelvic inclination, at rest of straining, and allows for the standardized measurement of organ displacement in the direction of prolapse.

  1. Linkage localization of the thoraco-abdominal syndrome (TAS) gene to Xq25-26

    SciTech Connect

    Parvari, R.; Carmi, R.; Weinstein, Y.; Ehrlich, S.; Steinitz, M.

    1994-02-15

    The thoraco-abdominal syndrome (TAS) presents a closure defect confined to the ventral midline, manifested as ventral hernia of various degrees in all affected individuals and antero-lateral diaphragmatic defect manifested almost exclusively in affected males. The syndrome is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait affecting blastogenesis (XLB mutation). The authors studied 27 members of the TAS family for linkage on the X chromosome. The best lod score of 5.5 at {theta}0.04 was found for the HPRT locus on Xq26.1. A multilocus lod score of 12.4 was observed when the linkage analysis utilized additional markers in Xq25-26. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. [Suspected case of peripartum cardiomyopathy during perioperative period--a case report].

    PubMed

    Kozono, Yuki; Wakabayashi, Saiko; Ando, Nozomi; Asano, Mineko; Hara, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Maiko; Sonoda, Seijirou; Inada, Eiichi

    2011-01-01

    A 31-year-old primigravida was admitted for control of twin gestation and delivery. At 36-week gestation, an emergent cesarean section was performed under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia because of progression of PIH. Anesthetic course was uneventful until the operation was finished. An hour later, systolic blood pressure started to decline to reach about 70 mmHg and Sp(O2) about 80%. Pleural effusion was observed in the chest X-ray on post-operative day 1. Echocardiography showed akinesis of the antero-septal wall with ejection fraction (EF) of 47%. Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) was strongly suspected. HELLP syndrome and DIC were also combined with PPCM, so intensive care was given to her from the 1st POD. Symptoms of heart failure were alleviated by furosemide and carperitide by the 12th POD. The EF increased to 58% on the 11th POD.

  3. Trans-nasal-trans-sphenoidal brain injury by a fencing foil: an unusual case report and brief literature review.

    PubMed

    Özay, Rafet; Balkan, Mehmet S; Tönge, Çağhan; Şekerci, Zeki

    2017-11-01

    In this report, the authors present an unusual case of a 10-year-old child who suffered a severe headache and rhinorrhea that occurred as a result of fencing foil sports injury via trans-nasal-trans-sphenoidal (TNTS) pathway. Following trauma, the child had shown neurological symptoms such a pupil dilatation, change in consciousness and mild hemiparesia. Imaging demonstrated destruction of bone structures including posterior wall of sphenoid sinus and antero-superior part of sella turcica, and also a contusion at right thalamic region. For treatment of rhinorrhea lumbar drainage system (LDS) had planted in order to relieve cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. After the treatment, the patient had fully recovered without any need of further surgical intervention. CSF leakage had prevented and neurological symptoms were completely treated. This case represents the first report of brain injury via TNTS pathway in a sports practice. Diagnosis, clinic follow-up and treatment options of this rare accidental sports injury are discussed.

  4. Surgical treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures with a technique of nail and osteosuture: "NOS".

    PubMed

    Garret, J; Houdré, H; Cievet-Bonfils, M; Godenèche, Arnaud; Duparc, Fabrice; Roussignol, Xavier

    2017-03-14

    Open reduction and internal fixation of complex proximal humeral fracture represents a surgical challenge. The main objective of this procedure is to anatomically reduce the tuberosities. We propose a standardized and reproducible technique that we apply to all complex displaced 3- and 4-part fractures of patients under 50 years. We use an antero-lateral trans-deltoid approach; the humeral head and the tuberosities are reduced under fluoroscopic control. The tuberosities are stabilized with an inter-tuberosity osteosuture, and we then introduce a thin and straight intra-medullary nail (Telegraph IV FH Orthopedics) at the hinge point of the humeral head. The osteosynthesis of the tuberosities is completed by 3- or 4-self-stable divergent screws in the nail. A dynamic distal locking stabilizes the humeral shaft in rotation and facilitates consolidation thanks to micro movements. The removal of the nail with an arthroscopic shoulder arthrolysis in case of stiffness is possible secondarily.

  5. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylates kinesin light chains and negatively regulates kinesin-based motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfini, Gerardo; Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Elluru, Ravindhra; Ratner, Nancy; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane-bounded organelles (MBOs) are delivered to different domains in neurons by fast axonal transport. The importance of kinesin for fast antero grade transport is well established, but mechanisms for regulating kinesin-based motility are largely unknown. In this report, we provide biochemical and in vivo evidence that kinesin light chains (KLCs) interact with and are in vivo substrates for glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Active GSK3 inhibited anterograde, but not retrograde, transport in squid axoplasm and reduced the amount of kinesin bound to MBOs. Kinesin microtubule binding and microtubule-stimulated ATPase activities were unaffected by GSK3 phosphorylation of KLCs. Active GSK3 was also localized preferentially to regions known to be sites of membrane delivery. These data suggest that GSK3 can regulate fast anterograde axonal transport and targeting of cargos to specific subcellular domains in neurons.

  6. Ultrasound diagnosis of Achilles tendon pathology in runners.

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, N; Regine, R; Angelillo, M; Capasso, G; Filice, S

    1987-01-01

    The great upsurge in popularity of running activities has increased the number of athletes presenting with pathology of the Achilles tendon. A clinical and ultrasonic study was performed on 47 middle and long distance runners referred to the Authors with such problems. The results of this study can be grouped as follows: 1. paratendonitis: enlargement of the antero-posterior diameter of the tendon, and hyperechogenicity of Kager's triangle; 2. tendonitis (with or without paratendonitis): thickening of the tendon, with the presence of degenerative nodules; 3. enthesopathy: thickening of the distal part of the tendon, enlargement of the hypoechogenic area behind the tendon itself and microcalcification. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3325127

  7. [Mediastinal adenopathy disclosing Castleman's disease. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Dansin, E; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B; Gosselin, B; Sault, M C

    1991-01-01

    Castleman's disease or pseudo-tumoral lymphoid hyperplasia is a rare entity. We report a case of Castleman's tumour in the antero-superior mediastinum which was revealed by a radiological examination in a young woman of 26. We also report immunohistochemical studies. There are two clinical presentations of Castleman's disease; a localised form (mediastinal or extrathoracic) and the multicentric variety. The localised form may be asymptomatic or can be accompanied by general features of inflammatory disease. Surgical excision of these localised forms both confirms the diagnosis and assures a cure. The multicentric variety has various clinical peculiarities (the patients are older and/or immunosuppressed and suffering from multiple enlarged glands also in the viscera) and the disease in above all progressive. There are associations with Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoproliferative complications are described in this multicentric form and their prognosis remains poor.

  8. The interplay of stiffness and force anisotropies drives embryo elongation.

    PubMed

    Vuong-Brender, Thanh Thi Kim; Ben Amar, Martine; Pontabry, Julien; Labouesse, Michel

    2017-02-15

    The morphogenesis of tissues, like the deformation of an object, results from the interplay between their material properties and the mechanical forces exerted on them. The importance of mechanical forces in influencing cell behaviour is widely recognized, whereas the importance of tissue material properties, in particular stiffness, has received much less attention. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we examine how both aspects contribute to embryonic elongation. Measuring the opening shape of the epidermal actin cortex after laser nano-ablation, we assess the spatiotemporal changes of actomyosin-dependent force and stiffness along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axis. Experimental data and analytical modelling show that myosin-II-dependent force anisotropy within the lateral epidermis, and stiffness anisotropy within the fiber-reinforced dorso-ventral epidermis are critical in driving embryonic elongation. Together, our results establish a quantitative link between cortical tension, material properties and morphogenesis of an entire embryo.

  9. The undiscovered syndrome: Macdonald Critchley’s case of semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Witoonpanich, Pirada; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.; Rossor, Martin N.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a unique clinicopathological syndrome in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum. It is characterized by progressive and relatively selective impairment of semantic memory, associated with asymmetric antero-inferior temporal lobe atrophy. Although the syndrome became widely recognized only in the 1980s, descriptions of cases with typical features of semantic dementia have been on record for over a century. Here, we draw attention to a well documented historical case of a patient with features that would have fulfilled current consensus criteria for semantic dementia, as reconstructed from the notes made by her neurologist, Macdonald Critchley, in 1938. This case raises a number of issues concerning the nosology of the semantic dementia syndrome and the potential value of archived case material. PMID:24818802

  10. Effects of gait velocity and center of mass acceleration during turning gait in old-old elderly women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated gait velocity and center of mass acceleration in three directions during square and semicircular turning gait tasks in old-old elderly women. [Subjects] Fifteen community-dwelling, old-old elderly women (≥75 years old) who could walk independently were recruited. [Methods] We measured gait velocity and center of mass acceleration in three directions using an accelerometer during two different turning gait tasks. [Results] The velocity during square turning was significantly slower than that during semicircular turning gait. There were no significant differences between gait tasks with respect to normalized antero-posterior, medo-lateral, or vertical center of mass acceleration. [Conclusion] Changing the direction of travel while walking regardless of turning angle is one of the greatest challenges for balance in old-old elderly people. Furthermore, gait velocity is a useful clinical marker for predicting falls in old-old elderly populations.

  11. Class II Division 1 Malocclusion Treated with a Cervical-Pull Headgear: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ankit H

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment for skeletal Class II malocclusion was undertaken with the aim ofachieving orthopedic correction by modifying the growth pattern. A case of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion in the late mixed dentition was corrected to a Class I molar relationship by primarily using cervical-pull headgear. Cephalometric analysis indicated a reduction in the maxillo-mandibular discrepancy (ANB°) due to the correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion to a Class I occlusion. The superimposition demonstrated that this was achieved by favorable growth of the mandible, control of maxillary first molars in an antero-posterior direction and retraction of maxillary incisors. Proclination of mandibular incisors was reduced. Significant improvement in the soft-tissue profile was noted.

  12. EEG differences and cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Glass, A; Riding, R J

    1999-10-01

    Individuals differences in information processing related to cognitive style were investigated by EEG recording during cognitive tasks. Fifteen adults received the Cognitive Styles Analysis which assessed their positions on two dimensions: the wholist-analytic and the verbal-imagery. The EEG from midline, paramedial and lateral electrode clusters was recorded, while subjects viewed words presented at different rates. A button was pressed when a word was in a target conceptual category. Off-line analysis produced spectral powers for delta, theta, alpha, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma bands. For the midline, the wholists had higher output than analytics in theta and alpha, but lower in gamma. In the paramedial cluster, verbalisers had greater right power than imagers for all bands except alpha. Further, the overall power was greater on the right for imagers than verbalisers frontally, and the converse occipitally. In the lateral grouping, the wholist-verbalisers had greater overall power left antero-temporally than other sub-groups.

  13. The variability of the volume of os coxae and linear pelvic morphometry. Considerations for total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lucian B; Howie, Donald W; Henneberg, Maciej

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the variability of os coxae's volume and linear morphometry in 50 dry adult bones. There was a wide variability, with coefficients of variation exceeding 30%, of the bones' volumes (mean 142 ml, range 80 to 300 ml) and distances between the acetabular rim and the horizontal plane through the sciatic notch (mean 10.6 mm, range -7 to 19 mm). The smallest width of the ilium ranged between 3 and 9 mm at a level between 1.5 and 4 cm above the acetabulum. The volume of os coxae correlated with the acetabular diameter (r = 0.79), the height of os coxae (r = 0.88) and antero-posterior length of the ilium at mid-acetabular level (r = 0.70). Knowledge of the variability of os coxae may be useful during preoperative planning in primary and revision hip arthroplasty.

  14. Method for quantitative estimation of position perception using a joystick during linear movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Y; Tanaka, M; Mori, S; Chen, Y; Sumigama, S; Naito, H; Maeda, M; Yamamoto, M; Watanabe, S; Kajitani, N

    1996-12-01

    We designed a method for quantitatively estimating self-motion perceptions during passive body movement on a sled. The subjects were instructed to tilt a joystick in proportion to perceived displacement from a giving starting position during linear movement with varying displacements of 4 m, 10 m and 16 m induced by constant acceleration of 0.02 g, 0.05 g and 0.08 g along the antero-posterior axis. With this method, we could monitor not only subjective position perceptions but also response latencies for the beginning (RLbgn) and end (RLend) of the linear movement. Perceived body position fitted Stevens' power law, where R=kSn (R is output of the joystick, k is a constant, S is the displacement from the linear movement and n is an exponent). RLbgn decreased as linear acceleration increased. We conclude that this method is useful in analyzing the features and sensitivities of self-motion perceptions during movement.

  15. Unusual Presentation of Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, S M; Badu, B P; Lavaju, P; Shrestha, B G; Pant, A R; Agarwal, M

    2014-01-01

    The pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland presents as a painless, progressive, slowly growing supero-temporal swelling with variable proptosis. This tumor is usually found in adults and extremely rare in teenage. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland which mimicked pseudotumor of orbit due to its presentation as an orbital inflammatory disease and the age distribution. Neuroimaging also suggested pseudotumor and oral steroid was started. But, there was no improvement on steroids and ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was performed which suggested Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. En-bloc excision of the mass through antero-lateral orbitotomy was done with satisfactory final outcome The histopathological evaluation was consistent with pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland.

  16. First fossil record of Discocephalinae (Insecta, Pentatomidae): a new genus from the middle Eocene of Río Pichileufú, Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Petrulevičius, Julián F.; Popov, Yuri A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of Discocephalini, Acanthocephalonotum martinsnetoi gen. n. et sp. n. is described from Río Pichileufú, middle Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina at palaeolatitude ~ 46°S. The new species is the first fossil representative of the Discocephalinae. This taxon is extant in equatorial to subtropical America, and some species reach warm temperate latitudes (Buenos Aires province). The new genus is distinguished from the other genera of Discocephalini by the combination of these characters: interocular width greater than head length; head massive and quadrangular with the anterior margin almost straight; juga touching each other; labrum thick and curved; triangular ante-ocular process extending beyond the eye; broad spine-like antero-lateral process of the pronotum; pronotum explanate and bean shaped; scutellum triangular with a circular tongue reaching the anterior side of abdominal segment 7; and wings well developed with membrane just surpassing end of abdomen. PMID:25061387

  17. Computed tomography of cerebral infarction along the distribution of the basal perforating arteries. Part 1. Striate arterial group

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, S.; Goto, K.; Fukasawa, H.; Kawata, Y.; Uemura, K.; Suzuki, K.

    1985-04-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) manifestations of cerebral infarction along the distribution of the basal perforating arteries were reviewed in correlation with cerebral angiography. Infarcts in the territories of perforators were demonstrated individually based on knowledge of their three dimensional distribution as demonstrated by microangiography of cadavers. In Part I of the study, the areas supplied by the medial (MSA) and lateral striate arteries (LSA) were examined. Infarction along the branches of the MSA usually involved the antero-inferior portion of the corpus striatum, immediately posterolateral to the most inferior part of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle. Infarcts along the branches of the LSA abutted the territory of the MSA posteriorly and superiorly and involved the posterolateral region of the corpus striatum. Clinical and neuroradiological correlations are discussed.

  18. Purulent Pericardial Effusions with Pericardial Tamponade – Diagnosis and Treatment Issues

    PubMed Central

    Petcu, C.P.; Dilof, Rodica; Bătăiosu, C.; Petcu, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Purulent pericarditis is rarely encountered in the antibiotherapy era, mainly in immunosupressed patients, after cardiac operations, in septicemia. Diagnosis of purulent pericarditis is based upon the analysis of pericardial drainage, obtained through pericardiocentesis or preferably, through a surgical approach. The reported case has following peculiarities: clinical signs of false acute surgical abdomen; altered clinical and biological response to infection; Optimal treatment is early, efficient pericardial drainage, with low risk of tissue contamination and of pericardial constriction; Surgical subxyphoid pericardial drainage is prefered in patients with affected general status. Antero-(lateral) thoracic approach with associated anterior pericardiectomy ensures an efficient pericardial drainage and prevents pericardial constriction, with low risks for pleural contamination. PMID:24778855

  19. Accuracy of Elastic Fusion of Prostate Magnetic Resonance and Transrectal Ultrasound Images under Routine Conditions: A Prospective Multi-Operator Study.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Paul; Udrescu, Corina; Ravier, Emmanuel; Souchon, Rémi; Rabilloud, Muriel; Bratan, Flavie; Sanzalone, Thomas; Cros, Fanny; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert; Chapet, Olivier; Rouvière, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate in unselected patients imaged under routine conditions the co-registration accuracy of elastic fusion between magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) images obtained by the Koelis Urostation™. We prospectively included 15 consecutive patients referred for placement of intraprostatic fiducials before radiotherapy and who gave written informed consent by signing the Institutional Review Board-approved forms. Three fiducials were placed in the prostate under US guidance in standardized positions (right apex, left mid-gland, right base) using the Koelis Urostation™. Patients then underwent prostate MR imaging. Four operators outlined the prostate on MR and US images and an elastic fusion was retrospectively performed. Fiducials were used to measure the overall target registration error (TRE3D), the error along the antero-posterior (TREAP), right-left (TRERL) and head-feet (TREHF) directions, and within the plane orthogonal to the virtual biopsy track (TRE2D). Median TRE3D and TRE2D were 3.8-5.6 mm, and 2.5-3.6 mm, respectively. TRE3D was significantly influenced by the operator (p = 0.013), fiducial location (p = 0.001) and 3D axis orientation (p<0.0001). The worst results were obtained by the least experienced operator. TRE3D was smaller in mid-gland and base than in apex (average difference: -1.21 mm (95% confidence interval (95%CI): -2.03; -0.4) and -1.56 mm (95%CI: -2.44; -0.69) respectively). TREAP and TREHF were larger than TRERL (average difference: +1.29 mm (95%CI: +0.87; +1.71) and +0.59 mm (95%CI: +0.1; +0.95) respectively). Registration error values were reasonable for clinical practice. The co-registration accuracy was significantly influenced by the operator's experience, and significantly poorer in the antero-posterior direction and at the apex.

  20. Radiation dose reduction in scoliosis patients: low-dose full-spine radiography with digital flat panel detector and image stitching system.

    PubMed

    Grieser, T; Baldauf, A Q; Ludwig, K

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the exposure dose reduction with a digital flat panel detector (FPD) and an image stitching system (ISS) in full-spine radiography for scoliosis patients. During a 6-month period, all consecutive scoliosis patients with a clinical indication for full-spine radiography (n = 50) were examined with an FPD and ISS. Automatic exposure control adjusted to speed class 1600 was used together with age-adjusted tube voltage and filtration. Dose area products were recorded for all images (antero-posterior n = 50, lateral n = 18). Images were evaluated by two radiologists for the possibility (possible, impossible) of typical scoliosis measurements (Cobb angle, Stagnara angle, lateral deviation, Risser stage). All measurements assessed as impossible underwent a second evaluation categorizing the reason why a measurement was impossible (underlying pathology, projection, image quality). Patient characteristics influencing exposure were recorded (sex, age, weight, height). Mean dose area products were compared to the literature with consideration of patient group and image quality. The mean dose area product was 16.8 µGy m (2) for antero-posterior images and 26.6 µGy m (2) for lateral images. A comparison to published values showed an exposure dose reduction of 47 % to 93 %. Measurement of the Cobb and Stagnara angle, lateral deviation and Risser stage was possible in 96 % (n = 50), 83 % (n = 18), 100 % (n = 50) and 100 % (n = 50) of cases. The reasons for impossible measurements were independent of image quality (underlying pathologies, projection). When imaging scoliosis patients, an FPD combined with an ISS can substantially reduce the exposure dose. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Thoracic skeletal morphology and high-altitude hypoxia in Andean prehistory.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Karen J

    2007-09-01

    Living humans from the highland Andes exhibit antero-posteriorly and medio-laterally enlarged chests in response to high-altitude hypoxia. This study hypothesizes that morphological responses to high-altitude hypoxia should also be evident in pre-Contact Andean groups. Thoracic skeletal morphology in four groups of human skeletons (N = 347) are compared: two groups from coastal regions (Ancón, Peru, n = 79 and Arica, Chile, n = 123) and two groups from high altitudes (San Pedro de Atacama, Chile, n = 102 and Machu Picchu and Cuzco, Peru, n = 43). Osteometric variables that represent proportions of chest width and depth include sternal and clavicular lengths and breadths and rib length, curvature, and area. Each variable was measured relative to body size, transformed into logarithmic indices, and compared across sex-specific groups using ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests. Atacama highlanders have the largest sternal and clavicular proportions and ribs with the greatest area and least amount of curvature, features that suggest an antero-posteriorly deep and mediolaterally wide thoracic skeleton. Ancón lowlanders exhibit proportions indicating narrower and shallower chests. Machu Picchu and Cuzco males cluster with the other highland group in rib curvature and area at the superior levels of the thorax, whereas chest proportions in Machu Picchu and Cuzco females resemble those of lowlanders. The variation in Machu Picchu and Cuzco males and females is interpreted as the result of population migrations. The presence of morphological traits indicative of enlarged chests in some highland individuals suggests that high-altitude hypoxia was an environmental stressor shaping the biology of highland Andean groups during the pre-Contact period. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The acute effects of unilateral ankle plantar flexors static- stretching on postural sway and gastrocnemius muscle activity during single-leg balance tasks.

    PubMed

    Lima, Bráulio N; Lucareli, Paulo R G; Gomes, Willy A; Silva, Josinaldo J; Bley, Andre S; Hartigan, Erin H; Marchetti, Paulo H

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral ankle plantar flexors static- stretching on surface electromyography (sEMG) and the center of pressure (COP) during a single-leg balance task in both lower limbs. Fourteen young healthy, non-athletic individuals performed unipodal quiet standing for 30s before and after (stretched limb: immediately post-stretch, 10 and 20 minutes and non-stretched limb: immediately post-stretch) a unilateral ankle plantar flexor static- stretching protocol [6 sets of 45s/15s, 70-90% point of discomfort (POD)]. Postural sway was described using the COP area, COP speed (antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions) and COP frequency (antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions). Surface EMG (EMG integral [IEMG] and Median frequency[FM]) was used to describe the muscular activity of gastrocnemius lateralis. Ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion increased in the stretched limb before and after the static-stretching protocol (mean ± SD: 15.0° ± 6.0 and 21.5° ± 7.0 [p < 0.001]). COP area and IEMG increased in the stretch limb between pre-stretching and immediately post-stretching (p = 0.015 and p = 0.036, respectively). In conclusion, our static- stretching protocol effectively increased passive ankle ROM. The increased ROM appears to increase postural sway and muscle activity; however these finding were only a temporary or transient effect. Key PointsThe postural control can be affected by static- stretching protocol.The lateral gastrocnemius muscle action was increased after the static- stretching protocol.The static- stretching effects remain for less than 10 minutes.

  3. Normal multiplanar movement of the spinal cord during unilateral and bilateral straight leg raise: Quantification, mechanisms and overview.

    PubMed

    Rade, Marinko; Shacklock, Michael; Könönen, Mervi; Marttila, Jarkko; Vanninen, Ritva; Kankaanpää, Markku; Airaksinen, Olavi

    2016-08-09

    The purpose of this investigation was to provide a full set of normal data describing neural biomechanics within the vertebral canal in all three planes with unilateral and bilateral SLR tests to allow for clinical comparison with clinical cases. This is done following the notion that, due to neural continuum, tensile forces are transmitted through the lumbosacral nerve roots and dura to the conus medullaris (linear dependency principle). In this controlled radiologic study 10 asymptomatic volunteers were scanned with 1.5T magnetic resonance scanner (Siemens Magnetom Aera, Erlangen, Germany) using different scanning sequences for planning and for measurement purposes. Conus displacement in both antero-posterior direction (sagittal slices) and lateral direction (axial slices) was quantified during unilateral passive left, right SLR and bilateral SLR and compared with the position of the conus in the neutral (anatomic) position. It is shown that the conus medullaris displaced laterally and anteroposteriorly in response to unilateral and bilateral SLRs. Pearson's correlations were higher than 0.95 for both intra- and inter-observer reliability. The observed power was higher than 0.99 for all the variables tested. Following this, the authors conclude that lateral and antero-posterior displacement of conus medullaris into the vertebral canal occurs consistently with unilateral and bilateral SLRs following directions predicted by tension vectors. Summative information collected in this line of research in neuroradiology is here presented. We believe we have presented the first conclusive and complete full set of normal data on non-invasive, in vivo, normative measurement of spinal cord displacement with the SLR ever presented. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between the prefrontal function and the severity of the emotional symptoms during a verbal fluency task in patients with major depressive disorder: a multi-channel NIRS study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomin; Sun, Gaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Xu, Bo; Shen, Chenyu; Shi, Lujie; Ma, Xiangyun; Ren, Xiajin; Feng, Kun; Liu, Pozi

    2014-10-03

    Multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive and low-cost functional neuroimaging technique in psychiatric research, and it has been wildly used for detecting the spatiotemporal characteristics of brain activity. In order to evaluate the clinical value of NIRS data in the assistant diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), prefrontal cortex (PFC) hemoglobin concentration exchange of 30 MDD patients combined with anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptom was detected by NIRS under voice fluency task (VFT), then the relationship between the severity of depressive, anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptom assessed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) with NIRS data in PFC was analyzed. Hypoactivation in lateral and lower PFC of MDD patients was confirmed in this study. Furthermore, Spearman correlation found that oxy-hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) exchange in right-lateral PFC was associated with the severity of anxiety, while bilateral PFC and antero-medial PFC were associated with severity of depression. Meanwhile, no statistical correlation was observed on the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptom. The results prompted that MDD patients with anxiety and obsession-compulsion symptom showed a PFC hypoactivation state in NIRS. Furthermore, the function of right-lateral PFC was associated with anxiety symptom, while bilateral PFC and antero-medial PFC were associated with depression symptom. Different from depression and anxiety, obsession-compulsion may have a different biological character in PFC function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vocal Tract Morphology in Inhaling Singing: Characteristics During Vowel Production-A Case Study in a Professional Singer.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Mieke; Vanhecke, Françoise; Van Assche, Lieven; Vercruysse, Johan

    2017-09-05

    A professional singer produced various vowels on a comfortable loudness and pitch in an inspiratory and expiratory phonation manner. The present study investigates the morphological differences and tries to find a link with the acoustical characteristics. We hypothesize that features, constantly present over all vowels, characterize inhaling phonation and that the formant frequencies reflect the morphological findings. A prospective case study was carried out. A female singer uttered the vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ in a supine position under magnetic resonance imaging, on a comfortable loudness and pitch, in both inhaling and exhaling manner. The exact same parameters as in previous reports were measured (1-3). Acoustical analysis was performed with Praat. Wilcoxon directional testing demonstrates a statistically significant difference in (1) the distance between the lips, (2) the antero-posterior tongue diameter, (3) the distance between the lips and the tip of the tongue, (4) the distance between the epiglottis and the posterior pharyngeal wall, (5) the narrowing of the subglottic space, and (6) the oropharyngeal and the hypopharyngeal areas. Acoustical analysis reveals slightly more noise and irregularity during reverse phonation. The central frequency of F0 and F1 is identical, whereas that of F2 and F3 increases, and that of F4 varies. A smaller mouth opening, a narrowing of the subglottic space, a larger supralaryngeal inlet, and a smaller antero-posterior tongue diameter can be considered as morphological characteristics for reverse phonation. Acoustically, reverse phonation discretely contains more noise and perturbation. The formant frequency distribution concurs with a mouth narrowing and pharyngeal widening during inhaling. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability of the TekScan MatScan® system for the measurement of postural stability in older people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Brenton-Rule, Angela; Mattock, Joshua; Carroll, Matthew; Dalbeth, Nicola; Bassett, Sandra; Menz, Hylton B; Rome, Keith

    2012-08-13

    Postural stability can be measured in clinical and research settings using portable plantar pressure systems. People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have decreased postural stability compared to non-RA populations and impaired postural stability is associated with falls in people with RA. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the reliability of the TekScan MatScan® system in assessing postural stability in people with RA. Twenty three participants with RA, mean (SD) age 69.74 (10.1) years, were assessed in barefoot double-limb quiet standing, with eyes open and eyes closed, for antero-posterior and medio-lateral postural sway values. Three repetitions, at a sampling frequency of 40 Hz, were recorded for each test condition to obtain a mean value. Measurements were repeated one hour later. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to determine between-session reliability. Measurement error was assessed through the calculation of the standard error of the measurement (SEM) and the smallest real difference (SRD). The system displayed good to excellent reliability for antero-posterior and medio-lateral sway, with eyes open and closed, as indicated by ICC values ranging from 0.84 to 0.92. Measurement error, as evidenced by the SEM, ranged from 1.27 to 2.35 mm. The degree of change required to exceed the expected trial to trial variability was relatively high, compared to mean values, with SRD ranging from 3.08 to 5.71 mm. The portability and ease of use of the TekScan MatScan® makes it a useful tool for the measurement of postural stability in clinical and research settings. The TekScan MatScan® system can reliably measure double-limb quiet standing in older people, aged 60 to 80 years, with RA.

  7. The influence of metallic shell deformation on the contact mechanics of a ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Changdong; Wang, Ling; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty of ceramic-on-ceramic bearing combinations is increasingly used clinically. The majority of these implants are used with cementless fixation that a metal-backing shell is press-fitted into the pelvic bone. This usually results in the deformation of the metallic shell, which may also influence the ceramic liner deformation and consequently the contact mechanics between the liner and the femoral head under loading. The explicit dynamic finite element method was applied to model the implantation of a cementless ceramic-on-ceramic with a titanium shell and subsequently to investigate the effect of the metallic shell deformation on the contact mechanics. A total of three impacts were found to be necessary to seat the titanium alloy shell into the pelvic bone cavity with a 1 mm diameter interference and a 1.3 kg impactor at 4500 mm s(-1) velocity. The maximum deformation of the metallic shell was found to be 160 µm in the antero-superior and postero-inferior direction and 97 µm in the antero-inferior and postero-superior direction after the press-fit. The corresponding values were slightly reduced to 67 and 45 µm after the ceramic liner was inserted and then modified to 74 and 43 µm under loading, respectively. The maximum deformation and the maximum principal stress of the ceramic liner were 31 µm and 144 MPa (tensile stress), respectively, after it was inserted into the shell and further increased to 52 µm and 245 MPa under loading. This research highlights the importance of the press-fit of the metallic shell on the contact mechanics of the ceramic liner for ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties and potential clinical performances.

  8. [Analysis of radiological criteria correlation and clinical manifestation of central lumbosacral spinal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Shevelev, I N; Kornienko, V N; Konovalov, N A; Cherkashov, A M; Nazarenko, A G; Asiutin, D S

    2012-01-01

    to assess the correlation analysis of radiologic criteria referred to central degenerative spinal stenosis and intensity of clinical manifestation. a retrospective cohort data were collected from 2010 till 2011, 27 patients who underwent surgical treatment of central spinal stenosis in Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute. 16 male and 11 female patients were included in the present study. Mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 57.9 years. All patients had spinal canal decompression and transpedicular or oblique transcorporal fusion. Stabilization included different types of pedicle screws, including transcutaneous stabilization systems. Interbody fusion was achieved by posterolateral transforaminal approach (TLIF --transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion). 13 cases included combination of interbody fusion and guided oblique lumbar interbody fusion "GO-LIF", which could not be managed without robotic assistance. All patients underwent full preoperative examination. MR image evaluation included: antero-posterior diameter of the spinal canal (mm), interfacet interval (mm), and cross-section area of the spinal canal (mm2). Patients were evaluated by outcome analysis scales: Degenerative Disease Intensity Level (DDIL) and Swiss Spinal Stenosis Score (Zurich Claudication Questionnaire, Brigham spinal stenosis questionnaire). Surgical outcomes were evaluated according to modified classes of Kawabata et al. analysis of our patients group demonstrated absence of correlation between intensity level of degenerative central spinal stenosis based on neurovisualization methods and intensity of its clinical manifestation. Pearson's coefficient of correlation and Spearmen rank correlation for variable which evaluates clinical signs (DDIL in %) and neurovisualization data (antero-posterior diameter of the spinal canal (mm), interfacet interval (mm), and cross-section area of the spinal canal (mm2)) are not significant to zero (p > 0.2).

  9. Reproducibility and genital sparing with a vaginal dilator used for female anal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Briere, Tina Marie; Crane, Christopher H; Beddar, Sam; Bhosale, Priya; Mok, Henry; Delclos, Marc E; Krishnan, Sunil; Das, Prajnan

    2012-08-01

    Acute vulvitis, acute urethritis, and permanent sexual dysfunction are common among patients treated with chemoradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Avoidance of the genitalia may reduce sexual dysfunction. A vaginal dilator may help delineate and displace the vulva and lower vagina away from the primary tumor. The goal of this study was to evaluate the positional reproducibility and vaginal sparing with the use of a vaginal dilator. Ten female patients treated with IMRT for anal cancer were included in this study. A silicone vaginal dilator measuring 29 mm in diameter and 114 mm in length was inserted into the vagina before simulation and each treatment. The reproducibility of dilator placement was investigated with antero-posterior and lateral images acquired daily. Weekly cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging was used to confirm coverage of the GTV, which was typically posterior and inferior to the dilator apex. Finally, a planning study was performed to compare the vaginal doses for these 10 patients to a comparable group of 10 female patients who were treated for anal cancer with IMRT without vaginal dilators. The absolute values of the location of the dilator apex were 7.0 ± 7.8mm in the supero-inferior direction, 7.5 ± 5.5 mm in the antero-posterior, and 3.8 ± 3.1mm in the lateral direction. Coverage of the GTV and CTV was confirmed from CBCT images. The mean dose to the vagina was lower by 5.5 Gy, on average, for the vaginal dilator patients, compared to patients treated without vaginal dilators. The vaginal dilator tended to be inserted more inferiorly during treatment than during simulation. For these ten patients, this did not compromise tumor coverage. Combined with IMRT treatment planning, use of a vaginal dilator could allow for maximum sparing of female genitalia for patients undergoing radiation therapy for anal cancer. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients

    PubMed Central

    Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  11. Three-Dimensional Ballistocardiography and Seismocardiography in Parabolic Flight: Preliminary Results from the ESA B3D Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migeotte, P.-F.; De Ridder, S.; Neyt, X.; Pattyn, N.; Di Rienzo, M.; Beck, L.; Gauger, P.; Limper, U.; Prisk, G. K.; Rusanov, V.; Funtova, I.; Baevsky, R. M.; Tank, J.

    2013-02-01

    Ballistocardiography (BCG) is a technique that had a large interest in cardiology between the fifties and eighties. Typically BCG consisted in the recording of mechanical acceleration (Acc), caused by cardiac activity, on a subject lying on a table. As Acc was recorded only in the 2-dimensions (2D) of the horizontal plane, the antero-posterior (Z-axis) component was often neglected. From past experiments conducted in space [1,2] it was suggested that this component was comparable in magnitude to the other two and that Ballistocardiography should be recorded in three dimensions (3D). These observations and the recent modest regain of interest in the BCG technique were the starting point of the B3D project selected by ESA for the definition phase after the AO-2009. We recorded 3D Acc at various positions on the surface of the body (close to the centre of mass (CM), at the apex of the heart and on the sternum) of 8 healthy volunteers during free floating periods of parabolic flight (PF) manoeuvre (ESA 55th and DLR 19th PF campaigns conducted on-board the A300-zéroG airplane of NOVESPACE). Out of the many recordings collected, only a very limited number provided body Acc free from artefacts. Nevertheless, our results show that Seismocardiograms (SCG) and Ballistocardiograms (BCG) waves were qualitatively and quantitatively comparable in the frontal plane while larger differences were present along the antero-posterior component. Our limited number of artefact free episodes demonstrates the intrinsic difficulties of 3D recordings of SCG and BCG in PF and thus the need for a study in sustained microgravity. Moreover, our results confirm that the ventro-dorsal component of BCG is of similar amplitude as the other two which further demonstrates that the three components are essential to provide a physiological interpretation of BCG and SCG signals.

  12. Three axonal projection routes of individual pyramidal cells in the ventral CA1 hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Arszovszki, Antónia; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Klausberger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pyramidal cells of the ventral hippocampal CA1 area have numerous and diverse distant projections to other brain regions including the temporal and parietal association areas, visual, auditory, olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory, and visceral areas, and inputs to the amygdalar and prefrontal-orbital-agranular insular region. In addition, their differential expression of proteins like calbindin provides further indications for cellular diversity. This raises the possibility that the pyramidal cells may form subpopulations participating in different brain circuitries. To address this hypothesis we applied the juxtacellular labeling technique to fill individual pyramidal cells in the ventral hippocampus with neurobiotin in urethane anesthetized rats. For each labeled pyramidal cell we determined soma location, dendritic arborizations and selective expression of calbindin and norbin. Reconstruction and mapping of long-range axonal projections were made with the Neurolucida system. We found three major routes of ventral CA1 pyramidal cell projections. The classical pathway run caudo-ventrally across and innervating the subiculum, further to the parahippocampal regions and then to the deep and superficial layers of entorhinal cortex. The other two pathways avoided subiculum by branching from the main axon close to the soma and either traveled antero- and caudo-ventrally to amygdaloid complex, amygdalopiriform-transition area and parahippocampal regions or run antero-dorsally through the fimbria-fornix to the septum, hypothalamus, ventral striatum and olfactory regions. We found that most pyramidal cells investigated used all three major routes to send projecting axons to other brain areas. Our results suggest that the information flow through the ventral hippocampus is distributed by wide axonal projections from the CA1 area. PMID:25009471

  13. Extended conversion coefficients for use in radiation protection of the embryo and fetus against external neutrons from 10 MeV to 100 GeV.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2006-03-01

    External neutron exposure is of concern in the environment and in some workplaces. Dose assessments for neutrons frequently rely on fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients. A problem of concern in radiation protection is exposure of pregnant women to ionizing radiation because of the high radiosensitivity of the embryo and fetus. While neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for adults are recommended in ICRP publications and ICRU reports, conversion coefficients for embryos and fetuses are not given in the publications. This study uses the Monte Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and fetus when the mother is exposed to neutron fields. A previous study has dealt with neutrons from 1 eV to 10 MeV. In this study, monoenergetic neutrons ranging from 10 MeV to 100 GeV are considered. The irradiation geometries include antero-posterior, postero-anterior, lateral, rotational, and isotropic. At each of these standard irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the fetal brain and body are calculated for the embryo of 8 wk and the fetus of 3, 6, or 9 mo. Neutron fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients are derived for the four prenatal ages. The results showed that the fetus at about 3 mo of prenatal age should receive more radiation protection to prevent long-term brain damage. During prenatal life, the fetus generally receives the highest absorbed dose per unit neutron fluence for antero-posterior irradiation. In cases where the irradiation geometry is not specified or not adequately known, conversion coefficients of AP-irradiation can therefore be used in a conservative dose assessment of fetus exposure to external neutrons.

  14. Alveolar and Skeletal Chin Dimensions Associated with Lower Facial Height Among Different Divergent Patterns.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Yaser Ahmed; Kishore, M S V; Bukhari, Syed Abid Altaf; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Sashidhar, Nagam Reddy

    2016-05-01

    Alveolar and skeletal chin dimensions with facial height have an impact on diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontic patients and serves as a reference landmark for facial aesthetics. To evaluate the alveolar and skeleton chin dimensions among different divergent patterns, to evaluate the lower face height in different divergent growth patterns, to give an estimate to the oral surgeon for any adjunctive procedure. The study includes a total sample of 45 non-growing individuals (26 males and 19 females) from the archival records of the Orthodontic Department with age ranging between 18-25 years, classified into different divergent patterns based on the mandibular plane angle. The sample was divided into three groups, of which 15 patients in each group were evaluated: Group-1: Normodivergent, Group-2: Hypodivergent and Group-3: Hyperdivergent patterns respectively. Standardized digital lateral cephalograms and antero-posterior cephalograms of these patients were obtained in Natural Head Position (NHP). The results of the retrospective cephalometeric study were statistically analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc test which showed that hard tissue chin measurement were greater in hypodivergent group (13.7mm) and the increased lower facial height showed statistically significant difference in high mandibular plane angle group (59.6mm). In antero-posterior cephalograms the transverse width showed statistically significant difference in normodivergent group (32.60mm). The anterio-posterior width of the symphysis was higher in hypodivergent growth pattern, whereas vertical height of the symphysis was greater in hyperdivergent group. The lower facial height among three groups showed statistically significant difference among hyperdivergent group. In comparison of all the three groups in Anterio-Posterior (AP) cephalograms, statistically significant difference was noted in normodivergent group when compared with the other two groups.

  15. Stability and Harmony of Gait in Patients with Subacute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Iosa, Marco; Bini, Fabiano; Marinozzi, Franco; Fusco, Augusto; Morone, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Martino Cinnera, Alex; Bonnì, Sonia; Paolucci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Stroke affects many gait features, such as gait stability, symmetry, and harmony. However, it is still unclear which of these features are directly altered by primary damage, and which are affected by the reduced walking speed. The aim of this study was to analyze the above gait features in patients with subacute stroke with respect to the values observed in age- and speed-matched healthy subjects. A wearable triaxial accelerometer and an optoelectronic device were used for assessing the upright gait stability, symmetry of trunk movements, and harmonic structure of gait phases by means of the root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration of the trunk, harmonic ratio (HR), and gait ratios (GRs), respectively. For healthy subjects, results showed that RMS acceleration increased with speed, HR peaked at a comfortable speed, and GRs tended towards the theoretical value of the golden ratio for speeds >1 m/s. At matched speed conditions, patients showed higher instabilities in the latero-lateral axis (p = 0.001) and reduced symmetry of trunk movements (p = 0.002). Different from healthy subjects, antero-posterior and latero-lateral acceleration harmonics were coupled in patients (R = 0.507, p = 0.023). Conversely, GRs were not more altered in patients than in slow-walking healthy subjects. In conclusion, patients with stroke showed some characteristics similar to those of the elderly when the latter subjects walk slowly, and some altered characteristics, such as increased latero-lateral instabilities coupled with movements performed along the antero-posterior axis.

  16. pix-1 controls early elongation in parallel with mel-11 and let-502 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emmanuel; Harel, Sharon; Nkengfac, Bernard; Hamiche, Karim; Neault, Mathieu; Jenna, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Cell shape changes are crucial for metazoan development. During Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis, epidermal cell shape changes transform ovoid embryos into vermiform larvae. This process is divided into two phases: early and late elongation. Early elongation involves the contraction of filamentous actin bundles by phosphorylated non-muscle myosin in a subset of epidermal (hypodermal) cells. The genes controlling early elongation are associated with two parallel pathways. The first one involves the rho-1/RHOA-specific effector let-502/Rho-kinase and mel-11/myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit. The second pathway involves the CDC42/RAC-specific effector pak-1. Late elongation is driven by mechanotransduction in ventral and dorsal hypodermal cells in response to body-wall muscle contractions, and involves the CDC42/RAC-specific Guanine-nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) pix-1, the GTPase ced-10/RAC and pak-1. In this study, pix-1 is shown to control early elongation in parallel with let-502/mel-11, as previously shown for pak-1. We show that pix-1, pak-1 and let-502 control the rate of elongation, and the antero-posterior morphology of the embryos. In particular, pix-1 and pak-1 are shown to control head, but not tail width, while let-502 controls both head and tail width. This suggests that let-502 function is required throughout the antero-posterior axis of the embryo during early elongation, while pix-1/pak-1 function may be mostly required in the anterior part of the embryo. Supporting this hypothesis we show that low pix-1 expression level in the dorsal-posterior hypodermal cells is required to ensure high elongation rate during early elongation.

  17. pix-1 Controls Early Elongation in Parallel with mel-11 and let-502 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Nkengfac, Bernard; Hamiche, Karim; Neault, Mathieu; Jenna, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Cell shape changes are crucial for metazoan development. During Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis, epidermal cell shape changes transform ovoid embryos into vermiform larvae. This process is divided into two phases: early and late elongation. Early elongation involves the contraction of filamentous actin bundles by phosphorylated non-muscle myosin in a subset of epidermal (hypodermal) cells. The genes controlling early elongation are associated with two parallel pathways. The first one involves the rho-1/RHOA-specific effector let-502/Rho-kinase and mel-11/myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit. The second pathway involves the CDC42/RAC-specific effector pak-1. Late elongation is driven by mechanotransduction in ventral and dorsal hypodermal cells in response to body-wall muscle contractions, and involves the CDC42/RAC-specific Guanine-nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) pix-1, the GTPase ced-10/RAC and pak-1. In this study, pix-1 is shown to control early elongation in parallel with let-502/mel-11, as previously shown for pak-1. We show that pix-1, pak-1 and let-502 control the rate of elongation, and the antero-posterior morphology of the embryos. In particular, pix-1 and pak-1 are shown to control head, but not tail width, while let-502 controls both head and tail width. This suggests that let-502 function is required throughout the antero-posterior axis of the embryo during early elongation, while pix-1/pak-1 function may be mostly required in the anterior part of the embryo. Supporting this hypothesis we show that low pix-1 expression level in the dorsal-posterior hypodermal cells is required to ensure high elongation rate during early elongation. PMID:24732978

  18. Disrupted developmental organization of the structural connectome in fetuses with corpus callosum agenesis.

    PubMed

    Jakab, András; Kasprian, Gregor; Schwartz, Ernst; Gruber, Gerlinde Maria; Mitter, Christian; Prayer, Daniela; Schöpf, Veronika; Langs, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a model disease for disrupted connectivity of the human brain, in which the pathological formation of interhemispheric fibers results in subtle to severe cognitive deficits. Postnatal studies suggest that the characteristic abnormal pathways in this pathology are compensatory structures that emerge via neural plasticity. We challenge this hypothesis and assume a globally different network organization of the structural interconnections already in the fetal acallosal brain. Twenty fetuses with isolated corpus callosum agenesis with or without associated malformations were enrolled and fiber connectivity among 90 brain regions was assessed using in utero diffusion tensor imaging and streamline tractography. Macroscopic scale connectomes were compared to 20 gestational age-matched normally developing fetuses with multiple granularity of network analysis. Gradually increasing connectivity strength and tract diffusion anisotropy during gestation were dominant in antero-posteriorly running paramedian and antero-laterally running aberrant pathways, and in short-range connections in the temporoparietal regions. In fetuses with associated abnormalities, more diffuse reduction of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connectivity was observed than in cases with isolated callosal agenesis. The global organization of anatomical networks consisted of less segregated nodes in acallosal brains, and hubs of dense connectivity, such as the thalamus and cingulate cortex, showed reduced network centrality. Acallosal fetal brains show a globally altered connectivity network structure compared to normals. Besides the previously described Probst and sigmoid bundles, we revealed a prenatally differently organized macroconnectome, dominated by increased connectivity. These findings provide evidence that abnormal pathways are already present during at early stages of fetal brain development in the majority of cerebral white matter.

  19. Semaphorin3A-induced axonal transport mediated through phosphorylation of Axin-1 by GSK3β.

    PubMed

    Hida, Tomonobu; Nakamura, Fumio; Usui, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Kan; Yamashita, Naoya; Goshima, Yoshio

    2015-02-19

    The establishment of neuronal polarity is necessary for proper neuronal wiring. Semaphorin3A (Sema3A), originally identified as a repulsive axon guidance molecule, exerts a wide variety of biological functions through signaling pathways including sequential phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein by cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). Sema3A acts on its receptor neuropilin-1 to regulate axonal transport. To delineate mechanism by which Sema3A induces axonal transport, we investigate whether GSK3β is involved in mediating Sema3A-induced axonal transport. 4-Benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione, an inhibitor of GSK3β, suppressed Sema3A-induced antero- and retrograde axonal transport. Introduction of either GSK3β mutants, GSK3β-L128A or K85M, suppressed Sema3A-induced axonal transport. On the other hand, introduction of GSK3β-R96A did not affect the Sema3A effect, suggesting that unprimed substrates are primarily involved in Sema3A-induced axonal transport. Overexpression of a partial fragment of frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 1 (FRATtide), which interferes the interaction between GSK3β and Axis inhibitor-1 (Axin-1), also suppressed Sema3A-induced transport. siRNA knockdown of Axin-1, an unprimed substrate of GSK3β, suppressed Sema3A-induced antero- and retrograde axonal transport. These results indicate that GSK3β and Axin-1 are involved in Sema3A-induced bidirectional axonal transport. This finding should provide a clue for understanding of mechanisms of a wide variety of biological activities of Sema3A.

  20. The effect of backpack weight on the standing posture and balance of schoolgirls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Chow, Daniel H K; Kwok, Monica L Y; Cheng, Jack C Y; Lao, Miko L M; Holmes, Andrew D; Au-Yang, Alexander; Yao, Fiona Y D; Wong, M S

    2006-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effect of carrying a backpack on adolescent posture and balance, but the effect of backpack loading combined with other factors affecting balance, such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), has not been determined. This study examines the effects of backpack load on the posture and balance of schoolgirls with AIS and normal controls. The standing posture of 26 schoolgirls with mild AIS (mean age 13, Cobb angle 10-25 degrees ) and 20 age-matched normal schoolgirls were recorded without a backpack and while carrying a standard dual-strap backpack loaded at 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% of the subject's bodyweight (BW). Kinematics of the pelvis, trunk and head were recorded using a motion analysis system and centre of pressure (COP) data were recorded using a force platform. Reliable COP data could only be derived for 13 of the subjects with AIS. Increasing backpack load causes a significantly increased flexion of the trunk in relation to the pelvis and extension of the head in relation to the trunk, as well as increased antero-posterior range of COP motion. While backpack load appears to affect balance predominantly in the antero-posterior direction, differences between groups were more evident in the medio-lateral direction, with AIS subjects showing poor balance in this direction. Overall, carrying a backpack causes similar sagittal plane changes in posture and balance in both normal and AIS groups. Load size or subject group did not influence balance, but the additive effect of backpack carrying and AIS on postural control alters the risk of fall in this population. Therefore, load limit recommendations based on normal subjects should not be applicable to subjects with AIS.

  1. CT analysis of lung density changes in patients undergoing total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.Y.; Shank, B.; Bonfiglio, P.; Reid, A.

    1984-10-01

    Sequential changes in lung density measured by CT are potentially sensitive and convenient monitors of lung abnormalities following total body irradiation (TBI). Methods have been developed to compare pre- and post-TBI CT of lung. The average local features of a cross-sectional lung slice are extracted from three peripheral regions of interest in the anterior, posterior, and lateral portions of the CT image. Also, density profiles across a specific region may be obtained. These may be compared first for verification of patient position and breathing status and then for changes between pre- and post-TBI. These may also be compared with radiation dose profiles through the lung. A preliminary study on 21 leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation indicates the following: (a) Density gradients of patients' lungs in the antero-posterior direction show a marked heterogeneity before and after transplantation compared with normal lungs. The patients with departures from normal density gradients pre-TBI correlate with later pulmonary complications. (b) Measurements of average peripheral lung densities have demonstrated that the average lung density in the younger age group is substantially higher: pre-TBI, the average CT number (1,000 scale) is -638 +/- 39 Hounsfield unit (HU) for 0-10 years old and -739 +/- 53 HU for 21-40 years old. (c) Density profiles showed no post-TBI regional changes in lung density corresponding to the dose profile across the lung, so no differentiation of a radiation-specific effect has yet been possible. Computed tomographic density profiles in the antero-posterior direction are successfully used to verify positioning of the CT slice and the breathing level of the lung.

  2. A comparative study of the target volume definition in radiotherapy with «Slow CT Scan» vs. 4D PET/CT Scan in early stages non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Molla, M; Anducas, N; Simó, M; Seoane, A; Ramos, M; Cuberas-Borros, G; Beltran, M; Castell, J; Giralt, J

    To evaluate the use of 4D PET/CT to quantify tumor respiratory motion compared to the «Slow»-CT (CTs) in the radiotherapy planning process. A total of 25 patients with inoperable early stage non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were included in the study. Each patient was imaged with a CTs (4s/slice) and 4D PET/CT. The adequacy of each technique for respiratory motion capture was evaluated using the volume definition for each of the following: Internal target volume (ITV) 4D and ITVslow in relation with the volume defined by the encompassing volume of 4D PET/CT and CTs (ITVtotal). The maximum distance between the edges of the volume defined by each technique to that of the total volume was measured in orthogonal beam's eye view. The ITV4D showed less differences in relation with the ITVtotal in both the cranio-caudal and the antero-posterior axis compared to the ITVslow. The maximum differences were 0.36mm in 4D PET/CTand 0.57mm in CTs in the antero-posterior axis. 4D PET/CT resulted in the definition of more accurate (ITV4D/ITVtotal 0.78 vs. ITVs/ITVtotal 0.63), and larger ITVs (19.9 cc vs. 16.3 cc) than those obtained with CTs. Planning with 4D PET/CT in comparison with CTs, allows incorporating tumor respiratory motion and improving planning radiotherapy of patients in early stages of lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  3. Trunk's natural inclination influences stance limb kinetics, but not body kinematics, during gait initiation in able men.

    PubMed

    Leteneur, Sébastien; Simoneau, Emilie; Gillet, Christophe; Dessery, Yoann; Barbier, Franck

    2013-01-01

    The imposing mass of the trunk in relation to the whole body has an important impact on human motion. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of trunk's natural inclination--forward (FW) or backward (BW) with respect to the vertical--on body kinematics and stance limb kinetics during gait initiation.Twenty-five healthy males were divided based on their natural trunk inclination (FW or BW) during gait initiation. Instantaneous speed was calculated at the center of mass at the first heel strike. The antero-posterior impulse was calculated by integrating the antero-posterior ground reaction force in time. Ankle, knee, hip and thoraco-lumbar (L5) moments were calculated using inverse dynamics and only peaks of the joint moments were analyzed. Among all the investigated parameters, only joint moments present significant differences between the two groups. The knee extensor moment is 1.4 times higher (P<0.001) for the BW group, before the heel contact. At the hip, although the BW group displays a flexor moment 2.4 times higher (P<0.001) before the swing limb's heel-off, the FW group displays an extensor moment 3.1 times higher (P<0.01) during the swing phase. The three L5 extensor peaks after the toe-off are respectively 1.7 (P<0.001), 1.4 (P<0.001) and 1.7 (P<0.01) times higher for the FW group. The main results support the idea that the patterns described during steady-state gait are already observable during gait initiation. This study also provides reference data to further investigate stance limb kinetics in specific or pathologic populations during gait initiation. It will be of particular interest for elderly people, knowing that this population displays atypical trunk postures and present a high risk of falling during this forward stepping.

  4. Long-term impact of ankle sprains on postural control and fascial densification.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Lachman, Hila; Freilich, Naama

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of a past ankle sprain (AS) on postural control and fascial changes in the adjacent body segment. 20 young, healthy subjects with a history (≥6 months) of significant (Grades 2, 3) lateral ASs and 20 controls with no history of AS were recruited to cross-sectional case-control study. All subjects performed the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). The Stecco method was used to evaluate fascial densification in the calf and upper foot areas. The leg with the AS in the study group vs. the right leg in the control group exhibited significant differences (lower scores of SEBT test in the AS group) for the following directions: anterior (p < 0.001), antero-lateral (p < 0.001), posterior (P = 0.028), postero-medial (P = 0.001), medial (P = 0.001), antero-medial (p < 0.001). A comparison between the leg with an AS in the study group and the right leg in the control group showed a significantly high prevalence of fascial densification for the talus internal rotation (p = 0.014), talus retromotion (p = 0.001), talus lateral (p = 0.040) and pes external rotation (p = 0.060) points. There are long term effects of an AS on postural control and on the sensitivity and movability of the fascia in the calf and foot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Eye movement instructions modulate motion illusion and body sway with Op Art

    PubMed Central

    Kapoula, Zoï; Lang, Alexandre; Vernet, Marine; Locher, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Op Art generates illusory visual motion. It has been proposed that eye movements participate in such illusion. This study examined the effect of eye movement instructions (fixation vs. free exploration) on the sensation of motion as well as the body sway of subjects viewing Op Art paintings. Twenty-eight healthy adults in orthostatic stance were successively exposed to three visual stimuli consisting of one figure representing a cross (baseline condition) and two Op Art paintings providing sense of motion in depth—Bridget Riley’s Movements in Squares and Akiyoshi Kitaoka’s Rollers. Before their exposure to the Op Art images, participants were instructed either to fixate at the center of the image (fixation condition) or to explore the artwork (free viewing condition). Posture was measured for 30 s per condition using a body fixed sensor (accelerometer). The major finding of this study is that the two Op Art paintings induced a larger antero-posterior body sway both in terms of speed and displacement and an increased motion illusion in the free viewing condition as compared to the fixation condition. For body sway, this effect was significant for the Riley painting, while for motion illusion this effect was significant for Kitaoka’s image. These results are attributed to macro-saccades presumably occurring under free viewing instructions, and most likely to the small vergence drifts during fixations following the saccades; such movements in interaction with visual properties of each image would increase either the illusory motion sensation or the antero-posterior body sway. PMID:25859197

  6. A large renal pelvic diverticulum, presenting incomplete excretion during tc-99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and tracer accumulation on tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy; a case report.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Bulent; Erselcan, Taner; Ozdemir, Semra; Hasbek, Zekiye; Tosun, H Bayram; Topaktas, Seher

    2004-12-01

    This case report illustrates the dynamic and static renal scintigraphic images of a patient with an unusual large diverticulum of the renal pelvis. The initial diagnosis by intravenous pyelography (IVP) and ultrasonographic (US) examination was a renal pelvic diverticulum of the left kidney, and the patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department for exploration of the effect of the pelvic diverticulum on renal functions. We performed dynamic renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and static renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). In dynamic renal scintigraphy, bilaterally normal concentration function was observed. While right kidney excretion function was normal, an incomplete excretion pattern was seen on the left side. Complete urinary flow obstruction occurred approximately at the 10th minute of the acquisition, which did not seem to respond to the i.v. furosemide application. However, when only the renal cortex was included in the region of interest, the obstructive pattern disappeared. In static renal scintigraphy, a large renal pelvic diverticulum localized antero-medially was clearly visualized in the left-anterior oblique projection, most probably due to accumulation of radiopharmaceutical inside it. This case showed that a renal pelvic diverticulum should be thought of when an incomplete excretion pattern is seen on dynamic renal scintigraphy. Using only a cortical region of interest may also help to distinguish other types of obstructive pattern from diverticulum. Additionally, Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy may show diverticulum localization with antero-oblique projections in addition to routine projections.

  7. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids.

  8. A cephalometric evaluation of tongue from the rest position to centric occlusion in the subjects with class II division 1 malocclusion and class I normal occlusion.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sanjeev K; Tandon, Pradeep; Agrawal, D K; Prabhat, K C

    2012-04-01

    One of the common types of oro-dental morphopathologic relationship is the Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Therefore, the study of tongue position in Class II Division 1 may reveal a role of the tongue in the etiology or diagnosis of malocclusion. Present study was done with the aim to evaluate the tongue position radiographically in centric occlusion and rest position in the subjects with Angle's Class 1 normal occlusion and subjects with Angle's Class II Division 1 malocclusion and to find out any differences in tongue position between Angle's Class 1 normal occlusion and Angle's Class II Division 1 malocclusion group. The present study was conducted on lateral cephalogram of 40 subjects between the age ranges of 16 to 22 years. The samples were divided into the Angle's Class 1 normal occlusion group (Group I) and the Angle's Class II Division 1 malocclusion group (Group II) with the 20 in each groups. The study involved the evaluation of tongue position at rest position and centric occlusion on the lateral head cephalogram. This study for the evaluation of the tongue position from the rest position to the centric occlusion showed no statistically significant changes in both groups. However, there were greater changes in various parameters (From the rest position to the centric occlusion) in the subjects with Angle's Class II Division 1 malocclusion as compared to the subjects with the Angle's Class I normal occlusion group. FROM THE PRESENT STUDY FOLLOWING CONCLUSION CAN BE DRAWN: with the closure of mandible from the rest position to centric occlusion the tongue moved antero-superiorly in the tip region, superiorly in the dorsum region, and antero-superiorly in the posterior region in normal occlusion and postero-superiorly in Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

  9. Comparative analysis of 3D expression patterns of transcription factor genes and digit fate maps in the developing chick wing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Malcolm; Downie, Helen; Welten, Monique C M; Delgado, Irene; Bain, Andrew; Planzer, Thorsten; Sherman, Adrian; Sang, Helen; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-04-22

    Hoxd13, Tbx2, Tbx3, Sall1 and Sall3 genes are candidates for encoding antero-posterior positional values in the developing chick wing and specifying digit identity. In order to build up a detailed profile of gene expression patterns in cell lineages that give rise to each of the digits over time, we compared 3 dimensional (3D) expression patterns of these genes during wing development and related them to digit fate maps. 3D gene expression data at stages 21, 24 and 27 spanning early bud to digital plate formation, captured from in situ hybridisation whole mounts using Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) were mapped to reference wing bud models. Grafts of wing bud tissue from GFP chicken embryos were used to fate map regions of the wing bud giving rise to each digit; 3D images of the grafts were captured using OPT and mapped on to the same models. Computational analysis of the combined computerised data revealed that Tbx2 and Tbx3 are expressed in digit 3 and 4 progenitors at all stages, consistent with encoding stable antero-posterior positional values established in the early bud; Hoxd13 and Sall1 expression is more dynamic, being associated with posterior digit 3 and 4 progenitors in the early bud but later becoming associated with anterior digit 2 progenitors in the digital plate. Sox9 expression in digit condensations lies within domains of digit progenitors defined by fate mapping; digit 3 condensations express Hoxd13 and Sall1, digit 4 condensations Hoxd13, Tbx3 and to a lesser extent Tbx2. Sall3 is only transiently expressed in digit 3 progenitors at stage 24 together with Sall1 and Hoxd13; then becomes excluded from the digital plate. These dynamic patterns of expression suggest that these genes may play different roles in digit identity either together or in combination at different stages including the digit condensation stage.

  10. CT and MR image fusion of tandem and ring applicator using rigid registration in intracavitary brachytherapy planning.

    PubMed

    Oinam, Arun S; Tomar, Parsee; Patel, Firuza D; Singh, Lakhwant; Rai, Bhavana; Bahl, Amit

    2014-03-06

    The purpose of this study is to find the uncertainties in the reconstruction of MR compatible ring-tandem intracavitary applicators of high-dose rate image-based brachytherapy treatment planning using rigid registration of 3D MR and CT image fusion. Tandem and ring reconstruction in MR image based brachytherapy planning was done using rigid registration of CT and MR applicator geometries. Verifications of registration for applicator fusion were performed in six verification steps at three different sites of tandem ring applicator set. The first site consists of three errors at the level of ring plane in (1) cranio caudal shift (Cranial Shift) of ring plane along tandem axis, (2) antero-posterior shift (AP Shift) perpendicular to tandem axis on the plane containing the tandem, and (3) lateral shift (Lat Shift) perpendicular to the plane containing the tandem at the level of ring plane. The other two sites are the verifications at the tip of tandem and neck of the ring. The verification at the tip of tandem consists of two errors in (1) antero-posterior shift (AP Shift) perpendicular to tandem axis on the plane containing the tandem, and (2) lateral shift (Lat Shift) perpendicular to the plane containing the tandem. The third site of verification at the neck of the ring is the error due to the rotation of ring about tandem axis. The impact of translational errors from -5 mm to 5 mm in the step of 1 mm along x-, y-, and z-axis and three rotational errors about these axes from -19.1° to 19.1° in the step of 3.28° on dose-volume histogram parameters (D(2cc), D(1cc), D(0.1cc), and D(5cc) of bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, and D90 and D98 of HRCTV were also analyzed. Maximum registration errors along cranio-caudal direction was 2.2 mm (1 case), whereas the errors of 31 out of 34 cases of registration were found within 1.5 mm, and those of two cases were less than 2mm but greater than 1.5 mm. Maximum rotational error of ring about tandem axis was 3.15° (1.1 mm). In other

  11. The patient position for PNL: does it matter?

    PubMed

    Cracco, Cecilia Maria; Scoffone, Cesare Marco; Poggio, Massimiliano; Scarpa, Roberto Mario

    2010-03-01

    Currently, PNL is the treatment of choice for large and/or otherwise complex urolithiasis. PNL was initially performed with the patient in a supine-oblique position, but later on the prone position became the conventional one for habit and handiness. The prone position provides a larger area for percutaneous renal access, a wider space for instrument manipulation, and a claimed lower risk of splanchnic injury. Nonetheless, it implies important anaesthesiological risks, including circulatory, haemodynamic, and ventilatory difficulties; need of several nurses to be present for intraoperative changes of the decubitus in case of simultaneous retrograde instrumentation of the ureter, implying evident risks related to pressure points; an increased radiological hazard to the urologist's hands; patient discomfort. To overcome these drawbacks, various safe and effective changes in patient positioning for PNL have been proposed over the years, including the reverse lithotomy position, the prone split-leg position, the lateral decubitus, the supine position, and the Galdakao-modified supine Valdivia (GMSV) position. Among these, the GMSV position is safe and effective, and seems profitable and ergonomic. It allows optimal cardiopulmonary control during general anaesthesia; an easy puncture of the kidney; a reduced risk of colonic injury; simultaneous antero-retrograde approach to the renal cavities (PNL and retrograde ureteroscopy = ECIRS, Endoscopic Combined IntraRenal Surgery), with no need of intraoperative repositioning of the anaesthetized patient, less need for nurses in the operating room, less occupational risk due to shifting of heavy loads, less risk of pressure injuries related to inaccurate repositioning, and reduced duration of the procedure; facilitated spontaneous evacuation of stone fragments; a comfortable sitting position and a restrained X-ray exposure of the hands for the urologist. But, first of all, GMSV position fully supports a new comprehensive

  12. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies of shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Cohen, Carina; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Loyola, Leonor Casilla; Pochini, Alberto Castro; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder instability is a common shoulder injury, and patients present with plastic deformation of the glenohumeral capsule. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for increasing the general understanding of capsule deformation, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for such studies. Although RT-qPCR is highly sensitive and specific, it requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization to guarantee meaningful and reproducible results. In the present study, we evaluated the suitability of a set of reference genes using samples from the glenohumeral capsules of individuals with and without shoulder instability. We analyzed the expression of six commonly used reference genes (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, TBP and TFRC) in the antero-inferior, antero-superior and posterior portions of the glenohumeral capsules of cases and controls. The stability of the candidate reference gene expression was determined using four software packages: NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper and DataAssist. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene, and HPRT1 and B2M composed the best pair of reference genes from different analysis groups, including simultaneous analysis of all tissue samples. GenEx software was used to identify the optimal number of reference genes to be used for normalization and demonstrated that the accumulated standard deviation resulting from the use of 2 reference genes was similar to that resulting from the use of 3 or more reference genes. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of COL1A1. Although the use of different reference gene combinations yielded variable normalized quantities, the relative quantities within sample groups were similar and confirmed that no obvious differences were observed when using 2, 3 or 4 reference genes. Consequently, the use of 2 stable reference genes for normalization, especially HPRT1 and B2M, is a

  13. Restoration of optimal ellipsoid left ventricular geometry: lessons learnt from in silico surgical modelling.

    PubMed

    Adhyapak, Srilakshmi M; Menon, Prahlad G; Rao Parachuri, V

    2014-02-01

    Several issues that are inherent in the surgical techniques of surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) need specialized devices or techniques to overcome them, which may not always result in optimal outcomes. We used a non-invasive novel in silico modelling technique to study left ventricular (LV) morphology and function before and after SVR. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging derived actual pre- and postoperative endocardial morphology and function was compared with the in silico analysis of the same. Cardiac magnetic resonance steady state free precession (SSFP) cine images were employed to segment endocardial surface contours over the cardiac cycle. Using the principle of Hausdorff distance to examine phase-to-phase regional endocardial displacement, dyskinetic/akinetic areas were identified at the instant of peak basal contraction velocity. Using a three-dimensional (3D) surface clipping tool, the maximally scarred, dyskinetic or akinetic LV antero-apical areas were virtually resected and a new apex was created. A virtual rectangular patch was created upon the clipped surface LV model by 3D Delaunay triangulation. Presurgical endocardial mechanical function quantified from cine cardiac magnetic resonance, using a technique of spherical harmonics (SPHARM) surface parameterization, was applied onto the virtually clipped and patched LV surface model. Finally, the in silico model of post-SVR LV shape was analysed for quantification of regional left ventricular volumes (RLVVs) and function. This was tested in 2 patients with post-myocardial infarction antero-apical LV aneuryms. Left ventricular mechanical dysynchrony was evaluated by RLVV analysis of pre-SVR, in silico post-SVR and actual post-SVR LV endocardial surface data. Following exclusion of the scarred areas, the virtual resected LV model demonstrated significantly lesser areas of akinesia. The decreases in regional LV volumes in the in silico modelling were significant and comparable with the actual

  14. 3D printing of normal and pathologic tricuspid valves from transthoracic 3D echocardiography data sets.

    PubMed

    Muraru, Denisa; Veronesi, Federico; Maddalozzo, Anna; Dequal, Daniele; Frajhof, Leonardo; Rabischoffsky, Arnaldo; Iliceto, Sabino; Badano, Luigi P

    2017-07-01

    To explore the feasibility of using transthoracic 3D echocardiography (3DTTE) data to generate 3D patient-specific models of tricuspid valve (TV). Multi-beat 3D data sets of the TV (32 vol/s) were acquired in five subjects with various TV morphologies from the apical approach and analysed offline with custom-made software. Coordinates representing the annulus and the leaflets were imported into MeshLab (Visual Computing Lab ISTICNR) to develop solid models to be converted to stereolithographic file format and 3D print. Measurements of the TV annulus antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) diameters, perimeter (P), and TV tenting height (H) and volume (V) obtained from the 3D echo data set were compared with those performed on the 3D models using a caliper, a syringe and a millimeter tape. Antero-posterior (4.2 ± 0.2 cm vs. 4.2 ± 0 cm), ML (3.7 ± 0.2 cm vs. 3.6 ± 0.1 cm), P (12.6 ± 0.2 cm vs. 12.7 ± 0.1 cm), H (11.2 ± 2.1 mm vs. 10.8 ± 2.1 mm) and V (3.0 ± 0.6 ml vs. 2.8 ± 1.4 ml) were similar (P = NS for all) when measured on the 3D data set and the printed model. The two sets of measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.991). The mean absolute error (2D - 3D) for AP, ML, P and tenting H was 0.7 ± 0.3 mm, indicating accuracy of the 3D model of <1 mm. Three-dimensional printing of the TV from 3DTTE data is feasible with highly conserved fidelity. This technique has the potential for rapid integration into clinical practice to assist with decision-making, surgical planning, and teaching.

  15. Accuracy of Elastic Fusion of Prostate Magnetic Resonance and Transrectal Ultrasound Images under Routine Conditions: A Prospective Multi-Operator Study

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, Paul; Udrescu, Corina; Ravier, Emmanuel; Souchon, Rémi; Rabilloud, Muriel; Bratan, Flavie; Sanzalone, Thomas; Cros, Fanny; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert; Chapet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate in unselected patients imaged under routine conditions the co-registration accuracy of elastic fusion between magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) images obtained by the Koelis Urostation™. Materials and Methods We prospectively included 15 consecutive patients referred for placement of intraprostatic fiducials before radiotherapy and who gave written informed consent by signing the Institutional Review Board-approved forms. Three fiducials were placed in the prostate under US guidance in standardized positions (right apex, left mid-gland, right base) using the Koelis Urostation™. Patients then underwent prostate MR imaging. Four operators outlined the prostate on MR and US images and an elastic fusion was retrospectively performed. Fiducials were used to measure the overall target registration error (TRE3D), the error along the antero-posterior (TREAP), right-left (TRERL) and head-feet (TREHF) directions, and within the plane orthogonal to the virtual biopsy track (TRE2D). Results Median TRE3D and TRE2D were 3.8–5.6 mm, and 2.5–3.6 mm, respectively. TRE3D was significantly influenced by the operator (p = 0.013), fiducial location (p = 0.001) and 3D axis orientation (p<0.0001). The worst results were obtained by the least experienced operator. TRE3D was smaller in mid-gland and base than in apex (average difference: -1.21 mm (95% confidence interval (95%CI): -2.03; -0.4) and -1.56 mm (95%CI: -2.44; -0.69) respectively). TREAP and TREHF were larger than TRERL (average difference: +1.29 mm (95%CI: +0.87; +1.71) and +0.59 mm (95%CI: +0.1; +0.95) respectively). Conclusions Registration error values were reasonable for clinical practice. The co-registration accuracy was significantly influenced by the operator’s experience, and significantly poorer in the antero-posterior direction and at the apex. PMID:28033423

  16. Morphometric Study of Clavicular Facet of Coracoclavicular Joint in Adult Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Anita; Vasudeva, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anthropologists have used Coracoclavicular Joint (CCJ), a non-metric anatomical variant in population, as a marker for population migration from prehistoric times to present. Aim The aim of this osteological study was to determine the incidence and morphometry of articular facet of CCJ on conoid tubercle of clavicle in Indian population, as Indian studies are scanty and incomplete. Materials and Methods The study was done on 144 adult human clavicles (76 right and 68 left; 93 males and 51 females) collected from osteology museum in Department of Anatomy, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. The presence of articular facet on the conoid tubercle was determined and Maximum Antero-Posterior (MAPD) and maximum transverse diameter (MTD) was measured by digital vernier calliper. The incidence was compared on the basis of sex, side and with other osteological studies in the world. Statistical analysis was done using the Chi-Square test for nominal categorical data and student’s t-test for normally distributed continuous variables in Microsoft Excel 2007 to assess the relationship between the examined variables. Results Articular facet on conoid tubercle was found in 8 cases (5.6%). Seven (9.2%) were present on the right side and one (1.5%) on the left side. Seven cases (7.5%) were present in males and one case (2%) was found in females. The facets were generally oval, with MAPD and MTD of 12.28 and 17.17 mm respectively. A significant side variation was present with right sided facet being more common. The left sided facet was more transversely elongated than right. In males, the facets were more elongated antero-posteriorly than in females. Conclusion The Indian population showed an incidence of 5.6%, which was comparable to other ethnic groups in world population. The morphometric and side differences could be attributed to the occupational factors and range of movements associated with the CCJ. The CCJ should be borne in mind as a differential

  17. ESB Clinical Biomechanics Award 2008: Complete data of total knee replacement loading for level walking and stair climbing measured in vivo with a follow-up of 6-10 months.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, Bernd; Kutzner, Ines; Graichen, Friedmar; Bender, Alwina; Rohlmann, Antonius; Halder, Andreas M; Beier, Alexander; Bergmann, Georg

    2009-05-01

    Detailed information about the loading of the knee joint is required for various investigations in total knee replacement. Up to now, gait analysis plus analytical musculo-skeletal models were used to calculate the forces and moments acting in the knee joint. Currently, all experimental and numerical pre-clinical tests rely on these indirect measurements which have limitations. The validation of these methods requires in vivo data; therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide in vivo loading data of the knee joint. A custom-made telemetric tibial tray was used to measure the three forces and three moments acting in the implant. This prosthesis was implanted into two subjects and measurements were obtained for a follow-up of 6 and 10 months, respectively. Subjects performed level walking and going up and down stairs using a self-selected comfortable speed. The subjects' activities were captured simultaneously with the load data on a digital video tape. Customized software enabled the display of all information in one video sequence. The highest mean values of the peak load components from the two subjects were as follows: during level walking the forces were 276%BW (percent body weight) in axial direction, 21%BW (medio-lateral), and 29%BW (antero-posterior). The moments were 1.8%BW*m in the sagittal plane, 4.3%BW*m (frontal plane) and 1.0%BW*m (transversal plane). During stair climbing the axial force increased to 306%BW, while the shear forces changed only slightly. The sagittal plane moment increased to 2.4%BW*m, while the frontal and transversal plane moments decreased slightly. Stair descending produced the highest forces of 352%BW (axial), 35%BW (medio-lateral), and 36%BW (antero-posterior). The sagittal and frontal plane moments increased to 2.8%BW*m and 4.6%BW*m, respectively, while the transversal plane moment changed only slightly. Using the data obtained, mechanical simulators can be programmed according to realistic load profiles. Furthermore

  18. Morphology and distribution of taste papillae and oral denticles in the developing oropharyngeal cavity of the bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium punctatum

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Carla J. L.; Martin, Kyle J.; Fraser, Gareth J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gustation in sharks is not well understood, especially within species that ingest food items using suction. This study examines the morphological and immunohistochemical characterisation of taste papillae and oral denticles in the oropharynx of the brown-banded bamboo shark Chiloscyllium punctatum and compares their distribution during development. Taste papillae of C. punctatum are located throughout the oropharyngeal region and are most concentrated on the oral valves (2125-3483 per cm2 in embryos; 89-111 per cm2 in mature adults) close to the tooth territories. Papillae appearance is comparable at all stages of development, with the exception of the embryos (unhatched specimens), where no microvilli are present. Oral valve papillae are comparable in structure to Type I taste buds of teleost fishes, whereas those of the rest of the oropharyngeal region are comparable to Type II. Both types of papillae show immunofluorescence for a number of markers of taste buds, including β-Catenin and Sox2. Taste papillae densities are highest in embryos with 420-941 per cm2 compared to 8-29 per cm2 in mature adults. The total number of papillae remains around 1900 for all stages of development. However, the papillae increase in diameter from 72±1 μm (mean±s.e.m.) in embryos to 310±7 μm in mature individuals. Microvilli protrude in multiple patches at the apical tip of the papilla covering ∼0.5% of the papillar surface area. We further document the relationship between taste papillae and the closely associated oral denticles within the shark orophayngeal cavity. Oral denticles first break through the epithelium in the antero-central region of the dorsal oral cavity, shortly after the emergence of teeth, around time of hatching. Denticles are located throughout the oropharyngeal epithelium of both immature and mature stages, with the highest concentrations in the antero-dorsal oral cavity and the central regions of the pharynx. These denticle-rich areas of

  19. Predictability and Reliability of Different Anterio-Posterior Skeletal Discrepancy Indicators in Different Age Groups - A Cephalometric Study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Rana; Shyagali, Tarulatha R; Gupta, Abhishek; Joshi, Rishi; Tiwari, Anil; Sen, Priyank

    2016-09-01

    outcome of the present study revealed that, the MM-AB is highly reliable in the reproducibility and also highly valid parameter for checking antero-posterior discrepancies and ANB angle was least reliable for diagnosing the antero-posterior skeletal discrepancies.

  20. Predictability and Reliability of Different Anterio-Posterior Skeletal Discrepancy Indicators in Different Age Groups - A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rana; Gupta, Abhishek; Joshi, Rishi; Tiwari, Anil; Sen, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    adult group for the Wits and SN-AB parameter. Conclusion The final outcome of the present study revealed that, the MM–AB is highly reliable in the reproducibility and also highly valid parameter for checking antero-posterior discrepancies and ANB angle was least reliable for diagnosing the antero-posterior skeletal discrepancies. PMID:27790586

  1. The influence of functional orthodontics and mandibular sagittal split advancement osteotomy on dental and skeletal variables--a comparative cephalometric study.

    PubMed

    Lohrmann, Bettina; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Nägerl, Hans; Ihlow, Dankmar; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar

    2006-12-01

    Lateral head films of 200 Class II patients (106 females, 94 males) with a mean pre-treatment age range of 9.9-10.25 years successfully treated with functional orthodontics were analysed before (T1) and after (T2) treatment. The resulting data and findings were compared with lateral head films (T1, T2) of 20 patients (15 females, five males) with a mean pre-treatment age of 25.75 years whose Class II malocclusion and antero-posterior jaw discrepancy had been corrected by a mandibular sagittal split advancement osteotomy. The median and interquartile distances were calculated for every variable, at T1 and T2. The difference between the medians (T2-T1) was analysed using a signed rank test. The changes in scattering (T2-T1) were assessed by means of a F-test. Significant differences regarding the therapeutic influence on skeletal [ANB, Wits, Index, mandibular line-nasal line (ML-NL)], functional (beta', mu), and dental (1-NA degrees , 1-NB degrees ) variables were found. In the group initially treated with functional appliances in order to enhance mandibular prognathism, the antero-posterior (A-P) jaw discrepancy was reduced (ANB, Wits). The vertical skeletal pattern (Index) changed towards a more skeletal open relationship, whereas the ML-NL angle was reduced, which indicates a deepening of the bite. The comparison between biomechanical incisor position analysis (beta', mu) and dental variables (1-NA degrees , 1-NB degrees ) revealed different changes in incisor inclination depending on the type of analysis used. The findings for the dental variables (1-NA degrees , 1-NB degrees ) showed a protrusion of both upper and lower incisors after therapy. The results for the functional variables (beta', mu) showed a retrusion of the upper and a protrusion of the lower incisors. This change in incisor inclination is a dental compensation of the remaining sagittal jaw discrepancy. This effect is most clearly reflected by the functional analysis and the changes of the

  2. Analysis of prostate cancer localization toward improved diagnostic accuracy of transperineal prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshiro; Fukaya, Kaori; Haraoka, Masaki; Kitamura, Kosuke; Toyonaga, Yoichiro; Tanaka, Michio; Horie, Shigeo

    2014-09-01

    Delineating the precise localization of prostate cancer is important in improving the diagnostic accuracy of prostate biopsy. In Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, initial 12-core or repeat 16-core biopsies were performed using a transrectal ultrasound guided transperineal prostate biopsy method. We step-sectioned prostates from radical prostatectomy specimens at 5-mm intervals from the urethra to the urinary bladder and designated five regions: the (1) Apex, (2) Apex-Mid, (3) Mid, (4) Mid-Base, and (5) Base. We then mapped prostate cancer localization on eight zones around the urethra for each of those regions. Prostate cancer was detected in 93 cases of 121 cases (76.9%) in the Apex, in 115 cases (95.0%) in the Apex-Mid, in 101 cases (83.5%) in the Mid, in 71 cases (58.7%) in the Mid-Base, and in 23 cases (19.0%) in the Base. In 99.2% of all cases, prostate cancers were detected from the Apex to Mid regions. For this reason, transperineal prostate biopsies have routinely been prioritized in the Apex, Apex-Mid, and Mid regions, while the Base region of the prostate was considered to be of lesser importance. Our analyses of prostate cancer localization revealed a higher rate of cancer in the posterior portion of the Apex, antero-medial and postero-medial portion of the Apex-Mid and antero-medial and postero-lateral portion of the Mid. The transperineal prostate biopsies in our institute performed had a sensitivity of 70.9%, a specificity of 96.6%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 92.2% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 85.5%. The concordance of prostate cancer between prostatectomy specimens and biopsies is comparatively favorable. According to our study, the diagnostic accuracy of transperineal prostate biopsy can be improved in our institute by including the anterior portion of the Apex-Mid and Mid regions in the 12-core biopsy or 16-core biopsy, such that a 4-core biopsy of the anterior portion is included.

  3. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset

    PubMed Central

    Oades, Robert D; Wild-Wall, Nele; Juran, Stephanie A; Sachsse, Jan; Oknina, Ljubov B; Röpcke, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Background The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN) registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. Methods MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively). Results MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis), the right temporal locus extended more antero-laterally (illness progression), and the

  4. SU-E-J-39: Comparison of PTV Margins Determined by In-Room Stereoscopic Image Guidance and by On-Board Cone Beam Computed Tomography Technique for Brain Radiotherapy Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesh, T; Paul, S; Munshi, A; Sarkar, B; Krishnankutty, S; Sathya, J; George, S; Jassal, K; Roy, S; Mohanti, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Stereoscopic in room kV image guidance is a faster tool in daily monitoring of patient positioning. Our centre, for the first time in the world, has integrated such a solution from BrainLAB (ExacTrac) with Elekta's volumetric cone beam computed tomography (XVI). Using van Herk's formula, we compared the planning target volume (PTV) margins calculated by both these systems for patients treated with brain radiotherapy. Methods: For a total of 24 patients who received partial or whole brain radiotherapy, verification images were acquired for 524 treatment sessions by XVI and for 334 sessions by ExacTrac out of the total 547 sessions. Systematic and random errors were calculated in cranio-caudal, lateral and antero-posterior directions for both techniques. PTV margins were then determined using van Herk formula. Results: In the cranio-caudal direction, systematic error, random error and the calculated PTV margin were found to be 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.41 cm with XVI and 0.14 cm, 0.13 cm and 0.44 cm with ExacTrac. The corresponding values in lateral direction were 0.13 cm 0.1 cm and 0.4 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.42 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The same parameters for antero-posterior were for 0.1 cm, 0.11 cm and 0.34 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.16 cm and 0.43 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The margins estimated with the two imaging modalities were comparable within ± 1 mm limit. Conclusion: Verification of setup errors in the major axes by two independent imaging systems showed the results are comparable and within ± 1 mm. This implies that planar imaging based ExacTrac can yield equal accuracy in setup error determination as the time consuming volumetric imaging which is considered as the gold standard. Accordingly PTV margins estimated by this faster imaging technique can be confidently used in clinical setup.

  5. Congenital Esophageal Duplication Cyst: A Rare Cause of Dysphagia in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Sonthalia, Nikhil; Jain, Samit S; Surude, Ravindra G; Mohite, Ashok R; Rathi, Pravin M

    2016-10-01

    Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital embryonal gastrointestinal (GI) malformation which is diagnosed most commonly in childhood. In adults, they can present with a variety of symptoms ranging from dysphagia, chest pain, epigastric discomfort, and vomiting to more serious complications including infections, hemorrhage, and ulcerations. A 30-year-old male presented with gradually progressive dysphagia to solids for 4 months without significant weight loss. Clinical examination and routine laboratory examination were unrevealing. Upper GI endoscopy revealed a well-defined submucosal lesion bulging into the esophageal lumen involving the right antero-lateral wall of the distal esophagus. The overlying mucosa was normal with mild luminal narrowing but gastroscope could be negotiated across this narrowing. Differential diagnosis included lipoma, leiomyoma or GI stromal tumors. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of thorax revealed a 3.5 × 2.3 × 3 cm well-defined homogenous hypodense lesion involving the right antero-lateral wall of the distal thoracic esophagus with likely possibility of submucosal or intramural lesion. Subsequently, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed a 3.3 × 2.8 cm homogenous hypoechoic lesion without any vascularity involving the distal esophagus wall suggestive of duplication cyst. The lesion was intramural in location as muscularis propria was seen to go around the lesion. Bronchogenic cyst was excluded due to absence of cartilage and close proximity of the cyst to lumen. Fine-needle aspiration was not attempted in view of high risk of introducing infection. Being symptomatic, the patient underwent complete surgical excision of the cyst with exteriorization of the base which on histopathology confirmed duplication cyst. Esophageal duplication cysts are exceedingly rare congenital embryonal malformations with estimated prevalence of 0.0122% arising from aberration of posterior division of embryonic foregut at 3 - 4 weeks of

  6. The Wnt Frizzled Receptor MOM-5 Regulates the UNC-5 Netrin Receptor through Small GTPase-Dependent Signaling to Determine the Polarity of Migrating Cells.

    PubMed

    Levy-Strumpf, Naomi; Krizus, Meghan; Zheng, Hong; Brown, Louise; Culotti, Joseph G

    2015-08-01

    Wnt and Netrin signaling regulate diverse essential functions. Using a genetic approach combined with temporal gene expression analysis, we found a regulatory link between the Wnt receptor MOM-5/Frizzled and the UNC-6/Netrin receptor UNC-5. These two receptors play key roles in guiding cell and axon migrations, including the migration of the C. elegans Distal Tip Cells (DTCs). DTCs migrate post-embryonically in three sequential phases: in the first phase along the Antero-Posterior (A/P) axis, in the second, along the Dorso-Ventral (D/V) axis, and in the third, along the A/P axis. Loss of MOM-5/Frizzled function causes third phase A/P polarity reversals of the migrating DTCs. We show that an over-expression of UNC-5 causes similar DTC A/P polarity reversals and that unc-5 deficits markedly suppress the A/P polarity reversals caused by mutations in mom-5/frizzled. This implicates MOM-5/Frizzled as a negative regulator of unc-5. We provide further evidence that small GTPases mediate MOM-5's regulation of unc-5 such that one outcome of impaired function of small GTPases like CED-10/Rac and MIG-2/RhoG is an increase in unc-5 function. The work presented here demonstrates the existence of cross talk between components of the Netrin and Wnt signaling pathways and provides further insights into the way guidance signaling mechanisms are integrated to orchestrate directed cell migration.

  7. White matter predicts functional connectivity in premanifest Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    McColgan, Peter; Gregory, Sarah; Razi, Adeel; Seunarine, Kiran K; Gargouri, Fatma; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A C; Leavitt, Blair R; Scahill, Rachael I; Clark, Chris A; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Rees, Geraint; Coleman, A; Decolongon, J; Fan, M; Petkau, T; Jauffret, C; Justo, D; Lehericy, S; Nigaud, K; Valabrègue, R; Choonderbeek, A; Hart, E P T; Hensman Moss, D J; Crawford, H; Johnson, E; Papoutsi, M; Berna, C; Reilmann, R; Weber, N; Stout, J; Labuschagne, I; Landwehrmeyer, B; Orth, M; Johnson, H

    2017-02-01

    The distribution of pathology in neurodegenerative disease can be predicted by the organizational characteristics of white matter in healthy brains. However, we have very little evidence for the impact these pathological changes have on brain function. Understanding any such link between structure and function is critical for understanding how underlying brain pathology influences the progressive behavioral changes associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate such a link between structure and function in individuals with premanifest Huntington's. Using diffusion tractography and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize white matter organization and functional connectivity, we investigate whether characteristic patterns of white matter organization in the healthy human brain shape the changes in functional coupling between brain regions in premanifest Huntington's disease. We find changes in functional connectivity in premanifest Huntington's disease that link directly to underlying patterns of white matter organization in healthy brains. Specifically, brain areas with strong structural connectivity show decreases in functional connectivity in premanifest Huntington's disease relative to controls, while regions with weak structural connectivity show increases in functional connectivity. Furthermore, we identify a pattern of dissociation in the strongest functional connections between anterior and posterior brain regions such that anterior functional connectivity increases in strength in premanifest Huntington's disease, while posterior functional connectivity decreases. Our findings demonstrate that organizational principles of white matter underlie changes in functional connectivity in premanifest Huntington's disease. Furthermore, we demonstrate functional antero-posterior dissociation that is in keeping with the caudo-rostral gradient of striatal pathology in HD.

  8. Common mechanics of mode switching in locomotion of limbless and legged animals.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Shigeru; Kunita, Itsuki; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Ishiguro, Akio; Kobayashi, Ryo; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-06-06

    Crawling using muscular waves is observed in many species, including planaria, leeches, nemertea, aplysia, snails, chitons, earthworms and maggots. Contraction or extension waves propagate along the antero-posterior axis of the body as the crawler pushes the ground substratum backward. However, the observation that locomotory waves can be directed forward or backward has attracted much attention over the past hundred years. Legged organisms such as centipedes and millipedes exhibit parallel phenomena; leg tips form density waves that propagate backward or forward. Mechanical considerations reveal that leg-density waves play a similar role to locomotory waves in limbless species, and that locomotory waves are used by a mechanism common to both legged and limbless species to achieve crawling. Here, we report that both mode switching of the wave direction and friction control were achieved when backward motion was induced in the laboratory. We show that the many variations of switching in different animals can essentially be classified in two types according to mechanical considerations. We propose that during their evolution, limbless crawlers first moved in a manner similar to walking before legs were obtained. Therefore, legged crawlers might have learned the mechanical mode of movement involved in walking long before obtaining legs.

  9. Hox genes and evolution.

    PubMed

    Hrycaj, Steven M; Wellik, Deneen M

    2016-01-01

    Hox proteins are a deeply conserved group of transcription factors originally defined for their critical roles in governing segmental identity along the antero-posterior (AP) axis in Drosophila. Over the last 30 years, numerous data generated in evolutionarily diverse taxa have clearly shown that changes in the expression patterns of these genes are closely associated with the regionalization of the AP axis, suggesting that Hox genes have played a critical role in the evolution of novel body plans within Bilateria. Despite this deep functional conservation and the importance of these genes in AP patterning, key questions remain regarding many aspects of Hox biology. In this commentary, we highlight recent reports that have provided novel insight into the origins of the mammalian Hox cluster, the role of Hox genes in the generation of a limbless body plan, and a novel putative mechanism in which Hox genes may encode specificity along the AP axis. Although the data discussed here offer a fresh perspective, it is clear that there is still much to learn about Hox biology and the roles it has played in the evolution of the Bilaterian body plan.

  10. Upper airway structural changes induced by CPAP in OSAS patients: a study using drug-induced sleep endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Hoon; Koo, Soo Kweon; Choi, Jang Won; Moon, Ji Seung; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2017-01-01

    We studied upper airway structural changes induced by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients using drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). This prospective study was conducted at an academic secondary referral center. In total, 28 male OSAS patients (mean age 41.1 years) with only retropalatal level obstructions were enrolled. Measurements of the obstruction site were obtained in two steps: first a measurement was taken of the obstruction site in accordance with sleep apnea, then, a measurement was taken of the obstruction site in accordance with DISE-assisted CPAP titration, including quantitative changes in the occlusion site before and after CPAP in pixel format using an area calculation program. There was a tendency for persistent closing in cases of antero-posterior (AP) obstruction versus cases of lateral (Lat) obstruction in the CPAP titration. Lat obstructions showed a tendency to be wider than AP obstructions in the quantitative analysis. These results show that the pattern and degree of airway expansion after CPAP differ in accordance with the obstruction site.

  11. First Reported Cases of Biomechanically Adaptive Bone Modeling in Non-Avian Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Cubo, Jorge; Woodward, Holly; Wolff, Ewan; Horner, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Predator confrontation or predator evasion frequently produces bone fractures in potential prey in the wild. Although there are reports of healed bone injuries and pathologies in non-avian dinosaurs, no previously published instances of biomechanically adaptive bone modeling exist. Two tibiae from an ontogenetic sample of fifty specimens of the herbivorous dinosaur Maiasaura peeblesorum (Ornithopoda: Hadrosaurinae) exhibit exostoses. We show that these outgrowths are cases of biomechanically adaptive periosteal bone modeling resulting from overstrain on the tibia after a fibula fracture. Histological and biomechanical results are congruent with predictions derived from this hypothesis. Histologically, the outgrowths are constituted by radial fibrolamellar periosteal bone tissue formed at very high growth rates, as expected in a process of rapid strain equilibration response. These outgrowths show greater compactness at the periphery, where tensile and compressive biomechanical constraints are higher. Moreover, these outgrowths increase the maximum bending strength in the direction of the stresses derived from locomotion. They are located on the antero-lateral side of the tibia, as expected in a presumably bipedal one year old individual, and in the posterior position of the tibia, as expected in a presumably quadrupedal individual at least four years of age. These results reinforce myological evidence suggesting that Maiasaura underwent an ontogenetic shift from the primitive ornithischian bipedal condition when young to a derived quadrupedal posture when older. PMID:26153689

  12. Aging worsens the effects of sleep deprivation on postural control.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Rébecca; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly.

  13. Representations of pitch and slow modulation in auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Daphne; Plack, Christopher J.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Iterated ripple noise (IRN) is a type of pitch-evoking stimulus that is commonly used in neuroimaging studies of pitch processing. When contrasted with a spectrally matched Gaussian noise, it is known to produce a consistent response in a region of auditory cortex that includes an area antero-lateral to the primary auditory fields (lateral Heschl's gyrus). The IRN-related response has often been attributed to pitch, although recent evidence suggests that it is more likely driven by slowly varying spectro-temporal modulations not related to pitch. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study showed that both pitch-related temporal regularity and slow modulations elicited a significantly greater response than a baseline Gaussian noise in an area that has been pre-defined as pitch-responsive. The region was sensitive to both pitch salience and slow modulation salience. The responses to pitch and spectro-temporal modulations interacted in a saturating manner, suggesting that there may be an overlap in the populations of neurons coding these features. However, the interaction may have been influenced by the fact that the two pitch stimuli used (IRN and unresolved harmonic complexes) differed in terms of pitch salience. Finally, the results support previous findings suggesting that the cortical response to IRN is driven in part by slow modulations, not by pitch. PMID:24106464

  14. The vibrational mode of the tibia and assessment of bone union in experimental fracture healing using the impulse response method.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuchi, Y; Tsuchikane, A; Nomura, A

    1996-10-01

    This study attempts to clarify the use of the impulse response method in the assessment of fracture healing. The vibrational mode as well as the effect of simulated callus consolidation on the vibrational parameters of excised human tibia were studied. Two separate vibrations were found, one vibrating strongly in the lateral direction and the other vibrating weakly in the antero-posterior direction. The ability to identify the primary vibrational mode in the lateral direction would make the impulse response method suitable for use in clinical practice. The callus consolidation process was simulated by the sequential consolidation of an adhesive material in an experimentally produced fracture gap. The change in hardness of the epoxy was found to correlate well with the change of resonant frequency of the bone. The resonant frequency demonstrated a steady increase during the initial phase of consolidation of the adhesive, up to about 40% of its final hardness. With the addition of various constructs for fracture fixation to the in vitro model such as a plate, Ender's pins, a Russell-Taylor intramedullary nail, or an Orthofix external fixator, the relationship between the consolidation of the 'callus' and the change in resonant frequency of the bone was not disturbed.

  15. Role of the sensorimotor cortex in postural adjustments accompanying a conditioned paw lift in the standing cat.

    PubMed

    Birjukova, E V; Dufossé, M; Frolov, A A; Ioffé, M E; Massion, J

    1989-01-01

    The role of the sensorimotor cortex in the postural adjustments associated with conditioned paw lifting movements was investigated in the cat. Cats were trained to stand quietly on four strain gauge equipped platforms and to perform a lift-off movement with one forelimb when a conditioned tone was presented. The parameters recorded were the vertical forces exerted by the paws on each platform, the lateral and antero-posterior displacements of rods implanted on the T2, T12, L5 vertebrae as well as their rotation, and the EMG of triceps and biceps of both forelimbs. Before lesion, the postural adjustment consisted of a "non-diagonal" pattern where the CG was displaced laterally inside the triangle formed by the three remaining supporting limbs. Here a lateral bending of the thoracic column toward the supporting forelimb could be observed. The associated EMG pattern consisted of an early activation of the triceps lateral head in the moving limb which was probably responsible for the body displacement toward the opposite side, and a late biceps activation associated with the lift. In the supporting forelimb, a coactivation of the biceps and triceps was usually present. After contralateral sensorimotor lesion, the conditioned lifting movements were lost for 4-15 days after the lesion, before being subsequently recovered. The same lateral CG displacement and bending of the back was seen after lesion as before, which indicates that the goal of postural adjustment was preserved. However, the means of reaching it were modified.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Anatomical basis of neuropathies and damage to the ilioinguinal nerve during repairs of groin hernias. (about 100 dissections).

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, A; Diop, M; Ndoye, J M; Konaté, I; Ndiaye, A I; Mané, L; Nazarian, S; Dia, A

    2007-12-01

    Surgical access to the inguinal region, notably during hernia repairs, exposes the ilioinguinal nerve to the risk of damage at the origin of the neuralgia. The incidence of these post-operative neuropathies and their medicolegal consequences justify this study about the anatomical variations of the ilioinguinal nerve. With the aim of preventing its damage during repairs of groin hernias and identifying the factors of onset of chronic spontaneous neuropathy of the ilioinguinal nerve, we dissected 100 inguinal regions of 51 fresh adult corpses. The nerve was absent in seven cases and double in one case. Out of the 94 ilioinguinal nerves observed, we analyzed the path in relation to the inguinal ligament and the connections with the walls of the inguinal canal and its content. The ilioinguinal nerve travels along the superficial surface of the internal oblique muscle, passing on average 1.015 cm from the inguinal ligament. In one case, the fibers of the internal oblique muscle spanned it in several places. The nerve was antero-funicular in 78.72% of cases and perforated the fascia of the external oblique in 28.72% of cases. The terminal division took place in the inguinal canal in 86% of cases, with terminal branches that sometimes perforated the fascia of the external oblique. These results enabled us to better understand the etiopathogenic aspects of certain neuropathies of the groin and to propose techniques useful for the protection of the nerve during repairs of groin hernias.

  17. Dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic gait components assessed by instrumented timed up and go test in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dibilio, Valeria; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Mostile, Giovanni; Toscano, Simona; Luca, Antonina; Raciti, Loredana; Sciacca, Giorgia; Vasta, Rosario; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Contrafatto, Donatella; Zappia, Mario

    2017-10-10

    The timed up and go test (TUG) is a widely used clinical test for the evaluation of balance and mobility. An instrumented version of TUG (iTUG) has been proposed to provide quantitative information on TUG performances. Here, we hypothesized that L-dopa may differently influence gait parameters recorded by a portable inertial sensor. To test this idea, we evaluated iTUG test in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), both in L-dopa OFF and ON state. Twenty-eight PD patients performed the iTUG. Subjects were instructed to perform the task both in practical "OFF" and "ON" state. The system differentiated the test in six phases, recording phase durations, three-axial accelerations, average and peak angular speeds during turning. In all patients, sit-to-stand vertical and medio-lateral accelerations together with turning phase duration and angular speeds improved after L-dopa administration, while sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit phases antero-posterior accelerations were less responsive. In PD, L-dopa modulates iTUG in different ways, mostly improving the turning phases and less acting on postural controls during the sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit phases. Our results suggest different involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms on gait as assessed by iTUG. This is important for those aspects which are not improved by pharmacological therapy.

  18. Evaluating Alzheimer’s Disease Progression Using Rate of Regional Hippocampal Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Frankó, Edit; Joly, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neurofibrillary tangle and neuropil thread deposition, which ultimately results in neuronal loss. A large number of magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported a smaller hippocampus in AD patients as compared to healthy elderlies. Even though this difference is often interpreted as atrophy, it is only an indirect measurement. A more direct way of measuring the atrophy is to use repeated MRIs within the same individual. Even though several groups have used this appropriate approach, the pattern of hippocampal atrophy still remains unclear and difficult to relate to underlying pathophysiology. Here, in this longitudinal study, we aimed to map hippocampal atrophy rates in patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and elderly controls. Data consisted of two MRI scans for each subject. The symmetric deformation field between the first and the second MRI was computed and mapped onto the three-dimensional hippocampal surface. The pattern of atrophy rate was similar in all three groups, but the rate was significantly higher in patients with AD than in control subjects. We also found higher atrophy rates in progressive MCI patients as compared to stable MCI, particularly in the antero-lateral portion of the right hippocampus. Importantly, the regions showing the highest atrophy rate correspond to those that were described to have the highest burden of tau deposition. Our results show that local hippocampal atrophy rate is a reliable biomarker of disease stage and progression and could also be considered as a method to objectively evaluate treatment effects. PMID:23951142

  19. On the Evolutionary Biology of Elpidium Ostracods (Limnocytheridae, Timiriaseviinae): A Proposal for Pluridisciplinary Studies

    PubMed Central

    Danielopol, Dan L.; Pinto, Ricardo L.; Gross, Martin; Da Silva Pereira, Julia; Riedl, Nicoletta

    2017-01-01

    The present essay reviews the history of the research on Elpidium ostracods (Timiriaseviinae), a group exclusively known to live in micro-aquaria of phytotelmata from Neotropical bromeliaceans. A new species, E. martensi n. sp., is described and aspects dealing with functional morphology and taxonomy of the genus are presented. Related to these topics an evolutionary hypothesis and a programme of pluridisciplinary research are proposed. This should allow further improvement of our knowledge on the origin and evolution of the subfamily Timiriaseviinae, one of the most diverse cytheroid ostracod groups in inland waters since the beginning of the Mesozoic. Specifically, the following aspects are treated in-depth in the essay: (1) morphologic traits of the valves, useful for characterisation of Timiriaseviinae taxa; (2) the reversal of the valve overlap and hinge elements; (3) the diverse development of the posterior half of the female carapace, a quasi-independent morphological trait; (4) the morphological shapes of the male copulatory process; (5) the functional significance of the antero-ventral segment of the valve selvage for the life of Elpidium ostracods in the micro-aquaria of the bromeliaceans; (6) the necessary improvement of comparative descriptions of the limbs-chaetotaxy for Timiriaseviinae. PMID:28090173

  20. Evaluation of paediatric X-ray doses in Moroccan university hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nfaoui, Khadija; Bentayeb, Farida; El Basraoui, O; de Azevedo, Ana Cecilia Pedrosa

    2010-12-01

    This work evaluates the entrance skin dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) for chest X-ray exposures of paediatric patients. Two Moroccan university hospitals in Rabat, composed of two departments, and one in Casablanca with one paediatric compartment has been considered. For reasons of confidentiality, the departments are named A, B and C. Patients were divided into four age groups: 0-1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 y, so that the results could be compared with previous published data found in the literature. The results have been calculated with the use of the Dose Cal software. Results of mean ESD for the age interval 1-5 y and antero-posterior (AP) projection are: 162 µGy for hospital A, 91 µGy for hospital B and 105 µGy for hospital C. The diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) of 100 µGy for this age range is exceeded in hospital A, while in the other two hospitals results were within the DRL and comparable with the results found in Brazil, Soudan, Nigeria and other radiological centres inpean Countries. The results of BOD and E showed that for the three departments, the BOD varies in the same proportion as the ESD. The highest values are those of hospital A. For the PA examination, the dose is reduced compared with the AP projection, especially for sensitive organs.

  1. First Reported Cases of Biomechanically Adaptive Bone Modeling in Non-Avian Dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Jorge; Woodward, Holly; Wolff, Ewan; Horner, John R

    2015-01-01

    Predator confrontation or predator evasion frequently produces bone fractures in potential prey in the wild. Although there are reports of healed bone injuries and pathologies in non-avian dinosaurs, no previously published instances of biomechanically adaptive bone modeling exist. Two tibiae from an ontogenetic sample of fifty specimens of the herbivorous dinosaur Maiasaura peeblesorum (Ornithopoda: Hadrosaurinae) exhibit exostoses. We show that these outgrowths are cases of biomechanically adaptive periosteal bone modeling resulting from overstrain on the tibia after a fibula fracture. Histological and biomechanical results are congruent with predictions derived from this hypothesis. Histologically, the outgrowths are constituted by radial fibrolamellar periosteal bone tissue formed at very high growth rates, as expected in a process of rapid strain equilibration response. These outgrowths show greater compactness at the periphery, where tensile and compressive biomechanical constraints are higher. Moreover, these outgrowths increase the maximum bending strength in the direction of the stresses derived from locomotion. They are located on the antero-lateral side of the tibia, as expected in a presumably bipedal one year old individual, and in the posterior position of the tibia, as expected in a presumably quadrupedal individual at least four years of age. These results reinforce myological evidence suggesting that Maiasaura underwent an ontogenetic shift from the primitive ornithischian bipedal condition when young to a derived quadrupedal posture when older.

  2. Intra-articular hip viscosupplementation with synthetic hyaluronic acid for osteoarthritis: efficacy, safety and relation to pre-injection radiographs.

    PubMed

    Gaston, M S; Tiemessen, C H; Philips, J E

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of viscosupplementation with synthetic hyaluronic acid to the hip joint and to determine if there was any relation to pre-injection radiographic changes of osteoarthritis (OA). Three Suplasyn injections were performed each to 15 hips with OA. Standing antero-posterior radiographs of the pelvis were performed prior to injection and scored according to Kelgren and Lawrence grades along with recordings of the minimum joint space width. Harris Hip Scores (HHS) which contain a component for pain, function, activities, absence of deformity and range of motion were recorded pre-injection and at 3 and 6 months. We established that at 3 months the HHS is significantly higher (P < 0.05). At 6 months, four hips had been excluded as they has went on to total hip arthroplasty (these hips showed a lower HHS at 3 months). For the remaining hips the HHS was highly significantly increased (P < 0.001). No side effects or complications were observed. Analysis of the pre-injection radiographs showed a trend towards a bigger increase in HHS with less radiographic OA changes. Viscosupplementation performed under fluoroscopic guidance is an effective and safe method of treating hip OA and appears to be more efficacious in those with less radiographic changes of OA.

  3. The fetal vermis, pons and brainstem: normal longitudinal development as shown by dedicated neurosonography.

    PubMed

    Ginath, Shimon; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Haratz Krajden, Karina; Lev, Dorit; Cohen-Sacher, Bina; Bar, Jacob; Malinger, Gustavo

    2013-05-01

    To describe the normal appearance and the growth of the fetal vermis, pons and midline brainstem by ultrasound from 18 weeks of gestation to term in order to produce developmental nomograms. Serial ultrasound examinations of the fetal brain were performed in 21 fetuses between 18 and 39 weeks of gestation every two weeks. A total of 173 examinations were done, 8.2 ± 5.2 examinations per fetus. A mid-sagittal plain of the brain was obtained either by transvaginal or transabdominal sonography. Antero-posterior, cranio-caudal diameters, and surface area of the pons and the vermis were measured. The surface area of the brain stem was also measured. Nomograms were produced according to Royston and Wright. The pons, vermis and brain stem grow in a linear fashion throughout pregnancy. The growth pattern correlates well with gestational age, biparietal diameter, head circumference and the cerebellar transverse diameter. We have provided nomograms for assessment of the fetal brainstem. The present information supplies tools for the accurate identification of fetal mid-hindbrain anomalies providing a solid basis for a multidisciplinary approach, management and counseling of these conditions.

  4. Intraoperative technique to define the safe lateral limits of anterior cervical corpectomy: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Friess, Darin M; Yoo, Jung U

    2006-08-01

    We describe a surgical radiographic technique during anterior cervical corpectomy to define the safe lateral limit of dissection. To assess the radiographic technique accuracy using computed tomography (CT) measurements on cadaveric specimens. Two clinical cases are presented. During anterior cervical surgery loss of orientation can lead to eccentric decompression and vertebral artery injury. A two-level corpectomy on 4 cadaveric samples was filled with radioopaque dye. An "introperative" antero-posterior x-ray was used to measure the narrowest distance from dye column to uncovertebral joints. A CT scan confirmed the distance from corpectomy to vertebral arteries. The distance between the x-ray dye column and uncovertebral joints averaged 2.7 mm (range, 0 to 7+/-2.2 mm). A CT scan demonstrated the distance from corpectomy to vertebral artery averaged 4.5 mm (range, 0 to 10+/-4.4 mm). The measured distance underestimated the true distance by an average of 1.8 mm (range, 0 to 8+/-2.2 mm). An intraoperative radiographic technique can estimate the lateral distance between the corpectomy and vertebral arteries by measuring the distance from the dye column to uncovertebral joints. The dye radiographic technique provides the surgeon an additional margin of safety.

  5. The role of central vision in posture: Postural sway adaptations in Stargardt patients.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Valentina; Sbrollini, Agnese; Cavallini, Chanda; Busso, Alessandra; Pignata, Giulia; Knaflitz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The role of central and peripheral vision in the maintenance of upright stance is debated in literature. Stargardt disease causes visual deficits affecting the central field, but leaving unaltered a patient's peripheral vision. Hence, the study of this rare pathology gives the opportunity to selectively investigate the role of central vision in posture. Postural sway in quiet stance was analyzed in 10 Stargardt patients and 10 control subjects, in three different conditions: (1) eyes closed, (2) eyes open, gazing at a fixed target, and (3) eyes open, tracking a moving target. Stargardt patients outperformed controls in the condition with eyes closed, showing a reduced root mean square (RMS) of the medio-lateral COP displacement, while their performance was not significantly different from controls in the antero-posterior direction. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in open eyes conditions. These results suggest that Stargardt patients adapted to a different visual-somatosensory integration, relying less on vision, especially in the medio-lateral direction. Hence, the central vision seems to affect mostly the medio-lateral direction of postural sway. This finding supports the plausibility of the "functional sensitivity hypothesis", that assigns complementary roles to central and peripheral vision in the control of posture.

  6. Development of the maxillary sinus from birth to age 18. Postnatal growth pattern.

    PubMed

    Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska, Dorota; Kociemba, Wojciech; Rewekant, Artur; Sroka, Alicja; Jończyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Patelska-Banaszewska, Magdalena; Przystańska, Agnieszka

    2015-09-01

    Anatomical and developmental descriptions of the maxillary sinus may be of great clinical importance. An understanding of age-related changes in the dimensions and volume of the normal maxillary sinus may help in the evaluation of radiographs and identification of sinus abnormalities. The aim of the present study was to define growth patterns of maxillary sinuses in children up to the age of 18 years and evaluate the correlation between normal age-related changes in dimensions and volume. The research sample consisted of CT scans of 170 patients subdivided into 17 groups based on age. Normal developmental changes were investigated and linear dimensions measured. The maxillary sinus, present at birth, increases in size until the end of the 18th year. The growth pattern includes changes in vertical, horizontal and antero-posterior directions. No bilateral dimorphism was observed, but gender-related differences were found in children over the age of 8 years. The most extensive period of growth occurs during the first 8 years and by the end of the 16th year the maximal values of all diameters and volume are reached. A CT study of developing maxillary sinuses allowed a precise evaluation of age-related changes in all diameters and volume to be made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between function of masticatory muscle in mouse and properties of muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shinichi; Hiroki, Emi; Iwanuma, Osamu; Sakiyama, Koji; Shirakura, Yoshitaka; Hirose, Daiki; Shimoo, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Masashi; Ikari, Yasutoyo; Kikuchi, Ryusuke; Ide, Yoshinobu; Yoshinari, Masao

    2008-05-01

    Mammals exhibit marked morphological differences in the muscles surrounding the jaw bone due to differences in eating habits. Furthermore, the myofiber properties of the muscles differ with function. Since the muscles in the oral region have various functions such as eating, swallowing, and speech, it is believed that the functional role of each muscle differs. Therefore, to clarify the functional role of each masticatory muscle, the myofiber properties of the adult mouse masticatory muscles were investigated at the transcriptional level. Expression of MyHC-2b with a fast contraction rate and strong force was frequently noted in the temporal and masseter muscles. This suggests that the temporal and masseter muscles are closely involved in rapid antero-posterior masticatory movement, which is characteristic in mice. Furthermore, expression of MyHC-1 with a low contraction rate and weak continuous force was frequently detected in the lateral pterygoid muscle. This suggests that, in contrast to other masticatory muscles, mouse lateral pterygoid muscle is not involved in fast masticatory movement, but is involved in functions requiring continuous force such as retention of jaw position. This study revealed that muscles with different roles function comprehensively during complicated masticatory movement.

  8. A survey of musculoskeletal and aesthetic abnormalities after thoracotomy in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Agarwala, Sandeep; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Jayaswal, Arvind; Bhalla, Ashu Seith

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the incidence and type of musculoskeletal and aesthetic abnormalities after thoracotomy in children. Materials and Methods: Children below 12 years of age who had undergone thoracotomy for any condition and have at least 2 years follow up were included in the study. Detailed assessment of the patients included: history and general examination, clinical examination of chest and musculoskeletal system, X-ray chest including bilateral shoulders [antero-posterior (AP), lateral, oblique], X-ray whole spine (AP, lateral, right and left side bending AP view). Results: Fifty-two pateints were recruited. The incidences of various clinically and radiologically assessed musculoskeletal and aesthetic abnormalities observed were: winging of scapula (5.7%), ipsilateral elevation of shoulder (5.7%), fixation of skin cicatrix to bony thorax (7.7%), maldevelopment of pectoral muscles (11.5%), asymmetry of the level of nipples (1.9%), rib fusion (5.7%), crowding of ribs (9.6%), mediastinal shift (3.8%), decreased space available for lungs (3.8%), Scoliosis with Cobb's angle >100 (1.9%). Conclusions: The incidences of musculoskeletal and aesthetic abnormalities after posterolateral thoracotomies in children were low. Longer follow up of patients after thoracotomy is needed to pick up these abnormalities as the children grow. PMID:24347866

  9. Combinatorial activity of Flamingo proteins directs convergence and extension within the early zebrafish embryo via the planar cell polarity pathway.

    PubMed

    Formstone, Caroline J; Mason, Ivor

    2005-06-15

    The seven-transmembrane protocadherin, Flamingo, functions in a number of processes during Drosophila development, including planar cell polarity (PCP). To assess the role(s) of Flamingo1/Celsr1 (Fmi1) during vertebrate embryogenesis we have exploited the zebrafish system, identifying two Fmi1 orthologues (zFmi1a and zFmi1b) and employing morpholinos to induce mis-splicing of zebrafish fmi1 mRNAs, to both imitate mutations identified in Drosophila flamingo and generate novel aberrant Flamingo proteins. We demonstrate that in the zebrafish gastrula, Fmi1 proteins function in concert with each other and with the vertebrate PCP proteins, Wnt11 and Strabismus, to mediate convergence and extension during gastrulation, without altering early dorso-ventral patterning. We show that zebrafish Fmi1a promotes extension of the entire antero-posterior axis of the zebrafish gastrula including prechordal plate and ventral diencephalic precursors. However, while we show that control over axial extension is autonomous, we find that Fmi1a is not required within lateral cells undergoing dorsal convergence.

  10. Anatomical aspects of the lacrimal gland of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella).

    PubMed Central

    Veiga Neto, E R; Tamega, O J; Zorzetto, N L; Dall Pai, V

    1992-01-01

    In the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) the main lacrimal gland is composed of 2 distinct portions with an intraorbital and extraorbital localisation, interconnected by a bridge of glandular tissue which crosses the lateral orbital wall through the lateral orbital fissure located in the sphenozygomatic suture. The intraorbital lacrimal gland is flattened and extremely thin, with a variable outline. It lies on the upper and outer third of the globe of the eye, and the aponeurosis and the belly of the lateral rectus muscle, extending antero-posteriorly from the upper lateral angle of the orbit midway along the orbital cavity. The extraorbital lacrimal gland is compact, halfmoon-shaped, with 3 surfaces, 3 borders and 2 extremities. It lies in the temporal fossa between the temporalis muscle and the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone, fitting into a depression in this bone, and totally surrounded by adipose tissue. The secretory cells have a flocculent appearance and either low or high density. They possess a basal region containing the nucleus and rich in granular endoplasmic reticulum, and an apical region filled with secretory granules varying in size, form and density. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1452484

  11. Dynamic postural control and associated attentional demands in contemporary dancers versus non-dancers.

    PubMed

    Sirois-Leclerc, Geneviève; Remaud, Anthony; Bilodeau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Postural control is not a fully automatic process, but requires a certain level of attention, particularly as the difficulty of the postural task increases. This study aimed at testing whether experienced contemporary dancers, because of their specialized training involving the control of posture/balance, would present with a dual-task performance suggesting lesser attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control compared with non-dancers. Twenty dancers and 16 non-dancers performed a dynamic postural tracking task in both antero-posterior and side-to-side directions, while standing on a force platform. The postural task was performed, in turn, 1) as a stand-alone task, and concurrently with both 2) a simple reaction time task and 3) a choice reaction time task. Postural control performance was estimated through variables calculated from centre of pressure movements. Although no overall group difference was found in reaction time values, we found a better ability to control the side to side movements of the centre of pressure during the tracking task in dancers compared with non-dancers, which was dependent on the secondary task. This suggests that such increased ability is influenced by available attentional resources.

  12. Ultrastructural study of sperm cells in Acanthocolpidae: the case of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis (Digenea)

    PubMed Central

    Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J.S.; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A.; Bâ, Cheikh T.; Marchand, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The mature spermatozoa of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis are described by transmission electron microscopy. They present several ultrastructural features previously reported in other digeneans. Their spermatozoa possess two axonemes of different length showing the 9 + ‘1’ trepaxonematan pattern, four attachment zones, two mitochondria (with an anterior moniliform one in S. murielae), a nucleus, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. The main differences between the mature spermatozoon of S. murielae and S. tenuis are the maximum number of cortical microtubules, the morphology of the anterior spermatozoon extremity and the anterior mitochondrion. This study is the first concerning members of the family Acanthocolpidae. The main ultrastructural characteristics discussed are the morphology of the anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, antero-lateral electron dense material, external ornamentations, spine-like bodies and number and morphology of mitochondria. In addition, the phylogenetic significance of all these ultrastructural features is discussed and compared to molecular results in order to highlight the complex relationships in the Digenea. PMID:25699200

  13. Brain Regional and Cortical Laminar Effects of Selective D3 Agonists and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji-Kyung; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Chen, Y. Iris; Grundt, Peter; Sarkar, Susanta; Newman, Amy Hauck; Jenkins, Bruce G.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine receptors are divided into two families: D1 including D1 and D5 receptors and D2 including D2, D3 and D4 receptors. The role of dopamine D3 receptors in the brain remains controversial. We found that highly selective D3 antagonists induced positive cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes whereas D3 agonism using 7-OH-DPAT induced negative CBV changes in brain regions including nucleus accumbens, antero-medial striatum, cingulate cortex, thalamus, interpeduncular region and hypothalamus. There was pronounced activation in the hippocampus restricted to the subiculum – the output from the infralimbic cortex and dentate gyrus. At higher doses of D3 agonist, functional changes were differentiated across cortical lamina, with layer V–VI yielding positive CBV changes and layer IV yielding negative CBV changes. These results are consistent with differential D1 and D3 innervation in these layers respectively and provide evidence of D1–D3 receptor interactions. Further, the use of MRI provides a new tool for testing the in vivo selectivity of novel dopaminergic ligands where radiolabels are not available - as in the case of D3 receptors. PMID:20628733

  14. Additional branches of celiac trunk and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S R; Prabhu, Latha V; Krishnamurthy, A; Ganesh Kumar, C; Ramanathan, Lakshmi A; Acharya, Abhijith; Prasad Sinha, Abhishek

    2008-01-01

    The anatomical variations of the abdominal arteries are important due to its clinical significance. Various types of vascular anomalies are frequently found in human abdominal viscera, during cadaveric dissection and diagnostic radiological imaging. The present report describes a variation in the celiac trunk as found during routine dissection in a 59-year-old male cadaver. The celiac trunk (CT) was unusually lengthy and took origin from the left antero-lateral surface of the abdominal aorta. Altogether, there were five branches, including three classic branches of CT. The left phrenic artery (LPA) was the first branch of the CT. The remaining four branches were left gastric artery (LGA), splenic artery (SA), common hepatic artery (CHA) and gastroduodenal artery (GDA). There was an arterial loop between the posterior branches of the superior pancreatico-duodenal artery (SPDA), arising from the GDA, and the posterior branch of the inferior pancreatico-duodenal artery (IPDA), arising from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The arterial loop formed by the above arteries, supplied the head of the pancreas and duodeno-jejunal flexure. The embryological and clinical significance of above variations has been described.

  15. An influence of spontaneous spike rates on information transmission in a spherical bushy neuron model with stochastic ion channels.

    PubMed

    Arata, Hiroki; Mino, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an effect of spontaneous spike firing rates on information transmission of the spike trains in a spherical bushy neuron model of antero-ventral cochlear nuclei. In computer simulations, the synaptic current stimuli ascending from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) were modeled by a filtered inhomogeneous Poisson process modulated with sinusoidal functions, while the stochastic sodium and stochastic high- and low-threshold potassium channels were incorporated into a single compartment model of the soma in spherical bushy neurons. The information rates were estimated from the entropies of the inter-spike intervals of the spike trains to quantitatively evaluate information transmission in the spherical busy neuron model. The results show that the information rates increased, reached a maximum, and then decreased as the rate of spontaneous spikes from the ANFs increased, implying a resonance phenomenon dependent on the rate of spontaneous spikes from ANFs. In conclusion, this phenomenon similar to the stochastic resonance would be observed due to that spontaneous random spike firings coming from auditory nerves may act as an origin of fluctuation or noise, and these findings may play a key role in the design of better auditory prostheses.

  16. EMX2 protein in the developing mouse brain and olfactory area.

    PubMed

    Mallamaci, A; Iannone, R; Briata, P; Pintonello, L; Mercurio, S; Boncinelli, E; Corte, G

    1998-10-01

    The distribution of EMX2, the protein product of the homeobox gene Emx2, was analyzed in the developing mouse CNS by means of a polyclonal antibody we raised against it. The protein is present in the rostral brain, the olfactory area and a set of scattered cells lying between the nasal pits and the telencephalon. In the cortical neuroepithelium EMX2 is expressed all along the rostro-caudal axis in a graded distribution with a caudal-medial maximum and a rostral-lateral minimum. Anti-EMX2 immunoreactivity is also detectable in Cajal-Retzius cells as well as in apical dendrites of marginal neurons of the cortical plate. We also observe that the EMX2 and EMX1 homeoproteins display complementary expression patterns in olfactory bulbs and amygdaloid complex. Here, they demarcate different neuronal populations, involved in processing olfactory information coming from the vomero-nasal organ and from the main olfactory epithelium, respectively. EMX2 is also detectable in mesencephalic structures, such as the optic tectum and tegmentum. The graded distribution of EMX2 along antero-posterior and medial-lateral axes of the primitive cortex prefigures a role of this protein in the subdivision of the cortex in cytoarchitectonic regions and possibly functional areas, whereas its presence in Cajal-Retzius cells suggests a role in the process of cortical lamination.

  17. Identification of Potential Mediators of Retinotopic Mapping: A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Optic Nerve from WT and Phr1 Retinal Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Andrew R.; Lamb, Rachel R.; Chang, Julietta H.; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Rohrs, Henry W.; Malone, James P.; Wairkar, Yogesh P.; DiAntonio, Aaron; Townsend, R. Reid; Culican, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) transmit visual information topographically from the eye to the brain, creating a map of visual space in retino-recipient nuclei (retinotopy). This process is affected by retinal activity and by activity-independent molecular cues. Phr1, which encodes a presumed E3 ubiquitin ligase (PHR1), is required presynaptically for proper placement of RGC axons in the lateral geniculate nucleus and the superior colliculus, suggesting that increased levels of PHR1 target proteins may be instructive for retinotopic mapping of retinofugal projections. To identify potential target proteins, we conducted a proteomic analysis of optic nerve to identify differentially abundant proteins in the presence or absence of Phr1 in RGCs. 1D gel electrophoresis identified a specific band in controls that was absent in mutants. Targeted proteomic analysis of this band demonstrated the presence of PHR1. Additionally, we conducted an unbiased proteomic analysis that identified 30 proteins as being significantly different between the two genotypes. One of these, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNP-M), regulates antero-posterior patterning in invertebrates and can function as a cell surface adhesion receptor in vertebrates. Thus we have demonstrated that network analysis of quantitative proteomic data is a useful approach for hypothesis generation and for identifying biologically relevant targets in genetically altered biological models. PMID:22985349

  18. The Effect of Single-Leg Stance on Dancer and Control Group Static Balance.

    PubMed

    Kilroy, Elisabeth A; Crabtree, Olivia M; Crosby, Brittany; Parker, Amanda; Barfield, William R

    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic differences of static balance between female dancers (D) with at least seven years of dance experience and female non-dancers (ND) who were typical college students. Participants were tested in single-leg stance. Both the dominant leg (DL) and non-dominant leg (NDL) were tested with the participants shod (S) and barefoot (BF). Kinetic variables (vertical, medio-lateral [ML], antero-posterior [AP] maximum ground reaction forces (GRF), and center of pressure (COP) ML and AP) were measured by a Bertec force platform at 1000 Hz with participants S and BF. Each subject's stance was measured over 3 × 30-second intervals. No significant differences (p≥0.05) existed between groups for height, body mass, or age. Significant differences existed between groups for balance time, AP GRF in both BF and S conditions for both DL and NDL, and ML GRF in BF NDL and S DL and NDL conditions. D and ND in BF and S conditions with DL and NDL static stance demonstrate different AP and ML GRF when balancing over a 30-second time interval. Data may suggest that ND are more prone to lose their balance. Further investigation is warranted to understand whether individuals in the rehabilitative field and athletic populations can use dance therapy for injury prevention and rehabilitation.

  19. Establishment of the Detailed Breast Model of Chinese Adult Female and Application in External Radiation Protection.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Rui; Jiang, Chenxing; Ren, Li; Li, Chunyan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Junli

    2016-05-03

    Breast is one of the most sensitive organs to radiation. In 2007, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) increased the tissue weighting factor for the breast from 0.05 to 0.12, which made the accurate evaluation of breast dose more important. But in the existing human voxel phantom, the structure of breast is not elaborate enough because of the limitation of image resolution used for phantom modeling. This will probably affect the accuracy of breast dose calculated in simulation. Some researches on detailed breast modeling have been carried out, but there is no such research in this field in China. A detailed breast model for Chinese adult female is established in this article using the mathematical modeling method. It is voxelized and merged with the Chinese reference adult female voxel model for breast dosimetry. Dose conversion coefficients of breast gland for external photon exposures in antero-posterior geometry are calculated as an example of the application and the results are compared with those calculated by the old voxel phantom and ICRP reference adult female voxel phantom.

  20. Three new species of oribatid mites of the family Punctoribatidae (Acari, Oribatida) from alpine bogs of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Minor, Maria A

    2016-03-15

    Three new species of oribatid mites of the family Punctoribatidae (Acari, Oribatida) are described from alpine bogs of the Central Otago region in the South Island of New Zealand. Macrogena hexasetosa sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to M. brevisensilla Ermilov & Minor, 2015, however, it differs from the latter by larger body size, the presence of six pairs of genital setae, notogastral and ano-adanal setae of medium size, setiform rostral setae, narrower tutorial cusps, the absence of antero-ventral teeth on genua I, II and femora II, and by the absence of striae on the subcapitular mentum. Porallozetes badamdorji sp. nov. differs from the type species-P. dispar (Hammer, 1973)-by larger body length, the presence of interlamellar setae, short and clavate bothridial setae, anterior notogastral margin, notogastral setae of medium size, semi-oval dorsophragmata, and by the position of notogastral porose areas A2 posteriorly to A1. Safrobates gerdi sp. nov. differs from the type species-S. miniporus Mahunka, 1989-by larger body size, the presence of setiform rostral setae, and by notogastral setae of medium length. Porallozetes and Safrobates are recorded in New Zealand for the first time. Generic diagnoses for Macrogena, Porallozetes and Safrobates are given.

  1. Is it important to know the load mass in lifting tasks to prevent falls?

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Rui; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo; Carvalho, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Lifting objects without knowing its weight may result in postural imbalances and be a risk factor for falls. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the load knowledge in postural balance when lifting different weight loads. Thirteen male subjects (23.8 ± 3.1 years; 73.5 ± 7.8 kg; 179.1 ± 7.5 cm; foot length, 25.7 ± 1.2 cm) participated in the study. The effect of the weight overestimation on the postural stability was measured by the Index of Proximity to Stability Boundary (IPSB) and through the anterior-posterior and medio-lateral lengths displacements of the Center of Pressure (CoP). The results showed an increase in the IPSB when the 5 kg lifting task was performed with load knowledge. Moreover, the length of the antero-posterior and medio-lateral CoP displacement was reduced in the 5 kg lift with knowledge. Results showed that the lack of the loads' knowledge may lead to balance loss. Thus, when the preparation processes are not adequate, picking up similar objects with different loads may increase the risk of fall, mainly when a light weight is suddenly lifted up after a heavy one.

  2. Representation of Sound Objects within Early-Stage Auditory Areas: A Repetition Effect Study Using 7T fMRI.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Sandra; Bourquin, Nathalie M-P; Knebel, Jean-François; Saenz, Melissa; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Clarke, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sounds are highly complex stimuli whose recognition depends on the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes in the brain. Their semantic representations were shown to yield repetition suppression effects, i. e. a decrease in activity during exposure to a sound that is perceived as belonging to the same source as a preceding sound. Making use of the high spatial resolution of 7T fMRI we have investigated the representations of sound objects within early-stage auditory areas on the supratemporal plane. The primary auditory cortex was identified by means of tonotopic mapping and the non-primary areas by comparison with previous histological studies. Repeated presentations of different exemplars of the same sound source, as compared to the presentation of different sound sources, yielded significant repetition suppression effects within a subset of early-stage areas. This effect was found within the right hemisphere in primary areas A1 and R as well as two non-primary areas on the antero-medial part of the planum temporale, and within the left hemisphere in A1 and a non-primary area on the medial part of Heschl's gyrus. Thus, several, but not all early-stage auditory areas encode the meaning of environmental sounds.

  3. Variations in the anatomical dimensions of the mandibular ramus and the presence of third molars: its effect on the sagittal split ramus osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Beukes, J; Reyneke, J P; Becker, P J

    2013-03-01

    The authors undertook a prospective study to evaluate the influence that the anatomical dimensions of the ramus of the mandible and the presence of lower third molar teeth may have on the sagittal split ramus osteotomy. The anatomical dimensions measured included the width of the anterior mandibular ramus, the height of the corpus posterior to the second mandibular molar and the antero-posterior anatomical position of the lingual. The influence that these dimensions of the mandible may have on the successful splitting of the mandibular ramus was investigated. The effect that the presence of wisdom teeth had on the difficulty of the procedure was also investigated. This study found that, unlike the presence of third molars, there was no single anatomical measurement that contributed to the level of difficulty of the sagittal split osteotomy. For descriptive purposes the authors proposes a classification of the four typical patterns of unfavourable splits. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tolerance of Snakes to Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitivity of carotid blood flow to +Gz (head-to-tail) acceleration was studied in six species of snakes hypothesized to show varied adaptive cardiovascular responses to gravity. Blood flow in the proximal carotid artery was measured in 15 snakes before, during and following stepwise increments of +0.25Gz force produced on a 2.4 m diameter centrifuge. During centrifugation each snake was confined to a straight position within an individually- fitted acrylic tube with the head facing the center of rotation. We measured the centrifugal force at the tail of the snake in order to quantify the maximum intensity of force gradient promoting antero-posterior pooling of blood. Tolerance to increased gravity was quantified as the acceleration force at which carotid blood flow ceased. This parameter varied according to the gravitational adaptation of species defined by their ecology and behavior. At the extremes, carotid blood flow decreased in response to increasing gravity and approached zero near +1Gz in aquatic and ground-dwelling species, whereas in climbing species carotid flow was maintained at forces in excess of +2Gz. Surprisingly, tolerant (arboreal) species withstood hypergravic forces of +2 to +3 G. for periods up to 1 h without cessation of carotid blood flow or apparent loss of consciousness. Data suggest that relatively tight skin of the tolerant species provides a natural antigravity suit which is of prime importance in counteracting Gz stress on blood circulation.

  5. Effect of storage time of extended-pour and conventional alginate impressions on dimensional accuracy of casts.

    PubMed

    Rohanian, Ahmad; Ommati Shabestari, Ghasem; Zeighami, Somayeh; Samadi, Mohammad Javad; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2014-11-01

    Some manufacturers claim to have produced new irreversible hydro-colloids that are able to maintain their dimensional stability during storage. The present study evaluated the effect of storage time on dimensional stability of three alginates: Hydrogum 5, Tropicalgin and Alginoplast. In this experimental in-vitro trial, a total of 90 alginate impressions were made from a Dentoform model using Hydrogum 5, Tropicalgin and Alginoplast alginates. The impressions were stored in a sealed plastic bag without a damp paper towel for 0, 24, 48, 72 and 120 hours and then poured with type III dental stone. Cross-arch (facial of 6 to facial of 6 on the opposite side) and antero-posterior (distal of right first molar to the ipsilateral central incisor) measurements were made with a digital caliper on the casts. Data were analyzed by two-way and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (P<0.05). Alginate type and the pouring time significantly affected the dimensional stability of alginate impressions (both Ps<0.001). Pouring of Hydrogum 5 impressions can be delayed for up to 120 hours without significant dimensional changes. Alginoplast impressions may be poured after 72 hours, but Tropicalgin should be poured immediately and the storage time should not be more than 24 hours. Immediate pouring of alginate impressions provides the highest accuracy in reproducing the teeth and adjacent tissues; however, this study demonstrated that pouring may be delayed for up to five days using extended-pour (Hydrogum 5) alginates.

  6. [Memory processes and executive functioning: novel trends for research].

    PubMed

    Collette, Fabienne; Angel, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    The existence of processes common to memory systems and executive functioning was evidenced by studies in the domain of cerebral neuroimaging, individual differences (mainly in normal aging) and, to a lesser extent, neuropsychology. Executive functioning depends on a large antero-posterior brain network, some regions of which (the middle dorsolateral and ventrolateral cortex, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) are involved in a series of executive processes, but also in encoding and retrieval of information in episodic memory and short-term memory. A consequence of lesions in frontal areas is to impair strategical organization of the information to-be-processed (an executive process) and thus leads to a lower memory capacity in frontal patients. Moreover, executive abilities will influence both memory efficiency and the associated brain networks even in people without brain pathology. These data attest to the importance of the relationships between executive and memory processes for an optimal cognitive functioning. Recent advances in neuroimaging and electrophysiology data acquisition and analysis techniques should allow us to better determine and understand the fashion in which these relationships work. © Société de Biologie, 2016.

  7. Reproductive cycle of Tagelus plebeius (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G

    2012-08-01

    This study characterized the reproductive cycle of the stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius in the estuary of the Cachoeira River, Ilhéus, Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Samples of 20 animals per collection were taken biweekly from August 2005 to August 2006. The 480 specimens were measured on the antero-posterior axis (length) and then removed from the shell. After macroscopic analysis, the gonads were fixed in Davidson's solution, processed by routine histology and stained by Harris hematoxylin and eosin. The gonads of both males and females appeared milky white, without sexual dimorphism. Microscopic analyses indicated a M: F ratio of 1.06: 1 and continuous reproduction of T. plebeius in the region. The period from August to October showed the most intense spawning. This study provides another example of continuous reproduction of bivalves in tropical waters, and because this species is a heavily exploited fishery resource in the region, it draws attention to the need for a management plan aimed at reducing harvests.

  8. Analysis of factors that affect shoulder balance after correction surgery in scoliosis: a global analysis of all the curvature types.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae-Young; Suh, Seung-Woo; Modi, Hitesh N; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Park, Si-Young

    2013-06-01

    To identify factors that can affect postoperative shoulder balance in AIS. 89 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with six types of curvatures who underwent surgery were included in this study. Whole spine antero-posterior and lateral radiographs were obtained pre- and postoperatively. In radiograms, shape and changes in curvatures were analyzed. In addition, four shoulder parameters and coronal balance were analyzed in an effort to identify factors significantly related to postoperative shoulder balance. In general, all the four shoulder parameters (CHD, CA, CRID, RSH) were slightly increased at final follow up (t test, P < 0.05), although there was a decrease in Lenke type II and IV curvatures. However, pre- and postoperative shoulder parameters were not significantly different between each curvature types (ANOVA, P > 0.05). Moreover, no significant differences of pre- and postoperative shoulder level between different level of proximal fusion groups (ANOVA, P > 0.05) existed. In the analysis of coronal curvature changes, no difference was observed in every individual coronal curvatures between improved shoulder balance and aggravated groups (P > 0.05). However, the middle to distal curve change ratio was significantly lower in patients with aggravated shoulder balance (P < 0.05). In addition, patients with smaller preoperative shoulder imbalance showed the higher chance of aggravation after surgery with similar postoperative changes (P < 0.05). Significant relations were found between correction rate of middle, and distal curvature, and postoperative shoulder balance. In addition, preoperative shoulder level difference can be a determinant of postoperative shoulder balance.

  9. Reliability and validity study of measurements on digital photography to evaluate shoulder balance in idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Matamalas, Antonia; Bagó, Juan; D'Agata, Elisabetta; Pellisé, Ferran

    2014-01-01

    To determine the validity of digital photography as an evaluation method for shoulder balance (ShB) in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 80 patients were included (mean age 20.3 years; 85% women). We obtained a full x-ray of the vertebral column and front and back clinical photography for all patients. For antero-posterior x-rays we measured the proximal thoracic curve angles (CPT). To evaluate radiological shoulder balance we calculated the clavicle-rib intersection angle (CRIA) and T1-tilt. For clinical photography we measured shoulder height angle (SHA), axilla height angle (AHA) and the left right trapezium angle (LRTA). We analyzed the reliability of the different photographic measurements and the correlation between these and the radiological parameters. The mean magnitude of PTC, CRIA and T1-tilt were 19°, -0.6° and 1.4° respectively. Mean SHA from the front was -1.7°. All photographic measurements revealed an excellent-near perfect intra and inter-observer reliability in both photographic projections. No correlation was found between the ShB and the magnitude of the PTC. A statistically significant correlation was found between clinical balance of the shoulders and radiological balance (r between 0.37 and 0.51). Digital clinical photography appears to be a reliable method for objective clinical measurement of ShB. The correlation between clinical and radiological balance is statistically significant although moderate/weak.

  10. Sequential antagonism of early and late Wnt-signaling by zebrafish colgate promotes dorsal and anterior fates.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Roopa M; Henion, Paul D

    2004-03-01

    The establishment of the vertebrate body plan involves patterning of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm along the dorsoventral and antero-posterior axes. Interactions among numerous signaling molecules from several multigene families, including Wnts, have been implicated in regulating these processes. Here we provide evidence that the zebrafish colgate(b382) (col) mutation results in increased Wnt signaling that leads to defects in dorsal and anterior development. col mutants display early defects in dorsoventral patterning manifested by a decrease in the expression of dorsal shield-specific markers and ectopic expression of ventrolaterally expressed genes during gastrulation. In addition to these early patterning defects, col mutants display a striking regional posteriorization within the neuroectoderm, resulting in a reduction in anterior fates and an expansion of posterior fates within the forebrain and midbrain-hindbrain regions. We are able to correlate these phenotypes to the overactivation of Wnt signaling in col mutants. The early dorsal and anterior patterning phenotypes of the col mutant embryos are selectively rescued by inactivation of Wnt8 function by morpholino translational interference. In contrast, the regionalized neuroectoderm posterioriorization phenotype is selectively rescued by morpholino-mediated inactivation of Wnt8b. These results suggest that col-mediated antagonism of early and late Wnt-signaling activity during gastrulation is normally required sequentially for both early dorsoventral patterning and the specification and patterning of regional fates within the anterior neuroectoderm.

  11. Metamorphosis of cinctoblastula larvae (Homoscleromorpha, porifera).

    PubMed

    Ereskovsky, Alexander V; Tokina, Daria B; Bézac, Chantal; Boury-Esnault, Nicole

    2007-06-01

    The metamorphosis of the cinctoblastula of Homoscleromorpha is studied in five species belonging to three genera. The different steps of metamorphosis are similar in all species. The metamorphosis occurs by the invagination and involution of either the anterior epithelium or the posterior epithelium of the larva. During metamorphosis, morphogenetic polymorphism was observed, which has an individual character and does not depend on either external or species specific factors. In the rhagon, the development of the aquiferous system occurs only by epithelial morphogenesis and subsequent differentiation of cells. Mesohylar cells derive from flagellated cells after ingression. The formation of pinacoderm and choanoderm occurs by the differentiation of the larval flagellated epithelium. This is possibly due to the conservation of cell junctions in the external surface of the larval flagellated cells and of the basement membrane in their internal surface. The main difference in homoscleromorph metamorphosis compared with Demospongiae is the persistence of the flagellated epithelium throughout this process and even in the adult since exo- and endopinacoderm remain flagellated. The antero-posterior axis of the larva corresponds to the baso-apical axis of the adult in Homoscleromorpha.

  12. [Euclid and Pythagorus in the 21st century. A proposal on various harmonious craniofacial and occlusal constants].

    PubMed

    Blocquel, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the architectural relationships between different squeletal and dental pieces participating in the mastication, and to prove their fixity. We have at our disposition a collection of teleradiographies taken from profile on the same subject, over the course of several years; 3000 of them have been selected. With the help of tracings, where are drawn 36 degrees angles; or 72 degrees and 108 degrees; we systematize our locations. Together with our ten experimenters, we have noticed the existence of a parallelism between the graphic representations of the Bouvet occlusal plane, the sphenoïdal planum (sphenoïdale bone) and the course of the second trigeminal branch (trigeminus nerve) in its infra-orbital section. The angle of those different marks with the superior clivus (quadrilateral strip of the sphenoïd) (dorsum sellae) still measures 72 degrees. It is equal to 108 degrees with the graphic representation of the third antero-inferior pterygoïd process. (pterygoïdeus process). The angle between the superior clivus and the pterygoïd process still measures 36 degrees. These works are new contributions to the orthodontic, occlusodontic or prosthetic conceptions.

  13. A vertex specific dorsal selector Dve represses the ventral appendage identity in Drosophila head.

    PubMed

    Kiritooshi, Naruto; Yorimitsu, Takeshi; Shirai, Tetsuya; Puli, Oorvashi Roy; Singh, Amit; Nakagoshi, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    Developmental fields are subdivided into lineage-restricted cell populations, known as compartments. In the eye imaginal disc of Drosophila, dorso-ventral (DV) lineage restriction is the primary event, whereas antero-posterior compartment boundary is the first lineage restriction in other imaginal discs. The Iroquois complex (Iro-C) genes function as dorsal selectors and repress the default, ventral, identity in the eye-head primordium. In Iro-C mutant clones, change of the dorsal identity to default ventral fate leads to generation of ectopic DV boundary, which results in dorsal eye enlargement, and duplication of ventral appendages like antenna and maxillary palp. Similar phenotypes were observed in heads with defective proventriculus (dve) mutant clones. Here, we show that the homeobox gene dve is a downstream effector of Iro-C in the dorsal head capsule (vertex) specification and represses the ventral (antennal) identity. Two homeodomain proteins Distal-less (Dll) and Homothorax (Hth) are known to be determinants of the antennal identity. Ectopic antenna formation in heads with dve mutant clones was associated with ectopic Dll expression and endogenous Hth expression in the vertex region. Interestingly, dve Dll double mutant clones could also induce ectopic antennae lacking the distal structures, suggesting that the Dve activity is crucial for repressing inappropriate antenna-forming potential in the vertex region. Our results clearly indicate that not only the activation of effector genes to execute developmental program but also the repression of inappropriate program is crucial for establishment of the organ identity.

  14. Research of masticatory function using hemiplegia simulator equipment.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Ichiro; Uematsu, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Hemiplegic patients often exhibit a characteristic condition called Wernicke-Mann contracture. Therefore, the occlusal pattern in hemiplegic patients is considered to be adapted to stress because of this characteristic limb position. We created a sham Wernicke-Mann contracture in healthy individuals using hemiplegia simulator equipment and compared the functional occlusion in this position with that in the normal state to evaluate dynamic adaptive responses. Wernicke-Mann contracture was simulated using a device to create sham hemiplegia (Manabi-tai, Hemiplegia Experiencing Set; Tokushu-iryo, Inc.). In addition to the measurement of the occlusal force using Dental Prescale(®) and Occluzer(®), the occlusion was evaluated using an electromyogram and stabilometer. There was a significant difference in the occlusal force between the normal state and during simulated hemiplegia. The surface electromyo-potential of the masseter muscle showed significantly higher values during simulated hemiplegia. It is significantly higher during simulated hemiplegia than in the normal state on the paralysed side, but not for the normal state on the non-paralysed side. The position and velocity vectors changed in the antero-posterior direction in the normal state but in the lateral direction during simulated hemiplegia. The hemiplegia simulator equipment is useful for research on hemiplegia, and that the occlusal balance is disturbed in the posture characteristic of hemiplegia. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Lambdoid Synostosis Versus Positional Posterior Plagiocephaly, a Comparison of Skull Base and Shape of Calvarium Using Computed Tomography Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hurmerinta, Kirsti; Kiukkonen, Anu; Hukki, Jyri; Saarikko, Anne; Leikola, Junnu

    2015-09-01

    The differential diagnostics between the common positional posterior plagiocephaly and relatively rare lambdoid synostosis is important due to the differences in their treatment plan and clinical management. However, the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of lambdoid synostosis are not clear since there is a considerable overlap in the features of positional posterior plagiocephaly and unilateral lambdoid synostosis. To systematically evaluate the clinical findings in these 2 patient groups, we quantitatively compared the characteristics of endocranial skull base and ectocranial calvarium in 3D computed tomography, in 9 children (mean age 2.9 years) with unilateral lambdoid synostosis and 9 children with positional posterior plagiocephaly. The groups were sex and age matched. Our results show that the skull bases in the lambdoid synostosis are posteriorly shorter and more twisted than in positional posterior plagiocephaly. Anterior twisting was mild in both skull types. Our study confirmed earlier suggested diagnostic feature: prominent ipsilateral mastoidal bossing downward and laterally in all lambdoid skulls. In positional posterior plagiocephaly the bossing was typically not detected. Interestingly, there was a great variation in the position of the ipsilateral ear and external auditory meatus in both patient groups. Thus, neither antero-posterior nor vertical position of ear is a reliable differential diagnostic feature between lambdoid synostosis or positional posterior plagiocephaly.

  16. [Ultrasound in complex of radiological studies in diagnosis of ankle joint medial aspect pathologies].

    PubMed

    Gurgenidze, T; Mizandari, M

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the research is to study sonosemiotics of ankle joint pathology by means of ultrasound in order to optimize the diagnostic process and improve the treatment. 130 patients (age ranges from 5 to 70 years) underwent the radiological study of ankle joint medial aspect. Pathology types: degenerative-dystrophic diseases - 39 (30%), inflammatory pathology - 21 (16.2%), traumatic injuries - 20 (15.2%), vascular pathologies - 26 (20%), neurogenic problems -7 (5.4%), soft tissue neoplasms - 5 (3.8%), congenital anomalies - 7 (5.4%) and vertebral pathology - 5 (4.0%). The diagnostic studies include: a) Ultrasound, performed on digital ultrasound system using high frequency (7.5-12.0 MHz) linear probe with Doppler capability (all patients); b) X-Ray filming in antero-posterior and lateral projections (6 patients- 4.5%); c) MRI - T1 and T2 weighted images in saggital and transverse planes 10 patients (10.0%) and d) CT - 2 patients (1.5%); To 2 (1.5%) patient biopsy has been performed. This study showed that ultrasound was successful in ankle joint medial aspect pathology diagnosis in 108 cases (84.0%); It was ineffective in osseous pathology definition. In final diagnosis of impingment syndrom MRI was required in 4 (3.6%) cases. It is concluded that ultrasound should be used as a Gold Standard in diagnosis of localized pain and swelling in the ankle joint.

  17. Neuroimaging parameters in early open spina bifida detection. Further benefit in first trimester screening?

    PubMed

    Iliescu, D; Comănescu, A; Antsaklis, P; Tudorache, Stefania; Ghiluşi, Mirela; Comănescu, Violeta; Paulescu, Daniela; Ceauşu, Iuliana; Antsaklis, A; Novac, Liliana; Cernea, N

    2011-01-01

    Morphological investigation of the central nervous system (CNS) in fetuses with positive markers for open spina bifida (OSB) detection, visualized by ultrasound during the first trimester of pregnancy. Data from fetuses that underwent routine first trimester ultrasound scan in our center during September 2007-March 2011 and presented abnormal aspects of the fourth ventricle, also referred as intracranial translucency (IT), provided the morphological support to evaluate CNS features. A neuro-histological study of posterior cerebral fossa illustrated anatomical features of the structures involved in the sonographic first trimester detection of neural tube defects. Abnormal IT aspects were found in OSB cases examined in the first trimester, but also in other severe cerebral abnormalities. Brain stem antero-posterior diameter (BS) and brain stem to occipital bone (BSOB) ratio may be more specific for OSB detection. Correlations between histological aspects of posterior brain fossa and ultrasound standard assessment have been made; highlighting the anatomical features involved by the new techniques developed for OSB early detection. Preliminary results show that modern sonographic protocols are capable to detect abnormalities in the morphometry of the posterior brain. First trimester fourth ventricle abnormalities should be followed by careful CNS evaluation because are likely to appear in OSB affected fetuses, but also in other CNS severe anomalies; in such cases, normal BS and BSOB ratio may serve as indirect argument for spine integrity, if specificity is confirmed in large series of fetuses.

  18. Radiographic method to assess the prevalence of sacral spina bifida occulta.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, T L; Scutter, S D; Henneberg, M

    2007-03-01

    Spina bifida occulta of the sacrum is the most common type of spinal deformity. Many authors have published data on the frequency of spina bifida occulta, with varying results. Some possible reasons for this variability could include the differing methods used to gather data and differing ways of classifying the condition. This study attempts to develop an X-ray method to study sacral spina bifida occulta in a standardized fashion, using an angulated antero-posterior technique. This technique is then used to estimate the frequency of sacral spina bifida occulta in an Australian sample. The sacra of 53 cadavers were X-rayed and the level of closure of the sacral spinal canal recorded. The X-ray technique was validated by open dissection of six of the cadavers studied and was shown to be accurate to half a sacral segment. No sacra with a completely open sacral canal were found, two sacra (4%) were open from S2 down to S5 and ten sacra (19%) were open from S3 down to S5. The most common condition (43%) recorded was where S4 and S5 only were open. Eighteen cadavers (34%) showed only S5 open, and interestingly, no sacra were recorded as having the dorsal sacral arch completely closed. A study of a larger sample will follow using the validated X-ray technique.

  19. [Pneumothorax in multiple trauma. Radiologic and CT study].

    PubMed

    Borrè, A; Ferraris, M M; Iacono, C; Verna, V; Scala, A

    1992-10-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the necessity to perform chest Computerized Tomography (CT) in multiple traumatized patients to diagnose pleuropulmonary lesions and, particularly, pneumothorax: the correct identification of this condition, although minimal, is important especially in prevision of long anesthesias and/or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) therapy. This assisted respiratory technique improves arterial oxygenation but causes a barotrauma which may cause some complications; particularly, a small undetected pneumothorax can suddenly increase so as to cause pulmonary collapse with sometimes dramatic symptoms. Chest X-ray films and CT scans, performed in rapid succession on patient's admission in Emergency Ward, were compared in 21 subjects. CT is indispensable in case of severe chest parietal lesions which can mask the radiological evidence of pulmonary or pleural conditions, as it occurred in 3 of our cases. Moreover, CT resulted more reliable than chest X-rays (18 versus 10 correct diagnoses) especially in the detection of small antero-inferior pneumothorax flaps, in which direct radiological signs cannot be identified, in default of radio-geometrical assumptions. Indirect radiological signs of pneumothorax must be recognized but critically considered in order to avoid over-staging.

  20. The Wnt Frizzled Receptor MOM-5 Regulates the UNC-5 Netrin Receptor through Small GTPase-Dependent Signaling to Determine the Polarity of Migrating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Levy-Strumpf, Naomi; Krizus, Meghan; Zheng, Hong; Brown, Louise; Culotti, Joseph G.

    2015-01-01

    Wnt and Netrin signaling regulate diverse essential functions. Using a genetic approach combined with temporal gene expression analysis, we found a regulatory link between the Wnt receptor MOM-5/Frizzled and the UNC-6/Netrin receptor UNC-5. These two receptors play key roles in guiding cell and axon migrations, including the migration of the C. elegans Distal Tip Cells (DTCs). DTCs migrate post-embryonically in three sequential phases: in the first phase along the Antero-Posterior (A/P) axis, in the second, along the Dorso-Ventral (D/V) axis, and in the third, along the A/P axis. Loss of MOM-5/Frizzled function causes third phase A/P polarity reversals of the migrating DTCs. We show that an over-expression of UNC-5 causes similar DTC A/P polarity reversals and that unc-5 deficits markedly suppress the A/P polarity reversals caused by mutations in mom-5/frizzled. This implicates MOM-5/Frizzled as a negative regulator of unc-5. We provide further evidence that small GTPases mediate MOM-5’s regulation of unc-5 such that one outcome of impaired function of small GTPases like CED-10/Rac and MIG-2/RhoG is an increase in unc-5 function. The work presented here demonstrates the existence of cross talk between components of the Netrin and Wnt signaling pathways and provides further insights into the way guidance signaling mechanisms are integrated to orchestrate directed cell migration. PMID:26292279

  1. Subject Specific Finite Elasticity Simulations of the Pelvic Floor

    PubMed Central

    Noakes, Kimberley F.; Pullan, Andrew J.; Bissett, Ian P.; Cheng, Leo K.

    2008-01-01

    An anatomically realistic computational model of the pelvic floor and anal canal regions was used in this study to examine the mechanics of normal defecatory function within the female pelvic floor. This subject-specific, MRI-based model enabled mechanical simulations to be performed and quantitatively assessed against experimental data retrieved from the same volunteer. The levator ani muscle group mesh was used as the domain over which the governing equations of finite elasticity were solved using the finite element method with a Mooney-Rivlin material law. Deformation of the levator ani was simulated during a ‘bear down’ maneuver in order to visualize the way this muscle group functions in an asymptomatic subject. A pressure of 4 kPa was imposed on the mesh and the computed mesh displacements were compared to those obtained from dynamic MR images with an average, experimentally consistent, downwards displacement of 27.2 mm being achieved. The RMS error for this movement was 0.7 mm equating to a percentage error of 2.6% in the supero-inferior direction and 13.7 mm or 74.5% in the antero-posterior direction. PMID:18757058

  2. Attenuation of the evoked responses with repeated exposure to proprioceptive disturbances is muscle specific.

    PubMed

    Caudron, Sébastien; Langlois, Lucas; Nougier, Vincent; Guerraz, Michel

    2010-06-01

    In response to repetitive proprioceptive disturbances (vibration) applied to postural muscles, the evoked response has been shown to decrease in amplitude within the first few trials. The present experiment investigated whether this attenuation of the response to vibration stimulation (90Hz, 5s) was muscle specific or would be transferred to the antagonist muscles. Sixteen participants stood upright with eyes closed. One half of the participants practiced 15 tibialis vibrations followed by 15 calf vibrations (TIB-CALF order), while the other half practiced the opposite order (CALF-TIB order). Antero-posterior trunk displacements were measured at the level of C7 and centre of foot pressure (COP). EMG activity of the tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) was also measured. Results showed that evoked postural responses as well as EMG activity decreased with practice when vibration was applied to either calf or tibialis muscles. However, such attenuation of the response appeared muscle specific since it did not generalise when the same vibration stimulus was later applied onto the antagonist muscles.

  3. Hox control of Drosophila larval anatomy; The Alary and Thoracic Alary-Related Muscles.

    PubMed

    Bataillé, Laetitia; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Vincent, Alain

    2015-11-01

    The body plan of arthropods and vertebrates involves the formation of repetitive segments, which subsequently diversify to give rise to different body parts along the antero-posterior/rostro-caudal body axis. Anatomical variations between body segments are crucial for organ function and organismal fitness. Pioneering work in Drosophila has established that Hox transcription factors play key roles both in endowing initially identical segments with distinct identities and organogenesis. The focus of this review is on Alary Muscles (AMs) and the newly discovered Thoracic Alary-Related Muscles (TARMs). AMs and TARMs are thin muscles which together connect the circulatory system and different midgut regions to the exoskeleton, while intertwining with the respiratory tubular network. They were hypothesized to represent a new type of muscles with spring-like properties, maintaining internal organs in proper anatomical positions during larval locomotion. Both the morphology of TARMs relative to AMs, and morphogenesis of connected tissues is under Hox control, emphasizing the key role of Hox proteins in coordinating the anatomical development of the larva. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Representation of Sound Objects within Early-Stage Auditory Areas: A Repetition Effect Study Using 7T fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Sandra; Bourquin, Nathalie M.-P.; Knebel, Jean-François; Saenz, Melissa; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Clarke, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sounds are highly complex stimuli whose recognition depends on the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes in the brain. Their semantic representations were shown to yield repetition suppression effects, i. e. a decrease in activity during exposure to a sound that is perceived as belonging to the same source as a preceding sound. Making use of the high spatial resolution of 7T fMRI we have investigated the representations of sound objects within early-stage auditory areas on the supratemporal plane. The primary auditory cortex was identified by means of tonotopic mapping and the non-primary areas by comparison with previous histological studies. Repeated presentations of different exemplars of the same sound source, as compared to the presentation of different sound sources, yielded significant repetition suppression effects within a subset of early-stage areas. This effect was found within the right hemisphere in primary areas A1 and R as well as two non-primary areas on the antero-medial part of the planum temporale, and within the left hemisphere in A1 and a non-primary area on the medial part of Heschl’s gyrus. Thus, several, but not all early-stage auditory areas encode the meaning of environmental sounds. PMID:25938430

  5. AVE protein expression and visceral endoderm cell behavior during anterior-posterior axis formation in mouse embryos: Asymmetry in OTX2 and DKK1 expression.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Hideharu; Shioi, Go; Aizawa, Shinichi

    2015-06-15

    The initial landmark of anterior-posterior (A-P) axis formation in mouse embryos is the distal visceral endoderm, DVE, which expresses a series of anterior genes at embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5). Subsequently, DVE cells move to the future anterior region, generating anterior visceral endoderm (AVE). Questions remain regarding how the DVE is formed and how the direction of the movement is determined. This study compares the detailed expression patterns of OTX2, HHEX, CER1, LEFTY1 and DKK1 by immunohistology and live imaging at E4.5-E6.5. At E6.5, the AVE is subdivided into four domains: most anterior (OTX2, HHEX, CER1-low/DKK1-high), anterior (OTX2, HHEX, CER1-high/DKK1-low), main (OTX2, HHEX, CER1, LEFTY1-high) and antero-lateral and posterior (OTX2, HHEX-low). The study demonstrates how this pattern is established. AVE protein expression in the DVE occurs de novo at E5.25-E5.5. Neither HHEX, LEFTY1 nor CER1 expression is asymmetric. In contrast, OTX2 expression is tilted on the future posterior side with the DKK1 expression at its proximal domain; the DVE cells move in the opposite direction of the tilt.

  6. RNA:RNA interaction can enhance RNA localization in Drosophila oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hartswood, Eve; Brodie, Jim; Vendra, Georgia; Davis, Ilan; Finnegan, David J.

    2012-01-01

    RNA localization is a key mechanism for targeting proteins to particular subcellular domains. Sequences necessary and sufficient for localization have been identified, but little is known about factors that affect its kinetics. Transcripts of gurken and the I factor, a non-LTR retrotransposon, colocalize at the nucleus in the dorso–antero corner of the Drosophila oocyte directed by localization signals, the GLS and ILS. I factor RNA localizes faster than gurken after injection into oocytes, due to a difference in the intrinsic localization ability of the GLS and ILS. The kinetics of localization of RNA containing the ILS are enhanced by the presence of a stem–loop, the A loop. This acts as an RNA:RNA interaction element in vivo and in vitro, and stimulates localization of RNA containing other localization signals. RNA:RNA interaction may be a general mechanism for modulating RNA localization and could allow an mRNA that lacks a localization signal to hitchhike on another RNA that has one. PMID:22345148

  7. Rib fracture: Different radiographic projections

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Abed-Al Nasser; Nazal, Yasser

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Rib fracture is the most common thoracic injury. It is thought to be present in 10% of all traumatic injuries and in almost 40% of patients who sustained severe non-penetrating trauma. There are 12 pairs of ribs. This study reviews various methods of acquisition and reconstruction of radiographic images of traumatic rib fractures in order to determine the optimal views and to simplify rib fracture diagnostics. Material/Methods: Eight different plain radiography pictures of ribs were performed with the patient in an erect position. The following projections were obtained in sequence: oblique at 45° or 30° angle on inspiration, oblique at 45° or 30° angle on expiration as well as 45° and 39° projections during slow and fast breathing. All radiographic examinations were performed using a Philips three-phase scanner installed at the Al- Razi Hospital in Jenin, Palestine. Results: The results demonstrate that the 45° antero-posterior oblique projection performed on expiration is recommended for diagnostics and interpretation of traumatic rib fractures. Conclusions: Conclusion emerging from this study are such that for a 45° oblique view on expiration is recommended for radiographic imaging of patients with clinical signs of fracture, e.g. evaluation of lower rib fractures, while 45° oblique view during fast breathing is recommended for suspected upper rib fractures. PMID:23269931

  8. Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery via right minithoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Glauber, Mattia; Karimov, Jamshid H; Farneti, Pier Andrea; Cerillo, Alfredo Giuseppe; Santarelli, Filippo; Ferrarini, Matteo; Del Sarto, Paolo; Murzi, Michele; Solinas, Marco

    2009-01-01

    From early experience in cardiac surgery on the mitral valve, access was gained in different ways: through left and right antero-lateral extended thoracotomy for closed and correspondingly for open mitral commissurotomy, from right parasternal access with rib resection, and via median sternotomy. Median sternotomy remains the most common approach for mitral valve procedures, such as replacement or repair, allowing good visualisation, exposure and working field. Applying the largely spread access as median sternotomy, surgeons always wanted to overcome the necessity of large incisions, get a better surgical view, to dissect with better respect to structural integrity and have better aesthetic results. Enhanced understanding of surgical bases and technological development sourced a breakthrough in minimally-invasive approach for mitral valve surgery, offering several advantages such as less postoperative pain, lower morbidity and mortality, faster recovery and shorter hospital stay. In an effort to share the institutional experience in less invasive surgery, this article demonstrates our approach in mitral valve repair through a right minithoracotomy in the 3rd or 4th intercostal space.

  9. Gait alterations can reduce the risk of edge loading.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Mariska; Meyer, Christophe; De Groote, Friedl; Corten, Kristoff; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Desloovere, Kaat; Jonkers, Ilse

    2016-06-01

    Following metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty, edge loading (i.e., loading near the edge of a prosthesis cup) can increase wear and lead to early revision. The position and coverage angle of the prosthesis cup influence the risk of edge loading. This study investigates the effect of altered gait patterns, more specific hip, and pelvis kinematics, on the orientation of hip contact force and the consequent risk of antero-superior edge loading using muscle driven simulations of gait. With a cup orientation of 25° anteversion and 50° inclination and a coverage angle of 168°, many gait patterns presented risk of edge loading. Specifically at terminal double support, 189 out of 405 gait patterns indicated a risk of edge loading. At this time instant, the high hip contact forces and the proximity of the hip contact force to the edge of the cup indicated the likelihood of the occurrence of edge loading. Although the cup position contributed most to edge loading, altering kinematics considerably influenced the risk of edge loading. Increased hip abduction, resulting in decreasing hip contact force magnitude, and decreased hip extension, resulting in decreased risk on edge loading, are gait strategies that could prevent edge loading. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1069-1076, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The infrarenal aortic diameter in relation to age: only part of the population in older age groups shows an increase.

    PubMed

    Wilmink, A B; Pleumeekers, H J; Hoes, A W; Hubbard, C S; Grobbee, D E; Quick, C R

    1998-11-01

    To resolve whether the infrarenal aortic diameter (IAD) continues to increase throughout life; to ascertain the relationship between IAD and age, sex, body size, and smoking status, and to determine whether these factors influence the IAD over the entire range of aortic diameters or only in a proportion. Combined cross-sectional data from two population-based screening programmes for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in Huntingdon (U.K.) and Rotterdam (The Netherlands). The antero-posterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta was measured. The influences of age, gender, body size and smoking status were examined. Data were analysed from 3066 women and 8270 men. In men, mean IAD rose from 20.7 mm to 23.5 mm in the older age groups. However, IADs remained constant below the 75th perentile in men and the 85th percentile in women. Similarly only the top 15-25% of the aortic diameters were larger in smokers compared with non-smokers. The aortic diameter increased with age in only a minority of the population. Furthermore, known risk factors for AAA contributed to aortic dilatation in only the upper tail of the frequency distribution. Thus only 25% of men and 15% of women may be prone to aortic dilatation.

  11. Clinical and pathophysiological clues of respiratory dysfunction in late-onset Pompe disease: New insights from a comparative study by MRI and respiratory function assessment.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Michele; Musumeci, Olimpia; Mondello, Stefania; Ruggeri, Paolo; Montagnese, Federica; Cucinotta, Maria; Vinci, Sergio; Milardi, Demetrio; Toscano, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory insufficiency commonly develops in patients with Late Onset Pompe Disease (LOPD). It is conceivable that a timely starting of enzyme replacement therapy could avoid this life-threatening complication. Respiratory function in LOPD is commonly evaluated with standard pulmonary tests which do not extensively provide an accurate definition of the muscular pathophysiology. In eleven patients with LOPD and five healthy subjects, we compared pulmonary function results with MRI data, based on scans of the right lung acquired on maximum expiration and inspiration. We observed that variations in the cranio-caudal lung height and of lung areas in inspiration and expiration (lung delta) as well as the area of diaphragmatic movement strongly correlated with pulmonary function results. Moreover, MRI data confirmed that development of respiratory insufficiency in LOPD is mainly due to the diaphragmatic weakness with sparing of the antero-posterior chest expansion related to the activity of the intercostal muscles. These results suggest that respiratory muscle MRI is a quick, useful and reproducible tool for patient management as well as a reliable outcome measure for future LOPD therapeutic trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. From stress and strain to spikes: mechanotransduction in spider slit sensilla.

    PubMed

    French, Andrew S; Torkkeli, Päivi H; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2002-11-01

    This review focuses on the structure and function of a single mechanoreceptor organ in the cuticle of spiders. Knowledge emerging from the study of this organ promises to yield general principles that can be applied to mechanosensation in a wide range of animal systems. The lyriform slit sense organ on the antero-lateral leg patella of the spider Cupiennius salei is unusual in possessing large sensory neurons, whose cell bodies are close to the sites of sensory transduction, and accessible to intracellular recording during mechanotransduction. This situation, combined with recent technical developments, has made it possible to observe and experiment with all the major stages of mechanosensation. Important findings include the approximate size, number and ionic selectivity of the ion channels responsible for mechanotransduction, the types of voltage-activated ion channels responsible for action potential encoding, and the mechanisms controlling the dynamic properties of transduction and encoding. Most recently, a complex efferent system for peripheral modulation of mechanosensation has been discovered and partially characterized. Much remains to be learned about mechanosensation, but the lyriform slit sense organ system continues to offer important opportunities to advance our understanding of this crucial sense.

  13. [Pseudopolyneuritic symptoms with a medullary origin as the presenting symptom of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Pascual-Lozano, A M; Coret-Ferrer, F; Casanova-Estruch, B

    Myelopathy is, frequently, the first manifestation of a multiple sclerosis (MS), being the acute transverse mielitis, partial or incomplete, the habitual clinical syndrome. Other sensitive symptoms with an origin in the spinal cord as 'steroanesthesia', 'pseudo-athetosis' or 'pseudo-radiculopathy' have been described as unusual form of presentation in MS, but not the 'pseudo-polyneuropathy', perhaps in relation with its rapid progression in an acute transverse mielitis or other sensory pattern. We presented two patients with a 'pseudo-polyneuropathy' pattern as the first manifestation of MS. In the two cases magnetic resonance imaging showed a cervical lesion of spinal cord with a probably inflammatory origin and other similar lesions in the brain. Neurophysiological studies were normal. We think that the 'pseudo-polyneuropathy' could be caused by an antero-lateral demyelinating process in the cervical spinal cord, with affectation of the anterior comissure and the ventral portion of lateral spinothalamic pathway. The 'pseudo-polyneuropathic' syndrome is uncommon form of presentation of MS in young people. We may be capable of recognize the 'pseudo-polyneuropathy' with spinal origin and early choose the appropriate complementary examinations for a correct diagnosis and therapy.

  14. [Strategies for simultaneous control of the equilibrium and of the head position during the raising movement of a leg].

    PubMed

    Mouchnino, L; Aurenty, R; Massion, J; Pedotti, A

    1991-01-01

    The coordination between equilibrium control and the ability to maintain the position of given segments (head, trunk) was studied in standing subjects, instructed to raise one leg laterally at an angle of 45 degrees in response to a light. Two sources of light placed at eye level indicated the side on which the movement was to be performed. Two populations were compared: naive subjects and dancers. Two control strategies were identified. An "inclination" strategy was used by the naive subjects. This consisted of an external rotation of the body around the antero-posterior ankle joint axis; a counter-rotation of the head with respect to the trunk was observed, which ensured some stabilization in the horizontal plane of the interorbital line. A "translation" strategy was used by the dancers. Here the external rotation of the leg around the ankle joint was associated with a feed-forward counter-rotation of the trunk around the coxofemoral joint so that the horizontality of the interorbital line and the verticality of the trunk axis were maintained. This new coordination results from a long-term training and indicates that a new motor program has been elaborated.

  15. A new species of Apolochus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Amphilochidae) in Maryland coastal bays, USA with notes on its abundance and distribution.

    PubMed

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G; Chigbu, Paulinus

    2016-01-01

    A new amphilochid amphipod, Apolochus cresti sp. n. is described from specimens collected in the shallow waters of Maryland coastal bays, Mid-Atlantic region, at depths from 1.7 to 2.1 m. The new species appears to be most closely related to the northeastern Atlantic species, Apolochus neapolitanus sensu Krapp-Schickel, 1982. Apolochus cresti sp. n. can be distinguished from Apolochus neapolitanus by a combination of characters, including the shape of the lateral cephalic lobe, shape of the mandible molar process, relative length of mandible palp article 3, the carpal lobe length of gnathopod 2, and the lack of sub-marginal spines on antero-lateral surface of gnathopod 2. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between the abundance of Apolochus cresti and the amount of macroalgae collected per station, bay, and month. Ovigerous females carrying eggs were present from March to May and in October, reaching their peak in May, although only ovigerous females carrying juveniles were found in May. Males were abundant in March and were collected also in May and October. A key for the separation of Apolochus species is presented.

  16. Initiation of a vertical jump: the human body's upward propulsion depends on control of forward equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Le Pellec, Armande; Maton, Bernard

    2002-05-03

    The aim of the study was to understand: (i), how far anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) participate in the sequences of a complex task; (ii), how, in the sagittal plane, horizontal and vertical progressions of the center of gravity (CG) are managed to achieve the prescribed goal. A posturo-kinetics sequence is identified during which forward CG progression is controlled in terms of a center of pressure (CP)-CG interaction. CP shifts and horizontal CG accelerations are correlated in timing and amplitude. There exists a control of whole body progression during the impulse, implying a braking of forwards movement. Vertical and horizontal CG accelerations are inter-dependent, and backward CP shift duration is related to its forward displacement. During the vertical jump initiation, whole body vertical propulsion and forward fall are linked. To increase impulse amplitude, initial whole body disequilibrium is lengthened and forward CG acceleration is greater. APA programming is probably elaborated on the basis of cognitive evaluation of the antero-posterior disturbance.

  17. A scanning electron-microscopic study of the local degeneration of cilia during sexual reproduction in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T

    1978-08-01

    The location and extent of local degeneration of cilia during sexual reproduction of Paramecium was studied using scanning electron microscopy to examine cells undergoing conjugation and autogamy. At some time during the mating reaction, but prior to conjugant pair formation, ciliary degeneration begins at the antero-ventral tip of cells and proceeds posteriorly along the suture. In the anterior part of the cell, degeneration occurs on both sides of the suture, but in the posterior part it is restricted to the right side of the suture. In 5 species of Paramecium examined, degeneration occurred in nearly the same region. No degeneration of cilia is observed in natural autogamy of P. tetraurelia, whereas in chemically induced autogamy of P. caudatum degeneration occurs as in ordinary conjugation. Conjugant pairs never expose any deciliated cell surface except at the postero-ventral tip. The maximum extent of ciliary degeneration is best seen in the chemically induced autogamous cells: 7 kinetics (rows of unit teritories) at the anterior-left, 4 kinetics at the anterior-right, 10 or more kinetics at the posterior-right and the right wall of the vestibule of the mouth. Before complete disappearance of the cilia, many short cilia are observed. This suggests that ciliary degeneration is due to resorption. Degeneration extends more rapidly in cells with stronger mating reactivity. The relations between mating reactivity, ciliary degeneration and nuclear activation are discussed.

  18. Uncertainty quantification for personalized analyses of human proximal femurs.

    PubMed

    Wille, Hagen; Ruess, Martin; Rank, Ernst; Yosibash, Zohar

    2016-02-29

    Computational models for the personalized analysis of human femurs contain uncertainties in bone material properties and loads, which affect the simulation results. To quantify the influence we developed a probabilistic framework based on polynomial chaos (PC) that propagates stochastic input variables through any computational model. We considered a stochastic E-ρ relationship and a stochastic hip contact force, representing realistic variability of experimental data. Their influence on the prediction of principal strains (ϵ1 and ϵ3) was quantified for one human proximal femur, including sensitivity and reliability analysis. Large variabilities in the principal strain predictions were found in the cortical shell of the femoral neck, with coefficients of variation of ≈40%. Between 60 and 80% of the variance in ϵ1 and ϵ3 are attributable to the uncertainty in the E-ρ relationship, while ≈10% are caused by the load magnitude and 5-30% by the load direction. Principal strain directions were unaffected by material and loading uncertainties. The antero-superior and medial inferior sides of the neck exhibited the largest probabilities for tensile and compression failure, however all were very small (pf<0.001). In summary, uncertainty quantification with PC has been demonstrated to efficiently and accurately describe the influence of very different stochastic inputs, which increases the credibility and explanatory power of personalized analyses of human proximal femurs.

  19. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E.; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A.; Madrigal, M. Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral (BL) domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the BL domain and demonstrated that the development of the BL domain highly depends on Shh. PMID:25741244

  20. Identification of Multiple Subsets of Ventral Interneurons and Differential Distribution along the Rostrocaudal Axis of the Developing Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Francius, Cédric; Harris, Audrey; Rucchin, Vincent; Hendricks, Timothy J.; Stam, Floor J.; Barber, Melissa; Kurek, Dorota; Grosveld, Frank G.; Pierani, Alessandra; Goulding, Martyn; Clotman, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The spinal cord contains neuronal circuits termed Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) that coordinate rhythmic motor activities. CPG circuits consist of motor neurons and multiple interneuron cell types, many of which are derived from four distinct cardinal classes of ventral interneurons, called V0, V1, V2 and V3. While significant progress has been made on elucidating the molecular and genetic mechanisms that control ventral interneuron differentiation, little is known about their distribution along the antero-posterior axis of the spinal cord and their diversification. Here, we report that V0, V1 and V2 interneurons exhibit distinct organizational patterns at brachial, thoracic and lumbar levels of the developing spinal cord. In addition, we demonstrate that each cardinal class of ventral interneurons can be subdivided into several subsets according to the combinatorial expression of different sets of transcription factors, and that these subsets are differentially distributed along the rostrocaudal axis of the spinal cord. This comprehensive molecular profiling of ventral interneurons provides an important resource for investigating neuronal diversification in the developing spinal cord and for understanding the contribution of specific interneuron subsets on CPG circuits and motor control. PMID:23967072

  1. Orientatractis moraveci n. sp. and Rondonia rondoni Travassos, 1920 (Nematoda: Atractidae), parasites of Pimelodus blochii (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae) from the Acre and Xapuri Rivers, Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Pedro H O; Silva, Maralina T; Santos, Everton G N; Chagas-Moutinho, Vanessa A; Santos, Claudia P

    2017-02-01

    The fish fauna in the State of Acre represents 10·7% of all fish species recorded from Brazil, but, despite this, there are few fish parasite studies in this area. The recent expansion of fish farming in Acre prompted a need for helminthological studies of the most commonly consumed fish species in the area, Pimelodus blochii (Pimelodidae). The aim of this study was to analyse the helminth fauna of P. blochii from the Acre and Xapuri Rivers in Northwestern Brazil. Numerous nematodes were collected from the intestine and two species of the family Atractidae were identified: Rondonia rondoni Travassos, 1920 and Orientatractis moraveci n. sp. The new species is distinguished from its congeners mainly by having: 10 pairs of caudal papillae (3 pairs pre-cloacal, 2 pairs ad-cloacal and 5 pairs post-cloacal); unequal spicules of 161-198 and 69-100 µ m long; and a gubernaculum 38-58 µ m long with an antero-lateral process. Morphological and ultrastructural data on O. moraveci n. sp. and R. rondoni are presented, in addition to new genetic data based on partial 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA. The taxonomic status of Labeonema synodontisi (Vassiliadès, 1973) is discussed, suggesting that it should be returned to the genus Raillietnema.

  2. Anatomy and three-dimensional reconstructions of the brain of the white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Marino, L; Murphy, T L; Deweerd, A L; Morris, J A; Fobbs, A J; Humblot, N; Ridgway, S H; Johnson, J I

    2001-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging offers a means of observing the internal structure of the brain where traditional procedures of embedding, sectioning, staining, mounting, and microscopic examination of thousands of sections are not practical. Furthermore, internal structures can be analyzed in their precise quantitative spatial interrelationships, which is difficult to accomplish after the spatial distortions often accompanying histological processing. For these reasons, magnetic resonance imaging makes specimens that were traditionally difficult to analyze, more accessible. In the present study, images of the brain of a white whale (Beluga) Delphinapterus leucas were scanned in the coronal plane at 119 antero-posterior levels. From these scans, a computer-generated three-dimensional model was constructed using the programs VoxelView and VoxelMath (Vital Images, Inc.). This model, wherein details of internal and external morphology are represented in three-dimensional space, was then resectioned in orthogonal planes to produce corresponding series of "virtual" sections in the horizontal and sagittal planes. Sections in all three planes display the sizes and positions of such structures as the corpus callosum, internal capsule, cerebral peduncles, cerebral ventricles, certain thalamic nuclear groups, caudate nucleus, ventral striatum, pontine nuclei, cerebellar cortex and white matter, and all cerebral cortical sulci and gyri.

  3. Tbx2 regulates anterior neural specification by repressing FGF signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cho, Gun-Sik; Park, Dong-Seok; Choi, Sun-Cheol; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2017-01-15

    During early embryogenesis, FGF signals regulate the antero-posterior (AP) patterning of the neural plate by promoting posterior cell fates. In particular, BMP signal-mediated attenuation of FGF pathway plays a critical role in the determination of the anterior neural region. Here we show that Tbx2, a T-box transcriptional repressor regulates anterior neural specification by suppressing FGF8 signaling pathway in Xenopus embryo. Tbx2 is expressed in the anterior edge of the neural plate in early neurulae. Overexpression and knockdown of Tbx2 induce expansion and reduction in the expression of anterior neural markers, respectively. It also suppresses FGF8-induced ERK phosphorylation and neural caudalization. Tbx2, which is a target gene of BMP signal, down-regulates FGF8 signaling by inhibiting the expression of Flrt3, a positive regulator of this pathway. We found that Tbx2 binds directly to the T-box element located in the promoter region of Flrt3 gene, thereby interfering with the activity of the promoter. Consistently, Tbx2 augmentation of anterior neural formation is inhibited by co-expression of Flrt3. Furthermore, disruption of the anterior-most structures such as eyes in Tbx2-depleted embryos can be rescued by inhibition of Flrt3 function or FGF signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that Tbx2 mediates BMP signal to down-regulate FGF signaling pathway by repressing Flrt3 expression for anterior tissue formation.

  4. Load transfer in the proximal tibia following implantation with a unicompartmental knee replacement: a static snapshot.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D J; Kendrick, B J L; Dodd, C A F; Price, A J; Gill, H S; Murray, D W

    2011-05-01

    Unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) is an appealing alternative to total knee replacement when the patient has isolated medial compartment osteoarthritis. A common observation post-operatively is radiolucency between the tibial tray wall and the bone. In addition, some patients complain of persistent pain over the proximal tibia antero-medially; this may be related to elevated bone strains in the tibia. Currently, there is no intentionally made mechanical bond between the vertical wall of an Oxford UKR and the adjacent bone; whether one exists or not will influence the load transmission in the proximal tibia and may affect the elevated tibia strain. The aim of this study was to investigate how introducing a mechanical tie between the tibial tray wall and the adjacent bone might alter the load carried into the tibia for both cemented and cementless UKRs. Strain energy density in the region of bone adjacent to the tray wall was considerably increased when a mechanical tie was introduced; this has the potential of reducing the likelihood of a radiolucency occurring in that region. Moreover, a mechanical tie had the effect of reducing proximal tibia strain, which may decrease the incidence of pain following implantation with a UKR.

  5. Influence of neurophysiological hippotherapy on the transference of the centre of gravity among children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Maćków, Anna; Małachowska-Sobieska, Monika; Demczuk-Włodarczyk, Ewa; Sidorowska, Marta; Szklarska, Alicja; Lipowicz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present the influence of neurophysiological hippotherapy on the transference of the centre of gravity (COG) among children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study involved 19 children aged 4-13 years suffering from CP who demonstrated an asymmetric (A/P) model of compensation. Body balance was studied with the Cosmogamma Balance Platform. An examination on this platform was performed before and after a session of neurophysiological hippotherapy. In order to compare the correlations and differences between the examinations, the results were analysed using Student's T-test for dependent samples at p ≤ 0.05 as the level of statistical significance and descriptive statistics were calculated. The mean value of the body's centre of gravity in the frontal plane (COG X) was 18.33 (mm) during the first examination, changing by 21.84 (mm) after neurophysiological hippotherapy towards deloading of the antigravity lower limb (p ≤ 0.0001). The other stabilographic parameters increased; however, only the change in average speed of antero - posterior COG oscillation was statistically significant (p = 0.0354). 1. One session of neurophysiological hippotherapy induced statistically significant changes in the position of the centre of gravity in the body in the frontal plane and the average speed of COG oscillation in the sagittal plane among CP children demonstrating an asymmetric model of compensation (A/P).

  6. Age-related differences in dynamic balance control during stair descent and effect of varying step geometry.

    PubMed

    Novak, A C; Komisar, V; Maki, B E; Fernie, G R

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of stairway falls and related injuries remains persistently high; however, the risk of stair injuries could be reduced through improved stairway design. The current study investigated dynamic balance control during stair descent and the effects of varying the step geometry. Data were collected from 20 healthy young and 20 older adults as they descended three staircases (riser heights of 7, 7.5 and 8 inches (178, 190 and 203 mm, respectively)). At each riser height, the tread run length was varied between 8 and 14 inches (203 mm and 356 mm) in one-inch (25 mm) increments. Kinematic data provided measures of segmental and whole-body dynamic control. Results demonstrated that older adults had greater lateral tilt of the upper body than young adults, but actually had larger margins of stability than the young in the antero-posterior direction as a result of their slower cadence. Nonetheless, for both age groups, the longer run lengths were found to provide the largest margins of stability. In addition, increase in run length and decrease in riser height tended to reduce forward upper body tilt. These results help to explain the underlying biomechanical factors associated with increased risk of falls and the relationship with step geometry. Considering the importance of stair ambulation in maintaining independence and activity in the community, this study highlights the definite need for safer stair design standards to minimize the risk of falls and increase stair safety across the lifespan.

  7. Taste Reward Circuitry Related Brain Structures Characterize Ill and Recovered Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K.; Shott, Megan E.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The pathophysiology of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa remains obscure, but structural brain alterations could be functionally important biomarkers. Here we assessed taste pleasantness and reward sensitivity in relation to brain structure, which might be related to food avoidance commonly seen in eating disorders. Method We used structural magnetic resonance brain imaging to study gray and white matter volumes in individuals with restricting type currently ill (n = 19) or recovered-anorexia nervosa (n = 24), bulimia nervosa (n= 19) and healthy control women (n=24). Results All eating disorder groups showed increased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Manually tracing confirmed larger gyrus rectus volume, and predicted taste pleasantness across all groups. The analyses also indicated other morphological differences between diagnostic categories: Ill and recovered-anorexia nervosa had increased right, while bulimia nervosa had increased left antero-ventral insula gray matter volumes compared to controls. Furthermore, dorsal striatum volumes were reduced in recovered-anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and predicted sensitivity to reward in the eating disorder groups. The eating disorder groups also showed reduced white matter in right temporal and parietal areas when compared to healthy controls. Notably, the results held when controlling for a range of covariates (e.g., age, depression, anxiety, medications). Conclusion Brain structure in medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula and striatum is altered in eating disorders and suggests altered brain circuitry that has been associated with taste pleasantness and reward value. PMID:23680873

  8. The dynamic balance of the children with cerebral palsy and typical developing during gait Part II: Instantaneous velocity and acceleration of COM and COP and their relationship.

    PubMed

    Hsue, Bih-Jen; Miller, Freeman; Su, Fong-Chin

    2009-04-01

    As a companion research subsequent to analyzing displacement of center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP) in Part I, the purposes of this study were to quantify dynamic stability using magnitudes and patterns of instantaneous velocity and acceleration of COM and COP of the children with cerebral palsy (CP) during walking, and compare the data with those of the typically developing (TD) children. The instantaneous velocity and acceleration of COM and COP were acquired by calculating the first and second derivatives of displacement data presented in Part I. Velocity and acceleration of COM and COP were normalized by each participant's leg length to eliminate the influence of individual's stature. The results indicate that the preferred walking speed is significantly higher in TD groups than hemiplegic group (Hemi) and diplegic group (Di). The peak values of instantaneous velocity and acceleration of COM in vertical, medio-lateral (ML) and antero-posterior (AP) directions and velocity and acceleration of COP in ML direction were significantly higher in Di group than TD group. Both CP groups showed great variability in COM and COP parameters. Therefore, although Di group demonstrated higher peak values than Hemi group, the only significant difference between two groups was instantaneous COP velocity in ML direction. The findings of this study suggest that this assessment may be of value for research or clinical evaluation of dynamic balance dysfunction during walking and provide comparisons and insights for specific treatments or surgical interventions for the children with CP.

  9. Sagittal plane momentum control during walking in elderly fallers.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masahiro; Chou, Li-Shan

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sagittal plane momentum control during walking with the use of center of mass (COM) velocity and acceleration. COM control in the antero-posterior direction during walking of healthy young and elderly adults, and elderly fallers (n=15/group) was examined. Using a single-link-plus-foot inverted pendulum model, boundaries for the region of stability were determined based on the COM position at toe-off and its instantaneous velocity or the peak acceleration prior to toe-off (ROSv or ROSa, respectively). Although no significant difference in forward COM velocity was detected between healthy young and elderly subjects, the peak forward COM acceleration differed significantly, suggesting age-related differences in momentum control during walking. Elderly fallers demonstrated significantly slower forward COM velocities and accelerations and placed their COM significantly more anterior than healthy young and elderly subjects at toe-off, which resulted in their COM position-velocity combination located within the ROSv. Similar results were obtained in the ROSa, where elderly fallers demonstrated a larger stability margin than healthy young and elderly subjects. Significantly slower peak COM accelerations could be indicative of a poor momentum control ability, which was more pronounced in elderly fallers. Examining COM acceleration, in addition to its velocity, would provide a greater understanding of person's momentum control, which would allow us to better reveal underlying mechanisms of gait imbalance or falls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [The UniSpacer™: correcting varus malalignment in medial gonarthrosis. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Seeger, J B; Cardenas-Montemayor, E; Becker, J F; Bischel, O; Röhner, E; Clarius, M

    2013-01-01

    While options for operative treatment of leg axis varus malalignment in patients with medial gonarthrosis include several established procedures, such as unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA), or high tibial osteotomy (HTO), so far there has been little focus on a less invasive option introduced more recently: the UniSpacer™ implant, a modern, self-centering, metallic interpositional device for the knee. This study evaluates whether alignment correction can be achieved by UniSpacer™ arthroplasty as well as alignment change in the first 5 postoperative years is evaluated. Antero-posterior long leg stance radiographs of 15 legs were digitally analyzed to assess alignment change: two relevant angles and the deviation of the mechanical axis of the leg were analyzed before and after surgery. Additionally, the change of the postoperative alignment was determined one and five years postoperatively. Analyzing the mechanical tibiofemoral angle, a significant leg axis correction was achieved, with a mean valgus change of 4.7±1.9°; a varus change occurred in the first postoperative year, while there was no significant further change of alignment seen five years after surgery. The UniSpacer™ corrects malalignment in patients with medial gonarthrosis; however, a likely postoperative change in alignment due to implant adaptation to the joint must be considered before implantation.

  11. Postural adaptations specific to preferred throwing techniques practiced by competition-level judoists.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Montoya, Richard; Dupui, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the judoists' postural regulation adopted to accommodate their favorite throwing technique (tokui-waza). The tokui-waza is a technique performed in bipodal or monopodal stance. Twenty three judoists aged between 16 and 20 took part in the protocol. All had a minimum regional sportive level. They were separated into two groups: the one performed a tokui-waza in bipodal stance (BS group) and the others performed a tokui-waza in monopodal stance (MS group). The medio/lateral and antero/posterior dynamic balance was evaluated on one-leg and two-leg support with a seesaw platform laid on a force platform. On two-leg support, the BS group judoists were more efficient than the MS group judoists. On the contrary, on one-leg support, the MS group was more efficient than the BS group. The different movements practiced on one or two-leg induce specific postural adaptations in competition-level judoists. Therefore, the present study shows that the different movements practiced in a given sport can induce particular postural adaptations. This phenomenon must therefore also be taken into account in the protocols used for evaluating postural control in sportsmen.

  12. Mesencephalic neuronal populations: new insights on the ventral differentiation programs.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Bravo, J A; Martinez-Lopez, J E; Puelles, E

    2012-12-01

    The midbrain is a complex structure where different functions are located. This formation is mainly involved in the visual and auditory information process (tectum) and visual movements and motor coordination (tegmentum). Here we display a complete description of midbrain anatomy based on the prosomeric model and of the developmental events that take place to generate this structure. We also summarize the new data about the differentiation and specification of the basal populations of the midbrain. The neural tube suffers the influence of several secondary organizers. These signaling centers confer exact positional information to the neuroblasts. In the midbrain these centers are the Isthmic organizer for the antero-posterior axis and the floor and roof plates for the dorso-ventral axis. This segment of the brain contains, in the dorsal part, structures such as the collicula (superior and inferior), tectal grey and the preisthmic segment, and in the basal plate, neuronal populations such as the oculomotor complex, the dopaminergic substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area, the reticular formation and the periacueductal grey. Knowledge of the genetic cascades involved in the differentiation programs of the diverse populations will be extremely important to understand not only how the midbrain develops, but how degenerative pathologies, such as Parkinson's disease, occurs. These cascades are triggered by signaling molecules such as Shh, Fgf8 or Wnt1 and are integrated by receptor complexes and transcription factors. These are directly responsible for the induction or repression of the differentiation programs that will produce a specific neuronal phenotype.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the position of the intervertebral centres of reaction in upright standing--a musculoskeletal model investigation of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Zander, Thomas; Dreischarf, Marcel; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    The loads between adjacent vertebrae can be generalised as a single spatial force acting at the intervertebral centre of reaction. The exact position in vivo is unknown. However, in rigid body musculoskeletal models that simulate upright standing, the position is generally assumed to be located at the discs' centres of rotation. The influence of the antero-posterior position of the centre of reaction on muscle activity and joint loads remains unknown. Thus, by using an inverse dynamic model, we varied the position of the centre of reaction at L4/L5 (i), simultaneously at all lumbar levels (ii), and by optimisation at all lumbar levels (iii). Variation of the centres of reaction can considerably influence the activities of lumbar muscles and the joint forces between vertebrae. The optimisation of the position of the centre of reaction reduced the maximum lumbar muscle activity and axial joint forces at L4/L5 from 17.5% to 1.5% of the muscle strength and from 490 N to 390 N, respectively. Thus, when studying individual postures, such as for therapeutic or preventive evaluations, potential differences between the centre of reaction and the centre of rotation might influence the study results. These differences could be taken into account by sensitivity analyses.

  14. Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zordan, J.; Etcheto, H. Rivarola; Blanchod, C. Collazo; Palanconi, M.; Salinas, E. Álvarez; Autorino, CM; Escobar, G.

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common procedure in daily practice with 75 to 97% excellent long-term results. But in certain cases, some patients perceive rotational instability, for this reason the revision rate can be 10 to 15%. Objectives: evaluate functional outcome in revisions of ACL reconstruction associated with ALL. Methods: Between July 2015 and February 2016 (11 knees) Eleven Revision ACL reconstruction were performed with ALL with double incision technique performed by the same surgical team. Inclusion criteria were: ACL reconstruction failures with a grade 2 or 3 Lachman test, a grade 3 pivot-shift without other ligamentary injury lesions associated and complete range of motion. Results: The concept of rotational instability associated with ACL injury has been described more than a decade ago. However, there is no consensus on how to quantify rotational instability in ACL injuries; so when associating an extracapsular technique. Currently there is a lack of high-level evidence comparing isolated ACL repair and associated with the modified reconstruction of ALL that allows us to define therapeutic approaches. The ALL reconstruction associate an ACL reconstruction remains a matter of study. Conclusion: We obtain excellent results in antero – posterior and rotational stability after performing the procedure.

  15. The influence of lower face vertical proportion on facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D J; Hunt, O; Johnston, C D; Burden, D J; Stevenson, M; Hepper, P

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of changing lower face vertical proportion on the attractiveness ratings scored by lay people.Ninety-two social science students rated the attractiveness of a series of silhouettes with normal, reduced or increased lower face proportions. The random sequences of 10 images included an image with the Eastman normal lower face height relative to total face height [lower anterior face height/total anterior face height (LAFH/TAFH) of 55 per cent], and images with LAFH/TAFH increased or decreased by up to four standard deviations (SD) from the Eastman norm. All the images had a skeletal Class I antero-posterior (AP) relationship. A duplicate image in each sequence assessed repeatability. The participants scored each image using a 10 point numerical scale and also indicated whether they would seek treatment if the image was their own profile. The profile image with normal vertical facial proportions was rated by the lay people as the most attractive. Attractiveness scores reduced as the vertical facial proportions diverged from the normal value. Images with a reduced lower face proportion were rated as significantly more attractive than the corresponding images with an increased lower face proportion. Images with a reduced lower face proportion were also significantly less likely to be judged as needing treatment than the corresponding images with an increased lower face proportion.

  16. Developmental guidance of the retroflex tract at its bending point involves Robo1-Slit2-mediated floor plate repulsion.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Bravo, Juan A; Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E; Madrigal, M Pilar; Kim, Minkyung; Mastick, Grant S; Lopez-Bendito, Guillermina; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The retroflex tract contains medial habenula efferents that target the hindbrain interpeduncular complex and surrounding areas. This tract displays a singular course. Initially, habenular axons extend ventralwards in front of the pretectum until they reach the basal plate. Next, they avoid crossing the local floor plate, sharply changing course caudalwards (the retroflexion alluded by the tract name) and navigate strictly antero-posteriorly across basal pretectum, midbrain and isthmus. Once they reach rhombomere 1, the habenular axons criss-cross the floor plate several times within the interpeduncular nuclear complex as they innervate it. Here we described the timing and details of growth phenomena as these axons navigate to their target. The first dorsoventral course apparently obeys Ntn1 attraction. We checked the role of local floor plate signaling in the decision to avoid the thalamic floor plate and bend caudalwards. Analyzing the altered floor and basal plates of Gli2 knockout mice, we found a contralateral projection of most habenular axons, plus ulterior bizarre navigation rostralwards. This crossing phenotype was due to a reduced expression of Slit repulsive cues, suggesting involvement of the floor-derived Robo-Slit system in the normal guidance of this tract. Using Slit and Robo mutant mice, open neural tube and co-culture assays, we determined that Robo1-Slit2 interaction is specifically required for impeding that medial habenular axons cross the thalamic floor plate. This pathfinding mechanism is essential to establish the functionally important habenulo-interpeduncular connection.

  17. Parametric imaging of experimentally simulated Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome conduction abnormalities in dogs: a concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Weismueller, P.H.; Henze, E.; Adam, W.E.; Roth, J.; Bitter, F.; Stauch, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to test the diagnostic potential of phase analysis of radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) for localizing accessory bundles in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, 24 experimental runs were performed in three open chest instrumented dogs. After a baseline study, WPW syndrome was simulated by stimulation at seven different sites around the base of the ventricles, and RNV's were obtained. Subsequent data processing including Fourier transformation allowed the localization of the site of the first inward motion of the ventricles by an isophasic wave display. In sinus rhythm, the septum contracted first. During ectopic premature ventricular stimulation by triggering the atrial signal, the phase scan was altered only when the stimulus was applied earlier than 20 ms before the expected QRS complex during sinus rhythm. During stimulation with fixed frequency, only the left lateral positions of the premature stimulation were detected by phase analysis with a sensitivity of 86%. Neither the antero- or posteroseptal nor the right ventricular premature contraction pattern could be exactly localized.

  18. Regional differences of the human sleep electroencephalogram in response to selective slow-wave sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi; Curcio, Giuseppe; Cristiani, Riccardo; Corvasce, Chiara; Bertini, Mario

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the topographic changes in sleep recuperative processes in response to selective slow-wave sleep (SWS) deprivation. SWS was suppressed on two consecutive nights by means of acoustic stimulation. The electroencephalogram (EEG) power of baseline, deprivation and recovery nights was analysed in 1 Hz bins. During the SWS deprivation nights, large decreases of EEG power were found at frontopolar, central and parietal derivations encompassing the delta, theta and alpha range, while only slow delta (0.5-2 Hz) was affected at the frontal derivation. Recovery sleep was characterized by a generalized increase of power during non-REM sleep encompassing the delta, theta and alpha bands, with a clear antero-posterior gradient. The coherent behaviour of different EEG bands with traditionally different electrophysiological meanings during non-REM sleep suggests that, in light of the recent advances in sleep neurophysiology, a re-examination of the functional role of EEG rhythms during sleep is needed. The 'resistance' to selective SWS deprivation of the frontal area, together with its larger increase of EEG power during recovery, may be interpreted as a sign of a greater sleep need of the frontal cortical areas, confirming that some aspects of the regulatory processes of human sleep are local in nature and may show use-dependent characteristics.

  19. IMF-based chaotic characterization of AP and ML visually-driven postural responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Hanif; Giraudet, Guillaume; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to analyze visually driven postural responses and characterize any non-linear behaviour. We recorded physiological responses for two adults, 260 trials each. The subjects maintained quite stance while fixating for four seconds within an immersive room, EON Icube, where the reference to the visual stimuli, i.e., the virtual platform, randomly oscillated in Gaussian orientation 90° and 270° for antero-posterior (AP), and, 0° and 180° for medio-lateral (ML) at three different frequencies (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 Hz). We accomplished stationary derivatives of posture time series by taking the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The phase space plot of IMF shows evidence of the existence of non-linear attractors in both ML and AP. Correlation integral slope with increasing embedding dimension is similar to random white noise for ML, and similar to non-linear chaotic series for AP. Next, recurrence plots indicate the existence of more non-linearity for AP than that for ML. The patterns of the dots after 200th time stamp (near onset) appears to be aperodic in AP. At higher temporal windows, AP entropy tends more toward chaotic series, than that of ML. There are stronger non-linear components in AP than that in ML regardless of the speed conditions.

  20. Cytoarchitectonical analysis and probabilistic mapping of two extrastriate areas of the human posterior fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Caspers, Julian; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B; Schleicher, Axel; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Amunts, Katrin

    2013-03-01

    The human extrastriate visual cortex comprises numerous functionally defined areas, which are not identified in the widely used cytoarchitectonical map of Brodmann. The ventral part of the extrastriate cortex is particularly devoted to the identification of visual objects, faces and word forms. We analyzed the region immediately antero-lateral to hOc4v in serially sectioned (20 μm) and cell body-stained human brains using a quantitative observer-independent cytoarchitectonical approach to further identify the anatomical organization of the extrastriate cortex. Two novel cytoarchitectonical areas, FG1 and FG2, were identified on the posterior fusiform gyrus. The results of ten postmortem brains were then registered to their MRI volumes (acquired before histological processing), 3D reconstructed, and spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute reference brain. Finally, probabilistic maps were generated for each cytoarchitectonical area by superimposing the areas of the individual brains in the reference space. Comparison with recent functional imaging studies yielded that both areas are located within the object-related visual cortex. FG1 fills the gap between the retinotopically mapped area VO-1 and a posterior fusiform face patch. FG2 is probably the correlate of this face patch.

  1. Incidental visceral and renal artery stenosis in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Bageacu, S; Cerisier, A; Isaaz, K; Nourissat, A; Barral, X; Favre, J-P

    2011-03-01

    The study aimed to examine the association between incidentally discovered mesenteric artery stenosis, renal artery stenosis (RAS) and coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography. We performed a prospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing routine cardiac catheterisation. Abdominal aortograms in lateral and antero-posterior view were obtained to assess arterial stenosis of the coeliac axis, superior mesenteric artery and renal arteries. Significant arterial stenosis was defined as a narrowing of at least 50% compared with the normal artery. Demographic data and cardiovascular risk factors were analysed. The prevalence of visceral artery stenosis (VAS) was 63/450 (14%) including 48/450 (10.6%) cases of coeliac axis stenosis and 15/450 (3.3%) cases of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Female sex (p = 0.01), older age (p = 0.03) and the presence of coronary artery disease (p = 0.05) were significant predictors for the presence of VAS in univariate analysis. The determinants for VAS in multivariate analysis were female sex and three-vessel coronary artery disease, while two- and three-vessel coronary artery disease was significant for RAS. Screening for VAS and RAS in female patients older than 60 years with more than two diseased coronary segments could have a high diagnostic value. Copyright © 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pilot case control study of postural sway and balance performance in aging adults with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Maura D; Kale, Madhuri K; Sullivan, Joseph T

    2009-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), a degenerative disease encountered in adults > 65 years, is a leading cause of back and lower extremity pain, weakness, impaired sensation and balance. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether patients with LSS demonstrate increased postural sway and impaired balance, compared to healthy counterparts. Patients with varying severity of LSS and age and gender matched controls were recruited from a tertiary care hospital, yielding 6 case-control pairs. Subjects completed generic health status (SF-36), disease specific scales (LSS) and demographic forms. Medical comorbidities were extracted from medical records. Patients received a musculoskeletal examination and performed the Functional Reach (FR) and Timed "Up & Go" (TUG) tests. Stabilogram diffusion analysis (SDA) measured center of pressure (COP). Patients reported moderately impaired physical function, lumbar flexibility and walked with a slightly wider base of support. TUG scores did not differ across groups. Significantly limited FR scores indicated that patients had impaired dynamic balance and were at a greater risk of falls. SDA demonstrated no significant difference in sway for patients and controls; however, patients demonstrated significantly higher critical values for antero-posterior (AP) displacement than controls. Patients with LSS, even those with mild symptoms, demonstrate decreased function and balance, particularly in the AP direction. Physical examination measures and TUG are not adequate to assess balance impairments or risk of falls in these patients. Measures such as the FR and SDA may be useful in detecting the aspects of balance impairments perceived by patients.

  3. [Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Review of diagnostic criteria and analysis of 915 cases].

    PubMed

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C; Princivalle, M; Franceschini, F

    1992-06-01

    DISH is a common systemic skeletal disease, probably of dysmetabolic and/or degenerative origin, yet of unknown etiology. It is observed in middle-aged or elderly patients of both sexes, and is characterized by ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament on the antero-lateral aspect of the spine, and by ossifying enthesopathy, in both the central and the peripheral skeleton. Diagnosis is solely based on radiographic abnormalities, according to the so-called Resnick criteria. In the present study, the spines of 915 patients (414 males, 501 females, mean age: 65 years) were considered, and the peripheral entheses (heel, patella and elbow) of 494 of them (234 males and 260 females). The incidence of DISH was 14.09% (129 cases): 17.6% in males (73 cases) and 11.7% in females (56 cases). DISH strikes in the VI and VII decades of life most. The most affected sites of the spine were: the dorsal portion (100%), especially in the D7-D11 segment (93%); the lumbar spine in L1-L3 (81%), and the cervical spine, in the C5-C7 segment (69%). Peripheral areas of involvement were: pelvis (90%), heel (76%), elbow (46%) and knee (29%). The symptoms of DISH must be promptly detected: the disease is not asymptomatic, but presents with pain and stiffness in the spine, recurrent tendinitis and bursitis, and myelopathy.

  4. The dominant foot affects the postural control mechanism: examination by body tracking test

    PubMed Central

    Ikemiyagi, Fuyuko; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Tositake; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mitsuya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion The antero-posterior (AP) body tracking test (BTT) showed that the dominant foot could affect the tilt angle of the sway movement, delineated by primary component analysis. Differences associated with the dominant foot could represent the difference in space perception of each person. Objectives To examine whether the dominant foot could affect the postural control mechanism using the BTT. Methods Ninety-seven healthy participants enrolled in the study were classified into right-foot and left-foot dominance groups, and their performances were compared. For the BTT, each participant stood on a stabilometer and caught the movement of a visual target moving vertically (anterior-posterior) or horizontally by the center of pressure movement, displayed on a 14-inch screen monitor at 100 cm in front of the subject. The mean displacement angle of the obtained stabilogram was evaluated by principal component analysis. Results The AP BTT in the right-foot dominance group showed a clockwise tilt with a mean displacement angle of 3.022 ± 3.761°, whereas the group with left-foot dominance had a modest counter-clockwise tilt with a mean displacement angle of –0.694 ± 4.497°. This difference was found to be significant by the independent t test (p < 0.0001). In the lateral BTT, the mean displacement angles were not significant. PMID:25252704

  5. The Effect of Single-Leg Stance on Dancer and Control Group Static Balance

    PubMed Central

    KILROY, ELISABETH A.; CRABTREE, OLIVIA M.; CROSBY, BRITTANY; PARKER, AMANDA; BARFIELD, WILLIAM R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic differences of static balance between female dancers (D) with at least seven years of dance experience and female non-dancers (ND) who were typical college students. Participants were tested in single-leg stance. Both the dominant leg (DL) and non-dominant leg (NDL) were tested with the participants shod (S) and barefoot (BF). Kinetic variables (vertical, medio-lateral [ML], antero-posterior [AP] maximum ground reaction forces (GRF), and center of pressure (COP) ML and AP) were measured by a Bertec force platform at 1000 Hz with participants S and BF. Each subject’s stance was measured over 3 × 30-second intervals. No significant differences (p≥0.05) existed between groups for height, body mass, or age. Significant differences existed between groups for balance time, AP GRF in both BF and S conditions for both DL and NDL, and ML GRF in BF NDL and S DL and NDL conditions. D and ND in BF and S conditions with DL and NDL static stance demonstrate different AP and ML GRF when balancing over a 30-second time interval. Data may suggest that ND are more prone to lose their balance. Further investigation is warranted to understand whether individuals in the rehabilitative field and athletic populations can use dance therapy for injury prevention and rehabilitation. PMID:27293509

  6. Dynamic postural control and associated attentional demands in contemporary dancers versus non-dancers

    PubMed Central

    Sirois-Leclerc, Geneviève; Remaud, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Postural control is not a fully automatic process, but requires a certain level of attention, particularly as the difficulty of the postural task increases. This study aimed at testing whether experienced contemporary dancers, because of their specialized training involving the control of posture/balance, would present with a dual-task performance suggesting lesser attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control compared with non-dancers. Twenty dancers and 16 non-dancers performed a dynamic postural tracking task in both antero-posterior and side-to-side directions, while standing on a force platform. The postural task was performed, in turn, 1) as a stand-alone task, and concurrently with both 2) a simple reaction time task and 3) a choice reaction time task. Postural control performance was estimated through variables calculated from centre of pressure movements. Although no overall group difference was found in reaction time values, we found a better ability to control the side to side movements of the centre of pressure during the tracking task in dancers compared with non-dancers, which was dependent on the secondary task. This suggests that such increased ability is influenced by available attentional resources. PMID:28323843

  7. Measurement of Ulnar Variance in a Regional Subset of Indian Population—A Pilot Study of 30 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jalan, Divesh; Elhence, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Background The variation of level of distal articulating surface of ulna with respect to distal articulating surface of radius is known as ulnar variance (UV). Positive and negative UV has been implicated in various wrist and hand pathologies. Aim To measure ulnar variance in a regional subset of Indian population and to compare two techniques of measurement of ulnar variance viz. method of perpendiculars and modification of the concentric circles method. Materials and Methods UV was measured in a regional subset of Indian population comprising of 30 subjects. The mean age of patients was 35.9 years. There were 16 males and 14 females in the study group. Antero-posterior (AP) X-rays of wrist in neutral position were taken and UV was measured using method of perpendiculars and the modified circle method. Results The mean UV using method of perpendiculars (UVA) was 0.387 mm and using modified circle method (UVB) was 0.507mm. A higher predominance of positive UV in this regional subset of Indian population was observed. There was no correlation between UV with respect to age and sex. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two methods of measurement utilized in the study. Conclusion The documentation of a negative and positive ulnar variance will help in prophylactic and timely intervention for various wrist pathologies, if required. However, a larger sample size with a longer follow up is required to suggest a correlation of ulnar variance with clinically symptomatic disease. PMID:26500970

  8. [Vaginal hysterectomy for the enlarged non-prolapse uterus using morcellation techniques and/or Deschamps needle: a retrospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Santos-López, Abner; Gorbea-Chávez, Viridiana; Rodríguez-Colorado, Silvia; Ramírez, Carlos; Torres-Valdéz, Erika; Gámez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2015-03-01

    To compare surgical outcomes in women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy with enlarged (> 12 weeks size) and non-prolapsed uterus utilizing different morcellation techniques with or without concomitant Deschamps needle use to vaginal hysterectomy for prolapsed uterus. Retrospective cohort study in women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy performed between January 2009 and June 2014 in the National Institute of Perinatology. The study group comprised 48 women who had vaginal hysterectomy with enlarged and non-prolapsed uterus in which were utilized different morcellation techniques with or without concomitant Deschamps needle use and 50 women who had vaginal hysterectomy for prolapsed uterus served as control. The groups had statistical difference in age, number of cesarean sections, body mass index (BMI), grade of prolapse (Point Cx and D with POPQ quantification system) and surgical prediagnosis (p < 0.001); mean uterus weight was 182.5 g and 106 g, respectively (p < 0.001), as well as for transverse and antero-posterior dimensions and realization of morcellation with or without use of Deschamps needle. Both groups had no statistical difference in preoperative hemoglobin, concomitant surgeries for incontinence and prolapsed, estimated blood loss, operation time, length of stay and complications. Vaginal hysterectomy utilizing different morcellation techniques with or without concomitant Deschamps needle use in women with enlarged and non-prolapsed uterus is safe, effective, and with similar complications to vaginal hysterectomies in prolapse uterus.

  9. Modal analysis of the human neck in vivo as a criterion for crash test dummy evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willinger, R.; Bourdet, N.; Fischer, R.; Le Gall, F.

    2005-10-01

    Low speed rear impact remains an acute automative safety problem because of a lack of knowledge of the mechanical behaviour of the human neck early after impact. Poorly validated mathematical models of the human neck or crash test dummy necks make it difficult to optimize automotive seats and head rests. In this study we have constructed an experimental and theoretical modal analysis of the human head-neck system in the sagittal plane. The method has allowed us to identify the mechanical properties of the neck and to validate a mathematical model in the frequency domain. The extracted modal characteristics consist of a first natural frequency at 1.3±0.1 Hz associated with head flexion-extension motion and a second mode at 8±0.7 Hz associated with antero-posterior translation of the head, also called retraction motion. Based on this new validation parameters we have been able to compare the human and crash test dummy frequency response functions and to evaluate their biofidelity. Three head-neck systems of current test dummies dedicated for use in rear-end car crash accident investigations have been evaluated in the frequency domain. We did not consider any to be acceptable, either because of excessive rigidity of their flexion-extension mode or because they poorly reproduce the head translation mode. In addition to dummy evaluation, this study provides new insight into injury mechanisms when a given natural frequency can be linked to a specific neck deformation.

  10. Klippel-Feil syndrome associated with congenital cervical dislocation: report of an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Shintaku, Masayuki; Wada, Kyosuke; Koyama, Takashi; Kohno, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hida, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome is an uncommon congenital anomaly that is characterized by abnormal fusion of the cervical vertebrae and occasionally accompanied by various anomalies of other bones and internal organs. We report the autopsy case of a 5-year-old girl with this syndrome ssociated with congenital cervical dislocation, with special reference to the pathological findings of the vertebral column and spinal cord. Principal anomalies of the cranio-spinal axis were as follows: partial defect of the clivus, scoliosis, hypoplasia of the whole cervical vertebrae, anterior dislocation of C7 with S-shaped deformity of the spinal canal, fusion of the spinous processes of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae, fusion of the vertebral bodies of C6 and C7 with collapse of C7, and spina bifida occulta of L5 and S1. In addition to these skeletal anomalies, subarachnoid vascular malformation in the medulla oblongata, a bronchogenic cyst in the posterior mediastinum, anomalous lobation of the lungs, and the mobile cecum were found at autopsy. The cervical cord showed an increase of the antero-posterior diameter, multifocal spongy changes of the white matter, and partial branching or duplication of the central canal. The brain showed features of anoxic encephalopathy. The partial defect of the clivus, C7 dislocation, and various lesions of the medulla oblongata and cervical cord were interpreted as integral components of, or lesions closely associated with, Klippel-Feil syndrome.

  11. Five new species of Disepyris Kieffer, 1905 (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), with emended generic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongok; Azevedo, Celso O

    2014-12-24

    Five new species of Disepyris Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are described and illustrated: D. kenyaensis Lim & Azevedo, sp. nov. (Kenya), D. fessus Lim & Azevedo, sp. nov., D. mongoliaensis Lim & Azevedo, sp. nov., D. prolatatus Lim & Azevedo, sp. nov. (Mongolia), D. niveus Lim & Azevedo, sp. nov. (United Arab Emirates) and the genus is first recorded from Yemen, based on a female of D. guigliae (Benoit). The diagnosis of Disepyris is emended by a combination of following characteristics: head with palpal formula 6:3; ventral surface of antennal flagellomeres III-XI with one pair of parallel basiconic sensillae; clypeus with median lobe distinctly wider than lateral lobe; eyes with sparse, very minute hairs; occipital carina present; mesonotum with notauli weakly carinate, present on anterior half of mesoscutum, median area without transverse foveolate or punctate groove; propodeal spiracle present antero-dorsally on propodeal disc, lateral surface of propodeum strigate; forewing without postmarginal vein, long radial flexion line present, medial flexion line divided into two apical lines. Legs polished without sculpture, appressed pubescence absent; mesotibia with sparse, short spines on apical half; hind basitarsus with one row of comb ventrally.

  12. Specificity of Esthetic Experience for Artworks: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Dio, Cinzia; Canessa, Nicola; Cappa, Stefano F.; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, where we investigated the neural correlates of esthetic experience, we found that observing canonical sculptures, relative to sculptures whose proportions had been modified, produced the activation of a network that included the lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus, prefrontal areas, and, most interestingly, the right anterior insula. We interpreted this latter activation as the neural signature underpinning hedonic response during esthetic experience. With the aim of exploring whether this specific hedonic response is also present during the observation of non-art biological stimuli, in the present fMRI study we compared the activations associated with viewing masterpieces of classical sculpture with those produced by the observation of pictures of young athletes. The two stimulus-categories were matched on various factors, including body postures, proportion, and expressed dynamism. The stimuli were presented in two conditions: observation and esthetic judgment. The two stimulus-categories produced a rather similar global activation pattern. Direct comparisons between sculpture and real-body images revealed, however, relevant differences, among which the activation of right antero-dorsal insula during sculptures viewing only. Along with our previous data, this finding suggests that the hedonic state associated with activation of right dorsal anterior insula underpins esthetic experience for artworks. PMID:22121344

  13. Quantitative radiologic criteria for the diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Beside symptoms and clinical signs radiological findings are crucial in the diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). We investigate which quantitative radiological signs are described in the literature and which radilogical criteria are used to establish inclusion criteria in clincical studies evaluating different treatments in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods A literature search was performed in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library to identify papers reporting on radiological criteria to describe LSS and systematic reviews investigating the effects of different treatment modalities. Results 25 studies reporting on radiological signs of LSS and four systematic reviews related to the evaluation of different treatments were found. Ten different parameters were identified to quantify lumbar spinal stenosis. Most often reported measures for central stenosis were antero-posterior diameter (< 10 mm) and cross-sectional area (< 70 mm2) of spinal canal. For lateral stenosis height and depth of the lateral recess, and for foraminal stenosis the foraminal diameter were typically used. Only four of 63 primary studies included in the systematic reviews reported on quantitative measures for defining inclusion criteria of patients in prognostic studies. Conclusions There is a need for consensus on well-defined, unambiguous radiological criteria to define lumbar spinal stenosis in order to improve diagnostic accuracy and to formulate reliable inclusion criteria for clinical studies. PMID:21798008

  14. Coarse topographic organization of pheromone-sensitive afferents from different antennal surfaces in the American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Kamimura, Itsuro; Yokohari, Fumio; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-05-19

    In contrast to visual, auditory, taste, and mechanosensory neuropils, in which sensory afferents are topographically organized on the basis of their peripheral soma locations, axons of cognate sensory neurons from different locations of the olfactory sense organ converge onto a small spherical neuropil (glomerulus) in the first-order olfactory center. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana, sex pheromone-sensitive afferents with somata in the antero-dorsal and postero-ventral surfaces of a long whip-like antenna are biased toward the anterior and posterior regions of a macroglomerulus, respectively. In each region, afferents with somata in the more proximal antenna project to more proximal region, relative to the axonal entry points. However, precise topography of afferents in the macroglomerulus has remained unknown. Using single and multiple neuronal stainings, we showed that afferents arising from anterior, dorsal, ventral and posterior surfaces of the proximal regions of an antenna were biased progressively from the anterior to posterior region of the macroglomerulus, reflecting chiasmatic axonal re-arrangements that occur immediately before entering the antennal lobe. Morphologies of individual afferents originating from the proximal antenna matched results of mass neuronal stainings, but their three-dimensional origins in the antenna were hardly predictable on the basis of the projection patterns. Such projection biases made by neuronal populations differ from strict somatotopic projections of antennal mechanosensory neurons in the same species, suggesting a unique sensory mechanism to process information about odor location and direction on a single antenna.

  15. [Primary recurrent medial subdislocation of both patellae. Long-term review of an exceptional case of miserably malalignment syndrome].

    PubMed

    García-Mata, S; Hidalgo-Ovejero, A

    2007-01-01

    We present a long-term review of a girl aged 11 years and 4 months with medial primary recurrent subluxation of both patellae of several months evolution associated with miserably malalignment syndrome. Not one case of medial recurrent dislocation of the patellae has been described previously. Three years previously following a jump she had suffered a right patellar luxation - self-reduced and not immobilised - followed by 10 subsequent episodes of subluxation and three more medial luxations. She could hardly walk autonomously due to persistent or habitual subluxation and patellofemoral pain, mainly in the right knee. Physical examination revealed habitual medial subluxation of both patellae, with clear medial patellar displacement, quadriceps amyotrophy and medial instability. The medial subluxation suppression test was positive. She showed excessive femoral anteversion of the hips (IR: 90 degrees, ER: 30 degrees), genu varum, neutral tibial torsion, patella alta, dysplastic trochlear grooves with medial condyle hipoplasia and both patellae were dysplastic (Wiberg type III). We performed a derotation subtrochanteric femoral osteotomy and bilateral proximal patellar realignment. Following surgery, bilateral stability of both sides permitted normal walking and running, as well as apprehension and the Smillie test (-), with a hip mobility of 65 degrees ER and 50 degrees IR. Fifteen years after the surgery the patient complains of antero-external knee pain in the right knee during prolonged walking, in getting up and down stairs and when in a prolonged sitting position, diagnosed as excessive lateral pressure syndrome.

  16. Mouse molar morphogenesis revisited by three-dimensional reconstruction. III. Spatial distribution of mitoses and apoptoses up to bell-staged first lower molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Viriot, L; Peterková, R; Vonesch, J L; Peterka, M; Ruch, J V; Lesot, H

    1997-10-01

    Computer-assisted 3D reconstructions were used to follow the development of the embryonic mouse first lower molar (M1). At ED 12.5, the thickening of the oral epithelium, which was thought to correspond to the molar dental lamina, regressed in its anterior part as a result of apoptosis. Only the posterior part later gave rise to molars. The transition to the cap stage entailed medial and lateral extensions of the dental epithelium. The growth and histo-morphogenesis of the enamel organ as well as cervical loop formation proceeded more rapidly in the anterior part of the M1 during the cap and early bell stages producing significant morphological differences along the antero-posterior axis. Apoptosis was temporarily intensive in the anterior part of the bud- and cap-shaped epithelium and thus pointed domains which do not participate in the formation of the final M1 enamel organ. In the well-formed cap, apoptoses displayed maximum concentration in the enamel knot (EK). No increase in the number of metaphases could be detected in the vicinity of the EK. Mitoses were distributed throughout the epithelial compartment until cap stage and then mainly concentrated in the inner dental epithelium at the early bell stage. At this later stage, either lateral views or thick virtual sections performed in the reconstruction demonstrated a clear cut distribution of mitoses and apoptoses in the enamel organ. At the early bell stage, mitoses in the mesenchyme demonstrated an increasing postero-anterior gradient.

  17. Xenon protects left ventricular diastolic function during acute ischemia, less than ischemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Baumert, Jan-H.; Roehl, Anna B.; Funcke, Sandra; Hein, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Anesthetics modify regional left ventricular (LV) dysfunction following ischemia/reperfusion but their effects on global function in this setting are less clear. Aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that xenon would limit global LV dysfunction as caused by acute anterior wall ischemia, comparable to ischemic preconditioning. In an open-chest model under thiopental anesthesia, 30 pigs underwent 60-minute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. A xenon group (constant inhalation from previous to ischemia through end of reperfusion) was compared to control and ischemic preconditioning. Load-independent measures of diastolic function (end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, time constant of relaxation) and systolic function (end-systolic pressure-volume relation, preload-recruitable stroke work) were determined. Heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, and arterial elastance were recorded. Data were compared in 26 pigs. Ischemia impaired global diastolic but not systolic function in control, which recovered during reperfusion. Xenon limited and preconditioning abolished diastolic dysfunction during ischemia. Arterial pressure decreased during reperfusion while arterial elastance increased. Tachycardia and antero-septal wall edema during reperfusion were observed in all groups. In spite of ischemia of 40% of LV mass, global systolic function was preserved. Deterioration in global diastolic function was limited by xenon and prevented by preconditioning. PMID:27867480

  18. Functional MRI of the vocalization-processing network in the macaque brain

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rios, Michael; Kuśmierek, Paweł; DeWitt, Iain; Archakov, Denis; Azevedo, Frederico A. C.; Sams, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Keliris, Georgios A.; Rauschecker, Josef P.

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake behaving monkeys we investigated how species-specific vocalizations are represented in auditory and auditory-related regions of the macaque brain. We found clusters of active voxels along the ascending auditory pathway that responded to various types of complex sounds: inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate nucleus (MGN), auditory core, belt, and parabelt cortex, and other parts of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and sulcus (STS). Regions sensitive to monkey calls were most prevalent in the anterior STG, but some clusters were also found in frontal and parietal cortex on the basis of comparisons between responses to calls and environmental sounds. Surprisingly, we found that spectrotemporal control sounds derived from the monkey calls (“scrambled calls”) also activated the parietal and frontal regions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that species-specific vocalizations in rhesus monkeys activate preferentially the auditory ventral stream, and in particular areas of the antero-lateral belt and parabelt. PMID:25883546

  19. A Case Report of Rare Carcinoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma of Submandibular Gland and its Detailed Description

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Ajinkya Amritrao; Deshmukh, Atul A.

    2017-01-01

    A 65-year-old female patient reported with a chief complaint of swelling in the left lower region of the jaw since two years. On clinical examination, the swelling was present on the mandibular left posterior region and measuring approximately 6.2 cm antero-posteriorly × 6.2 cm mediolaterally × 8.7 cm superioinferiorly. Initially, it was non tender but eventually it became tender. Fine needle aspiration was done to rule out any salivary gland pathology and report obtained was carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Then, excisional biopsy was taken and tissue sent for histopathology. Histopathological diagnosis was benign adenoma with carcinoma. Later serial sections of tissue were studied and came to the conclusion of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma which was non invasive type and showed bizarre cells with neoplastic changes. Benign part was composed of myxomatous area with partial capsule. Neoplastic cells showed invasion into capsule and few necrotic areas were also present. Overall interpretation was favoured Non invasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. So here, we reported a case of Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma (CAEXPA) which is a deadly and rare variant of salivary gland malignancy. PMID:28658924

  20. A Case Report of Rare Carcinoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma of Submandibular Gland and its Detailed Description.

    PubMed

    Buva, Kirti Balkrishna; Deshmukh, Ajinkya Amritrao; Deshmukh, Atul A

    2017-05-01

    A 65-year-old female patient reported with a chief complaint of swelling in the left lower region of the jaw since two years. On clinical examination, the swelling was present on the mandibular left posterior region and measuring approximately 6.2 cm antero-posteriorly × 6.2 cm mediolaterally × 8.7 cm superioinferiorly. Initially, it was non tender but eventually it became tender. Fine needle aspiration was done to rule out any salivary gland pathology and report obtained was carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Then, excisional biopsy was taken and tissue sent for histopathology. Histopathological diagnosis was benign adenoma with carcinoma. Later serial sections of tissue were studied and came to the conclusion of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma which was non invasive type and showed bizarre cells with neoplastic changes. Benign part was composed of myxomatous area with partial capsule. Neoplastic cells showed invasion into capsule and few necrotic areas were also present. Overall interpretation was favoured Non invasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. So here, we reported a case of Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma (CAEXPA) which is a deadly and rare variant of salivary gland malignancy.

  1. Functional anatomy of temporal organisation and domain-specificity of episodic memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Sze Chai; Shallice, Tim; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory provides information about the “when” of events as well as “what” and “where” they happened. Using functional imaging, we investigated the domain specificity of retrieval-related processes following encoding of complex, naturalistic events. Subjects watched a 42-min TV episode, and 24 h later, made discriminative choices of scenes from the clip during fMRI. Subjects were presented with two scenes and required to either choose the scene that happened earlier in the film (Temporal), or the scene with a correct spatial arrangement (Spatial), or the scene that had been shown (Object). We identified a retrieval network comprising the precuneus, lateral and dorsal parietal cortex, middle frontal and medial temporal areas. The precuneus and angular gyrus are associated with temporal retrieval, with precuneal activity correlating negatively with temporal distance between two happenings at encoding. A dorsal fronto-parietal network engages during spatial retrieval, while antero-medial temporal regions activate during object-related retrieval. We propose that access to episodic memory traces involves different processes depending on task requirements. These include memory-searching within an organised knowledge structure in the precuneus (Temporal task), online maintenance of spatial information in dorsal fronto-parietal cortices (Spatial task) and combining scene-related spatial and non-spatial information in the hippocampus (Object task). Our findings support the proposal of process-specific dissociations of retrieval. PMID:22877840

  2. Functional anatomy of temporal organisation and domain-specificity of episodic memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sze Chai; Shallice, Tim; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2012-10-01

    Episodic memory provides information about the "when" of events as well as "what" and "where" they happened. Using functional imaging, we investigated the domain specificity of retrieval-related processes following encoding of complex, naturalistic events. Subjects watched a 42-min TV episode, and 24h later, made discriminative choices of scenes from the clip during fMRI. Subjects were presented with two scenes and required to either choose the scene that happened earlier in the film (Temporal), or the scene with a correct spatial arrangement (Spatial), or the scene that had been shown (Object). We identified a retrieval network comprising the precuneus, lateral and dorsal parietal cortex, middle frontal and medial temporal areas. The precuneus and angular gyrus are associated with temporal retrieval, with precuneal activity correlating negatively with temporal distance between two happenings at encoding. A dorsal fronto-parietal network engages during spatial retrieval, while antero-medial temporal regions activate during object-related retrieval. We propose that access to episodic memory traces involves different processes depending on task requirements. These include memory-searching within an organised knowledge structure in the precuneus (Temporal task), online maintenance of spatial information in dorsal fronto-parietal cortices (Spatial task) and combining scene-related spatial and non-spatial information in the hippocampus (Object task). Our findings support the proposal of process-specific dissociations of retrieval. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Generalized surficial geology map of the Pueblo 1 degree by 2 degrees quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, D.W.; Straub, A.W.; Berry, M.E.; Baker, M.L.; Brandt, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-three types of surficial geologic deposits and residual materials of Quaternary age are described in a pamphlet and located on a map of the greater Pueblo area, in part of the Front Range, in the Wet and Sangre de Cristo Mountains, and on the plains east of Colorado Springs and Pueblo. Deposits formed by landslides, wind, and glaciers, as well as colluvium, residuum, alluvium, and others are described in terms of predominant grain size, mineral or rock composition (e.g., gypsiferous, calcareous, granitic, andesitic), thickness, and other physical characteristics. Origins and ages of the deposits and geologic hazards related to them are noted. Many lines drawn between units on our map were placed by generalizing contacts on published maps. However, in 1997-1999 we mapped new boundaries as well. The map was projected to the UTM projection. This large map area extends from near Salida (on the west edge), eastward about 107 mi (172 km), and from Antero Reservoir and Woodland Park on the north edge to near Colorado City at the south edge (68 mi; 109 km).

  4. Patient-specific finite element modeling of the Cardiokinetix Parachute(®) device: effects on left ventricular wall stress and function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lik Chuan; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Zhihong; Pease, Matthew; Nikolic, Serjan D; Mishra, Rakesh; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Guccione, Julius M

    2014-06-01

    The Parachute(®) (Cardiokinetix, Inc., Menlo Park, California) is a catheter-based device intended to reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling after antero-apical myocardial infarction. When deployed, the device partitions the LV into upper and lower chambers. To simulate its mechanical effects, we created a finite element LV model based on computed tomography (CT) images from a patient before and 6 months after Parachute(®) implantation. Acute mechanical effects were determined by in silico device implantation (VIRTUAL-Parachute). Chronic effects of the device were determined by adjusting the diastolic and systolic material parameters to better match the 6-month post-implantation CT data and LV pressure data at end-diastole (ED) (POST-OP). Regional myofiber stress and pump function were calculated in each case. The principal finding is that VIRTUAL-Parachute was associated with a 61.2 % reduction in the lower chamber myofiber stress at ED. The POST-OP model was associated with a decrease in LV diastolic stiffness and a larger reduction in myofiber stress at the upper (27.1%) and lower chamber (78.4%) at ED. Myofiber stress at end-systole and stroke volume was little changed in the POST-OP case. These results suggest that the primary mechanism of Parachute(®) is a reduction in ED myofiber stress, which may reverse eccentric post-infarct LV hypertrophy.

  5. Patient-specific finite element modeling of the Cardiokinetix Parachute® device: Effects on left ventricular wall stress and function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lik Chuan; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Zhihong; Pease, Matthew; Nikolic, Serjan D.; Mishra, Rakesh; Ratcliffe, Mark B.; Guccione, Julius M.

    2014-01-01

    The Parachute® (Cardiokinetix, Inc., Menlo Park, California) is a catheter-based device intended to reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling after antero-apical myocardial infarction. When deployed, the device partitions the LV into upper and lower chambers. To simulate its mechanical effects, we created a finite element LV model based on computed tomography (CT) images from a patient before and 6 months after Parachute® implantation. Acute mechanical effects were determined by in-silico device implantation (VIRTUAL-Parachute). Chronic effects of the device were determined by adjusting the diastolic and systolic material parameters to better match the 6-month post-implantation CT data and LV pressure data at end-diastole (ED) (POST-OP). Regional myofiber stress and pump function were calculated in each case. The principal finding is that VIRTUAL-Parachute was associated with a 61.2% reduction in the lower chamber myofiber stress at ED. The POST-OP model was associated with a decrease in LV diastolic stiffness, and a larger reduction in myofiber stress at the upper (27.1%) and lower chamber (78.4%) at ED. Myofiber stress at end-systole and stroke volume were little changed in the POST-OP case. These results suggest that the primary mechanism of Parachute® is a reduction in ED myofiber stress, which may reverse eccentric post-infarct LV hypertrophy. PMID:24793158

  6. Common mechanics of mode switching in locomotion of limbless and legged animals

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Shigeru; Kunita, Itsuki; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Ishiguro, Akio; Kobayashi, Ryo; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Crawling using muscular waves is observed in many species, including planaria, leeches, nemertea, aplysia, snails, chitons, earthworms and maggots. Contraction or extension waves propagate along the antero-posterior axis of the body as the crawler pushes the ground substratum backward. However, the observation that locomotory waves can be directed forward or backward has attracted much attention over the past hundred years. Legged organisms such as centipedes and millipedes exhibit parallel phenomena; leg tips form density waves that propagate backward or forward. Mechanical considerations reveal that leg-density waves play a similar role to locomotory waves in limbless species, and that locomotory waves are used by a mechanism common to both legged and limbless species to achieve crawling. Here, we report that both mode switching of the wave direction and friction control were achieved when backward motion was induced in the laboratory. We show that the many variations of switching in different animals can essentially be classified in two types according to mechanical considerations. We propose that during their evolution, limbless crawlers first moved in a manner similar to walking before legs were obtained. Therefore, legged crawlers might have learned the mechanical mode of movement involved in walking long before obtaining legs. PMID:24718452

  7. Design study for asteroidal exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Carl; Blissit, Jim; Jarrett, Dave; Sanner, Rob; Yanagawa, Koji

    1985-08-01

    A systematic approach to asteroidal exploitation for the 1990 to 2010 time frame is presented as an initial step toward expanding the use of space beyond the space station by providing a source of lower cost materials. With only a limited amount of information known about the asteroids, reconnaissance and exploration phases to determine the exact locations and compositions of several earth-approaching asteroids are required. Earth-based telescopes are used to locate and study the asteroids, while unmanned probes will return samples of asteroidal material to earth for analysis. After these phases are completed, the retrieval of a 35,000 metric ton piece of the asteroid Anteros is undertaken. A cargo transporter uses magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arcjets outbound and a mass-driver using asteroidal material inbound. A crew ship uses ion engines. Low thrust trajectories are used for both spacecraft. A materials processing facility will manufacture propellant pellets and retrieve non-propellant materials for spacecraft use. The cost is 1/10th that to transport the same materials from earth to high earth orbit. The project will cost 25 percent less if done in conjunction with a lunar and Martian base.

  8. Quantitative assessment of the facial features of a Mexican population dataset.

    PubMed

    Farrera, Arodi; García-Velasco, Maria; Villanueva, Maria

    2016-05-01

    The present study describes the morphological variation of a large database of facial photographs. The database comprises frontal (386 female, 764 males) and lateral (312 females, 666 males) images of Mexican individuals aged 14-69 years that were obtained under controlled conditions. We used geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics to describe the phenotypic variation within the dataset as well as the variation regarding sex and age groups. In addition, we explored the correlation between facial traits in both views. We found a spectrum of variation that encompasses broad and narrow faces. In frontal view, the latter is associated to a longer nose, a thinner upper lip, a shorter lower face and to a longer upper face, than individuals with broader faces. In lateral view, antero-posteriorly shortened faces are associated to a longer profile and to a shortened helix, than individuals with longer faces. Sexual dimorphism is found in all age groups except for individuals above 39 years old in lateral view. Likewise, age-related changes are significant for both sexes, except for females above 29 years old in both views. Finally, we observed that the pattern of covariation between views differs in males and females mainly in the thickness of the upper lip and the angle of the facial profile and the auricle. The results of this study could contribute to the forensic practices as a complement for the construction of biological profiles, for example, to improve facial reconstruction procedures.

  9. Impact of the surgical experience on cochleostomy location: a comparative temporal bone study between endaural and posterior tympanotomy approaches for cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Vandersteen, Clair; Demarcy, Thomas; Roger, Coralie; Fontas, Eric; Raffaelli, Charles; Ayache, Nicholas; Delingette, Hervé; Guevara, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate, in the hands of an inexperienced surgeon, the cochleostomy location of an endaural approach (MINV) compared to the conventional posterior tympanotomy (MPT) approach. Since 2010, we use in the ENT department of Nice a new surgical endaural approach to perform cochlear implantation. In the hands of an inexperienced surgeon, the position of the cochleostomy has not yet been studied in detail for this technique. This is a prospective study of 24 human heads. Straight electrode arrays were implanted by an inexperienced surgeon: on one side using MPT and on the other side using MINV. The cochleostomies were all antero-inferior, but they were performed through an endaural approach with the MINV or a posterior tympanotomy approach with the MPT. The positioning of the cochleostomies into the scala tympani was evaluated by microdissection. Cochleostomies performed through the endaural approach were well placed into the scala tympani more frequently than those performed through the posterior tympanotomy approach (87.5 and 16.7 %, respectively, p ≤ 0.001). This study highlights the biggest challenge for an inexperienced surgeon to achieve a reliable cochleostomy through a posterior tympanotomy, which requires years of experience. In case of an uncomfortable view through a posterior tympanotomy, an inexperienced surgeon might be able to successfully perform a cochleostomy through an endaural (combined approach) or an extended round window approach in order to avoid opening the scala vestibuli.

  10. Speech breathing and the Lombard effect.

    PubMed

    Winkworth, A L; Davis, P J

    1997-02-01

    Respiratory measurements were made using linearized magnetometers placed antero-posteriorly over the rib cages and abdomens of five healthy young women. Background noise was introduced over headphones simultaneously as "babble" presented binaurally at 55 dB ("moderate noise") and 70 dB ("high noise"). Speech during oral reading and spontaneous monologue was transduced with a microphone positioned near the lips, from which a speaking intensity signal (dBA) was derived. Subjects were instructed to speak during the noise conditions, but no instruction was given to alter speaking intensity. Compared with a "no noise" condition, the speaking intensities of all the subjects increased significantly for both speech tasks in the moderate and high noise conditions, thereby replicating the well-documented Lombard effect. No consistent trend of lung volume change was observed, in contrast to the linear increases in speech intensity as the noise level increased. For the higher speech intensities during the moderate and high noise conditions both initiation and termination lung volumes either increased or decreased. These preliminary findings suggest that when speech intensity is increased following the introduction of noise via headphones rather than by specific instruction to speak more loudly, speakers employ variable lung volume strategies for intensity control.

  11. Radicality of resection and survival after multimodality treatment is influenced by subsite of locally recurrent rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kusters, Miranda; Dresen, Raphaëla C; Martijn, Hendrik; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; van den Berg, Hetty A; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Rutten, Harm J T

    2009-12-01

    To analyze results of multimodality treatment in relation to subsite of locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC). A total of 170 patients with LRRC who underwent treatment between 1994 and 2008 were studied. The basic principle of multimodality treatment was preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy, intended radical surgery, and intraoperative radiotherapy. The subsites of LRRC were classified as presacral, posterolateral, (antero)lateral, anterior, anastomotic, or perineal. Subsites were related to radicality of the resection, local re-recurrence rate, distant metastasis rate, and cancer-specific survival. R0 resections were achieved in 54% of the patients, and 5-year cancer-specific survival was 40.5%. The worst outcomes were seen in presacral LRRC, with only 28% complete resections and 19% 5-year survival (p = 0.03 vs. other subsites). Anastomotic LRRC resulted in the most favorable outcomes, with 77% R0 resections and 60% 5-year survival (p = 0.04). Generally, if a complete resection was achieved, survival improved, except in posterolateral LRRC. Local re-recurrence and metastasis rate were lowest in anastomotic LRRC. Classification of the subsite of LRRC is a predictor of potentially resectable and consequently curable disease. Treatment of posterior LRRC imposes poor results, whereas anastomotic LRRC location shows superior results.

  12. Gait and balance disorders in Parkinson's disease: impaired active braking of the fall of centre of gravity.

    PubMed

    Chastan, Nathalie; Do, Manh Cuong; Bonneville, Fabrice; Torny, Frédéric; Bloch, Frédéric; Westby, G W Max; Dormont, Didier; Agid, Yves; Welter, Marie-Laure

    2009-01-30

    Gait and balance disorders are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. Step length, antero-posterior, and vertical velocities of the center of gravity (CG) during gait initiation were analyzed in 32 controls and 32 PD patients, with and without levodopa, using a force platform. Brain volumes and mesencephalic surface area were measured in PD patients. During the swing limb period, controls showed a fall in the CG, which was reversed before foot-contact indicating active braking of the CG fall. In PD patients, without levodopa, step length and velocity were significantly reduced and no braking occurred before foot-contact in 22 patients. With levodopa, step length and velocity increased in all patients and 7 patients improved their braking capacity. PD patients with normal braking (n = 17) had significantly lower gait and balance disorder scores and higher normalized-mesencephalic surface areas compared to patients with impaired braking (n = 15). The decreased step length and velocity, characteristic of PD, mainly result from degeneration of central dopaminergic systems. The markedly decreased braking capacity observed in half the PD patients contributes to their gait disorders and postural instability, perhaps as a result of nondopaminergic lesions, possibly at the mesencephalic level.

  13. Persons with lower-limb amputation have impaired trunk postural control while maintaining seated balance.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, Brad D; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2013-07-01

    Abnormal mechanics of movement resulting from lower-limb amputation (LLA) may increase stability demands on the spinal column and/or alter existing postural control mechanisms and neuromuscular responses. A seated balance task was used to investigate the effects of LLA on trunk postural control and stability, among eight males with unilateral LLA (4 transtibial, 4 transfemoral), and eight healthy, non-amputation controls (matched by age, stature, and body mass). Traditional measures derived from center of pressure (COP) time series, and measures obtained from non-linear stabilogram diffusion analyses, were used to characterize trunk postural control. All traditional measures of postural control (95% ellipse area, RMS distance, and mean velocity) were significantly larger among participants with LLA. Non-linear stabilogram diffusion analyses also revealed significant differences in postural control among persons with LLA, but only in the antero-posterior direction. Normalized trunk muscle activity was also larger among participants with LLA. Larger COP-based sway measures among participants with LLA during seated balance suggest an association between LLA and reduced trunk postural control. Reductions in postural control and spinal stability may be a result of adaptations in functional tissue properties and/or neuromuscular responses, and may potentially be caused by repetitive exposure to abnormal gait and movement. Such alterations could then lead to an increased risk for spinal instability, intervertebral motions beyond physiological limits, and pain.

  14. Reconstruction of chest wall using a two-layer prolene mesh and bone cement sandwich.

    PubMed

    Aghajanzadeh, Manouchehr; Alavi, Ali; Aghajanzadeh, Gilda; Ebrahimi, Hannan; Jahromi, Sina Khajeh; Massahnia, Sara

    2015-02-01

    Wide surgical resection is the most effective treatment for the vast majority of chest wall tumors. This study evaluated the clinical success of chest wall reconstruction using a Prolene mesh and bone cement prosthetic sandwich. The records of all patients undergoing chest wall resection and reconstruction were reviewed. Surgical indications, the location and size of the chest wall defect, diaphragm resection, pulmonary performance, postoperative complications, and survival of each patient were recorded. From 1998 to 2008, 43 patients (27 male, 16 female; mean age of 48 years) underwent surgery in our department to treat malignant chest wall tumors: chondrosarcoma (23), osteosarcoma (8), spindle cell sarcoma (6), Ewing's sarcoma (2), and others (4). Nine sternectomies and 34 antero-lateral and postero-lateral chest wall resections were performed. Postoperatively, nine patients experienced respiratory complications, and one patient died because of respiratory failure. The overall 4-year survival rate was 60 %. Chest wall reconstruction using a Prolene mesh and bone cement prosthetic sandwich is a safe and effective surgical procedure for major chest wall defects.

  15. The protocadherin 11X/Y (PCDH11X/Y) gene pair as determinant of cerebral asymmetry in modern Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Priddle, Thomas H; Crow, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Annett's right-shift theory proposes that human cerebral dominance (the functional and anatomical asymmetry or torque along the antero-posterior axis) and handedness are determined by a single “right-shift” gene. Familial transmission of handedness and specific deviations of cerebral dominance in sex chromosome aneuploidies implicate a locus within an X–Y homologous region of the sex chromosomes. The Xq21.3/Yp11.2 human-specific region of homology includes the protocadherin 11X/Y (PCDH11X/Y) gene pair, which encode cell adhesion molecules subject to accelerated evolution following the separation of the human and chimpanzee lineages six million years ago. PCDH11X and PCDH11Y, differentially regulated by retinoic acid, are highly expressed in the ventricular zone, subplate, and cortical plate of the developing cerebral cortex. Both proteins interact with β-catenin, a protein that plays a role in determining axis formation and regulating cortical size. In this way, the PCDH11X/Y gene pair determines cerebral asymmetry by initiating the right shift in Homo sapiens. PMID:23600975

  16. Hippocampal (subfield) volume and shape in relation to cognitive performance across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Voineskos, Aristotle N; Winterburn, Julie L; Felsky, Daniel; Pipitone, Jon; Rajji, Tarek K; Mulsant, Benoit H; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2015-08-01

    Newer approaches to characterizing hippocampal morphology can provide novel insights regarding cognitive function across the lifespan. We comprehensively assessed the relationships among age, hippocampal morphology, and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function in 137 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan (18-86 years of age). They underwent MRI, cognitive assessments and genotyping for Apolipoprotein E status. We measured hippocampal subfield volumes using a new multiatlas segmentation tool (MAGeT-Brain) and assessed vertex-wise (inward and outward displacements) and global surface-based descriptions of hippocampus morphology. We examined the effects of age on hippocampal morphology, as well as the relationship among age, hippocampal morphology, and episodic and working memory performance. Age and volume were modestly correlated across hippocampal subfields. Significant patterns of inward and outward displacement in hippocampal head and tail were associated with age. The first principal shape component of the left hippocampus, characterized by a lengthening of the antero-posterior axis was prominently associated with working memory performance across the adult lifespan. In contrast, no significant relationships were found among subfield volumes and cognitive performance. Our findings demonstrate that hippocampal shape plays a unique and important role in hippocampal-dependent cognitive aging across the adult lifespan, meriting consideration as a biomarker in strategies targeting the delay of cognitive aging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the rat cerebellum during electrical stimulation of the fore- and hindpaw at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Ronald; Verhoye, Marleen; Vos, Bart; De Schutter, Erik; Van der Linden, Anne-Marie

    1999-05-01

    Blood oxygenation level dependent contrast (BOLD) functional MRI responses at 7T were observed in the cerebellum of alpha- chloralose anesthetized rats in response to innocuous electrical stimulation of a forepaw or hindpaw. The responses were imaged in both coronal and sagittal slices which allowed for a clear delineation and localization of the observed activations. We demonstrate the validity of our fMRI protocol by imaging the responses in somatosensory cortex to the same stimuli and by showing a high level of reproducibility of the cerebellar responses. Widespread bilateral activations were found with mainly a patchy and medio-lateral band organization, more pronounced ipsilaterally. There was no overlap between the cerebellar activations caused by forepaw or hindpaw stimulation. Most remarkable was the overall horizontal organization of these responses: for both stimulation paradigms the patches and bands of activation were roughly positioned in either a cranial or caudal plane running antero-posteriorly through the whole cerebellum. This is the first fMRI study in the cerebellum of the rat. We relate our findings to the known projection patterns found with other techniques and to human fMRI studies. The horizontal organization found wasn't observed before in other studies using other techniques.

  18. Effect of ACL graft material on joint forces during a simulated in vivo motion in the porcine knee: examining force during the initial cycles.

    PubMed

    Boguszewski, Daniel V; Wagner, Christopher T; Butler, David L; Shearn, Jason T

    2014-11-01

    This study compared three-dimensional forces in knees containing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft materials versus the native porcine ACL. A six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot simulated gait while recording the joint forces and moments. Knees were subjected to 10 cycles of simulated gait in intact, ACL-deficient, and ACL-reconstructed knee states to examine time zero biomechanical performance. Reconstruction was performed using bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft (BPTB), reconstructive porcine tissue matrix (RTM), and an RTM-polymer hybrid (Hybrid). Forces and moments were examined about anatomic DOFs throughout the gait cycle and at three key points during gait: heel strike (HS), mid stance (MS), toe off (TO). Compared to native ACL, each graft restored antero-posterior (A-P) forces throughout gait. However, all failed to mimic normal joint forces in other DOFs. For example, each reconstructed knee showed greater compressive forces at HS and TO compared to the native ACL knee. Overall, the Hybrid graft restored more of the native ACL forces following reconstruction than did BPTB, while RTM grafts were the least successful. If early onset osteoarthritis is in part caused by altered knee kinematics, then understanding how reconstruction materials restore critical force generation during gait is an essential step in improving a patient's long-term prognosis.

  19. Computation of ground reaction force using Zero Moment Point.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Erik J; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2015-11-05

    Motion analysis is a common clinical assessment and research tool that uses a camera system or motion sensors and force plates to collect kinematic and kinetic information of a subject performing an activity of interest. The use of force plates can be challenging and sometimes even impossible. Over the past decade, several computational methods have been developed that aim to preclude the use of force plates. Useful in particular for predictive simulations, where a new motion or change in control strategy inherently means different external contact loads. These methods, however, often depend on prior knowledge of common observed ground reaction force (GRF) patterns, are computationally expensive, or difficult to implement. In this study, we evaluated the use of the Zero Moment Point as a computationally inexpensive tool to obtain the GRFs for normal human gait. The method was applied on ten healthy subjects walking in a motion analysis laboratory and predicted GRFs are evaluated against the simultaneously measured force plate data. Apart from the antero-posterior forces, GRFs are well-predicted and errors fall within the error ranges from other published methods. Joint extension moments were underestimated at the ankle and hip but overestimated at the knee, attributable to the observed discrepancy in the predicted application points of the GRFs. The computationally inexpensive method evaluated in this study can reasonably well predict the GRFs for normal human gait without using prior knowledge of common gait kinetics.

  20. Impaired facial emotion recognition in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS): Side and age at onset matters.

    PubMed

    Hlobil, Ulf; Rathore, Chaturbhuj; Alexander, Aley; Sarma, Sankara; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

    2008-08-01

    To define the determinants of impaired facial emotion recognition (FER) in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), we examined 76 patients with unilateral MTLE-HS, 36 prior to antero-mesial temporal lobectomy (AMTL) and 40 after AMTL, and 28 healthy control subjects with a FER test consisting of 60 items (20 each for anger, fear, and happiness). Mean percentages of the accurate responses were calculated for different subgroups: right vs. left MTLE-HS, early (age at onset <6 years) vs. late-onset, and before vs. after AMTL. After controlling for years of education, duration of epilepsy and number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) taken, on multivariate analysis, fear recognition was profoundly impaired in early-onset right MTLE-HS patients compared to other MTLE patients and control subjects. Happiness recognition was significantly better in post-AMTL MTLE-HS patients compared to pre-AMTL patients while anger and fear recognition did not differ. We conclude that patients with right MTLE-HS with age at seizure onset <6 years are maximally predisposed to impaired fear recognition. In them, right AMTL does not further worsen FER abilities. Longitudinal studies comparing FER in the same patients before and after AMTL will be required to refine and confirm our cross-sectional observations.

  1. Mechanical loading of knee articular cartilage induced by muscle contraction can be assessed by measuring electrical potentials at the surface of the knee.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Buschmann, Michael D; Savard, Pierre

    2016-02-08

    Electroarthrography (EAG) consists of recording electrical potentials on the knee surface that originate from streaming potentials within articular cartilage while the joint is undergoing compressive loading. The aim was to investigate how the contraction of specific leg muscles affects the contact force of the knee joint and, in turn, the EAG values. For six normal subjects, voluntary isometric muscle contractions were repeatedly conducted to activate four leg muscle groups while the subject was lying on his back. Two EAG signals were recorded on the medial and lateral sides of the knee, as well as four EMG signals (gastrocnemius, hamstring, quadriceps, tensor fascia latae), and the signal from a force plate fixed against the foot according to the direction of the force. The EAG and force signals were very well correlated: the median of the correlation coefficients between an EAG signal and the corresponding force signal during each loading cycle was 0.91, and 86% of the correlation coefficients were statistically significant (p<5%). Isolated muscle contraction was possible for the gastrocnemius and hamstring, but not always for the quadriceps and tensor fascia latae. Using the clinical loading protocol which consists of a one-legged stance, the quadriceps and hamstring EMGs showed minimal activity; loading cycles with increased EAG amplitude were associated with higher EMG activity from the gastrocnemius, which is involved in antero-posterior balance. These results document the role of the EAG as a "sensor" of the knee contact force and contribute to the development of clinical loading protocols with improved reproducibility.

  2. Radicality of Resection and Survival After Multimodality Treatment is Influenced by Subsite of Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kusters, Miranda; Dresen, Raphaela C.; Martijn, Hendrik; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A.; Velde, Cornelis J.H. van de; Berg, Hetty A. van den; Beets-Tan, Regina G.H.; Rutten, Harm J.T.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To analyze results of multimodality treatment in relation to subsite of locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC). Method and Materials: A total of 170 patients with LRRC who underwent treatment between 1994 and 2008 were studied. The basic principle of multimodality treatment was preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy, intended radical surgery, and intraoperative radiotherapy. The subsites of LRRC were classified as presacral, posterolateral, (antero)lateral, anterior, anastomotic, or perineal. Subsites were related to radicality of the resection, local re-recurrence rate, distant metastasis rate, and cancer-specific survival. Results: R0 resections were achieved in 54% of the patients, and 5-year cancer-specific survival was 40.5%. The worst outcomes were seen in presacral LRRC, with only 28% complete resections and 19% 5-year survival (p = 0.03 vs. other subsites). Anastomotic LRRC resulted in the most favorable outcomes, with 77% R0 resections and 60% 5-year survival (p = 0.04). Generally, if a complete resection was achieved, survival improved, except in posterolateral LRRC. Local re-recurrence and metastasis rate were lowest in anastomotic LRRC. Conclusions: Classification of the subsite of LRRC is a predictor of potentially resectable and consequently curable disease. Treatment of posterior LRRC imposes poor results, whereas anastomotic LRRC location shows superior results.

  3. Dental Malocclusion and Body Posture in Young Subjects: A Multiple Regression Study

    PubMed Central

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Contardo, Luca; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Perdoni, Lucia; Castaldo, Attilio

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Controversial results have been reported on potential correlations between the stomatognathic system and body posture. We investigated whether malocclusal traits correlate with body posture alterations in young subjects to determine possible clinical applications. METHODS: A total of 122 subjects, including 86 males and 36 females (age range of 10.8–16.3 years), were enrolled. All subjects tested negative for temporomandibular disorders or other conditions affecting the stomatognathic systems, except malocclusion. A dental occlusion assessment included phase of dentition, molar class, overjet, overbite, anterior and posterior crossbite, scissorbite, mandibular crowding and dental midline deviation. In addition, body posture was recorded through static posturography using a vertical force platform. Recordings were performed under two conditions, namely, i) mandibular rest position (RP) and ii) dental intercuspidal position (ICP). Posturographic parameters included the projected sway area and velocity and the antero-posterior and right-left load differences. Multiple regression models were run for both recording conditions to evaluate associations between each malocclusal trait and posturographic parameters. RESULTS: All of the posturographic parameters had large variability and were very similar between the two recording conditions. Moreover, a limited number of weakly significant correlations were observed, mainly for overbite and dentition phase, when using multivariate models. CONCLUSION: Our current findings, particularly with regard to the use of posturography as a diagnostic aid for subjects affected by dental malocclusion, do not support existence of clinically relevant correlations between malocclusal traits and body posture. PMID:20668626

  4. Dental malocclusion and body posture in young subjects: a multiple regression study.

    PubMed

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Contardo, Luca; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Biasati, Armando Silvestrini; Perdoni, Lucia; Castaldo, Attilio

    2010-07-01

    Controversial results have been reported on potential correlations between the stomatognathic system and body posture. We investigated whether malocclusal traits correlate with body posture alterations in young subjects to determine possible clinical applications. A total of 122 subjects, including 86 males and 36 females (age range of 10.8-16.3 years), were enrolled. All subjects tested negative for temporomandibular disorders or other conditions affecting the stomatognathic systems, except malocclusion. A dental occlusion assessment included phase of dentition, molar class, overjet, overbite, anterior and posterior crossbite, scissorbite, mandibular crowding and dental midline deviation. In addition, body posture was recorded through static posturography using a vertical force platform. Recordings were performed under two conditions, namely, i) mandibular rest position (RP) and ii) dental intercuspidal position (ICP). Posturographic parameters included the projected sway area and velocity and the antero-posterior and right-left load differences. Multiple regression models were run for both recording conditions to evaluate associations between each malocclusal trait and posturographic parameters. All of the posturographic parameters had large variability and were very similar between the two recording conditions. Moreover, a limited number of weakly significant correlations were observed, mainly for overbite and dentition phase, when using multivariate models. Our current findings, particularly with regard to the use of posturography as a diagnostic aid for subjects affected by dental malocclusion, do not support existence of clinically relevant correlations between malocclusal traits and body posture.

  5. Changes in vertical tooth position and face height related to long term anterior repositioning splint therapy.

    PubMed

    Brown, D T; Gaudet, E L; Phillips, C

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates whether extended full-time wear of a partial coverage mandibular anterior repositioning splint (MORA) causes intrusion of posterior teeth and determines the effect on jaw position. Sixty-four patients from two private orthodontic practices were studied using cephalometric radiographs to measure vertical change in position of the anterior and posterior teeth and the mandible. The splint wear time ranged from a minimum of one half year to a maximum of 4.8 years, with a mean of 1.33 years. No significant change was recorded in the distance from the mandibular molar to the mandibular plane. On average, the maxillary incisor and maxillary molar extruded about 1 mm, while the mandibular molar was unchanged and the mandibular incisor intruded about 0.6 mm. Posterior face height increased an average of 1.6 mm, and anterior face height increased an average of 2.7 mms. In 20% of the patients, intrusion of the mandibular molars of 1 mm or more occurred. In 41%, extrusion of the maxillary incisors of 1 mm or more was noted. Intrusion of the upper molars or extrusion of the lower incisors occurred in only 5% of the patients. The data indicates that only a very small proportion of patients having long term splint therapy using the MORA have clinically significant molar intrusion. Change in mandibular position was expressed in a vertical increase in posterior and anterior face height. Only very small changes occurred in antero-posterior position.

  6. The projection from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb in the salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum.

    PubMed

    Mackay-Sim, A; Nathan, M H

    1984-01-01

    Odor quality may be represented as a "topographic" code of responses of receptor cells throughout the olfactory epithelium, with this code conveyed to the central nervous system by a topographic projection from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb. There is good evidence for topographic differences in odor-induced receptor cell activity in the tiger salamander but there is no evidence for a topographic epithelium-to-bulb projection in this species. In the present study 3H-leucine autoradiography was used to trace the projections of olfactory receptor neurons in the tiger salamander. Thirteen animals received small injections of tritiated leucine into different regions of the dorsal or the ventral olfactory epithelium, or into the ventrolateral, "vomeronasal organ". The results show that the anterior-to-posterior axes in the dorsal and ventral epithelia are represented along the ventral-to-dorsal axis in the rostral end of the olfactory bulb. The "vomeronasal organ" projects to the caudal end of the bulb. We conclude that the central projection of the olfactory epithelium in the tiger salamander is topographically organised only along the antero-posterior axis and not the medio-lateral axis. Thus epithelial receptor cell activity along the anteroposterior axis would be represented in the glomerular layer of the bulb by activity along its ventro-dorsal axis.

  7. Prediction of visceral response to multi-directional loading as measured by the chestband.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2012-09-01

    Thoracic and abdominal injury outcomes are correlated to chestband-derived uniaxial metrics in post-mortem human specimen (PMHS) experiments. Yet, uniaxial metrics may neglect deformations remote from the measurement site which still may be relevant to injury risk in motor vehicle crashes. Using 2D chestband contours from PMHS experiments, visceral strain and strain energy density responses were examined using a planar viscoelastic finite element model. The model was exercised by applying to the periphery 21 subject-specific PMHS chestband deformation patterns representing four boundary conditions: (a) lateral impact with close-proximity torso airbag, (b) stationary close-proximity torso airbag loading, (c) flat rigid lateral impact, and (d) antero-lateral oblique rigid impact. ANOVA determined that mean peak responses were dependent on boundary condition (p<0.002). Using matched-pair experiment injury outcomes, 50% risk of visceral trauma corresponded to localized strain and strain energy density of 1.55 and 33.0 kJ/m(3) (p<0.1). Although strains were large, model response demonstrated sensitivity to impact boundary conditions and observed PMHS trauma. This model formulation is useful for comparative examination of injury risk from torso deformations measured experimentally using the chestband device.

  8. Axillary web syndrome: nature and localization.

    PubMed

    Leduc, O; Sichere, M; Moreau, A; Rigolet, J; Tinlot, A; Darc, S; Wilputte, F; Strapart, J; Parijs, T; Clément, A; Snoeck, T; Pastouret, F; Leduc, A

    2009-12-01

    Axillary Web Syndrome (AWS) is a complication that can arise in patients following treatment for breast cancer. It is also known variously as syndrome of the axillary cords, syndrome of the axillary adhesion, and cording lymphedema. The exact origin, presentation, course, and treatment of AWS is still largely undefined. Because so little is known about AWS, we undertook a case series study consisting of 15 women who had undergone breast cancer surgery and presented with AWS. All subjects received a clinical examination which included body size determination and detailed measurements of the size and location of the cords. The cords were found to originate from the axilla, continue on the medial aspect of the arm up to the epitrochlea region, then to the anteromedian aspect of the forearm, and finally reaching the base of the thumb. The cords averaged approximately 44% of the limb length. Correlation of the cord location with anatomical studies shows that in fact this path follows the specific course taken by the antero-radial pedicle which arises at the anterior aspect of the elbow from the brachial medial pedicule to anastomose in the axilla at the level of the lateral thoracic chain nodes. Although our series is small, the correspondence between the physical findings and the anatomical studies strongly supports the notion that the cords are lymphatic in origin.

  9. [Chronic anterior and internal instabilities of the knee. Theoretical study. Clinical and radiological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Lemaire, M; Miremad, C

    1983-01-01

    Antero-medial instability of the knee comprises 96 p. 100 of all knee instabilities. In most instances, the instability is moderate and cannot be analyzed without an adequate understanding of the anatomy and mechanics of the joint. They usually occur after forced movement in medial rotation which ruptures the anterior cruciate ligament and may rupture the postero-medial ligament. Less frequently, they appear after a strain in abduction, flexion and lateral rotation. Some degree of hyper-extension may be added to the primary causal strain. Diagnosis is mainly based on the physical examination which determines the type of surgical procedure that should be made. An anterior draw sign and a click in medial rotation are present when the anterior cruciate ligament is torn. When these signs are very marked, it implies an associated tear of the postero-medial ligament. Standard X-rays and arthrography are most important. Arthroscopy is not of great value and only makes it possible to visualize the meniscus lesions which are important for prognosis. The author describes an original concept of the mechanics of rotation of the knee and the pathogenesis of lesions of the medial capsulo-ligamentous layer.

  10. Dynamic balance is impaired after a match in young elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Mereu, Federico; Melis, Marco; Leban, Bruno; Corona, Federica; Ibba, Gianfranco

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effect of actual match effort on dynamic balance abilities in young elite soccer players. Seventeen Under 15 male players who compete at national level participated in the study. Their dynamic balance was assessed by having them jump starting with both feet on the ground in a standing position and land on one foot only. Their vertical time to stabilization (vTTS) and postural sway were calculated before and after 35 min of an unofficial match. Postural sway was assessed on the basis of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories. Parameters considered were sway area, COP displacements in the antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions and COP path length. After the match, a significant increase in vTTS (p = 0.007) COP path length (p = 0.001) and COP displacements in ML (p < 0.001) was observed. Such effects involve both non-dominant (vTTS, path length) and dominant limb (COP displacements). The physical effort associated with the match induces significant impairments of players' dynamic balance abilities. On the basis of such findings, coaches might consider integrating training sessions with specific balance exercises as well as performing injury-prevention routines even when players are fatigued, to better adapt them to match conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A mixed longitudinal anthropometric study of craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos 6-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Cleidy; Buschang, Peter H; Camacho, Jesus A; Botero, Paola; Roldan, Samuel

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the craniofacial growth of Colombian mestizos. Four age cohorts, including a total of 458 children and adolescents (262 males and 216 females), were included in this mixed-longitudinal study. The cohorts were first measured at ages 6, 9, 12, and 15 and every year thereafter for 3 years. Eight anthropometric measurements were taken, including three cranial (head perimeter, head width, and head length), two craniofacial (maxillary and mandibular length), and three facial (face height, bizygomatic width, and bigonial width). Multilevel analyses showed that all dimensions increased between 6 and 17 years of age. The cranium grew less than the craniofacial, which in turn grew less than the facial dimensions. In addition, vertical dimensions showed more growth than antero-posterior dimensions, which in turn grew more than transverse dimensions. None of the measurement showed statistically significant growth differences between subjects with normal occlusion and Class I or Class II malocclusions. Males were generally larger than females and showed greater growth rates. Except for facial width, whose yearly velocities decreased regularly with age, an adolescent growth spurt was evident for most of the male measurements. Yearly velocities for females followed a simpler decelerating pattern. The results provide reference data for Colombian mestizos, for whom normative data of other ethnic groups are not applicable. While occlusion had little or no effect, there were gender differences, as well as important growth differences between cranial and facial measurements.

  12. Relationship between flexion-rotation test and ultrasound thickness measurement of the abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Rajabzadeh, Fatemeh; Taghipour, Morteza; Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Arab, Amir Massoud

    2016-11-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between flexion-rotation test and ultrasound (US) thickness measurement of the antero-lateral abdominal muscles. Following ethical approval, a convenience sample of 55 subjects between the ages of 20 and 30 years participated in this study. Endurance of the abdominal muscles was measured using the flexion-rotation test in all subjects. US thickness measurement for the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was performed on the right side at rest in a supine position. Pearson correlation coefficient between the variables of the study showed no significant relationship between the flexion-rotation test and US thickness measurements of the TrA (r = -0.03, P = 0.80), IO (r = -0.13, P = 0.32), and EO (r = -0.14, P = 0.31) muscles. The significance level of 0.05 was chosen. It seems that there is no significant relationship between the flexion-rotation test and US measurement of abdominal muscles thickness.

  13. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Goulème, Nathalie; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years) who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years) who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration. PMID:26162071

  14. Vascular Anomalies and the Risk of Multiple Aneurysms Development and Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Mazighi, M.; Porter, P. J.; Rodesch, G.; Alvarez, H.; Aghakhani, N.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2002-01-01

    Summary The pathogenesis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is still debated and the prognosis remains severe, especially in multiple aneurysms, where the therapeutic management is complex. The aim of this study was to look for vascular anomalies and assess their relationship with aneurysm formation and bleeding in patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms. A prospective angiographical review was performed on 141 patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms seen from 1992 to 2000. Three hundred and fifty three aneurysms were studied. In 88% of the patients vascular anomalies were found. The most common were: asymmetric caudal basilar fusion (43.2%), variations of the anterior communicating artery (AcoA) complex (31.2%), symmetric caudal basilar fusion (26.2%), antero-inferior cerebellar artery-postero-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA-PICA) (15.6%), extradural origin of the PICA (10.6%), cavernous origin of the ophthalmic artery or dorsal ophthalmic artery (dOPH) (3.5%). Some aneurysm locations were associated with a high rate of vascular anomalies, e.g.: posterior cerebral aneurysm with asymmetric caudal fusion, AcoA aneurysm with AcoA complex variation, basilar tip aneurysm with extradural PICA or symmetric caudal fusion, PI-CA aneurysm with AICA-PICA, para-ophthalmic aneurysm with dOPH. These aneurysm locations bled proportionally more frequently when associated with the related vascular anomaly. In conclusion, these results suggest that vascular anomalies are associated with aneurysm development and bleeding. PMID:20594507

  15. A novel mutation in the SHH long-range regulator (ZRS) is associated with preaxial polydactyly, triphalangeal thumb, and severe radial ray deficiency.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Al Haidan, Yazied; Al Balwi, Mohammed

    2012-10-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) within the posteriorly located zone of polarizing activity is the main controller of the antero-posterior axis of limb development. The ZRS (zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence) is a long-range limb-specific SHH enhancer. Several point mutations in the ZRS have been described in humans. These mutations cause enhanced SHH activity and ectopic anterior expression of SHH and a variable phenotype of preaxial polydactyly and triphalangeal thumb. Absent thumb or radius has not been reported with ZRS mutations. Here, we report on a family with a variable phenotype of preaxial polydactyly as well as absent thumb and radius, with kidney and cardiac defects. The family was screened for SALL1, SALL4, and TBX5 mutations, but all were normal. Finally, they were screened for ZRS mutations, which showed a novel point mutation within the ZRS, NG_009240.1: g.106954C>T (traditional nomenclature: ZRS619C>T) in the five affected members. This mutation was not previously reported in any public domain database, and was not found in our healthy and ethnically matched control individuals or unaffected family members. We hypothesize that interactions of SHH and SALL1 explain the overlapping features of the family described here and patients with Townes-Brocks syndrome.

  16. [Current status of thoracoscopic surgery for thoracic and lumbar spine. Part 2: treatment of the thoracic disc hernia, spinal deformities, spinal tumors, infections and miscellaneous].

    PubMed

    Verdú-López, Francisco; Beisse, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) of the thoracic and lumbar spine has evolved greatly since it appeared less than 20 years ago. It is currently used in a large number of processes and injuries. The aim of this article, in its two parts, is to review the current status of VATS of the thoracic and lumbar spine in its entire spectrum. After reviewing the current literature, we developed each of the large groups of indications where VATS takes place, one by one. This second part reviews and discusses the management, treatment and specific thoracoscopic technique in thoracic disc herniation, spinal deformities, tumour pathology, infections of the spine and other possible indications for VATS. Thoracoscopic surgery is in many cases an alternative to conventional open surgery. The transdiaphragmatic approach has made endoscopic treatment of many thoracolumbar junction processes possible, thus widening the spectrum of therapeutic indications. These include the treatment of spinal deformities, spinal tumours, infections and other pathological processes, as well as the reconstruction of injured spinal segments and decompression of the spinal canal if lesion placement is favourable to antero-lateral approach. Good clinical results of thoracoscopic surgery are supported by growing experience reflected in a large number of articles. The degree of complications in thoracoscopic surgery is comparable to open surgery, with benefits in regard to morbidity of the approach and subsequent patient recovery. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Why WITS? Why not a way beyond?

    PubMed

    Nagar, Shipra; Nagar, Rohit; Raghav, Pradeep

    2014-10-01

    WITS appraisal is a common parameter in cephalometrics to assess maxillo-mandibular skeletal relationship as an adjunct to angle ANB. The high variability of the WITS appraisal is attributable to difficulties or inaccuracies in identifying the occlusal plane or variations due to tooth eruption, dental development or treatment changes by vertical movement of incisors, molars, or both. An extracranial reference line common to both denture bases, instead of the occlusal plane is proposed to assess antero-posterior jaw relationships. A true vertical obtained by plumb line was recorded, while taking the cephalogram for 40 subjects. A line drawn perpendicular to this true vertical gave a stable and reproducible extracranial true horizontal (HOR) reference line. The linear distance between perpendiculars from points A and B was measured as an adjunct to angle ANB. The Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient calculated for the entire sample indicated higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.8712) for the linear measurements on HOR (AH-BH) with respect to the angle ANB when compared with the WITS readings (AO-BO) (r = 0.549). The horizontal appraisal method proposed eliminates the demerits of the occlusal plane and has the merits of simplicity and accuracy in comparison to WITS appraisal.

  18. Why WITS? Why not a way beyond?

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Shipra; Nagar, Rohit; Raghav, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: WITS appraisal is a common parameter in cephalometrics to assess maxillo-mandibular skeletal relationship as an adjunct to angle ANB. The high variability of the WITS appraisal is attributable to difficulties or inaccuracies in identifying the occlusal plane or variations due to tooth eruption, dental development or treatment changes by vertical movement of incisors, molars, or both. Aim: An extracranial reference line common to both denture bases, instead of the occlusal plane is proposed to assess antero-posterior jaw relationships. Materials and Methods: A true vertical obtained by plumb line was recorded, while taking the cephalogram for 40 subjects. A line drawn perpendicular to this true vertical gave a stable and reproducible extracranial true horizontal (HOR) reference line. The linear distance between perpendiculars from points A and B was measured as an adjunct to angle ANB. Result: The Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient calculated for the entire sample indicated higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.8712) for the linear measurements on HOR (AH-BH) with respect to the angle ANB when compared with the WITS readings (AO-BO) (r = 0.549). Conclusion: The horizontal appraisal method proposed eliminates the demerits of the occlusal plane and has the merits of simplicity and accuracy in comparison to WITS appraisal. PMID:25395770

  19. A new approach of assessing sagittal dysplasia: the W angle.

    PubMed

    Bhad, Wasundhara A; Nayak, Subash; Doshi, Umal H

    2013-02-01

    In orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, an accurate antero-posterior measurement of jaw relationships is critically important. Previously described angular and linear measurements can be inaccurate because of their dependency on various factors. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new cephalometric measurement, named the W angle, to assess the sagittal relationship between maxilla and mandible with accuracy and reproducibility. This angle uses three skeletal landmarks--point S, point M, and point G--to measure an angle that indicates the severity and the type of skeletal dysplasia in the sagittal dimension. One hundred and forty-two pre-treatment cephalometric radiographs of patients between the age of 15 and 25 years were selected. They were again subdivided into Classes I, II, and III groups on the basis of Beta angle, Wits appraisal, and ANB angle. The W angle was measured between the perpendicular from point M on S-G line and the M-G line. The mean and the standard deviation for the W angle were calculated. After using the one-way analysis of variance and the Newman-Keuls test, receiver operating characteristics curves were obtained. Results showed that a patient with a W angle between 51 and 56 degrees can be considered to have a Class I skeletal pattern. With an angle less than 51 degrees, patients are considered to have a skeletal Class II relationship and with an angle greater than 56 degrees, patients have a skeletal Class III relationship.

  20. Seminal vesicles of infertile patients with male accessory gland infection: ultrasound evaluation after prolonged treatment with tadalafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible ultrasound seminal vesicle (SV) changes in infertile patients with 'hypertrophic-congestive' (HCUF) or 'fibro-sclerotic' (FSUF) ultrasound form of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) after prolonged administration of tadalafil (TAD), a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. Forty infertile patients with HCUF and 40 patients with FSUF and erectile dysfunction were selected and arbitrarily divided into two groups, who were prescribed TAD 5 mg daily for 3 months, the first 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group A1) or FSUF (group A2) or placebo, the second 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group B1) or FSUF (group B2). All patients underwent scrotal and prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasound evaluation and semen analysis (WHO, 2010) before and after treatment. Group A1 patients showed a significant reduction in fundus/body ratio and higher pre- and post-ejaculatory body SV antero-posterior diameter difference compared with the other three groups. These patients showed also a significant increase in SV ejection fraction and a significant improvement in the total sperm count, progressive motility, seminal levels of fructose and ejaculate volume. These results suggest that infertile patients with HCUF had an improvement in SV ultrasound features suggestive of chronic inflammation after daily treatment with low doses of TAD. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. An Extremely Giant Lumbar Schwannoma: New Classification (Kotil) and Mini-Open Microsurgical Resection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purely extradural giant lumbar schwannomas are rare lesions. Classification of these tumors is performed according to the sizes and spills and is named the modified Sridhar's classification. The management of these tumors has traditionally been performed by combined antero-posterior large or two-stage exposures. This combined exposure has many disadvantages. Recent reports have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of removal of these tumors using mini-open micro surgical resection for the schwannomas, but the safety and efficacy have not been established for extremely large giant tumors. We report a case of a giant L4 dumb-bell schwannoma successfully resected through a mini-open micro surgical resection. These neoplasms can be safely and effectively treated with mini-open techniques. Reduction in blood loss, hospitalization, and tissue disruption may be potential benefits of this approach. We discuss the technical details of this surgical approach along with the limitations and possible complications. In addition, this study is included in the current schwannoma (Kotil) classification. PMID:25187870

  2. Impact of Region-of-Interest Delineation Methods, Reconstruction Algorithms, and Intra- and Inter-Operator Variability on Internal Dosimetry Estimates Using PET.

    PubMed

    López-Vilanova, N; Pavía, J; Duch, M A; Catafau, A; Ros, D; Bullich, S

    2017-04-01

    Human dosimetry studies play a central role in radioligand development for positron emission tomography (PET). Drawing regions of interest (ROIs) on the PET images is used to measure the dose in each organ. In the study aspects related to ROI delineation methods were evaluated for two radioligands of different biodistribution (intestinal vs urinary). PET images were simulated from a human voxel-based phantom. Several ROI delineation methods were tested: antero-posterior projections (AP), 3D sub-samples of the organs (S), and a 3D volume covering the whole-organ (W). Inter- and intra-operator variability ROI drawing was evaluated by using human data. The effective dose estimates using S and W methods were comparable to the true values. AP methods overestimated (49 %) the dose for the radioligand with intestinal biodistribution. Moreover, the AP method showed the highest inter-operator variability: 11 ± 1 %. The sub-sampled organ method showed the best balance between quantitative accuracy and inter- and intra-operator variability.

  3. One stage hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy: surgical technique and initial results

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Gerardo; Comba, Fernando; Genovesi, Eduardo; Buttaro, Martin; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Aim: We purposed to describe the surgical technique and preliminary outcomes of combined arthroscopic and periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) for the treatment of non-arthritic hip dysplasia. Methods: Between May and August 2015, 4 patients (3 female, 1 male) with an average age of 29 years old (range; 22-33) had undergone one-stage hip arthroscopy and periacetabular osteotomy. Primary symptom was pain associated with instability. Upon radiographic examination, mean lateral center-edge angle of Wiberg was 12° (range; 7°-18°). Intra-articular findings were computed and primary outomes were as follows: radiographic angular correction; time to healing after pelvis osteotomy and functional results according to Merle D’Aubigné Score. Results: Minimum follow-up was 6 months whereas maximum was 9 months. Mean surgical time was 98 minutes for hip arthroscopy and 132 minutes for the osteotomy. In all cases, a lesion of the antero-superior labrum and the chondro-labral junction was found and repaired. After correction, overall postoperative center-edge angle was 29° (range; 25°-35°). Bone healing was certified in all cases at 6 months postoperatively. Overall Merle D’Aubigné Score was 17/18 points. Conclusion: Combined treatment of non-arthritic hip dysplasia with hip arthroscopy and PAO obtained good clinical and radiological outcomes. Former arthroscopy enables the diagnosis of cartilage lesions and intra-articular pathology as well as it aids in proceeding or not to an open correction.

  4. Epilepsy surgery in a liver-transplanted girl with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis following PRES with status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Dilena, Robertino; Nebbia, Gabriella; Fiorica, Lorenzo; Farallo, Marcello; Degrassi, Irene; Gozzo, Francesca; Pelliccia, Veronica; Barbieri, Sergio; Cossu, Massimo; Tassi, Laura

    2016-07-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) with status epilepticus may occur after liver transplant. This may rarely lead to refractory epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). We report the first case of epilepsy surgery in a liver-transplanted patient with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. A 3-year-old girl underwent liver transplant for congenital biliary atresia. Four days after transplant she manifested PRES with status epilepticus, but she recovered within a couple of weeks. At the age of 5 years she started presenting complex partial seizures, that became refractory to antiepileptic drugs (AED), worsening psychosocial performances. The pre-surgical work-up identified a left HS and temporal pole alterations. A left antero-mesial temporal lobectomy was performed, leading to epilepsy remission and allowing AED withdrawal. Drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and HS may occur as sequelae of PRES with status epilepticus related to liver transplant and cyclosporine use. In this setting early epilepsy surgery may reduce the time of chronic exposure to AED and severe illness due to repeated seizures. This option might have additional advantages in the subgroup of epileptic patients with liver transplant, preserving the liver from the potential damage due to multiple AED trials and their interaction with commonly used immunosuppressant drugs. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Walking patterns and hip contact forces in patients with hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Skalshøi, Ole; Iversen, Christian Hauskov; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Jacobsen, Julie; Mechlenburg, Inger; Søballe, Kjeld; Sørensen, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have investigated walking characteristics in hip dysplasia patients, but so far none have described all hip rotational degrees of freedom during the whole gait cycle. This descriptive study reports 3D joint angles and torques, and furthermore extends previous studies with muscle and joint contact forces in 32 hip dysplasia patients and 32 matching controls. 3D motion capture data from walking and standing trials were analysed. Hip, knee, ankle and pelvis angles were calculated with inverse kinematics for both standing and walking trials. Hip, knee and ankle torques were calculated with inverse dynamics, while hip muscle and joint contact forces were calculated with static optimisation for the walking trials. No differences were found between the two groups while standing. While walking, patients showed decreased hip extension, increased ankle pronation and increased hip abduction and external rotation torques. Furthermore, hip muscle forces were generally lower and shifted to more posteriorly situated muscles, while the hip joint contact force was lower and directed more superiorly. During walking, patients showed lower and more superiorly directed hip joint contact force, which might alleviate pain from an antero-superiorly degenerated joint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ruptured aortic arch aneurysm: transposition of aortic arch branches after insertion of thoracic endovascular stent with extra-anatomic brain perfusion.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Roberto; Bonifazi, Raffaele; Gucciardo, Marco; Pantaleo, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    Conventional surgical treatment of a ruptured aortic arch aneurysm is a challenging approach with a high rate of adverse outcomes. The midsternotomy can be complicated by total aortic disruption with often fatal massive hemorrhage. A preliminary cardiopulmonary bypass with peripheral cannulation and cooling is often preferred. Endovascular stents have been used in patients with thoraco-abdominal aneurysms, with good results. Its lone utilization for rupture of aortic arch aneurysm is not feasible because of the unavoidable occlusion of cerebral vessels' origins. A previous aorto-bicarotid bypass is mandatory and it requires the midsternotomy. Hence, we developed a combined technique. We performed a hybrid approach in a 74-year-old patient, affected by an aortic arch aneurysm, ruptured in its antero-inferior portion. First we ensured brain perfusion with a temporary surgical extra-anatomic (femoral-bicarotid) bypass. Then an endovascular stent graft was expanded from the distal portion of ascending aorta to the proximal one of the thoracic aorta, thus excluding the ruptured portion of the aortic arch. Then the patient underwent the definitive aorto-carotid bypass. This specific combined technique allows the complete treatment of a ruptured arch aneurysm, lowering the risks connected with sternothomic approach, mainly with previous cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

  7. Radiological study of the knee joint line position measured from the fibular head and proximal tibial landmarks.

    PubMed

    Havet, Eric; Gabrion, Antoine; Leiber-Wackenheim, Frederic; Vernois, Joël; Olory, Bruno; Mertl, Patrice

    2007-06-01

    Restoring the joint line level is one of the surgical challenges during revision of total knee arthroplasty. The position of the tibial surface is commonly estimated by its distance to the apex of fibular head, but no study evaluating this distance accurately has been published yet. The purpose of this work was to study the distance between the knee joint line and the apex of the fibular head and the proximal tibia, particularly the tibial tuberosity. Variability with clinical data and relations with other local measurements have been evaluated on knee radiographs (an antero-posterior view, a medio-lateral view and an anteroposterior full length view) of 100 subjects (125 knees). Results showed no correlation between the joint line-fibular head apex distance and any clinical data of the patients, or any other performed measurements. Relations between tibial measurements and the sexe or the height of the subjects were noted. Besides, the review of the 25 bilateral cases did not show statistically significant side difference but the descriptive analysis showed too large discrepancies for the joint line-fibular head apex distance to be used as a landmark. We conclude that the fibular head apex cannot be used as a morphologic landmark to determine the knee joint line position. Its interest in clinical and surgical practice must be discussed.

  8. Backward and forward leaning postures modelled by an fBm framework.

    PubMed

    Rougier, P; Burdet, C; Farenc, I; Berger, L

    2001-09-01

    Body leaning effects on postural control have been assessed by recording the centre of pressure (CP) displacements in healthy subjects under three experimental conditions (REF, BWD and FWD corresponding to upright, backward leaning and forward leaning of the body, respectively). The CP displacements were used to compute the motions of the vertical projections of the centre of gravity (CG(v)) and those of the difference CP-CG(v). A frequential analysis shows that the main effect takes place on CP-CG(v) motions, suggesting increased muscular activity in these leaning postures. In addition, changes also occur on CG(v) motions, especially in the antero-posterior (AP) direction. Modelling these motions as fractional Brownian motion (fBm) indicates that leaning the body induces, in the AP direction, a shift in the time interval Deltat at which the corrective process takes over the initial one operating in open-loop. In FWD and BWD conditions, the Deltat is diminished whilst the mean distance covered at this Deltat is increased for both CG(v) and CP-CG(v) motions. Moreover, more determinism in the overall upright stance control is observed in the corrective (closed-loop) process involving CG(v) motions. These facts emphasize the inability for the CP displacements to express properly the overall body sway in upright stance control.

  9. Bi-iliac distance and iliac bone position compared to the vertebral column in normal fetal development.

    PubMed

    Hartling, U B; Fischer Hansen, B; Skovgaard, L T; Kjaer, I

    2001-03-01

    Prenatal standards of bi-iliac width were not found in the literature based on autopsy investigations, nor was the caudo-cranial position of the ilia compared to the vertebral column. The first purpose of the present study was to establish normal standard values for the bi-iliac distance in fetal life, the second to evaluate the level of the iliac bones proportional to the ossified vertebral column. Whole body radiographs in antero-posterior projections from 98 human fetuses (36 female and 44 male fetuses, as well as 18 fetuses on which the sex had not been determined) were analyzed in the study. The fetuses derived from spontaneous or induced abortions and they were radiographed as part of the required autopsy procedure. The crown-rump-length (CRL) of the fetuses varied from 32 to 245 mm. The outer and inner bi-iliac distance was measured from the radiographs with a digital Helios slide caliper. The caudo-cranial position of the iliac bones was evaluated. The present study shows that in normal fetal development there is a continuous linear enlargement of the pelvic region in the transverse and vertical planes. The upper iliac contour stays at the level of the first sacral vertebral body, whereas the lower iliac line moves caudally. Significant differences between male and female fetuses were not found. The value of the present study is that the results can be used as reference standards in prenatal pathology. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. An improved MCNP version of the NORMAN voxel phantom for dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, P.; Gualdrini, G.

    2005-09-01

    In recent years voxel phantoms have been developed on the basis of tomographic data of real individuals allowing new sets of conversion coefficients to be calculated for effective dose. Progress in radiation studies brought ICRP to revise its recommendations and a new report, already circulated in draft form, is expected to change the actual effective dose evaluation method. In the present paper the voxel phantom NORMAN developed at HPA, formerly NRPB, was employed with MCNP Monte Carlo code. A modified version of the phantom, NORMAN-05, was developed to take into account the new set of tissues and weighting factors proposed in the cited ICRP draft. Air kerma to organ equivalent dose and effective dose conversion coefficients for antero-posterior and postero-anterior parallel photon beam irradiations, from 20 keV to 10 MeV, have been calculated and compared with data obtained in other laboratories using different numerical phantoms. Obtained results are in good agreement with published data with some differences for the effective dose calculated employing the proposed new tissue weighting factors set in comparison with previous evaluations based on the ICRP 60 report.

  11. Distinct molecular cues ensure a robust microtubule-dependent nuclear positioning in the Drosophila oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, Nicolas; Lepesant, Jean-Antoine; Bernard, Fred; Legent, Kevin; Bosveld, Floris; Martin, Charlotte; Faklaris, Orestis; Bellaïche, Yohanns; Coppey, Maïté; Guichet, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Controlling nucleus localization is crucial for a variety of cellular functions. In the Drosophila oocyte, nuclear asymmetric positioning is essential for the reorganization of the microtubule (MT) network that controls the polarized transport of axis determinants. A combination of quantitative three-dimensional live imaging and laser ablation-mediated force analysis reveal that nuclear positioning is ensured with an unexpected level of robustness. We show that the nucleus is pushed to the oocyte antero-dorsal cortex by MTs and that its migration can proceed through distinct tracks. Centrosome-associated MTs favour one migratory route. In addition, the MT-associated protein Mud/NuMA that is asymmetrically localized in an Asp-dependent manner at the nuclear envelope hemisphere where MT nucleation is higher promotes a separate route. Our results demonstrate that centrosomes do not provide an obligatory driving force for nuclear movement, but together with Mud, contribute to the mechanisms that ensure the robustness of asymmetric nuclear positioning. PMID:28447612

  12. Prosthodontic approach to treat obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Annapurna, K; Suganya, S; Vasanth, R; Kumar, P Ranjith

    2014-07-01

    Sleep disordered breathing represents a continuum, ranging from simple snoring sans sleepiness, upper-airway resistance syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, to hypercapnic respiratory failure. Fifty seven articles formed the initial database and a final total of 50 articles were selected to form this review report. Four months were spent on the collection and retrieval of the articles. Articles were selected based on accuracy and evidence in the scientific literature. Oral appliances (OAs) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer them to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for those who do not respond to, are not appropriate candidates for, or for those who have failed treatment attempts with CPAP. OAs protrude the mandible and hold it in a forward and downward position. As a consequence, the upper airway enlarges antero-posteriorly and laterally, improving its stability. Although OA are effective in some patients with OSA, they are not universally suitable. Compliance with OAs depends mainly on the balance between the perception of benefit and the side effects. In conclusion, marked variability is illustrated in the individual response to OA therapy and hence the treatment outcome is subjective.

  13. Prosthodontic Approach to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Annapurna, K; Suganya, S; Vasanth, R; Kumar, P Ranjith

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing represents a continuum, ranging from simple snoring sans sleepiness, upper-airway resistance syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, to hypercapnic respiratory failure. Fifty seven articles formed the initial database and a final total of 50 articles were selected to form this review report. Four months were spent on the collection and retrieval of the articles. Articles were selected based on accuracy and evidence in the scientific literature. Oral appliances (OAs) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer them to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for those who do not respond to, are not appropriate candidates for, or for those who have failed treatment attempts with CPAP. OAs protrude the mandible and hold it in a forward and downward position. As a consequence, the upper airway enlarges antero-posteriorly and laterally, improving its stability. Although OA are effective in some patients with OSA, they are not universally suitable. Compliance with OAs depends mainly on the balance between the perception of benefit and the side effects. In conclusion, marked variability is illustrated in the individual response to OA therapy and hence the treatment outcome is subjective. PMID:25221691

  14. Cephalometric evaluation of the airway space and head posture in children with normal and atypical deglutition: correlations study.

    PubMed

    Almiro, Jose Machado Junior; Crespo, Agrício N

    2013-11-01

    Head posture has been related to pharyngeal space, especially in the syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults. However no studies were found that evaluated the possible correlation between head posture and pharyngeal airway space measured in children with atypical swallowing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible correction between head posture and the measurement of pharyngeal space on radiographs of children who were in the period of mixed dentition who demonstrated atypical swallowing and in children with normal deglutition. A retrospective clinical study, using cephalometric analysis of lateral radiographs to obtain measures of the antero-posterior dimension of the pharyngeal airway space (PAS) and the angle formed between the base of the skull and the odontoid process (CC1) between two groups: the 55 radiographs experimental group (with atypical swallowing) and 55 radiographs of the control group (normal swallowing). The Spearman Coefficient of Correlation was used to evaluate the possible relationship between PAS and CC1 was used. Results indicated a positive correlation between measures of CC1 and PAS (r = 0357) only in the control group (normal swallowing). There is positive correlation between head posture and measure pharyngeal airway space (PAS) in the group of normal swallowing. This correlation was not observed in the experimental group (atypical swallowing).

  15. Characteristics of neurovascular compression in facial neuralgia patients by 3D high-resolution MRI and fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zi-Yi; Chen, Jing; Yang, Guang; Tang, Qian-Yu; Chen, Cai-Xiang; Fu, Shui-Xi; Yu, Dan

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the anatomical characteristics and patterns of neurovascular compression in patients suffering trigeminal neuralgia, using 3D high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging methods and fusion technologies. The analysis of the anatomy of the facial nerve, brain stem and the vascular structures related to this nerve was made in 100 consecutive patients for TN. 3D high resolution MRI studies (3D SPGR, T1 enhanced 3D MP-RAGE and T2/T1 3D FIESTA) simultaneous visualization were used to assessed using the software 3D DOCTOR. In 93 patients (93%), there were one or several locals of neurovascular compression (NVC). The superior cerebellar artery was involved in 71 cases (76%), the other vessels including the antero-inferior cerebellar artery, the basilar artery, the vertebral artery, and some venous structures. The mean distance between NVC and nerve origin site in the brainstem was (3.76 ± 2.90) mm). In 39 patients (42%), the vascular compression was located proximally and in 42 (45%) the compression was located distally. Nerve dislocation or distortion by the vessel was observed in 30 cases (32%). This 3D high resolution MRI and image fusion technology could be useful for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in TN. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Does Observation of Postural Imbalance Induce a Postural Reaction?

    PubMed Central

    Tia, Banty; Saimpont, Arnaud; Paizis, Christos; Mourey, France; Fadiga, Luciano; Pozzo, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies bring evidence that action observation elicits contagious responses during social interactions. However automatic imitative tendencies are generally inhibited and it remains unclear in which conditions mere action observation triggers motor behaviours. In this study, we addressed the question of contagious postural responses when observing human imbalance. Methodology/Principal Findings We recorded participants' body sway while they observed a fixation cross (control condition), an upright point-light display of a gymnast balancing on a rope, and the same point-light display presented upside down. Our results showed that, when the upright stimulus was displayed prior to the inverted one, centre of pressure area and antero-posterior path length were significantly greater in the upright condition compared to the control and upside down conditions. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate a contagious postural reaction suggesting a partial inefficiency of inhibitory processes. Further, kinematic information was sufficient to trigger this reaction. The difference recorded between the upright and upside down conditions indicates that the contagion effect was dependent on the integration of gravity constraints by body kinematics. Interestingly, the postural response was sensitive to habituation, and seemed to disappear when the observer was previously shown an inverted display. The motor contagion recorded here is consistent with previous work showing vegetative output during observation of an effortful movement and could indicate that lower level control facilitates contagion effects. PMID:21423622

  17. Lowell Observatory Near-Earth Asteroid Photometric Survey (NEAPS) - 2009 January through 2009 June

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Bruce W.; Bowell, Edward G.; Skiff, Brian A.; Sanborn, Jason J.; McLelland, Kyle P.; Pravec, Petr; Warner, Brian D.

    2014-10-01

    We report the results of the Lowell Observatory Near- Earth Asteroid Photometric Survey (NEAPS) for the period between 2009-01-01 and 2009-06-30. During this period, we obtained our first photometric data for 40 asteroids including 433 Eros, 1943 Anteros, 3554 Amun, 5011 Ptah, (5604) 1992 FE, 5620 Jasonwheeler, (5693) 1993 EA, (8566) 1996 EN, (14402) 1991 DB, (16834) 1997 WU22, (22753) 1998 WT, (35107) 1991 VH, (52768) 1998 OR2, (68350) 2001 MK3, (85867) 1999 BY9, (138883) 2000 YL29, (141052) 2001 XR1, (143651) 2003 QO104, (154244) 2002 KL6, 161989 Cacus, (162385) 2000 BM19, (163758) 2003 OS13, (175706) 1996 FG3, (194386) 2001 VG5, (203217) 2001 FX9, (207945) 1991 JW, (208023) 1999 AQ10, (212546) 2006 SV19, (256412) 2007 BT2, 2001 FE90, 2004 LV3, 2005 BC, 2005 SG19, 2008 QT3, 2008 WL60, 2009 DE47, 2009 DO111, 2009 EP2, 2009 FD, and 2009 JM2. We also report our analysis of 5261 Eureka, a Mars Trojan.

  18. The representation of the ipsilateral visual field in human cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tootell, Roger B. H.; Mendola, Janine D.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine K.; Liu, Arthur K.; Dale, Anders M.

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies of cortical retinotopy focused on influences from the contralateral visual field, because ascending inputs to cortex are known to be crossed. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to demonstrate and analyze an ipsilateral representation in human visual cortex. Moving stimuli, in a range of ipsilateral visual field locations, revealed activity: (i) along the vertical meridian in retinotopic (presumably lower-tier) areas; and (ii) in two large branches anterior to that, in presumptive higher-tier areas. One branch shares the anterior vertical meridian representation in human V3A, extending superiorly toward parietal cortex. The second branch runs antero-posteriorly along lateral visual cortex, overlying motion-selective area MT. Ipsilateral stimuli sparing the region around the vertical meridian representation also produced signal reductions (perhaps reflecting neural inhibition) in areas showing contralaterally driven retinotopy. Systematic sampling across a range of ipsilateral visual field extents revealed significant increases in ipsilateral activation in V3A and V4v, compared with immediately posterior areas V3 and VP. Finally, comparisons between ipsilateral stimuli of different types but equal retinotopic extent showed clear stimulus specificity, consistent with earlier suggestions of a functional segregation of motion vs. form processing in parietal vs. temporal cortex, respectively. PMID:9448246

  19. [Auriculoventricular blocks in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. Course and prognosis. Apropos of 90 cases].

    PubMed

    Hannachi, N; Derbel, F; Ben Ismail, M

    1988-03-01

    The objective is to study the clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics as well as the course of myocardial infarction complicated by atrio-ventricular block (AVB), and to propose a management to acute myocardial infarction with A-V block. This study concerns 90 patients (78 men and 12 women), with a mean age of 58 years. The overall frequency of AVB is 7.6 p. cent. The infarction is most of the time found posteriorly (51 p. cent of the cases). Syncopes are essentially seen in complete AVB (81 p. cent) and with deep antero-septal necrosis (73 p. cent). Heart failure is especially the complication of anterior (73 p. cent) and deep septal (78 p. cent) necrosis. The mortality of myocardial infarction complicated by A-V block (41 p. cent) is higher than that of uncomplicated necroses (15 p. cent). The prognosis is usually favorable in posteriorly located infarctions where the A-V block is usually regressive and benign while it is much more severe in other locations where the conduction disorders associated with severe myocardial lesions. Temporary and/or permanent electrosystolic stimulation must be well codified in its indications which should be broadened, especially in case of anterior or deep septal necrosis.

  20. The distribution and morphological characteristics of cholinergic cells in the brain of monotremes as revealed by ChAT immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Manger, P R; Fahringer, H M; Pettigrew, J D; Siegel, J M

    2002-01-01

    The present study employs choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry to identify the cholinergic neuronal population in the central nervous system of the monotremes. Two of the three extant species of monotreme were studied: the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). The distribution of cholinergic cells in the brain of these two species was virtually identical. Distinct groups of cholinergic cells were observed in the striatum, basal forebrain, habenula, pontomesencephalon, cranial nerve motor nuclei, and spinal cord. In contrast to other tetrapods studied with this technique, we failed to find evidence for cholinergic cells in the hypothalamus, the parabigeminal nucleus (or nucleus isthmus), or the cerebral cortex. The lack of hypothalamic cholinergic neurons creates a hiatus in the continuous antero-posterior aggregation of cholinergic neurons seen in other tetrapods. This hiatus might be functionally related to the phenomenology of monotreme sleep and to the ontogeny of sleep in mammals, as juvenile placental mammals exhibit a similar combination of sleep elements to that found in adult monotremes.

  1. Imprinting modulates processing of visual information in the visual wulst of chicks

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Fumihiko; Komine, Okiru; Sato, Katsushige; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Uchimura, Motoaki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2006-01-01

    Background Imprinting behavior is one form of learning and memory in precocial birds. With the aim of elucidating of the neural basis for visual imprinting, we focused on visual information processing. Results A lesion in the visual wulst, which is similar functionally to the mammalian visual cortex, caused anterograde amnesia in visual imprinting behavior. Since the color of an object was one of the important cues for imprinting, we investigated color information processing in the visual wulst. Intrinsic optical signals from the visual wulst were detected in the early posthatch period and the peak regions of responses to red, green, and blue were spatially organized from the caudal to the nasal regions in dark-reared chicks. This spatial representation of color recognition showed plastic changes, and the response pattern along the antero-posterior axis of the visual wulst altered according to the color the chick was imprinted to. Conclusion These results indicate that the thalamofugal pathway is critical for learning the imprinting stimulus and that the visual wulst shows learning-related plasticity and may relay processed visual information to indicate the color of the imprint stimulus to the memory storage region, e.g., the intermediate medial mesopallium. PMID:17101060

  2. Imprinting modulates processing of visual information in the visual wulst of chicks.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Fumihiko; Komine, Okiru; Sato, Katsushige; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Uchimura, Motoaki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2006-11-14

    Imprinting behavior is one form of learning and memory in precocial birds. With the aim of elucidating of the neural basis for visual imprinting, we focused on visual information processing. A lesion in the visual wulst, which is similar functionally to the mammalian visual cortex, caused anterograde amnesia in visual imprinting behavior. Since the color of an object was one of the important cues for imprinting, we investigated color information processing in the visual wulst. Intrinsic optical signals from the visual wulst were detected in the early posthatch period and the peak regions of responses to red, green, and blue were spatially organized from the caudal to the nasal regions in dark-reared chicks. This spatial representation of color recognition showed plastic changes, and the response pattern along the antero-posterior axis of the visual wulst altered according to the color the chick was imprinted to. These results indicate that the thalamofugal pathway is critical for learning the imprinting stimulus and that the visual wulst shows learning-related plasticity and may relay processed visual information to indicate the color of the imprint stimulus to the memory storage region, e.g., the intermediate medial mesopallium.

  3. Hybrid closure of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture enlargement after transcathether closure with Amplatzer occluder.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Cláudia; de Oliveira, Eduardo Infante; Martins, Susana Robalo; Nobre, Angelo; da Silva, Pedro Canas; Diogo, António Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is nowadays a rare complication of myocardial infarction (MI), but with a mortality rate still very high. Urgent surgical correction is recommended, although in specific cases percutaneous closure of a post-infarct VSR is a therapeutic option or a bridge to surgical correction. We report a case of an 80-year-old woman, with a subacute anterior MI with an antero-septal VSR. Rapid clinical deterioration in a high-surgical-risk patient led us to attempt percutaneous VSR closure at day 8 post MI. A 16-mm Amplatzer post-infarction (PI) muscular VSD closed the defect with intra-cardiac echocardiography guidance, that allowed conscious sedation. Clinical and haemodynamic improvement was immediate. Unfortunately, a small orifice distal to the device persisted, which enlarged to 8 mm over the following days, with a Qp/Qs shunt of 1.9. At day 17 post MI, the VSR was surgically closed by suturing the Amplatzer device to the septum. A residual shunt was evident, but with no progression, being the patient discharged in NYHA class I. Percutaneous closure of a post-MI VSR as a bridge to surgery is a therapeutic option in patients with high surgical risk, allowing haemodynamic stabilization and thus gaining time for a further surgical intervention if needed, improving these patients grim prognosis. Intra-cardiac echocardiography for monitoring the percutaneous procedure instead of a transoesophageal approach, as well as the surgical technique, make this case unique.

  4. The transparaspinal approach: A novel technique for one-step removal of dumb-bell-shaped spinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepak Kumar; Singh, Neha; Rastogi, Manu; Husain, Mazhar

    2011-07-01

    Complex dumb-bell spinal tumors are challenging surgical lesions. Combined antero-posterior exposures have traditionally been used in their management. This combined exposure has the disadvantage of a two-stage operation with transthoracic or retroperitoneal dissection. With better understanding of biomechanics of spine and evolution of microsurgical technique, there has been resurgence of single stage surgeries, among which the transparaspinal exposure provides the simplest and the most direct route for resection of dumb-bell tumors. A 16-year-old male was admitted with history of back pain with radiation to left lower limb for 6 months, progressive weakness of both lower limbs for two months, and hesitancy of micturition for 1 month. A clinical diagnosis of cauda-conus lesion was made. Radiological investigations revealed a complex dumb-bell spinal tumor extending from lower part of L2-L4 vertebra, with large paraspinal extension through left L3 intervertebral foramina. Tumor was successfully removed in one step using a transparaspinal approach. We discuss technical details of this novel approach along with limitations and possible complications.

  5. A comparison of conventional and grid techniques for chest radiography in field surveys

    PubMed Central

    Washington, J. S.; Dick, J. A.; Jacobsen, M.; Prentice, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    Washington, J. S., Dick, J. A., Jacobsen, M., and Prentice, W. M. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 365-374. A comparison of conventional and grid techniques for chest radiography in field surveys. The effect on the quality of chest radiographs using a reciprocating grid with a moderately high kilovoltage (96 to 105 kV) has been studied. A total of 1 710 mineworkers had two postero-anterior chest radiographs taken at the same visit to a linked pair of mobile ϰ-ray units. One film was taken with conventional exposure factors and the other with moderately high kilovoltage and a reciprocating grid. The grid was exchanged between the two units according to a randomized plan so that the first radiograph was not always taken with the same technique. The 3 420 films so produced were subsequently assessed for quality by five doctors experienced in reading chest films. The films were examined singly in random order and the reader did not know which technique had been used for a given film. Four of the readers recorded improved quality using the grid technique for films from men whose antero-posterior chest measurements exceeded 254 mm (10 in), but they preferred the conventional exposure technique for films from men whose chest measurements were less than 254 mm. Results from all film pairs where a difference in quality was recorded showed no overall advantage for either technique. PMID:4753720

  6. Real-time gait event detection for normal subjects from lower trunk accelerations.

    PubMed

    González, Rafael C; López, Antonio M; Rodriguez-Uría, Javier; Alvarez, Diego; Alvarez, Juan C

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we report on a novel algorithm for the real-time detection and timing of initial (IC) and final contact (FC) gait events. We process the vertical and antero-posterior accelerations registered at the lower trunk (L3 vertebra). The algorithm is based on a set of heuristic rules extracted from a set of 1719 steps. An independent experiment was conducted to compare the results of our algorithms with those obtained from a Digimax force platform. The results show small deviations from times of occurrence of events recorded from the platform (13+/-35 ms for IC and 9+/-54 ms for FC). Results for the FC timing are especially relevant in this field, as no previous work has addressed its temporal location through the processing of lower trunk accelerations. The delay in the real-time detection of the IC is 117+/-39 ms and 34+/-72 ms for the FC, improving previously reported results for real-time detection of events from lower trunk accelerations.

  7. Duplication at chromosome 2q31.1-q31.2 in a family presenting syndactyly and nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Ghoumid, Jamal; Andrieux, Joris; Sablonnière, Bernard; Odent, Sylvie; Philippe, Nathalie; Zanlonghi, Xavier; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; Bardyn, Thomas; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel

    2011-11-01

    HOXD genes encode transcription factors involved in the antero-posterior patterning of the limb bud and in the specification of fingers. During the embryo development, HOXD genes are expressed, following a spatio-temporal colinearity that involves at least three regions, centrometric and telomeric to this cluster. Here, we describe a father and a daughter presenting a 3-4 hand bilateral syndactyly associated with a nystagmus. Array-comparative genomic hybridisation showed a 3.8 Mb duplication at 2q31.1-q31.2, comprising 27 genes including the entire HOXD cluster. We performed expression studies in lymphoblasts by reverse transcription-PCR and observed an HOXD13 and HOXD10 overexpression, whereas the HOXD12 expression was decreased. HOXD13 and HOXD10 overexpression, associated with a misregulation of at least HOXD12, may therefore induce the syndactyly. Deletions of the HOXD cluster and its regulatory sequences induce hand malformations and, particularly, finger anomalies. Recently, smaller duplications of the same region have been reported in association with a mesomelic dysplasia, type Kantaputra. We discuss the variable phenotypes associated with such 2q duplications.

  8. Zygomatic bone shape in intentional cranial deformations: a model for the study of the interactions between skull growth and facial morphology.

    PubMed

    Ketoff, S; Girinon, F; Schlager, S; Friess, M; Schouman, T; Rouch, P; Khonsari, R H

    2017-04-01

    Intentional cranial deformations (ICD) were obtained by exerting external mechanical constraints on the skull vault during the first years of life to permanently modify head shape. The repercussions of ICD on the face are not well described in the midfacial region. Here we assessed the shape of the zygomatic bone in different types of ICDs. We considered 14 non-deformed skulls, 19 skulls with antero-posterior deformation, nine skulls with circumferential deformation and seven skulls with Toulouse deformation. The shape of the zygomatic bone was assessed using a statistical shape model after mesh registration. Euclidian distances between mean models and Mahalanobis distances after canonical variate analysis were computed. Classification accuracy was computed using a cross-validation approach. Different ICDs cause specific zygomatic shape modifications corresponding to different degrees of retrusion but the shape of the zygomatic bone alone is not a sufficient parameter for classifying populations into ICD groups defined by deformation types. We illustrate the fact that external mechanical constraints on the skull vault influence midfacial growth. ICDs are a model for the study of the influence of epigenetic factors on craniofacial growth and can help to understand the facial effects of congenital skull malformations such as single or multi-suture synostoses, or of external orthopedic devices such as helmets used to correct deformational plagiocephaly. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  9. A single session of perturbation-based gait training with the A-TPAD improves dynamic stability in healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Dario; Kang, Jiyeon; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2017-07-01

    Gait and balance disorders are among the most common causes of falls in older adults. Most falls occur as a result of unexpected hazards while walking. In order to improve the effectiveness of current fall-prevention programs, new balance training paradigms aim to strengthen the control of the compensatory responses required after external perturbations. The aim of this study was to analyze the adaptions of reactive and proactive strategies to control stability after repeated exposures to waist-pull perturbations delivered while walking. Eight healthy young subjects participated in a single training session with the Active Tethered Pelvic assisted Device (A-TPAD). Participants were exposed to repeated multi-directional perturbations of increasing intensity. The Antero-Posterior (AP) and Medio-Lateral (ML) Base of Support (BoS) and Margin of Stability (MoS) during the response to diagonal perturbations were compared before and after the training. Results showed that participants adapted both the reactive and proactive strategies to control walking balance by significantly increasing their pre- and post-perturbation stability. The changes were principally accounted for by an increment of the AP BoS and MoS and a reduction of ML BoS. This improved their ability to react to a diagonal perturbation. We envision that this system can be used to develop a perturbation-based gait training aimed at improving balance and control of stability during walking, thus reducing fall risk.

  10. Measuring the dynamic mechanical response of hydrated mouse bone by nanoindentation

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Siddhartha; Swadener, J. Gregory; Kalidindi, Surya R.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Jepsen, Karl J.; Goldman, Haviva M.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel approach to characterizing hydrated bone’s viscoelastic behavior at the lamellar length scales using dynamic indentation techniques. We studied the submicron-level viscoelastic response of bone tissue from two different inbred mouse strains, A/J and B6, with known differences in whole bone and tissue-level mechanical properties. Our results show that bone having a higher collagen content or a lower mineral-to-matrix ratio demonstrates a trend towards a larger viscoelastic response. When normalized for anatomical location relative to biological growth patterns in the antero-medial (AM) cortex, bone tissue from B6 femora, known to have a lower mineral-to-matrix ratio, is shown to exhibit a significantly higher viscoelastic response compared to A/J tissue. Newer bone regions with a higher collagen content (closer to the endosteal edge of the AM cortex) showed a trend towards a larger viscoelastic response. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of this technique to be used to study local composition-property relationships in bone. Further, this technique of viscoelastic nanoindentation mapping of the bone surface at these submicron length scales is shown to be highly advantageous in studying sub-surface features, such as porosity, of wet hydrated biological specimens, which are difficult to identify using other methods. PMID:21094478

  11. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  12. The functional anatomy of the iliotibial band during flexion and extension of the knee: implications for understanding iliotibial band syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, John; Hayashi, Koji; Toumi, Hechmi; Lyons, Kathleen; Bydder, Graeme; Phillips, Nicola; Best, Thomas M; Benjamin, Mike

    2006-03-01

    Iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome is a common overuse injury in runners and cyclists. It is regarded as a friction syndrome where the ITB rubs against (and 'rolls over') the lateral femoral epicondyle. Here, we re-evaluate the clinical anatomy of the region to challenge the view that the ITB moves antero-posteriorly over the epicondyle. Gross anatomical and microscopical studies were conducted on the distal portion of the ITB in 15 cadavers. This was complemented by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of six asymptomatic volunteers and studies of two athletes with acute ITB syndrome. In all cadavers, the ITB was anchored to the distal femur by fibrous strands, associated with a layer of richly innervated and vascularized fat. In no cadaver, volunteer or patient was a bursa seen. The MR scans showed that the ITB was compressed against the epicondyle at 30 degrees of knee flexion as a consequence of tibial internal rotation, but moved laterally in extension. MR signal changes in the patients with ITB syndrome were present in the region occupied by fat, deep to the ITB. The ITB is prevented from rolling over the epicondyle by its femoral anchorage and because it is a part of the fascia lata. We suggest that it creates the illusion of movement, because of changing tension in its anterior and posterior fibres during knee flexion. Thus, on anatomical grounds, ITB overuse injuries may be more likely to be associated with fat compression beneath the tract, rather than with repetitive friction as the knee flexes and extends.

  13. Oligodendrocytes as Regulators of Neuronal Networks during Early Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Maria; Ikrar, Taruna; Kinoshita, Chisato; De Mei, Claudia; Tirotta, Emanuele; Xu, Xiangmin; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2011-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the glial cells responsible for myelin formation. Myelination occurs during the first postnatal weeks and, in rodents, is completed during the third week after birth. Myelin ensures the fast conduction of the nerve impulse; in the adult, myelin proteins have an inhibitory role on axon growth and regeneration after injury. During brain development, oligodendrocytes precursors originating in multiple locations along the antero-posterior axis actively proliferate and migrate to colonize the whole brain. Whether the initial interactions between oligodendrocytes and neurons might play a functional role before the onset of myelination is still not completely elucidated. In this article, we addressed this question by transgenically targeted ablation of proliferating oligodendrocytes during cerebellum development. Interestingly, we show that depletion of oligodendrocytes at postnatal day 1 (P1) profoundly affects the establishment of cerebellar circuitries. We observed an impressive deregulation in the expression of molecules involved in axon growth, guidance and synaptic plasticity. These effects were accompanied by an outstanding increase of neurofilament staining observed 4 hours after the beginning of the ablation protocol, likely dependent from sprouting of cerebellar fibers. Oligodendrocyte ablation modifies localization and function of ionotropic glutamate receptors in Purkinje neurons. These results show a novel oligodendrocyte function expressed during early postnatal brain development, where these cells participate in the formation of cerebellar circuitries, and influence its development. PMID:21589880

  14. RNA:RNA interaction can enhance RNA localization in Drosophila oocytes.

    PubMed

    Hartswood, Eve; Brodie, Jim; Vendra, Georgia; Davis, Ilan; Finnegan, David J

    2012-04-01

    RNA localization is a key mechanism for targeting proteins to particular subcellular domains. Sequences necessary and sufficient for localization have been identified, but little is known about factors that affect its kinetics. Transcripts of gurken and the I factor, a non-LTR retrotransposon, colocalize at the nucleus in the dorso-antero corner of the Drosophila oocyte directed by localization signals, the GLS and ILS. I factor RNA localizes faster than gurken after injection into oocytes, due to a difference in the intrinsic localization ability of the GLS and ILS. The kinetics of localization of RNA containing the ILS are enhanced by the presence of a stem-loop, the A loop. This acts as an RNA:RNA interaction element in vivo and in vitro, and stimulates localization of RNA containing other localization signals. RNA:RNA interaction may be a general mechanism for modulating RNA localization and could allow an mRNA that lacks a localization signal to hitchhike on another RNA that has one.

  15. Making minimally invasive THR safe: conclusions from biomechanical simulation and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J. D.; Alexander, J. A.; Thompson, M. T.; Usrey, M. M.; Heinrich, E. M.; Landon, G. C.; Mathis, K. B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of smaller surgical incisions has become popularized for total hip arthroplasty (THR) because of the potential benefits of shorter recovery and improved cosmetic appearance. However, an increased incidence of serious complications has been reported. To minimize the risks of minimally invasive approaches to THR, we have developed an experimental approach which enables us to evaluate risk factors in these procedures through cadaveric simulations performed within the laboratory. During cadaveric hip replacement procedures performed via posterior and antero-lateral mini-incisions, pressures developed between the wound edges and the retractors were approximately double those recorded during conventional hip replacement using Charnley retractors (p < 0.01). In MIS procedures performed via the dual-incision approach, lack of direct visualisation of the proximal femur led to misalignment of broaches and implants with increased risk of cortical fracture during canal preparation and implant insertion. Cadaveric simulation of surgical procedures allows surgeons to measure variables affecting the technical success of surgery and to master new procedures without placing patients at risk. PMID:17665198

  16. Unsupervised segmentation of heel-strike IMU data using rapid cluster estimation of wavelet features.

    PubMed

    Yuwono, Mitchell; Su, Steven W; Moulton, Bruce D; Nguyen, Hung T

    2013-01-01

    When undertaking gait-analysis, one of the most important factors to consider is heel-strike (HS). Signals from a waist worn Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) provides sufficient accelerometric and gyroscopic information for estimating gait parameter and identifying HS events. In this paper we propose a novel adaptive, unsupervised, and parameter-free identification method for detection of HS events during gait episodes. Our proposed method allows the device to learn and adapt to the profile of the user without the need of supervision. The algorithm is completely parameter-free and requires no prior fine tuning. Autocorrelation features (ACF) of both antero-posterior acceleration (aAP) and medio-lateral acceleration (aML) are used to determine cadence episodes. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) features of signal peaks during cadence are extracted and clustered using Swarm Rapid Centroid Estimation (Swarm RCE). Left HS (LHS), Right HS (RHS), and movement artifacts are clustered based on intra-cluster correlation. Initial pilot testing of the system on 8 subjects show promising results up to 84.3%±9.2% and 86.7%±6.9% average accuracy with 86.8%±9.2% and 88.9%±7.1% average precision for the segmentation of LHS and RHS respectively.

  17. Changes in Striatal Dopamine Release Associated with Human Motor-Skill Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Shoji; Ueki, Yoshino; Kato, Takashi; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Mima, Tatsuya; Hallett, Mark; Ito, Kengo; Ojika, Kosei

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of new motor skills is essential throughout daily life and involves the processes of learning new motor sequence and encoding elementary aspects of new movement. Although previous animal studies have suggested a functional importance for striatal dopamine release in the learning of new motor sequence, its role in encoding elementary aspects of new movement has not yet been investigated. To elucidate this, we investigated changes in striatal dopamine levels during initial skill-training (Day 1) compared with acquired conditions (Day 2) using 11C-raclopride positron-emission tomography. Ten volunteers learned to perform brisk contractions using their non-dominant left thumbs with the aid of visual feedback. On Day 1, the mean acceleration of each session was improved through repeated training sessions until performance neared asymptotic levels, while improved motor performance was retained from the beginning on Day 2. The 11C-raclopride binding potential (BP) in the right putamen was reduced during initial skill-training compared with under acquired conditions. Moreover, voxel-wise analysis revealed that 11C-raclopride BP was particularly reduced in the right antero-dorsal to the lateral part of the putamen. Based on findings from previous fMRI studies that show a gradual shift of activation within the striatum during the initial processing of motor learning, striatal dopamine may play a role in the dynamic cortico-striatal activation during encoding of new motor memory in skill acquisition. PMID:22355391

  18. Reassessment of Olduvai Bed I cercopithecoids: A new biochronological and biogeographical link to the South African fossil record.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher C; Frost, Stephen R; Delson, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Fossil monkeys have long been used as important faunal elements in studies of African Plio-Pleistocene biochronology, particularly in the case of the South African karst cave sites. Cercopithecoid fossils have been known from Tanzania's Olduvai Gorge for nearly a century, with multiple taxa documented including Theropithecus oswaldi and Cercopithecoides kimeui, along with papionins and colobines less clearly attributable to species. A small number of large papionin fossils, including a partial male cranium and partial female skull, have been previously identified as an early form of Papio, but noted as distinct from extant baboons as well as other fossil Papio species. In 2013 we reviewed the Olduvai cercopithecoid material at the National Museum of Tanzania, with a particular focus on the specimens from Beds I-IV. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons of the Olduvai papionins largely confirmed previous observations, with one notable exception. The large papionin taxon from Bed I previously recognized as Papio sp. is more properly recognized as Gorgopithecus major, a taxon previously known only from South Africa. Features shared between the Olduvai specimens and G. major include relatively short and concavo-convex tubular nasals, antero-posteriorly curved upper incisor roots, downwardly curved brow ridges in the midline, and robust zygomatic arches. The recognition of G. major at Olduvai Bed I, a well-known horizon with precise radiometric dates, provides an important biochronological and biogeographical link with South African localities Kromdraai A, Swartkrans Member 1 and possibly Swartkrans Members 2-3 and Cooper's A and D.

  19. In vivo kinematics of knee replacement during daily living activities: Condylar and post-cam contact assessment by three-dimensional fluoroscopy and finite element analyses.

    PubMed

    Belvedere, Claudio; Leardini, Alberto; Catani, Fabio; Pianigiani, Silvia; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2017-07-01

    In total knee replacement, the investigation on the exact contact patterns at the post-cam in implanted patients from real in vivo data during daily living activities is fundamental for validating implant design concepts and assessing relevant performances. This study is aimed at verifying the restoration of natural tibio-femoral condylar kinematics by investigating the post-cam engagement at different motor tasks. An innovative validated technique, combining three-dimensional fluoroscopic and finite element analyses, was applied to measure joint kinematics during daily living activities in 15 patients implanted with guided motion posterior-stabilized total knee replacement. Motion results showed physiological antero-posterior translations of the tibio-femoral condyles for every motor task. However, high variability was observed in the position of the calculated pivot point among different patients and different motor tasks, as well as in the range of post-cam engagement. Physiological tibio-femoral joint rotations and contacts at the condyles were found restored in the present knee replacement. Articular contact patterns experienced at the post-cam were found compatible with this original prosthesis design. The present study reports replaced knee kinematics also in terms of articular surface contacts, both at the condyles and, for the first time, at the post-cam. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1396-1403, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Increased dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography and [11c]raclopride.

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K; Bailer, Ursula F; Henry, Shannan E; Drevets, Wayne; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Price, Julie C; Mathis, Chester A; Wagner, Angela; Hoge, Jessica; Ziolko, Scott; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole; Weissfeld, Lisa; Kaye, Walter H

    2005-12-01

    Several lines of evidence support the possibility that disturbances of dopamine (DA) function could contribute to alterations of weight, feeding, motor activity, and reward in anorexia nervosa (AN). To assess possibly trait-related disturbances but avoid confounding effects of malnutrition, 10 women who were recovered from AN (REC AN) were compared with 12 healthy control women (CW). Positron emission tomography with [(11)C]raclopride was used to assess DA D2/D3 receptor binding. The women who were recovered from AN had significantly higher [(11)C]raclopride binding potential in the antero-ventral striatum than CW. For REC AN, [(11)C]raclopride binding potential was positively related to harm avoidance in the dorsal caudate and dorsal putamen. These data lend support for the possibility that decreased intrasynaptic DA concentration or increased D2/D3 receptor density or affinity is associated with AN and might contribute to the characteristic harm avoidance or increased physical activity found in AN. Most intriguing is the possibility that individuals with AN might have a DA related disturbance of reward mechanisms contributing to altered hedonics of feeding behavior and their ascetic, anhedonic temperament.

  1. Coexistence of melorheostosis and DISH in a female skeleton from Magna Graecia (Sixth Century BC).

    PubMed

    Canci, Alessandro; Marchi, Damiano; Caramella, Davide; Fornaciari, Gino; Borgognini Tarli, Silvana M

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports on a case of massive hyperostotic alterations observed in the skeleton of an adult woman from the necropolis of Montescaglioso Belvedere (Basilicata, Southern Italy) attributed to the Enotrian culture and dated to the 6th century BC. Hyperostotic changes involve joints, the vertebral column, and the lower limbs. In particular, the large flowing ossification in both the thoracic (T6-T10) and lumbar (L2-L5) tracts, the sacralization of L5, accompanied by sacroiliac fusion on the left side, and the proliferative bone production on both the metaphyseal portion of the left tibia and the left third metatarsal are described. The vertebral antero-lateral ossification and the sacroiliac fusion support a diagnosis of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), while the flowing bone formation on the lower limbs supports a diagnosis of melorheostosis. The pathological conditions described here were already described in the literature, but this is the first reported case of the coexistence of DISH and the very rare melorheostosis. Furthermore, the skeleton from Montescaglioso Belvedere represents the first case of this disease described for ancient Europe, therefore adding a valuable contribution to the reconstruction of the antiquity and distribution of skeletal dysplasias. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Direction-specific recruitment of rotator cuff muscles during bench press and row.

    PubMed

    Wattanaprakornkul, Duangjai; Halaki, Mark; Cathers, Ian; Ginn, Karen A

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that rotator cuff (RC) muscles are recruited in a reciprocal, direction-specific pattern during shoulder flexion and extension exercises. The main purpose of this study was to determine if similar reciprocal RC recruitment occurs during bench press (flexion-like) and row (extension-like) exercises. In addition, shoulder muscle activity was comprehensively compared between bench press and flexion; row and extension; and bench press and row exercises. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from 9 shoulder muscles sites in 15 normal volunteers. All exercises were performed at 20, 50 and 70% of subjects' maximal load. EMG data were normalized to standard maximal voluntary contractions. Infraspinatus activity was significantly higher than subscapularis during bench press, with the converse pattern during the row exercise. Significant differences in activity levels were found in pectoralis major, deltoid and trapezius between the bench press and flexion exercises and in lower trapezius between the row and extension exercises. During bench press and row exercises, the recruitment pattern in each active muscle did not vary with load. During bench press and row exercises, RC muscles contract in a reciprocal direction-specific manner in their role as shoulder joint dynamic stabilizers to counterbalance antero-posterior translation forces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differences in intermittent postural control between normal-weight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Villarrasa-Sapiña, Israel; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Garcia-Lucerga, Consolación; Gonzalez, Luis-Millán; Lurbe, Empar

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine differences in postural control between obese and non-obese children. The study design was cross-sectional, prospective, between-subjects. Postural control variables were obtained from a group of obese children and a normal-weight control group under two different postural conditions: bipedal standing position with eyes open and bipedal standing with eyes closed. Variables were obtained for each balance condition using time domain and sway-density plot analysis of the center of pressure signals acquired by means of a force plate. Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between obese and normal-weight children in mean velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions, ellipse area and mean distance with both eyes open and eyes closed. Normal-weight subjects obtained lower values in all these variables than obese subjects. Furthermore, there were differences between both groups in mean peaks with eyes open and in mean time with eyes closed. Alterations were detected in the intermittent postural control in obese children. According to the results obtained, active anticipatory control produces higher center of pressure displacement responses in obese children and the periods during which balance is maintained by passive control and reflex mechanisms are of shorter duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tibial spine fractures: an analysis of outcome in surgically treated type III injuries.

    PubMed

    Mulhall, K J; Dowdall, J; Grannell, M; McCabe, J P

    1999-05-01

    We analysed the outcome of open reduction and internal fixation of type III tibial spine fractures, assessing treatment and determining a treatment protocol. A total of 10 patients presented over 3 years to our institution with a mean age of 15 years (range 10-21), a male-to-female ratio of 8:2. left to right 6:4 and anterior to posterior spine fracture 9:1. Only one patient had associated meniscal injury noted at arthroscopy (no treatment required). The mode of injury was road traffic accidents four, sports injuries three and falls three. The mean follow-up was 9 months. There were seven excellent results and three good results. Those patients with good results exhibited either minimal quadriceps weakness, extensor lag (< 10 degrees) or antero-posterior laxity. This reflects the experience of other authors in dealing with these injuries in younger patients. There is widespread agreement that types I and II should be treated by plaster cast alone and that is also the policy at our institution. We recommend a routine treatment protocol in type III injuries of (1) examination under anaesthesia, (2) arthroscopy (evaluating the fracture, cruciate integrity and other associated injuries), (3) open reduction and screw fixation and (4) vigorous physiotherapy/rehabilitation of all type III fractures, as we feel this provides the best possible outcome in these injuries.

  5. Robot-assisted walking with the Lokomat: the influence of different levels of guidance force on thorax and pelvis kinematics.

    PubMed

    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Knaepen, Kristel; Michielsen, Marc; Clijsen, Ron; Beckwée, David; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Little attention has been devoted to the thorax and pelvis movements during gait. The aim of this study is to compare differences in the thorax and pelvis kinematics during unassisted walking on a treadmill and during walking with robot assistance (Lokomat-system (Hocoma, Volketswil, Switzerland)). 18 healthy persons walked on a treadmill with and without the Lokomat system at 2kmph. Three different conditions of guidance force (30%, 60% and 100%) were used during robot-assisted treadmill walking (30% body weight support). The maximal movement amplitudes of the thorax and pelvis were measured (Polhemus Liberty™ (Polhemus, Colchester, Vermont, USA) (240/16)). A repeated measurement ANOVA was conducted. Robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force showed significantly smaller maximal movement amplitudes for thorax and pelvis, compared to treadmill walking. Only the antero-posterior tilting of the pelvis was significantly increased during robot-assisted treadmill walking compared to treadmill walking. No significant changes of kinematic parameters were found between the different levels of guidance force. With regard to the thorax and pelvis movements, robot-assisted treadmill walking is significantly different compared to treadmill walking. It can be concluded that when using robot assistance, the thorax is stimulated in a different way than during walking without robot assistance, influencing the balance training during gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Vertical development of the face and cervical spine. Diagnostic and therapeutic significance in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Salagnac, J M; Delaire, J; Mercier, J

    1999-04-01

    Vertical growth of the cervical spine, of the mandibula and the upper maxilla are normally anatomically and physiologically correlated. At a very early age the relationships are established between the cervical spine and the angle of the mandibula which is normally level with C2's antero-inferior angle. A parallelism can be noticed between the rhythms of the vertical growth of the cervical spine and the changes of the maxillary in relation to the skull. So relationships are gradually established between the palate level, the top of the odontoid, and the foramen magnum. These relationships are well objectivized on a lateral teleradiography by Delaire' analysis. Lateral teleradiography of the situation of the angle of the mandibula, in relation to the basis of the C2 body should be systematic. It provides much information concerning the growth potential of the condylar unit, and makes possible a differential diagnosis between true or false posterior vertical insufficiency (PVI) and true or false posterior vertical excess (PVE) and to recognize clinical types of skeletal class II and class III of vertical origin.

  7. Effects of emotional videos on postural control in children.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Arthur de Freitas; Palluel, Estelle; Olivier, Isabelle; Nougier, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    The link between emotions and postural control has been rather unexplored in children. The objective of the present study was to establish whether the projection of pleasant and unpleasant videos with similar arousal would lead to specific postural responses such as postural freezing, aversive or appetitive behaviours as a function of age. We hypothesized that postural sway would similarly increase with the viewing of high arousal videos in children and adults, whatever the emotional context. 40 children participated in the study and were divided into two groups of age: group 7-9 years (n=23; mean age=8 years ± 0.7) and group 10-12 years (n=17; mean age=11 years ± 0.7). 19 adults (mean age=25.8 years ± 4.4) also took part in the experiment. They viewed emotional videos while standing still on a force platform. Centre of foot pressure (CoP) displacements were analysed. Antero-posterior, medio-lateral mean speed and sway path length increased similarly with the viewing of high arousal movies in the younger, older children, and adults. Our findings suggest that the development of postural control is not influenced by the maturation of the emotional processing.

  8. Compensatory postural sway while seated posture during tasks in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Yoshimi; Karashima, Chieko; Hoshiyama, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    Postural stability while seated was investigated in 16 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 typically developed (TD) children, aged 7-8 years. The lateral and antero-posterior (A-P) deviations of the centre of pressure (COP) were serially measured during sequential, upper limb, desk-top tasks, including nine subtests. The average COP deviation was larger, especially in the lateral direction, in the group of children with ASD compared with TD children. However, the larger COP deviation in the children with ASD was not generalized across tasks. Analyses of subtests revealed that deviations were different on three and four (of eight) subtests in the lateral and A-P directions, respectively. The time needed to complete each subtest was not correlated with the lateral COP deviation but with A-P deviation during the subtest in the children with ASD. Preserved task performance with marked body sway in the children with ASD suggested that the body sway was not a functionally abnormal movement that disturbed performance but could be a compensatory movement to actually facilitate performance. A new approach with occupational therapy to support such compensatory movement of ASD children could be considered in their school life. Further studies, including those in the classroom, to clarify the relationship between daily task performance and body instability are necessary.

  9. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children.

    PubMed

    Goulème, Nathalie; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years) who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years) who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration.

  10. The impact of focal spot size on clinical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Sinead M.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2009-02-01

    The physical assessment of the spatial resolution produced by broad and fine focal spot sizes has been well established. There is however an evident lack of study into the impact of focal spot selection on clinical image quality. While the excessive use of the fine focus has an impact on tube life, the benefit of its use in radiological imaging should be investigated. Cadaver images were produced in order to compare the 0.8mm and 1.8mm focal spot sizes. The range of radiographic projections assessed included the medio-lateral ankle, antero-posterior (AP) knee, AP thoracic spine and horizontal beam lateral (HBL) lumbar spine. Five clinicians analysed the images using a 1 - 4 visual grading analysis score against a reference image to assess the visibility of specific anatomical criteria. A Mann- Whitney U statistical test was employed to assess the results. No significant statistical differences between the scores for the broad and fine focus images were found, although a non-significant higher score in image quality was shown for the fine compared with the broad focus images with large object to detector distance. No difference in image quality was shown for examinations traditionally produced with a fine focus. The study results questions the wide spread usage of fine foci for specific examinations, particularly for extremity examinations. Current practice based on international guidelines can lead to a reduced life and increased cost with little clinical benefit.

  11. Rib fractures at postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) validated against the autopsy.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Claudia; Hoppe, Hanno; Schweitzer, Wolf; Schwendener, Nicole; Grabherr, Silke; Jackowski, Christian

    2013-12-10

    To evaluate the sensitivity of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) in rib fracture detection validated against autopsy. Fifty-one forensic cases underwent a postmortem CT prior to forensic autopsy. Two image readers (radiologist and forensic pathologist) assessed high resolution CT data sets for rib fractures. Correct recognition rates (CRR), sensitivity and specificity values were calculated over all observations as well as individually for every rib and region. Additionally, for partial rib fractures the sensitivity of autopsy was calculated vice versa. 3876 entries in each study protocol (autopsy, PMCT radiologist and PMCT forensic pathologist) were investigated. A total of 690 fractures (autopsy), 491 (PMCT and radiologist) and 559 (PMCT and forensic pathologist) were detected. The CRR was 0.85. Sensitivity and specificity of PMCT for rib fracture detection were 0.63 (0.58 radiologist, 0.68 forensic pathologist) and 0.97 (both readers 0.97), respectively. Low CRR and sensitivity values were obtained for antero-lateral fractures. Partial rib fractures were better detected by PMCT. PMCT has a rather low sensitivity for rib fracture detection when validated against autopsy and indicates that clinical CT may also demonstrate a reasonable number of false negatives. Partial rib fractures often remain undetected at autopsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sacroiliac joint involvement in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kaçar, Cahit; Sezer, Ilhan; Kocabaş, Hilal; Cay, Hasan Fatih; Cevikol, Can; Alpsoy, Erkan; Melikoğlu, Meltem Alkan; Akman, Ayşe

    2010-07-01

    Psoriasis is a skin disorder that is associated with arthritis. Sacroiliac joint involvement is considered to be less frequent than the other types of psoriatic arthritis. Additionally, the psoriatic sacroiliitis is considered to be asymmetric in general. We aimed to define the frequency and type of sacroiliac involvement in patients with psoriasis. Patients with psoriasis were included the study. Characteristics of skin, nail and articular involvement were noted. Psoriasis area and severity index was calculated. Antero-posterior pelvic X-rays were obtained and graded by two rheumatologists and a radiologist independently. One hundred and thirty-three patients were included. Thirty-seven of patients (27%) have articular involvement symptomatically. The sacroiliac joint involvement was observed in 34 (26%) of patients. More than one-half of sacroiliac involvement was bilateral while less than one-half was in symptomatic patients regarding sacroiliitis. Fifty-seven percentages of all patients have psoriatic nail involvement. Sacroiliac joint involvement did not show any significant association with psoriatic nail involvement or the severity of skin disease. We found higher frequency of sacroiliac joint involvement and bilateral sacroiliitis in patients with psoriasis. This is in contrast to present information about the association of psoriasis and sacroiliitis. These findings need confirmation by further studies and with more sophisticated techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Microsurgical free flaps at Kathmandu Model Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rai, S M; Grinsell, D; Hunter-Smith, D; Corlett, R; Nakarmi, K; Basnet, S J; Shakya, P; Nagarkoti, K; Ghartimagar, M; Karki, B

    2014-01-01

    Microsurgery is an emerging subspecialty in Nepal. Microsurgery was started at Kathmandu Model Hospital in 2007 with the support from Interplast Australia and New Zealand. This study will be useful for establishing a baseline for future comparisons of outcome variables and for defining the challenges of performing microsurgical free flaps in Nepal. A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted using the clinical records of all the microsurgical free flaps performed at Kathmandu Model Hospital from April 2007 to April 2014. Fifty-six free flaps were performed. The commonest indication was neoplasm followed by post-burn contracture, infection and trauma. Radial artery forearm flap was the commonest flap followed by fibula, antero-lateral thigh, rectus, tensor facia lata, lattisimus dorsi, deep inferior epigastric artery perforator, and deep circumflex iliac artery flap. Radial artery forearm flaps and anterolateral thigh flaps were mostly used for burn contracture reconstructions. Twelve of the 13 (92%) fibulae were used for mandibular reconstruction for oral cancer and ameloblastoma. Rectus flaps were used mainly for covering defects over tibia. Hospital stay ranged from six to 67 days with an average of fourteen. Fifteen patients (26%) developed complications. The duration of operation ranged from six hours to 10.5 hours with an average of nine hours. The longest follow up was for four years. Microsurgery can be started even in very resource-poor center if there is support from advanced centers and if there is commitment of the institution and surgical team.

  14. Organ radiation exposure with EOS: GATE simulations versus TLD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, A. H.; Thevenard-Berger, P.; Verdun, F. R.; Létang, J. M.; Darbon, A.

    2016-03-01

    EOS® is an innovative X-ray imaging system allowing the acquisition of two simultaneous images of a patient in the standing position, during the vertical scan of two orthogonal fan beams. This study aimed to compute organs radiation exposure to a patient, in the particular geometry of this system. Two different positions of the patient in the machine were studied, corresponding to postero-anterior plus left lateral projections (PA-LLAT) and antero-posterior plus right lateral projections (AP-RLAT). To achieve this goal, a Monte-Carlo simulation was developed based on a GATE environment. To model the physical properties of the patient, a computational phantom was produced based on computed tomography scan data of an anthropomorphic phantom. The simulations provided several organs doses, which were compared to previously published dose results measured with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD) in the same conditions and with the same phantom. The simulation results showed a good agreement with measured doses at the TLD locations, for both AP-RLAT and PA-LLAT projections. This study also showed that the organ dose assessed only from a sample of locations, rather than considering the whole organ, introduced significant bias, depending on organs and projections.

  15. The interplay of stiffness and force anisotropies drives embryo elongation

    PubMed Central

    Vuong-Brender, Thanh Thi Kim; Ben Amar, Martine; Pontabry, Julien; Labouesse, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The morphogenesis of tissues, like the deformation of an object, results from the interplay between their material properties and the mechanical forces exerted on them. The importance of mechanical forces in influencing cell behaviour is widely recognized, whereas the importance of tissue material properties, in particular stiffness, has received much less attention. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we examine how both aspects contribute to embryonic elongation. Measuring the opening shape of the epidermal actin cortex after laser nano-ablation, we assess the spatiotemporal changes of actomyosin-dependent force and stiffness along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axis. Experimental data and analytical modelling show that myosin-II-dependent force anisotropy within the lateral epidermis, and stiffness anisotropy within the fiber-reinforced dorso-ventral epidermis are critical in driving embryonic elongation. Together, our results establish a quantitative link between cortical tension, material properties and morphogenesis of an entire embryo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23866.001 PMID:28181905

  16. Cytological, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of the adenohypophyseal pars distalis of the kid (Capra hircus): the TSH cell.

    PubMed

    Gomez, M A; Navarro, J A; Gomez, S; Camara, P; Gomez, J C; Bernabé, A

    1989-12-01

    The structure and ultrastructure of the adenohypophyseal pars distalis in kids of the Murciano-granadiana breed (18 males and 12 females), aged 2-3 months and with an average carcass weight of 8 kg has been studied. Techniques of staining (Tetrachrome Herlant's, and Cleveland-Wolfe) and histochemistry (PAS, PAS-OG and BA-PAS-OG) contrasted with immunolabelling (PAP) have been used. In addition an ultrastructural study has been made and nucleus and cytoplasm, secretory granules, mitochondria and lysosomes have been measured with a semiautomatic image analyzer (IBAS-1). TSH cells are found in sagittal section in the anterior area and in an antero-caudodorsal band, and transversally in the ventral and medial region; they are 6% and their average size is 14.15 microns. Ultrastructurally they are a single cellular type with spherical granules whose size is 195 nm in males and 149 in females; these granules are characterized by a clear halo and a variable electronic density. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is found as slightly enlarged vesicles with a homogeneous and moderately electro-dense content or in concentric stratifications.

  17. Epiglottic movements during breathing in humans

    PubMed Central

    Amis, T C; O'Neill, N; Di Somma, E; Wheatley, J R

    1998-01-01

    Using X-ray fluoroscopy we measured antero-posterior (A–P) and cranio-caudal (C–C) displacements of the epiglottic tip (ET), corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone in seven seated, normal human subjects (age 34 ± 3 years; mean ±s.e.m.; 4 males, 3 females) breathing via a nasal mask or mouthpiece with (RL) and without (UB) a fixed resistive load.During UB, via either mouth or nose, there were no significant A-P ET movements. During RL via the nose the ET at peak expiratory flow was 2.6 ± 1.3 mm cranial to its position at peak inspiratory flow (P <0.05, ANOVA). C–C movements of the ET correlated strongly with C-C movements of the corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone.The ET, corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone (at zero airflow) were situated more caudally during oral UB than for any other condition.When present, epiglottic movements during breathing do not appear to be independent of those of the larynx and hyoid. Furthermore, epiglottic position may be related to the level of upper airway resistance. PMID:9729637

  18. Prevalence of malocclusions in Hungarian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gábris, Katalin; Márton, Sándor; Madléna, Melinda

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, associated caries experience, and level of oral hygiene in the Hungarian population using the World Health Organisation (WHO) questionnaire designed to assess dentofacial anomalies. A total of 483 adolescents (289 girls, 194 boys), aged 16-18 years, were assessed. Orthodontic anomalies were detected in 70.4 per cent of the sample. Crowding and spacing were observed in 14.3 and 17 per cent, respectively, with the latter being more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible (10.4 and 2.9 per cent, respectively). A Class I occlusion was found in 52.8 per cent of the subjects. A half cusp anomaly in the antero-posterior molar relationship was more prevalent than a full cusp anomaly (26.9 and 20.3 per cent, respectively). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS), and the visible plaque indices scores (VPI) of the 340 adolescents with malocclusion were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the adolescents who displayed no anomalies. The prevalence of malocclusion in the Hungarian population seems to be comparable with other European communities.

  19. Prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationship.

    PubMed

    Behbehani, Faraj; Roy, Rino; Al-Jame, Badreia

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of occlusal asymmetries in the molar and canine regions in a large population-based sample of adolescent Kuwaitis. Using a stratified cluster sampling method, 1299 Kuwaiti adolescents (674 boys mean age 13.3 years and 625 girls mean age 13.2 years), representing approximately 6.7 per cent of that age stratum in the population, were examined clinically for sagittal molar and canine relationships, with a view to recording half and full-step asymmetries. In this sample, 1244 subjects were examined clinically, while for the remaining 55, pre-treatment study models were assessed. All subjects were in the early permanent dentition stage. Descriptive statistical analyses were used to determine the proportion of different molar and canine asymmetries. Antero-posterior asymmetries were found to be a distinctive and common feature of the dental arches, with half-step outweighing full-step asymmetries both in the anterior and posterior regions. The total prevalence of an asymmetric molar or canine relationship was 29.7 and 41.4 per cent, respectively, with more than 95 per cent falling in the mild category. Patient gender did not influence the prevalence or magnitude of asymmetry. The results showed a clinically significant prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationships, which were mainly in the category of half-step asymmetry. Class II half and full-step asymmetries were more prevalent than Class III asymmetries in the molar and canine regions.

  20. A new training algorithm using artificial neural networks to classify gender-specific dynamic gait patterns.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Andre; Costa, Marcelo; Paolucci, Leopoldo; Braga, Antônio; Pires, Flavio; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Menzel, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a new training algorithm using artificial neural networks called multi-objective least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (MOBJ-LASSO) applied to the classification of dynamic gait patterns. The movement pattern is identified by 20 characteristics from the three components of the ground reaction force which are used as input information for the neural networks in gender-specific gait classification. The classification performance between MOBJ-LASSO (97.4%) and multi-objective algorithm (MOBJ) (97.1%) is similar, but the MOBJ-LASSO algorithm achieved more improved results than the MOBJ because it is able to eliminate the inputs and automatically select the parameters of the neural network. Thus, it is an effective tool for data mining using neural networks. From 20 inputs used for training, MOBJ-LASSO selected the first and second peaks of the vertical force and the force peak in the antero-posterior direction as the variables that classify the gait patterns of the different genders.

  1. A new species of Apolochus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Amphilochidae) in Maryland coastal bays, USA with notes on its abundance and distribution

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G.; Chigbu, Paulinus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new amphilochid amphipod, Apolochus cresti sp. n. is described from specimens collected in the shallow waters of Maryland coastal bays, Mid-Atlantic region, at depths from 1.7 to 2.1 m. The new species appears to be most closely related to the northeastern Atlantic species, Apolochus neapolitanus sensu Krapp-Schickel, 1982. Apolochus cresti sp. n. can be distinguished from Apolochus neapolitanus by a combination of characters, including the shape of the lateral cephalic lobe, shape of the mandible molar process, relative length of mandible palp article 3, the carpal lobe length of gnathopod 2, and the lack of sub-marginal spines on antero-lateral surface of gnathopod 2. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between the abundance of Apolochus cresti and the amount of macroalgae collected per station, bay, and month. Ovigerous females carrying eggs were present from March to May and in October, reaching their peak in May, although only ovigerous females carrying juveniles were found in May. Males were abundant in March and were collected also in May and October. A key for the separation of Apolochus species is presented. PMID:27110159

  2. Effect of cup inclination on predicted contact stress-induced volumetric wear in total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Rijavec, B; Košak, R; Daniel, M; Kralj-Iglič, V; Dolinar, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the lifetime of the total hip endoprosthesis, it is necessary to understand mechanisms leading to its failure. In this work, we address volumetric wear of the artificial cup, in particular the effect of its inclination with respect to the vertical. Volumetric wear was calculated by using mathematical models for resultant hip force, contact stress and penetration of the prosthesis head into the cup. Relevance of the dependence of volumetric wear on inclination of the cup (its abduction angle ϑA) was assessed by the results of 95 hips with implanted endoprosthesis. Geometrical parameters obtained from standard antero-posterior radiographs were taken as input data. Volumetric wear decreases with increasing cup abduction angle ϑA. The correlation within the population of 95 hips was statistically significant (P = 0.006). Large cup abduction angle minimises predicted volumetric wear but may increase the risk for dislocation of the artificial head from the cup in the one-legged stance. Cup abduction angle and direction of the resultant hip force may compensate each other to achieve optimal position of the cup with respect to wear and dislocation in the one-legged stance for a particular patient.

  3. Auditory agnosia and auditory spatial deficits following left hemispheric lesions: evidence for distinct processing pathways.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S; Bellmann, A; Meuli, R A; Assal, G; Steck, A J

    2000-01-01

    Auditory recognition and auditory spatial functions were studied in four patients with circumscribed left hemispheric lesions. Patient FD was severely deficient in recognition of environmental sounds but normal in auditory localisation and auditory motion perception. The lesion included the left superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and lateral auditory areas (as identified in previous anatomical studies), but spared Heschl's gyrus, the acoustic radiation and the thalamus. Patient SD had the same profile as FD, with deficient recognition of environmental sounds but normal auditory localisation and motion perception. The lesion comprised the postero-inferior part of the frontal convexity and the anterior third of the temporal lobe; data from non-human primates indicate that the latter are interconnected with lateral auditory areas. Patient MA was deficient in recognition of environmental sounds, auditory localisation and auditory motion perception, confirming that auditory spatial functions can be disturbed by left unilateral damage; the lesion involved the supratemporal region as well as the temporal, postero-inferior frontal and antero-inferior parietal convexities. Patient CZ was severely deficient in auditory motion perception and partially deficient in auditory localisation, but normal in recognition of environmental sounds; the lesion involved large parts of the parieto-frontal convexity and the supratemporal region. We propose that auditory information is processed in the human auditory cortex along two distinct pathways, one lateral devoted to auditory recognition and one medial and posterior devoted to auditory spatial functions.

  4. Hox gene colinear expression in the avian medulla oblongata is correlated with pseudorhombomeric domains.

    PubMed

    Marín, Faustino; Aroca, Pilar; Puelles, Luis

    2008-11-15

    The medulla oblongata (or caudal hindbrain) is not overtly segmented, since it lacks observable interrhombomeric boundaries. However, quail-chick fate maps showed that it is formed by 5 pseudorhombomeres (r7-r11) which were empirically found to be delimited consistently at planes crossing through adjacent somites (Cambronero and Puelles, 2000). We aimed to reexamine the possible segmentation or rostrocaudal regionalisation of this brain region attending to molecular criteria. To this end, we studied the expression of Hox genes from groups 3 to 7 correlative to the differentiating nuclei of the medulla oblongata. Our results show that these genes are differentially expressed in the mature medulla oblongata, displaying instances of typical antero-posterior (3' to 5') Hox colinearity. The different sensory and motor columns, as well as the reticular formation, appear rostrocaudally regionalised according to spaced steps in their Hox expression pattern. The anterior limits of the respective expression domains largely fit boundaries defined between the experimental pseudorhombomeres. Therefore the medulla oblongata shows a Hox-related rostrocaudal molecular regionalisation comparable to that found among rhombomeres, and numerically consistent with the pseudorhombomere list. This suggests that medullary pseudorhombomeres share some AP patterning mechanisms with the rhombomeres present in the rostral, overtly-segmented hindbrain, irrespective of variant boundary properties.

  5. Structural stability of rubble-pile asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2013-03-01

    Granular aggregates, like fluids, do not admit all manners of shapes and rotation rates. It is hoped that an analysis of a suspected granular asteroid’s equilibrium shape and its structural stability will help confirm its rubble-pile nature, and, perhaps, even constrain the asteroid’s material parameters. Equilibrium shapes have been analyzed in the past by several investigators (Holsapple, K.A. [2001]. Icarus 154, 432-448; Harris, A.W., Fahnestock, E.G., Pravec, P. [2009]. Icarus 199, 310-318; Sharma, I., Jenkins, J.T., Burns, J.A. [2009]. Icarus 200, 304-322). Here, we extend the classical Lagrange-Dirichlet stability theorem to the case of self-gravitating granular aggregates. This stability test is then applied to probe the stability of several near-Earth asteroids, and explore the influence of material parameters such as internal friction angle and plastic bulk modulus. Finally, we consider their structural stability to close planetary encounters. We find that it is possible for asteroids to be stable to small perturbations, but unstable to strong and/or extended perturbations as experienced during close flybys. Conversely, assuming stability in certain situations, it is possible to estimate material properties of some asteroids like, for example, 1943 Anteros.

  6. Paediatric x-ray examinations in Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, A. C. P.; Osibote, O. A.; Boechat, M. C. B.

    2006-08-01

    This work presents the results of a dose survey performed for paediatric patients and carried out in two large paediatric public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro city. The entrance surface dose (ESD) and the effective dose (ED) were evaluated for chest, skull, abdomen, lumbar spine, cervical spine and pelvis in antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections. For each examination, four age groups 0-1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 years were studied. The DoseCal software was used to calculate these doses. Wide variations for the same type of examination and projection have been detected. These variations were evident, in Brazil, from previous work. In spite of the present results being still preliminary, they can give an idea of what paediatric ESDs are like in Brazil. Also, with respect to the entrance surface dose, some of the results are above the reference levels, which cause high ED, as well. On the other hand, the wide range of ESD reflects the disparity of radiographic techniques and demonstrates that the ALARA principle is not being applied in Brazilian hospitals and becomes a concern in terms of public health.

  7. Hox genes and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hrycaj, Steven M.; Wellik, Deneen M.

    2016-01-01

    Hox proteins are a deeply conserved group of transcription factors originally defined for their critical roles in governing segmental identity along the antero-posterior (AP) axis in Drosophila. Over the last 30 years, numerous data generated in evolutionarily diverse taxa have clearly shown that changes in the expression patterns of these genes are closely associated with the regionalization of the AP axis, suggesting that Hox genes have played a critical role in the evolution of novel body plans within Bilateria. Despite this deep functional conservation and the importance of these genes in AP patterning, key questions remain regarding many aspects of Hox biology. In this commentary, we highlight recent reports that have provided novel insight into the origins of the mammalian Hox cluster, the role of Hox genes in the generation of a limbless body plan, and a novel putative mechanism in which Hox genes may encode specificity along the AP axis. Although the data discussed here offer a fresh perspective, it is clear that there is still much to learn about Hox biology and the roles it has played in the evolution of the Bilaterian body plan. PMID:27239281

  8. Fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to electrons from 10 MeV TO 10 GeV.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2008-04-01

    Electrons as primary and more often as secondary radiation exist commonly in the environment and workplaces. No conversion coefficients are yet available, in the literature, for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to electrons. This study uses mathematical models developed by the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, for the embryo of 8 wk and for the foetus of 3, 6, and 9 mo. Monte Carlo code MCNPX is used to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external electron fields. Monoenergetic electrons ranging from 10 MeV to 10 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), isotropic (ISO), and top-down (TOP). At each of these irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal brain and body were calculated for the embryo of 8 wk and the foetus of 3, 6, and 9 mo. Electron fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages.

  9. The influence of sex chromosome aneuploidy on brain asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Roozbeh; Daly, Eileen M; Cutter, William J; Murphy, Declan G M; Robertson, Dene M W; DeLisi, Lynn E; Mackay, Clare E; Barrick, Thomas R; Crow, Timothy J; Roberts, Neil

    2009-01-05

    The cognitive deficits present in individuals with sex chromosome aneuploidies suggest that hemispheric differentiation of function is determined by an X-Y homologous gene [Crow (1993); Lancet 342:594-598]. In particular, females with Turner's syndrome (TS) who have only one X-chromosome exhibit deficits of spatial ability whereas males with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) who possess a supernumerary X-chromosome are delayed in acquiring words. Since spatial and verbal abilities are generally associated with right and left hemispheric function, such deficits may relate to anomalies of cerebral asymmetry. We therefore applied a novel image analysis technique to investigate the relationship between sex chromosome dosage and structural brain asymmetry. Specifically, we tested Crow's prediction that the magnitude of the brain torque (i.e., a combination of rightward frontal and leftward occipital asymmetry) would, as a function of sex chromosome dosage, be respectively decreased in TS women and increased in KS men, relative to genotypically normal controls. We found that brain torque was not significantly different in TS women and KS men, in comparison to controls. However, TS women exhibited significantly increased leftward brain asymmetry, restricted to the posterior of the brain and focused on the superior temporal and parietal-occipital association cortex, while KS men showed a trend for decreased brain asymmetry throughout the frontal lobes. The findings suggest that the number of sex chromosomes influences the development of brain asymmetry not simply to modify the torque but in a complex pattern along the antero-posterior axis.

  10. Nonverbal sound processing in semantic dementia: A functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Theunissen, Frederic E.; Warren, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is a unique neurodegenerative syndrome accompanied by relatively selective loss of the meaning of objects and concepts. The brain mechanisms that underpin the syndrome have not been defined: a better understanding of these mechanisms would inform our understanding of both the organisation of the human semantic system and its vulnerability to neurodegenerative disease. In this fMRI study, we investigated brain correlates of sensory object processing in nine patients with SD compared with healthy control subjects, using the paradigm of nonverbal sound. Compared with healthy controls, patients with SD showed differential activation of cortical areas surrounding the superior temporal sulcus, both for perceptual processing of spectrotemporally complex but meaningless sounds and for semantic processing of environmental sound category (animal sounds versus tool sounds). Our findings suggest that defective processing of sound objects in SD spans pre-semantic perceptual processing and semantic category formation. This disease model illustrates that antero-lateral temporal cortical mechanisms are critical for representing and differentiating sound categories. The breakdown of these mechanisms constitutes a network-level functional signature of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:22405732

  11. Biomechanical influence of TKA designs with varying radii on bilateral TKA patients during sit-to-stand

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Simpson, Kathy J; Chamnongkich, Samatchai; Kinsey, Tracy; Mahoney, Ormonde M

    2008-01-01

    Background Compared to the design of a traditional multi-radius (MR) total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the single-radius (SR) implant investigated has a fixed flexion/extension center of rotation. The biomechanical effectiveness of an SR for functional daily activities, i.e., sit-to-stand, is not well understood. The purpose of the study was to compare the biomechanics underlying functional performance of the sit-to-stand (STS) movement between the limbs containing an MR and an SR TKA of bilateral TKA participants. Methods Sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics, and EMG data for selected knee flexor and extensor muscles were analyzed for eight bilateral TKA patients, each with an SR and an MR TKA implant. Results Compared to the MR limb, the SR limb demonstrated greater peak antero-posterior (AP) ground reaction force, higher AP ground reaction impulse, less vastus lateralis and semitendinosus EMG during the forward-thrust phase of the STS movement. No significant difference of knee extensor moment was found between the two knees. Conclusion Some GRF and EMG differences were evident between the MR and SR limbs during STS movement. Compensatory adaptations may be used to perform the STS. PMID:18700045

  12. Osteochondral Allograft of the Talus

    PubMed Central

    Bisicchia, Salvatore; Rosso, Federica; Amendola, Annunziato

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus are being recognized as an increasingly common injury. They are most commonly located postero-medially or antero-laterally, while centrally located lesions are uncommon. Large osteochondral lesions have significant biomechanical consequences and often require resurfacing with osteochondral autograft transfer, mosaicplasty, autologous chondrocyte implantation (or similar methods) or osteochondral allograft transplantation. Allograft procedures have become popular due to inherent advantages over other resurfacing techniques. Cartilage viability is one of the most important factors for successful clinical outcomes after transplantation of osteochondral allografts and is related to storage length and intra-operative factors. While there is abundant literature about osteochondral allograft transplantation in the knee, there are few papers about this procedure in the talus. Failure of non-operative management, initial debridement, curettage or microfractures are an indication for resurfacing. Patients should have a functional ankle motion, closed growth plates, absence of cartilage lesions on the tibial side. This paper reviews the published literature about osteochondral allograft transplantation of the talus focusing on indications, pre-operative planning, surgical approaches, postoperative management, results and complications of this procedure. PMID:25328456

  13. Postural threat influences conscious perception of postural sway.

    PubMed

    Cleworth, Taylor W; Carpenter, Mark G

    2016-05-04

    This study examined how changes in threat influenced conscious perceptions of postural sway. Young healthy adults stood on a forceplate mounted to a hydraulic lift placed at two heights (0.8m and 3.2m). At each height, subjects stood quietly with eyes open and eyes closed for 60s. Subjects were instructed to either stand normal, or stand normal and track their perceived sway in the antero-posterior plane by rotating a hand-held potentiometer. Participants reported an increased level of fear, anxiety, arousal and a decreased level of balance confidence when standing at height. In addition, postural sway amplitude decreased and frequency increased at height. However, there were no effects of height on perceived sway. When standing under conditions of increased postural threat, sway amplitude is reduced, while sway perception appears to remain unchanged. Therefore, when threat is inc