Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Hess, K.
2011-03-28
We discuss the relation between Bell's and Boole's inequality. We apply both to the analysis of measurement results in idealized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. We present a local realist model that violates Bell's and Boole's inequality due to the absence of Boole's one-to-one correspondence between the two-valued variables of the mathematical description and the two-valued measurement results.
Chaves, Rafael
2016-01-08
It is a recent realization that many of the concepts and tools of causal discovery in machine learning are highly relevant to problems in quantum information, in particular quantum nonlocality. The crucial ingredient in the connection between both fields is the mathematical theory of causality, allowing for the representation of arbitrary causal structures and providing a rigorous tool to reason about probabilistic causation. Indeed, Bell's theorem concerns a very particular kind of causal structure and Bell inequalities are a special case of linear constraints following from such models. It is thus natural to look for generalizations involving more complex Bell scenarios. The problem, however, relies on the fact that such generalized scenarios are characterized by polynomial Bell inequalities and no current method is available to derive them beyond very simple cases. In this work, we make a significant step in that direction, providing a new, general, and conceptually clear method for the derivation of polynomial Bell inequalities in a wide class of scenarios. We also show how our construction can be used to allow for relaxations of causal constraints and naturally gives rise to a notion of nonsignaling in generalized Bell networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaves, Rafael
2016-01-01
It is a recent realization that many of the concepts and tools of causal discovery in machine learning are highly relevant to problems in quantum information, in particular quantum nonlocality. The crucial ingredient in the connection between both fields is the mathematical theory of causality, allowing for the representation of arbitrary causal structures and providing a rigorous tool to reason about probabilistic causation. Indeed, Bell's theorem concerns a very particular kind of causal structure and Bell inequalities are a special case of linear constraints following from such models. It is thus natural to look for generalizations involving more complex Bell scenarios. The problem, however, relies on the fact that such generalized scenarios are characterized by polynomial Bell inequalities and no current method is available to derive them beyond very simple cases. In this work, we make a significant step in that direction, providing a new, general, and conceptually clear method for the derivation of polynomial Bell inequalities in a wide class of scenarios. We also show how our construction can be used to allow for relaxations of causal constraints and naturally gives rise to a notion of nonsignaling in generalized Bell networks.
Lorentz-invariant Bell's inequality
Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.
2005-01-01
We study Bell's inequality in relation to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the relativistic regime. For this purpose, a relativistically covariant analysis is used in the calculation of the Bell's inequality, which results in the maximally violated Bell's inequality in any reference frame.
Bell Inequalities and Group Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna
2017-03-01
Recently the method based on irreducible representations of finite groups has been proposed as a tool for investigating the more sophisticated versions of Bell inequalities (V. Ugǔr Gűney, M. Hillery, Phys. Rev. A90, 062121 ([2014]) and Phys. Rev. A91, 052110 ([2015])). In the present paper an example based on the symmetry group S 4 is considered. The Bell inequality violation due to the symmetry properties of regular tetrahedron is described. A nonlocal game based on the inequalities derived is described and it is shown that the violation of Bell inequality implies that the quantum strategies outperform their classical counterparts.
Relativistic entanglement and Bell's inequality
Ahn, Doyeol; Moon, Young Hoon; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Hwang, Sung Woo
2003-01-01
In this paper, the Lorentz transformation of entangled Bell states seen by a moving observer is studied. The calculated Bell observable for four joint measurements turns out to give a universal value,
Bell inequalities with communication assistance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maxwell, Katherine; Chitambar, Eric
2014-04-01
In this paper, we consider the possible correlations between two parties using local machines and shared randomness with an additional amount of classical communication. This is a continuation of the work initiated by Bacon and Toner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 157904 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.157904] who characterized the correlation polytope for 2×2 measurement settings with binary outcomes plus one bit of communication. Here, we derive a complete set of Bell inequalities for 3×2 measurement settings and a shared bit of communication. When the communication direction is fixed, nine Bell inequalities characterize the correlation polytope, whereas when the communication direction is bidirectional, 143 inequalities describe the correlations. We then prove a tight lower bound on the amount of communication needed to simulate all no-signaling correlations for a given number of measurement settings.
A simple proof of Bell's inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-11-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality; a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate over what exactly the Bell inequality means, because the hypotheses underlying the proof become transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Construction of Bell inequalities based on the CHSH structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Binbin; Wang, Jing; Li, Ming; Shen, Shuqian; Chen, Dongmeng
2017-04-01
It is a computationally hard task to find all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings, and measurement outcomes. We investigate the construction of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequalities, based on which we present a set of new Bell inequalities. The maximal violations of the constructed Bell inequalities are analysed, and computable formulas are derived.
Bell-type inequalities for nonlocal resources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunner, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas
2006-11-01
We present bipartite Bell-type inequalities which allow the two partners to use some nonlocal resource. Such inequalities can only be violated if the parties use a resource which is more nonlocal than the one permitted by the inequality. We introduce a family of N-input nonlocal machines, which are generalizations of the well-known PR (Popescu-Rohrlich) box. Then we construct Bell-type inequalities that cannot be violated by strategies that use one of these new machines. Finally we discuss implications for the simulation of quantum states.
On the CHSH Form of Bell's Inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambare, Justo Pastor
2017-03-01
A common mistake present in the derivation of the usually known as the CHSH form of Bell's inequalities is pointed out. References and comments to the correct approach are given. This error does not alter the final result and only affects the logical consistency of the derivation, but since it seems to be a widespread misconception regarding the roll and interpretation of the of use of hidden variables in Bell's theorem it is considered to be of general interest.
Violation of Bell's inequalities in quantum optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reid, M. D.; Walls, D. F.
1984-01-01
An optical field produced by intracavity four-wave mixing is shown to exhibit the following nonclassical features: photon antibunching, squeezing, and violation of Cauchy-Schwarz and Bell's inequalities. These intrinsic quantum mechanical effects are shown to be associated with the nonexistence of a positive normalizable Glauber-Sudarshan P function.
The probabilistic origin of Bell's inequality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krenn, Guenther
1994-01-01
The concept of local realism entails certain restrictions concerning the possible occurrence of correlated events. Although these restrictions are inherent in classical physics they have never been noticed until Bell showed in 1964 that general correlations in quantum mechanics can not be interpreted in a classical way. We demonstrate how a local realistic way of thinking about measurement results necessarily leads to limitations with regard to the possible appearance of correlated events. These limitations, which are equivalent to Bell's inequality can be easily formulated as an immediate consequence of our discussion.
Generalized Bell-inequality experiments and computation
Hoban, Matty J.; Wallman, Joel J.; Browne, Dan E.
2011-12-15
We consider general settings of Bell inequality experiments with many parties, where each party chooses from a finite number of measurement settings each with a finite number of outcomes. We investigate the constraints that Bell inequalities place upon the correlations possible in local hidden variable theories using a geometrical picture of correlations. We show that local hidden variable theories can be characterized in terms of limited computational expressiveness, which allows us to characterize families of Bell inequalities. The limited computational expressiveness for many settings (each with many outcomes) generalizes previous results about the many-party situation each with a choice of two possible measurements (each with two outcomes). Using this computational picture we present generalizations of the Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal box for many parties and nonbinary inputs and outputs at each site. Finally, we comment on the effect of preprocessing on measurement data in our generalized setting and show that it becomes problematic outside of the binary setting, in that it allows local hidden variable theories to simulate maximally nonlocal correlations such as those of these generalized Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal boxes.
Better Bell-inequality violation by collective measurements
Liang, Y.-C.; Doherty, Andrew C.
2006-05-15
The standard Bell-inequality experiments test for violation of local realism by repeatedly making local measurements on individual copies of an entangled quantum state. Here we investigate the possibility of increasing the violation of a Bell inequality by making collective measurements. We show that the nonlocality of bipartite pure entangled states, quantified by their maximal violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality, can always be enhanced by collective measurements, even without communication between the parties. For mixed states we also show that collective measurements can increase the violation of Bell inequalities, although numerical evidence suggests that the phenomenon is not common as it is for pure states.
Avoiding loopholes with hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dressel, Justin; Korotkov, Alexander N.
2014-01-01
By combining the postulates of macrorealism with Bell locality, we derive a qualitatively different hybrid inequality that avoids two loopholes that commonly appear in Leggett-Garg and Bell inequalities. First, locally invasive measurements can be used, which avoids the "clumsiness" Leggett-Garg inequality loophole. Second, a single experimental ensemble with fixed analyzer settings is sampled, which avoids the "disjoint sampling" Bell inequality loophole. The derived hybrid inequality has the same form as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality; however, its quantum violation intriguingly requires weak measurements. A realistic explanation of an observed violation requires either the failure of Bell locality or a preparation conspiracy of finely tuned and nonlocally correlated noise. Modern superconducting and optical systems are poised to implement this test.
Bell's Inequalities, Superquantum Correlations, and String Theory
Chang, Lay Nam; Lewis, Zachary; Minic, Djordje; ...
2011-01-01
We offermore » an interpretation of superquantum correlations in terms of a “doubly” quantum theory. We argue that string theory, viewed as a quantum theory with two deformation parameters, the string tension α ' , and the string coupling constant g s , is such a superquantum theory that transgresses the usual quantum violations of Bell's inequalities. We also discuss the ℏ → ∞ limit of quantum mechanics in this context. As a superquantum theory, string theory should display distinct experimentally observable supercorrelations of entangled stringy states.« less
Nonlocal distillation based on multisetting Bell inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Xiang-Jun; Deng, Dong-Ling; Chen, Jing-Ling
2012-12-01
Inspired by the recent works of Foster [Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.120401 102, 120401 (2009)] and Brunner [Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.160403 102, 160403 (2009)], we present a nonlocality distillation protocol for two three-level (qutrit) systems in the framework of generalized nonsignaling theories. Our protocol is based on a three-setting Bell inequality. It works efficiently for a specific class of three-input-three-output nonlocal boxes. In the asymptotic limit, all these nonlocal boxes can be distilled to the maximally nonlocal box defined by the inequality and nonsignaling constraints. Then we introduce a contracting protocol that reduces these boxes to the so-called “correlated nonlocal boxes.” As a result, our three-input-three-output nonlocal boxes also make communication complexity trivial and appear very unlikely to exist in nature.
Bell's inequality violation with non-negative Wigner functions
Revzen, M.; Mann, A.; Mello, P.A.; Johansen, L.M.
2005-02-01
A Bell inequality violation allowed by the two-mode squeezed state, whose Wigner function is nonnegative, is shown to hold only for correlations among dynamical variables that cannot be interpreted via a local hidden variable theory. Explicit calculations and interpretation are given for Bell's suggestion that the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) state will not allow violation of Bell's inequality, in conjunction with its Wigner representative being nonnegative. It is argued that Bell's theorem disallowing the violation of Bell's inequality within a local hidden-variable theory depends on the dynamical variables having a definite value--assigned by the local hidden variables--even when they cannot be simultaneously measured. The analysis leads us to conclude that Bell's inequality violation is to be associated with endowing these definite values to the dynamical variables, and not with their locality attributes.
Entanglement Measure and Quantum Violation of Bell-Type Inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Dong; He, Ying-Qiu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting
2016-10-01
By calculating entanglement measures and quantum violation of Bell-type inequality, we reveal the relationship between entanglement measure and the amount of quantum violation for a family of four-qubit entangled states. It has been demonstrated that the Bell-type inequality is completely violated by these four-qubit entangled states. The plot of entanglement measure as a function of the expectation value of Bell operator shows that entanglement measure first decreases and then increases smoothly with increasing quantum violation.
Experimental Bell-inequality violation without the postselection loophole
Lima, G.; Vallone, G.; Chiuri, A.; Cabello, A.; Mataloni, P.
2010-04-15
We report on an experimental violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality using energy-time-entangled photons. The experiment is not free of the locality and detection loopholes but is the first violation of the Bell-CHSH inequality using energy-time entangled photons which is free of the postselection loophole described by Aerts et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2872 (1999)].
Information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality and quantum computation
Morikoshi, Fumiaki
2006-05-15
An information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality is formulated to contrast classical and quantum computations. Any classical algorithm satisfies the inequality, while quantum ones can violate it. Therefore, the violation of the inequality is an immediate consequence of the quantumness in the computation. Furthermore, this approach suggests a notion of temporal nonlocality in quantum computation.
Bell inequalities for multipartite qubit quantum systems and their maximal violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ming; Fei, Shao-Ming
2012-11-01
We present a set of Bell inequalities for multiqubit quantum systems. These Bell inequalities are shown to be able to detect multiqubit entanglement better than previous Bell inequalities such as Werner-Wolf-Zukowski-Brukner ones. Computable formulas are presented for calculating the maximal violations of these Bell inequalities for any multiqubit states.
A loophole-free Bell's inequality experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwiat, Paul G.; Steinberg, Aephraim M.; Chiao, Raymond Y.; Eberhard, Philippe H.
1994-01-01
The proof of Nature's nonlocality through Bell-type experiments is a topic of longstanding interest. Nevertheless, no experiments performed thus far have avoided the so-called 'detection loophole,' arising from low detector efficiencies and angular-correlation difficulties. In fact, most, if not all, of the systems employed to date can never close this loophole, even with perfect detectors. In addition, another loophole involving the non-rapid, non-random switching of various parameter settings exists in all past experiments. We discuss a proposal for a potentially loophole-free Bell's inequality experiment. The source of the EPR-correlated pairs consists of two simultaneously-pumped type-2 phase-matched nonlinear crystals and a polarizing beam splitter. The feasibility of such a scheme with current detector technology seems high, and will be discussed. We also present a single-crystal version, motivated by other work presented at this conference. In a separate experiment, we have measured the absolute detection efficiency and time response of four single-photon detectors. The highest observed efficiencies were 70.7 plus or minus 1.9 percent (at 633 nm, with a device from Rockwell International) and 76.4 plus or minus 2.3 percent (at 702 nm, with an EG&G counting module). Possible efficiencies as high as 90 percent were implied. The EG&G devices displayed sub-nanosecond time resolution.
Higher-dimensional Bell inequalities with noisy qudits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polozova, Elena; Strauch, Frederick W.
2016-03-01
Generalizations of the classic Bell inequality to higher-dimensional quantum systems known as qudits are reputed to exhibit a higher degree of robustness to noise but such claims are based on one particular noise model. We analyze the violation of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality subject to more realistic noise sources and their scaling with dimension. This analysis is inspired by potential Bell inequality experiments with superconducting resonator-based qudits. We find that the robustness of the inequality to noise generally decreases with increasing qudit dimension.
The strong Bell inequalities: A proposed experimental test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fry, Edward S.
1994-01-01
All previous experimental tests of Bell inequalities have required additional assumptions. The strong Bell inequalities (i.e. those requiring no additional assumptions) have never been tested. An experiment has been designed that can, for the first time, provide a definitive test of the strong Bell inequalities. Not only will the detector efficiency loophole be closed; but the locality condition will also be rigorously enforced. The experiment involves producing two Hg-199 atoms by a resonant Raman dissociation of a mercury dimer ((199)Hg2) that is in an electronic and nuclear spin singlet state. Bell inequalities can be tested by measuring angular momentum correlations between the spin one-half nuclei of the two Hg-199 atoms. The method used to make these latter measurements will be described.
Geometric conditions for violation of Bell's inequality
Mendas, Istok P.
2005-03-01
The geometric conditions for violation of Bell's inequality, in its original form dealing with a pair of spin one-half particles formed in the singlet spin state, are discussed. The parameters x{sub 1}, x{sub 2}, and x{sub 3} are introduced as the cosines of angles {theta}{sub ab}=angle(a,b), {theta}{sub ac}=angle(a,c), and {theta}{sub bc}=angle(b,c) between the unit vectors a, b, and c defining the orientation of the corresponding Stern-Gerlach magnets. A Monte Carlo experiment shows that in order to obtain violation, the three parameters must belong to a definite region in the parametric space that encompasses 1/3 of all possible triplets of unit vectors generated randomly from the isotropic distribution in the ordinary space. By introducing a measure of violation D{identical_to}|x{sub 1}-x{sub 2}|+x{sub 3}-1, it is found that 0{<=}D{<=}1/2 and that the maximal violation D=1/2 is obtained only in two isolated cases, when the relevant angles are {theta}{sub ab}=2{pi}/3, {theta}{sub ac}={theta}{sub bc}={pi}/3, or when {theta}{sub ab}={theta}{sub bc}={pi}/3, {theta}{sub ac}=2{pi}/3. In both cases the unit vectors a, b, and c are coplanar.
Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kupczynski, Marian
2015-07-01
In this paper we give additional arguments in favor of the point of view that the violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities is not due to a mysterious non locality of nature. We concentrate on an intimate relation between a protocol of a random experiment and a probabilistic model which is used to describe it. We discuss in a simple way differences between attributive joint probability distributions and generalized joint probability distributions of outcomes from distant experiments which depend on how the pairing of these outcomes is defined. We analyze in detail experimental protocols implied by local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models and show that they are incompatible with the protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. We discuss also the meaning of "free will", differences between quantum and classical filters, contextuality of Kolmogorov models, contextuality of quantum theory (QT) and show how this contextuality has to be taken into account in probabilistic models trying to explain in an intuitive way the predictions of QT. The long range imperfect correlations between the clicks of distant detectors can be explained by partially preserved correlations between the signals created by a source. These correlations can only be preserved if the clicks are produced in a local and deterministic way depending on intrinsic parameters describing signals and measuring devices in the moment of the measurement. If an act of a measurement was irreducibly random they would be destroyed. It seems to indicate that QT may be in fact emerging from some underlying more detailed theory of physical phenomena. If this was a case then there is a chance to find in time series of experimental data some fine structures not predicted by QT. This would be a major discovery because it would not only prove that QT does not provide a complete description of individual physical systems but it would prove that it is not predictably complete.
Generalizing Tsirelson's bound on Bell inequalities using a min-max principle.
Filipp, Stefan; Svozil, Karl
2004-09-24
Bounds on the norm of quantum operators associated with classical Bell-type inequalities can be derived from their maximal eigenvalues. This quantitative method enables detailed predictions of the maximal violations of Bell-type inequalities.
Violation of Bell inequality based on S4 symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna
2016-08-01
In two recent papers [Phys. Rev. A 90, 062121 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.062121 and Phys. Rev. A, 91, 052110 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.052110] an interesting method of analyzing the violation of Bell inequalities has been proposed which is based on the theory of finite group representations. Here we apply this method to more complicated examples of S4 symmetry. We show how the Bell inequality can be related to the symmetries of regular tetrahedron. By choosing the orbits of three-dimensional representations of S4 determined by the geometry of tetrahedron we find that the Bell inequality under consideration is violated in quantum theory. The corresponding nonlocal game is analyzed.
Experimentally demonstrating reference-frame-independent violations of Bell inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palsson, Matthew S.; Wallman, Joel J.; Bennet, Adam J.; Pryde, Geoff J.
2012-09-01
We experimentally demonstrate, using qubits encoded in photon polarization, that two parties who share a single reference direction and use locally orthogonal measurements will always violate a Bell inequality, up to experimental deficiencies. This contrasts with the standard view of Bell inequalities, in which the parties need to completely align their measurements. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that as the reference direction degrades the probability of the observers randomly choosing measurements that violate a Bell inequality decreases gradually and smoothly to 39.7%±0.1% in the limiting case that the observers do not share a reference direction. This result promises simplified distribution of entanglement between separated parties, with applications in fundamental investigations of quantum physics and tasks such as quantum communication.
Proposed experimental test of Bell's inequality in nuclear beta decay
Skalsey, M.
1986-04-15
A ..beta.. decay experiment is proposed for testing Bell's inequality, related to hidden-variables alternatives to quantum mechanics. The experiment uses Mott scattering for spin polarization analysis of internal conversion electrons. Beta-decay electrons, in cascade with the conversion electrons, are longitudinally polarized due to parity violation in the weak interaction. So simply detecting the ..beta.. electron direction effectively measures the spin. A two-particle spin-spin correlation can thus be investigated and related, within certain assumptions, to Bell's inequality. The example of /sup 203/Hg decay is used for a calculation of expected results. Specific problems related to nuclear structure and experimental inconsistencies are also discussed.
Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii
2016-03-01
We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.
Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality.
Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii
2016-03-22
We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.
Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality
Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii
2016-01-01
We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs. PMID:26957600
Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David
2006-04-15
We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I{sub 3322} Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination.
(Nearly) optimal P values for all Bell inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elkouss, David; Wehner, Stephanie
2016-10-01
A key objective in conducting a Bell test is to quantify the statistical evidence against a local-hidden variable model (LHVM) given that we can collect only a finite number of trials in any experiment. The notion of statistical evidence is thereby formulated in the framework of hypothesis testing, where the null hypothesis is that the experiment can be described by an LHVM. The statistical confidence with which the null hypothesis of an LHVM is rejected is quantified by the so-called P value, where a smaller P value implies higher confidence. Establishing good statistical evidence is especially challenging if the number of trials is small, or the Bell violation very low. Here, we derive the optimal P value for a large class of Bell inequalities. What is more, we obtain very sharp upper bounds on the P value for all Bell inequalities. These values are easily computed from the experimental data, and are valid even if we allow arbitrary memory in the devices. Our analysis is able to deal with imperfect random number generators, and event-ready schemes, even if such a scheme can create different kinds of entangled states. Finally, we review requirements for sound data collection, and a method for combining P values of independent experiments. The methods discussed here are not specific to Bell inequalities. For instance, they can also be applied to the study of certified randomness or to tests of noncontextuality.
Rotationally invariant proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities
Cabello, Adan
2003-03-01
The singlet state of two spin-(3/2) particles allows a proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities with two distinguishing features: any local observable can be regarded as an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen element of reality, and the contradiction with local realism occurs not only for some specific local observables but for any rotation whereof.
Asymmetric multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and Bell inequalities
Gosal, Darwin; Oh, C.H.; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Kwek, L.C.; Zukowski, M.
2004-10-01
We study the multiparticle generalized GHZ states. It has been shown that for an odd number of qubits and for a specific range of parameters, they do not violate any Bell inequality for correlation functions. We show here both analytically and numerically that, nevertheless, such states violate local realism, once a more detailed analysis of the correlations is made than the one allowed by correlation functions. The results imply that multiparticle Clauser-Horne-type inequalities involving probabilities are stronger tools for analyzing violations of local realism in multiparticle systems than inequalities involving the correlation functions.
Proposal for a loophole-free Bell inequality experiment
Kwiat, P.G.; Eberhard, P.H.; Steinberg, A.M.; Chiao, R.Y. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 )
1994-05-01
The nonlocality inherent in quantum mechanics has been tested experimentally, but the nonlocal interpretation of all the relevant experiments can be challenged. All past tests of Bell's inequalities have required supplementary assumptions, without which the experimental results satisfy the inequalities, in agreement with the notion of local realism. There are basically three loopholes that need to be closed; neither the cascade sources nor the parametric down-conversion sources of correlation photons used to date are capable of closing all of them, even if the detectors used had been 100% efficient. We propose a two-crystal down-conversion source, relying on type-II collinear phase matching, which should permit a violation of Bell's inequalities without the need for supplementary assumptions. As the source can produce a true singletlike state, it is also relevant for quantum cryptographic applications.
Bell-inequality tests with macroscopic entangled states of light
Stobinska, M.; Sekatski, P.; Gisin, N.; Buraczewski, A.; Leuchs, G.
2011-09-15
Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiments which simultaneously close this loophole and the locality loophole are highly desirable and remain challenging. An approach to loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons (i.e., on macroscopic entanglement), for which an optical signal should be easy to detect. However, the macroscopic states are partially indistinguishable by classical detectors. An interesting idea to overcome these limitations is to replace the postselection by an appropriate preselection immediately after the amplification. This is in the spirit of state preprocessing revealing hidden nonlocality. Here, we examine one of the possible preselections, but the presented tools can be used for analysis of other schemes. Filtering methods making the macroscopic entanglement useful for Bell tests and quantum protocols are the subject of an intensive study in the field nowadays.
Testing Bell's inequality and measuring the entanglement using superconducting nanocircuits
He, Guang-Ping; Li, Hua-Zhong; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Wang, Z. D.
2003-07-01
An experimental scheme is proposed to test Bell's inequality by using superconducting nanocircuits. In this scheme, quantum entanglement of a pair of charge qubits separated by a sufficiently long distance may be created by cavity quantum electrodynamic techniques; the population of qubits is experimentally measurable by dc currents through the probe junctions, and one measured outcome may be recorded for every experiment. Therefore, both locality and detection-efficiency loopholes should be closed in the same experiment. We also propose a useful method to measure the amount of entanglement based on the concurrence between Josephson qubits. The measurable variables for Bell's inequality as well as the entanglement are expressed in terms of a useful phase-space Q function.
Bell's inequality, random sequence, and quantum key distribution
Hwang, Won-Young
2005-05-15
The Ekert 1991 quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol appears to be secure regardless of whatever devices legitimate users adopt for the protocol, as long as the devices give a result that violates Bell's inequality. However, this is not the case if they ignore nondetection events because Eve can make use of the detection loophole, as Larrson showed [Quantum Inf. Comput. 2, 434 (2002)]. We show that even when legitimate users take into account nondetection events Eve can successfully eavesdrop if the QKD system has been appropriately designed by the manufacturer. A loophole utilized here is that of 'free choice' (or 'real randomness'). Local QKD devices with a pseudorandom sequence generator installed in them can apparently violate Bell's inequality.
Violation of Bell's inequality with continuous spatial variables
Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Yarnall, Timothy; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.
2007-05-15
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument revealed the paradoxical properties of a two-particle system entangled continuously in the spatial parameter. Yet a direct test of quantum nonlocality exhibited by this state, via a violation of Bell's inequality, has not been forthcoming. In this paper, we identify and construct experimental arrangements comprising simple optical components, without nonlinearities or moving parts, that implement operators in the spatial-parity space of single-photon fields that correspond to the familiar Pauli spin operators. We achieve this by first establishing an isomorphism between the single-mode multiphoton electromagnetic-field space spanned by a Fock-state basis and the single-photon multimode electromagnetic-field space spanned by a spatial-eigenmode basis. We then proceed to construct a Hilbert space with a two-dimensional basis of spatial even-odd parity modes. In particular, we describe an arrangement that implements a rotation in the parity space of each photon of an entangled-photon pair, allowing for a straightforward experimental test of Bell's inequality using the EPR state. Finally, the violation of a Bell inequality is quantified in terms of the physical parameters of the two-photon source.
Is the Contextuality Loophole Fatal for the Derivation of Bell Inequalities?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwenhuizen, T. M.
2011-03-01
It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism, because absence of contextuality prevents the Bell inequalities to be derived from local realistic models.
Bell inequalities violated using detectors of low efficiency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pál, Károly F.; Vértesi, Tamás
2015-11-01
We define a family of binary-outcome n -party m ≤n settings per party Bell inequalities whose members require the least detection efficiency for their violation among all known inequalities of the same type. This gives upper bounds for the minimum value of the critical efficiency—below which no violation is possible—achievable for such inequalities. For m =2 , our family reduces to the one given by Larsson and Semitecolos in 2001 [Phys. Rev. A 63, 022117 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevA.63.022117]. For m >2 , a gap remains between these bounds and the best lower bounds. The violating state near the threshold efficiency always approaches a product state of n qubits.
Single-qubit tests of Bell-like inequalities
Zela, F. de
2007-10-15
This paper discusses some tests of Bell-like inequalities not requiring entangled states. The proposed tests are based on consecutive measurements on a single qubit. Available hidden-variable models for a single qubit [see, e.g., J. S. Bell, Rev. Mod. Phys. 38, 447 (1966)] reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics and hence violate the Bell-like inequalities addressed in this paper. It is shown how this fact is connected with the state 'collapse' and with its random nature. Thus, it becomes possible to test truly realistic and deterministic hidden-variable models. In this way, it can be shown that a hidden-variable model should entail at least one of the following features: (i) nonlocality, (ii) contextuality, or (iii) discontinuous measurement-dependent probability functions. The last two features are put to the test with the experiments proposed in this paper. A hidden-variable model that is noncontextual and deterministic would be at variance with some predictions of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the proposed tests are more likely to be loophole-free, as compared to former ones.
Systematic Construction of Bell-Like Inequalities and Proposal of a New Type of Test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanimura, Shogo
2013-09-01
Although it is usually argued that the violation of the Bell inequality is a manifestation of the nonlocality of quantum state, we show that it is a manifestation of the noncommutativity of quantum observables that are defined at the same location. From this point of view we invent a method for systematic construction of generalized Bell inequalities and derive a new inequality that belongs to a different type from the traditional Bell inequality. The new inequality provides a severer and fairer test of quantum mechanics.
The Exponential Decay Law, Bell's Inequality, and Nonlinear Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McHarris, Wm. C.
2002-10-01
What do the exponential decay law and Bell's inequality have in common? And with nonlinear dynamics? Simply that they both are among the puzzles at the heart of quantum mechanics, puzzles which can have parallel explanations in terms of chaos or nonlinear dynamics. The statistical nature of the exponential decay law, which at first glance is incompatible with the quantum mechanical concept of indistinguishabe particles, can be mocked up by the extreme sensitivity of chaotic systems to initial conditions. In accord with Ockham's Razor, iteration of a simple unimodal (e.g., quadratic) map in its chaotic region and keeping track of the number of iterations required for a trajectory starting from a point chosen at random within a small interval to escape into another small small interval reproduces the observed exponential behavior. Similarly, Bell's inequality derived using classical mechanics (with an underlying assumption of classical statistics) places an upper limit on numbers derived from measurements on entangled states, whereas quantum mechanics implies that this upper limit no longer holds. Experiments have shown the inequality to be violated, upholding quantum mechanics. However, nonlinear dynamics, with its correlated statistics, can yield results overlapping with the quantum mechanical predictions. Whether or not the experiments rule out "local realism" is thus a moot point. Nonlinear determinism just might exist within quantum mechanics.
Testing Quantum Mechanics and Bell's Inequality with Astronomical Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Andrew S.; Kaiser, David I.; Gallicchio, Jason; Team 1: University of Vienna, InstituteQuantum Optics and Quantum Information; Team 2: UC San Diego Cosmology Group; Team 3: NASA/JPL/Caltech
2016-06-01
We report on an in progress "Cosmic Bell" experiment that will leverage cosmology to test quantum mechanics and Bell's inequality using astronomical observations. Different iterations of our experiment will send polarization-entangled photons through the open air to detectors ~1-100 kilometers apart, whose settings would be rapidly chosen using real-time telescopic observations of Milky Way stars, and eventually distant, causally disconnected, cosmological sources - such as pairs of quasars or patches of the cosmic microwave background - all while the entangled pair is still in flight. This would, for the first time, attempt to fully close the so-called "setting independence" or "free will" loophole in experimental tests of Bell's inequality, whereby an alternative theory could mimic the quantum predictions if the experimental settings choices shared even a small correlation with unknown, local, causal influences a mere few milliseconds prior to the experiment. A full Cosmic Bell test would push any such influence all the way back to the hot big bang, since the end of any period of inflation, 13.8 billion years ago, an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude compared to the best previous experiments. Redshift z > 3.65 quasars observed at optical wavelengths are the optimal candidate source pairs using present technology. Our experiment is partially funded by the NSF INSPIRE program, in collaboration with MIT, UC San Diego, Harvey Mudd College, NASA/JPL/Caltech, and the University of Vienna. Such an experiment has implications for our understanding of nature at the deepest level. By testing quantum mechanics in a regime never before explored, we would at the very least extend our confidence in quantum theory, while at the same time severely constraining large classes of alternative theories. If the experiment were to uncover discrepancies from the quantum predictions, there could be crucial implications for early-universe cosmology, the security of quantum encryption
Two destructive effects of decoherence on Bell inequality violation
Levkovich-Maslyuk, F. L.
2009-05-15
We consider a system of two spin-(1/2) particles, initially in an entangled Bell state. If one of the particles is interacting with an environment (e.g., a collection of N independent spins), the two-particle system undergoes decoherence. Using a simple model of decoherence, we show that this process has two consequences. First, the maximal amount by which the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is violated decays to zero. Second, the set of directions of measurement for which the inequality is violated is reduced in the course of decoherence. The volume of that set is bounded above by constx|r|{sup 2}, where r is the decoherence factor. We obtain similar results for the case when each of the two particles is in interaction with a separate environment.
Bell's Nonlocality Can be Detected by the Violation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering Inequality.
Chen, Jing-Ling; Ren, Changliang; Chen, Changbo; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Pati, Arun Kumar
2016-12-14
Recently quantum nonlocality has been classified into three distinct types: quantum entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, and Bell's nonlocality. Among which, Bell's nonlocality is the strongest type. Bell's nonlocality for quantum states is usually detected by violation of some Bell's inequalities, such as Clause-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qubits. Steering is a manifestation of nonlocality intermediate between entanglement and Bell's nonlocality. This peculiar feature has led to a curious quantum phenomenon, the one-way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering. The one-way steering was an important open question presented in 2007, and positively answered in 2014 by Bowles et al., who presented a simple class of one-way steerable states in a two-qubit system with at least thirteen projective measurements. The inspiring result for the first time theoretically confirms quantum nonlocality can be fundamentally asymmetric. Here, we propose another curious quantum phenomenon: Bell nonlocal states can be constructed from some steerable states. This novel finding not only offers a distinctive way to study Bell's nonlocality without Bell's inequality but with steering inequality, but also may avoid locality loophole in Bell's tests and make Bell's nonlocality easier for demonstration. Furthermore, a nine-setting steering inequality has also been presented for developing more efficient one-way steering and detecting some Bell nonlocal states.
Bell inequality for pairs of particle-number-superselection-rule restricted states
Heaney, Libby; Jaksch, Dieter; Lee, Seung-Woo
2010-10-15
Proposals for Bell-inequality tests on systems restricted by the particle-number-superselection rule often require operations that are difficult to implement in practice. In this article, we derive a Bell inequality, where measurements on pairs of states are used as a method to bypass this superselection rule. In particular, we focus on mode entanglement of an arbitrary number of massive particles and show that our Bell inequality detects the entanglement in an identical pair of states when other inequalities fail. However, as the number of particles in the system increases, the violation of our Bell inequality decreases due to the restriction in the measurement space caused by the superselection rule. This Bell test can be implemented using techniques that are routinely used in current experiments.
Bell-like inequality for the spin-orbit separability of a laser beam
Borges, C. V. S.; Hor-Meyll, M.; Khoury, A. Z.; Huguenin, J. A. O.
2010-09-15
In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the nonseparability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and nonseparable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 160401 (2007). As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for nonseparable modes. The inequality is discussed in both the classical and quantum domains.
High-visibility time-bin entanglement for testing chained Bell inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomasin, Marco; Mantoan, Elia; Jogenfors, Jonathan; Vallone, Giuseppe; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Villoresi, Paolo
2017-03-01
The violation of Bell's inequality requires a well-designed experiment to validate the result. In experiments using energy-time and time-bin entanglement, initially proposed by Franson in 1989, there is an intrinsic loophole due to the high postselection. To obtain a violation in this type of experiment, a chained Bell inequality must be used. However, the local realism bound requires a high visibility in excess of 94.63% in the time-bin entangled state. In this work, we show how such a high visibility can be reached in order to violate a chained Bell inequality with six, eight, and ten terms.
Characterizing entanglement of an artificial atom and a cavity cat state with Bell's inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlastakis, Brian; Petrenko, Andrei; Ofek, Nissim; Sun, Luyan; Leghtas, Zaki; Sliwa, Katrina; Liu, Yehan; Hatridge, Michael; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2015-11-01
The Schrodinger's cat thought experiment highlights the counterintuitive concept of entanglement in macroscopically distinguishable systems. The hallmark of entanglement is the detection of strong correlations between systems, most starkly demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. No violation of a Bell inequality has been observed for a system entangled with a superposition of coherent states, known as a cat state. Here we use the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt formulation of a Bell test to characterize entanglement between an artificial atom and a cat state, or a Bell-cat. Using superconducting circuits with high-fidelity measurements and real-time feedback, we detect correlations that surpass the classical maximum of the Bell inequality. We investigate the influence of decoherence with states up to 16 photons in size and characterize the system by introducing joint Wigner tomography. Such techniques demonstrate that information stored in superpositions of coherent states can be extracted efficiently, a crucial requirement for quantum computing with resonators.
Bitwise Bell-inequality violations for an entangled state involving 2N ions
Pope, D.T.; Milburn, G.J.
2004-05-01
Following on from previous work [J.-A ring . Larsson, Phys. Rev. A 67, 022108 (2003)], Bell inequalities based on correlations between binary digits are considered for a particular entangled state involving 2N trapped ions. These inequalities involve applying displacement operations to half of the ions and then measuring correlations between pairs of corresponding bits in the binary representations of the number of center-of-mass phonons of N particular ions. It is shown that the state violates the inequalities and thus displays nonclassical correlations. It is also demonstrated that it violates a Bell inequality when the displacements are replaced by squeezing operations.
Violation of Bell's inequality using classical measurements and nonlinear local operations
Stobinska, Magdalena; Jeong, Hyunseok; Ralph, Timothy C.
2007-05-15
We find that Bell's inequality can be significantly violated (up to Tsirelson's bound) with two-mode entangled coherent states using only homodyne measurements. This requires Kerr nonlinear interactions for local operations on the entangled coherent states. Our example is a demonstration of Bell-inequality violations using classical measurements. We conclude that entangled coherent states with coherent amplitudes as small as 0.842 are sufficient to produce such violations.
Violation of Bell inequalities from S_4 symmetry: the three orbits case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna; Sobieski, Ścibór
2017-02-01
The recently proposed (Güney and Hillery in Phys Rev A 90:062121, 2014; Phys Rev A 91:052110, 2015) group theoretical approach to the problem of violating the Bell inequalities is applied to S_4 group. The Bell inequalities based on the choice of three orbits in the representation space corresponding to standard representation of S_4 are derived and their violation is described. The corresponding nonlocal games are analyzed.
Bell inequality tests of four-photon six-qubit graph states
Gao Weibo; Yao Xingcan; Xu Ping; Lu He; Lu Chaoyang; Yang Tao; Chen Zengbing; Guehne, Otfried; Cabello, Adan; Pan Jianwei
2010-10-15
We now experimentally demonstrate a Y-shaped graph state with photons' polarization and spatial modes as qubits. Based on this state and a linear-type graph state, we report on the experimental realization of two different Bell inequality tests, which represent higher violation than previous Bell tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandya, Palash; Misra, Avijit; Chakrabarty, Indranil
2016-11-01
We find a single parameter family of genuinely entangled three-qubit pure states, called the maximally Bell-inequality violating states (MBV), which exhibit maximum Bell-inequality violation by the reduced bipartite system for a fixed amount of genuine tripartite entanglement quantified by the so-called tangle measure. This in turn implies that there holds a complementary relation between the Bell-inequality violation by the reduced bipartite systems and the tangle present in the three-qubit states, not necessarily pure. The MBV states also exhibit maximum Bell-inequality violation by the reduced bipartite systems of the three-qubit pure states with a fixed amount of genuine tripartite correlation quantified by the generalized geometric measure, a genuine entanglement measure of multiparty pure states, and the discord monogamy score, a multipartite quantum correlation measure from information-theoretic paradigm. The aforementioned complementary relation has also been established for three-qubit pure states for the generalized geometric measure and the discord monogamy score, respectively. The complementarity between the Bell-inequality violation by the reduced bipartite systems and the genuine tripartite correlation suggests that the Bell-inequality violation in the reduced two-qubit system comes at the cost of the total tripartite correlation present in the entire system.
Simple and tight monogamy relations for a class of Bell inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Augusiak, Remigiusz
2017-01-01
Physical principles constrain the way nonlocal correlations can be distributed among distant parties in a Bell-type experiment. These constraints are usually expressed by monogamy relations that bound the amount of Bell inequality violation observed by a set of parties by the violation observed by a different set of parties. Here we show that the no-signaling principle yields simple and tight monogamy relations for an important class of bipartite and multipartite Bell inequalities. We also link these trade-offs to the guessing probability—a key quantity in device-independent information processing.
Bell inequality with an arbitrary number of settings and its applications
Nagata, Koji; Laskowski, Wieslaw; Paterek, Tomasz
2006-12-15
Based on a geometrical argument introduced by Zukowski, a new multisetting Bell inequality is derived, for the scenario in which many parties make measurements on two-level systems. This generalizes and unifies some previous results. Moreover, a necessary and sufficient condition for the violation of this inequality is presented. It turns out that the class of nonseparable states which do not admit local realistic description is extended when compared to the two-setting inequalities. However, supporting the conjecture of Peres, quantum states with positive partial transposes with respect to all subsystems do not violate the inequality. Additionally, we follow a general link between Bell inequalities and communication complexity problems, and present a quantum protocol linked with the inequality, which outperforms the best classical protocol.
Testing Quantum Mechanics and Bell's Inequality with Astronomical Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Andrew S.; Gallicchio, Jason; Kaiser, David I.; Guth, Alan H.
2015-01-01
We propose an experiment which would leverage cosmology to test quantum mechanics using astronomical observations. Our experiment would send entangled photons to detectors over 100 kilometers apart, whose settings would be rapidly chosen using real-time telescopic observations of distant, causally disconnected, cosmic sources - such as pairs of quasars or patches of the Cosmic Microwave Background - all while the entangled pair is still in flight. This would, for the first time, close close the so-called "setting independence" or "free will" loophole in experimental tests of Bell's inequality, whereby an alternative theory could mimic the quantum predictions if the experimental settings choices shared even a small correlation with some local "hidden variables" due to unknown causal influences a mere few milliseconds prior to the experiment. Our "Cosmic Bell" experiment would push any such hidden variable conspiracy all the way back to the hot big bang, since the end of any period of inflation, 13.8 Gyr ago, an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the real world feasibility of our experimental setup. While causally disjoint patches of the cosmic microwave background radiation at redshift z ~ 1090 could be used to set the detectors, z > 3.65 quasars observed at optical wavelengths are arguably the optimal candidate source pairs using present technology. Our proposal is supported by some of the world's leading quantum experimentalists, who have begun to collaborate with us to conduct the experiment in the next 2-3 years using some of the instrumentation they have already built and used at two astronomical observatories in the Canary Islands. Such an experiment has implications for our understanding of nature at the deepest level. By testing quantum mechanics in a regime never before explored, we would at the very least extend our confidence in quantum theory, while at the same time severely constraining large classes of alternative theories. If the
Guaranteed violation of a Bell inequality without aligned reference frames or calibrated devices.
Shadbolt, Peter; Vértesi, Tamás; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Branciard, Cyril; Brunner, Nicolas; O'Brien, Jeremy L
2012-01-01
Bell tests - the experimental demonstration of a Bell inequality violation - are central to understanding the foundations of quantum mechanics, and are a powerful diagnostic tool for the development of quantum technologies. To date, Bell tests have relied on careful calibration of measurement devices and alignment of a shared reference frame between two parties - both technically demanding tasks. We show that neither of these operations are necessary, violating Bell inequalities (i) with certainty using unaligned, but calibrated, measurement devices, and (ii) with near-certainty using uncalibrated and unaligned devices. We demonstrate generic quantum nonlocality with randomly chosen measurements on a singlet state of two photons, implemented using a reconfigurable integrated optical waveguide circuit. The observed results demonstrate the robustness of our schemes to imperfections and statistical noise. This approach is likely to have important applications both in fundamental science and quantum technologies, including device-independent quantum key distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dressel, J.; White, T.; Mutus, J.; Barends, R.; Megrant, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Hoi, I.-C.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Fowler, A.; Korotkov, A. N.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.
2015-03-01
We demonstrate the violation of a hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg inequality that avoids both the disjoint sampling and fair sampling loopholes that are common to traditional Bell inequalities. Our algorithm uses sequential weak measurements of a Bell state that are implemented with four superconducting Xmon qubits. In this first of two talks, we detail the high-fidelity partial projections that are needed for this violation, which are realized by entangling an ancilla qubit to each data qubit using a controlled-Z two-qubit gate. After calibration of the ancilla readout, these partial projections indirectly measure qubit expectation values with a tunable amount of state disturbance. For sufficiently weak disturbance, the inequality can be violated using all the data collected in a single configuration.
Violation of a temporal bell inequality for single spins in a diamond defect center.
Waldherr, G; Neumann, P; Huelga, S F; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J
2011-08-26
Quantum nonlocality has been experimentally investigated by testing different forms of Bell's inequality, yet a loophole-free realization has not been achieved up to now. Much less explored are temporal Bell inequalities, which are not subject to the locality assumption, but impose a constraint on the system's time correlations. In this Letter, we report on the experimental violation of a temporal Bell's inequality using a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond and provide a novel quantitative test of quantum coherence. Such a test requires strong control over the system, and we present a new technique to initialize the electronic state of the NV with high fidelity, a necessary requirement also for reliable quantum information processing and/or the implementation of protocols for quantum metrology.
Chen Zeqian
2004-08-01
Maximally entangled states should maximally violate the Bell inequality. It is proved that all two-qubit states that maximally violate the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality are exactly Bell states and the states obtained from them by local transformations. The proof is obtained by using the certain algebraic properties that Pauli's matrices satisfy. The argument is extended to the three-qubit system. Since all states obtained by local transformations of a maximally entangled state are equally valid entangled states, we thus give the characterizations of maximally entangled states in both the two-qubit and three-qubit systems in terms of the Bell inequality.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiess, Thomas E.; Shih, Yan-Hua; Sergienko, A. V.; Alley, Carroll O.
1994-01-01
We report a new two-photon polarization correlation experiment for realizing the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) state and for testing Bell-type inequalities. We use the pair of orthogonally-polarized light quanta generated in Type 2 parametric down conversion. Using 1 nm interference filters in front of our detectors, we observe from the output of a 0.5mm beta - BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal the EPRB correlations in coincidence counts, and measure an associated Bell inequality violation of 22 standard deviations. The quantum state of the photon pair is a polarization analog of the spin-1/2 singlet state.
Tomographic test of Bell's inequality for a time-delocalized single photon
D'Angelo, Milena; Zavatta, Alessandro; Parigi, Valentina; Bellini, Marco
2006-11-15
Time-domain balanced homodyne detection is performed on two well-separated temporal modes sharing a single photon. The reconstructed density matrix of the two-mode system is used to prove and quantify its entangled nature, while the Wigner function is employed for an innovative tomographic test of Bell's inequality based on the theoretical proposal by Banaszek and Wodkiewicz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2009 (1999)]. Provided some auxiliary assumptions are made, a clear violation of the Banaszek-Bell inequality is found.
Multicomponent Bell inequality and its violation for continuous-variable systems
Chen, J.-L.; Wu Chunfeng; Kaszlikowski, D.; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.; Zukowski, M.
2005-03-01
Multicomponent correlation functions are developed by utilizing d-outcome measurements. Based on multicomponent correlation functions, we propose a Bell inequality for bipartite d-dimensional systems. Violation of the Bell inequality for continuous-variable (CV) systems is investigated. The violation of maximally entangled states can exceed the Cirel'son bound; the maximal violation is 2.969 81. For finite values of the squeezing parameter, the violation strength of CV states increases with dimension d. Numerical results show that the violation strength of CV states with finite squeezing parameters is stronger than that of maximally entangled states.
Two-qubit Bell inequality for which positive operator-valued measurements are relevant
Vertesi, T.; Bene, E.
2010-12-15
A bipartite Bell inequality is derived which is maximally violated on the two-qubit state space if measurements describable by positive operator valued measure (POVM) elements are allowed, rather than restricting the possible measurements to projective ones. In particular, the presented Bell inequality requires POVMs in order to be maximally violated by a maximally entangled two-qubit state. This answers a question raised by N. Gisin [in Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality, and Closing the Epistemic Circle: Essays in Honour of Abner Shimony, edited by W. C. Myrvold and J. Christian (Springer, The Netherlands, 2009), pp. 125-138].
Testing Bell's inequality with cosmic photons: closing the setting-independence loophole.
Gallicchio, Jason; Friedman, Andrew S; Kaiser, David I
2014-03-21
We propose a practical scheme to use photons from causally disconnected cosmic sources to set the detectors in an experimental test of Bell's inequality. In current experiments, with settings determined by quantum random number generators, only a small amount of correlation between detector settings and local hidden variables, established less than a millisecond before each experiment, would suffice to mimic the predictions of quantum mechanics. By setting the detectors using pairs of quasars or patches of the cosmic microwave background, observed violations of Bell's inequality would require any such coordination to have existed for billions of years-an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude.
Testing Bell's Inequality with Cosmic Photons: Closing the Setting-Independence Loophole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallicchio, Jason; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kaiser, David I.
2014-03-01
We propose a practical scheme to use photons from causally disconnected cosmic sources to set the detectors in an experimental test of Bell's inequality. In current experiments, with settings determined by quantum random number generators, only a small amount of correlation between detector settings and local hidden variables, established less than a millisecond before each experiment, would suffice to mimic the predictions of quantum mechanics. By setting the detectors using pairs of quasars or patches of the cosmic microwave background, observed violations of Bell's inequality would require any such coordination to have existed for billions of years—an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, T. C.; Mutus, J. Y.; Dressel, J.; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Jeffrey, E.; Sank, D.; Megrant, A.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Hoi, I.-C.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Korotkov, A. N.; Martinis, John M.
2016-02-01
Weak measurement has provided new insight into the nature of quantum measurement, by demonstrating the ability to extract average state information without fully projecting the system. For single-qubit measurements, this partial projection has been demonstrated with violations of the Leggett-Garg inequality. Here we investigate the effects of weak measurement on a maximally entangled Bell state through application of the Hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg inequality (BLGI) on a linear chain of four transmon qubits. By correlating the results of weak ancilla measurements with subsequent projective readout, we achieve a violation of the BLGI with 27 s.d.s. of certainty.
Ghostly action at a distance: A non-technical explanation of the Bell inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alford, Mark G.
2016-06-01
We present a non-mathematical explanation of Bell's inequality. Using the inequality, we show how the results of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiments violate the principle of strong locality. This indicates, given some reasonable-sounding assumptions, that some sort of faster-than-light influence is present in nature. We discuss the implications, emphasizing the relationship between EPR and the Principle of Relativity, the distinction between causal influences and signals, and the tension between EPR and determinism.
Three-observer Bell inequality violation on a two-qubit entangled state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiavon, Matteo; Calderaro, Luca; Pittaluga, Mirko; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2017-03-01
Bipartite Bell inequalities can simultaneously be violated by two different pairs of observers when weak measurements and signalling is employed. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the violation of two simultaneous CHSH inequalities by exploiting a two-photon polarisation maximally entangled state. Our results demonstrate that large double violation is experimentally achievable. Our demonstration may have impact for Quantum Key Distribution or certification of Quantum Random Number generators based on weak measurements.
Asymptotic relation between Bell-inequality violations and entanglement distillability
Kwon, Younghun
2010-11-15
We investigate the asymptotic relation between violations of the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality and the entanglement distillability of multipartite entangled states, as the number of parties increases. We in particular consider noisy multiqubit GHZ and so-called Duer states in the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality, and show that, in the asymptotic limit of the number of parties, the violation of the inequality implies the distillability in almost all bipartitions.
Characterizing entanglement of an artificial atom and a cavity cat state with Bell's inequality
Vlastakis, Brian; Petrenko, Andrei; Ofek, Nissim; Sun, Luyan; Leghtas, Zaki; Sliwa, Katrina; Liu, Yehan; Hatridge, Michael; Blumoff, Jacob; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2015-01-01
The Schrodinger's cat thought experiment highlights the counterintuitive concept of entanglement in macroscopically distinguishable systems. The hallmark of entanglement is the detection of strong correlations between systems, most starkly demonstrated by the violation of a Bell inequality. No violation of a Bell inequality has been observed for a system entangled with a superposition of coherent states, known as a cat state. Here we use the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt formulation of a Bell test to characterize entanglement between an artificial atom and a cat state, or a Bell-cat. Using superconducting circuits with high-fidelity measurements and real-time feedback, we detect correlations that surpass the classical maximum of the Bell inequality. We investigate the influence of decoherence with states up to 16 photons in size and characterize the system by introducing joint Wigner tomography. Such techniques demonstrate that information stored in superpositions of coherent states can be extracted efficiently, a crucial requirement for quantum computing with resonators. PMID:26611724
A proof of Bell's inequality in quantum mechanics using causal interactions.
Robins, James M; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Gill, Richard D
2015-06-01
We give a simple proof of Bell's inequality in quantum mechanics using theory from causal interaction, which, in conjunction with experiments, demonstrates that the local hidden variables assumption is false. The proof sheds light on relationships between the notion of causal interaction and interference between treatments.
Local realistic photon model compatible with Malus' law for experiments testing Bell's inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrero, M.; Santos, E.
1985-04-01
A local realistic model is proposed that agrees approximately with quantum mechanics in the predictions about experiments testing Bell's inequalities by measuring polarization correlations of photon pairs emitted in atomic cascades. No free parameters exist, except polarizer efficiencies, which may be measured independently using Malus' law.
Quantum mechanics vs local realism near the classical limit:A Bell inequality for spin s
Mermin, N.D.
1980-07-15
The quantitative quantum-mechanical analysis of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment for correlated particles of arbitrary spin s is shown to contradict a generalized form of Bell's inequality, for suitable orientations of the detectors. As the classical (s ..-->.. infinity ) limit is approached, the range of angles for which the contradiction arises vanishes as 1/s.
Experimental test of Bell's inequality via the 1H(d,2He)n reaction
Saito, T.; Sakai, H.; Kuboki, H.; Sasano, M.; Yako, K.; Ikeda, T.; Itoh, K.; Kawabata, T.; Maeda, Y.; Suda, K.; Uesaka, T.; Matsui, N.; Satou, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.; Tamii, A.
2005-05-06
To test Bell's inequality, measurements of spin correlations between two protons in the spin singlet state have been performed. Proton pairs in the singlet state were produced by the 1H(d,2He)n reaction at Ed = 270 MeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, T. C.; Mutus, J.; Dressel, J.; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Megrant, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Sank, D.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A.; Hoi, I.-C.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Korotkov, A. N.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.
2015-03-01
We experimentally demonstrate the violation of a hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg inequality that avoids both the disjoint sampling and fair sampling loopholes that are common to traditional Bell inequalities. Our algorithm uses sequential weak measurements of a Bell state that are implemented with four superconducting Xmon qubits. In this second of two talks, we present experimental detail on the measurement of the CHSH correlator and the analysis of error mechanisms. We find that the dependence of the correlations on the measurement strength shows excellent agreement with theoretical predictions, but the magnitude of the correlator varies greatly with system fidelity. For sufficiently weak and high fidelity measurements, we achieve a violation that is many standard deviations above the classical limit.
Experimental investigation of the information entropic Bell inequality
Cao, Lian-Zhen; Zhao, Jia-Qiang; Liu, Xia; Yang, Yang; Li, Ying-De; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Lu, Huai-Xin
2016-01-01
Inequalities of information entropic play a fundamental role in information theory and have been employed effectively in finding bounds on optimal rates of various information-processing tasks. In this paper, we perform the first experimental demonstration of the information-theoretic spin-1/2 inequality using the high-fidelity entangled state. Furthermore, we study the evolution of information difference of entropy when photons passing through different noisy channels and give the experimental rules of the information difference degradation. Our work provides an new essential tool for quantum information processing and measurement, and offers new insights into the dynamics of quantum correlation in open systems. PMID:27034104
Experimental Violation of Bell-like Inequalities By Electronic Shot Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forgues, Jean-Charles; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand
2015-04-01
We report measurements of the correlations between electromagnetic field quadratures at two frequencies f1=7 GHz and f1=7.5 GHz of the radiation emitted by a tunnel junction placed at very low temperature and excited at frequency f1+f2. We demonstrate the existence of two-mode squeezing and violation of a Bell-like inequality, thereby proving the existence of entanglement in the quantum shot noise radiated by the tunnel junction.
Experimental noise-resistant Bell-inequality violations for polarization-entangled photons
Bovino, Fabio A.; Castagnoli, Giuseppe; Cabello, Adan; Lamas-Linares, Antia
2006-06-15
We experimentally demonstrate that violations of Bell's inequalities for two-photon polarization-entangled states with colored noise are extremely robust, whereas this is not the case for states with white noise. Controlling the amount of noise by using the timing compensation scheme introduced by Kim et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 010301(R) (2003)], we have observed violations even for states with very high noise, in excellent agrement with the predictions of Cabello et al. [Phys. Rev. A 72, 052112 (2005)].
Device-independent state estimation based on Bell's inequalities
Bardyn, C.-E.; Liew, T. C. H.; Massar, S.; McKague, M.; Scarani, V.
2009-12-15
The only information available about an alleged source of entangled quantum states is the amount S by which the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is violated: nothing is known about the nature of the system or the measurements that are performed. We discuss how the quality of the source can be assessed in this black-box scenario, as compared to an ideal source that would produce maximally entangled states (more precisely, any state for which S=2sq root(2)). To this end, we present several inequivalent notions of fidelity, each one related to the use one can make of the source after having assessed it, and we derive quantitative bounds for each of them in terms of the violation S. We also derive a lower bound on the entanglement of the source as a function of S only.
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Gedankenexperiment, Bell Inequalities, and Experimental Realizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fry, Edward
2008-10-01
The famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Gedankenexperiment (EPR) and the subsequent analysis by John Bell some 30 years later provided the foundation for a burgeoning interest in phenomena based on quantum properties, most importantly the quantum aspect known as entanglement. These phenomena, still in their infancy, include quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation, quantum computing and quantum information processing. An historical background will be presented and Bohm's version of EPR will be discussed. A simple layman's level example of a Bell inequality will be derived. The initial experimental tests of a Bell Inequality during the second ``Magic Decade of Quantum Mechanics'' involved polarization correlations between two photons in an atomic cascade. Later experiments have used two photons from a down conversion process and have examined, for example, entanglement over large distances. An example of a true experimental realization of Bohm's classic version of EPR will be described. Specifically, the experimental realization involves measurement of angular momentum correlations between two spin one-half mercury atoms (nuclei). The latter are produced by resonant Raman dissociation of a mercury dimer that is in an electronic and nuclear spin singlet state. Determination of the spin one-half angular momentum components of the resulting two spatially separated ^199Hg atoms is accomplished simultaneously with their detection via a polarization selective excitation and ionization scheme.
Pal, Karoly F.; Vertesi, Tamas
2010-08-15
The I{sub 3322} inequality is the simplest bipartite two-outcome Bell inequality beyond the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, consisting of three two-outcome measurements per party. In the case of the CHSH inequality the maximal quantum violation can already be attained with local two-dimensional quantum systems; however, there is no such evidence for the I{sub 3322} inequality. In this paper a family of measurement operators and states is given which enables us to attain the maximum quantum value in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Further, it is conjectured that our construction is optimal in the sense that measuring finite-dimensional quantum systems is not enough to achieve the true quantum maximum. We also describe an efficient iterative algorithm for computing quantum maximum of an arbitrary two-outcome Bell inequality in any given Hilbert space dimension. This algorithm played a key role in obtaining our results for the I{sub 3322} inequality, and we also applied it to improve on our previous results concerning the maximum quantum violation of several bipartite two-outcome Bell inequalities with up to five settings per party.
Subsystems of a finite quantum system and Bell-like inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vourdas, A.
2014-05-01
The set of subsystems Σ(m) of a finite quantum system Σ(n) with variables in Bbb Z(n), together with logical connectives, is a Heyting algebra. The probabilities τ(m|ρn)=Tr[(m)ρn] (where (m) is the projector to Σ(m)) are compatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, only if the variables belong to the same chain. Consequently, contextuality in the present formalism, has the chains as contexts. Various Bell-like inequalities are discussed. They are violated, and this proves that quantum mechanics is a contextual theory.
Entanglement and Bell's inequality violation above room temperature in metal carboxylates.
Souza, A M; Soares-Pinto, D O; Sarthour, R S; Oliveira, I S; Reis, Mario S; Brandao, Paula; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F
2009-01-01
In the present work we show that a particular family of materials, the metal carboxylates, may have entangled states up to very high temperatures. From magnetic-susceptibility measurements, we have estimated the critical temperature below which entanglement exists in the copper carboxylate {Cu-2(O2CH)(4)}{Cu(O2CH)(2)(2-methylpyridine)(2)}, and we have found this to be above room temperature (T-e similar to 630 K). Furthermore, the results show that the system remains maximally entangled until close to similar to 100 K and the Bell's inequality is violated up to nearly room temperature (similar to 290 K).
Pawlowski, M.
2010-09-15
We show that monogamy of Bell's inequality violations, which is strictly weaker condition than the no-signaling principle is enough to prove security of quantum key distribution. We derive our results for a whole class of monogamy constraints and generalize our results to any theory that communicating parties may have access to. Some of these theories do not respect the no-signaling principle yet still allow for secure communication. This proves that no signaling is only a sufficient condition for the possibility of secure communication, but not the necessary one. We also present some new qualitative results concerning the security of existing quantum key distribution protocols.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Sankalpa; Kumar, Rahul
We show that the general quantum state of synthetically spin-orbit coupled ultra cold bosonic atom whose condensate was experimentally created recently (Y.J. Lin et al., Nature, 471, 83, (2011)), shows entanglement between motional degrees of freedom (momentum) and internal degrees of freedom (hyperfine spin). We demonstrate the violation of Bell-like inequality (CHSH) for such states that provides a unique opportunity to verify fundamental principle like quantum non-contextuality for commutating observables which are not spatially separated. We analyze in detail the Rabi oscillation executed by such atom-laser system and how that influneces quantities like entanglement entropy, violation of Bell like Inequality etc. We also discuss the implication of our result in testing the quantum non-contextuality and Bell's Inequality vioaltion by macroscopic quantum object like Bose-Einstein Condensate of ultra cold atoms.
Seevinck, Michael; Uffink, Jos
2007-10-15
By introducing a quantitative 'degree of commutativity' in terms of the angle between spin observables we present two tight quantitative trade-off relations in the case of two qubits. First, for entangled states, between the degree of commutativity of local observables and the maximal amount of violation of the Bell inequality: if both local angles increase from zero to {pi}/2 (i.e., the degree of local commutativity decreases), the maximum violation of the Bell inequality increases. Secondly, a converse trade-off relation holds for separable states: if both local angles approach {pi}/2 the maximal value obtainable for the correlations in the Bell inequality decreases and thus the non-violation increases. As expected, the extremes of these relations are found in the case of anticommuting local observables where, respectively, the bounds of 2{radical}(2) and {radical}(2) hold for the expectation value of the Bell operator. The trade-off relations show that noncommmutativity gives 'a more than classical result' for entangled states, whereas 'a less than classical result' is obtained for separable states. The experimental relevance of the trade-off relation for separable states is that it provides an experimental test for two qubit entanglement. Its advantages are twofold: in comparison to violations of Bell inequalities it is a stronger criterion and in comparison to entanglement witnesses it needs to make less strong assumptions about the observables implemented in the experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hach, Edwin E.; Alsing, Paul M.; Gerry, Christopher C.
2016-04-01
We study the violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality for entangled SU(1,1) coherent states of the form proposed by Perelomov. Specifically, we examine Bell-CHSH violations by such states in the case in which distant observers Alice and Bob perform local, noncompact, SU(1,1) transformations characterized by hyperbolic angles on each of the subsystems and subsequently measure dichotomic observables, namely SU(1,1) parity operators. We find significant violations over a broad range of hyperbolic angles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Kupczynski, Marian
2017-02-01
Ilya Schmelzer wrote recently: Nieuwenhuizen argued that there exists some "contextuality loophole" in Bell's theorem. This claim in unjustified. It is made clear that this arose from attaching a meaning to the title and the content of the paper different from the one intended by Nieuwenhuizen. "Contextual loophole" means only that if the supplementary parameters describing measuring instruments are correctly introduced, Bell and Bell-type inequalities may not be proven. It is also stressed that a hidden variable model suffers from a "contextuality loophole" if it tries to describe different sets of incompatible experiments using a unique probability space and a unique joint probability distribution.
Nikitin, N. V. Sotnikov, V.P.; Toms, K. S.
2015-10-15
A radically new class of Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form was obtained on the basis of Kolmorov’s axiomatization of probability theory and the hypothesis of locality. These inequalities take explicitly into account the dependence on time (time-dependent Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form). By using these inequalities, one can propose a means for experimentally testing Bohr’ complementarity principle in the relativistic region. The inequalities in question open broad possibilities for studying correlations of nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum systems in external fields. The violation of the time-dependent inequalities in quantum mechanics was studied by considering the behavior of a pair of anticorrelated spins in a constant external magnetic field and oscillations of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. The decay of a pseudoscalar particle to a fermion–antifermion pair is considered within quantum field theory. In order to test experimentally the inequalities proposed in the present study, it is not necessary to perform dedicated noninvasive measurements required in the Leggett–Garg approach, for example.
Lo Franco, R.; Compagno, G.; Messina, A.; Napoli, A.
2005-11-15
We consider the entanglement of orthogonal generalized Bernoulli states in two separate single-mode high-Q cavities. The expectation values and the correlations of the electric field in the cavities are obtained. We then define, in each cavity, a dichotomic operator expressible in terms of the field states which can be, in principle, experimentally measured by a probe atom that 'reads' the field. Using the quantum correlations of couples of these operators, we construct a Bell's inequality which is shown to be violated for a wide range of the degree of entanglement and which can be tested in a simple way. Thus the cavity fields directly show quantum nonlocal properties. A scheme is also sketched to generate entangled orthogonal generalized Bernoulli states in the two separate cavities.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument and Bell inequalities for Bose-Einstein spin condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laloë, F.; Mullin, W. J.
2008-02-01
We discuss the properties of two Bose-Einstein condensates in different spin states, represented quantum mechanically by a double Fock state. Individual measurements of the spins of the particles are performed in transverse directions (perpendicular to the spin quantization axis), giving access to the relative phase of the two macroscopically occupied states. Before the first spin measurement, the phase is completely undetermined; after a few measurements, a more and more precise knowledge of its value emerges under the effect of the quantum measurement process. This naturally leads to the usual notion of a quasiclassical phase (Anderson phase) and to an interesting transposition of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument to macroscopic physical quantities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this transposition, as well as situations where the notion of a quasiclassical phase is no longer sufficient to account for the quantum results, and where significant violations of Bell-type inequalities are predicted. Quantum mechanically, the problem can be treated exactly: the probability for all sequences of results can be expressed in the form of a double integral, depending on all parameters that define the experiment (number of particles, number and angles of measurements). We discuss the differences between this case and the usual two-spin case. We discuss the effect of the many parameters that the experimenters can adjust for their measurements, starting with a discussion of the effect of the angles of measurement (the “settings”), and then envisaging various choices of the functions that are used to obtain violation of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities. We then discuss how the “sample bias loophole” (often also called “efficiency loophole”) can be closed in this case, by introducing a preliminary sequence of measurements to localize the particles into “measurement boxes.” We finally show that the same nonlocal effects can be observed with
Testing Quantum Mechanics and Bell's Inequality with Cosmological Observations of Quasars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Andrew S.; Gallicchio, Jason; Kaiser, David I; Guth, Alan
2014-06-01
We discuss a proposed experiment which would leverage cosmology to test quantum mechanics using astronomical observations. Specifically, we aim to close the "setting independence" or so-called "free will" loophole in experimental tests of Bell's inequality by choosing the detector settings (e.g. polarizer orientations) using real-time observations of causally disconnected cosmic sources, for example sufficiently distant quasar pairs, all while the entangled particles are still in flight. This would help close one of the most important remaining Bell test loopholes whereby an alternative theory could mimic the quantum predictions if the experimental settings choices shared even a small correlation with some local "hidden variables" due to unknown causal influences a mere few milliseconds prior to the experiment. Our "Cosmic Bell" experiment would push any such hidden variable conspiracy all the way back to the hot big bang 13.8 Gyr ago, an improvement of 20 orders of magnitude. The talk will demonstrate the real world feasibility of our experimental setup, with emphasis on the theoretical cosmology constraints needed to choose optimal sources. We thus describe general conditions for pairs of cosmological events with arbitrary redshifts and angular separations to have no shared causal pasts since the hot big bang in flat, dark energy dominated, accelerating Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universes like our own. While causally disjoint patches of the cosmic microwave background radiation at redshift z ~ 1090 could be used to set the detectors, z > 3.65 quasars observed at optical wavelengths are arguably the optimal candidate source pairs using present technology that meet the condition of having no shared causal past since the end of any period of inflation, 13.8 Gyr ago. Results are illustrated for our universe with causal structure animations to help visualize the intersections of past light cones for arbitrary event pairs.
Spin Correlations of Strongly Interacting Massive Fermion Pairs as a Test of Bell's Inequality
Sakai, H.; Saito, T.; Kuboki, H.; Sasano, M.; Yako, K.; Ikeda, T.; Itoh, K.; Kawabata, T.; Maeda, Y.; Suda, K.; Uesaka, T.; Matsui, N.; Satou, Y.; Rangacharyulu, C.; Sekiguchi, K.; Tamii, A.
2006-10-13
We report the results of the first-time test of the local hidden variable theories (Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) involving strongly interacting pairs of massive spin 1/2 hadrons from the decay of short-lived ({tau}<10{sup -21}sec) {sup 2}He spin-singlet state, populated in the nuclear reaction {sup 2}H+{sup 1}H{yields}{sup 2}He+n. The novel features of this experiment are (a) the use of an 'event body' detector of nearly 100% efficiency to prepare an unbiased sample and (b) a focal-plane polarimeter of full 2{pi} sr acceptance with a random 'post selection' of the reference axes. The spin-correlation function is deduced to be S{sub exp}({pi}/4)=2.83{+-}0.24{sub stat}{+-}0.07{sub sys}. This result is in agreement with nonlocal quantum mechanical prediction and it violates the Bell-CHSH inequality of vertical bar S vertical bar{<=}2 at a confidence level of 99.3%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, Christopher J.; Spekkens, Robert W.
2015-03-01
An active area of research in the fields of machine learning and statistics is the development of causal discovery algorithms, the purpose of which is to infer the causal relations that hold among a set of variables from the correlations that these exhibit . We apply some of these algorithms to the correlations that arise for entangled quantum systems. We show that they cannot distinguish correlations that satisfy Bell inequalities from correlations that violate Bell inequalities, and consequently that they cannot do justice to the challenges of explaining certain quantum correlations causally. Nonetheless, by adapting the conceptual tools of causal inference, we can show that any attempt to provide a causal explanation of nonsignalling correlations that violate a Bell inequality must contradict a core principle of these algorithms, namely, that an observed statistical independence between variables should not be explained by fine-tuning of the causal parameters. In particular, we demonstrate the need for such fine-tuning for most of the causal mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie Bell correlations, including superluminal causal influences, superdeterminism (that is, a denial of freedom of choice of settings), and retrocausal influences which do not introduce causal cycles.
Finite violations of a Bell inequality for high spin: An optical realization
Gerry, Christopher C.; Albert, Jaroslav
2005-10-15
Some years ago Peres [Phys. Rev. A 46, 4413 (1992)] described a gedanken experiment for a pair of spatially spin j particles in a singlet state and showed using with a dichotomic observable (essentially a parity operator) that Bell's theorem in the form of the Clauser-Home-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality is violated by a constant amount (24%) in the limit j{yields}{infinity}. In this paper we present a scheme for an optical realization of a state that is very close to the spin-j singlet state using two traveling-wave modes of the quantized field using a 50:50 beam splitter with an input number state. A near-singlet states comes about because the binomial output state of the beam splitter can be written as a sum in terms of states in the form vertical bar j,m>{sub 1}x vertical bar j,-m>{sub 2}, each state being associated with a Holstein-Primakoff realization of the su(2) spin algebra in terms of the Bose operators of each of the field modes, where j=N/2, N being the number of photons passing through the beam splitter. The binomial state can violate the CHSH inequality to a greater degree than does the singlet state.
Bellʼs inequality and extremal non-local box from Hardyʼs test for non-locality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Sixia
2014-10-01
Bell showed 50 years ago that quantum theory is non-local via his celebrated inequalities, turning the issue of quantum non-locality from a matter of taste into a matter of test. Years later, Hardy proposed a test for non-locality without inequality, which is a kind of ‘something-versus-nothing’ argument. Hardy's test for n particles induces an n-partite Bell's inequality with two dichotomic local measurements for each observer, which has been shown to be violated by all entangled pure states. Our first result is to show that the Bell-Hardy inequality arising form Hardy's non-locality test is tight for an arbitrary number of parties, i.e., it defines a facet of the Bell polytope in the given scenario. On the other hand quantum theory is not that non-local since it forbids signaling and even not as non-local as allowed by non-signaling conditions, i.e., quantum mechanical predictions form a strict subset of the so called non-signaling polytope. In the scenario of each observer measuring two dichotomic observables, Fritz established a duality between the Bell polytope and the non-signaling polytope: tight Bell's inequalities, the facets of the Bell polytope, are in a one-to-one correspondence with extremal non-signaling boxes, the vertices of the non-signaling polytope. Our second result is to provide an alternative and more direct formula for this duality. As an example, the tight Bell-Hardy inequality gives rise to an extremal non-signaling box that serves as a natural multipartite generalization of Popescu-Rohrlich box. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Yuan Luqi; Das, Sumanta
2011-06-15
We study the polarization-dependent second-order correlation of a pair of photons emitted in a four-level radiative cascade driven by an external field. It is found that the quantum correlations of the emitted photons, degraded by the energy splitting of the intermediate levels in the radiative cascade, can be efficiently revived by a far-detuned external field. The physics of this revival is linked to an induced Stark shift and the formation of dressed states in the system by the nonresonant external field. Furthermore, we investigated the competition between the effect of the coherent external field and incoherent dephasing of the intermediate levels. We find that the degradation of quantum correlations due to the incoherent dephasing can be contained for small dephasing with the external field. We also studied the nonlocality of the correlations by evaluating the Bell inequality in the linear polarization basis for the radiative cascade. We find that the Bell parameter decreases rapidly with increase in the intermediate-level energy splitting or incoherent dephasing rate to the extent that there is no violation. However, the presence of an external field leads to control over the degrading mechanisms and preservation of nonlocal correlation among the photons. This in turn can induce a violation of Bell's inequality in the radiative cascade for arbitrary intermediate-level splitting and small incoherent dephasing.
Lu Huaixin; Zhao Jiaqiang; Cao Lianzhen; Wang Xiaoqin
2011-10-15
There are different families of inequalities that can be used to characterize the entanglement of multiqubit entangled states by the violation of quantum mechanics prediction versus local realism prediction. In a noisy environment, the violation of different inequalities distinguishes a direct from a noise-free environment. That is, each inequality has a different robustness against noise. We investigate theoretically and experimentally this proposition with the Mermin inequality, Bell inequality, and Svetlichny inequality using three-qubit GHZ states for different levels of noise. Our purpose is to determine which one of the inequalities is more robust against noise and thus more suitable to characterize entanglement of states. Our results show that the Mermin inequality is the most robust against stronger noise and is, thus, more suitable for characterizing the entanglement of three-qubit GHZ states in a noisy environment.
Bell's Inequality and Universal Quantum Gates in a Cold-Atom Chiral Fermionic p-Wave Superfluid
Zhang Chuanwei; Tewari, Sumanta; Das Sarma, S.
2007-11-30
We propose and analyze a probabilistic scheme to entangle two spatially separated topological qubits in a p{sub x}+ip{sub y} superfluid using controlled collisions between atoms in movable dipole traps and unpaired atoms inside vortex cores in the superfluid. We discuss how to test the violation of Bell's inequality with the generated entanglement. A set of universal quantum gates is shown to be implementable deterministically using the entanglement despite the fact that the entangled states can be created only probabilistically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knee, G. C.; Gauger, E. M.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Benjamin, S. C.
2012-05-01
A recent paper by Souza, Oliveira and Sarthour (SOS) reports the experimental violation of a Leggett-Garg (LG) inequality (sometimes referred to as a temporal Bell inequality). The inequality tests for quantum mechanical superposition: if the inequality is violated, the dynamics cannot be explained by a large class of classical theories under the heading of macrorealism. Experimental tests of the LG inequality are beset by the difficulty of carrying out the necessary so-called ‘non-invasive’ measurements (which for the macrorealist will extract information from a system of interest without disturbing it). SOS argue that they nevertheless achieve this difficult goal by putting the system in a maximally mixed state. The system then allegedly undergoes no perturbation during their experiment. Unfortunately, the method is ultimately unconvincing to a skeptical macrorealist and so the conclusions drawn by SOS are unjustified.
Possibilities of a test of the temporal Bell inequalities using the flux qubit coupled to a dcSQUID
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, Mao-Chuang; Leggett, Anthony
2013-03-01
Although then last few years have seen tests of the temporal Bell inequalities (TBI) on microscopic systems with the use of ``ideal negative result'' (INR) measurements, and on macroscopic systems using weak measurement, to date there have been no tests on macroscopic systems using INR measurements. Moreover, in neither case was the assumption of noninvasiveness explicitly tested in an ancillary experiment. Here we propose a complete INR protocol, including the ancillary experiment, for a test of the TBI on a macroscopic system, namely a flux qubit,with the measuring apparatus a dc SQUID. The general setup mirrors that of Knee et al., with the nuclear spins replaced by the flux qubit and the electron spins by the dc SQUID, and we analyze the relation between the theoretical concept of ``venality'' introduced in ref. and the experimental behavior expected in our ancillary test. On the basis of this analysis we assess the current feasibility of the proposed experiment. Supported by Macarthur supplement grant
Device-independent characterizations of a shared quantum state independent of any Bell inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Zhaohui; Sikora, Jamie
2017-03-01
In a Bell experiment two parties share a quantum state and perform local measurements on their subsystems separately, and the statistics of the measurement outcomes are recorded as a Bell correlation. For any Bell correlation, it turns out that a quantum state with minimal size that is able to produce this correlation can always be pure. In this work, we first exhibit two device-independent characterizations for the pure state that Alice and Bob share using only the correlation data. Specifically, we give two conditions that the Schmidt coefficients must satisfy, which can be tight, and have various applications in quantum tasks. First, one of the characterizations allows us to bound the entanglement between Alice and Bob using Renyi entropies and also to bound the underlying Hilbert space dimension. Second, when the Hilbert space dimension bound is tight, the shared pure quantum state has to be maximally entangled. Third, the second characterization gives a sufficient condition that a Bell correlation cannot be generated by particular quantum states. We also show that our results can be generalized to the case of shared mixed states.
Experimental noise-resistant Bell-inequality violations for polarization-entangled photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bovino, Fabio A.; Castagnoli, Giuseppe; Cabello, Adán; Lamas-Linares, Antía
2006-06-01
We experimentally demonstrate that violations of Bell’s inequalities for two-photon polarization-entangled states with colored noise are extremely robust, whereas this is not the case for states with white noise. Controlling the amount of noise by using the timing compensation scheme introduced by Kim [Phys. Rev. A 67, 010301(R) (2003)], we have observed violations even for states with very high noise, in excellent agrement with the predictions of Cabello [Phys. Rev. A 72, 052112 (2005)].
Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.
2009-03-10
It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.
2009-03-01
It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism.
Possibilities of a test of the temporal Bell inequalities using a flux qubit coupling to a dcSQUID
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, Mao-Chuang; Leggett, Anthony J.
2014-03-01
Although then last few years have seen tests of the temporal Bell inequalities (TBI) on microscopic systems with the use of ``ideal negative result'' (INR) measurements, and on macroscopic systems using weak measurement, to date there have been no tests on macroscopic systems using INR measurements. Moreover, in neither case was the assumption of noninvasiveness explicitly tested in an ancillary experiment. Here we propose a complete INR protocol, including the ancillary experiment, for a test of the TBI on a macroscopic system, namely a flux qubit,with the measuring apparatus a dc SQUID. The general setup mirrors that of Knee et al., with the nuclear spins replaced by the flux qubit and the electron spins by the dc SQUID, and we analyze the relation between the theoretical concept of ``venality'''' introduced in ref. and the experimental behavior expected in our ancillary test. On the basis of this analysis we assess the current feasibility of the proposed experiment. Supported by the Macarthur Profesorship endowed by the John D. and Catherine T. Macarthur Foundation at the University of Illinois.
Jeong, Hyunseok; Nguyen Ba An
2006-08-15
We study Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type (GHZ-type) and W-type three-mode entangled coherent states. Both types of entangled coherent states violate Mermin's version of the Bell inequality with threshold photon detection (i.e., without photon counting). Such an experiment can be performed using linear optics elements and threshold detectors with significant Bell violations for GHZ-type entangled coherent states. However, to demonstrate Bell-type inequality violations for W-type entangled coherent states, additional nonlinear interactions are needed. We also propose an optical scheme to generate W-type entangled coherent states in free-traveling optical fields. The required resources for the generation are a single-photon source, a coherent state source, beam splitters, phase shifters, photodetectors, and Kerr nonlinearities. Our scheme does not necessarily require strong Kerr nonlinear interactions; i.e., weak nonlinearities can be used for the generation of the W-type entangled coherent states. Furthermore, it is also robust against inefficiencies of the single-photon source and the photon detectors.
Takesue, Hiroki; Inoue, Kyo
2004-09-01
We report the generation of polarization entangled photon pairs in the 1550-nm wavelength band using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a dispersion-shifted fiber loop. The use of the fiber-loop configuration made it possible to generate polarization entangled states very stably. With accidental coincidences subtracted, we obtained coincidence fringes with >90% visibilities, and observed a violation of Bell's inequality by seven standard deviations. We also confirmed the preservation of the quantum correlation between the photons even after they had been separated by 20 km of optical fiber.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallés, Adam; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Hendrych, Martin; Mičuda, Michal; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Torres, Juan P.
2014-11-01
We demonstrate a scheme to generate noncoherent and coherent correlations, i.e., a tunable degree of entanglement, between degrees of freedom of a single photon. Its nature is analogous to the tuning of the purity (first-order coherence) of a single photon forming part of a two-photon state by tailoring the correlations between the paired photons. Therefore, well-known tools such as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell-like inequality can also be used to characterize entanglement between degrees of freedom. More specifically, CHSH inequality tests are performed, making use of the polarization and the spatial shape of a single photon. The four modes required are two polarization modes and two spatial modes with different orbital angular momentum.
Anti-Bell - Refutation of Bell's theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barukčić, Ilija
2012-12-01
In general, Albert Einstein as one of "the founding fathers of quantum mechanics" had some problems to accept especially the Copenhagen dominated interpretation of quantum mechanics. Einstein's dissatisfaction with Copenhagen's interpretation of quantum mechanics, the absence of locality and causality within the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics lead to the well known Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment. According to Einstein et al., the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics cannot be regarded as a complete physical theory. The Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment was the origin of J. S. Bell's publication in 1964; known as Bell's theorem. Meanwhile, some dramatic violations of Bell's inequality (by so called Bell test experiments) have been reported which is taken as an empirical evidence against local realism and causality at quantum level and as positive evidence in favor of the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics. Thus far, Quantum mechanics is still regarded as a "strictly" non-local theory. The purpose of this publication is to refute Bell's original theorem. Thus far, if we accept Bell's theorem as correct, we must accept that +0> = +1. We can derive a logical contradiction out of Bell's theorem, Bell's theorem is refuted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guney, Veli Ugur
In this work we look for novel classes of Bell's inequalities and methods to produce them. We also find their quantum violations including, if possible, the maximum one. The Jordan bases method that we explain in Chapter 2 is about using a pair of certain type of orthonormal bases whose spans are subspaces related to measurement outcomes of incompatible quantities on the same physical system. Jordan vectors are the briefest way of expressing the relative orientation of any two subspaces. This feature helps us to reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space on which we do searches for optimization. The work is published in [24]. In Chapter 3, we attempt to find a connection between group theory and Bell's theorem. We devise a way of generating terms of a Bell's inequality that are related to elements of an algebraic group. The same group generates both the terms of the Bell's inequality and the observables that are used to calculate the quantum value of the Bell expression. Our results are published in [25][26]. In brief, Bell's theorem is the main tool of a research program that was started by Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen [19] and Bohr [8] in the early days of quantum mechanics in their discussions about the core nature of physical systems. These debates were about a novel type of physical states called superposition states, which are introduced by quantum mechanics and manifested in the apparent inevitable randomness in measurement outcomes of identically prepared systems. Bell's huge contribution was to find a means of quantifying the problem and hence of opening the way to experimental verification by rephrasing the questions as limits on certain combinations of correlations between measurement results of spatially separate systems [7]. Thanks to Bell, the fundamental questions related to the nature of quantum mechanical systems became quantifiable [6]. According to Bell's theorem, some correlations between quantum entangled systems that involve incompatible
Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks
2015-10-26
reviews and I also visited AFRL Rome for a few days to discuss collaborative efforts and gave a talk for the “Distinguished Speaker Seminar Series in...Period: 1 August 2012 to 31 July 2015 Information Sciences Institute University of Southern California, 4676 Admiralty Way Marina del Rey, CA 90292...hierarchical decomposition of information. Intuitively, data is passed through a series of progressively fine-grained sieves. Each layer of the sieve recovers a
Bell's palsy is the most common cause of facial paralysis. It usually affects just one side of the ... become inflamed. You are most likely to get Bell's palsy if you are pregnant, diabetic or sick with ...
Bell Length in the Entanglement Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiscaletti, Davide; Licata, Ignazio
2015-07-01
A geometric approach to entangled qubit pairs is outlined via Bohm Theory. An entropic quantum correlation distance is here proposed as a mark of the non-local "handshaking" between two systems under the action of Quantum Potential. The Bell-CHSH inequalities and Berry Phase are analyzed in terms of this new correlation measure we called Bell Length, in honour of J.S. Bell (1928-1990).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spekkens, Robert
2010-03-01
The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem demonstrates that the predictions of quantum theory are inconsistent with a noncontextual hidden variable model. Significantly, the notion of noncontextuality to which it appeals is only well-defined for models of quantum theory as opposed to models of an arbitrary physical theory and then only for projective measurements and deterministic models thereof. By contrast, the notion of local causality introduced by Bell is not so restricted in its scope. In this talk, I present an operational definition of noncontextuality that recovers the traditional notion as a special case and allows one to define ``noncontextuality inequalities'' for experimental statistics. I will demonstrate that a particular two-party information-processing task, ``parity-oblivious multiplexing,'' is powered by contextuality in the sense that there is an inequality that bounds its performance in noncontextual models, and I will report on an experimental violation of this inequality in good agreement with the quantum predictions. Joint work with Daniel Buzacott, Tony Keehn, Ben Toner and Geoff Pryde.
Quantum correlations in connected multipartite Bell experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavakoli, Armin
2016-04-01
Bell experiments measure correlations between outcomes of a number of observers measuring on a shared physical state emitted from a single source. Quantum correlations arising in such Bell experiments have been intensively studied over the last decades. Much less is known about the nature of quantum correlations arising in network structures beyond Bell experiments. Such networks can involve many independent sources emitting states to observers in accordance with the network configuration. Here, we will study classical and quantum correlations in a family of networks which can be regarded as compositions of several independent multipartite Bell experiments connected together through a central node. For such networks we present tight Bell-type inequalities which are satisfied by all classical correlations. We study properties of the violations of our inequalities by probability distributions arising in quantum theory.
Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Liu, Si-Yuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li
2016-01-01
We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality. PMID:26911250
Vakharia, Kavita; Vakharia, Kalpesh
2016-02-01
Bell's palsy is unilateral, acute onset facial paralysis that is a common condition. One in every 65 people experiences Bell's palsy in the course of their lifetime. The majority of patients afflicted with this idiopathic disorder recover facial function. Initial treatment involves oral corticosteroids, possible antiviral drugs, and protection of the eye from desiccation. A small subset of patients may be left with incomplete recovery, synkinesis, facial contracture, or hemifacial spasm. A combination of medical and surgical treatment options exist to treat the long-term sequelae of Bell's palsy.
... Bell's palsy, some people with the condition may benefit from the following: Relaxation techniques. Relaxing by using techniques such as meditation and yoga may relieve muscle tension and chronic pain. Acupuncture. ...
... Brackmann DE, Shelton CS, Arriaga MA, eds. Otologic Surgery . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 27. Gronseth GS, Paduga R; American Academy of Neurology. Evidence-based guideline update: steroids and antivirals for Bell palsy: ...
... conditions that cause injuries and damage to nerves. Knowledge gained from this research may help scientists find the definitive cause of Bell's palsy, leading to the discovery of new effective treatments for the disorder. Other ...
... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Bell's Palsy KidsHealth > For Kids > Bell's Palsy Print A A ... usually goes away on its own. What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's palsy weakens or paralyzes the muscles on ...
Bell's Nonlocality in a General Nonsignaling Case: Quantitatively and Conceptually
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loubenets, Elena R.
2017-03-01
Quantum violation of Bell inequalities is now used in many quantum information applications and it is important to analyze it both quantitatively and conceptually. In the present paper, we analyze violation of multipartite Bell inequalities via the local probability model—the LqHV (local quasi hidden variable) model (Loubenets in J Math Phys 53:022201, 2012), incorporating the LHV model only as a particular case and correctly reproducing the probabilistic description of every quantum correlation scenario, more generally, every nonsignaling scenario. The LqHV probability framework allows us to construct nonsignaling analogs of Bell inequalities and to specify parameters quantifying violation of Bell inequalities—Bell's nonlocality—in a general nonsignaling case. For quantum correlation scenarios on an N-qudit state, we evaluate these nonlocality parameters analytically in terms of dilation characteristics of an N-qudit state and also, numerically—in d and N. In view of our rigorous mathematical description of Bell's nonlocality in a general nonsignaling case via the local probability model, we argue that violation of Bell inequalities in a quantum case is not due to violation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) locality conjectured by Bell but due to the improper HV modelling of "quantum realism".
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a
John S. Bell's concept of local causality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norsen, Travis
2011-12-01
John Stewart Bell's famous theorem is widely regarded as one of the most important developments in the foundations of physics. Yet even as we approach the 50th anniversary of Bell's discovery, its meaning and implications remain controversial. Many workers assert that Bell's theorem refutes the possibility suggested by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) of supplementing ordinary quantum theory with ``hidden'' variables that might restore determinism and/or some notion of an observer-independent reality. But Bell himself interpreted the theorem very differently--as establishing an ``essential conflict'' between the well-tested empirical predictions of quantum theory and relativistic local causality. Our goal is to make Bell's own views more widely known and to explain Bell's little-known formulation of the concept of relativistic local causality on which his theorem rests. We also show precisely how Bell's formulation of local causality can be used to derive an empirically testable Bell-type inequality and to recapitulate the EPR argument.
John S. Bell's concept of local causality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norsen, Travis
2011-12-01
John Stewart Bell's famous theorem is widely regarded as one of the most important developments in the foundations of physics. Yet even as we approach the 50th anniversary of Bell's discovery, its meaning and implications remain controversial. Many workers assert that Bell's theorem refutes the possibility suggested by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) of supplementing ordinary quantum theory with "hidden" variables that might restore determinism and/or some notion of an observer-independent reality. But Bell himself interpreted the theorem very differently—as establishing an "essential conflict" between the well-tested empirical predictions of quantum theory and relativistic local causality. Our goal is to make Bell's own views more widely known and to explain Bell's little-known formulation of the concept of relativistic local causality on which his theorem rests. We also show precisely how Bell's formulation of local causality can be used to derive an empirically testable Bell-type inequality and to recapitulate the EPR argument.
... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Bell's Palsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Bell's Palsy Print A A ... Yourself en español Parálisis de Bell What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's palsy is a temporary weakness or paralysis ...
Nielsen, François
2017-02-01
Kelley and Evans (2017) found that income inequality (measured at the societal level) did not affect individual well-being in advanced societies but increased individual well-being in developing societies. This paper discusses how this empirical patterning of the inequality-well-being relationship may arise from mechanisms related to the relationship of inequality with economic development (at the macro-sociological level) and to the evolution of emotional reactions to inequality (at the individual-psychological level).
Bell Test experiments explained without entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyd, Jeffrey
2011-04-01
by Jeffrey H. Boyd. Jeffreyhboyd@gmail.com. John Bell proposed a test of what was called "local realism." However that is a different view of reality than we hold. Bell incorrectly assumed the validity of wave particle dualism. According to our model waves are independent of particles; wave interference precedes the emission of a particle. This results in two conclusions. First the proposed inequalities that apply to "local realism" in Bell's theorem do not apply to this model. The alleged mathematics of "local realism" is therefore wrong. Second, we can explain the Bell Test experimental results (such as the experiments done at Innsbruck) without any need for entanglement, non-locality, or particle superposition.
Two-player conflicting interest Bayesian games and Bell nonlocality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Situ, Haozhen
2016-01-01
Nonlocality, one of the most remarkable aspects of quantum mechanics, is closely related to Bayesian game theory. Quantum mechanics can offer advantages to some Bayesian games, if the payoff functions are related to Bell inequalities in some way, most of these Bayesian games that have been discussed are common interest games. Recently, the first conflicting interest Bayesian game is proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 020401 (2015). In the present paper, we present three new conflicting interest Bayesian games where quantum mechanics offers advantages. The first game is linked with Cereceda inequalities, the second game is linked with a generalized Bell inequality with three possible measurement outcomes, and the third game is linked with a generalized Bell inequality with three possible measurement settings.
Exploring inequality violations by classical hidden variables numerically
Vongehr, Sascha
2013-12-15
There are increasingly suggestions for computer simulations of quantum statistics which try to violate Bell type inequalities via classical, common cause correlations. The Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality is very robust. However, we argue that with the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen setup, the CHSH is inferior to the Bell inequality, although and because the latter must assume anti-correlation of entangled photon singlet states. We simulate how often quantum behavior violates both inequalities, depending on the number of photons. Violating Bell 99% of the time is argued to be an ideal benchmark. We present hidden variables that violate the Bell and CHSH inequalities with 50% probability, and ones which violate Bell 85% of the time when missing 13% anti-correlation. We discuss how to present the quantum correlations to a wide audience and conclude that, when defending against claims of hidden classicality, one should demand numerical simulations and insist on anti-correlation and the full amount of Bell violation. -- Highlights: •The widely assumed superiority of the CHSH fails in the EPR problem. •We simulate Bell type inequalities behavior depending on the number of photons. •The core of Bell’s theorem in the EPR setup is introduced in a simple way understandable to a wide audience. •We present hidden variables that violate both inequalities with 50% probability. •Algorithms have been supplied in form of Mathematica programs.
Requirements for a loophole-free photonic Bell test using imperfect setting generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kofler, Johannes; Giustina, Marissa; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mitchell, Morgan W.
2016-03-01
Experimental violations of Bell inequalities are in general vulnerable to so-called loopholes. In this work, we analyze the characteristics of a loophole-free Bell test with photons, closing simultaneously the locality, freedom-of-choice, fair-sampling (i.e., detection), coincidence-time, and memory loopholes. We pay special attention to the effect of excess predictability in the setting choices due to nonideal random-number generators. We discuss necessary adaptations of the Clauser-Horne and Eberhard inequality when using such imperfect devices and—using Hoeffding's inequality and Doob's optional stopping theorem—the statistical analysis in such Bell tests.
Entanglement, Bell inequality and all that
Narnhofer, Heide; Thirring, Walter
2012-09-15
We start from the geometrical observation that a finite set of pure states correspond to some points on a sphere and their convex span cannot be the whole set of states. If we call the left over entangled we can pursue this picture from the simplest case of a two dimensional Hilbert space to the usual Alice-and-Bob game of entangled states and then move to bigger systems and finely to quantum field theory where almost everything is entangled. On the way we encounter more or less known old friends up from the shell structure of states to the monogamy of squashed entanglement. We study how entanglement can be concentrated on a small slice and how it depends on the particular factorization of the Hilbert space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhury, Sayantan; Panda, Sudhakar; Singh, Rajeev
2017-02-01
In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in the presence of additional time-dependent mass contribution in the cosmological perturbation theory. Here for completeness we compute the total number density and the energy density of the newly created particles in terms of the Bogoliubov coefficients using the WKB approximation method. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in the presence of a new time-dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for a one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a future theoretical probe to break the degeneracy amongst various models of inflation. Additionally, we also fix the scale of inflation in a model-independent way without any prior knowledge of primordial gravitational waves. Also using the input from a newly introduced cosmological parameter, we finally give a theoretical estimate for the tensor-to-scalar ratio in a model-independent way. Next, we also comment on the technicalities of measurements from isospin breaking interactions and the future prospects of newly introduced massive particles in a cosmological Bell violating test experiment. Further, we cite a precise example of this setup applicable in the context of string theory motivated axion monodromy model. Then we comment
Interpretation of the quantum formalism and Bell's theorem
Santos, E. )
1991-02-01
It is argued that quantum mechanics must be interpreted according to the Copenhagen interpretation. Consequently the formalism must be used in a purely operational way. The relation between realism, hidden variables, and the Bell inequalities is discussed. The proof of impossibility of local hidden-variables theories (Bell theorem) is criticized on the basis that the quantum mechanical states violating local realism are not physically realizable states.
A Geometrical Approach to Bell's Theorem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubincam, David Parry
2000-01-01
Bell's theorem can be proved through simple geometrical reasoning, without the need for the Psi function, probability distributions, or calculus. The proof is based on N. David Mermin's explication of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment, which involves Stern-Gerlach detectors which flash red or green lights when detecting spin-up or spin-down. The statistics of local hidden variable theories for this experiment can be arranged in colored strips from which simple inequalities can be deduced. These inequalities lead to a demonstration of Bell's theorem. Moreover, all local hidden variable theories can be graphed in such a way as to enclose their statistics in a pyramid, with the quantum-mechanical result lying a finite distance beneath the base of the pyramid.
Bell nonlocality in the turbulent atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gumberidze, M. O.; Semenov, A. A.; Vasylyev, D.; Vogel, W.
2016-11-01
Violations of Bell inequalities are better preserved by turbulent atmospheric channels than by comparable optical fibers in the scenario of copropagating entangled photons [A. A. Semenov and W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 023835 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.023835]. Here we reexamine this result for the case of counterpropagation also considering the fact that each receiver registers so-called double-click events, which are caused by dark counts, stray light, and multiphoton entangled pairs. We show that advantages of the atmospheric links are feasible only for the copropagation scenario in the case of strong fluctuations of losses. For counterpropagation, the violations of Bell inequalities can be improved with an additional postselection procedure testing the channel transmittance.
... or the flu . Someone who is infected with Lyme disease also can develop Bell's palsy. Of course, this ... that everyone who has a viral infection or Lyme disease will get Bell's palsy — most people don't. ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gisin, Nicolas
2017-01-01
In John Stewart Bell and Twentieth-Century Physics: Vision and Integrity, fellow physicist Andrew Whitaker tells the story of Bell's life and his revolutionary discovery that not everything in physics can be explained using only local variables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2017-03-01
Inequality indices are widely applied in economics and in the social sciences as quantitative measures of the socioeconomic inequality of human societies. The application of inequality indices extends to size-distributions at large, where these indices can be used as general gauges of statistical heterogeneity. Moreover, as inequality indices are plentiful, arrays of such indices facilitate high-detail quantification of statistical heterogeneity. In this paper we elevate from arrays of inequality indices to inequality spectra: continuums of inequality indices that are parameterized by a single control parameter. We present a general methodology of constructing Lorenz-based inequality spectra, apply the general methodology to establish four sets of inequality spectra, investigate the properties of these sets, and show how these sets generalize known inequality gauges such as: the Gini index, the extended Gini index, the Rényi index, and hill curves.
Leggett-Garg inequalities for squeezed states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Jérôme; Vennin, Vincent
2016-11-01
Temporal Bell inequalities, or Leggett-Garg inequalities (LGIs), are studied for continuous-variable systems placed in a squeezed state. The importance of those systems lies in their broad applicability, which allows the description of many different physical settings in various branches of physics, ranging from cosmology to condensed matter physics and from optics to quantum information theory. Leggett-Garg inequality violations are explored and systematically mapped in squeezing parameter space. Configurations for which LGI violation occurs are found, but it is shown that no violation can be obtained if all squeezing angles vanish, contrary to what happens for the spatial Bell inequalities. We also assess the effect of decoherence on the detectability of such violations. Our study opens up the possibility of new experimental designs for the observation of LGI violation.
Cosmic Bell Test: Measurement Settings from Milky Way Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handsteiner, Johannes; Friedman, Andrew S.; Rauch, Dominik; Gallicchio, Jason; Liu, Bo; Hosp, Hannes; Kofler, Johannes; Bricher, David; Fink, Matthias; Leung, Calvin; Mark, Anthony; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sanders, Isabella; Steinlechner, Fabian; Ursin, Rupert; Wengerowsky, Sören; Guth, Alan H.; Kaiser, David I.; Scheidl, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton
2017-02-01
Bell's theorem states that some predictions of quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced by a local-realist theory. That conflict is expressed by Bell's inequality, which is usually derived under the assumption that there are no statistical correlations between the choices of measurement settings and anything else that can causally affect the measurement outcomes. In previous experiments, this "freedom of choice" was addressed by ensuring that selection of measurement settings via conventional "quantum random number generators" was spacelike separated from the entangled particle creation. This, however, left open the possibility that an unknown cause affected both the setting choices and measurement outcomes as recently as mere microseconds before each experimental trial. Here we report on a new experimental test of Bell's inequality that, for the first time, uses distant astronomical sources as "cosmic setting generators." In our tests with polarization-entangled photons, measurement settings were chosen using real-time observations of Milky Way stars while simultaneously ensuring locality. Assuming fair sampling for all detected photons, and that each stellar photon's color was set at emission, we observe statistically significant ≳7.31 σ and ≳11.93 σ violations of Bell's inequality with estimated p values of ≲1.8 ×10-13 and ≲4.0 ×10-33, respectively, thereby pushing back by ˜600 years the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have engineered the observed Bell violation.
Bell Violation in Primordial Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choudhury, Sayantan; Panda, Sudhakar; Singh, Rajeev
2017-02-01
In this paper, we have worked on the possibility of setting up an Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of primordial cosmology following the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. To set up this proposal we have introduced a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles for the scalar fluctuations in the presence of additional time dependent mass parameter. Next we explicitly computed the one point and two point correlation functions from this setup. Then we comment on the measurement techniques of isospin breaking interactions of newly introduced massive particles and its further prospects. After that, we give an example of string theory originated axion monodromy model in this context. Finally, we provide a bound on the heavy particle mass parameter for any arbitrary spin field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, G. P.; Yeomans, J. M.
2008-08-01
We investigate the way in which oscillating dumb-bells, a simple microscopic model of apolar swimmers, move at low Reynold's number. In accordance with Purcell's Scallop Theorem a single dumb-bell cannot swim because its stroke is reciprocal in time. However the motion of two or more dumb-bells, with mutual phase differences, is not time reversal invariant, and hence swimming is possible. We use analytical and numerical solutions of the Stokes equations to calculate the hydrodynamic interaction between two dumb-bell swimmers and to discuss their relative motion. The cooperative effect of interactions between swimmers is explored by considering first regular, and then random arrays of dumb-bells. We find that a square array acts as a micropump. The long-time behaviour of suspensions of dumb-bells is investigated and compared to that of model polar swimmers.
Testing Leggett's Inequality Using Aharonov-Casher Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Deng, Dong-Ling; Oh, C. H.
2013-08-01
Bell's inequality is established based on local realism. The violation of Bell's inequality by quantum mechanics implies either locality or realism or both are untenable. Leggett's inequality is derived based on nonlocal realism. The violation of Leggett's inequality implies that quantum mechanics is neither local realistic nor nonlocal realistic. The incompatibility of nonlocal realism and quantum mechanics has been currently confirmed by photon experiments. In our work, we propose to test Leggett's inequality using the Aharonov-Casher effect. In our scheme, four entangled particles emitted from two sources manifest a two-qubit-typed correlation that may result in the violation of the Leggett inequality, while satisfying the no-signaling condition for spacelike separation. Our scheme is tolerant to some local inaccuracies due to the topological nature of the Aharonov-Casher phase. The experimental implementation of our scheme can be possibly realized by a calcium atomic polarization interferometer experiment.
Testing Leggett's Inequality Using Aharonov-Casher Effect
Su, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Deng, Dong-Ling; Oh, C. H.
2013-01-01
Bell's inequality is established based on local realism. The violation of Bell's inequality by quantum mechanics implies either locality or realism or both are untenable. Leggett's inequality is derived based on nonlocal realism. The violation of Leggett's inequality implies that quantum mechanics is neither local realistic nor nonlocal realistic. The incompatibility of nonlocal realism and quantum mechanics has been currently confirmed by photon experiments. In our work, we propose to test Leggett's inequality using the Aharonov-Casher effect. In our scheme, four entangled particles emitted from two sources manifest a two-qubit-typed correlation that may result in the violation of the Leggett inequality, while satisfying the no-signaling condition for spacelike separation. Our scheme is tolerant to some local inaccuracies due to the topological nature of the Aharonov-Casher phase. The experimental implementation of our scheme can be possibly realized by a calcium atomic polarization interferometer experiment. PMID:23966132
Testing Leggett's inequality using Aharonov-Casher effect.
Su, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Deng, Dong-Ling; Oh, C H
2013-01-01
Bell's inequality is established based on local realism. The violation of Bell's inequality by quantum mechanics implies either locality or realism or both are untenable. Leggett's inequality is derived based on nonlocal realism. The violation of Leggett's inequality implies that quantum mechanics is neither local realistic nor nonlocal realistic. The incompatibility of nonlocal realism and quantum mechanics has been currently confirmed by photon experiments. In our work, we propose to test Leggett's inequality using the Aharonov-Casher effect. In our scheme, four entangled particles emitted from two sources manifest a two-qubit-typed correlation that may result in the violation of the Leggett inequality, while satisfying the no-signaling condition for spacelike separation. Our scheme is tolerant to some local inaccuracies due to the topological nature of the Aharonov-Casher phase. The experimental implementation of our scheme can be possibly realized by a calcium atomic polarization interferometer experiment.
Alesina, Alberto; Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias
2015-01-01
This study explores the consequences and origins of between-ethnicity economic inequality across countries. First, combining satellite images of nighttime luminosity with the historical homelands of ethnolinguistic groups we construct measures of ethnic inequality for a large sample of countries. We also compile proxies of overall spatial inequality and regional inequality across administrative units. Second, we uncover a strong negative association between ethnic inequality and contemporary comparative development; the correlation is also present when we condition on regional inequality, which is itself related to under-development. Third, we investigate the roots of ethnic inequality and establish that differences in geographic endowments across ethnic homelands explain a sizable fraction of the observed variation in economic disparities across groups. Fourth, we show that ethnic-specific inequality in geographic endowments is also linked to under-development. PMID:27330223
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagner, Tom
2010-01-01
The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…
Experimental violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality under decoherence
Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can
2011-01-01
Despite the great success of quantum mechanics, questions regarding its application still exist and the boundary between quantum and classical mechanics remains unclear. Based on the philosophical assumptions of macrorealism and noninvasive measurability, Leggett and Garg devised a series of inequalities (LG inequalities) involving a single system with a set of measurements at different times. Introduced as the Bell inequalities in time, the violation of LG inequalities excludes the hidden-variable description based on the above two assumptions. We experimentally investigated the single photon LG inequalities under decoherence simulated by birefringent media. These generalized LG inequalities test the evolution trajectory of the photon and are shown to be maximally violated in a coherent evolution process. The violation of LG inequalities becomes weaker with the increase of interaction time in the environment. The ability to violate the LG inequalities can be used to set a boundary of the classical realistic description. PMID:22355619
Proposal for an Optomechanical Bell Test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vivoli, V. Caprara; Barnea, T.; Galland, C.; Sangouard, N.
2016-02-01
Photons of a laser beam driving the upper motional sideband of an optomechanical cavity can decay into photon-phonon pairs by means of an optomechanical parametric process. The phononic state can subsequently be mapped to a photonic state by exciting the lower sideband, hence creating photon-photon pairs out of an optomechanical system. Here we show that these pairs can violate a Bell inequality when they are measured with photon counting techniques preceded by small displacement operations in phase space. The consequence of such a violation as well as the experimental requirements are intensively discussed.
Dummett vs Bell on quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Menahem, Yemima
The purpose of this paper is to cast doubt on the common allegation that quantum mechanics (QM) is incompatible with realism. I argue that the results usually considered inimical to realism, notably the violation of Bells inequality, in fact play the opposite role-they support realism. The argument is not intended, however, to demonstrate realism or refute its alternatives as general metaphysical positions. It is directed specifically at the view that QM differs from classical mechanics in that, unlike classical mechanics, it is not amenable to a realist interpretation.
Violation of the Leggett-Garg Inequality in Neutrino Oscillations.
Formaggio, J A; Kaiser, D I; Murskyj, M M; Weiss, T E
2016-07-29
The Leggett-Garg inequality, an analogue of Bell's inequality involving correlations of measurements on a system at different times, stands as one of the hallmark tests of quantum mechanics against classical predictions. The phenomenon of neutrino oscillations should adhere to quantum-mechanical predictions and provide an observable violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality. We demonstrate how oscillation phenomena can be used to test for violations of the classical bound by performing measurements on an ensemble of neutrinos at distinct energies, as opposed to a single neutrino at distinct times. A study of the MINOS experiment's data shows a greater than 6σ violation over a distance of 735 km, representing the longest distance over which either the Leggett-Garg inequality or Bell's inequality has been tested.
Tightness of correlation inequalities with no quantum violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Sainz, Ana Belén; Murta, Gláucia; Augusiak, Remigiusz
2017-01-01
We study the faces of the set of quantum correlations, i.e., the Bell and noncontextuality inequalities without any quantum violation. First, we investigate the question of whether every proper (facet-defining) Bell inequality for two parties, other than the trivial ones from positivity, normalization, and no-signaling, can be violated by quantum correlations, i.e., whether the classical Bell polytope or the smaller correlation polytope share any facets with their respective quantum sets. To do this, we develop a recently derived bound on the quantum value of linear games based on the norms of game matrices to give a simple sufficient condition to identify linear games with no quantum advantage. Additionally we show how this bound can be extended to the general class of unique games. We then show that the paradigmatic examples of correlation Bell inequalities with no quantum violation, namely the nonlocal computation games, do not constitute facet-defining Bell inequalities, not even for the correlation polytope. We also extend this to an arbitrary prime number of outcomes for a specific class of these games. We then study the faces in the simplest Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell scenario of binary dichotomic measurements, and identify edges in the set of quantum correlations in this scenario. Finally, we relate the noncontextual polytope of single-party correlation inequalities with the cut polytope CUT(∇ G ) , where G denotes the compatibility graph of observables in the contextuality scenario and ∇ G denotes the suspension graph of G . We observe that there exist facet-defining noncontextuality inequalities with no quantum violation, and furthermore that this set of inequalities is beyond those implied by the consistent exclusivity principle.
Maximal violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qutrits
Fu, Li-Bin; Zhao, Xian-Geng; Chen, Jing-Ling
2003-08-01
The Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (BCHSH) inequality (in terms of correlation functions) of two qutrits is studied in detail by employing tritter measurements. A uniform formula for the maximum value of this inequality for tritter measurements is obtained. Based on this formula, we show that nonmaximally entangled states violate the BCHSH inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled one. This result is consistent with what was obtained by Acin et al. [Phys. Rev. A 65, 052325 (2002)] using the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality (in terms of probabilities)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Zhang; Jiali, Hou; Wenfang, Yang
2013-01-01
A number of versions of the well-known "bell-in-a-bell-jar" demonstration have been discussed in this journal.1-3 The basic idea is that when a sound source is placed inside an air-tight container, the volume of the sound that's heard decreases dramatically when the container is evacuated. This phenomenon is primarily due to the mismatch that is created between the sound transducer and the surrounding medium.4,5 Here we describe a simple small-scale version of this demonstration, one that may be added to the growing list of examples of how a simple syringe may be used as a tool in physics teaching.6-8
Postselection-Loophole-Free Bell Test Over an Installed Optical Fiber Network.
Carvacho, Gonzalo; Cariñe, Jaime; Saavedra, Gabriel; Cuevas, Álvaro; Fuenzalida, Jorge; Toledo, Felipe; Figueroa, Miguel; Cabello, Adán; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mataloni, Paolo; Lima, Gustavo; Xavier, Guilherme B
2015-07-17
Device-independent quantum communication will require a loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities. In typical scenarios where line of sight between the communicating parties is not available, it is convenient to use energy-time entangled photons due to intrinsic robustness while propagating over optical fibers. Here we show an energy-time Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality violation with two parties separated by 3.7 km over the deployed optical fiber network belonging to the University of Concepción in Chile. Remarkably, this is the first Bell violation with spatially separated parties that is free of the postselection loophole, which affected all previous in-field long-distance energy-time experiments. Our work takes a further step towards a fiber-based loophole-free Bell test, which is highly desired for secure quantum communication due to the widespread existing telecommunication infrastructure.
Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Theorem with Entangled Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giustina, Marissa; Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Wengerowsky, Sören; Handsteiner, Johannes; Hochrainer, Armin; Phelan, Kevin; Steinlechner, Fabian; Kofler, Johannes; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Abellán, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar; Pruneri, Valerio; Mitchell, Morgan W.; Beyer, Jörn; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Shalm, Lynden K.; Nam, Sae Woo; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Zeilinger, Anton
2015-12-01
Local realism is the worldview in which physical properties of objects exist independently of measurement and where physical influences cannot travel faster than the speed of light. Bell's theorem states that this worldview is incompatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics, as is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Previous experiments convincingly supported the quantum predictions. Yet, every experiment requires assumptions that provide loopholes for a local realist explanation. Here, we report a Bell test that closes the most significant of these loopholes simultaneously. Using a well-optimized source of entangled photons, rapid setting generation, and highly efficient superconducting detectors, we observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The purely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism does not exceed 3.74 ×10-31 , corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect.
Random numbers certified by Bell's theorem.
Pironio, S; Acín, A; Massar, S; de la Giroday, A Boyer; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Olmschenk, S; Hayes, D; Luo, L; Manning, T A; Monroe, C
2010-04-15
Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number generators in ways that are difficult to control and detect. Here, inspired by earlier work on non-locality-based and device-independent quantum information processing, we show that the non-local correlations of entangled quantum particles can be used to certify the presence of genuine randomness. It is thereby possible to design a cryptographically secure random number generator that does not require any assumption about the internal working of the device. Such a strong form of randomness generation is impossible classically and possible in quantum systems only if certified by a Bell inequality violation. We carry out a proof-of-concept demonstration of this proposal in a system of two entangled atoms separated by approximately one metre. The observed Bell inequality violation, featuring near perfect detection efficiency, guarantees that 42 new random numbers are generated with 99 per cent confidence. Our results lay the groundwork for future device-independent quantum information experiments and for addressing fundamental issues raised by the intrinsic randomness of quantum theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paramati, Manjula; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.
2016-03-01
A smooth circular moving liquid sheet is formed by the head-on impingement of two equal laminar water jets. We subject such a liquid sheet to uniform laminar air flow from one side such that the direction of air velocity is perpendicular to the liquid sheet. The pressure of the moving air deforms the liquid sheet giving rise to an open water bell. The water bell is symmetric suggesting that the gas flow around the bell is also symmetric and that the gravitational force is negligible. We have captured the shape of the water bells for varying air flow rates and for varying Weber numbers, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions obtained from a force balance involving liquid inertia, surface tension, and pressure difference across the sheet. The pressure exerted by the gas phase on the front and the rear surface of the deformed liquid sheet is obtained from known results of flow past flat circular discs. The predicted steady state shapes match well with the measurements at low Weber numbers but differences are observed at high Weber numbers, where the sheet flaps and is no longer smooth. Interestingly, the shape predicted by assuming a constant pressure difference equal to the stagnation pressure over the whole of the front face of the sheet and free stream value over the whole of the rear face yields nearly identical results suggesting that an open water bell is similar to a closed water bell in that, to a good approximation, the pressure on either sides of the water bell is homogeneous.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ybert, Christophe; Clanet, Christophe; Bocquet, Lyderic; Duez, Cyril
2007-11-01
We study experimentally the situation that consist in a liquid jet impacting normally onto a fixed solid disk. Depending on the experimental conditions, the thin liquid film that spreads onto the solid surface can either pour along the surface, or detach form the disk and form a so-called water bell. The dynamics and the stability of such bells as a function of the hydrodynamic parameters such as the jet and disk diameters or the jet velocity, have already been the object of detailed characterization [1]. This experiment of bell formation appears as the symmetric situation compared to that of a solid body impacting a quiescent liquid. In the latter case, it was recently shown [2] that despite large Re and We numbers, the solid surface characteristics were dramatically influencing the impact scenario. In the present study, we consequently revisit this problem of water bell formation by systematically varying the solid surface characteristics (roughness, surface properties, etc.). It is shown here again that surface parameters strongly influence the domain of bell existence. Our measurements are rationalized by a subtle balance between inertia versus capillary forces and wetting contributions on the liquid film in the ejection region. [1] C. Clanet, J. Fluid Mech., 430, 111-147 (2001) [2] C. Duez et al., Nature Physics, 3, 180-183 (2007)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhr, T.; Ritter, M.; Belle Software Group, II
2016-10-01
Belle II is a next generation B factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle. The higher luminosity at the SuperKEKB accelerator leads to higher background levels and requires a major upgrade of the detector. As a consequence, the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software must also be upgraded substantially. Most of the software has been redesigned from scratch, taking into account the experience from Belle and other experiments and utilizing new technologies. The large amount of experimental and simulated data requires a high level of reliability and reproducibility, even in parallel environments. Several technologies, tools, and organizational measures are employed to evaluate and monitor the performance of the software during development.
Solomon, A. I.
2010-03-15
The 'Bell' of the title refers to bipartite Bell states, and their extensions to, for example, tripartite systems. The 'Group' of the title is the Braid Group in its various representations; while 'Tangle' refers to the property of entanglement which is present in both of these scenarios. The objective of this note is to explore the relation between Quantum Entanglement and Topological Links, and to show that the use of the language of entanglement in both cases is more than one of linguistic analogy.
Hu, Ming-Liang
2012-09-15
Dynamics of disentanglement as measured by the tripartite negativity and Bell nonlocality as measured by the extent of violation of the multipartite Bell-type inequalities are investigated in this work. It is shown definitively that for the initial three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) or W class state preparation, the Bell nonlocality suffers sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoirs. Moreover, all the Bell-nonlocal states are useful for nonclassical teleportation, while there are entangled states that do not violate any Bell-type inequalities, but still yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different aspects of quantum correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robustness of the initial tripartite GHZ and W class states against decoherence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bell-nonlocality sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonzero minimum tripartite negativity is needed for nonclassical teleportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the Bell-nonlocal states yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity.
Recurrent Bell's palsy in pregnancy.
Deshpande, A D
1990-09-01
A case of recurrent Bell's palsy occurring in two successive pregnancies in a 37-year-old woman is presented. The causes of facial nerve paralysis of the lower motor neurone type are discussed. The rate of recurrence of Bell's palsy during pregnancy is unknown. Treatment with corticosteroids of Bell's palsy during pregnancy poses the threat of possible side effects on the fetus.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamilton, Kendra
2009-01-01
The "Bennett Belle." The words conjure an image that is genteel, old-fashioned--hats and gloves, brown-skinned women in flowing white dresses beaming as they take that final walk to graduation. The Bennett College for Women campus certainly reinforces the image, with its broad, tree-shaded lawns and quadrangle and its historic buildings--fully 15…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II
2017-01-01
The Belle II detector is now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. This project represents a substantial upgrade of the Belle detector (and the KEKB accelerator). The Belle II experiment will record 50 ab-1 of data, a factor of 50 more than that recorded by Belle. This large data set, combined with the low backgrounds and high trigger efficiencies characteristic of an e+e- experiment, should provide unprecedented sensitivity to new physics signatures in B and D meson decays, and in τ lepton decays. The detector comprises many forefront subsystems. The vertex detector consists of two inner layers of silicon DEPFET pixels and four outer layers of double-sided silicon strips. These layers surround a beryllium beam pipe having a radius of only 10 mm. Outside of the vertex detector is a large-radius, small-cell drift chamber, an ``imaging time-of-propagation'' detector based on Cerenkov radiation for particle identification, and scintillating fibers and resistive plate chambers used to identify muons. The detector will begin commissioning in 2017.
Leggett-Garg inequalities and the geometry of the cut polytope
Avis, David; Hayden, Patrick; Wilde, Mark M.
2010-09-15
The Bell and Leggett-Garg tests offer operational ways to demonstrate that nonclassical behavior manifests itself in quantum systems, and experimentalists have implemented these protocols to show that classical worldviews such as local realism and macrorealism are false, respectively. Previous theoretical research has exposed important connections between more general Bell inequalities and polyhedral combinatorics. We show here that general Leggett-Garg inequalities are closely related to the cut polytope of the complete graph, a geometric object well-studied in combinatorics. Building on that connection, we offer a family of Leggett-Garg inequalities that are not trivial combinations of the most basic Leggett-Garg inequalities. We then show that violations of macrorealism can occur in surprising ways, by giving an example of a quantum system that violates the 'pentagon' Leggett-Garg inequality but does not violate any of the basic 'triangle' Leggett-Garg inequalities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2016-07-01
The study of socioeconomic inequality is of substantial importance, scientific and general alike. The graphic visualization of inequality is commonly conveyed by Lorenz curves. While Lorenz curves are a highly effective statistical tool for quantifying the distribution of wealth in human societies, they are less effective a tool for the visual depiction of socioeconomic inequality. This paper introduces an alternative to Lorenz curves-the hill curves. On the one hand, the hill curves are a potent scientific tool: they provide detailed scans of the rich-poor gaps in human societies under consideration, and are capable of accommodating infinitely many degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the hill curves are a powerful infographic tool: they visualize inequality in a most vivid and tangible way, with no quantitative skills that are required in order to grasp the visualization. The application of hill curves extends far beyond socioeconomic inequality. Indeed, the hill curves are highly effective 'hyperspectral' measures of statistical variability that are applicable in the context of size distributions at large. This paper establishes the notion of hill curves, analyzes them, and describes their application in the context of general size distributions.
Cosmic Bell Test: Measurement Settings from Milky Way Stars.
Handsteiner, Johannes; Friedman, Andrew S; Rauch, Dominik; Gallicchio, Jason; Liu, Bo; Hosp, Hannes; Kofler, Johannes; Bricher, David; Fink, Matthias; Leung, Calvin; Mark, Anthony; Nguyen, Hien T; Sanders, Isabella; Steinlechner, Fabian; Ursin, Rupert; Wengerowsky, Sören; Guth, Alan H; Kaiser, David I; Scheidl, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton
2017-02-10
Bell's theorem states that some predictions of quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced by a local-realist theory. That conflict is expressed by Bell's inequality, which is usually derived under the assumption that there are no statistical correlations between the choices of measurement settings and anything else that can causally affect the measurement outcomes. In previous experiments, this "freedom of choice" was addressed by ensuring that selection of measurement settings via conventional "quantum random number generators" was spacelike separated from the entangled particle creation. This, however, left open the possibility that an unknown cause affected both the setting choices and measurement outcomes as recently as mere microseconds before each experimental trial. Here we report on a new experimental test of Bell's inequality that, for the first time, uses distant astronomical sources as "cosmic setting generators." In our tests with polarization-entangled photons, measurement settings were chosen using real-time observations of Milky Way stars while simultaneously ensuring locality. Assuming fair sampling for all detected photons, and that each stellar photon's color was set at emission, we observe statistically significant ≳7.31σ and ≳11.93σ violations of Bell's inequality with estimated p values of ≲1.8×10^{-13} and ≲4.0×10^{-33}, respectively, thereby pushing back by ∼600 years the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have engineered the observed Bell violation.
A History of the Constructs IQ and Race: Putting "The Bell Curve" in Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fenwick, Leslie T.
"The Bell Curve" by Richard Herrnstein and Charles E. Murray has created a great deal of controversy because of its assertion that the key to explaining inequality and social problems in the United States is stratification by a unitary entity called intelligence, or cognitive ability, as measured by the intelligence quotient (IQ). Their…
Alexander Graham Bell: Teacher of the Deaf.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruce, Robert V.
The lecture on Alexander Graham Bell by Dr. Robert V. Bruce, the author of a biography of Bell, focuses on Bell's association with the Clarke School for the Deaf in Massachusetts. Noted are Bell's employment by the school at 25 years of age and the preceding period during which Bell taught elocution at a boys' school in Scotland and used his…
On the logical structure of Bell theorems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walgate, Jonathan; Broadbent, Anne; Carteret, Hilary; Methot, Andre
2007-03-01
Some specific predictions of quantum mechanics are inconsistent with local realism, a phenomenon known as nonlocality. Despite overwhelming evidence for quantum mechanics, the practical difficulties of detector efficiency and coordinating space-like separated measurements have provided loopholes for a classical worldview. New experiments have been proposed to meet these challenges, based around a new kind of nonlocality proof called an ``EPR Bell inequality''. Much investment is now being made to realize these proofs experimentally. We show all these proposals are fundamentally flawed. We focus on a series of designs that have appeared in PRL and PRA for loophole-free Bell experiments. These experiments use hyperentangled two-photon quantum states to generate experimental data supposedly at odds with local realism. We show how to produce identical results using a single coin, and explain where the logical flaw can be found. To understand our nonclassical world, we must understand precisely the experimental evidence for nonlocality. This tempting shortcut is a logical, theoretical and experimental dead end. http://www.arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0512201.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossing, Thomas D.
2004-05-01
The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.
Verification of the Violation of WWZB Inequality Using Werner States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Álvaro J.; Martins, Luís P.; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.
2015-04-01
The generation and manipulation of entangled particles presents itself as one of the most important results in quantum mechanics. With the work from Bell, it was possible to prove the nonlocal nature of quantum mechanics, which is nowadays widely accepted. Apart from being possible to prove entanglement from Bell's inequality, it is difficult to compute the system as it increases the number of particles. Such a system containing N qubits can be described by Werner-Wolf-Zukowski-Brukner (WWZB) inequality. In this work, we show how to obtain the maximum of violation of WWZB inequality using a Werner state, simplifying the problem considerably. We get two different results; one for a system containing an odd number of particles and other for a system containing an even number.
Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv
2014-01-01
We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2016-09-01
Living in the era of "big-data" information, we are ubiquitously inundated by overabundances of sizes-non-negative numerical values representing count, score, length, area, volume, duration, mass, energy, etc. Datasets of sizes display numerous types of statistical variability that are commonly quantified either by the standard deviation, or by the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The standard deviation measures the sizes' Euclidean divergence from their mean, the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy measures the sizes' informational divergence from the benchmark of pure determinism, and both these gauges are one-dimensional. In this paper we overview a methodology that harnesses inequality in order to quantify statistical variability. The methodology follows a socioeconomic approach of measuring the sizes' inequality-their divergence from the benchmark of pure egalitarianism-and yields frameworks that gauge statistical variability in a multi-dimensional fashion. The aim of this overview is to serve both researchers and practitioners as a crash-introduction to the "harnessing inequality" methodology, and as a crash-manual to the implementation of this methodology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapkin, M. M.
2015-06-01
This article reports about recent results obtained by Belle Collaboration: first observation of the charm mixing in D → Kπ, evidence of mixing and search of CP violation in D → Ksπ+π-, precise measurement of the lifetime of τ-lepton, observation of the neutral exotic state Z_{b}^{0} (10610) in the transition Υ(10860) → Υ(nS)π0π0, observation of the reaction e+e- → π+π-π0χbJ and search for the exotic state Xb in the transition Xb → ωΥ(1S).
Bell's palsy and herpesviruses.
Gilbert, Stan C
2002-12-01
A growing body of evidence links reactivation of herpesviruses (primarily varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus type 1) with the development of a large proportion of cases of acute peripheral facial palsy, a syndrome commonly known by its eponym, Bell's palsy. This article reviews the definition and natural history of the disease, its underlying anatomy and pathophysiology, the data linking herpetic reactivation with development of signs and symptoms, and therapeutic trials utilizing antiviral therapy. In addition, it poses the question, would earlier intervention with antivirals make a larger impact on outcomes?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Breunig, H. Latham
1990-01-01
This article describes the family of Alexander Graham Bell, including research and therapeutic work in speech and hearing impairments spanning three generations. Bell's life and discoveries are discussed, including the formation of the American Association for the Promotion of Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, whose history and organization are…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofer-Szabó, Gábor
2015-02-01
In this paper the relation between the standard probabilistic characterization of the common cause (used for the derivation of the Bell inequalities) and Bell's notion of local causality will be investigated in the isotone net framework borrowed from algebraic quantum field theory. The logical role of two components in Bell's definition will be scrutinized; namely that the common cause is localized in the intersection of the past of the correlated events; and that it provides a complete specification of the 'beables' of this intersection.
Comment on "Testing Bell's inequality with one party weak measurements"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreno, M. G. M.
2017-03-01
In this comment, we falsify the reasoning, given in a recent paper, that it is possible to certify entanglement by acting only on one of the parts of an entangled system. We stress that by assuming the possibility of detecting nonlocality in this way, we dispose of causality by allowing superluminal communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Morgan, N.; Piilonen, L.; Schrenk, S.; Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Alexander, J. P.; Aoki, K.; Behari, S.; Doi, Y.; Enomoto, R.; Fujii, H.; Fujita, Y.; Funahashi, Y.; Haba, J.; Hamasaki, H.; Haruyama, T.; Hayashi, K.; Higashi, Y.; Hitomi, N.; Igarashi, S.; Igarashi, Y.; Iijima, T.; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikeda, Hitomi; Itoh, R.; Iwai, M.; Iwasaki, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Joo, K. K.; Kasami, K.; Katayama, N.; Kawai, M.; Kichimi, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Koike, S.; Kondo, Y.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Manabe, A.; Matsuda, T.; Murakami, T.; Nagayama, S.; Nakao, M.; Nozaki, T.; Ogawa, K.; Ohkubo, R.; Ohnishi, Y.; Ozaki, H.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, M.; Sakai, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, N.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, J. I.; Suzuki, S.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tanaka, M.; Tatomi, T.; Tsuboyama, T.; Tsukada, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Uehara, S.; Ujiie, N.; Uno, S.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamaoka, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zhao, H.; Abe, R.; Iwai, G.; Kawasaki, T.; Miyata, H.; Shimada, K.; Takahashi, S.; Tamura, N.; Abe, K.; Hanada, H.; Nagamine, T.; Nakajima, M.; Nakajima, T.; Narita, S.; Sanpei, M.; Takayama, T.; Ueki, M.; Yamaga, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Ahn, B. S.; Kang, J. S.; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Ahn, H. S.; Jang, H. K.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, S. H.; Park, C. S.; Won, E.; Aihara, H.; Higuchi, T.; Kawai, H.; Matsubara, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, J.; Tomura, T.; Yokoyama, M.; Akatsu, M.; Fujimoto, K.; Hirose, M.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itami, S.; Kani, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagai, I.; Okabe, T.; Oshima, T.; Senyo, K.; Sugi, A.; Sugiyama, A.; Suitoh, S.; Suzuki, S.; Tomoto, M.; Yoshida, K.; Akhmetshin, R.; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, Y. Q.; Hou, W. S.; Hsu, S. C.; Huang, H. C.; Huang, T. J.; Lee, M. C.; Lu, R. S.; Peng, J. C.; Peng, K. C.; Sahu, S.; Sung, H. F.; Tsai, K. L.; Ueno, K.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, M. Z.; Alimonti, G.; Browder, T. E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Fang, F.; Guler, H.; Jones, M.; Li, Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Peters, M.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Rosen, M.; Swain, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Varner, G.; Yamamoto, H.; Zheng, Y. H.; An, Q.; Chen, H. F.; Wang, Y. F.; Xu, Z. Z.; Ye, S. W.; Zhang, Z. P.; Asai, M.; Asano, Y.; Mori, S.; Stanič, S.; Tsujita, Y.; Zhang, J.; Žontar, D.; Aso, T.; Aulchenko, V.; Beiline, D.; Bondar, A.; Dneprovsky, L.; Eidelman, S.; Garmash, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Romanov, L.; Root, N.; Shwartz, B.; Sidorov, A.; Sidorov, V.; Usov, Y.; Zhilich, V.; Bakich, A. M.; Peak, L. S.; Varvell, K. E.; Banas, E.; Bozek, A.; Jalocha, P.; Kapusta, P.; Natkaniec, Z.; Ostrowicz, W.; Palka, H.; Rozanka, M.; Rybicki, K.; Behera, P. K.; Mohapatra, A.; Satapathy, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, H. S.; Dong, L. Y.; Li, J.; Liu, H. M.; Mao, Z. P.; Yu, C. X.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zheng, Z. P.; Cheon, B. G.; Choi, Y.; Kim, D. W.; Nam, J. W.; Chidzik, S.; Korotuschenko, K.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Liu, T.; Marlow, D.; Mindas, C.; Prebys, E.; Rabberman, R.; Sands, W.; Wixted, R.; Choi, S.; Dragic, J.; Everton, C. W.; Gordon, A.; Hastings, N. C.; Heenan, E. M.; Moffitt, L. C.; Moloney, G. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Sevior, M. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Tovey, S. N.; Drutskoy, A.; Kagan, R.; Pakhlov, P.; Semenov, S.; Fukunaga, C.; Suda, R.; Fukushima, M.; Goriletsky, V. I.; Grinyov, B. V.; Lyubinsky, V. R.; Panova, A. I.; Shakhova, K. V.; Shpilinskaya, L. I.; Vinograd, E. L.; Zaslavsky, B. G.; Guo, R. S.; Haitani, F.; Hoshi, Y.; Neichi, K.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Hazumi, M.; Hojo, T.; Jackson, D.; Miyake, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Ryuko, J.; Sumisawa, K.; Takita, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Hayashii, H.; Miyabayashi, K.; Noguchi, S.; Hikita, S.; Hirano, H.; Hoshina, K.; Mamada, H.; Nitoh, O.; Okazaki, N.; Yokoyama, T.; Ishino, H.; Ichizawa, S.; Hirai, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kaneko, J.; Nakamura, T.; Ohshima, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Yanaka, S.; Inoue, Y.; Nakano, E.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.; Kang, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Heejong; Kwon, Y.-J.; Kawai, H.; Kurihara, E.; Ooba, T.; Suzuki, K.; Unno, Y.; Kawamura, N.; Yuta, H.; Kinoshita, K.; Satpathy, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Kuniya, T.; Murakami, A.; Tsukamoto, T.; Kumar, S.; Singh, J.; Lange, J.; Stock, R.; Matsumoto, S.; Watanabe, M.; Matsuo, H.; Nishida, S.; Nomura, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sasao, N.; Ushiroda, Y.; Nagasaka, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Hanagaki, K.; Okuno, S.; Shen, D. Z.; Yan, D. S.; Yin, Z. W.; Tan, N.; Wang, C. H.; Yamaki, T.; Yamashita, Y.
2002-02-01
The Belle detector was designed and constructed to carry out quantitative studies of rare B-meson decay modes with very small branching fractions using an asymmetric e +e - collider operating at the ϒ(4S) resonance, the KEK-B-factory. Such studies require data samples containing ˜10 7 B-meson decays. The Belle detector is configured around a 1.5 T superconducting solenoid and iron structure surrounding the KEK-B beams at the Tsukuba interaction region. B-meson decay vertices are measured by a silicon vertex detector situated just outside of a cylindrical beryllium beam pipe. Charged particle tracking is performed by a wire drift chamber (CDC). Particle identification is provided by d E/d x measurements in CDC, aerogel threshold Cherenkov counter and time-of-flight counter placed radially outside of CDC. Electromagnetic showers are detected in an array of CsI( Tl) crystals located inside the solenoid coil. Muons and K L mesons are identified by arrays of resistive plate counters interspersed in the iron yoke. The detector covers the θ region extending from 17° to 150°. The part of the uncovered small-angle region is instrumented with a pair of BGO crystal arrays placed on the surfaces of the QCS cryostats in the forward and backward directions. Details of the design and development works of the detector subsystems, which include trigger, data acquisition and computer systems, are described. Results of performance of the detector subsystems are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martrou, Guillaume; Leonetti, Marc
2016-11-01
An initially static fluid-fluid interface is known to become unstable under a strong electric field leading to jet instability, surface pattern and spout formation. Applying an electric field to an initial dripping mode accelerates the dripping rate and leads to a continuous jet mode. We show that those two different configurations, when applied to dielectric liquids, can lead to the same instability, the formation of an unexpected macroscopic fluid bell-shape of typical size few times the capillary length even if the needle is as small as 200 μm . The instability results from the competition between the dielectric and the gravity forces, reminiscent of the Taylor-Melcher mechanism. The study is performed on several fluids of various densities, permittivity and surface tension on a large range of electric field. We show that the transition is an imperfect subcritical bifurcation with its characteristic bottleneck effect (lag time). Finally, in the case of flow rate, we established a shape diagram with four domains corresponding to dripping, jetting, bridge and electrostatic bell.
Necessary and sufficient conditions for multipartite Bell violations with only one trusted device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taddei, M. M.; Nery, R. V.; Aolita, L.
2016-09-01
We study multipartite Bell nonlocality in a framework native of multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering scenarios with a single trusted measurement device. We derive a closed-form necessary and sufficient criterion for systems composed of a qubit and N -1 untrusted black-box measurement devices to violate, under general dichotomic measurements on the qubit, a generic Bell inequality from a broad family of linear inequalities with arbitrarily many outputs for the N -1 untrusted devices and inputs for all N parties. The optimal quantum measurements for maximal violation are also obtained. For two users and two inputs and two outputs per user, our criterion becomes necessary and sufficient for Bell nonlocality. Furthermore, in that setting, its form generalizes recently obtained steering inequalities, which allows us to provide useful feedback from nonlocality to the detection of steering. Our findings constitute a practical tool for the study of the interplay between EPR steering and Bell nonlocality, with potential applications in multipartite information processing.
Nonlocality without inequalities for almost all entangled states of any quantum system
Ghirardi, GianCarlo; Marinatto, Luca
2005-07-15
It is shown that it is possible to rule out all local and stochastic hidden variable models accounting for the quantum mechanical predictions implied by almost any entangled quantum state vector of any number of particles whose Hilbert spaces have arbitrary dimensions, without resorting to Bell-type inequalities. The present proof makes use of the mathematically precise notion of Bell locality and it involves only simple set theoretic arguments.
Sesia, Sergio
2016-01-01
Background For specific therapy to correct pectus excavatum (PE), conservative treatment with the vacuum bell (VB) was introduced more than 10 years ago in addition to surgical repair. Preliminary results using the VB were encouraging. We report on our 13-year experience with the VB treatment including the intraoperative use during the Nuss procedure and present some technical innovations. Methods A VB with a patient-activated hand pump is used to create a vacuum at the anterior chest wall. Three different sizes of vacuum bells, as well as a model fitted for young women, exist. The appropriate size is selected according to the individual patient’s age and ventral surface. The device should be used at home for a minimum of 30 minutes (twice a day), and may be used up to a maximum of several hours daily. The intensity of the applied negative pressure can be evaluated with an integrated pressure gauge during follow-up visits. A prototype of an electronic model enables us to measure the correlation between the applied negative pressure and the elevation of the anterior chest wall. Results Since 2003, approx. 450 patients between 2 to 61 years of age started the VB therapy. Age and gender specific differences, depth of PE, symmetry or asymmetry, and concomitant malformations such as scoliosis and/or kyphosis influence the clinical course and success of VB therapy. According to our experience, we see three different groups of patients. Immediate elevation of the sternum was confirmed thoracoscopically during the Nuss procedure in every patient. Conclusions The VB therapy has been established as an alternative therapeutic option in selected patients suffering from PE. The initial results up to now are encouraging, but long-term results comprising more than 15 years are so far lacking, and further evaluation and follow-up studies are necessary. PMID:27747177
Distributed Computing at Belle II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bansal, Vikas; Belle Collaboration, II
2016-03-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start physics data taking in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab-1 of e+e- collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The computing requirements of Belle II are comparable to those of a RUN I high-pT LHC experiment. Computing will make full use of high speed networking and of the Computing Grids in North America, Asia and Europe. Results of an initial MC simulation campaign with 5 ab-1 equivalent luminosity will be described.
The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bassi, Angelo; Carlo Ghirardi, Gian
2007-03-01
included a picture (figure 1) shown by him, taking it from the tape image which is of rather poor quality (we apologize for this) and three figures taken from his transparencies. Moreover, to help the reader in grasping the various points John Stewart Bell brilliantly raised in his talk we have divided the paper into six sections whose titles have been chosen by us to summarize the most crucial points of his argument. Presentation by the Chairman, Alain Aspect It is a great pleasure and an honour to introduce Professor Bell. When looking to my old papers I discovered that this 25th anniversary of the ICTP also coincides with the famous paper in which appeared, for the first time, inequalities that are now known as Bell's inequalities so it's a very good opportunity to have a talk by John Bell here. Many of us have been strongly influenced by this work of John Bell because he has shown us that quantum mechanics is much more difficult to understand that we thought it was. I am sure that today he will again raise some questions which are very embarrassing but that we have definitely to face.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II
2017-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the asymmetric e+e- SuperKEKB collider is a major upgrade of the Belle experiment, which ran at the KEKB collider at the KEK laboratory in Japan. The design luminosity of SuperKEKB is 8 ×1035 cm-2 s-1, which is about 40 times higher than that of KEKB. The expected integrated luminosity of Belle II is 50 ab-1 in five years of running. The experiment will focus on searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model via high precision measurements of heavy flavor decays, and searches for rare signals. To reach these goals, the accelerator, detector, electronics, software, and computing systems are all being substantially upgraded. In this talk we discuss the physics program and the expected sensitivity to new physics of the Belle II data set.
Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, D.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Bulla, L.; Caria, G.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; De Pietro, G.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kambara, N.; Kang, K. H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kumar, R.; Kun, W.; Kvasnička, P.; La Licata, C.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Libby, J.; Lueck, T.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Resmi, P. K.; Rozanska, M.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Watanuki, S.; Watanabe, M.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.; Zani, L.
2017-02-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB asymmetric energy e+e‑ collider in KEK, Japan will operate at an instantaneous luminosity 40 times larger than that of its predecessor, Belle. It is built with an aim of collecting a huge amount of data (50 ab‑1 by 2025) for precise CP violation measurements and new physics search. Thus, we need an accurate vertex determination and reconstruction of low momentum tracks which will be achieved with the help of vertex detector (VXD). The Belle II VXD consists of two layers of DEPFET pixels (`Pixel Detector') and four layers of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors (`Silicon Vertex Detector'), assembled over carbon fibre ribs. In this paper, we discuss about the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, especially its design and key features; we also present its module (`ladder') assembly and testing procedures.
Bertlmann, Reinhold A.
2015-07-15
John Bell, with whom I had a fruitful collaboration and warm friendship, is best known for his seminal work on the foundations of quantum physics, but he also made outstanding contributions to particle physics and accelerator physics.
Quantum Griffiths Inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyao, Tadahiro
2016-07-01
We present a general framework of Griffiths inequalities for quantum systems. Our approach is based on operator inequalities associated with self-dual cones and provides a consistent viewpoint of the Griffiths inequality. As examples, we discuss the quantum Ising model, quantum rotor model, Bose-Hubbard model, and Hubbard model. We present a model-independent structure that governs the correlation inequalities.
1988-03-01
L Research Report CCS 590 0MORE ON BREAKING UP BELL (0 by A. Chames W.W. Cooper T. Sueyoshi* CENTER FOR CYBERNETIC STUDIES The U niversity of Texa s...AustinT exas 78712 r)TIC.LOTE) JULl 3 IM rai mS m l mm Sam," m MAE 4, Research Report CCS 590 MORE ON BREAKING UP BELL by A. Chames W.W. Cooper T
Wu Chunfeng; Chen Jingling; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.; Xue Kang
2005-02-01
We construct an explicit Wigner function for the N-mode squeezed state. Based on a previous observation that the Wigner function describes correlations in the joint measurement of the phase-space displaced parity operator, we investigate the nonlocality of the multipartite entangled state by the violation of the Zukowski-Brukner N-qubit Bell inequality. We find that quantum predictions for such a squeezed state violate these inequalities by an amount that grows with the number N.
Improved Bell-in-a-Bell-Jar Demonstration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Dejun
2003-05-01
It is well understood in acoustics that a medium is required to conduct sound. Stated in another way, sound is not transmitted through a vacuum. The earliest person to test this experimentally was the Irish physicist Robert Boyle (1627-1691). In his experiment, he put a ringing bell under a glass cover called a bell jar. After the air was pumped out, the ringing disappeared. This convinced him that sound cannot be conducted in vacuum. Here we describe an improved version of this demonstration.
Geometric Decompositions of Bell Polytopes with Practical Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bierhorst, Peter
In the well-studied (2,2,2) Bell experiment consisting of two parties, two measurement settings per party, and two possible outcomes per setting, it is known that if the experiment obeys no-signaling constraints, then the set of admissible experimental probability distributions is fully characterized as the convex hull of 24 distributions: 8 Popescu-Rohrlich (PR) boxes and 16 local deterministic distributions. Here, we refine this result to show that in the (2,2,2) case, any nonlocal nonsignaling distribution can always be uniquely expressed as a convex combination of exactly one PR box and (up to) eight local deterministic distributions. In this representation each PR box will always occur only with a fixed set of eight local deterministic distributions with which it is affiliated. This decomposition has multiple applications: we demonstrate an analytical proof that the minimum detection efficiency for which nonlocality can be observed is 2/3 even for theories constrained only by the no-signaling principle, and we develop new algorithms that speed the calculation of important statistical functions of Bell test data. Finally, we enumerate the vertices of the no-signaling polytope for the (2, n, 2) ``chained Bell'' scenario and find that similar decomposition results are possible in this general case. Here, our results allow us to prove the optimality of a bound, derived in (Barrett et al., PRL, 2006) on the proportion of local theories in a local/nonlocal mixture that can be inferred from the experimental violation of a chained Bell inequality.
Almost-quantum correlations and their refinements in a tripartite Bell scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallins, James; Sainz, Ana Belén; Liang, Yeong-Cherng
2017-02-01
We study the set of almost-quantum correlations and their refinements in the simplest tripartite Bell scenario where each party is allowed to perform two dichotomic measurements. In contrast to its bipartite counterpart, we find that there already exist facet Bell inequalities that witness almost-quantum correlations beyond quantum theory in this simplest tripartite Bell scenario. Furthermore, we study the relation between the almost-quantum set and the hierarchy of supersets to the quantum set due to Navascués-Pironio-Acín (NPA) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010401 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.010401]. While the former lies between the first and the third level of the NPA hierarchy, we find that its second level does not contain and is not contained within the almost-quantum set. Finally, we investigate the hierarchy of refinements to the almost-quantum set due to Moroder et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 030501 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.030501], which converges to the set of quantum correlations producible by quantum states having positive partial transposition. This allows us to consider (approximations of) the "biseparable" subsets of the almost-quantum set as well as of the quantum set of correlations, and thereby gain further insights into the subtle similarities and differences between the two sets. In addition, they allow us to identify candidate Bell-like inequalities that can serve as device-independent witnesses for genuine tripartite entanglement.
Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis
Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.
2016-01-01
The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823
Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.
2016-08-01
The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator.
Cinabro, David
2016-01-01
The major goals of our work on Belle II were to complete our contributions, a 64-channel PIN diode-based radiation monitor, to the precursor detector called Beast II and the electronics for the endcap K-Long/Muon (E-KLM) detector. This was done by Professor Cinabro, Technician Gutierrez, and undergraduate labor supported by US-Japan funds. Professor Bonvicini through US-Japan funds led the development and installation of a beamstrahlung monitor system in the Belle II interaction region. Graduate students Farhat and DiCarlo worked on this. We also worked on charm physics analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1943-01-01
Bell P-39D Airacobra: After initially seeing duty in the Pacific and European theaters of operation, P-39s were supplanted, then replaced by the P-38, P-47 and P-51. Many of the Bell Fighters made their way to the Soviet Union, while others, like this P-39D, were used in the Unites States. This Airacobra was flown by the NACA in early 1943. Note the engine located in the middle of the fuselage, and the cannon in the propeller spinner.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schümann, J.
2007-11-01
We report branching fractions and CP asymmetries for three-body and semi-three-body decays observed at Belle. The results were obtained from a 414 fb-1 data sample collected at the Υ(4S) resonance, with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e+e- collider. The first observation of B± → ϕϕK± and a study of related charmonium decays are presented. Additionally, we show the measurement of the semi-three-body decay B → ηK* and evidence for B → ηρ. We find no evidence for CP asymmetries in these modes.
Belle II Early Physics Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stottler, Zachary; Belle Collaboration, II
2017-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider is a major upgrade of the KEK `` B factory'' facility in Tsukuba, Japan. First beams are planned for early 2017 and first physics data will be recorded in the middle of 2018 during Phase 2 commissioning, while the Belle II detector is still missing its vertex detector system. In this talk we describe the physics program for this early data. The program will focus on bottomonium spectroscopy at different center-of-mass energies, in particular at the ϒ(3 S) and ϒ(6 S) resonances, amongst other energy points.
Quantum cryptography without Bell's theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, Charles H.; Brassard, Gilles; Mermin, N. David
1992-02-01
Ekert has described a cryptographic scheme in which Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs of particles are used to generate identical random numbers in remote places, while Bell's theorem certifies that the particles have not been measured in transit by an eavesdropper. We describe a related but simpler EPR scheme and, without invoking Bell's theorem, prove it secure against more general attacks, including substitution of a fake EPR source. Finally we show our scheme is equivalent to the original 1984 key distribution scheme of Bennett and Brassard, which uses single particles instead of EPR pairs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, Arthur R.
1975-01-01
Some of the key problems of educational equality -- equality of opportunities and inequality of performance; individual differences vs. group differences, coping with group inequality -- are made explicit. (Author/KM)
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Belle River. 117.424 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.424 Belle River. The draw of the S70 bridge, mile 23.8 (Landside Route) near Belle River, shall open on signal; except that, from 10 p.m. to 6...
Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Switzer, J. Matt
2014-01-01
Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…
Electromagnetic calorimeter for Belle II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belle-ECL; Aulchenko, V.; Bobrov, A.; Bondar, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Garmash, Yu; Goh, Y. M.; Kim, S. H.; Krokovny, P.; Kuzmin, A.; Lee, I. S.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Nakamura, I.; Shebalin, V.; Shwartz, B.; Unno, Y.; Usov, Yu; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobjev, V.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.
2015-02-01
The electromagnetic calorimeter of the BELLE II detector for experiments at Super B-factory SuperKEKB is briefly described. The project of the calorimeter upgrade to meet severe background conditions expected at the upgraded KEK B factory is presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palmer, Barbara
2011-01-01
Making time for science is a genuine complaint among classroom teachers. As a former fifth-grade teacher and district curriculum coordinator, the author's moment of truth came one morning while juggling classroom housekeeping tasks. Her students were set to work on their "bell work," which consisted of some type of assignment that required little…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Houston, Paul
1996-01-01
Selfishness has spawned a new breed of racism, driven by fear, fed by scarcity, and manifested through economic imperatives. California's Proposition 187 and Herrnstein and Murray's book "The Bell Curve" are built on racist foundations. Our current obsession with race is driven by an economy and an elitist social system that is…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1982-01-01
Bell 47 #822 on ramp. The helicopter arrived at the NASA Flight Research Center on November 4, 1973 from the NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas. It operated for more than 11 years, before being sent to the Napa City Fire Department on June 21, 1985.
Bell's palsy: diagnosis and management.
Tiemstra, Jeffrey D; Khatkhate, Nandini
2007-10-01
Bell's palsy is a peripheral palsy of the facial nerve that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. Affected patients develop unilateral facial paralysis over one to three days with forehead involvement and no other neurologic abnormalities. Symptoms typically peak in the first week and then gradually resolve over three weeks to three months. Bell's palsy is more common in patients with diabetes, and although it can affect persons of any age, incidence peaks in the 40s. Bell's palsy has been traditionally defined as idiopathic; however, one possible etiology is infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Laboratory evaluation, when indicated by history or risk factors, may include testing for diabetes mellitus and Lyme disease. A common short-term complication of Bell's palsy is incomplete eyelid closure with resultant dry eye. A less common long-term complication is permanent facial weakness with muscle contractures. Approximately 70 to 80 percent of patients will recover spontaneously; however, treatment with a seven-day course of acyclovir or valacyclovir and a tapering course of prednisone, initiated within three days of the onset of symptoms, is recommended to reduce the time to full recovery and increase the likelihood of complete recuperation.
Experimental design of a loophole-free Bell test with spin qubits in diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hensen, Bas; Bernien, Hannes; Dréau, Anaïs; Reiserer, Andreas; Ruitenberg, Just; Blok, Machiel; Wehner, Stephanie; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D.; Hanson, Ronald
2015-03-01
50 years ago, John Bell formulated his famous theorem. The outcomes of independent measurements on entangled objects can reveal strong correlations that violate Bell's inequality. Until now, all experimental implementations of Bell's test required additional assumptions, that open the door for so-called loopholes. These loopholes are particularly important in a cryptography setting where Bell violations enable fully device-independent protocols for quantum key distribution and certified generation of randomness. Here we will present the experimental design of a Bell test, aimed at closing the detection loophole and addressing the locality and free-will loopholes in a single experiment. We use two qubits associated with the electronic spin of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, separated far enough to allow space-like separation between the two qubits during their measurement. The heralded nature of our remote entanglement protocol and efficient qubit readout allow us to use all entangled pairs, avoiding the fair-sampling assumption. Finally, the free-will loophole is addressed by the use of fast random number generators.
Goldstein, G.R.; Jaffe, R.L.; Ji, X.
1995-11-01
Various issues surrounding a recently proposed inequality among twist-two quark distributions in the nucleon are discussed. We provide a rigorous derivation of the inequality in QCD, including radiative corrections and scale dependence. We also give a more heuristic, but more physical derivation, from which we show that a similar inequality does not exist among twist-three quark distributions. We demonstrate that the inequality does not constrain the nucleon`s tensor charge. Finally we explore physical mechanisms for saturating the inequality, arguing it is unlikely to occur in nature.
Income inequality and happiness.
Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin; Diener, Ed
2011-09-01
Using General Social Survey data from 1972 to 2008, we found that Americans were on average happier in the years with less national income inequality than in the years with more national income inequality. We further demonstrated that this inverse relation between income inequality and happiness was explained by perceived fairness and general trust. That is, Americans trusted other people less and perceived other people to be less fair in the years with more national income inequality than in the years with less national income inequality. The negative association between income inequality and happiness held for lower-income respondents, but not for higher-income respondents. Most important, we found that the negative link between income inequality and the happiness of lower-income respondents was explained not by lower household income, but by perceived unfairness and lack of trust.
Entropic inequalities as a necessary and sufficient condition to noncontextuality and locality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaves, Rafael
2013-02-01
The assumption of local realism, in a Bell locality scenario, imposes nontrivial conditions on the Shannon entropies of the associated probability distributions, expressed by linear entropic Bell inequalities. In principle, these entropic inequalities provide necessary but not sufficient criteria for the existence of a local hidden variable model reproducing the correlations, as, for example, the paradigmatic nonlocal Popescu-Rohrlich (PR) box is entropically not different from a classically correlated box. In this paper we show that for the n-cycle scenario, entropic inequalities completely characterize the set of local correlations. In particular, every nonsignaling box which violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality—including the PR box—can be locally modified so that it also violates the entropic version of CHSH inequality. As we show, any nonlocal probabilistic model when appropriately mixed with a local model, violates an entropic inequality, thus evidencing a very peculiar kind of nonlocality. As the n-cycle captures equally well both the notion of local realism introduced by Bell and that of noncontextuality presented by the Kochen-Specker theorem, the results are also valid for noncontextuality scenarios.
Minimum detection efficiencies for a loophole-free observable-asymmetric Bell-type test
Garbarino, G.
2010-03-15
We discuss the problem of finding the most favorable conditions for closing the detection loophole in a test of local realism with a Bell inequality. For a generic nonmaximally entangled two-qubit state and two incompatible bases to be adopted for alternative measurements of two observables a and b on each party, we apply Hardy's proof of nonlocality without inequality and derive an Eberhard-like inequality. For an infinity of nonmaximally entangled states we find that it is possible to refute local realism by requiring perfect detection efficiency for only one of the two observables, say b, to be measured on each party: The test is free from the detection loophole for any value of the detection efficiency corresponding to the other observable a. The maximum tolerable noise in such a loophole-free observable-asymmetric test is also evaluated.
Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu
2009-01-01
Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…
Belle II silicon vertex detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Enami, K.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.
2016-09-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.
Building The Bell Rock Lighthouse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shallcross, David C.
2005-01-01
Ever since the first mariners sailed off the east coast of Scotland the Bell Rock has claimed many vessels and countless lives. Also known as the Inch Cape Rocks they lie 18 km off the coast at Arbroath. Located near the mouth of the Firth of Forth and its important shipping ports these dangerous rocks cover an area some 440 m long and 90 m wide.…
Particle Identification at Belle II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandilya, S.; Belle Collaboration, II
2016-11-01
We report on the charged particle identification (PID) systems for the upcoming Belle II experiment. The time of propagation counter in the central region and the proximity focusing ring imaging Cherenkov counters with aerogel radiator in the forward region will be used as the PID devices. They are expected to provide a kaon identification efficiency of more than 94% at a low pion misidentification probability of 4%. The motivation for the upgrade, method and status of both systems are discussed.
Bell's theorem and quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosen, Nathan
1994-02-01
Bell showed that assuming locality leads to a disagreement with quantum mechanics. Here the nature of the nonlocality that follows from quantum mechanics is investigated. Note by the Editor—Readers will recognize Professor Rosen, author of this paper, as one of the co-authors of the famous EPR paper, Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen, ``Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be considered Complete?'', Phys. Rev. 47, 770-780 (1935). Robert H. Romer, Editor
Bell's palsy with ipsilateral numbness.
Vanopdenbosch, L J; Verhoeven, K; Casselman, J W
2005-07-01
Bell's palsy is an idiopathic facial palsy of the peripheral type. A herpes virus is the most likely mechanism. We report a patient with the often encountered combination of a facial palsy with ipsilateral sensory changes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed had contrast enhancement in the greater petrosal nerve. Viral spread through anatomical connections could be an explanation for the association of facial palsy with numbness.
Common questions about Bell palsy.
Albers, Janet R; Tamang, Stephen
2014-02-01
Bell palsy is an acute affliction of the facial nerve, resulting in sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Testing patients with unilateral facial paralysis for diabetes mellitus or Lyme disease is not routinely recommended. Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. Diabetes may be a comorbidity of Bell palsy, but testing is not needed in the absence of other indications, such as hypertension. In patients with atypical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement can be used to rule out cranial mass effect and to add prognostic value. Steroids improve resolution of symptoms in patients with Bell palsy and remain the preferred treatment. Antiviral agents have a limited role, and may improve outcomes when combined with steroids in patients with severe symptoms. When facial paralysis is prolonged, surgery may be indicated to prevent ocular desiccation secondary to incomplete eyelid closure. Facial nerve decompression is rarely indicated or performed. Physical therapy modalities, including electrostimulation, exercise, and massage, are neither beneficial nor harmful.
1993 Gordon Bell Prize Winners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karp, Alan H.; Simon, Horst; Heller, Don; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The Gordon Bell Prize recognizes significant achievements in the application of supercomputers to scientific and engineering problems. In 1993, finalists were named for work in three categories: (1) Performance, which recognizes those who solved a real problem in the quickest elapsed time. (2) Price/performance, which encourages the development of cost-effective supercomputing. (3) Compiler-generated speedup, which measures how well compiler writers are facilitating the programming of parallel processors. The winners were announced November 17 at the Supercomputing 93 conference in Portland, Oregon. Gordon Bell, an independent consultant in Los Altos, California, is sponsoring $2,000 in prizes each year for 10 years to promote practical parallel processing research. This is the sixth year of the prize, which Computer administers. Something unprecedented in Gordon Bell Prize competition occurred this year: A computer manufacturer was singled out for recognition. Nine entries reporting results obtained on the Cray C90 were received, seven of the submissions orchestrated by Cray Research. Although none of these entries showed sufficiently high performance to win outright, the judges were impressed by the breadth of applications that ran well on this machine, all nine running at more than a third of the peak performance of the machine.
Mattison, Siobhán M; Smith, Eric A; Shenk, Mary K; Cochrane, Ethan E
2016-07-01
Understanding how systems of political and economic inequality evolved from relatively egalitarian origins has long been a focus of anthropological inquiry. Many hypotheses have been suggested to link socio-ecological features with the rise and spread of inequality, and empirical tests of these hypotheses in prehistoric and extant societies are increasing. In this review, we synthesize several streams of theory relevant to understanding the evolutionary origins, spread, and adaptive significance of inequality. We argue that while inequality may be produced by a variety of localized processes, its evolution is fundamentally dependent on the economic defensibility and transmissibility of wealth. Furthermore, these properties of wealth could become persistent drivers of inequality only following a shift to a more stable climate in the Holocene. We conclude by noting several key areas for future empirical research, emphasizing the need for more analyses of contemporary shifts toward institutionalized inequality as well as prehistoric cases.
Geometric decompositions of Bell polytopes with practical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bierhorst, Peter
2016-05-01
In the well-studied (2,2,2) Bell experiment consisting of two parties, two measurement settings per party, and two possible outcomes per setting, it is known that if the experiment obeys no-signaling constraints, then the set of admissible experimental probability distributions is fully characterized as the convex hull of 24 distributions: eight Popescu-Rohrlich (PR) boxes and 16 local deterministic distributions. Furthermore, it turns out that in the (2,2,2) case, any nonlocal nonsignaling distribution can always be uniquely expressed as a convex combination of exactly one PR box and (up to) eight local deterministic distributions. In this representation each PR box will always occur only with a fixed set of eight local deterministic distributions with which it is affiliated. In this paper, we derive multiple practical applications of this result: we demonstrate an analytical proof that the minimum detection efficiency for which nonlocality can be observed is η \\gt 2/3 even for theories constrained only by the no-signaling principle, and we develop new algorithms that speed the calculation of important statistical functions of Bell test data. Finally, we enumerate the vertices of the no-signaling polytope for the (2,n,2) ‘chained Bell’ scenario and find that similar decomposition results are possible in this general case. Here, our results allow us to prove the optimality of a bound, derived in Barrett et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170409), on the proportion of local theories in a local/nonlocal mixture that can be inferred from the experimental violation of a chained Bell inequality.
Xie, Y.
2014-01-01
Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative networks. PMID:24855244
Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state
Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Song Heshan
2011-03-15
We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinct advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states; i.e., our identification is quantum state nondestructive. How to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics is also shown.
Do resonating bells increase jellyfish swimming performance?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoover, Alexander; Miller, Laura
2013-11-01
A current question in swimming and flight is whether or not driving flexible appendages at their resonant frequency results in faster or more efficient locomotion. It has been suggested that jellyfish swim faster and/or more efficiently when the bell is driven at its resonant frequency. Previous work has modeled the jellyfish bell as a damped harmonic oscillator, and this simplified model suggests that work done by the bell is maximized when force is applied at the resonant frequency of the bell. We extend the idea of resonance phenomena of the jellyfish bell to a fluid structure interaction framework using the immersed boundary method. We first examine the effects of the bending stiffness of the bell on its resonant frequency. We then further our model with the inclusion of a ``muscular'' spring that connects the two sides of a 2D bell and drives it near its resonant frequency. We use this muscular spring to force the bell at varying frequencies and examine the work done by these springs and the resulting swimming speed. We finally augment our model with a flexible, passive bell margin to examine its role in propulsive efficiency.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robertson, Peter J.
2014-01-01
Structural explanations of career choice and development are well established. Socioeconomic inequality represents a powerful factor shaping career trajectories and economic outcomes achieved by individuals. However, a robust and growing body of evidence demonstrates a strong link between socioeconomic inequality and health outcomes. Work is a key…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2015-11-01
How are growth and inequality related? Evidently, this question is of prime importance in the social sciences, as socioeconomic inequality is one of the major forces shaping the course of human history. Moreover, this question is of importance also in the physical sciences, as the notion of socioeconomic inequality can be applied to analyze physical growth. In this paper we consider general growth processes whose dynamics are governed by ordinary differential equations, and present a comprehensive inequality-based socioeconophysical study of their evolutions. From a social-sciences perspective, the results established describe the inequality that will be generated by different types of economic growth. From a physical-sciences perspective, the results established provide a socioeconomic classification of growth processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arditti, D.
2008-12-01
The Dumb-bell Nebula (M27) and the Little Dumb-bell (M76) imaged on October 24?25 by David Arditti. David writes: 'These images were recorded on the same night with the same equipment, so they show the true relationship of sizes.'
Mutually unbiased bases and generalized Bell states
Klimov, Andrei B.; Sych, Denis; Sanchez-Soto, Luis L.; Leuchs, Gerd
2009-05-15
We employ a straightforward relation between mutually unbiased and Bell bases to extend the latter in terms of a direct construction for the former. We analyze in detail the properties of these generalized Bell states, showing that they constitute an appropriate tool for testing entanglement in bipartite multiqudit systems.
Clinical practice guideline: Bell's Palsy executive summary.
Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William
2013-11-01
The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Bell's Palsy. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 11 recommendations developed encourage accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitate patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy; some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, there are numerous diagnostic tests available that are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have an unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.
Minimax discrimination of quasi-Bell states
Kato, Kentaro
2014-12-04
An optimal quantum measurement is considered for the so-called quasi-Bell states under the quantum minimax criterion. It is shown that the minimax-optimal POVM for the quasi-Bell states is given by its square-root measurement and is applicable to the teleportation of a superposition of two coherent states.
Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements
Asner, David; Bell, Greg; Carlson, Tim; Cowley, David; Dart, Eli; Erwin, Brock; Godang, Romulus; Hara, Takanori; Johnson, Jerry; Johnson, Ron; Johnston, Bill; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van; Kaneko, Toshiaki; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Kuhr, Thomas; McCoy, John; Miyake, Hideki; Monga, Inder; Nakamura, Motonori; Piilonen, Leo; Pordes, Ruth; Ray, Douglas; Russell, Richard; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Jim; Sevior, Martin; Singh, Surya; Suzuki, Soh; Sasaki, Takashi; Williams, Jim
2013-05-28
The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.
The Bells' Capture note TH-3054-CERN
Hartouni, Ed P.
2014-01-29
This document revisits the paper by M. Bell and J. S. Bell “Capture of Cooling Electrons by Cool Protons” TH-3054-CERN (March 30, 1981). I expand the treatment to include e^{+}e^{-} capture.
Grissom Climbs into Liberty Bell 7
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1961-01-01
Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom climbs into 'Liberty Bell 7' spacecraft the morning of July 21, 1961. Backup Astronaut John Glenn assists in the operation. The Mercury-Redstone 4(MR-4) successfully launched the Liberty Bell 7 at 7:20 am EST on July 21, 1961. MR-4 was the second in a series of successful U.S. manned suborbital flights.
Bell's Paradox under Different Capital Market Regimes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Johan Moonwon
1993-01-01
In 1984 "Economics of Education Review" paper, E. Bell indicates that, when capital markets are imperfect in a certain sense, demand for education may not always be directly related with present net value of education. This study shows Bell's paradox is possible under the alternative definitions of capital market imperfections and…
Tight detection efficiency bounds of Bell tests in no-signaling theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Zhu; Peng, Tianyi
2016-10-01
No-signaling theories, which can contain nonlocal correlations stronger than quantum correlations but limited by the no-signaling condition, have deepened our understanding of the quantum theory. In practice, Bell tests are powerful tools to certify nonlocality, but their effectiveness is limited by the detector efficiency. In this work, we provide almost tight detection efficiency bounds for showing the nonlocality of no-signaling theories, by introducing a general class of Bell inequalities. In particular, we provide a tight bound for the bipartite case and an asymptotic tight bound for the multipartite case. The tightness of these bounds shows that they well characterize the structure of no-signaling theories. The bounds also imply that the detector efficiency requirement can be made arbitrarily low in both bipartite and multipartite cases by increasing the number of measurement settings. Furthermore, our work sheds light on the detector efficiency requirement for showing the nonlocality of the quantum theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Z.; Harrow, A. W.; Horodecki, M.; Marciniak, M.; Rutkowski, A.
2017-03-01
Maximal violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality is usually said to be a feature of anticommuting observables. In this work we show that even random observables exhibit near-maximal violations of the CHSH-Bell inequality. To do this, we use the tools of free probability theory to analyze the commutators of large random matrices. Along the way, we introduce the notion of "free observables," which can be thought of as infinite-dimensional operators that reproduce the statistics of random matrices as their dimension tends towards infinity. We also study the fine-grained uncertainty of a sequence of free or random observables and use this to construct a steering inequality with a large violation.
Bonnesen-style Wulff isoperimetric inequality.
Zhang, Zengle; Zhou, Jiazu
2017-01-01
The Wulff isoperimetric inequality is a natural extension of the classical isoperimetric inequality (Green and Osher in Asian J. Math. 3:659-676 1999). In this paper, we establish some Bonnesen-style Wulff isoperimetric inequalities and reverse Bonnesen-style Wulff isoperimetric inequalities. Those inequalities obtained are extensions of known Bonnesen-style inequalities and reverse Bonnesen-style inequalities.
Adjusting inequalities for detection-loophole-free steering experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sainz, Ana Belén; Guryanova, Yelena; McCutcheon, Will; Skrzypczyk, Paul
2016-09-01
We study the problem of certifying quantum steering in a detection-loophole-free manner in experimental situations that require postselection. We present a method to find the modified local-hidden-state bound of steering inequalities in such a postselected scenario. We then present a construction of linear steering inequalities in arbitrary finite dimension and show that they certify steering in a loophole-free manner as long as the detection efficiencies are above the known bound below which steering can never be demonstrated. We also show how our method extends to the scenarios of multipartite steering and Bell nonlocality, in the general case where there can be correlations between the losses of the different parties. In both cases we present examples to demonstrate the techniques developed.
Bell's palsy and herpes simplex virus.
Schirm, J; Mulkens, P S
1997-11-01
Bell's palsy, which is defined as idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis of sudden onset, accounts for > 50% of all cases of facial paralysis. Different theories on the etiology of Bell's palsy have been proposed and investigated. Various clinical studies have suggested an etiological link between Bell's palsy and herpes simplex virus (HSV). In addition, animal experiments have shown the ability of HSV to induce facial paralysis. In our opinion, the possible link between Bell's palsy and HSV can only be explored properly by studying the human facial nerve, and especially the geniculate ganglion itself. Different groups have tried to detect hypothetically reactivated and hypothetically latent HSV in the facial nerves of Bell's palsy patients and control patients, respectively. The isolation of infectious HSV from facial nerve tissue by conventional cell culture methods appeared to be very difficult, also when Bell's palsy patients were tested. Instead, modern molecular methods, such as in situ hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could easily detect HSV DNA in geniculate ganglia. The detection of HSV-specific latency-associated transcripts in the ganglia of control patients provided further evidence for the hypothetically latent state of HSV in the geniculate ganglia in these patients. Recent PCR experiments performed by a Japanese group strongly suggest that the area adjacent to the geniculate ganglia does not usually contain any HSV at all, except in patients with Bell's palsy. This well-controlled study provides conclusive evidence that reactivation of HSV genomes from the geniculate ganglia is the most important cause of Bell's palsy. Consequently, it has been suggested that "Bell's palsy" be renamed as "herpetic facial paralysis".
Generalized quasi variational inequalities
Noor, M.A.
1996-12-31
In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.
Bell's theorem and Bayes' theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrett, A. J. M.
1990-12-01
Bell's theorem is expounded as an analysis in Bayesian probabilistic inference. Assume that the result of a spin measurement on a spin- 1/2 particle is governed by a variable internal to the particle (local, “hidden”), and examine pairs of particles having zero combined angular momentum so that their internal variables are correlated: knowing something about the internal variable of one tells us something about that of the other. By measuring the spin of one particle, we infer something about its internal variable; through the correlation, about the internal variable of the second particle, which may be arbitrarily distant and is by hypothesis unchanged by this measurement (locality); and make (probabilistic) prediction of spin observations on the second particle. Each link in this chain has a counterpart in the Bayesian analysis of the situation. Irrespective of the details of the internal variable description, such prediction is violated by measurements on many particle pairs, so that locality—effectively the only physics invoked—fails. The time ordering of the two measurements is not Lorentz-invariant, implying acausality. Quantum mechanics is irrelevant to this reasoning, although its correct predictions of the statistics of the results imply it has a nonlocal—acausal interpretation; one such, the “transactional” interpretation, is presented to demonstrable advantage, and some misconceptions about quantum theory are pursued. The “unobservability” loophole in photonic Bell experiments is proven to be closed. It is shown that this mechanism cannot be used for signalling; signalling would become possible only if the hidden variables, which we insist must underlie the statistical character of the observations (the alternative is to give up), are uncovered in deviations from quantum predictions. Their reticence is understood as a consequence of their nonlocality: it is not easy to isolate and measure something nonlocal. Once the hidden variables
Belle II Physics Prospects, Status and Schedule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, J.
2016-11-01
The second generation B-factory at the SuperKEKB facility in Tsukuba, Japan is beginning to take shape. The highly anticipated Belle II experiment will have a rich physics program at the intensity frontier, in complement to existing experiments in the energy frontier. Accelerator commissioning has been making good progress, as has the construction and installation of the Belle II detector. An overview of the physics prospects at Belle II, as well as the status and schedule of the experiment, is presented.
Shareability of correlations in multiqubit states: Optimization of nonlocal monogamy inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batle, J.; Naseri, M.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Farouk, A.; Alkhambashi, M.; Elhoseny, M.
2017-03-01
It is a well-known fact that both quantum entanglement and nonlocality (implied by the violation of Bell inequalities) constitute quantum correlations that cannot be arbitrarily shared among subsystems. They are both monogamous, albeit in a different fashion. In the present contribution we focus on nonlocality monogamy relations such as the Toner-Verstraete, the Seevinck, and a derived monogamy inequality for three parties and compare them with multipartite nonlocality measures for the whole set of pure states distributed according to the Haar measure. In this numerical endeavor, we also see that, although monogamy relations for nonlocality cannot exist for more than three parties, in practice the exploration of the whole set of states for different numbers of qubits will return effective bounds on the maximum value of all bipartite Bell violations among subsystems. Hence, we shed light on the effective nonlocality monogamy bounds in the multiqubit case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girdhar, Parth; Cavalcanti, Eric G.
2016-09-01
We derive an inequality that is necessary and sufficient to show Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering in a scenario employing only correlations between two arbitrary dichotomic measurements on each party. Thus the inequality is a complete steering analogy of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, a generalization of the result of Cavalcanti et al. [E. G. Cavalcanti, C. J. Foster, M. Fuwa, and H. M. Wiseman, JOSA B 32, A74 (2015), 10.1364/JOSAB.32.000A74]. We show that violation of the inequality only requires measuring over equivalence classes of mutually unbiased measurements on the trusted party and that in fact assuming a general two-qubit system arbitrary pairs of distinct projective measurements at the trusted party are equally useful. Via this it is found that for a given state the maximum violation of our EPR-steering inequality is equal to that for the CHSH inequality, so all states that are EPR steerable with CHSH-type correlations are also Bell nonlocal.
The Haunting Influence of Alexander Graham Bell
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Sue H.
1971-01-01
The article examines the significance that Alexander Graham Bell's attitude and actions had on the social and economic conditions experienced by deaf people during his lifetime and into the present. (CD)
Bell's palsy syndrome: mimics and chameleons.
Fuller, Geraint; Morgan, Cathy
2016-12-01
In this article we will explore the mimics and chameleons of Bell's palsy and in addition argue that we should use the term 'Bell's palsy syndrome' to help guide clinical reasoning when thinking about patients with facial weakness. The diagnosis of Bell's palsy can usually be made on clinical grounds without the need for further investigations. This is because the diagnosis is not one of exclusion (despite this being commonly how it is described), a lower motor neurone facial weakness where all alternative causes have been eliminated, but rather a positive recognition of a clinical syndrome, with a number of exclusions, which are described below. This perhaps would be more accurately referred to a 'Bell's palsy syndrome'. Treatment with corticosteroids improves outcome; adding an antiviral probably reduces the rates of long-term complications.
Valacyclovir for the treatment of Bell's palsy.
Hato, Naohito; Sawai, Naoki; Teraoka, Masato; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Hinohira, Yasuyuki; Gyo, Kiyofumi
2008-10-01
Despite recent evidence suggesting that Bell's palsy is associated with reactivation of alfa-herpes viruses, the disease has been treated empirically, and the use of valacyclovir has not been definitively established. In 2007, two prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled trials evaluating valacyclovir were reported in patients with Bell's palsy. One demonstrated that valacyclovir/prednisolone therapy was statistically more effective than placebo/prednisolone therapy in improving the recovery of patients with Bell's palsy, excluding zoster sine herpete. However, considering the cost-benefit ratio of this treatment and the limitations of virological diagnoses, we recommend that valacyclovir should be used in cases of severe palsy within 3 days after the onset of Bell's palsy.
A systemic "dumb-bell" haemangiopericytoma.
Tancioni, F; Gaetani, P; Tartara, F; Villani, L; Martelli, A; Rodriguez y Baena, R
1996-01-01
Systemic haemangiopericytoma is a rare soft tissue tumour originating from pericytes which are contractile pericapillary cells, and represents less than one percent of all vascular neoplasms. The most common site of involvement is the thigh followed by the retroperitoneum, while the paraspinal location is very rare. We report the first case of systemic "dumb-bell" haemangiopericytoma illustrated radiologically, which mimick, a dorsal "dumb-bell" neurinoma.
Polarization properties of macroscopic Bell states
Iskhakov, Timur Sh.; Chekhova, Maria V.; Leuchs, Gerd
2011-10-15
The four two-photon polarization Bell states are one of the main instruments in the toolbox of quantum optics and quantum information. In our experiment we produce their multiphoton counterparts, macroscopic Bell states. These are relevant to applications in quantum technologies because they provide efficient interactions with material quantum objects and with each other via nonlinear interactions. Furthermore, we study the polarization properties of these states using the concept of second-order degree of polarization and its higher-order generalization.
Software and Physics Simulation at Belle II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fulsom, Bryan; Belle Collaboration, II
2016-03-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start taking physics data in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab-1 of e+e-collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The new detector will use GEANT4 for Monte Carlo simulation and an entirely new software and reconstruction system based on modern computing tools. Examples of physics simulation including beam background overlays will be described.
The Relationship between Income Inequality and Inequality in Schooling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mayer, Susan E.
2010-01-01
Children of affluent parents get more schooling than children of poor parents, which seems to imply that reducing income inequality would reduce inequality in schooling. Similarly, one of the best predictors of an individual's income is his educational attainment, which seems to imply that reducing inequality in schooling will reduce income…
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-10-27
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78 FR 56148 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
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2013-09-12
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78 FR 33204 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) Helicopters
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-06-04
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Trends in Global Gender Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn
2010-01-01
This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brickman, Philip
1977-01-01
People's judgments of fairness are related to varying degrees of uncertainty about their own resulting positions in society. When task assignments were made on the basis of ability, college students were much more willing to endorse inequality when they did not know their positions than when they did. (Author/EVH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dahl, Robert A.
1996-01-01
Argues that political equality and democracy are attainable only through the distribution of access to political resources and the willingness to use them. Discusses the broad philosophical and sociological components that contribute to a system marked by advantage and inequalities, as well as opportunities for opposition and resistance. (MJP)
Racial Inequality in Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troyna, Barry, Ed.
Contributors to this book are united in their commitment to combating racial inequality in education and in outlining the extent and manner in which racism and its associated practices have become embedded in the institutional and sociopolitical structures of the United Kingdom. The following chapters are included: (1) "A Conceptual Overview…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.
These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…
How Colleges Perpetuate Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sacks, Peter
2007-01-01
Colleges, once seen as beacons of egalitarian hope, are becoming bastions of wealth and privilege that perpetuate inequality. The chance of a low-income child obtaining a bachelor's degree has not budged in three decades: Just 6 percent of students from the lowest-income families earned a bachelor's degree by age 24 in 1970, and in 2002 still only…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Melamed, David; North, Michael S.
2010-01-01
Recently an article in "Personality and Social Psychology Review" urged social psychologists to reacquire their "sociological imagination" and incorporate broader, structural factors in their work (Oishi, Kesebir, and Snyder 2009). Studies of social inequality in particular seem ripe for this kind of collaboration. Psychological investigations…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macqueen, Suzanne Elizabeth
2013-01-01
The inequity of streaming as a method of organising classes was established by research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. While the practice produces small advantages for limited groups of students, it hinders the academic and social advancement of the majority. Although streaming has declined, new forms of achievement grouping have emerged, with…
Ethnicity, Denomination and Inequality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greeley, Andrew M.
This report relies on a composite sample of 12 National Opinion Research Center surveys (with a total sample of 17,700) to trace out the basic outlines of the achievements of American denominational and ethnic groups. There are three fundamental questions addressed in this analysis: (1) whether there are inequalities of achievement among the…
Distance, Education and Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamnett, Chris; Butler, Tim
2013-01-01
In this paper we examine the role which distance, in a variety of forms, can play in the reproduction, intensification or reduction of educational inequality in different types of school systems in different countries. This is a very broad issue, and in the paper we examine the ways in which distance to school has emerged as an important factor in…
Violation of Bell’s inequality in a spin 1/2 quantum magnet
Chakraborty, Tanmoy Singh, Harkirat Mitra, Chiranjib
2014-04-24
Violation of Bell’s inequality test has been established as an efficient tool to determine the presence of entanglement in quantum spin 1/2 magnets. Herein, macroscopic thermodynamic quantities, namely, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat have been employed to perform Bell’s inequality test for [NH{sub 4}CuPO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O], a spin 1/2 antiferromagnet with nearest neighbor interactions. The mean value of the Bell operator is quantified and plotted as a function of temperature. The threshold temperature is determined above which the Bell’s inequality is not violated and a good consistency is found between the analyses done on magnetic and thermal data.
Rutkowski, Adam; Buraczewski, Adam; Horodecki, Paweł; Stobińska, Magdalena
2017-01-13
Quantum steering is a relatively simple test for proving that the values of quantum-mechanical measurement outcomes come into being only in the act of measurement. By exploiting quantum correlations, Alice can influence-steer-Bob's physical system in a way that is impossible in classical mechanics, as shown by the violation of steering inequalities. Demonstrating this and similar quantum effects for systems of increasing size, approaching even the classical limit, is a long-standing challenging problem. Here, we prove an experimentally feasible unbounded violation of a steering inequality. We derive its universal form where tolerance for measurement-setting errors is explicitly built in by means of the Deutsch-Maassen-Uffink entropic uncertainty relation. Then, generalizing the mutual unbiasedness, we apply the inequality to the multisinglet and multiparticle bipartite Bell state. However, the method is general and opens the possibility of employing multiparticle bipartite steering for randomness certification and development of quantum technologies, e.g., random access codes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rutkowski, Adam; Buraczewski, Adam; Horodecki, Paweł; Stobińska, Magdalena
2017-01-01
Quantum steering is a relatively simple test for proving that the values of quantum-mechanical measurement outcomes come into being only in the act of measurement. By exploiting quantum correlations, Alice can influence—steer—Bob's physical system in a way that is impossible in classical mechanics, as shown by the violation of steering inequalities. Demonstrating this and similar quantum effects for systems of increasing size, approaching even the classical limit, is a long-standing challenging problem. Here, we prove an experimentally feasible unbounded violation of a steering inequality. We derive its universal form where tolerance for measurement-setting errors is explicitly built in by means of the Deutsch-Maassen-Uffink entropic uncertainty relation. Then, generalizing the mutual unbiasedness, we apply the inequality to the multisinglet and multiparticle bipartite Bell state. However, the method is general and opens the possibility of employing multiparticle bipartite steering for randomness certification and development of quantum technologies, e.g., random access codes.
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-01-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson’s configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type. PMID:26824059
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-12-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson's configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type.
The Bell states in noncommutative algebraic geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beil, Charlie
2014-10-01
We introduce new mathematical aspects of the Bell states using matrix factorizations, non-noetherian singularities, and noncommutative blowups. A matrix factorization of a polynomial p consists of two matrices ϕ1, ϕ2 such that ϕ1ϕ2 = ϕ2ϕ1 = p id. Using this notion, we show how the Bell states emerge from the separable product of two mixtures, by defining pure states over complex matrices rather than just the complex numbers. We then show in an idealized algebraic setting that pure states are supported on non-noetherian singularities. Moreover, we find that the collapse of a Bell state is intimately related to the representation theory of the noncommutative blowup along its singular support. This presents an exchange in geometry: the nonlocal commutative spacetime of the entangled state emerges from an underlying local noncommutative spacetime.
On λ-Bell polynomials associated with umbral calculus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, T.; Kim, D. S.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we introduce some new λ-Bell polynomials and Bell polynomials of the second kind and investigate properties of these polynomials. Using our investigation, we derive some new identities for the two kinds of λ-Bell polynomials arising from umbral calculus.
46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....
46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...
46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...
46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....
46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...
46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....
Bell's Palsy following acupuncture treatment--a case report.
Rosted, Palle; Woolley, David R
2007-06-01
A case of Bell's palsy after acupuncture is presented. It concerns a healthy 47 year old man who developed Bell's palsy less than 24 hours after local acupuncture treatment for temporomandibular dysfunction. The Bell's palsy recovered within two weeks, and may have been caused by a haematoma around the facial nerve.
The Real "Toll" of A. G. Bell: Lessons about Eugenics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenwald, Brian H.
2009-01-01
Historian Brian Greenwald offers a revisionist interpretation of Bell. He reviews Bell's role and influence within the American eugenics movement and shows that Bell had the respect of the most prominent American eugenicists. His intimate knowledge of deafness, from personal experience with his mother and wife and from his studies of deaf people…
46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...
46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....
46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....
46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...
46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... bells so located as to warn all occupants. The system shall operate from a continuous source of electric... main, auxiliary or emergency generating plants. Each bell shall produce a signal of a tone distinct from that of other bell signals in the vicinity and shall be independently fused, with each of...
Bell’s Nonlocality Can be Detected by the Violation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering Inequality
Chen, Jing-Ling; Ren, Changliang; Chen, Changbo; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Pati, Arun Kumar
2016-01-01
Recently quantum nonlocality has been classified into three distinct types: quantum entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, and Bell’s nonlocality. Among which, Bell’s nonlocality is the strongest type. Bell’s nonlocality for quantum states is usually detected by violation of some Bell’s inequalities, such as Clause-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qubits. Steering is a manifestation of nonlocality intermediate between entanglement and Bell’s nonlocality. This peculiar feature has led to a curious quantum phenomenon, the one-way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering. The one-way steering was an important open question presented in 2007, and positively answered in 2014 by Bowles et al., who presented a simple class of one-way steerable states in a two-qubit system with at least thirteen projective measurements. The inspiring result for the first time theoretically confirms quantum nonlocality can be fundamentally asymmetric. Here, we propose another curious quantum phenomenon: Bell nonlocal states can be constructed from some steerable states. This novel finding not only offers a distinctive way to study Bell’s nonlocality without Bell’s inequality but with steering inequality, but also may avoid locality loophole in Bell’s tests and make Bell’s nonlocality easier for demonstration. Furthermore, a nine-setting steering inequality has also been presented for developing more efficient one-way steering and detecting some Bell nonlocal states. PMID:27966616
Bell’s Nonlocality Can be Detected by the Violation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering Inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jing-Ling; Ren, Changliang; Chen, Changbo; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Pati, Arun Kumar
2016-12-01
Recently quantum nonlocality has been classified into three distinct types: quantum entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, and Bell’s nonlocality. Among which, Bell’s nonlocality is the strongest type. Bell’s nonlocality for quantum states is usually detected by violation of some Bell’s inequalities, such as Clause-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qubits. Steering is a manifestation of nonlocality intermediate between entanglement and Bell’s nonlocality. This peculiar feature has led to a curious quantum phenomenon, the one-way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering. The one-way steering was an important open question presented in 2007, and positively answered in 2014 by Bowles et al., who presented a simple class of one-way steerable states in a two-qubit system with at least thirteen projective measurements. The inspiring result for the first time theoretically confirms quantum nonlocality can be fundamentally asymmetric. Here, we propose another curious quantum phenomenon: Bell nonlocal states can be constructed from some steerable states. This novel finding not only offers a distinctive way to study Bell’s nonlocality without Bell’s inequality but with steering inequality, but also may avoid locality loophole in Bell’s tests and make Bell’s nonlocality easier for demonstration. Furthermore, a nine-setting steering inequality has also been presented for developing more efficient one-way steering and detecting some Bell nonlocal states.
Multiphase interchange inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesi, V.
1991-08-01
Phase interchange inequalities have been studied since the early work of Keller [J. Math. Phys. 5, 548 (1964)]. They constrain the effective conductivity of composite materials which are obtained from each other, for fixed configuration, by interchanging the position of the phases. Optimal results in this direction for the case of a two-phase composite are due to Keller in spatial dimension d=2 and to Avellaneda et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 63, 4989 (1988)] in dimension d=3. In this paper new inequalities in spatial dimension d=2 and d=3, which are valid when an arbitrary number of phases is present, are proven. When specialized to two-phase composites, they agree with those of Keller in d=2 and of Avellaneda et al. in d=3, respectively.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-01-22
... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0... Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant... (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The......
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-12-29
... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0..., Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP), in Salem County, Pennsylvania. The BBNPP COL application incorporates by...
Affine Isoperimetry and Information Theoretic Inequalities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lv, Songjun
2012-01-01
There are essential connections between the isoperimetric theory and information theoretic inequalities. In general, the Brunn-Minkowski inequality and the entropy power inequality, as well as the classical isoperimetric inequality and the classical entropy-moment inequality, turn out to be equivalent in some certain sense, respectively. Based on…
Baby Bell Libraries?--An Update.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kessler, Jack
1993-01-01
Discusses the emerging three-tiered structure (i.e., the "Baby Bells," network nodes, and information marketers) that will assume responsibility for implementing a new national information network and getting networked information to the public. The role of libraries related to networked information is also considered. (EA)
The Window Dressing Behind "The Bell Curve."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richardson, Tina Q.
1995-01-01
Critiques the conceptual framework of "The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life." Concludes evidence is grounded in the classical tradition, which may be the case for some of their data, but conclusions and policy recommendations are based on assumptions and not grounded in data. Discusses limitations of scientific…
More sound of church bells: Authors' correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogt, Patrik; Kasper, Lutz; Burde, Jan-Philipp
2016-01-01
In the recently published article "The Sound of Church Bells: Tracking Down the Secret of a Traditional Arts and Crafts Trade," the bell frequencies have been erroneously oversimplified. The problem affects Eqs. (2) and (3), which were derived from the elementary "coffee mug model" and in which we used the speed of sound in air. However, this does not make sense from a physical point of view, since air only acts as a sound carrier, not as a sound source in the case of bells. Due to the excellent fit of the theoretical model with the empirical data, we unfortunately failed to notice this error before publication. However, all other equations, e.g., the introduction of the correction factor in Eq. (4) and the estimation of the mass in Eqs. (5) and (6) are not affected by this error, since they represent empirical models. However, it is unfortunate to introduce the speed of sound in air as a constant in Eqs. (4) and (6). Instead, we suggest the following simple rule of thumb for relating the radius of a church bell R to its humming frequency fhum:
Bell's palsy and infection with rubella virus.
Jamal, G A; Al-Husaini, A
1983-01-01
Viral antibody-titres were measured in 28 patients with Bell's palsy seen in Baghdad. These cases were selected to include only those seen within 24 hours from onset. No association with recent viral infection other than rubella virus was demonstrated. Four cases showed immunological evidence of simultaneous rubella virus infection but without other clinical evidence of the disease. PMID:6886708
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1953-01-01
A Langley model maker examines the molds used to form a model of the Bell X-5, a variable sweep craft that first flew in June of 1951. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 64), by James Schultz.
Delayed facial nerve decompression for Bell's palsy.
Kim, Sang Hoon; Jung, Junyang; Lee, Jong Ha; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun
2016-07-01
Incomplete recovery of facial motor function continues to be long-term sequelae in some patients with Bell's palsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of transmastoid facial nerve decompression after steroid and antiviral treatment in patients with late stage Bell's palsy. Twelve patients underwent surgical decompression for Bell's palsy 21-70 days after onset, whereas 22 patients were followed up after steroid and antiviral therapy without decompression. Surgical criteria included greater than 90 % degeneration on electroneuronography and no voluntary electromyography potentials. This study was a retrospective study of electrodiagnostic data and medical chart review between 2006 and 2013. Recovery from facial palsy was assessed using the House-Brackmann grading system. Final recovery rate did not differ significantly in the two groups; however, all patients in the decompression group recovered to at least House-Brackmann grade III at final follow-up. Although postoperative hearing threshold was increased in both groups, there was no significant between group difference in hearing threshold. Transmastoid decompression of the facial nerve in patients with severe late stage Bell's palsy at risk for a poor facial nerve outcome reduced severe complications of facial palsy with minimal morbidity.
The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedl, M.; Bergauer, T.; Dolejschi, P.; Frankenberger, A.; Gfall, I.; Irmler, C.; Obermayer, T.; Onuki, Y.; Smiljic, D.; Tsuboyama, T.; Valentan, M.
The KEKB factory (Tsukuba, Japan) has been shut down in mid-2010 after reaching a total integrated luminosity of 1ab-1. Recently, the work on an upgrade of the collider (SuperKEKB), aiming at an ultimate luminosity of 8×1035 cm-2s-1, has started. This is 40 times the peak value of the previous system and thus also requires a redesign of the Belle detector (leading to Belle II), especially its Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD), which surrounds the beam pipe. Similar to its predecessor, the future Belle II SVD will again consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors (DSSD), but at higher radii. Moreover, a double-layer PiXel Detector (PXD) will complement the SVD as the innermost sensing device. All DSSDs will be made from 6" silicon wafers and read out by APV25 chips, which were originally developed for the CMS experiment. That system was proven to meet the requirements for Belle II in matters of occupancy and dead time. Since the KEKB factory operates at relatively low energy, material inside the active volume has to be minimized in order to reduce multiple scattering. This can be achieved by the Origami chip-on-sensor concept, including a very light-weight mechanical support structure made from carbon fiber reinforced Airex foam. Moreover, CO2 cooling for the front-end chips will ensure high efficiency at minimum material budget.
Distillation of Bell states in open systems
Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D.
2010-04-15
In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.
Mouthpiece and Bell Effects on Trombone Resonance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LoPresto, Michael C.
2014-01-01
The effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of the vibrating air column in a trombone can be demonstrated quite readily by first calculating the expected resonant frequencies of a piece of PVC pipe that is the same length as a trombone, then replacing portions of the PVC pipe of the same length with first a cup-shaped mouthpiece and…
"The Bell Curve": Review of Reviews.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty J.
This paper reviews the book "The Bell Curve" by Harvard psychologist Richard J. Herrnstein and political scientist Charles Alan Murray. The paper asserts as the book's main points and implications: (1) one's socioeconomic place in life is now determined by IQ rather than family wealth and influence; (2) ruling white elites, who have…
Loophole-free Bell's experiments and two-photon all-versus-nothing violations of local realism
Cabello, Adan
2005-11-15
We introduce an extended version of a previous all-versus-nothing proof of impossibility of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen's local elements of reality for two photons entangled both in polarization and path degrees of freedom (A. Cabello, quant-ph/0507259), which leads to a Bell's inequality where the classical bound is 8 and the quantum prediction is 16. A simple estimation of the detection efficiency required to close the detection loophole using this extended version gives {eta}>0.69. This efficiency is lower than that required for previous proposals.
Bell's Palsy and Herpes Zoster Oticus.
Morrow
2000-09-01
Normal facial movement is required for chewing, swallowing, speaking, and protecting the eye. Bell's palsy causes most cases of acute, unilateral facial palsy; infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 may be its major cause. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation (Ramsay Hunt syndrome) is less common, but may appear without skin lesions in a form indistinguishable from Bell's palsy. Symptoms improve in nearly all patients with Bell's palsy, and most patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, but many are left with functional and cosmetic deficits. Steroids are frequently used to optimize outcomes in Bell's palsy, but proof of their effectiveness is marginal. Oral prednisone has been studied extensively, although some reports have suggested a higher recovery rate with intravenous steroids. Given the existing data, we support the use of oral prednisone in those patients with complete facial palsy, and no contraindications to their use (Fig. 1). In this author's opinion, the greatly increased cost and inconvenience of intravenous steroids cannot be justified by the data available. Antiviral agents may also be effective in treatment of Bell's palsy; HSV is susceptible to acyclovir and related agents. There have been few investigations of acyclovir treatment in Bell's palsy, but one controlled study showed added benefit when the drug was used with prednisone. The risk and cost of acyclovir is low enough that we support its use, with oral steroids, in those patients with complete facial paralysis. Several small studies have implied that oral acyclovir improves the outcome of facial palsy for patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Although these studies do not prove efficacy, evidence for the benefits of antiviral agents in other forms of zoster is strong enough to recommend their use when the facial nerve is involved. VZV is less sensitive to acyclovir than HSV, so higher doses are recommended to treat Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Because some Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients
Non-commutative Nash inequalities
Kastoryano, Michael; Temme, Kristan
2016-01-15
A set of functional inequalities—called Nash inequalities—are introduced and analyzed in the context of quantum Markov process mixing. The basic theory of Nash inequalities is extended to the setting of non-commutative L{sub p} spaces, where their relationship to Poincaré and log-Sobolev inequalities is fleshed out. We prove Nash inequalities for a number of unital reversible semigroups.
The design and analysis of new musical bells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLachlan, Neil M.
2004-05-01
The design and analysis of a series of new musical bells will be presented in this paper. Modal analysis of a wide range of bell-like geometries using FEA revealed the presence and significance of transverse axial modes in unconstrained bell models, leading to a new understanding of the relationships between bell geometry and modal behavior. This understanding was used to adjust simple parametric models of bell geometry to arrive at appropriate geometries to begin numerical shape optimization for the design of bells with a range of desired overtone tunings. Pitch salience is well known to depend on the degree of harmonic relationships between pure tones in complex stimuli. Bells intended to produce a single, highly salient pitch were designed and manufactured with up to the first 7 overtones tuned to the harmonic series. Other bells with overtones tuned to subsets of two or three harmonic series were also designed and manufactured. These bells were intended to produce multiple pitch perceptions of approximately equal strength. Spectral analysis and range of numerical psycho-acoustic models are used to evaluate the sounds of manufactured bells against these design objectives. [I would like to acknowledge the close collaboration of Dr. Anton Hasell of Australian Bell.
Unification of multiqubit polygamy inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jeong San
2012-03-01
I establish a unified view of polygamy of multiqubit entanglement. I first introduce a two-parameter generalization of the entanglement of assistance, namely, the unified entanglement of assistance for bipartite quantum states, and provide an analytic lower bound in two-qubit systems. I show a broad class of polygamy inequalities of multiqubit entanglement in terms of the unified entanglement of assistance that encapsulates all known multiqubit polygamy inequalities as special cases. I further show that this class of polygamy inequalities can be improved into tighter inequalities for three-qubit systems.
A Refined Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mercer, Peter R.
2007-01-01
The author presents a refinement of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. He shows his computations in which refinements of the triangle inequality and its reverse inequality are obtained for nonzero x and y in a normed linear space.
[Inequities in access to information and inequities in health].
Filho, Alberto Pellegrini
2002-01-01
This piece presents evidence that inequities in information are an important determinant of health inequities and that eliminating these inequities in access to information, especially by using new information and communication technologies (ICTs), could represent a significant advance in terms of guaranteeing the right to health for all. The piece reviews the most important international scientific research findings on the determinants of the health of populations, emphasizing the role of socioeconomic inequities and of deteriorating social capital as factors that worsen health conditions. It is noteworthy that Latin America has both socioeconomic inequities and major sectors of the population living in poverty. Among the fundamental strategies for overcoming the inequalities and the poverty are greater participation by the poor in civic life and the strengthening of social capital. The contribution that the new ICTs could make to these strategies is analyzed, and the Virtual Health Library (VHL) is discussed. Coordinated by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME), the VHL is a contribution by the Pan American Health Organization that takes advantage of the potential of ICTs to democratize information and knowledge and consequently promote equity in health. The "digital gap" is discussed as something that can produce inequity itself and also increase other inequities, including ones in health. Prospects are discussed for overcoming this gap, emphasizing the role that governments and international organizations should play in order to expand access to the global public good that information for social development is.
Frauendiener, Joerg
2001-09-03
The purpose of this Letter is to point out an argument which may ultimately lead to a rigorous proof of the Penrose inequality in the general case. The argument is a variation of Geroch's original proposal for a proof of the positive-energy theorem which was later adapted by Jang and Wald to apply to initial data sets containing apparent horizons. The new input is to dispense with the a priori restriction to an initial data set and to use the four-dimensional structure of spacetime in an essential way.
On New Proofs of Fundamental Inequalities with Applications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ray, Partha
2010-01-01
By using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality a new proof of several standard inequalities is given. A new proof of Young's inequality is given by using Holder's inequality. A new application of the above inequalities is included.
Three Centuries of American Inequality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.
Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…
The Geography of Gender Inequality
Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin
2016-01-01
Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe. PMID:26930356
Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sangwin, Christopher J.
2015-01-01
The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in contemporary…
The Geography of Gender Inequality.
Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin
2016-01-01
Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe.
Economic Factors of Russian Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bobkov, Vyacheslav N.; Vakhtina, Margarita A.; Simonova, Marina V.
2016-01-01
The relevance of the researched problem is connected with the high level of economic inequality in Russia. The article goal is to show that the current Russian institutional system is not directed to decrease the economic inequality but on the contrary it continues to make and deepen it. The leading approach to study of this problem is the…
Ringin' the water bell: dynamic modes of curved fluid sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolinski, John; Aharoni, Hillel; Fineberg, Jay; Sharon, Eran
2015-11-01
A water bell is formed by fluid flowing in a thin, coherent sheet in the shape of a bell. Experimentally, a water bell is created via the impact of a cylindrical jet on a flat surface. Its shape is set by the splash angle (the separation angle) of the resulting cylindrically symmetric water sheet. The separation angle is altered by adjusting the height of a lip surrounding the impact point, as in a water sprinkler. We drive the lip's height sinusoidally, altering the separation angle, and ringin' the water bell. This forcing generates disturbances on the steady-state water bell that propagate forward and backward in the fluid's reference frame at well-defined velocities, and interact, resulting in the emergence of an interference pattern unique to each steady-state geometry. We analytically model these dynamics by linearizing the amplitude of the bell's response about the underlying curved geometry. This simple model predicts the nodal structure over a wide range of steady-state water bell configurations and driving frequencies. Due to the curved water bell geometry, the nodal structure is quite complex; nevertheless, the predicted nodal structure agrees extremely well with the experimental data. When we drive the bell beyond perturbative separation angles, the nodal locations surprisingly persist, despite the strikingly altered underlying water bell shape. At extreme driving amplitudes the water sheet assumes a rich variety of tortuous, non-convex shapes; nevertheless, the fluid sheet remains intact.
Unifying Framework for Relaxations of the Causal Assumptions in Bell's Theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaves, R.; Kueng, R.; Brask, J. B.; Gross, D.
2015-04-01
Bell's theorem shows that quantum mechanical correlations can violate the constraints that the causal structure of certain experiments impose on any classical explanation. It is thus natural to ask to which degree the causal assumptions—e.g., locality or measurement independence—have to be relaxed in order to allow for a classical description of such experiments. Here we develop a conceptual and computational framework for treating this problem. We employ the language of Bayesian networks to systematically construct alternative causal structures and bound the degree of relaxation using quantitative measures that originate from the mathematical theory of causality. The main technical insight is that the resulting problems can often be expressed as computationally tractable linear programs. We demonstrate the versatility of the framework by applying it to a variety of scenarios, ranging from relaxations of the measurement independence, locality, and bilocality assumptions, to a novel causal interpretation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violations.
Private random numbers produced by entangled ions and certified by Bell's theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayes, David; Matsukevich, Dzmitry; Maunz, Peter; Monroe, Chris; Olmschenk, Steven
2010-03-01
It has been shown that entangled particles can be used to generate numbers whose privacy and randomness are guaranteed by the violation of a Bell inequality [1,2]. The authenticity of the bit stream produced is guaranteed when the system used can close the detection loophole and when the entangled particles are non-interacting. We report the use of remotely located trapped ions with near perfect state detection efficiency as a private random number generator. By entangling the ions through photon interference and choosing the measurement settings using a pseudo-random number generator, we measure a CHSH correlation function that is more than seven standard deviations above the classical limit. With a total of 3016 events, we are able to certify the generation of 42 new random numbers with 99% confidence. [1] S. Pironio et al.(submitted to Nature, arXiv:0911.3427) [2] Colbeck, R. PhD Dissertation (2007)
Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities
Gouveia, Nelson
2016-01-01
Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906
Mouthpiece and Bell Effects on Trombone Resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LoPresto, Michael C.
2014-01-01
TThe effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of the vibrating air column in a trombone can be demonstrated quite readily by first calculating the expected resonant frequencies of a piece of PVC pipe that is the same length as a trombone, then replacing portions of the PVC pipe of the same length with first a cup-shaped mouthpiece and then a flaring-bell section of a trombone. The trombone components used were from a new pBone plastic trombone that is not only much less expensive than a regular instrument, which is made mostly of brass, but also features components that are much lighter than those of a conventional brass trombone and is therefore easier to work with.
Belle II sensitivity to missing energy decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaur, Vipin; Belle Collaboration, II
2017-01-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider is a major upgrade of the KEK `` B factory'' facility in Tsukuba, Japan. The machine is designed for an instantaneous luminosity of 8 ×1035 cm-2 s-1, and the experiment is expected to accumulate a data sample of about 50 ab-1 in five years of running. With this amount of data, decays sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model can be studied with unprecedented precision. One promising set of modes are physics processes with missing energy such as B+ ->τ+ ν , B ->D (*) τν , and B ->K (*) ν ν decays. The Belle II data also allows searches for the dark photon, the gauge mediator of a hypothetical dark sector, which has received much attention in the context of dark matter models.
BELLE STARR CAVE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ARKANSAS.
Haley, Boyd R.; Stroud, Raymond B.
1984-01-01
A mineral survey of the Belle Starr Cave Wilderness Study Area in Arkansas concluded that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources in the area. There is a probable resource potential for small quantities of natural gas. A coal bed that underlies the area contains demonstrated coal resources of about 22. 5 million tons in a bed that averages less than 28 in. thick. Despite its contained coal, this area is not shown as having a coal resource potential.
Double dumb-bell calculus in childhood.
Joshi, Prashant; Sarda, Dinesh; Ahmad, Ashraf; Kothari, Paras
2009-01-01
An eight-year old male was admitted with complaints of right scrotal swelling, dysuria and intermittent retention of urine for 10 days. On per-rectal examination, a hard mass was palpable in the posterior urethra. An X-ray (KUB) of the abdomen revealed a double dumb-bell calculus at the base of bladder, extending into the posterior urethra. A cystolithotomy via the suprapubic approach was successfully curative.
Radiative and Electroweak Penguins at Belle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyun, HyoJung
2010-02-01
Radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B mesons are a sensitive probe of new physics beyond the Standard Model. We study the inclusive and exclusive radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B meson and also search an exotic particle seen by the HyperCP experiment. The measurements are based on a large data sample of 605 fb-1 containing 657 millions BB¯ pairs collected at the Υ(4S) with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy asymmetric e+e- collider.
Bell Lunar Landing Training Vehicle (LLTV)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1969-01-01
Following the crash of a sister Lunar Landing Training Vehicle at Ellington Field in Houston, Texas, the Bell LLTV (NASA 952) was sent from Houston to Langley for tests in the 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel. The LLTV was returned to Houston for further training use a short time later. NASA 952 is now on exhibit at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.
Bell Lunar Landing Training Vehicle (LLTV)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1969-01-01
Bell Lunar Landing Training Vehicle (LLTV): Following the crash of a sister Lunar Landing Training Vehicle at Ellington Field in Houston, Texas, the LLTV NASA 952 was sent from Houston to Langley for tests in the 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel. The LLTV was returned to Houston for further training use a short time later. NASA 952 is now on exhibit at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.
EPR and Bell's theorem: A critical review
Stapp, H.P. )
1991-01-01
The argument of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is reviewed with attention to logical structure and character of assumptions. Bohr's reply is discussed. Bell's contribution is formulated without use of hidden variables, and efforts to equate hidden variables to realism are critically examined. An alternative derivation of nonlocality that makes no use of hidden variables, microrealism, counterfactual definiteness, or any other assumption alien to orthodox quantum thinking is described in detail, with particular attention to the quartet or broken-square question.
Charmonium physics in the belle experiment
Mizuk, R. V.; Pakhlova, G. V.; Pakhlov, P. N.; Chistov, R. N.
2010-04-15
At the present time, charmonium physics experiences renaissance. Among many discoveries made within the past six years, the majority do not have an unambiguous interpretation and do not comply with traditional theoretical expectations. This review article is devoted to experimental results obtained by the members of the Belle Collaboration from the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) in the realms of charmonium spectroscopy and the production and decays of charmonia and charmonium-like states.
Cutaneous Sensibility Changes in Bell's Palsy Patients.
Cárdenas Palacio, Carlos Andrés; Múnera Galarza, Francisco Alejandro
2017-02-01
Objective Bell's palsy is a cranial nerve VII dysfunction that renders the patient unable to control facial muscles from the affected side. Nevertheless, some patients have reported cutaneous changes in the paretic area. Therefore, cutaneous sensibility changes might be possible additional symptoms within the clinical presentation of this disorder. Accordingly, the aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between cutaneous sensibility and facial paralysis severity in these patients. Study Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Settings Tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods Twelve acute-onset Bell's palsy patients were enrolled from March to September 2009. In addition, 12 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers were tested. Cutaneous sensibility was evaluated with pressure threshold and 2-point discrimination at 6 areas of the face. Facial paralysis severity was evaluated with the House-Brackmann scale. Results Statistically significant correlations based on the Spearman's test were found between facial paralysis severity and cutaneous sensitivity on forehead, eyelid, cheek, nose, and lip ( P < .05). Additionally, significant differences based on the Student's t test were observed between both sides of the face in 2-point discrimination on eyelid, cheek, and lip ( P < .05) in Bell's palsy patients but not in healthy subjects. Conclusion Such results suggest a possible relationship between the loss of motor control of the face and changes in facial sensory information processing. Such findings are worth further research about the neurophysiologic changes associated with the cutaneous sensibility disturbances of these patients.
Unified criterion for security of secret sharing in terms of violation of Bell inequalities
Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Zukowski, Marek
2003-09-01
In secret sharing protocols, a secret is to be distributed among several partners such that leaving out any number of them, the rest do not have the complete information. Strong multiqubit correlations in the state by which secret sharing is carried out had been proposed as a criterion for security of such protocols against individual attacks by an eavesdropper. However we show that states with weak multiqubit correlations can also be used for secure secret sharing. That our state has weak multiqubit correlations is shown from the perspective of violation of local realism, and also by showing that its higher-order correlations are described by lower ones. We then present a unified criterion for security of secret sharing in terms of violation of local realism, which works when the secret sharing state is the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state (with strong multiqubit correlations), as well as states of a different class (with weak multiqubit correlations)
Bell's palsy associated with herpes simplex gingivostomatitis. A case report.
Nasatzky, E; Katz, J
1998-09-01
Bell's palsy is a sudden, isolated, peripheral facial paralysis caused by various known and sometimes unknown factors. The case of an 18-year-old man who developed Bell's palsy after onset of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis is presented. Although Bell's palsy has already been associated with herpes simplex virus type 1, the described case is the first in the literature in which enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for immunoglobulin G to herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 1 culture were both positive. The recent literature regarding the possible relationship between herpes simplex virus type 1 and Bell's palsy is reviewed and discussed.
Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael
2013-01-01
We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…
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Violation of classical inequalities by photon frequency filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez Muñoz, C.; del Valle, E.; Tejedor, C.; Laussy, F. P.
2014-11-01
The violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz and Bell inequalities ranks among the major evidence of the genuinely quantum nature of an emitter. The conventional theoretical approaches associate operators with spectral lines to study correlations between photons from real-state transitions. Instead, we use a formalism that studies directly correlations between the physical reality—the photons—with no prejudice as to their origin. This allows us to extend photon correlations to all frequencies in all the possible windows of detection and to reveal landscapes of two-photon correlations that delineate regions of quantum emission, i.e., where classical inequalities are violated. We show that quantum correlations are rooted in the joint emission of two photons involving virtual states of the emitter instead of, as previously assumed, cascaded transitions between real states. As a result, correlations can be optimized in a process akin to distillation by keeping only the emission which is quantum and filtering out that which is not.
Sobolev and Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolbeault, Jean; Jankowiak, Gaspard
2014-09-01
This paper is devoted to improvements of Sobolev and Onofri inequalities. The additional terms involve the dual counterparts, i.e. Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev type inequalities. The Onofri inequality is achieved as a limit case of Sobolev type inequalities. Then we focus our attention on the constants in our improved Sobolev inequalities, that can be estimated by completion of the square methods. Our estimates rely on nonlinear flows and spectral problems based on a linearization around optimal Aubin-Talenti functions.
Bell's conspiracy, Schrödinger's black cat and global invariant sets.
Palmer, T N
2015-08-06
A locally causal hidden-variable theory of quantum physics need not be constrained by the Bell inequalities if this theory also partially violates the measurement independence condition. However, such violation can appear unphysical, implying implausible conspiratorial correlations between the hidden variables of particles being measured and earlier determinants of instrumental settings. A novel physically plausible explanation for such correlations is proposed, based on the hypothesis that states of physical reality lie precisely on a non-computational measure-zero dynamically invariant set in the state space of the universe: the Cosmological Invariant Set Postulate. To illustrate the relevance of the concept of a global invariant set, a simple analogy is considered where a massive object is propelled into a black hole depending on the decay of a radioactive atom. It is claimed that a locally causal hidden-variable theory constrained by the Cosmological Invariant Set Postulate can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality without being conspiratorial, superdeterministic, fine-tuned or retrocausal, and the theory readily accommodates the classical compatibilist notion of (experimenter) free will.
Economic Inequality Predicts Biodiversity Loss
Mikkelson, Gregory M.; Gonzalez, Andrew; Peterson, Garry D.
2007-01-01
Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of species that are threatened or declining increases substantially with the Gini ratio of income inequality. At both levels of analysis, the connection between income inequality and biodiversity loss persists after controlling for biophysical conditions, human population size, and per capita GDP or income. Future research should explore potential mechanisms behind this equality-biodiversity relationship. Our results suggest that economic reforms would go hand in hand with, if not serving as a prerequisite for, effective conservation. PMID:17505535
Poverty and health sector inequalities.
Wagstaff, Adam
2002-01-01
Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities. PMID:11953787
[Social inequality in home care].
Möller, A; Osterfeld, A; Büscher, A
2013-06-01
Social inequality in Germany is discussed primarily with regard to educational or social welfare issues. There is a political consensus that more action should be taken to ensure equality of chances and fulfillment of basic needs for everyone. In long-term care these considerations have not yet taken place and there are hardly any research studies in this field. However, the startling rise of the need for long-term care will definitely require a discussion of social inequality in various care arrangements. To learn more about social inequality in home care, a qualitative approach was used and 16 home care nurses were interviewed. Our study shows that many care recipients face numerous problems they cannot handle on their own, which may even worsen their situation. In addition, the results reveal that facing social inequalities place a burden on nurses and influence their work performance.
Belle2Link: A Global Data Readout and Transmission for Belle II Experiment at KEK
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Dehui; Liua, Zhen'an.; Zhao, Jingzhou; Xu, Hao
The Belle II experiment is an upgrade of the Belle experiment at KEK B-Factory, which will be also upgraded to SuperKEKB with a luminosity of 8 x 1035 cm-2 s-1. Belle II will be composed of new detector components: a new pixel vertex detector (PXD), a significantly larger silicon vertex detector (SVD), new design of central drift chamber (CDC), new particle identification (PID) detector, an improved electromagnetic calorimeter (ECL), higher rate KL and muon detector (KLM), and also a completely new trigger (TRG) and data acquisition systems (DAQ) to handle data produced in a 40 times higher rate. The collaboration has decided to use serial data transmission and unified readout techniques to reach simple, reliable connections between Front-End Electronics (FEE) and DAQ system with easy maintenance. A so-called Belle2Link - a unified readout and high speed data transmission has been designed for use both in the FEE of all sub-detector systems and in DAQ system. Proto-types of key modules for a HS link with 3.125Gbps line rate and <10-16 Bit Error Rate had been designed together with firmware development based on which a model system with CDC detector system had been setup. Overall test with CDC detector prototype and DAQ file server system showed that the present design satisfies the experiment requirement. This paper describes the techniques and also some test results.
78 FR 37158 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Model Helicopters
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-06-20
... does the TCAA AD, and we would not require you to provide an affected cap for rework to Bell Tennessee... bearing support assembly, ensuring that the rework has been done. Costs of Compliance We estimate that... remaining freewheel part details for a missing channel. (4) If the channel is missing, replace or rework...
78 FR 65178 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Helicopters
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-10-31
... manufacture of certain freewheel aft bearing caps without a lubrication channel to allow oil flow into the aft... of December 5, 2013. ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Bell.... You may review the referenced service information at the FAA, Office of the Regional...
78 FR 4762 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
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2013-01-23
... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4; telephone (450) 437-2862 or (800) 363... based on those comments. Discussion Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) has issued AD No....
78 FR 34958 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell), Model Helicopters
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-06-11
... directive (AD) for the Bell Model 412, 412CF, and 412EP helicopters. The AD currently requires reidentifying... the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICAs) accordingly. Since we issued the AD, we have... requirements of the existing AD impossible. This proposed AD would retain the current requirements with...
78 FR 65206 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
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2013-10-31
... steady- state operations. These actions are intended to alert pilots to avoid certain engine speeds... operation between speeds of 71% and 91%. The proposed requirements were intended to alert pilots to avoid... amending the RFM, advising pilots of the change, and installing a decal as described in Bell Alert...
78 FR 65202 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
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2013-10-31
...-state operations. These actions are intended to alert pilots to avoid certain engine speeds during... operation between speeds of 71% and 92%. The proposed requirements were intended to alert pilots to avoid... amending the RFM, advising pilots of the change, and installing a decal as described in Bell Alert...
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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-10-31
... during steady- state operations. These actions are intended to alert pilots to avoid certain engine... proposed requirements were intended to alert pilots to avoid certain engine speeds during steady-state... the change, and installing a decal as described in Bell Alert Service Bulletin (ASB) No....
78 FR 66252 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-11-05
... at certain engine speeds during steady-state operations. These actions are intended to alert pilots...-state operation between speeds of 75% and 88%. The proposed requirements were intended to alert pilots... in Bell Alert Service Bulletin (ASB) No. 206-07-115, Revision C, dated February 4, 2009, for...
78 FR 56592 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) Helicopters
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-09-13
..., for affected Model 205A-1 helicopters, replacing the chain and cable control system with a push- pull control system. This new AD requires, for Bell Model 204B, inspecting certain chains at specified..., replacing the chain and cable control system with an airworthy tail rotor push-pull control system kit....
Penrose inequality and apparent horizons
Ben-Dov, Ishai
2004-12-15
A spherically symmetric spacetime is presented with an initial data set that is asymptotically flat, satisfies the dominant energy condition, and such that on this initial data M<{radical}(A/16{pi}), where M is the total mass and A is the area of the apparent horizon. This provides a counterexample to a commonly stated version of the Penrose inequality, though it does not contradict the true Penrose inequality.
The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedl, M.; Ackermann, K.; Aihara, H.; Aziz, T.; Bergauer, T.; Bozek, A.; Campbell, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Drasal, Z.; Frankenberger, A.; Gadow, K.; Gfall, I.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Higuchi, T.; Himori, S.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kiesling, C.; Kodys, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kvasnicka, P.; Marinas, C.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mibe, T.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moll, A.; Negishi, K.; Nakayama, H.; Natkaniec, Z.; Niebuhr, C.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Park, H.; Rao, K. K.; Ritter, M.; Rozanska, M.; Saito, T.; Sakai, K.; Sato, N.; Schmid, S.; Schnell, M.; Shimizu, N.; Steininger, H.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G.; Tsuboyama, T.; Ueno, K.; Uozumi, S.; Ushiroda, Y.; Valentan, M.; Yamamoto, H.
2013-12-01
The KEKB machine and the Belle experiment in Tsukuba (Japan) are now undergoing an upgrade, leading to an ultimate luminosity of 8×1035 cm-2 s-1 in order to measure rare decays in the B system with high statistics. The previous vertex detector cannot cope with this 40-fold increase of luminosity and thus needs to be replaced. Belle II will be equipped with a two-layer Pixel Detector surrounding the beam pipe, and four layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors at higher radii than the old detector. The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) will have a total sensitive area of 1.13 m2 and 223,744 channels-twice as many as its predecessor. All silicon sensors will be made from 150 mm wafers in order to maximize their size and thus to reduce the relative contribution of the support structure. The forward part has slanted sensors of trapezoidal shape to improve the measurement precision and to minimize the amount of material as seen by particles from the vertex. Fast-shaping front-end amplifiers will be used in conjunction with an online hit time reconstruction algorithm in order to reduce the occupancy to the level of a few percent at most. A novel “Origami” chip-on-sensor scheme is used to minimize both the distance between strips and amplifier (thus reducing the electronic noise) as well as the overall material budget. This report gives an overview on the status of the Belle II SVD and its components, including sensors, front-end detector ladders, mechanics, cooling and the readout electronics.
Concurrent pityriasis rosea and Bell's palsy.
Voss, Vanessa; Mattox, Adam; Guo, Mary
2017-01-23
Pityriasis rosea is a dermatological disease with a well-documented clinical appearance, but less is known about causes and treatment. Bell's palsy is a neurological condition leading to acute idiopathic hemifacial paralysis. Recent studies indicate that human herpesvirus (HHV) 6-7 reactivation may be a contributing factor to both conditions. We report a case of the 2 concurrent diagnoses that supports a common contributing factor and suggests further awareness and research into the role HHV 6-7 may play in the aetiology of both conditions.
Radiative and Electroweak Penguins at Belle
Hyun, Hyo Jung
2010-02-10
Radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B mesons are a sensitive probe of new physics beyond the Standard Model. We study the inclusive and exclusive radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B meson and also search an exotic particle seen by the HyperCP experiment. The measurements are based on a large data sample of 605 fb{sup -1} containing 657 millions BB-bar pairs collected at the UPSILON(4S) with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.
Changing Career Patterns for Women in the Bell System.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boehm, Virginia R.
The Bell system is the largest nongovernmental employer of people in the country, and over 50 percent of the people employed by its systems are women. This paper deals with the new personnel policies concerning women within the Bell system; in particular, it describes the AT & T Management Assessment Program (MAP), the vehicle used to identify…
46 CFR 197.334 - Open diving bells.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open diving bells. 197.334 Section 197.334 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.334 Open diving bells. Each open...
Derrick Bell's Post-"Brown" Moves toward Critical Race Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Sherick; Noblit, George; Cleveland, Darrell
2013-01-01
The late Professor Derrick Bell is renowned as the intellectual architect who drafted the blueprints that guided the initial development of critical race theory (CRT). Prior to the advent of CRT, Professor Bell wrote extensively on initiatives designed to improve the lives of African Americans. Among his most influential scholarship, "Serving…
77 FR 18970 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-03-29
... Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for the Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (BHTC) Model 407 helicopters. This proposed AD is... Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4, telephone (450)...
46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in...
46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in...
46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in...
Bell's palsy associated with influenza vaccination: two case reports.
Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Liou, Wen-Ping; Hu, Kun-I; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chou, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Yeong-Hwang
2007-04-12
The etiology of Bell's palsy is often unknown. We present herein two cases of adults who developed a Bell's palsy following the administration of an influenza vaccine. While the incidence is low, with the widespread recommendation for annual influenza vaccines, patients should be apprised of the possibility of this complication and the benefit of early treatment.
Eugenics Past and Present: Remembering Buck v. Bell.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara
2001-01-01
Provides background information about the eugenics movement. Focuses on eugenics in the United States detailing the case, Buck v. Bell, and eugenics in Germany. Explores the present eugenic movement, focusing on "The Bell Curve," China's one child policy, and the use of eugenic sterilizations in the United States and Canada. Includes…
3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, ...
3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, southeast side and northeast front of bell house, southeast sides of tower and keeper's house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME
Aesthetes and Experts: For Whom Does the Bell Toll?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosemont, Henry, Jr.; Feinberg, Walter
1972-01-01
The authors outline a perspective on post-modernism and the counter-culture and question Bell's assessment of their socio-political impact (AA 511 929). They suggest that scientific and technical experts' influence is greater than that of artists, and they compare Bell's earlier work with his current thesis. (Authors/JB)
46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm...
46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in...
46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in...
21. May 1985. DETAIL OF CALL BELLS (Located under hood ...
21. May 1985. DETAIL OF CALL BELLS (Located under hood of back porch, each bell is mechanically rung and has a tone specific to one of several rooms on the first floor) - Borough House, West Side State Route 261, about .1 mile south side of junction with old Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC
Bell & Howell Introduces an 8mm Cartridge Concept
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Educ Screen Audiovisual Guide, 1970
1970-01-01
"Bell & Howell has developed a highly versatile cartidge projector system for cine and super 8mm formats. Because Bell & Howell believes that standardization is an important factor in the development of a cartridge system, it has built in a flexibility which will allow this standardization. (Author)
Examination of Samples of Bell Canyon Test 1-FF Grout.
1981-05-01
Portland cement grout identified as BCT-1-FF (Bell Canyon Test 1-FF) was used in borehole plugging experiments in the Bell Canyon Tests in Hole AEC-7...BCT-1-FF grout mixture contained added sulfate, it formed more ettringite as judged by X-ray diffraction than comparable portland cement mixtures without added sulfate. (Author)
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Dual Bell Nozzle Film Cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braman, Kalen; Garcia, Christian; Ruf, Joseph; Bui, Trong
2015-01-01
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) are working together to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of the dual bell nozzle concept. Dual bell nozzles are a form of altitude compensating nozzle that consists of two connecting bell contours. At low altitude the nozzle flows fully in the first, relatively lower area ratio, nozzle. The nozzle flow separates from the wall at the inflection point which joins the two bell contours. This relatively low expansion results in higher nozzle efficiency during the low altitude portion of the launch. As ambient pressure decreases with increasing altitude, the nozzle flow will expand to fill the relatively large area ratio second nozzle. The larger area ratio of the second bell enables higher Isp during the high altitude and vacuum portions of the launch. Despite a long history of theoretical consideration and promise towards improving rocket performance, dual bell nozzles have yet to be developed for practical use and have seen only limited testing. One barrier to use of dual bell nozzles is the lack of control over the nozzle flow transition from the first bell to the second bell during operation. A method that this team is pursuing to enhance the controllability of the nozzle flow transition is manipulation of the film coolant that is injected near the inflection between the two bell contours. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is being run to assess the degree of control over nozzle flow transition generated via manipulation of the film injection. A cold flow dual bell nozzle, without film coolant, was tested over a range of simulated altitudes in 2004 in MSFC's nozzle test facility. Both NASA centers have performed a series of simulations of that dual bell to validate their computational models. Those CFD results are compared to the experimental results within this paper. MSFC then proceeded to add film injection to the CFD grid of the dual bell nozzle. A series of
Nutrition inequities in Canada.
Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather
2010-04-01
In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.
[Inequality, poverty and obesity].
Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Silva, Aline Elizabeth; Rodrigues, Chrystiellen Ayana Aparecida; Nunes, Nádia Lúcia Almeida; Vigato, Tássia Cassimiro; Magalhães, Rosana
2010-06-01
National studies have been demonstrating the positive relationship among inequality, poverty and obesity revealing the singularities and complexity of the nutritional transition in Brazil. In this direction, the women constitute a vulnerable group to the dynamics of the obesity in the poverty context. Such fact imposes the theoretical deepening and the accomplishment of researches that make possible a larger approach with the phenomenon in subject. In this perspective, the study analyzed the daily life of poor and obese women, users of basic units of health of the city of Diamantina, Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais State. The results revealed the complex relationship between feminine obesity and poverty. The cultural and material aspects of life, as well as the different feeding and body conceptions that demonstrated to be fundamental elements for the analysis of the multiple faces of the obesity among the investigated group. Facing these results it is appropriate to encourage public policies that promote equity widening the access of those groups to the main resources for the prevention and combat of obesity.
Biondi, Franco; Qeadan, Fares
2008-04-01
Paleorecords provide information on past environmental variability, and help define ecological reference conditions by means of changes in their characteristics (accumulation rate, geochemical composition, density, etc.). A measure of temporal dissimilarity, which has traditionally been used in dendrochronology and is called "mean sensitivity," only focuses on first-order time-series lags. In this paper mean sensitivity was extended to all possible lags to derive a mean sensitivity function (MSF). The MSF is equivalent to a one-dimensional form of the paired relative madogram, a tool used in geostatistics to quantify spatial dependence. We then showed that the sum of madograms for all possible time-series lags is encapsulated by a single parameter, the Gini coefficient. This parameter has long been used by econometricians, social scientists, and ecologists as a synthetic, quantitative measure of inequality and diversity. Considering the connection between the MSF and the madogram, and the convenience of summarizing data heterogeneity with a single number, the Gini coefficient is therefore particularly appropriate for succinctly evaluating the diversity of paleorecords. An example of this application is provided by focusing on public domain dendrochronological data for the western conterminous United States.
Population growth, inequality and poverty.
Rodgers, G
1983-01-01
In this discussion of population growth, inequality, and poverty, the type of relationships that can be observed in intercountry comparisons are explored, reviewing the findings of several other authors, presenting some new estimates using an International Labor Office data bank, considering some basic conceptual problems, and examining some of the theoretical and empirical issues that call for investigation at the national level. Intercountry comparisons, despite their limitations, appear to be the easiest starting point for empirical analysis. The approach adopted by most researchers has been to select 1 or more population indicators and a measure of national income inequality and to explain intercountry differences in 1 or both of these variables in terms of each other and of other indicators of economic and social development. Underlying this methodology is the assumption that there are aspects of demographic and economic change that are common to all countries included in the study, so that differences between countries give some guide to the likely evolution over time within any 1 country. This can be accepted at best with reservations, but given the scarcity of data on the evolution of inequality over time, a working hypothesis of this type appears unavoidable. But, as many of the factors likely to cause population growth and inequality operate over extended periods of time, a dynamic model is indicated. A simpler model, which pays particular attention to lags and variations over time, may generate new insights. A summary of the results of a new international cross-section analysis set up on these lines is presented. Results suggest that contrary to expectations, reducing population growth does not seem to generate longterm benefits for the poor in this model, though some short term gains are found. Increasing equality does appear to generate some decline in population growth, as well as persistent gains in incomes among the poor, but the reductions in
Effect of atmospheric factors on the incidence of Bell's palsy.
de, Diego J I; Prim, M P; Madero, R; Marcos, S; Gavilan, J
2002-01-01
To assess the possible influence of atmospheric factors on the incidence of Bell's palsy, a retrospective case review of patients seen between 1 January 1992 and 30 June 1996, was designed. The population included all Bell's palsy patients in whom the exact date of onset of paralysis (day, month, year) was known. The following parameters were registered daily by the Spanish National Service of Meteorology throughout the period of survey: temperature, atmospheric pressure and air pollutants (total number of particles and levels of SO2, CO, O3, NO2, NO, CH4 and total organic carbon). The only factor significantly related to Bell's palsy was temperature (P = 0.0164). Lower temperatures were associated with a higher incidence of Bell's palsy. A relationship between atmospheric pressure and/or air pollutants and Bell's palsy was not found.
Complete hyperentangled-Bell-state analysis for quantum communication
Sheng Yubo; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu
2010-09-15
It is impossible to unambiguously distinguish the four Bell states in polarization, resorting to linear optical elements only. Recently, the hyperentangled Bell state, the simultaneous entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, has been used to assist in the complete Bell-state analysis of the four Bell states. However, if the additional degree of freedom is qubitlike, one can only distinguish 7 from the group of 16 states. Here we present a way to distinguish the hyperentangled Bell states completely with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity. Also, we discuss its application in the quantum teleportation of a particle in an unknown state in two different degrees of freedom and in the entanglement swapping of hyperentangled states. These applications will increase the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication.
The Belle II experiment: fundamental physics at the flavor frontier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heredia de la Cruz, Ivan
2016-10-01
After the major success of B-factories to establish the CKM mechanism and its proven potential to search for new physics, the Belle II experiment will continue exploring the physics at the flavor frontier over the next years. Belle II will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle, and allow for various precision measurements and searches of rare decays and particles. This paper introduces the B-factory concept and the flavor frontier approach to search for new physics. It then describes the SuperKEKB accelerator and the Belle II detector, as well as some of the physics that will be analyzed in Belle II, concluding with the experiment status and schedule.
[Prognostic value of electrodiagnosis of Bell's palsy].
Laskawi, R; Drobik, C; Baaske, C
1994-06-01
Many papers report on a poor rate of complete restitution of Bell's palsy if signs of degeneration can be detected in neuromyography (NMG) or electromyography (EMG). In 119 patients who underwent infusion therapy (as developed by Stennert) 39% showed signs of degeneration in EMG or NMG. Complete restitution was achieved in 93% of these patients. Degeneration was more frequent in elderly patients (< 20 years: 20%, > 60 years: 55%). This did not affect the rate of complete restitution, which was constantly high for every age. If infusion therapy was started within 7 days after onset of the disease, no defects in restitution were observed, which was frequently so if therapy was started later. After one year the rate of complete restitution was about equal in cases with signs of degeneration (91%) and non-degenerative cases (94%). But 80% of the non-degenerative cases showed complete restitution within 3 months after onset of the palsy, whereas 80% of cases with signs of degeneration healed after this date (mean 6.1 months). After oral therapy with cortisol exclusively half of the degenerative cases did not attain complete restitution. After infusion therapy EMG and NMG do not answer the question if a Bell's palsy will heal completely or not but enable us to predict when this will probably be the case.
Bell's palsy and parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine.
Stowe, Julia; Andrews, Nick; Wise, Lesley; Miller, Elizabeth
2006-01-01
Concern about a possible increased risk of Bell's palsy after parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine was raised following the publication in 2004 of a Swiss study in which there was an increased risk following the nasal inactivated formulation of the vaccine. When data from passive reporting systems in the United States and the United Kingdom were examined there was some evidence of increased reporting following the parenteral vaccine. A large population based study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) was therefore performed to test the hypothesis that there was an increased risk of Bell's palsy in the three months following parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine. The risk was also assessed for the same period following pneumococcal vaccine and was stratified into three age groups (<45, 45-64 and 65+ years). Relative incidence (RI) estimates were calculated using the self-controlled case-series method and showed no evidence of an increased risk in the three months following parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine RI 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.78-1.08). There was also no evidence of an increased risk in any age group or following pneumococcal vaccine. A significant increase was seen on the day of vaccination (day 0) probably due to opportunistic recording of cases.
Antimutagenic properties of bell and black peppers.
El Hamss, R; Idaomar, M; Alonso-Moraga, A; Muñoz Serrano, A
2003-01-01
The wing Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster was used to study the modulating action of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) in combination with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and the promutagen agent ethyl carbamate (EC). Larvae trans-heterozygous for the third chromosome recessive markers multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare-3 [flr(3)] were fed genotoxins alone or in combination with each of the two spices. Genetic changes induced in somatic cells of the wing's imaginal discs lead to the formation of mutant clones on the wing blade. Our results showed that bell pepper was effective in reducing the mutational events induced by EC and MMS and black pepper was only effective against EC. Pretreatment of 2-day-old larvae with the spices for 24 h followed by a treatment with EC and MMS was only effective in reducing mutations induced by EC. Suppression of metabolic activation or interaction with the active groups of mutagens could be mechanisms by which the spices exert their antimutagenic action.
Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Optimization Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Laba, K.; Kincaid, R.
1998-01-01
The paper presents an optimization algorithm that falls in the category of genetic, or evolutionary algorithms. While the bit exchange is the basis of most of the Genetic Algorithms (GA) in research and applications in America, some alternatives, also in the category of evolutionary algorithms, but use a direct, geometrical approach have gained popularity in Europe and Asia. The Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Algorithm (BCB) is in this alternative category and is distinguished by the use of a combination of n-dimensional geometry and the normal distribution, the bell-curve, in the generation of the offspring. The tool for creating a child is a geometrical construct comprising a line connecting two parents and a weighted point on that line. The point that defines the child deviates from the weighted point in two directions: parallel and orthogonal to the connecting line, the deviation in each direction obeying a probabilistic distribution. Tests showed satisfactory performance of BCB. The principal advantage of BCB is its controllability via the normal distribution parameters and the geometrical construct variables.
Bell's theorem, inference, and quantum transactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrett, A. J. M.
1990-04-01
Bell's theorem is expounded as an analysis in Bayesian inference. Assuming the result of a spin measurement on a particle is governed by a causal variable internal (hidden, “local”) to the particle, one learns about it by making a spin measurement; thence about the internal variable of a second particle correlated with the first; and from there predicts the probabilistic result of spin measurements on the second particle. Such predictions are violated by experiment: locality/causality fails. The statistical nature of the observations rules out signalling; acausal, superluminal, or otherwise. Quantum mechanics is irrelevant to this reasoning, although its correct predictions of experiment imply that it has a nonlocal/acausal interpretation. Cramer's new transactional interpretation, which incorporates this feature by adapting the Wheeler-Feynman idea of advanced and retarded processes to the quantum laws, is advocated. It leads to an invaluable way of envisaging quantum processes. The usual paradoxes melt before this, and one, the “delayed choice” experiment, is chosen for detailed inspection. Nonlocality implies practical difficulties in influencing hidden variables, which provides a very plausible explanation for why they have not yet been found; from this standpoint, Bell's theorem reinforces arguments in favor of hidden variables.
On my association with Bell Labs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sondhi, M. Mohan
2001-05-01
I joined the Acoustics Research department at Bell Labs in 1962, just eight days before AT&T launched the first communications satellite, Telstar. During the 39 years between 1962 and my retirement in 2001, I worked on several problems related in one way or another to the processing of speech signals. Schroeder and Flanagan are presenting talks from a broad perspective in this session, so I will confine this talk to just my own contributions and collaborations for some of the topics on which I worked, e.g., echo cancellation, inverse problems in acoustics, speech analysis, synthesis, and recognition. I will tell you about one of these contributions that fortunately turned out to yield considerable profits to AT&T. To give you a flavor of the spirit of free inquiry at Bell Labs during that period, I will tell you about the contribution that I am most proud of (which was supported for several years even though it had no monetary value). And I will also mention the contribution that is most often cited of all my papers (which was in collaboration with two mathematicians, and had nothing at all to do with acoustics).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zhen-Chao; Hu, Ai-Qun; Fu, An-Min
2015-11-01
In a recent study, Shukla et al. (Quantum Inf Process 13:2391-2405, 2014) proposed two quantum key agreement protocols based on Bell state and Bell measurement, and they claimed that their two protocols were secure. However, in this study, we will show that the three-party protocol they proposed is not secure. Any participant in the protocol can directly obtain other two participants' secret keys. More seriously, two dishonest participants in the protocol can conclude to determine the shared key alone. Furthermore, we will show that there is another minor flaw in their two protocols; that is, eavesdroppers can flip any bit of the final key without introducing any error. In the end, some possible improvements are proposed to avoid these flaws.
STRUCTURAL RACISM AND HEALTH INEQUITIES
Gee, Gilbert C.; Ford, Chandra L.
2014-01-01
Racial minorities bear a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality. These inequities might be explained by racism, given the fact that racism has restricted the lives of racial minorities and immigrants throughout history. Recent studies have documented that individuals who report experiencing racism have greater rates of illnesses. While this body of research has been invaluable in advancing knowledge on health inequities, it still locates the experiences of racism at the individual level. Yet, the health of social groups is likely most strongly affected by structural, rather than individual, phenomena. The structural forms of racism and their relationship to health inequities remain under-studied. This article reviews several ways of conceptualizing structural racism, with a focus on social segregation, immigration policy, and intergenerational effects. Studies of disparities should more seriously consider the multiple dimensions of structural racism as fundamental causes of health disparities. PMID:25632292
van de Graaf, R C; IJpma, F F A; Nicolai, J-P A; Werker, P M N
2009-11-01
Bell's palsy is the eponym for idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. It is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, discovered the function of the facial nerve and attracted the attention of the medical world to facial paralysis. Our knowledge of this condition before Bell's landmark publications is very limited and is based on just a few documents. In 1804 and 1805, Evert Jan Thomassen à Thuessink (1762-1832) published what appears to be the first known extensive study on idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. His description of this condition was quite accurate. He located several other early descriptions and concluded from this literature that, previously, the condition had usually been confused with other afflictions (such as 'spasmus cynicus', central facial paralysis and trigeminal neuralgia). According to Thomassen à Thuessink, idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis and trigeminal neuralgia were related, being different expressions of the same condition. Thomassen à Thuessink believed that idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis was caused by 'rheumatism' or exposure to cold. Many aetiological theories have since been proposed. Despite this, the cold hypothesis persists even today.
Martingale Rosenthal inequalities in symmetric spaces
Astashkin, S V
2014-12-31
We establish inequalities similar to the classical Rosenthal inequalities for sequences of martingale differences in general symmetric spaces; a central role is played here by the predictable quadratic characteristic of a martingale. Bibliography: 26 titles.
Search for B+ ->KSKSh+ decays at Belle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaur, Vipin; Belle Collaboration
2017-01-01
We present updated measurements of charmless decays of charged B mesons to the three-body final states of KSKSK+ and KSKSπ+ , based on a data sample containing 770 ×106 B B events. The data were recorded with the Belle detector operating near the ϒ(4 S) resonance at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. The B+ ->KSKSK+ and B+ ->KSKSπ+ decays proceed via the b -> s and b -> d flavor-changing neutral current (FCNC) transitions, respectively, providing a good probe for new physics beyond the standard model (SM). We report the results on the branching fractions and direct CP asymmetries for both the decay channels. Supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.
BELL MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.
Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence
1984-01-01
Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-occurrence studies of the Bell Mountain Wilderness study area, Missouri indicate little promise for the occurrence of major base-metal resources. Abandoned prospects on the west side of Shut-in Creek were opened on narrow sulfide-bearing quartz veins in Precambrian volcanic rocks. These veins contain lead, copper, and trace amounts of silver, but they do not constitute a resource at present, and evidence from this study suggests little promise for resources at depth. Unusually high amounts of trace metals in panned concentrates from several drainages on the west side of the area indicate areas of probable resource potential for low-grade lead-zinc deposits buried at depths of a few hundred feet.
Diagnosis and management of Bell's palsy.
Santos, Renata de Faria; Brasileiro, Bernardo Ferreira
2011-01-01
Bell's palsy (BP) is an idiopathic peripheral facial nerve paralysis of sudden onset. Its most alarming symptom is unilateral facial weakness, which can result in the inability to close the eyelids, smile, or whistle. The pathogenesis of BP is controversial and is believed to be caused by inflammation of the facial nerve at the geniculate ganglion. Many viruses, especially herpes simplex and herpes zoster, have been suggested as initiators of this inflammatory process; however, this has not been proven. This report describes the case of a 14-year-old girl with right hemifacial palsy who sought treatment one month after the onset of palsy. The patient experienced a satisfactory recovery within 30 days of treatment and has maintained a stable physical outcome after 15 months of follow-up. Early treatment based on careful investigation of BP, with particular attention given to the differential diagnosis of BP, can improve the patient's function and esthetics.
Bell operator and Gaussian squeezed states in noncommutative quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Dias, Nuno Costa; Prata, João Nuno
2016-05-01
We examine putative corrections to the Bell operator due to the noncommutativity in the phase space. Starting from a Gaussian squeezed envelope whose time evolution is driven by commutative (standard quantum mechanics) and noncommutative dynamics, respectively, we conclude that although the time-evolving covariance matrix in the noncommutative case is different from the standard case, the squeezing parameter dominates and there are no noticeable noncommutative corrections to the Bell operator. This indicates that, at least for squeezed states, the privileged states to test Bell correlations, noncommutativity versions of quantum mechanics remain as nonlocal as quantum mechanics itself.
[Severe type 1-allergy to raw bell pepper].
Rüger, R D; Wagner, S; Simon, J C; Treudler, R
2010-04-01
We report on a patient with rare anaphylaxis after ingestion of raw bell pepper. A complex cluster of sensitization including grass and birch pointed out a possible pollen-associated food allergy. We suggest that the severe reaction is due to cross-reactivity towards Bet v 1. Western blot showed binding of the patient's serum to an 11 kDa protein, which has not been described yet and might be a new allergenic structure of the bell pepper plant or a fragment of the Bet v 1-homologous bell pepper protein.
A case presentation of bilateral simultaneous Bell's palsy.
Kilic, Rahmi; Ozdek, Ali; Felek, Sevim; Safak, M Asim; Samim, Erdal
2003-01-01
Bilateral simultaneous facial paralysis is an extremely rare clinical entity. Unlike the unilateral form, bilateral facial paralysis seldom falls into Bell's category. It is most often a special finding in a symptom complex of a systemic disease; many of them are potentially life-threatening, and therefore the condition warrants urgent medical intervention. Lyme disease, Guillian-Barre syndrome, Bell's palsy, leukemia, sarcoidosis, bacterial meningitis, syphilis, leprosy, Moebius syndrome, infectious mononucleosis, and skull fracture are the most common cause of bilateral facial paralysis. Here we present a 16-year-old patient with bilateral simultaneous Bell's palsy.
QCD inequalities for hadron interactions.
Detmold, William
2015-06-05
We derive generalizations of the Weingarten-Witten QCD mass inequalities for particular multihadron systems. For systems of any number of identical pseudoscalar mesons of maximal isospin, these inequalities prove that near threshold interactions between the constituent mesons must be repulsive and that no bound states can form in these channels. Similar constraints in less symmetric systems are also extracted. These results are compatible with experimental results (where known) and recent lattice QCD calculations, and also lead to a more stringent bound on the nucleon mass than previously derived, m_{N}≥3/2m_{π}.
Remainder terms for some quantum entropy inequalities
Carlen, Eric A.; Lieb, Elliott H.
2014-04-15
We consider three von Neumann entropy inequalities: subadditivity; Pinsker's inequality for relative entropy; and the monotonicity of relative entropy. For these we state conditions for equality, and we prove some new error bounds away from equality, including an improved version of Pinsker's inequality.
Urban Inequality. NBER Working Paper No. 14419
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glaeser, Edward L.; Resseger, Matthew G.; Tobio, Kristina
2008-01-01
What impact does inequality have on metropolitan areas? Crime rates are higher in places with more inequality, and people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is also a negative association between local inequality and the growth of both income and population, once we control for the initial distribution of skills.…
Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?
Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna
2015-01-01
In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277
Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Downey, Liam
2006-01-01
This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality…
Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collins, James
2013-01-01
The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…
Declaring Bankruptcy on Educational Inequity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bass, Lisa; Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia
2011-01-01
The authors consider Ladson-Billings' (2006) charge to reframe the way the "achievement gap" is viewed, and put forth the metaphor of "bankruptcy" as a way to acknowledge the educational debt and educational inequity and move towards debt forgiveness in public education. Specifically, the bankruptcy metaphor is used to examine…
Retirement Patterns and Income Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fasang, Anette Eva
2012-01-01
How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…
Racial Inequity in Special Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.
This collection of papers discusses issues related to the overidentification of minority students in special education. After a "Foreword" (Senator James M. Jeffords) and an introduction, "Racial Inequality in Special Education" (Daniel J. Losen and Gary Orfield), 11 chapters include: (1) "Community and School Predictors…
13. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF METERED WARNING BELL (PRIOR TO ...
13. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF METERED WARNING BELL (PRIOR TO ARRIVAL OF TRAINS), LOCATED IN TICKET OFFICE, SOUTHWEST WALL - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Station, Laurel, 101 Lafayette Avenue, Laurel, Prince George's County, MD
38. AERIAL VIEW APPROACHING INTERSECTION WITH BELLE VIEW BLVD. LOOKING ...
38. AERIAL VIEW APPROACHING INTERSECTION WITH BELLE VIEW BLVD. LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA
3. Keeper's house, shed, light tower and bell, view east, ...
3. Keeper's house, shed, light tower and bell, view east, northwest and southwest sides - Monhegan Island Light Station, Monhegan Island, ten miles south by ferry from Port Clyde, Monhegan, Lincoln County, ME
VIEW OF FOREDECK FROM ATOP PILOT HOUSE, SIGNAL BELL SEEN ...
VIEW OF FOREDECK FROM ATOP PILOT HOUSE, SIGNAL BELL SEEN IN FOREGROUND WITH AUXILIARY MUSHROOM ANCHOR AND LIFTING TACKLE ON STARBOARD (RIGHT) SIDE. - Lightship 116, Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Independent City, MD
46 CFR 197.330 - PVHO-Closed bells.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.330 PVHO—Closed bells. (a) Except as... on the surface to the maximum design diving depth; (5) Be constructed and equipped as required...
2. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view east, ...
2. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view east, west and south sides - Bass Harbor Head Light Station, At southwest tip of Mount Desert Island off State Route 102, Bass Harbor, Hancock County, ME
Not all facial paralysis is Bell's palsy: a case report.
Brach, J S; VanSwearingen, J M
1999-07-01
Bell's palsy or idiopathic facial paralysis is the most common cause of unilateral facial paralysis. This case report describes a patient referred for physical therapy evaluation and treatment with a diagnosis of Bell's palsy. On initial presentation in physical therapy the patient had unilateral facial paralysis, ipsilateral regional facial pain and numbness, and a history of a gradual, progressive onset of symptoms. The process of evaluating this patient in physical therapy, as well as the recognition of signs and symptoms typical and atypical of Bell's palsy, are described. This report emphasizes the importance of early recognition of the signs and symptoms inconsistent with a diagnosis of Bell's palsy, and indications for prompt, appropriate referral for additional diagnostic services.
Do oral steroids aid recovery in children with Bell's palsy?
Ismail, Abdul Qader; Alake, Oluwaseyi; Kallappa, Chetana
2014-10-01
There is growing evidence that steroids are not beneficial for treatment of paediatric patients with Bell's palsy. To investigate, we conducted a retrospective longitudinal study examining notes of 100 children, over 12 years coded for facial nerve palsy. Of the 79 diagnosed with Bell's palsy, all recovered, and for 46 patients we had data on interval from onset of symptoms to resolution (median duration in treated group = 5 weeks, range = 39; median duration in untreated group = 6 weeks, range = 11; P = .86). From our results, we conclude that all children with Bell's palsy recovered, with or without steroid treatment, with no statistically significant difference in symptoms duration. Complications of unresolved Bell's palsy can have important long-term functional and psychosocial consequences. Therefore, we need further research on use of steroids in children with complete/severe cases; it would be a shame to omit treatment due to "absence of evidence" rather than "evidence of absence."
214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN ...
214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN BUS STOP WIDENING, 1932. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA
8. Bell house, view southwest, southeast side and northeast front ...
8. Bell house, view southwest, southeast side and northeast front - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME
1. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view northeast, ...
1. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view northeast, northwest and southwest sides - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME
46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... bells so located as to warn all occupants. The system shall operate from a continuous source of electric energy capable of supplying the system for a period of at least 8 hours without being dependent upon...
46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... bells so located as to warn all occupants. The system shall operate from a continuous source of electric energy capable of supplying the system for a period of at least 8 hours without being dependent upon...
46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... bells so located as to warn all occupants. The system shall operate from a continuous source of electric energy capable of supplying the system for a period of at least 8 hours without being dependent upon...
46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... bells so located as to warn all occupants. The system shall operate from a continuous source of electric energy capable of supplying the system for a period of at least 8 hours without being dependent upon...
6. Bell house, view northwest, southeast and northeast sides, with ...
6. Bell house, view northwest, southeast and northeast sides, with west side of light tower to right - Hendricks Head Light Station, End of Beach Road, West Southport vicinity, Southport, Lincoln County, ME
Fake violations of the quantum Bell-parameter bound
Semenov, A. A.; Vogel, W.
2011-03-15
Shortcomings of experimental techniques are usually assumed to diminish nonclassical properties of quantum systems. Here it is demonstrated that this standard assumption is not true in general. It is theoretically shown that the inability to resolve different photon numbers with photodetection may pseudoincrease a measured Bell parameter. Under proper conditions one even pseudoviolates the quantum Cirel'son bound of the Bell parameter, and the corresponding density operator fails to be positive semidefinite. This paradox can be resolved by appropriate squash models.
Quantum teleportation with a three-Bell-state analyzer.
van Houwelingen, J A W; Brunner, N; Beveratos, A; Zbinden, H; Gisin, N
2006-04-07
We present a novel Bell-state analyzer (BSA) for time-bin qubits allowing the detection of three out of four Bell states with linear optics, two detectors, and no auxiliary photons. The theoretical success rate of this scheme is 50%. Our new BSA demonstrates the power of generalized quantum measurements, known as positive operator valued measurements. A teleportation experiment was performed to demonstrate its functionality. We also present a teleportation experiment with a fidelity larger than the cloning limit.
For whom bell toils: medical imaging by telephone.
Kuhfeld, A W
1991-01-01
The use of the induction balance, which was invented by Alexander Graham Bell to cancel out line interference on his telephone, to determine the location of bullets inside the human body is discussed. Experiments conducted to locate a bullet in the body of US President Garfield, who had been shot by an assassin in 1881, are described. The trials on Garfield were unsuccessful, but the approach was later perfected by Bell.
Experimental quantum teleportation with a three-Bell-state analyzer
Houwelingen, J. A. W. van; Beveratos, A.; Brunner, N.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.
2006-08-15
We present a Bell-state analyzer for time-bin qubits allowing the detection of three out of four Bell states with linear optics, two detectors, and no auxiliary photons. The theoretical success rate of this scheme is 50%. A teleportation experiment was performed to demonstrate its functionality. We also present a teleportation experiment with a fidelity larger than the cloning limit of F=(5/6)
Characterization of the bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro.
Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang
2013-08-07
The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.
Bell's palsy following primary tooth extraction. A case report.
Owsley, David; Goldsmith, Jay P
2012-04-01
Bell's palsy is characterized by acute peripheral facial nerve paralysis. Unilateral paralysis of CN 7 is reported in 20 to 30 people out of 100,000 in the general population. It affects individuals of all ages. Most cases are idiopathic, while a few are identified as resulting from infectious or non-infectious causes. The association between herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and Bell's palsy has been considered since the 1970s. Few cases have been reported after tooth extraction.
The epidemiology and treatment of Bell's palsy in the UK.
Rowlands, S; Hooper, R; Hughes, R; Burney, P
2002-01-01
The study consisted of a survey of all new cases of Bell's palsy occurring between 1992 and 1996 in practices contributing data to the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Data were extracted on age, sex, date of episode of Bell's palsy, household number, episodes of herpes simplex, treatment prescribed and referral to relevant hospital departments. A total of 2473 cases of Bell's palsy were identified. The overall incidence for the study period was 20.2 per 100 000 person years of follow-up (95% CI 19.4-21.0). Incidence increased with age. There was no difference in incidence according to sex or season but there were significant changes over time: incidence was higher in the first year of the study period than in subsequent years. There was no clustering of cases in households and no evidence of any tendency for herpes simplex infections to precede Bell's palsy. About 36% of cases were treated with oral steroids and 19% of episodes resulted in hospital referral. In conclusion, Bell's palsy is seen mainly in a primary care setting. The majority of cases are treated expectantly without drugs. Lack of household clustering and lack of a tendency of herpes simplex infections to precede Bell's palsy do not support a viral aetiology.
Geometric inequalities from phase space translations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Stefan; König, Robert; Vershynina, Anna
2017-01-01
We establish a quantum version of the classical isoperimetric inequality relating the Fisher information and the entropy power of a quantum state. The key tool is a Fisher information inequality for a state which results from a certain convolution operation: the latter maps a classical probability distribution on phase space and a quantum state to a quantum state. We show that this inequality also gives rise to several related inequalities whose counterparts are well-known in the classical setting: in particular, it implies an entropy power inequality for the mentioned convolution operation as well as the isoperimetric inequality and establishes concavity of the entropy power along trajectories of the quantum heat diffusion semigroup. As an application, we derive a Log-Sobolev inequality for the quantum Ornstein-Uhlenbeck semigroup and argue that it implies fast convergence towards the fixed point for a large class of initial states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartkiewicz, Karol; Lemr, Karel; Černoch, Antonín; Miranowicz, Adam
2017-03-01
We propose and experimentally implement an efficient procedure based on entanglement swapping to determine the Bell nonlocality measure of Horodecki et al. [Phys. Lett. A 200, 340 (1995), 10.1016/0375-9601(95)00214-N] and the fully entangled fraction of Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevA.54.3824] of an arbitrary two-qubit polarization-encoded state. The nonlocality measure corresponds to the amount of the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) optimized over all measurement settings. By using simultaneously two copies of a given state, we measure directly only six parameters. This is an experimental determination of these quantities without quantum state tomography or continuous monitoring of all measurement bases in the usual CHSH inequality tests. We analyze how well the measured degrees of Bell nonlocality and other entanglement witnesses (including the fully entangled fraction and a nonlinear entropic witness) of an arbitrary two-qubit state can estimate its entanglement. In particular, we measure these witnesses and estimate the negativity of various two-qubit Werner states. Our approach could especially be useful for quantum communication protocols based on entanglement swapping.
Linear game non-contextuality and Bell inequalities—a graph-theoretic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosicka, M.; Ramanathan, R.; Gnaciński, P.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Severini, S.
2016-04-01
We study the classical and quantum values of a class of one- and two-party unique games, that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. In the bipartite case the generalized XOR (XOR-d) games we study are a subclass of the well-known linear games. We introduce a ‘constraint graph’ associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lovász theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. XOR-d games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite XOR-d game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions.
Monogamy inequalities for the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reid, M. D.
2013-12-01
Monogamy inequalities for the way bipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering can be distributed among N systems are derived. One set of inequalities is based on witnesses with two measurement settings, and may be used to demonstrate correlation of outcomes between two parties, that cannot be shared with more parties. It is shown that the monogamy for steering is directional. Two parties cannot independently demonstrate steering of a third system, using the same two-setting steering witness, but it is possible for one party to steer two independent systems. This result explains the monogamy of two-setting Bell inequality violations and the sensitivity of the continuous variable (CV) EPR criterion to losses on the steering party. We generalize to m settings. A second type of monogamy relation gives the quantitative amount of sharing possible, when the number of parties is less than or equal to m, and takes a form similar to the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters relation for entanglement. The results enable characterization of the tripartite steering for CV Gaussian systems and qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states.
Charm CP violation and mixing at Belle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rok Ko, Byeong; Belle Collaboration
2014-11-01
We present charm CP violation and mixing measurements at Belle. They are the first observation of D0 - bar D0 mixing in e+e- collisions from D0 → K+π- decays, the most precise mixing and indirect CP violation parameters from D0 → K0Sπ+π- decays, and the timeintegrated CP asymmetries in D0 → π0π0 and D0 → K0Sπ0 decays. Our mixing measurement in D0 → K+π- decays excludes the no-mixing hypothesis at the 5.1 standard deviation level. The mixing parameters x = (0.56 ± 0.19+0.03+0.06-0.09-0.09)%, y = (0.30 ± 0.15+0.04+0.03-0.05-0.06)% and indirect CP violation parameters |q/p| = (0.90+0.16+0.05+0.06-0.15-0.04-0.05)%, arg(q/p) = (-6 ± 11 ± 3+3-4)° measured from D0 → K0Sπ+π- decays, and the time-integrated CP asymmetries AD0→π0π0CP = (-0.03 ± 0.64 ± 0.10)% and AD0→K0Sπ0CP = (-0.21 ± 0.16 ± 0.07)% are the most precisemeasurements to date. Our measurements here are consistent with predictions of the standard model.
The Belle II SVD data readout system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thalmeier, R.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Bulla, L.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cervenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doleźal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyś, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnićka, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Lueck, T.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.
2017-02-01
The Belle II Experiment at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba, Japan, will explore the asymmetry between matter and antimatter and search for new physics beyond the standard model. 172 double-sided silicon strip detectors are arranged cylindrically in four layers around the collision point to be part of a system which measures the tracks of the collision products of electrons and positrons. A total of 1748 radiation-hard APV25 chips read out 128 silicon strips each and send the analog signals by time-division multiplexing out of the radiation zone to 48 Flash Analog Digital Converter Modules (FADC). Each of them applies processing to the data; for example, it uses a digital finite impulse response filter to compensate line signal distortions, and it extracts the peak timing and amplitude from a set of several data points for each hit, using a neural network. We present an overview of the SVD data readout system, along with front-end electronics, cabling, power supplies and data processing.
NEW APPROACHES: Interview with Jocelyn Bell Burnell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambourne, Conducted by Robert
1996-05-01
Jocelyn Bell Burnell is Professor of Physics and Head of Department at the Open University, the UK's largest university. She was brought up in Northern Ireland, attended a Quaker girls boarding school in York, and read Physics at Glasgow University. As a research student in Cambridge, in the 1960s, she was involved in the discovery of the first pulsars - a discovery that opened up a new branch of astrophysics and led to the award of a Nobel Prize to her supervisor. She subsequently worked at Southampton University and at University College London before joining the staff of the Royal Observatory Edinburgh, where she managed the James Clerk Maxwell telescope in Hawaii as a joint facility for British, Dutch and Canadian astronomers. Her own research has involved observations in most parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves to gamma rays. She has been the recipient of the Oppenheimer Prize, the Michelson Medal, the Tinsley Prize, the Royal Astronomical Society's Herschel Medal, and of several honorary degrees. The public understanding of science has always been important to her, and she is much in demand as a speaker and broadcaster. In 1991, the number of female professors of physics in the UK was doubled by her appointment to the Open University, and she hopes that her much publicized presence there will encourage more women to feel that physics is for them.
Galileo or for whom the bell tolls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legat, K.; Hofmann-Wellenhof, B.
2000-10-01
Satellite-based navigation rapidly evolved into an efficient tool extensively used in a wide variety of civilian applications covering numerous modes of transportation, communication, administration, geodesy, agriculture, and many others. The current systems globally available are the US Global Positioning System (GPS) and the conceptually very similar Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS). Considering the worldwide applications, GPS clearly predominates over GLONASS. However, GPS and GLONASS are mainly under military control of single nations and, also critical, do not fulfill certain performance requirements of the civil users, especially in terms of safety-critical applications. Thus, augmentations to the current systems and even completely new systems are under investigation. These are usually summarized under the abbreviation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). The various types of GNSS are described where emphasis is put on the future US and European contributions to the second-generation GNSS, i.e., the modernized GPS and the definition of the new European Galileo system. These two systems may be characterized as "compatible competitors"—thus, one might ask for whom the bell tolls.
[Social inequalities in maternal health].
Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C
2015-10-01
Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality.
On measuring inequalities in health.
Wolfson, M.; Rowe, G.
2001-01-01
In a recent series of papers, Murray et al. have put forward a number of important ideas regarding the measurement of inequalities in health. In this paper we agree with some of these ideas but draw attention to one key aspect of their approach--measuring inequalities on the basis of small area data--which is flawed. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the problem. An alternative approach drawing on longitudinal data is outlined, which preserves and enhances the most desirable aspects of their proposal. These include the use of a life course perspective, and the consideration of non-fatal health outcomes as well as the more usual information on mortality patterns. PMID:11436478
Nussinov, S.
1983-12-05
It is suggested that the inequality m/sub B/>(3/2)m/sub M/ is a rigorous result in quantum chromodynamics. The analog for a (q/sub 1/. . .q/sub N/) baryon in SU(N) is m/sub B/>((1/2)N)m/sub M/. The inequality is proved for weak coupling and a version of the strong-coupling expansion where a separation H/sub q//sub 1/q/sub 2/q/sub 3/ = H/sub 12/+H/sub 23/+H/sub 31/ of the problem can be achieved. Implications for quantum chromodynamics and composite models are briefly discussed.
[Inequalities in cervical screening practices].
Döbrőssy, Lajos; Kovács, Attila; Budai, András
2015-06-14
Theoretically, the cytology-based cervical screening is capable of early detection of precancerous epithelial lesions of cervix uteri and its cancer, and of early referral to treatment. In this way, screening can inmprove the quality of life of the patients and reduce mortality from the target disease. Unfortunately, this often remains unexploited, because there might be inequalities on both "supply" and "demand" side of screening. In addition to the geopolitical situation of a country, inequalities might result from differences in the health care systems, and heavy access to the screening services. On the other hand, the socioeconomic status, the health-conciousness of the target population, and their knowledge and information of the benefits and potential harms of screening examination might have a bearing on the acceptance or refusal of the offered screening. Efforts need to be made to increase the uptake of cervical screening programmes.
[Social inequality in medical rehabilitation].
Deck, R
2008-10-01
The association of social inequality and health is well known and well documented. Numerous studies have shown that a lower socio-economic status is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. This association is caused by various circumstances such as unfavourable work and living conditions, unhealthy life styles and risk factors and, last but not least, the access to medical care depending on socio-economic status. These aspects are correlated in various ways, at any rate they cause a higher prevalence of diseases and lower quality of life in persons with lower socio-economic status. The present article discusses the association between social inequality and medical rehabilitation, a problem which is rarely investigated in present research on social inequality and health. In our study, 911 rehabilitation patients were included. Analyses of socio-economic differences with respect to rehabilitation care address the following questions: are there differences in access to medical rehabilitation, in rehabilitation care, with respect to success of rehabilitation and satisfaction with rehabilitation? To assign patients to a social class - lower, middle and upper class - we constructed an indicator of social status based on education, occupation and income level. Our findings in a sample of rehabilitation patients are in line with the results of existing research on social inequality and health. Patients from the lower social class enter the rehabilitation care system with a poorer health state and leave it with less favourable results than patients with higher social status. However, with regard to the effect of rehabilitation care, middle class patients benefit least. It can be speculated that systematic information of patients about the aims of the rehabilitation programme and specific after care focusing on relevant aspects of daily living may reduce the disadvantages of lower class patients.
Inequalities for the quantum privacy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trindade, M. A. S.; Pinto, E.
2016-02-01
In this work, we investigate the asymptotic behavior related to the quantum privacy for multipartite systems. In this context, an inequality for quantum privacy was obtained by exploiting of quantum entropy properties. Subsequently, we derive a lower limit for the quantum privacy through the entanglement fidelity. In particular, we show that there is an interval where an increase in entanglement fidelity implies a decrease in quantum privacy.
Bells and Essebi: To Be or Not To Be (CM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallemeyn, G. W.
1995-09-01
The Bells and Essebi carbonaceous chondrites have long been associated with the CM group, although petrographic and isotopic observations have questioned that relationship. Samples of Bells and Essebi were obtained for bulk compositional study by neutron activation analysis (INAA) in an attempt to further fuel the debate on this issue. The current INAA work for Bells is complete, but analysis of Essebi is ongoing, and therefore the data is preliminary. Although CM chondrites typically contain <3 wt% magnetite, Bells and Essebi contain approximately 16 wt% and 11 wt% magnetite, respectively [1]. Both Bells and Essebi seem to have suffered more intense aqueous alteration than typical CM chondrites [2]. Bells has a phyllosilicate matrix composition closer to CI chondrites than CM chondrites [3]. The delta 15N value for Bells is much higher than any of the established carbonaceous chondrite groups[4]. Carbonate material in Essebi has delta 13C compositions (+62 per mil to +80 per mil) higher than the CM mode of +40 per mil to +50 per mil [5]. Both Bells and Essebi have whole rock O-isotope compositions in the CM chondrite range, but Essebi has separated matrix and magnetite values similar to whole rock and magnetite values in CI chondrites [6]. Samples of Bells were from two different stones collected after the fall. One stone was collected the day after the fall, the other was collected several days later after a hurricane went through the area. The samples will be referred to as 'normal' Bells and 'weathered' Bells, respectively. The 'normal' and 'weathered' Bells samples are very similar in composition with a few notable exceptions. The Mg-normalized abundances of Na, K and Br in 'weathered' Bells are markedly depleted relative to 'normal' Bells. The abundance of Ca is also lower to a smaller extent. One must be cautious of compositional studies of late-collected Bells specimens as they may have been altered by the affects of rainwater. Refractory lithophile
Authentication of bell peppers using boron and strontium isotope compositions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosner, Martin; Pritzkow, Wolfgang; Vogl, Jochen; Voerkelius, Susanne
2010-05-01
The wrong declaration of food in terms of geographical origin and production method is a major problem for the individual consumer and public regulatory authorities. The authentication of food matrices using H-C-N-O-S isotopic compositions is already well established. However, specific questions require additional isotopic systems, which are more diagonstic for the source reservoires involved or production methods used. Here we present B and Sr isotopic compositions of bell peppers from Europe (Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Spain) and Israel to verfiy their origin. The bell peppers' B isotopic compositions between different locations are highly variable (d11BNISTSRM951 -8 to +35 ‰), whereas the 87Sr/86Sr ratios are all close to modern seawater Sr isotopic composition of about 0.7092 (0.7078 to 0.7107), but still can reliably be distinguished. Distinct isotopically heavy and light B isotopic fingerprints are obtained for bell peppers from Israel and the Netherlands. Samples from Germany, Austria, and Spain display overlapping d11B values between 0 and +12 ‰. Bell peppers from Israel show high d11B values (+28 to +35 ‰) combined with 87Sr/86Sr ratios slightly more unradiogenic than modern seawater (ca 0.7079). Bell peppers from the Netherlands, however, show low d11B values (-8 ‰) combinded with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of modern seawater (approx. 0.7085). Mainly based on diagnostic B isotopic compositions bell peppers from Israel and the Netherlands can be related to a specific geographical growing environment (Israel) or production method (Netherlands). The isotope fingerprints of bell peppers from the Netherlands are consistent with growing conditions in greenhouses typical for the Netherlands vegetable farming. Using optimized production methods crops in greenhouses were supplied with nutritients by liquid fertilizers on artificial substrates. As most fertilizers derive from non-marine salt deposits, fertilization typically imprints invariant d11B values close
Income inequality in the developing world.
Ravallion, Martin
2014-05-23
Should income inequality be of concern in developing countries? New data reveal less income inequality in the developing world than 30 years ago. However, this is due to falling inequality between countries. Average inequality within developing countries has been slowly rising, though staying fairly flat since 2000. As a rule, higher rates of growth in average incomes have not put upward pressure on inequality within countries. Growth has generally helped reduce the incidence of absolute poverty, but less so in more unequal countries. High inequality also threatens to stall future progress against poverty by attenuating growth prospects. Perceptions of rising absolute gaps in living standards between the rich and the poor in growing economies are also consistent with the evidence.
A toy Penrose inequality and its proof
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bengtsson, Ingemar; Jakobsson, Emma
2016-12-01
We formulate and prove a toy version of the Penrose inequality. The formulation mimics the original Penrose inequality in which the scenario is the following: a shell of null dust collapses in Minkowski space and a marginally trapped surface forms on it. Through a series of arguments relying on established assumptions, an inequality relating the area of this surface to the total energy of the shell is formulated. Then a further reformulation turns the inequality into a statement relating the area and the outer null expansion of a class of surfaces in Minkowski space itself. The inequality has been proven to hold true in many special cases, but there is no proof in general. In the toy version here presented, an analogous inequality in (2 + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space turns out to hold true.
A theoretical study of the vibration and acoustics of ancient Chinese bells.
Jing, M
2003-09-01
In this paper, the acoustics of an ancient Chinese bell, which was made some 3000 years B.C., is studied theoretically. In ancient times, a set of the bells was used as a musical instrument. Unlike a western church bell and an ancient Indian bell, an ancient Chinese bell has two interesting acoustics. First, two tones can be heard separately as the bell is struck at two special points. The interval between the two pitches is always a minor or major third. Second, tones of the bell attenuate quickly, which is necessary for a musical instrument. So, an ancient Chinese bell is sometimes called a two-tone bell or a music bell. Although a three-dimensional model should be used to simulate the acoustics of the bell, a simplified model proposed in this paper does give some insight. Based on the lens-shaped cross section of an ancient Chinese bell, two tones of an ancient Chinese bell can be simulated by the vibration of a double-circular arch and the quick attenuation of tones can be simulated by acoustics of a cylinder with the lens-shaped cross section like a double-circular arch. Numerical results on the vibration and acoustics of the models are presented.
Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henry, Zachary S.
1995-06-01
Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.
The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moser, Hans-Günther
2016-09-01
The Belle II experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will explore heavy flavour physics (B, charm and tau) at the starting of 2018 with unprecedented precision. Charged particles are tracked by a two-layer DEPFET pixel device (PXD), a four-layer silicon strip detector (SVD) and the central drift chamber (CDC). The PXD will consist of two layers at radii of 14 mm and 22 mm with 8 and 12 ladders, respectively. The pixel sizes will vary, between 50 μm×(55-60) μm in the first layer and between 50 μm×(70-85) μm in the second layer, to optimize the charge sharing efficiency. These innermost layers have to cope with high background occupancy, high radiation and must have minimal material to reduce multiple scattering. These challenges are met using the DEPFET technology. Each pixel is a FET integrated on a fully depleted silicon bulk. The signal charge collected in the 'internal gate' modulates the FET current resulting in a first stage amplification and therefore very low noise. This allows very thin sensors (75 μm) reducing the overall material budget of the detector (0.21% X0). Four fold multiplexing of the column parallel readout allows read out a full frame of the pixel matrix in only 20 μs while keeping the power consumption low enough for air cooling. Only the active electronics outside the detector acceptance has to be cooled actively with a two phase CO2 system. Furthermore the DEPFET technology offers the unique feature of an electronic shutter which allows the detector to operate efficiently in the continuous injection mode of superKEKB.
Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henry, Zachary S.
1995-01-01
Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.
Interferometry with independent Bose-Einstein condensates: parity as an EPR/Bell quantum variable
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laloë, F.; Mullin, W. J.
2009-08-01
When independent Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), described quantum mechanically by Fock (number) states, are sent into interferometers, the measurement of the output port at which the particles are detected provides a binary measurement, with two possible results ±1. With two interferometers and two BEC's, the parity (product of all results obtained at each interferometer) has all the features of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen quantity, with perfect correlations predicted by quantum mechanics when the settings (phase shifts of the interferometers) are the same. When they are different, significant violations of Bell inequalities are obtained. These violations do not tend to zero when the number N of particles increases, and can therefore be obtained with arbitrarily large systems, but a condition is that all particles should be detected. We discuss the general experimental requirements for observing such effects, the necessary detection of all particles in correlation, the role of the pixels of the CCD detectors, and that of the alignments of the interferometers in terms of matching of the wave fronts of the sources in the detection regions. Another scheme involving three interferometers and three BEC's is discussed; it leads to Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) sign contradictions, as in the usual GHZ case with three particles, but for an arbitrarily large number of them. Finally, generalizations of the Hardy impossibilities to an arbitrarily large number of particles are introduced. BEC's provide a large versality for observing violations of local realism in a variety of experimental arrangements.
Prognostic factors of Bell's palsy: prospective patient collected observational study.
Fujiwara, Takashi; Hato, Naohito; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Yanagihara, Naoaki
2014-07-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate various parameters potentially influencing poor prognosis in Bell's palsy and to assess the predictive value for Bell's palsy. A single-center prospective patient collected observation and validation study was conducted. To evaluate the correlation between patient characteristics and poor prognosis, we performed univariate and multivariate analyzes of age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and facial grading score 1 week after onset. To evaluate the accuracy of the facial grading score, we prepared a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculated the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). We also calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and positive/negative predictive value. We included Bell's palsy patients who attended Ehime University Hospital within 1 week after onset between 1977 and 2011. We excluded patients who were less than 15 years old and lost-to-follow-up within 6 months. The main outcome was defined as non-recovery at 6 months after onset. In total, 679 adults with Bell's palsy were included. The facial grading score at 1 week showed a correlation with non-recovery in the multivariate analysis, although age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension did not. The AUROC of the facial grading score was 0.793. The Y-system score at 1 week moderate accurately predicted non-recovery at 6 months in Bell's palsy.
[Bell's palsy (etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, course, outcome)].
Al'perovich, P M; Korneichuk, A G; Konstantinovich, T I; Starinets, G A; Pshuk, Ia I
1978-01-01
The authors studied 908 patients with Bell's paralysis. In 373 cases the etiology was cooling, in 52--vascular diseases, in 207 cases the etiology was not established. An analysis of the clinical picture development permits to assume that different modern theories of the pathogenesis of Bell's paralysis (the theory of primary ischemia, secondary ischemia a combination of primary and secondary ischemia) do not exclude each other, finding a different application depending upon the etiology of the paralysis. The report contains a detailed description of the clinical picture and development of Bell's paralysis. It is established, that the facial nerve in Bell's paralysis is usually affected in the inferior part of the Fallopian tube. A follow-up study of 536 patients demonstrated that in 174 cases (32.4%) (those who were discharged from the hospital with an incomplete therapeutical effect) a contracture of the mimical muscles was formed. In 70 of them the symptom of "crocodile tears" was found. In 73 patients there were homolateral relapses of Bell's paralysis.
Bell's palsy may have relations to bacterial infection.
Liu, Jiaqiang; Li, Yongming; Yuan, Xiao; Lin, Zhu
2009-02-01
Bell's palsy is the most common acute facial paralysis with its causes still unclear. At present, the most widely accepted causes are viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. Unclear causes lead to unidentified treatments. Most therapeutic methods are simply symptomatic treatment. Fortunately, the pathomechanism of Bell's palsy is relative clear, involving herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation within the geniculate ganglion, followed by inflammation and entrapment of the nerve in the bony foramen. This makes symptomatic treatment possible. But the therapeutic effects are not quite satisfactory. Therefore, novel etiological and therapeutic concepts are urgently needed. According to our clinical observation and some facts that do not favor the viral infections theory, we can conclude that all Bell's palsy is not related to viral infections, some even may have relations to bacterial infection. As far as blood routine examination is concerned, though lymphocyte increasing can be seen in most patients with Bell's palsy, there are cases with normal lymphocyte but increased neutrophil. Also, antibiotic treatment in these patients could accelerate recovery to some extent. These results indicate that Bell's palsy in these patients may be caused by bacterial infection.
Generalized Input-Output Inequality Systems
Liu Yingfan Zhang Qinghong
2006-09-15
In this paper two types of generalized Leontief input-output inequality systems are introduced. The minimax properties for a class of functions associated with the inequalities are studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the inequality systems to have solutions are obtained in terms of the minimax value. Stability analysis for the solution set is provided in terms of upper semi-continuity and hemi-continuity of set-valued maps.
Griffiths' inequalities for Ashkin-Teller model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, C. T.
1973-01-01
The two Griffiths' (1967) inequalities for the correlation functions of Ising ferromagnets with two-body interactions, and two other inequalities obtained by Kelly and Sherman (1968) and by Sherman (1969) are shown to hold not only for the Ashkin-Teller (1943) model but also for a generalized Ashkin-Teller model (Kihara et al., 1954) with many-body interactions involving arbitrary clusters of particles. A cluster of particles is understood to mean a collection of pairs of particles rather than a group of particles. The four generalized inequalities under consideration are presented in the form of theorems, and a new inequality is obtained.
Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.
Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard
2014-09-01
We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour.
When does inequality freeze an economy?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jerico, João Pedro; Landes, François P.; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac; Volpati, Valerio
2016-07-01
Inequality and its consequences are the subject of intense recent debate. Using a simplified model of the economy, we address the relation between inequality and liquidity, the latter understood as the frequency of economic exchanges. Assuming a Pareto distribution of wealth for the agents, that is consistent with empirical findings, we find an inverse relation between wealth inequality and overall liquidity. We show that an increase in the inequality of wealth results in an even sharper concentration of the liquid financial resources. This leads to a congestion of the flow of goods and the arrest of the economy when the Pareto exponent reaches one.
Brincat, S; Mantell, B S
1986-07-01
A patient who developed a partial relapse of Bell's palsy following superficial radiotherapy to a basal cell carcinoma in the temple is reported. Nerves injured by Bell's palsy may be more susceptible to radiation induced damage.
The Adventures of the Diving-Bell Spider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thevenin, Raphaele; Dupeux, Guillaume; Piroird, Keyvan; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David; Interfaces; Co. Team
2012-11-01
The Argyroneta Aquatica is a unique spider that has every features of a usual terrestrial spider, but constantly lives under water. To however still be able to breath oxygen, it builds an underwater bell of air (hence its other name ``the diving-bell spider''): using its superhydrophobic abdomen, it pulls an air bubble at the surface by leaving the latter very rapidly. It then enters the bell formed under aquatic plants or under its under-water web, and leaves it more slowly so as to entrain the least air possible. We study these dynamics that take place at the air/water interfaces. We reduce the spider to two beads, one for the hydrophobic abdomen, one for the hydrophilic head, and measure and model the air entrainment according to the size and surface properties of the abdomen and to the velocity of motion.
Diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.
Mooney, Tracy
Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis) is the most common cause of acute unilateral facial nerve paralysis. Although it is usually a self-limiting condition, it can be distressing for the patient. Many people who experience one-sided facial paralysis fear that it is a symptom of stroke. However, there are subtle differences between Bell's palsy and stroke. This article discusses potential causes of the condition and identifies the differences between Bell's palsy and stroke. In addition, appropriate strategies for the care of patients with the condition are suggested. Management includes antiviral medication, corticosteroid therapy, eye care, botulinum toxin type A injection, physiotherapy, surgery and acupuncture. Psychological and emotional care of these patients is also important because any facial disability caused by facial nerve paralysis can result in anxiety and stress.
Evaluation of a physiotherapeutic treatment intervention in "Bell's" facial palsy.
Cederwall, Elisabet; Olsén, Monika Fagevik; Hanner, Per; Fogdestam, Ingemar
2006-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate a physiotherapeutic treatment intervention in Bell's palsy. A consecutive series of nine patients with Bell's palsy participated in the study. The subjects were enrolled 4-21 weeks after the onset of facial paralysis. The study had a single subject experimental design with a baseline period of 2-6 weeks and a treatment period of 26-42 weeks. The patients were evaluated using a facial grading score, a paresis index and a written questionnaire created for this study. Every patient was taught to perform an exercise program twice daily, including movements of the muscles surrounding the mouth, nose, eyes and forehead. All the patients improved in terms of symmetry at rest, movement and function. In conclusion, patients with remaining symptoms of Bell's palsy appear to experience positive effects from a specific training program. A larger study, however, is needed to fully evaluate the treatment.
Belle II SVD ladder assembly procedure and electrical qualification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, Varghese; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.
2016-07-01
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB asymmetric e+e- collider in Japan will operate at a luminosity approximately 50 times larger than its predecessor (Belle). At its heart lies a six-layer vertex detector comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detectors (PXD) and four layers of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors (SVD). One of the key measurements for Belle II is time-dependent CP violation asymmetry, which hinges on a precise charged-track vertex determination. Towards this goal, a proper assembly of the SVD components with precise alignment ought to be performed and the geometrical tolerances should be checked to fall within the design limits. We present an overview of the assembly procedure that is being followed, which includes the precision gluing of the SVD module components, wire-bonding of the various electrical components, and precision three dimensional coordinate measurements of the jigs used in assembly as well as of the final SVD modules.
Beyond Bell's Theorem II: Scenarios with Arbitrary Causal Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritz, Tobias
2016-01-01
It has recently been found that Bell scenarios are only a small subclass of interesting setups for studying the non-classical features of quantum theory within spacetime. We find that it is possible to talk about classical correlations, quantum correlations and other kinds of correlations on any directed acyclic graph, and this captures various extensions of Bell scenarios that have been considered in the literature. From a conceptual point of view, the main feature of our approach is its high level of unification: while the notions of source, choice of setting and measurement all play seemingly different roles in a Bell scenario, our formalism shows that they are all instances of the same concept of "event". Our work can also be understood as a contribution to the subject of causal inference with latent variables. Among other things, we introduce hidden Bayesian networks as a generalization of hidden Markov models.
[Treatment of idiopathic peripheral facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy)].
Meyer, Martin Willy; Hahn, Christoffer Holst
2013-01-28
Bell's palsy is defined as an idiopathic peripheral facial nerve paralysis of sudden onset. It affects 11-40 persons per 100,000 per annum. Many patients recover without intervention; however, up to 30% have poor recovery of facial muscle control and experience facial disfigurement. The aim of this study was to make an overview of which pharmacological treatments have been used to improve outcomes. The available evidence from randomized controlled trials shows significant benefit from treating Bell's palsy with corticosteroids but shows no benefit from antivirals.
[Trigeminal sensory involvement in Bell's palsy (author's transl)].
Lapresle, J; Fernandez Manchola, I; Lasjaunias, P
1980-01-26
Trigeminal sensory involvement was noted in 14 out of 24 cases of Bell's palsy. The authors describe its characteristics and its chronology with regard to the facial paralysis. Then they propose a vascular mechanism for this association on the basis of two kinds of data. First it is known that there is a common arterial supply of the VIIth and Vth cranial nerves through the middle meningeal vascular system. Secondly some exceptional complications of embolisation within that system have included involvement of both VIIth and Vth sensory nerves. These facts support the vascular basis of Bell's palsy and present an example of a vascular territorial pathology in cranial nerve involvement.
Quantum Discord of 2 n -Dimensional Bell-Diagonal States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Karimi, N.; Amidi, D.; Zahir Olyaei, H.
2016-03-01
In this study, using the concept of relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations we investigate the important issue of evaluating quantum correlations such as entanglement, dissonance and classical correlations for 2 n -dimensional Bell-diagonal states. We provide an analytical technique, which describes how we find the closest classical states(CCS) and the closest separable states(CSS) for these states. Then analytical results are obtained for quantum discord of 2 n -dimensional Bell-diagonal states. As illustration, some special cases are examined. Finally, we investigate the additivity relation between the different correlations for the separable generalized Bloch sphere states.
Maneuver Acoustic Flight Test of the Bell 430 Helicopter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watts, Michael E.; Snider, Royce; Greenwood, Eric; Baden, Joel
2012-01-01
A cooperative flight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July, 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 data points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive data base of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone configurations with up to 31 microphones in each configuration were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included DGPS, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test.
The History of Science and Technology at Bell Labs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishop, David
2008-03-01
Over the last 80 years, Bell Labs has been one of the most scientifically and technologically productive research labs in the world. Inventions such as the transistor, laser, cell phone, solar cell, negative feedback amplifier, communications satellite and many others were made there. Scientific breakthroughs such as discovery of the Big Bang, the wave nature of the electron, electron localization and the fractional quantum hall effect were also made there making Bell Labs almost unique in terms of large impacts in both science and technology. In my talk, I will discuss the history of the lab, talk about the present and give some suggestions for how I see it evolving into the future.
Unambiguous atomic Bell measurement assisted by multiphoton states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, Juan Mauricio; Bernád, József Zsolt; Alber, Gernot
2016-05-01
We propose and theoretically investigate an unambiguous Bell measurement of atomic qubits assisted by multiphoton states. The atoms interact resonantly with the electromagnetic field inside two spatially separated optical cavities in a Ramsey-type interaction sequence. The qubit states are postselected by measuring the photonic states inside the resonators. We show that if one is able to project the photonic field onto two coherent states on opposite sites of phase space, an unambiguous Bell measurement can be implemented. Thus, our proposal may provide a core element for future components of quantum information technology such as a quantum repeater based on coherent multiphoton states, atomic qubits and matter-field interaction.
Connect the Book. Always Inventing: A Photobiography of Alexander Graham Bell
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brodie, Carolyn S.
2004-01-01
Cell phones, video phones, voice messaging?one wonders what Alexander Graham Bell would have thought about the many venues today for electronic communication with one another. Bell's March 10, 1876 invention is now 128 years old, but there is no doubt that Bell's "talking machine" changed the world. This article presents a brief review of the…
78 FR 44928 - Approval of Subzone Status; Easton-Bell Sports, Inc.; Rantoul, Illinois
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-07-25
... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status; Easton-Bell Sports, Inc.; Rantoul, Illinois Pursuant... the facility of Easton-Bell Sports, Inc., located in Rantoul, Illinois, (FTZ Docket B-32-2013... hereby approves subzone status at the facility of Easton-Bell Sports, Inc., located in Rantoul,...
Addressing inequities in healthy eating.
Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn
2015-09-01
What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.
Entropy power inequalities for qudits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Audenaert, Koenraad; Datta, Nilanjana; Ozols, Maris
2016-05-01
Shannon's entropy power inequality (EPI) can be viewed as a statement of concavity of an entropic function of a continuous random variable under a scaled addition rule: f ( √{ a } X + √{ 1 - a } Y ) ≥ a f ( X ) + ( 1 - a ) f ( Y ) ∀ a ∈ [ 0 , 1 ] . Here, X and Y are continuous random variables and the function f is either the differential entropy or the entropy power. König and Smith [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 60(3), 1536-1548 (2014)] and De Palma, Mari, and Giovannetti [Nat. Photonics 8(12), 958-964 (2014)] obtained quantum analogues of these inequalities for continuous-variable quantum systems, where X and Y are replaced by bosonic fields and the addition rule is the action of a beam splitter with transmissivity a on those fields. In this paper, we similarly establish a class of EPI analogues for d-level quantum systems (i.e., qudits). The underlying addition rule for which these inequalities hold is given by a quantum channel that depends on the parameter a ∈ [0, 1] and acts like a finite-dimensional analogue of a beam splitter with transmissivity a, converting a two-qudit product state into a single qudit state. We refer to this channel as a partial swap channel because of the particular way its output interpolates between the states of the two qudits in the input as a is changed from zero to one. We obtain analogues of Shannon's EPI, not only for the von Neumann entropy and the entropy power for the output of such channels, but also for a much larger class of functions. This class includes the Rényi entropies and the subentropy. We also prove a qudit analogue of the entropy photon number inequality (EPnI). Finally, for the subclass of partial swap channels for which one of the qudit states in the input is fixed, our EPIs and EPnI yield lower bounds on the minimum output entropy and upper bounds on the Holevo capacity.
Children Rectify Inequalities for Disadvantaged Groups
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie
2016-01-01
Children's decisions regarding the allocation of societal resources in the context of preexisting inequalities were investigated. African American and European American children ages 5 to 6 years (n = 91) and 10 to 11 years (n = 94) judged the acceptability of a medical resource inequality on the basis of race, allocated medical supplies,…
Health Inequities: Evaluation of Two Paradigms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ashcroft, Rachelle
2010-01-01
Social work practice in health is shaped by underlying paradigms. To effectively target health inequities, practitioners need to consider appropriate paradigms. In this exploration of how six health paradigms shape theory and practice, the two health paradigms that most attended to health inequalities are social determinants of health and…
Income Inequality and the Education Divide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welch, Mary A., Ed.
1998-01-01
The economics of the decision to go to college or obtain technical training is discussed in this booklet. To stay competitive in the job market requires constant educational updating. The following questions are discussed: (1) how income inequality is measured; (2) how income is distributed in the United States; (3) why income inequality is…
Regional Educational Inequality and Political Instability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monchar, Philip Harris
1981-01-01
From a study of 46 nations over the period 1957 to 1973, it is argued that regional educational inequality indicates the presence of other regional social, political, and economic inequalities, and it is all of these factors together that generate feelings of relative deprivation and the pursuant political instability. (Author/SJL)
Racial Inequity in Special Education Undefined
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.
2002-01-01
An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the stage for a more fruitful discussion about special education and racial justice. An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the…
American Higher Education and Income Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Catharine B.
2016-01-01
This paper demonstrates that increasing income inequality can contribute to the trends we see in American higher education, particularly in the selective, private nonprofit and public sectors. Given these institutions' selective admissions and commitment to socioeconomic diversity, the paper demonstrates how increasing income inequality leads to…
Inequality of Paediatric Workforce Distribution in China
Song, Peige; Ren, Zhenghong; Chang, Xinlei; Liu, Xuebei; An, Lin
2016-01-01
Child health has been addressed as a priority at both global and national levels for many decades. In China, difficulty of accessing paediatricians has been of debate for a long time, however, there is limited evidence to assess the population- and geography-related inequality of paediatric workforce distribution. This study aimed to analyse the inequality of the distributions of the paediatric workforce (including paediatricians and paediatric nurses) in China by using Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, and Theil L index, data were obtained from the national maternal and child health human resource sampling survey conducted in 2010. In this study, we found that the paediatric workforce was the most inequitable regarding the distribution of children <7 years, the geographic distribution of the paediatric workforce highlighted very severe inequality across the nation, except the Central region. For different professional types, we found that, except the Central region, the level of inequality of paediatric nurses was higher than that of the paediatricians regarding both the demographic and geographic distributions. The inner-regional inequalities were the main sources of the paediatric workforce distribution inequality. To conclude, this study revealed the inadequate distribution of the paediatric workforce in China for the first time, substantial inequality of paediatric workforce distribution still existed across the nation in 2010, more research is still needed to explore the in-depth sources of inequality, especially the urban-rural variance and the inner- and inter-provincial differences, and to guide national and local health policy-making and resource allocation. PMID:27420083
Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.
2010-01-01
We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…
Existence results for quasilinear parabolic hemivariational inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhenhai
This paper is devoted to the periodic problem for quasilinear parabolic hemivariational inequalities at resonance as well as at nonresonance. By use of the theory of multi-valued pseudomonotone operators, the notion of generalized gradient of Clarke and the property of the first eigenfunction, we build a Landesman-Lazer theory in the nonsmooth framework of quasilinear parabolic hemivariational inequalities.