Stress Analysis of a Secondary-Bending Specimen
1993-11-01
Control Office Ansett Airlines of Australia, Library 0 Qantas Airways Limited Hawker de Havilland Aust Pty Ltd, Victoria, Library Hawker de Havilland...MELBOURNE, VICTORIA Technical Note 58 STRESS ANALYSIS OF A SECONDARY-BENDING SPECIMEN 0 by R.L. EVANS M. HELLER Approved for public release C) COMMONWEALTH...AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY Technical Note 58 0 STRESS ANALYSIS OF A SECONDARY-BENDING SPECIMEN by R.L. EVANS 0 M
Effects of rim thickness on spur gear bending stress
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bibel, G. D.; Reddy, S. K.; Savage, M.; Handschuh, R. F.
1991-01-01
Thin rim gears find application in high-power, light-weight aircraft transmissions. Bending stresses in thin rim spur gear tooth fillets and root areas differ from the stresses in solid gears due to rim deformations. Rim thickness is a significant design parameter for these gears. To study this parameter, a finite element analysis was conducted on a segment of a thin rim gear. The rim thickness was varied and the location and magnitude of the maximum bending stresses reported. Design limits are discussed and compared with the results of other researchers.
The effect of bending on the stresses in adhesive joints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuceoglu, U.; Updike, D. P.
1975-01-01
The problem of stress distribution in adhesive joints where two orthotropic plates are bonded through a flexible adhesive layer is analyzed. It is shown that the effect of bending of the adherends on the stresses in the adhesive layer is very significant. The transverse shear deformations of the adherends appear to have little influence on the adhesive layer stresses. The maximum transverse normal stress in the adhesive is shown to be larger than the maximum longitudinal shear stress. The method of solution is applied to several examples of specific joint geometries and material combinations, and is proven to be applicable to other related problems.
A Method of Calculating Bending Stresses Due to Torsion
1942-12-01
eaeh hay. The foundation for such general methods was laid by Boner in a comprehensive paper (reference l); subsequent authors h’nve followed Ebner...8217 B lead more or less closely.. Numerical calculations made by Boner nnd others lead to the conclusion that bending stresses due to torsion are of
Stress analysis of a secondary-bending specimen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, R. L.; Heller, M.
1993-11-01
This note describes a two-dimensional finite-element elastic analysis of a uniaxially-loaded bolted secondary-bending specimen which was conducted to provide information relevant to a recent ARL fatigue testing program. Three different approaches were employed to model the bolt/plate interface and the results are compared with thermoelastic stress measurements.
Bending stresses in spherically hollow ball bearing and fatigue experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nypan, L. J.; Coe, H. H.; Parker, R. J.
1975-01-01
Spherically hollow balls of 21.7, 50.0, and 56.5 percent mass reduction were operated in ball bearings and in a five-ball fatigue tester with differing outcomes. Available theoretical and experimental treatments of stresses in spherically hollow balls are reviewed and compared. Bending stresses are estimated for these spherically hollow balls to better understand the differences in ball bearing and fatigue test experience.
Bending stresses due to torsion in cantilever box beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhn, Paul
1935-01-01
The paper beings with a brief discussion on the origin of the bending stresses in cantilever box beams under torsion. A critical survey of existing theory is followed by a summary of design formulas; this summary is based on the most complete solution published but omits all refinements considered unnecessary at the present state of development. Strain-gage tests made by NACA to obtained some experimental verification of the formulas are described next. Finally, the formulas are applied to a series of box beams previously static-tested by the U.S. Army Air Corps; the results show that the bending stresses due to torsion are responsible to a large extent for the free-edge type of failure frequently experienced in these tests.
Characterization of Optical Fiber Strength Under Applied Tensile Stress and Bending Stress
P.E. Klingsporn
2011-08-01
Various types of tensile testing and bend radius tests were conducted on silica core/silica cladding optical fiber of different diameters with different protective buffer coatings, fabricated by different fiber manufacturers. The tensile tests were conducted to determine not only the average fiber strengths at failure, but also the distribution in fracture strengths, as well as the influence of buffer coating on fracture strength. The times-to-failure of fiber subjected to constant applied bending stresses of various magnitudes were measured to provide a database from which failure times of 20 years or more, and the corresponding minimum bend radius, could be extrapolated in a statistically meaningful way. The overall study was done to provide an understanding of optical fiber strength in tensile loading and in applied bending stress as related to applications of optical fiber in various potential coizfgurations for weapons and enhanced surveillance campaigns.
Finite element residual stress analysis of induction heating bended ferritic steel piping
Kima, Jong Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Hyung-Young; Park, Heung-Bae
2014-10-06
Recently, there is a trend to apply the piping bended by induction heating process to nuclear power plants. Residual stress can be generated due to thermo-mechanical mechanism during the induction heating bending process. It is well-known that the residual stress has important effect on crack initiation and growth. The previous studies have focused on the thickness variation. In part, some studies were performed for residual stress evaluation of the austenitic stainless steel piping bended by induction heating. It is difficult to find the residual stresses of the ferritic steel piping bended by the induction heating. The study assessed the residual stresses of induction heating bended ferriticsteel piping via finite element analysis. As a result, it was identified that high residual stresses are generated on local outersurface region of the induction heating bended ferritic piping.
Finite element residual stress analysis of induction heating bended ferritic steel piping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kima, Jong Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Hyung-Young; Park, Heung-Bae
2014-10-01
Recently, there is a trend to apply the piping bended by induction heating process to nuclear power plants. Residual stress can be generated due to thermo-mechanical mechanism during the induction heating bending process. It is well-known that the residual stress has important effect on crack initiation and growth. The previous studies have focused on the thickness variation. In part, some studies were performed for residual stress evaluation of the austenitic stainless steel piping bended by induction heating. It is difficult to find the residual stresses of the ferritic steel piping bended by the induction heating. The study assessed the residual stresses of induction heating bended ferriticsteel piping via finite element analysis. As a result, it was identified that high residual stresses are generated on local outersurface region of the induction heating bended ferritic piping.
Kekalo, I. B.; Mogil’nikov, P. S.
2015-06-15
The reversibility of residual bending stresses is revealed in ribbon samples of cobalt- and iron-based amorphous alloys Co{sub 69}Fe{sub 3.7}Cr{sub 3.8}Si{sub 12.5}B{sub 11} and Fe{sub 57}Co{sub 31}Si{sub 2.9}B{sub 9.1}: the ribbons that are free of applied stresses and bent under the action of residual stresses become completely or incompletely straight upon annealing at the initial temperatures. The influence of annealing on the relaxation of bending stresses is studied. Preliminary annealing is found to sharply decrease the relaxation rate of bending stresses, and the initial stage of fast relaxation of these stresses is absent. Complete straightening of preliminarily annealed ribbons is shown to occur at significantly higher temperatures than that of the initial ribbons. Incomplete straightening of the ribbons is explained by the fact that bending stresses relaxation at high annealing temperatures proceeds due to both reversible anelastic deformation and viscous flow, which is a fully irreversible process. Incomplete reversibility is also caused by irreversible processes, such as the release of excess free volume and clustering (detected by small-angle X-ray scattering). The revealed differences in the relaxation processes that occur in the cobalt- and iron-based amorphous alloys are discussed in terms of different atomic diffusion mobilities in these alloys.
An investigation of the behavior of the clamp-induced bending stresses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, S. N.
1991-12-01
The Fast Flux Test Facility is a demonstration and test facility for the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. Insulated pipe clamps are used in the heat transport and safety related systems. This investigation determines whether the clamp induced pipe stresses should be classified as primary or secondary stresses. Three finite element models were developed using the ANSYS computer program. Inelastic analyses were performed to investigate the behavior of meridional bending stress and hoop bending stress. The double exponential creep law of 316 stainless steel was used in the creep analysis. Results indicate that pipe bending stresses do not completely relax with time. Therefore, a portion of the meridional bending stress and the hoop bending stress should be classified as primary stress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safdar, Shakeel; Li, Lin; Sheikh, M. A.; Zhu Liu
2007-09-01
Laser forming has received considerable attention in recent years. Within laser forming, tube bending is an important industrial activity, with applications in critical engineering systems like micro-machines, heat exchangers, hydraulic systems, boilers, etc. Laser tube bending utilizes the thermal stresses generated during laser scanning to achieve the desired bends. The parameters to control the process are usually laser power, beam diameter, scanning velocity and number of scans. Recently axial scanning has been used for tube bending instead of commonly used circumferential scans. However the comparison between the scanning schemes has involved dissimilar laser beam geometries with circular beam used for circumferential scanning and a rectangular beam for the axial scan. Thermal stresses generated during laser scanning are strongly dependent upon laser beam geometry and scanning direction and hence it is difficult to isolate the contribution made by these two variables. It has recently been established at the Corrosion and Protection Centre, University of Manchester, that corrosion properties of material during laser forming are affected by the number of laser passes. Depending on the material, the corrosion behaviour is either adversely or favourably affected by number of passes. Thus it is of great importance to know how different scanning schemes would affect laser tube bending. Moreover, any scanning scheme which results in greater bending angle would eliminate the need for higher number of passes, making the process faster. However, it is not only the bending angle which is critical, distortions in other planes are also extremely important. Depending on the use of the final product, unwanted distortions may be the final selection criteria. This paper investigates the effect of scanning direction on laser tube bending. Finite-element modelling has been used for the study of the process with some results also validated by experiments.
Effects of mechanical-bending and process-induced stresses on metal effective work function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaodong; Chu, Min; Huang, Anping; Thompson, Scott
2013-01-01
Effective work function (EWF) change is investigated under both externally-applied mechanical stresses and process-induced stresses. Four-point wafer bending and ring bending techniques are used to generate uniaxial and biaxial mechanical stresses, respectively. For the process-induced stresses, bowing technique and charge pumping method are used for stress characterization and interface state measurement. It was found that higher stress presents in devices with thinner metal gate, regardless the thermal treatment cycle. EWF decreases under both tensile and compressive stress was observed due to the increase of defect activation energy lowering induced donor-like interface states.
Channel width dependence of electrical characteristics of a-Si:H TFTs under bending stresses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Hyungon; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig
2017-04-01
In this study, we investigate the electrical characteristics of bendable a-Si:H thin-film transistors (TFTs) with various channel widths as a function of bending stress. Compared with a narrower channel TFT, a wider channel TFT exhibits a stable performance even at a bending strain of 1.3%. Our stress and strain distribution analysis reveals an inverse relationship between the channel width and the channel stress. As the channel width widens from 8 to 50 μm, the stress experienced by the middle channel region decreases from 545 to 277 MPa. Moreover, a 50 μm-channel-width TFT operates stably even after a 15 000 bending cycle while the 8 μm-channel-width TFT fails to operate after a 2000 bending cycle.
The Impact of Bending Stress on the Performance of Giant Magneto-Impedance (GMI) Magnetic Sensors
Nabias, Julie; Asfour, Aktham; Yonnet, Jean-Paul
2017-01-01
The flexibility of amorphous Giant Magneto-Impedance (GMI) micro wires makes them easy to use in several magnetic field sensing applications, such as electrical current sensing, where they need to be deformed in order to be aligned with the measured field. The present paper deals with the bending impact, as a parameter of influence of the sensor, on the GMI effect in 100 µm Co-rich amorphous wires. Changes in the values of key parameters associated with the GMI effect have been investigated under bending stress. These parameters included the GMI ratio, the intrinsic sensitivity, and the offset at a given bias field. The experimental results have shown that bending the wire resulted in a reduction of GMI ratio and sensitivity. The bending also induced a net change in the offset for the considered bending curvature and the set of used excitation parameters (1 MHz, 1 mA). Furthermore, the field of the maximum impedance, which is generally related to the anisotropy field of the wire, was increased. The reversibility and the repeatability of the bending effect were also evaluated by applying repetitive bending stresses. The observations have actually shown that the behavior of the wire under the bending stress was roughly reversible and repetitive. PMID:28335542
The Impact of Bending Stress on the Performance of Giant Magneto-Impedance (GMI) Magnetic Sensors.
Nabias, Julie; Asfour, Aktham; Yonnet, Jean-Paul
2017-03-20
The flexibility of amorphous Giant Magneto-Impedance (GMI) micro wires makes them easy to use in several magnetic field sensing applications, such as electrical current sensing, where they need to be deformed in order to be aligned with the measured field. The present paper deals with the bending impact, as a parameter of influence of the sensor, on the GMI effect in 100 µm Co-rich amorphous wires. Changes in the values of key parameters associated with the GMI effect have been investigated under bending stress. These parameters included the GMI ratio, the intrinsic sensitivity, and the offset at a given bias field. The experimental results have shown that bending the wire resulted in a reduction of GMI ratio and sensitivity. The bending also induced a net change in the offset for the considered bending curvature and the set of used excitation parameters (1 MHz, 1 mA). Furthermore, the field of the maximum impedance, which is generally related to the anisotropy field of the wire, was increased. The reversibility and the repeatability of the bending effect were also evaluated by applying repetitive bending stresses. The observations have actually shown that the behavior of the wire under the bending stress was roughly reversible and repetitive.
Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K.; Teng, Zhongzhao; Bach, Richard; Ku, David N.
2009-01-01
Many acute cardiovascular syndromes such as heart attack and stroke are caused by atherosclerotic plaque ruptures which often happen without warning. MRI-based models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI) have been introduced to perform flow and stress/strain analysis for atherosclerotic plaques and identify possible mechanical and morphological indices for accurate plaque vulnerability assessment. In this paper, cyclic bending was added to 3D FSI coronary plaque models for more accurate mechanical predictions. Curvature variation was prescribed using the data of a human left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Five computational models were constructed based on ex vivo MRI human coronary plaque data to assess the effects of cyclic bending, pulsating pressure, plaque structure, and axial stretch on plaque stress/strain distributions. In vitro experiments using a hydrogel stenosis model with cyclical bending were performed to observe effect of cyclical bending on flow conditions. Our results indicate that cyclical bending may cause more than 100% or even up to more than 1000% increase in maximum principal stress values at locations where the plaque is bent most. Stress increase is higher when bending is coupled with axial stretch, non-smooth plaque structure, or resonant pressure conditions (zero phase angle shift). Effects of cyclic bending on flow behaviors are more modest (21.6% decrease in maximum velocity, 10.8% decrease in flow rate, maximum flow shear stress changes were < 5%). Computational FSI models including cyclic bending, plaque components and structure, axial stretch, accurate in vivo measurements of pressure, curvature, and material properties should lead to significant improvement on stress-based plaque mechanical analysis and more accurate coronary plaque vulnerability assessment. PMID:19412353
Comparison of Experimental and Analytical Tooth Bending Stress of Aerospace Spiral Bevel Gears
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Handschuh, Robert F.; Bibel, George D.
1999-01-01
An experimental study to investigate the bending stress in aerospace-quality spiral bevel gears was performed. Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Spiral Bevel Gear Test Facility. Multiple teeth on the spiral bevel pinion were instrumented with strain gages and tests were conducted from static (slow roll) to 14400 RPM at power levels to 540kW (720 hp). Effects of changing speed and load on the bending stress were measured. Experimental results are compared to those found by three-dimensional finite element analysis.
ZERODUR: new results on bending strength and stress corrosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, Peter
2011-09-01
ZERODUR® strength data and information are required for the design of structures, which will be subject to mechanical loads throughout their lifetime or at least during some periods thereof such as lightweight mirrors for space telescopes. Comparison of data acquired twenty years ago with recent ones show astonishing reproducibility. An influence of the specimen preparation process on the width of the breakage stress distribution generally leading to higher values has been observed. New data are available for diamond grain D25 fine ground surface condition. The stress corrosion coefficient, an important parameter needed to calculate the long time behavior of structures subject to tensile stress in their surface has been determined from breakage data sets obtained with different stress load increase rates. Conditioning of ZERODUR® specimen with stress free storage under varying humidity and humidity exposure times has shown no influence on strength.
Laser bending of pre-stressed thin-walled nickel micro-tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Che Jamil, M. S.; Imam Fauzi, E. R.; Juinn, C. S.; Sheikh, M. A.
2015-10-01
Laser forming is an innovative technique of producing bending, spatial forming and alignment of both metallic and non-metallic parts by introducing thermal stresses into a work piece with a laser beam. It involves a complex interaction of process parameters to mechanical and thermal characteristics of materials. This paper presents a comprehensive experimental and numerical study of laser bending process of thin-walled micro-tubes. The effect of input parameters, namely laser power, pulse length and pre-stress constraint, on the process and the final product characteristics are investigated. Results of the analysis show that the bending angle of the tube increases considerably when a constraint is imposed at the tube's free end during the heating period. The introduction of compressive pre-stresses (from mechanical bending) in the irradiated region increases the final deformation which varies almost linearly with the amount of pre-stress. Due to high thermal conductivity and thin-walled structure of the tube, the heat dissipates quickly from the irradiated region to its surrounding material. Therefore, a combination of short pulse duration and high power is preferable to generate a higher thermal gradient and induce plastic strain. Design of experiment and regression analysis are implemented to develop an empirical model based on simulation results. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the influence of independent variables on output response. It is evident that initial displacement and pulse length have a stronger positive effect on the output response as compared to laser power.
Yoshida, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Takeshi
2014-05-27
In order to investigate a relation between a bending stress and a characteristic frequency of a beam, 4-point loading which had constant moment region was conducted to a beam with H shape configuration experimentally and numerically. H-shaped beam has many characteristic deformation modes. Axial tensile stress in the beam made its characteristic frequency higher, and compressive stress lower. In the experiment, some characteristic frequencies got higher by a bending stress, and the others stayed in a small frequency fluctuation. The distinction is anticipated as a capability to measure a bending stress of a beam by its characteristic frequencies.
Displacements and stresses in bending of circular perforated plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atanasiu, C.; Sorohan, St.
2016-08-01
The flat plates, perforated by a large number of holes are widely used in the engineering, especially in the component of the process equipment. Strength calculations and experimental methods used in the actual literature for study perforated plates, do not present the problem in all its complexity for stress distribution and displacements. Research and doctoral theses in last decades, with methods characteristic of the respective periods were engaged either perforated plates considered infinite and requested the median plane or rarely, plate loaded normal to the median plane, with a small number of holes. In this work the stress distribution and displacement is presented for a circular plate perforated by 96 holes arranged in a grid of squares, simply supported on the outline and loaded through a central concentrated force or by uniformly distributed load. It conducted a numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM) with a proper meshing of the plate and an experimental study by holographic interferometry. Holographic interferometry method permits to measure, with high accuracy, extremely small displacements and comparing the results with those obtained by FEM becomes sustainable. Supplementary, an analysis of a non-perforated plate with the same dimensions and stiffness, similar loaded, was performed, determining the coefficient of stress concentration for a particular arrangement of holes.
Plane-stress fracture of compact and notch-bend specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1974-01-01
Thin-gaged or high toughness materials containing cracks usually fail in a ductile manner with nominal failure stresses approaching the ultimate strength of the material. For such materials, a two-parameter fracture criterion was developed. An equation which related the linear elastic stress-intensity factor, elastic nominal stress, and two material parameters was previously derived and has been used as a fracture criterion for surface- and through-cracked specimens under tensile loading. This two-parameter fracture criterion was rederived in a more general form and was extended to compact and notch-bend fracture specimens. A close correlation was found between experimental and predicted failure stresses.
Nucleation and Crystallization as Induced by Bending Stress in Lithium Silicate Glass Fibers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reis, Signo T.; Kim, Cheol W.; Brow, Richard K.; Ray, Chandra S.
2003-01-01
Glass Fibers of Li2O.2SiO2 (LS2) and Li2O.1.6SiO2 (LS1.6) compositions were heated near, but below, the glass transition temperature for different times while subjected to a constant bending stress of about 1.2 GPa. The nucleation density and the crystallization tendency estimated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) of a glass sample in the vicinity of the maximum of the bending stress increased relative to that of stress-free glass fibers. LS2 glass fibers were found more resistant to nucleation and crystallization than the Ls1.6 glass fibers. These results are discussed in regards to shear thinning effects on glass stability.
On stress concentration in the bending of sandwich beams with transversely flexible core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frostig, Y.
Stress concentrations in sandwich beams with compressible cores, subjected to bending loading are investigated, and the level of stress concentrations under ordinary bending loads in various regions of the structure, and under some common-practice conditions, is analytically determined. The cases investigated include stress concentration effects for the following conditions: (1) in the vicinity of concentrated loads and supporting zones, (2) at the edges of debonding regions-edge core and in the vicinity of vertical cut-off connections, and (3) at the location of diaphragms which are bonded and unbonded in the adjacent core and embedded in it. The results are determined with the aid of a variational rigorous analytical systematic elastic high-order theory which uses closed-form solutions.
Nucleation and Crystallization as Induced by Bending Stress in Lithium Silicate Glass Fibers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reis, Signo T.; Kim, Cheol W.; Brow, Richard K.; Ray, Chandra S.
2003-01-01
Glass Fibers of Li2O.2SiO2 (LS2) and Li2O.1.6SiO2 (LS1.6) compositions were heated near, but below, the glass transition temperature for different times while subjected to a constant bending stress of about 1.2 GPa. The nucleation density and the crystallization tendency estimated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) of a glass sample in the vicinity of the maximum of the bending stress increased relative to that of stress-free glass fibers. LS2 glass fibers were found more resistant to nucleation and crystallization than the Ls1.6 glass fibers. These results are discussed in regards to shear thinning effects on glass stability.
Zang, Ji; Huang, Minghuang; Liu, Feng
2007-04-06
We demonstrate, by theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulation, a mechanism for fabricating nanotubes by self-bending of nanofilms under intrinsic surface-stress imbalance due to surface reconstruction. A freestanding Si nanofilm may spontaneously bend itself into a nanotube without external stress load, and a bilayer SiGe nanofilm may bend into a nanotube with Ge as the inner layer, opposite of the normal bending configuration defined by misfit strain. Such rolled-up nanotubes can accommodate a high level of strain, even beyond the magnitude of lattice mismatch, greatly modifying the tube electronic and optoelectronic properties.
Stress Intensity Factors of Semi-Circular Bend Specimens with Straight-Through and Chevron Notches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayatollahi, M. R.; Mahdavi, E.; Alborzi, M. J.; Obara, Y.
2016-04-01
Semi-circular bend specimen is one of the useful test specimens for determining fracture toughness of rock and geo-materials. Generally, in rock test specimens, initial cracks are produced in two shapes: straight-edge cracks and chevron notches. In this study, the minimum dimensionless stress intensity factors of semi-circular bend specimen (SCB) with straight-through and chevron notches are calculated. First, using finite element analysis, a suitable relation for the dimensionless stress intensity factor of SCB with straight-through crack is presented based on the normalized crack length and half-distance between supports. For evaluating the validity and accuracy of this relation, the obtained results are then compared with numerical and experimental results reported in the literature. Subsequently, by performing some experiments and also finite element analysis of the SCB specimen with chevron notch, the minimum dimensionless stress intensity factor of this specimen is obtained. Using the new equation for the dimensionless stress intensity factor of SCB with straight-through crack and an analytical method, i.e., Bluhm's slice synthesis method, the minimum (critical) dimensionless stress intensity factor of chevron notched semi-circular bend specimens is calculated. Good agreement is observed between the results of two mentioned methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Edward P.
1997-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to determine the effects of combined bending and membrane cyclic stresses on the fatigue crack growth behavior of aluminum sheet material. The materials used in the tests were 0.040-in.- thick 2024-T3 alclad and 0.090-in.-thick 2024-T3 bare sheet. In the tests, the membrane stresses were applied as a constant amplitude loading at a stress ratio (minimum to maximum stress) of 0.02, and the bending stresses were applied as a constant amplitude deflection in phase with the membrane stresses. Tests were conducted at ratios of bending to membrane stresses (B/M) of 0, 0.75, and 1.50. The general trends of the results were for larger effects of bending for the higher B/M ratios, the lower membrane stresses, and the thicker material. The addition of cyclic bending stresses to a test with cyclic membrane stresses had only a small effect on the growth rates of through-thickness cracks in the thin material, but had a significant effect on the crack growth rates of through-thickness cracks in the thick material. Adding bending stresses to a test had the most effect on the initiation and early growth of cracks and had less effect on the growth of long through-thickness cracks.
Piezoelectric Pre-Stressed Bending Mechanism for Impact-Driven Energy Harvester
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdal, A. M.; Leong, K. S.
2017-06-01
This paper experimentally demonstrates and evaluates a piezoelectric power generator bending mechanism based on pre-stressed condition whereby the piezoelectric transducer being bended and remained in the stressed condition before applying a force on the piezoelectric bending structure, which increase the stress on the piezoelectric surface and hence increase the generated electrical charges. An impact force is being exerted onto bending the piezoelectric beam and hence generating electrical power across an external resistive load. The proposed bending mechanism prototype has been manufactured by employing 3D printer technology in order to conduct the evaluation. A free fall test has been conducted as the evaluation method with varying force using a series of different masses and different fall heights. A rectangular piezoelectric harvester beam with the size of 32mm in width, 70mm in length, and 0.55mm in thickness is used to demonstrate the experiment. It can be seen from the experiment that the instantaneous peak to peak AC volt output measured at open-circuit is increasing and saturated at about of 70V when an impact force of about 80N is being applied. It is also found that a maximum power of about 53mW is generated at an impact force of 50N when it is connected to an external resistive load of 0.7KΩ. The reported mechanism is a promising candidate in the application of energy harvesting for powering various wireless sensor nodes (WSN) which is the core of Internet of Things (IoT).
Thermal Gradient-Induced Deflection of a Thick-Walled Cylinder with Bending Residual Stresses
1993-04-01
associated tube bending. Results from the two approaches for a 200"C temperature gradient show a maximum angular displacement of 0.004 to 0.008 deg/m and...the displacement returning to zero as the thermal gradient diminishes with tune. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Thermal Gradient, Thermal Stress...cylinder and bar ......................... 10 5. Change in angular displacement for bar due to moving step thermal gradient ................. 11 6
Bend stress relaxation and tensile primary creep of a polycrystalline alpha-SiC fiber
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hee Man, Yun; Goldsby, Jon C.; Morscher, Gregory N.
1995-01-01
Understanding the thermomechanical behavior (creep and stress relaxation) of ceramic fibers is of both practical and basic interest. On the practical level, ceramic fibers are the reinforcement for ceramic matrix composites which are being developed for use in high temperature applications. It is important to understand and model the total creep of fibers at low strain levels where creep is predominantly in the primary stage. In addition, there are many applications where the component will only be subjected to thermal strains. Therefore, the stress relaxation of composite consituents in such circumstances will be an important factor in composite design and performance. The objective of this paper is to compare and analyze bend stress relaxation and tensile creep data for alpha-SiC fibers produced by the Carborundum Co. (Niagara Falls, NY). This fiber is of current technical interest and is similar in composition to bulk alpha-SiC which has been studied under compressive creep conditions. The temperature, time, and stress dependences will be discussed for the stress relaxation and creep results. In addition, some creep and relaxation recovery experiments were performed in order to understand the complete viscoelastic behavior, i.e. both recoverable and nonrecoverable creep components of these materials. The data will be presented in order to model the deformation behavior and compare relaxation and/or creep behavior for relatively low deformation strain conditions of practical concern. Where applicable, the tensile creep results will be compared to bend stress relaxation data.
Interpretation of bend strength increase of graphite by the couple-stress theory. [HTGR
Tang, P.Y.
1981-05-01
This paper presents a continued evaluation of the applicability of the couple-stress constitutive theory to graphite. The evaluation is performed by examining four-point bend and uniaxial tensile data of various sized cylindrical and square specimens for three grades of graphites. These data are superficially inconsistent and, usually, at variance with the predictions of classical theories. Nevertheless, this evaluation finds that they can be consistently interpreted by the couple-stress theory. This is compatible with results of an initial evaluation that considered one size of cylindrical specimen for H-451 graphite.
Hempel, Nico; Bunn, Jeffrey R.; Nitschke-Pagel, Thomas; ...
2017-02-02
This research is dedicated to the experimental investigation of the residual stress relaxation in girth-welded pipes due to quasi-static bending loads. Ferritic-pearlitic steel pipes are welded with two passes, resulting in a characteristic residual stress state with high tensile residual stresses at the weld root. Also, four-point bending is applied to generate axial load stress causing changes in the residual stress state. These are determined both on the outer and inner surfaces of the pipes, as well as in the pipe wall, using X-ray and neutron diffraction. Focusing on the effect of tensile load stress, it is revealed that notmore » only the tensile residual stresses are reduced due to exceeding the yield stress, but also the compressive residual stresses for equilibrium reasons. Furthermore, residual stress relaxation occurs both parallel and perpendicular to the applied load stress.« less
Plane-stress fracture of compact and notch-bend specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1976-01-01
Thin-gaged or high toughness materials containing cracks usually fail in a ductile manner with nominal failure stresses approaching the ultimate strength of the material. For such materials, a two-parameter fracture criterion was developed. An equation which related the linear elastic stress-intensity factor, elastic nominal stress, and two material parameters has previously been derived and has been used as a fracture criterion for surface- and through-cracked specimens under tensile loading. In the present paper the two-parameter fracture criterion was rederived in a more general form and was extended to compact and notch-bend fracture specimens. A close correlation was found between experimental and calculated failure stresses.
A two-dimensional stress analysis of single lap joints subjected to external bending moments
Sawa, Toshiyuki; Nakano, Katsuyuki; Toratani, Hiroshi
1995-11-01
The stress distribution of single lap adhesive joints subjected to external bending moments are analyzed as a three-body contact problem by using a two-dimensional theory of elasticity. In the analysis, two similar adherends and an adhesive are replaced by finite strips, respectively. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the ratio of Young;s modulus of adherends to that of adhesive and the adhesive thickness on the stress distribution at the interface are examined. As the results, it is seen that the stress singularity causes at the edges of the interfaces and the peel stress at the edges of the interface increases with a decrease of Young`s modulus of the adherends. In addition, photoelastic experiments are carried out. A fairly good agreement is seen between the analytical and the experimental results.
Plane-stress fracture of compact and notch-bend specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1976-01-01
Thin-gaged or high toughness materials containing cracks usually fail in a ductile manner with nominal failure stresses approaching the ultimate strength of the material. For such materials, a two-parameter fracture criterion was developed. An equation which related the linear elastic stress-intensity factor, elastic nominal stress, and two material parameters has previously been derived and has been used as a fracture criterion for surface- and through-cracked specimens under tensile loading. In the present paper the two-parameter fracture criterion was rederived in a more general form and was extended to compact and notch-bend fracture specimens. A close correlation was found between experimental and calculated failure stresses.
Engel, Frank; Rhoads, Bruce L.
2016-01-01
Compound meander bends with multiple lobes of maximum curvature are common in actively evolving lowland rivers. Interaction among spatial patterns of mean flow, turbulence, bed morphology, bank failures and channel migration in compound bends is poorly understood. In this paper, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements of the three-dimensional (3D) flow velocities in a compound bend are examined to evaluate the influence of channel curvature and hydrologic variability on the structure of flow within the bend. Flow structure at various flow stages is related to changes in bed morphology over the study timeframe. Increases in local curvature within the upstream lobe of the bend reduce outer bank velocities at morphologically significant flows, creating a region that protects the bank from high momentum flow and high bed shear stresses. The dimensionless radius of curvature in the upstream lobe is one-third less than that of the downstream lobe, with average bank erosion rates less than half of the erosion rates for the downstream lobe. Higher bank erosion rates within the downstream lobe correspond to the shift in a core of high velocity and bed shear stresses toward the outer bank as flow moves through the two lobes. These erosion patterns provide a mechanism for continued migration of the downstream lobe in the near future. Bed material size distributions within the bend correspond to spatial patterns of bed shear stress magnitudes, indicating that bed material sorting within the bend is governed by bed shear stress. Results suggest that patterns of flow, sediment entrainment, and planform evolution in compound meander bends are more complex than in simple meander bends. Moreover, interactions among local influences on the flow, such as woody debris, local topographic steering, and locally high curvature, tend to cause compound bends to evolve toward increasing planform complexity over time rather than stable configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedersen, N. L.
2015-06-01
The strength of a gear is typically defined relative to durability (pitting) and load capacity (tooth-breakage). Tooth-breakage is controlled by the root shape and this gear part can be designed because there is no contact between gear pairs here. The shape of gears is generally defined by different standards, with the ISO standard probably being the most common one. Gears are manufactured using two principally different tools: rack tools and gear tools. In this work, the bending stress of involute teeth is minimized by shape optimization made directly on the final gear. This optimized shape is then used to find the cutting tool (the gear envelope) that can create this optimized gear shape. A simple but sufficiently flexible root parameterization is applied and emphasis is put on the importance of separating the shape parameterization from the finite element analysis of stresses. Large improvements in the stress level are found.
Measuring permeability and stress relaxation of young cement paste by beam bending
Vichit-Vadakan, W.; Scherer, George W
2003-12-01
When a saturated rod of a porous material is deflected in three-point bending, two types of time-dependent relaxation processes occur simultaneously: hydrodynamic relaxation, caused by the flow of liquid in the porous body, and viscoelastic (VE) relaxation of the solid network. By measuring the decrease in the force required to sustain a constant deflection, it is possible to obtain the permeability from the hydrodynamic relaxation function, in addition to the VE stress relaxation function of the sample. We report the early-age evolution of permeability, elastic modulus, and stress relaxation function for Type III Portland cement paste with water-cement (w/c) ratios of 0.45, 0.50, and 0.55. The stress relaxation function is shown to preserve its shape during aging; that function is numerically transformed into the creep function.
Deformation effect on plastic and elastic stress components in grains with different bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlov, Eduard; Kiseleva, Svetlana; Popova, Natalya; Koneva, Nina
2016-11-01
The paper presents the investigations of deformation processes in polycrystal. Austenitic steel of the type 1.1C-13Mn-Fe is subjected to tensile deformation on a test machine at a rate of 3.4×10-4 s-1 and room temperature. The suggested experimental methodology implies the recovery of internal stresses using the parameters of the bend extinction contours observed on TEM images of the deformed polycrystal structure. The contribution of plastic and elastic stress components is determined in this paper. The analysis of these components is given for grains with different bending in deformed austenitic steel specimens. TEM images are obtained for a single polycrystal grain at different goniometer inclinations. The experimental findings are given for different degrees of steel deformation resulting in its rupture. It is shown that in the vicinity of the material rupture (ɛ = 36%), the plastic component mostly contributes to the internal stresses, while the contribution of elastic component is considerably reduced. The obtained results are compared to the defective structure of austenitic steel specimens.
Koneva, N. A. Kozlov, E. V.
2016-01-15
Generalization of the results of electron microscopy investigations of the crystal lattice bending-torsion (χ) and the internal stresses (IS) was conducted. The deformed polycrystalline alloys and steels were investigated. The sources of χ and IS origin were established. The regularities of their change with the distance from the sources and the evolution with deformation were revealed. The contribution of IS into the deformation resistance was determined. The nature of formation of two sequences of dislocation substructure transformations during deformation of alloys was established.
Yaish, Y. E. Calahorra, Y.; Shtempluck, O.; Kotchetkov, V.
2015-04-28
A non-linear model is introduced describing the force-deflection relation of doubly clamped beams, including initial stress. Several approximations for the exact model are developed and compared, revealing the importance of considering the initial stress during 3-point bending measurements analysis. A novel approximation is found to be better than others, and both the exact model and this approximation are in perfect agreement with finite element simulations. A brief experimental example of silicon nanowires is presented in which the Young's modulus, the initial stress, and the crystallographic growth orientation are extracted by 3-point bending analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gross, B.; Srawley, J. E.
1983-01-01
The boudary collocation method was used to generate Mode 1 stress intensity and crack mouth displacement coefficients for internally and externally radially cracked ring segments (arc bend specimens) subjected to three point radial loading. Numerical results were obtained for ring segment outer to inner radius ratios (R sub o/ R sub i) ranging from 1.10 to 2.50 and crack length to width ratios (a/W) ranging from 0.1 to 0.8. Stress intensity and crack mouth displacement coefficients were found to depend on the ratios R sub o/R sub i and a/W as well as the included angle between the directions of the reaction forces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Termini, Donatella
2016-12-01
The cross-sectional circulation, which develops in meandering bends, exerts an important role in velocity and the boundary shear stress redistributions. This paper considers the effect of vegetation on cross-sectional flow and bed shear distribution along a high-curvature bend. The analysis is conducted with the aid of data collected in a large-amplitude meandering flume during a reference experiment without vegetation and an experiment with vegetation on the bed. The results show that the presence of vegetation modifies the curvature-induced flow pattern and the directionality of turbulent structures. In fact, in the presence of vegetation, the turbulent structures tend to develop within and between the vegetated elements. The pattern of cross-sectional flow, modified by the presence of vegetation, affects the bed shear stress distribution along the bend so that the core of the highest value of the bed shear stress does not reach the outer bank.
Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Kondo, Sosuke; Kohyama, Akira
2007-01-01
The bend stress relaxation technique was applied for an irradiation creep study of high purity, chemically vapor-deposited beta-phase silicon carbide (CVD SiC) ceramic. A constant bend strain was applied to thin strip samples during neutron irradiation to fluences 0.2-4.2 dpa at various temperatures in the range {approx}400 to {approx}1080 C. Irradiation creep strain at <0.7 dpa exhibited only a weak dependence on irradiation temperature. However, the creep strain dependence on fluence was non-linear due to the early domination of the initial transient creep, and a transition in creep behavior was found between 950 and 1080 C. Steady-state irradiation creep compliances of polycrystalline CVD SiC at doses >0.7 dpa were estimated to be 2.7({+-}2.6) x 10{sup -7} and 1.5({+-}0.8) x 10{sup -6} (MPa dpa){sup -1} at {approx}600 to {approx}950 C and {approx}1080 C, respectively, whereas linear-averaged creep compliances of 1-2 x 10{sup -6} (MPa dpa){sup -1} were obtained for doses of 0.6-0.7 dpa at all temperatures. Monocrystalline 3C SiC samples exhibited significantly smaller transient creep strain and greater subsequent deformation when loaded along <0 1 1> direction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhichao; Freborg, Andrew M.; Hansen, Bruce D.; Srivatsan, T. S.
2013-03-01
Most steel gears are carburized and quenched prior to service to obtain the desired specific strength (σ/ρ) and hardness requirements. Use of carburization and quenching of steel gears creates a compressive residual stress on the carburized surface, which is beneficial for improving both bending and contact fatigue performance. Also, higher carbon content in the carburized surface decreases the starting temperature for formation of the martensitic phase and delaying the martensitic transformation at the part surface during the quenching hardening process. During the martensite phase formation, the material volume expands. The delayed martensitic transformation, coupled with the associated delayed volume expansion, induces residual compressive stress on the surface of the quenched part. The carburized case depth and distribution of carbon affect both the magnitude and the depth of the resulting residual compressive stress. In this article, the effect of carbon distribution on the residual stress in a spur gear is presented and discussed using finite element modeling to understand the intrinsic material mechanics contributing to the presence of internal stress. Influence of the joint on thermal gradient and the influence of phase transformation on the development of internal stresses are discussed using results obtained from modeling. The residual stress arising due to heat treatment is imported into single-tooth bending and dynamic contact stress analysis models to investigate the intrinsic interplay among carbon case depth, residual stress, bending load, and torsional load on potential fatigue life. Three carburization processes, followed by oil quenching, are examined. A method for designing minimum case depth so as to achieve beneficial residual stresses in gears subjected to bending and contact stresses is suggested.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dumont, C
1939-01-01
An aluminum-alloy plate containing an open circular hole of diameter large compared with the thickness of the plate was subjected to bending forces normal to the plane of the plate. Deflection and strain measurements were taken for two different loads. Stress concentrations occurred at the edge of the hole and the maximum stresses were tangential to the hole at the ends of the transverse diameter. The maximum stress at the edge of the hole was 1.59 times the computed stress on the net section and 1.85 times the computed stress in a solid plate of the same dimensions subjected to the same bending forces. The maximum deflections were about 20 percent greater than the corresponding deflection for a solid plate of the same size subjected to the same bending forces. The smallest edge distance was equal to 2-1/2 times the diameter of the hole and the stress concentration on this side of the hole was the same as on the side where the edge distance was about 4-1/2 diameters. A theoretical analysis of the problem shows that, for an aluminum plate of infinite width, the stress concentration at the edge of the hole would be 1.87 times the stress in a solid plate, which is substantially the same relation obtained for the plate tested.
Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol
2013-01-01
Although the asymmetry in the upward and downward bending of insect wings is well known, the structural origin of this asymmetry is not yet clearly understood. Some researchers have suggested that based on experimental results, the bending asymmetry of insect wings appears to be a consequence of the camber inherent in the wings. Although an experimental approach can reveal this phenomenon, another method is required to reveal the underlying theory behind the experimental results. The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful tool for evaluating experimental measurements and is useful for studying the bending asymmetry of insect wings. Therefore, in this study, the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing was investigated through FEM analyses rather than through an experimental approach. The results demonstrated that both the stressed stiffening of the membrane and the camber of the wing affect the bending asymmetry of insect wings. In particular, the chordwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the ventral side, while the spanwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the dorsal side. These results provide an appropriate explanation of the mechanical behavior of cambered insect wings, including the bending asymmetry behavior, and suggest an appropriate approach for analyzing the structural behavior of insect wings. PMID:24339878
Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol
2013-01-01
Although the asymmetry in the upward and downward bending of insect wings is well known, the structural origin of this asymmetry is not yet clearly understood. Some researchers have suggested that based on experimental results, the bending asymmetry of insect wings appears to be a consequence of the camber inherent in the wings. Although an experimental approach can reveal this phenomenon, another method is required to reveal the underlying theory behind the experimental results. The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful tool for evaluating experimental measurements and is useful for studying the bending asymmetry of insect wings. Therefore, in this study, the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing was investigated through FEM analyses rather than through an experimental approach. The results demonstrated that both the stressed stiffening of the membrane and the camber of the wing affect the bending asymmetry of insect wings. In particular, the chordwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the ventral side, while the spanwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the dorsal side. These results provide an appropriate explanation of the mechanical behavior of cambered insect wings, including the bending asymmetry behavior, and suggest an appropriate approach for analyzing the structural behavior of insect wings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dose, A
1941-01-01
The present report describes a device for ascertaining the bending and buckling effect in stress measurements on shell structures accessible from one side only. Beginning with a discussion of the relationship between flexural strain and certain parameters, the respective errors of the test method for great or variable skin curvature within the test range are analyzed and illustrated by specimen example.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekiguchi, C.; Hakoyama, T.; Kuwabara, T.; Fukiharu, H.
2016-08-01
A fracture criterion for sheet metals subjected to draw-bending is investigated using the concept of the forming limit stress criterion. The test material used is a 1.0-mm-thick high- strength steel sheet with a tensile strength of 590MPa. The specimen undergoes bendingunbending under tension when passing over the die profile. The drawing speed was set to 5-100 mm • s-1. The magnitude of true stress σDB when a specimen fractured has been precisely determined. Moreover, multiaxial tube expansion tests of the test material are performed to measure the forming limit stress σPT of the test material under plane-strain tension. It is found that σDB is larger than σPT by 2.8-6.3%. Therefore, it is concluded that the forming limit stress criterion is effective as a fracture criterion in draw-bending.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stowell, Elbridge, Z; Schwartz, Edward B; Houbolt, John C
1945-01-01
A theoretical and experimental investigation has been made of the behavior of a cantilever beam in transverse motion when its root is suddenly brought to rest. Equations are given for determining the stresses, the deflections, and the accelerations that arise in the beam as a result of the impact. The theoretical equations, which have been confirmed experimentally, reveal that, at a given percentage of the distance from root to tip, the bending stresses for a particular mode are independent of the length of the beam, whereas the shear stresses vary inversely with the length.
Measuring permeability, Young's modulus, and stress relaxation by the beam-bending technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vichit-Vadakan, Wilasa
Recent interest in the permeability of cement paste, mortars, and concrete lies in the need to gain further understanding of mechanisms affecting the durability of these materials. Conventional techniques for measuring permeability are cumbersome and often take days to complete just one measurement. This thesis proposes a new technique for measuring the permeability. The advantage of this technique is that the results are obtained in a few minutes to a few hours; moreover, there is no problem with leaks or need for high pressures. The method is particularly well suited for examining the changes in permeability and viscoelastic properties of young cement paste samples. When a saturated rod of a porous material is instantaneously deflected under three-point bending, two types of relaxation processes occur simultaneously: hydrodynamic relaxation, caused by the flow of liquid in the porous body to restore ambient pressure, and viscoelastic relaxation of the solid network. By measuring the decrease in the force required to sustain a constant deflection, it is possible to obtain the permeability and Young's modulus from the hydrodynamic relaxation function, in addition to the stress relaxation function of the sample. The exact viscoelastic solution is developed and the total relaxation is shown to be very closely approximated as the product of the hydrodynamic and stress relaxation functions. The analytical results are verified on porous VycorRTM glass saturated in various solvents, including normal alcohols, water, and glycerol. The results show excellent agreement with the theory. Consistent with observations of previous workers, the permeability is found to be influenced by the size of the solvent molecule; by assuming that the pore surfaces are covered with a monolayer of immobile solvent, the observed variation can be explained. The evolution of the permeability, Young's modulus, and stress relaxation function are reported for Type III Portland cement paste with
Kusaka, Kazuya; Maruoka, Yutaka; Matsue, Tatsuya
2016-05-15
Zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited on a soft polyimide sheet substrate by radio frequency sputtering with a ZnO powder target, and the films' crystal orientations and residual stress were investigated using x-ray diffraction as a function of substrate temperature. C-axis oriented ZnO films were achieved using this ZnO powder target method. The ZnO films exhibited high compressive residual stresses between −0.7 and −1.4 GPa. Finally, the authors examined the strength of the obtained film by applying tensile bending loads. No cracks were observed on the surfaces of the ZnO films after a bending test using cylinders with diameters >25 mm. After a bending test using a cylinder with a diameter of 19 mm, large cracks were formed on the films. Therefore, the authors concluded that the tensile bending strength of the obtained films was greater than ∼420 MPa.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, L.-T.; Dugundji, J.
1979-01-01
A preliminary study conducted by Kerrebrock et al. (1976) has shown that the torsional rigidity of untwisted thin blades of a transonic compressor can be reduced significantly by transient thermal stresses. The aerodynamic loads have various effects on blade vibration. One effect is that gas bending loads may result in a bending-torsion coupling which may change the characteristics of the torsion and bending vibration of the blade. For a general study of transient-temperature distribution within a rotor stage, a finite-element heat-conduction analysis was developed. The blade and shroud are divided into annular elements. With a temperature distribution obtained from the heat-conduction analysis and a prescribed gas bending load distribution along the blade span, the static deformation and moment distributions of the blade can be solved iteratively using the finite-element method. The reduction of the torsional rigidity of pretwisted blades caused by the thermal stress effect is then computed. The dynamic behavior of the blade is studied by a modified Galerkin's method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Suk-Kyu; Jiang, Tengfei; Lu, Kuan H.; Im, Jay; Son, Ho-Young; Byun, Kwang-Yoo; Huang, Rui; Ho, Paul S.
2012-01-01
Through-silicon via is a critical element for three-dimensional (3D) integration of devices in multilevel stack structures. Thermally induced stresses in through-silicon vias (TSVs) have raised serious concerns over mechanical and electrical reliability in 3D technology. An experimental technique is presented to characterize thermal stresses in TSVs during thermal cycling based on curvature measurements of bending beam specimens. Focused ion beam and electron backscattering diffraction analyses reveal significant grain growth in copper vias, which is correlated with stress relaxation during the first cycle. Finite element analysis is performed to determine the stress distribution and the effect of localized plasticity and to account for TSV extrusion observed during annealing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Raju, I. S.
1984-01-01
Stress intensity factor equations are presented for an embedded elliptical crack, a semielliptical surface crack, a quarter elliptical corner crack, a semielliptical surface crack along the bore of a circular hole, and a quarter elliptical corner crack at the edge of a circular hole in finite plates. The plates were subjected to either remote tension or bending loads. The stress intensity factors used to develop these equations were obtained from previous three dimensional finite element analyses of these crack configurations. The equations give stress intensity factors as a function of parametric angle, crack depth, crack length, plate thickness, and, where applicable, hole radius. The ratio of crack depth to plate thickness ranged from 0 to 1, the ratio of crack depth to crack length ranged from 0.2 to 2, and the ratio of hole radius to plate thickness ranged from 0.5 to 2. The effects of plate width on stress intensity variation along the crack front were also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinohara, Mitsuhiko; Hanabusa, Takao; Kusaka, Kazuya
Since the thin film technology is applied to micro-machines, MEMS (micro electro-mechanical system), optical devices and others, the evaluation of mechanical properties in thin films becomes to be important. On the other hand, there are differences in mechanical properties between bulk materials and thin films, but studies in this field have not yet been made enough. The present paper reports on the evaluation of the mechanical properties of Cu thin films with and without AlN passivation layer. Specimens with different thickness of Cu film were subjected to cyclic plane bending fatigue test. Residual stresses developed in the Cu films were measured in a sequence of bending cycles using X-ray diffraction method in order to understand the effect of film thickness and passivation layer on mechanical properties of Cu thin films.
Cai, Jiaying; Cizek, Karel; Long, Brenton; McAferty, Kenyon; Campbell, Casey G.; Allee, David R.; Vogt, Bryan D.; La Belle, Jeff; Wang, Joseph
2009-01-01
The influence of the mechanical bending, rolling and crimping of flexible screen-printed electrodes upon their electrical properties and electrochemical behavior has been elucidated. Three different flexible plastic substrates, Mylar, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), and Kapton, have been tested in connection to the printing of graphite ink working electrodes. Our data indicate that flexible printed electrodes can be bent to extremely small radii of curvature and still function well, despite a marginal increase the electrical resistance. Below critical radii of curvature of ~8 mm, full recovery of the electrical resistance occurs upon strain release. The electrochemical response is maintained for sub-mm bending radii and a 180° pinch of the electrode does not lead to device failure. The electrodes appear to be resistant to repeated bending. Such capabilities are demonstrated using model compounds, including ferrocyanide, trinitrotoluene (TNT) and nitronaphthalene (NN). These printed electrodes hold great promise for widespread applications requiring flexible, yet robust non-planar sensing devices. PMID:20160861
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1992-01-01
A three dimensional stress concentration analysis was conducted on straight shank and countersunk (rivet) holes in a large plate subjected to various loading conditions. Three dimensional finite element analysis were performed with 20 node isoparametric elements. The plate material was assumed to be linear elastic and isotropic, with a Poisson ratio of 0.3. Stress concentration along the bore of the hole were computed for several ratios of hole radius to plate thickness (0.1 to 2.5) and ratios of countersink depth to plate thickness (0.25 to 1). The countersink angles were varied from 80 to 100 degrees in some typical cases, but the angle was held constant at 100 degrees for most cases. For straight shank holes, three types of loading were considered: remote tension, remote bending, and wedge loading in the hole. Results for remote tension and wedge loading were used to estimate stress concentration for simulated rivet in pin loading. For countersunk holes only remote tension and bending were considered. Based on the finite element results, stress concentration equations were developed. Whenever possible, the present results were compared with other numerical solutions and experimental results from the literature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stowell, Elbridge Z; Schwartz, Edward B; Houbolt, John C
1945-01-01
A theoretical investigation was made of the behavior of a cantilever beam in rotational motion about a transverse axis through the root determining the stresses, the deflections, and the accelerations that occur in the beam as a result of the arrest of motion. The equations for bending and shear stress reveal that, at a given percentage of the distance from root to tip and at a given trip velocity, the bending stresses for a particular mode are independent of the length of the beam and the shear stresses vary inversely with the length. When examined with respect to a given angular velocity instead of a given tip velocity, the equations reveal that the bending stress is proportional to the length of the beam whereas the shear stress is independent of the length. Sufficient experimental verification of the theory has previously been given in connection with another problem of the same type.
A comparison of two reciprocating instruments using bending stress and cyclic fatigue tests.
Scelza, Pantaleo; Harry, Davidowicz; Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo da; Barbosa, Igor Bastos; Scelza, Miriam Zaccaro
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the bending resistance at 45º, the static and dynamic cyclic fatigue life, and the fracture type of the WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) 25-08 and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) 25-08 instruments. A total of 60 nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments (30 Reciproc and 30 WaveOne) from three different lots, each of which was 25 mm in length, were tested. The bending resistance was evaluated through the results of a cantilever-bending test conducted using a universal testing machine. Static and dynamic cyclic fatigue testing was conducted using a custom-made device. For the static and dynamic tests, a cast Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti alloy metal block with an artificial canal measuring 1.77 mm in diameter and 20.00 mm in total length was used. A scanning electron microscope was used to determine the type of fracture. Statistical analyses were performed on the results. The WaveOne instrument was less flexible than the Reciproc (p < 0.05). The Reciproc instrument showed better resistance in the static and dynamic cyclic fatigue tests (p < 0.05). The transverse cross-section and geometry of the instruments were important factors in their resistance to bending and cyclic fracture. Both of the instruments showed ductile-type fracture characteristics. It can be concluded that the Reciproc 25-08 instrument was more resistant to static and dynamic cyclic fatigue than the WaveOne 25-08 instrument, while the WaveOne 25-08 instrument was less flexible. Bending and resistance to cyclic fracture were influenced by the instruments' geometries and transverse cross-sections. Both of the instruments showed ductile-type fracture characteristics.
Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Teng, Zhongzhao; Bach, Richard; Ku, David N
2008-01-01
Many acute cardiovascular syndromes such as heart attack and stroke are caused by atherosclerotic plaque ruptures which often happen without warning. MRI-based models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI) have been introduced to perform flow and stress/strain analysis for atherosclerotic plaques and identify possible mechanical and morphological indices for accurate plaque vulnerability assessment. In this paper, cyclic bending was added to 3D FSI coronary plaque models for more accurate mechanical predictions. Curvature variation was prescribed using the data of a human left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Five computational models were constructed based on ex vivo MRI human coronary plaque data to assess the effects of cyclic bending, pulsating pressure, plaque structure, and axial stretch on plaque stress/strain distributions. In vitro experiments using a hydrogel stenosis model with cyclical bending were performed to observe effect of cyclical bending on flow conditions. Our results indicate that cyclical bending may cause more than 100% or even up to more than 1000% increase in maximum principal stress values at locations where the plaque is bent most. Stress increase is higher when bending is coupled with axial stretch, non-smooth plaque structure, or resonant pressure conditions (zero phase angle shift). Effects of cyclic bending on flow behaviors are more modest (21.6% decrease in maximum velocity, 10.8% decrease in flow rate, maximum flow shear stress changes were < 5%). Computational FSI models including cyclic bending, plaque components and structure, axial stretch, accurate in vivo measurements of pressure, curvature, and material properties should lead to significant improvement on stress-based plaque mechanical analysis and more accurate coronary plaque vulnerability assessment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1985-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present stress-intensity factors for a wide range of nearly semi-elliptical surface cracks in pipes and rods. The configurations were subjected to either remote tension or bending loads. For pipes, the ratio of crack depth to crack length (a/c) ranged from 0.6 to 1; the ratio of crack depth to wall thickness (a/t) ranged from 0.2 to 0.8; and the ratio of internal radius to wall thickness (R/t) ranged from 1 to 10. For rods, the ratio of crack depth to crack length also ranged from 0.6 to 1; and the ratio of crack depth to rod diameter (a/D) ranged from 0.05 to 0.35. These particular crack configurations were chosen to cover the range of crack shapes (a/c) that have been observed in experiments conducted on pipes and rods under tension and bending fatigue loads. The stress-intensity factors were calculated by a three-dimensional finite-element method. The finite-element models employed singularity elements along the crack front and linear-strain elements elsewhere. The models had about 6500 degrees of freedom. The stress-intensity factors were evaluated using a nodal-force method.
Araújo, Marcelo Marotta; Lauria, Andrezza; Mendes, Marcelo Breno Meneses; Claro, Ana Paula Rosifini Alves; Claro, Cristiane Aparecida de Assis; Moreira, Roger William Fernandes
2015-12-01
The aim of this study was to analyze, through Vickers hardness test and photoelasticity analysis, pre-bent areas, manually bent areas, and areas without bends of 10-mm advancement pre-bent titanium plates (Leibinger system). The work was divided into three groups: group I-region without bend, group II-region of 90° manual bend, and group III-region of 90° pre-fabricated bends. All the materials were evaluated through hardness analysis by the Vickers hardness test, stress analysis by residual images obtained in a polariscope, and photoelastic analysis by reflection during the manual bending. The data obtained from the hardness tests were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests at a significance level of 5 %. The pre-bent plate (group III) showed hardness means statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the other groups (I-region without bends, II-90° manually bent region). Through the study of photoelastic reflection, it was possible to identify that the stress gradually increased, reaching a pink color (1.81 δ / λ), as the bending was performed. A general analysis of the results showed that the bent plate region of pre-bent titanium presented the best results.
Induction of optical vortex in the crystals subjected to bending stresses.
Skab, Ihor; Vasylkiv, Yurij; Vlokh, Rostyslav
2012-08-20
We describe a method for generation of optical vortices that relies on bending of transparent parallelepiped-shaped samples fabricated from either glass or crystalline solid materials. It is shown that the induced singularity of optical indicatrix rotation leads in general to appearance of a mixed screw-edge dislocation of the phase front of outgoing optical beam. At the same time, some specified geometrical parameters of the sample can ensure generation of a purely screw dislocation of the phase front and, as a result, a singly charged canonical optical vortex.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kajita, K.; Takao, T.; Maeda, H.; Yanagisawa, Y.
2017-07-01
The influence of an axial tensile stress under edgewise bending on the current transport property of a REBCO-coated conductor is described from the viewpoint of it being one of the major stress modes of degradation in a high field REBCO coil’s performance due to electromagnetic forces. A new type of a tensile experiment for the combination of an axial tensile stress, edgewise bending and flatwise bending on a REBCO conductor demonstrates that the combined stress increases tensile strain at the outer edge of the conductor and generates mechanical cracks in the superconducting layer, which causes an earlier degradation than a pure tensile stress. This combined stress mode can cause degradation of a high field REBCO coil’s performance below an operating hoop stress and countermeasures need to be developed.
Bending fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes under alternating stress at room temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herzog, J. A.
1981-01-01
The development of a testing method for fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes containing a small amount of SiC filaments under alternating stress is reported. The fatigue strength curves resulting for this composite are discussed. They permit an estimate of its behavior under continuous stress and in combination with various other matrices, especially metal matrices.
The bending stress distribution in bilayered and graded zirconia-based dental ceramics
Fabris, Douglas; Souza, Júlio C.M.; Silva, Filipe S.; Fredel, Márcio; Mesquita-Guimarães, Joana; Zhang, Yu; Henriques, Bruno
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biaxial flexural stresses in classic bilayered and in graded zirconia-feldspathic porcelain composites. A finite element method and an analytical model were used to simulate the piston-on-ring test and to predict the biaxial stress distributions across the thickness of the bilayer and graded zirconia-feldspathic porcelain discs. An axisymmetric model and a flexure formula of Hsueh et al. were used in the FEM and analytical analysis, respectively. Four porcelain thicknesses were tested in the bilayered discs. In graded discs, continuous and stepwise transitions from the bottom zirconia layer to the top porcelain layer were studied. The resulting stresses across the thickness, measured along the central axis of the disc, for the bilayered and graded discs were compared. In bilayered discs, the maximum tensile stress decreased while the stress mismatch (at the interface) increased with the porcelain layer thickness. The optimized balance between both variables is achieved for a porcelain thickness ratio in the range of 0.30–0.35. In graded discs, the highest tensile stresses were registered for porcelain rich interlayers (p=0.25) whereas the zirconia rich ones (p=8) yield the lowest tensile stresses. In addition, the maximum stresses in a graded structure can be tailored by altering compositional gradients. A decrease in maximum stresses with increasing values of p (a scaling exponent in the power law function) was observed. Our findings showed a good agreement between the analytical and simulated models, particularly in the tensile region of the disc. Graded zirconia-feldspathic porcelain composites exhibited a more favourable stress distribution relative to conventional bilayered systems. This fact can significantly impact the clinical performance of zirconia-feldspathic porcelain prostheses, namely reducing the fracture incidence of zirconia and the chipping and delamination of porcelain. PMID:28104926
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Chang-Hung; Chang, Yeong-Hwa; Lee, Chun-Yao; Yao, Chia-Shiang; He, Yan-Lou; Chu, Huei-Lung; Chang, Chia-Wen; Chan, Wei-Shou
2012-04-01
This paper explores the influence of bending stresses on the magnetic characteristics of three-phase transformers with amorphous cores. Different types of core structures, including C-cores and toroidal cores, and their magnetic properties are compared using VSM and XRD. The losses in the magnetic core of the three-phase transformer are analyzed using the finite element analysis for both design and measurement. In addition, experimental results indicated that amorphous-core transformers with rectangular corners had higher audible noise and vibration intensities. This is because the condensed distribution of magnetic flux lines in the corners of the core may create high magnetic inductions associated with high magnetostriction. Finally, experiments with three-phase amorphous-core transformers were performed to study the effects of magnetism and magnetostriction on their performance in terms of core loss, vibration, and audible noise.
Stress-Intensity Factors for Three-Point Bend Specimens by Boundary Collocation
1965-12-01
Bernard Gross and John E. Srawley Lewis Research Center SUMMARY A Aboundary-value-collocation procedure was applied to the Williams stress function to...ref. 5) and by Kies, Smith, Romine, and Bernstein (ref. 6). Limited results of an analytical study by H. F. Bueckner have been published by Wundt (ref...shown in figure 1 (p. 2). The biharmonic equation and the boundary conditions along the crack are satis- fied by the Williams stress function (ref. 8
A finite-difference program for stresses in anisotropic, layered plates in bending
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salamon, N. J.
1975-01-01
The interlaminar stresses induced in a layered laminate that is bent into a cylindrical surface are studied. The laminate is modeled as a continuum, and the resulting elasticity equations are solved using the finite difference method. The report sets forth the mathematical framework, presents some preliminary results, and provides a listing and explanation of the computer program. Significant among the results are apparent symmetry relationships that will reduce the numerical size of certain problems and an interlaminar stress behavior having a sharp rise at the free edges.
Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.
1999-08-01
Cruciform beam fracture mechanics specimensl have been developed in the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a prototypic, far- field, out-of-plane biaxird bending stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear biaxial stresses resulting from pressurized-thernxd-shock or pressure-temperature loading of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shtdlow, surface flaws. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. Two and three- parameter Weibull models have been calibrated using a new scheme (developed at the University of Illinois) that maps toughness data from test specimens with distinctly different levels of crack-tip constraint to a small scale yielding (SSY) Weibull stress space. These models, using the new hydrostatic stress criterion in place of the more commonly used maximum principal stress in the kernel of the OW integral definition, have been shown to correlate the experimentally observed biaxiaI effect in cruciform specimens, thereby providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states.
Wide Range Stress Intensity Factor Expression for an Edge-Cracked Round Bar Bend Specimen
1988-05-01
results. Ouchterlony (ref 9) described a K formula for the S/D = 3.33 geometry based on Bush’s work (ref 3). His formula agrees closely with Bush’s S/D...T. Read and R. P. Reed, eds.), ASTM, Philadelphia, to be published. 9. Ouchterlony , Finn, "Extension of the Compliance and Stress Intensity Formulas
Allowable bending stresses of wood for use in portable wood ladders
Fred Werren
1975-01-01
A standard for portable wood ladders has been in effect since 1923, and has been revised several times since then. The most recent publication is "American National Standard Safety Standard for Portable Wood Ladders," A14.1-1975, from American National Standards Institute, Inc. Methods of arriving at allowable stresses for wood ladder parts have never been...
Comparison of Experimental and Analytical Tooth Bending Stress of Aerospace Spiral Bevel Gears
1999-02-01
location. These stress values were found for the output torque on the gear equaling 1073 N*m (9500 in*lb). B - Experimental Results. Testing was... 1073 N*m (9500 in*lb) of gear shaft torque. Note that the results are the same with respect to relative magnitudes between the regions of the fillet as...torque equal to 1073 N*m (9500 in*lb) at a pinion rotational speed equal to 14400 RPM. The analytical results were taken for the mid-face results from
Fitzenz, D.D.; Miller, S.A.
2004-01-01
Understanding the stress field surrounding and driving active fault systems is an important component of mechanistic seismic hazard assessment. We develop and present results from a time-forward three-dimensional (3-D) model of the San Andreas fault system near its Big Bend in southern California. The model boundary conditions are assessed by comparing model and observed tectonic regimes. The model of earthquake generation along two fault segments is used to target measurable properties (e.g., stress orientations, heat flow) that may allow inferences on the stress state on the faults. It is a quasi-static model, where GPS-constrained tectonic loading drives faults modeled as mostly sealed viscoelastic bodies embedded in an elastic half-space subjected to compaction and shear creep. A transpressive tectonic regime develops southwest of the model bend as a result of the tectonic loading and migrates toward the bend because of fault slip. The strength of the model faults is assessed on the basis of stress orientations, stress drop, and overpressures, showing a departure in the behavior of 3-D finite faults compared to models of 1-D or homogeneous infinite faults. At a smaller scale, stress transfers from fault slip transiently induce significant perturbations in the local stress tensors (where the slip profile is very heterogeneous). These stress rotations disappear when subsequent model earthquakes smooth the slip profile. Maps of maximum absolute shear stress emphasize both that (1) future models should include a more continuous representation of the faults and (2) that hydrostatically pressured intact rock is very difficult to break when no material weakness is considered. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kekalo, I. B.; Mogil'nikov, P. S.
2017-02-01
It has been shown that, in some amorphous alloys, the value of initial bending stresses σm can influence the development of the relaxation of these stresses during the annealing of the alloys. These alloys include Co69Fe3.7Cr3.8Si12.5B11, with a nearly zero saturation magnetostriction (λs < 10-7) and the Fe78Ni1Si8B13 alloy with λs = 25 × 10-6. In the iron-based Fe81Si4B13C2 and Fe57Co31Si2.9B9.1 alloys, no effect of the initial bending stresses on their relaxation has been observed. No this effect has also been observed in the metalloid-free alloys Co80Mo10Zr10 and Co80Mo8Ni2Zr10 with a nearly zero saturation magnetostriction λs. When this effect manifests itself, the activation energy U of the given process becomes a function of two factors; i.e., this energy depends on both the composition of the alloy (that is, interatomic forces) and the value of the initial bending stresses. In this case, the activation energy U cannot be considered to be characteristic of the material.
Chatterjee, K.; Venkataraman, A.; Garbaciak, T.; Rotella, J.; Sangid, M. D.; Beaudoin, A. J.; Kenesei, P.; Park, J-S.; Pilchak, A. L.
2016-09-01
In-situ high energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM) experiments are carried out to analyze the state of combined bending and tension in a Ti-7Al alloy under room temperature creep. Grain-level elastic strain tensors are evaluated from HEDM data. Atomistic calculations are used to predict elastic constants of Ti-7Al, to be used in determination of stress from strain. The stress gradient and residual stresses are successfully determined, which allows the demarcation between macro-/micro-level residual stresses. A cluster of three neighboring grains are identified that highlight the variation of mean and effective stress between grains. Crystallographic orientations and slip characteristics are analyzed for the selected grains. It is inferred that the interfaces between loaded grains with markedly different stress triaxiality and slip tendency are potential spots for material damage.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Dodge, T. M.
1974-01-01
Results generated by three, unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply reversed bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. Six-inch long, AISI 4340 steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 2.34 and R sub C 35/40 hardness were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and stress-to-failure data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one represents the data best. The effect of the groove and of the various combined bending-torsion loads on the S-N and Goodman diagrams are determined. Three design applications are presented. The third one illustrates the weight savings that may be achieved by designing for reliability.
Dynamic Release of Bending Stress in Short dsDNA by Formation of a Kink and Forks.
Kim, Cheolhee; Lee, O-chul; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Sung, Wokyung; Lee, Nam Ki
2015-07-27
Bending with high curvature is one of the major mechanical properties of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) that is essential for its biological functions. The emergence of a kink arising from local melting in the middle of dsDNA has been suggested as a mechanism of releasing the energy cost of bending. Herein, we report that strong bending induces two types of short dsDNA deformations, induced by two types of local melting, namely, a kink in the middle and forks at the ends, which we demonstrate using D-shaped DNA nanostructures. The two types of deformed dsDNA structures dynamically interconvert on a millisecond timescale. The transition from a fork to a kink is dominated by entropic contribution (anti-Arrhenius behavior), while the transition from a kink to a fork is dominated by enthalpic contributions. The presence of mismatches in dsDNA accelerates kink formation, and the transition from a kink to a fork is removed when the mismatch size is three base pairs. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kekalo, I. B.; Mogil'nikov, P. S.
2015-12-01
An unusual effect of the stresses of bending (toroidal sample diameter D) on the hysteretic magnetic properties ( H c , μ5) of an amorphous Co69Fe3.7Cr3.8Si12B11 alloy with an extremely low magnetostriction (|λ s | ≤ 10-7) is revealed. These properties are measured in a dynamic regime at a magnetic-field frequency f = 0.1-20 kHz. The coercive force of the alloy H c weakly depends on D at low frequencies ( f < 1 kHz), and permeability μ5 ( H = 5 mOe), in contrast, is independent of D at high frequencies and is dependent on D at low frequencies. The samples subjected to high-temperature (390°C) annealing followed by water quenching exhibit "anomalous" dependences: permeability μ5 increases with decreasing toroidal sample radius, i.e., with increasing bending stresses. The detected dependences are related to the fact that magnetization reversal via the displacement of rigid domain walls is predominant at low frequencies and during static measurements and magnetization reversal via the displacement of flexible domain walls is predominant at high frequencies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yankovskii, A. P.
2016-03-01
Within the hypotheses of Tymoshenko and Timoshenko-Reissner theories, problems on the equal-stressed reinforcement (ER) are formulated for metal-composite plates in transverse bending at steady-state creep. The plates are reinforced with fibers of constant cross section. A qualitative analysis is performed for the corresponding systems of resolving equations and boundary conditions. The method of secant modulus is used. It is shown that, at each iteration, the systems of resolving equations are systems of quasi-linear equations of mixed-compound type with nonlinear static boundary conditions. From these conditions follows the possibility of existence of several alternative solutions which can be controlled by varying the densities of reinforcement on the edge of plates. It is revealed that the trajectories of reinforcement are the actual characteristics of the system of resolving equations. Within the framework of the Timoshenko-Reissner theory, model ER problems on the cylindrical bending of elongated rectangular plates in the cases where one of the longitudinal edges is subjected to different loadings, but the others are rigidly fixed, are considered. By particular examples, the possibility of existence of two alternative solutions to the ER problem, one regular and the other singular, is shown. The emergence of edge effects deeply penetrating into the plate is revealed in the presence of torque applied to the edge, which has a significant effect not only on the stress-strain state of the binder material, but also on the structure of reinforcement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.
1992-01-01
The results of in-plane four-point bend experiments on unidirectionally reinforced composite beams are presented for graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and graphite/polyimide (G30-500/PMR-15) composites. The maximum load and the location of cracks formed during failure were measured for testpieces with fibers oriented at various angles to the beam axis. Since most of the beams failed near one or more of the load points, the strength of the beams was evaluated in terms of a proposed model, for the local stress distribution. In this model, an exact solution to the problem of a localized contact force acting on a unidirectionally reinforced half plane is used to describe the local stress field. The stress singularity at the load points is treated in a manner similar to the stress singularity at a crack tip in fracture mechanisms problems. Using this approach, the effect of fiber angle and elastic material properties on the strength of the beam is described in terms of a load intensity factor. For fiber angles less than 45 deg from the beam axis, a single crack is initiated near one of the load points at a critical value of the load intensity factor. The critical load intensity factor decreases with the increasing fiber angle. For larger fiber angles, multiple cracks occur at locations both near and away from the load points, and the load intensity factor at failure increases sharply with increasing fiber angle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Binienda, W. K.; Roberts, G. D.; Papadopoulos, D. S.
1992-01-01
The results of in-plane four-point bend experiments on unidirectionally reinforced composite beams are presented for graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and graphite/polyimide (G30-500/PMR-15) composites. The maximum load and the location of cracks formed during failure were measured for testpieces with fibers oriented at various angles to the beam axis. Since most of the beams failed near one or more of the load points, the strength of the beams was evaluated in terms of a proposed model for the local stress distribution. In this model, an exact solution to the problem of a localized contact force acting on a unidirectionally reinforced half plane is used to describe the local stress field. The stress singularity at the load points is treated in a manner similar to the stress singularity at a crack tip in fracture mechanisms problems. Using this approach, the effect of fiber angle and elastic material properties on the strength of the beam is described in terms of a load intensity factor. For fiber angles less than 45 deg from the beam axis, a single crack is initiated near one of the load points at a critical value of the load intensity factor. The critical load intensity factor decreases with increasing fiber angle. For larger fiber angles, multiple cracks occur at locations both near and away from the load points, and the load intensity factor at failure increases sharply with increasing fiber angle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Binienda, W. K.; Roberts, G. D.; Papadopoulos, D. S.
1992-01-01
The results of in-plane four-point bend experiments on unidirectionally reinforced composite beams are presented for graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and graphite/polyimide (G30-500/PMR-15) composites. The maximum load and the location of cracks formed during failure were measured for testpieces with fibers oriented at various angles to the beam axis. Since most of the beams failed near one or more of the load points, the strength of the beams was evaluated in terms of a proposed model for the local stress distribution. In this model, an exact solution to the problem of a localized contact force acting on a unidirectionally reinforced half plane is used to describe the local stress field. The stress singularity at the load points is treated in a manner similar to the stress singularity at a crack tip in fracture mechanisms problems. Using this approach, the effect of fiber angle and elastic material properties on the strength of the beam is described in terms of a load intensity factor. For fiber angles less than 45 deg from the beam axis, a single crack is initiated near one of the load points at a critical value of the load intensity factor. The critical load intensity factor decreases with increasing fiber angle. For larger fiber angles, multiple cracks occur at locations both near and away from the load points, and the load intensity factor at failure increases sharply with increasing fiber angle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jung Jin; Na, Suok-Min; Raghunath, Ganesh; Flatau, Alison B.
2016-05-01
Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are promising materials for use in bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters. For this study, 50.8 mm × 5.0 mm × 0.5 mm strips of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al were cut from 0.50-mm thick rolled sheet. An atmospheric anneal was used to develop a Goss texture through an abnormal grain growth process. The anneal lead to large (011) grains that covered over 90% of sample surface area. The resulting highly-textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al strips exhibited saturation magnetostriction values (λsat = λ∥ - λ⊥) of ˜280 ppm and ˜130 ppm, respectively. To maximize 90° rotation of magnetic moments during bending of the strips, we employed compressive stress annealing (SA). Samples were heated to 500°C, and a 100-150 MPa compressive stress was applied while at 500°C for 30 minutes and while being cooled. The effectiveness of the SA on magnetic moment rotation was inferred by comparing post-SA magnetostriction with the maximum possible yield of rotated magnetic moments, which is achieved when λ∥ = λsat and λ⊥ = 0. The uniformity of the SA along the sample length and the impact of the SA on sensing/energy harvesting performance were then assessed by comparing pre- and post-SA bending-stress-induced changes in magnetization at five different locations along the samples. The SA process with a 150 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Ga actuation along the sample length from 170 to 225 ppm (from ˜60% to within ˜80% of λsat). The corresponding sensing/energy harvesting performance improved by as much as a factor of eight in the best sample, however the improvement was not at all uniform along the sample length. The SA process with a 100 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Al actuation along the sample length from 60 to 73 ppm (from ˜46% to ˜56% of λsat, indicating only a marginally effective SA and suggesting the need for modification of the SA protocol. In spite of this, the SA was effective at improving the sensing/energy harvesting
Gentzler, Marc; Stader, Sally
2010-01-01
These ergonomic evaluations analyze the threat of musculoskeletal injuries primarily due to awkward and extreme postures across two post-fire tasks and a patient care task. The participants were firefighters and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in an urban U.S. fire department. Ergonomic tools used for the evaluation included the National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and anthropometric measurements of equipment and persons. High to very high risks were found for lifting the hose above the shoulder to drain it of excess water and for rolling the hoses on the ground. Extreme risk was found for lifting the hose from chest height to above the shoulders during hose drainage. High risk was found for EMT patient care tasks that require reaching for overhead equipment or seated tasks that require horizontal bending and twisting. The risk was high enough for these tasks to warrant modification and changes. The recommendations given included creating new mechanical and technical devices, modifying existing devises, and making workers aware of associated risks to reduce the threat of injury.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baek, Tae Hyun
Photoelasticity is one of the most widely used whole-field optical methods for stress analysis. The technique of birefringent coatings, also called the method of photoelastic coatings, extends the classical procedures of model photoelasticity to the measurement of surface strains in opaque models made of any structural material. Photoelastic phase-shifting method can be used for the determination of the phase values of isochromatics and isoclinics. In this paper, photoelastic phase-shifting technique and conventional Babinet-Soleil compensation method were utilized to analyze a specimen with a triangular hole and a circular hole under bending. Photoelastic phase-shifting technique is whole-field measurement. On the other hand, conventional compensation method is point measurement. Three groups of results were obtained by phase-shifting method with reflective polariscope arrangement, conventional compensation method and FEM simulation, respectively. The results from the first two methods agree with each other relatively well considering experiment error. The advantage of photoelastic phase-shifting method is that it is possible to measure the stress distribution accurately close to the edge of holes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoff, N J; Libby, Paul A; Klein, Bertran
1946-01-01
This report deals with the calculation of the bending moments in and the distortions of fuselage rings upon which known concentrated and distributed loads are acting. In the procedure suggested, the ring is divided into a number of beams each having a constant radius of curvature. The forces and moments caused in the end sections of the beams by individual unit displacements of the end sections are listed in a table designated as the operations table in conformity with Southwell's nomenclature. The operations table and the external loads are equivalent to a set of linear equations. For their solution the following three procedures are presented: 1) Southwell's method of systematic relaxations. This is a step-by-step approximation procedure guided by the physical interpretation of the changes in the values of the unknown. 2) The growing unit procedure in which the individual beams are combined successively into beams of increasing length until finally the entire ring becomes a single beam. In each step of the procedure a set of not more than three simultaneous linear equations is solved. 3) Solution of the entire set of simultaneous equations by the methods of the matrix calculus. In order to demonstrate the manner in which the calculations may be carried out, the following numerical examples are worked out: 1) Curved beam with both its end sections rigidly fixed. The load is a concentrated force. 2) Egg-shape ring with symmetric concentrated loads. 3) Circular ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 4) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. 5) Egg-shape ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 6) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. The results of these calculations are checked, whenever possible, by calculations carried out according to known methods of analysis. The agreement is found to be good. The amount of work necessary for the solution of ring problems by
Bending fracture in carbon nanotubes.
Kuo, Wen-Shyong; Lu, Hsin-Fang
2008-12-10
A novel approach was adopted to incur bending fracture in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Expanded graphite (EG) was made by intercalating and exfoliating natural graphite flakes. The EG was deposited with nickel particles, from which CNTs were grown by chemical vapor deposition. The CNTs were tip-grown, and their roots were fixed on the EG flakes. The EG flakes were compressed, and many CNTs on the surface were fragmented due to the compression-induced bending. Two major modes of the bending fracture were observed: cone-shaped and shear-cut. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the crack growth within the graphene layers. The bending fracture is characterized by two-region crack growth. An opening crack first appears around the outer-tube due to the bending-induced tensile stress. The crack then branches to grow along an inclined direction toward the inner-tube due to the presence of the shear stress in between graphene layers. An inner-tube pullout with inclined side surface is formed. The onset and development of the crack in these two regions are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoff, N J; Boley, Bruno A
1946-01-01
Ten 24S-T alclad cylinders of 20-inch diameter, 45- or 58-inch length, and 0.012-inch wall thickness, reinforced with 24S-T aluminum alloy stringers and rings were tested in pure bending. In the middle of the compression side of the cylinders there was a cutout extending over 19 inches in the longitudinal direction, and over an angle of 45 degrees, 90 degrees, or 135 degrees in the circumferential direction. The strain in the stringers and in the sheet covering was measured with metal electric strain gages. The stress distribution in the cylinders deviate considerably from the linear law valid for cylinders without a cutout. The maximum strain measured was about four-thirds of the value calculated from the Mc/I formula when I was taken as the moment of inertia of the cross section of the portion of the cylinder where the cutout was situated. A diagram is presented containing the strain factors defined as the ratios of measured strain to strain calculated with the Mc/I formula. All the 10 cylinders tested failed in general instability. Two symmetric and one antisymmetric pattern of buckling were observed and the buckling load appeared to be independent of the method of manufacture and the length of the cylinder. The buckling load of the cylinders having cutouts extending over 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 135 degrees was 66, 47, and 31 percent, respectively, of the buckling load of the cylinder without a cutout.
Characterization of the Seismic Stress/Strain Fields Around the Bend of the Western/Central Alps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sue, C.; Delacou, B.; Champagnac, J.; Allanic, C.; Burkhard, M.
2004-12-01
The western Alps tectonic regime is characterized by ongoing widespread extension in the highest zones of the belt and transpressive/compressive tectonics at the external limits of the belt [Sue et al., 1999, Delacou et al, 2004]. This contrasted tectonics is examined using a global synthesis of 389 reliable focal mechanisms covering the whole belt. In term of deformation state, an original method of regionalization allowed us to precisely map the different tectonic modes in the belt. Extension appears as the main feature of the current activity in the western Alps, and affects their inner areas as a whole, following the arcuate geometry of the chain. Shortening is limited to local areas at the outer limits of the chain. Strike-slip is observed in the whole alpine realm. In term of stress analysis, we inverted the whole database of focal mechanisms in homogeneous areas determined using our regionalization analysis. The stress state is confirmed to be radial both concerning s3 in the inner extensional zones, and s1 in the outer transcurrent/tranpressional zones. Extensional areas are correlated with the part of the belt which presents the thickest crust, as shown by the comparison with the Bouguer anomaly map and the smoothed topography of the belt. The overall geodetic strain corresponds also to a radial extension across the western Alps [Calais et al., 2002]. Indeed, there is a quite good qualitative coherency between seismotectonic and geodetic approaches. To compare the seismic strain with the overall geodetic strain, we attempted to quantify the seismic part of the deformation. We used the regionalization of the seismic deformation to determine sub-areas of tectonically homogeneous seismic strain. In each sub-area, we computed the total seismic moment tensor, and the associated yearly seismic strain rate. This rate allows to compare different areas of the belt, in which the seismic catalogue may cover various range of time. Thus we can estimate the seismic
Bend Properties of Sapphire Fibers at Elevated Temperatures. 1; Bend Survivability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morscher, Gregory N.; Sayir, Haluk
1995-01-01
The effect of temperature on the bend radius that a c-axis-oriented sapphire fiber can withstand was determined for fibers of various diameter. Bend stress rupture tests were performed for times of 1-100 h and temperatures of 300-1700 C. Fibers would survive the bend test undeformed, would fracture or would deform. The bend survival radius was determined to be the radius above which no fibers fractured or deformed for a given time-temperature treatment. It was found that the ability of fibers to withstand curvature decreases substantially with time and increasing temperature and that fibers of smaller diameter (46-83 micron) withstood smaller bend radii than would be expected from just a difference in fiber diameter when compared with the bend results of the fibers of large diameter (144 micron). This was probably due to different flaw populations, causing high temperature bend failure for the tested sapphire fibers of different diameters.
Reversal bending fatigue testing
Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting
2014-10-21
Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.
A study on springback of bending linear flow split profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahajan, P.; Taplick, C.; Özel, M.; Groche, P.
2016-11-01
The bending of linear flow split profiles made up of high strength materials involves high bending loads leading to high springback and geometrical defects. In addition, the linear flow split profiles are made stronger due to the high plastic deformation applied by the process itself. The bending method proposed in this paper combines the linear flow splitting process with a movable bending tool. The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of superimposed stresses exerted by the linear flow splitting process on bending load and springback of the profile by using a finite element model. The latter was validated by means of experimental results. The results show that the bending loads and the springback were reduced by increasing the superposition of stress applied by the linear flow splitting process. The reduction in the bending loads leads to a reduction in the cross-sectional distortion. Furthermore, the springback was compensated by controlling the amount of superimposed stress.
Compliance measurements of chevron notched four point bend specimen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calomino, Anthony; Bubsey, Raymond; Ghosn, Louis J.
1994-01-01
The experimental stress intensity factors for various chevron notched four point bend specimens are presented. The experimental compliance is verified using the analytical solution for a straight through crack four point bend specimen and the boundary integral equation method for one chevron geometry. Excellent agreement is obtained between the experimental and analytical results. In this report, stress intensity factors, loading displacements and crack mouth opening displacements are reported for different crack lengths and different chevron geometries, under four point bend loading condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oka, Mohachiro; Yakushiji, Terutoshi; Enokizono, Masato
2017-02-01
To prevent injury from metal degradation of structural metallic material such as stainless steel, we have previously proposed fatigue evaluation methods such as the remnant magnetization method and the inductance method. These fatigue evaluation methods showed a positive correlation between the magnetic sensor output signal and the amount of the plane-bending fatigue damage in stainless steel. In this study, a stacked-coil type magnetic sensor was used to evaluate the accuracy of the plane-bending fatigue damage of austenite stainless steel such as SUS304 (ANSI304). The principle of the stacked-coil type magnetic sensor is based on an eddy-current test method. This magnetic sensor was composed of a pick-up coil, an excitation coil, and a Mn-Zn ferrite core. The pick-up coil was composed of two bobbin type coils that were connected differentially. Moreover, the amplitude and the phase angle of the output voltage of the pick-up coil were used to evaluate the amount of the plane-bending fatigue damage of SUS304. Results demonstrated a close correlation between the amplitude and the phase angle of the stacked-coil type magnetic sensor output voltage and the plane-bending fatigue damage of SUS304.
Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires.
Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Lerose, Damiana; Bochmann, Arne; Christiansen, Silke H; Nietzsche, Sandor; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten
2011-05-06
Ion beams can be used to permanently bend and re-align nanowires after growth. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with energetic ions, achieving bending and alignment in different directions. Not only the bending of single nanowires is studied in detail, but also the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires. Computer simulations reveal how the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Detailed structural characterization identifies dislocations to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent, even surviving annealing procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Ann
2008-01-01
Gee's Bend is a small community near Selma, Alabama where cotton plantations filled the land before the Civil War. After the war, the freed slaves of the plantations worked as tenant farmers and founded an African-American community. In 2002, the women of this community brought international attention and acclaim to Gee's Bend through the art of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Ann
2008-01-01
Gee's Bend is a small community near Selma, Alabama where cotton plantations filled the land before the Civil War. After the war, the freed slaves of the plantations worked as tenant farmers and founded an African-American community. In 2002, the women of this community brought international attention and acclaim to Gee's Bend through the art of…
Microhole Tubing Bending Report
Oglesby, Ken
2012-01-01
A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).
Occipital bending in schizophrenia.
Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B
2017-01-01
To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costen, Robert C.; Su, Ji
2004-01-01
Bending actuators of a proposed type would partly resemble ordinary bending actuators, but would include simple additional components that would render them capable of exerting large forces at small displacements. Like an ordinary bending actuator, an actuator according to the proposal would include a thin rectangular strip that would comprise two bonded layers (possibly made of electroactive polymers with surface electrodes) and would be clamped at one end in the manner of a cantilever beam. Unlike an ordinary bending actuator, the proposed device would include a rigid flat backplate that would support part of the bending strip against backward displacement; because of this feature, the proposed device is called a backed bending actuator. When an ordinary bending actuator is inactive, the strip typically lies flat, the tip displacement is zero, and the force exerted by the tip is zero. During activation, the tip exerts a transverse force and undergoes a bending displacement that results from the expansion or contraction of one or more of the bonded layers. The tip force of an ordinary bending actuator is inversely proportional to its length; hence, a long actuator tends to be weak. The figure depicts an ordinary bending actuator and the corresponding backed bending actuator. The bending, the tip displacement (d(sub t)), and the tip force (F) exerted by the ordinary bending actuator are well approximated by the conventional equations for the loading and deflection of a cantilever beam subject to a bending moment which, in this case, is applied by the differential expansion or contraction of the bonded layers. The bending, displacement, and tip force of the backed bending actuator are calculated similarly, except that it is necessary to account for the fact that the force F(sub b) that resists the displacement of the tip could be sufficient to push part of the strip against the backplate; in such a condition, the cantilever beam would be effectively shortened
Contactless laser bending of silicon microstructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Exner, Horst; Loschner, Udo
2003-04-01
We are going to present a new technology for laser bending of silicon microstructures based upon a suggestion of and carried out in cooperation with Prof. Dr. J. Fr'hauf from the Technical University Chemnitz (see acknowledgement). We investigated the influence of various laser process parameters on the bending angle and its reproducibility. Bending of the silicon element as a result of the laser induced thermal stresses in the material occurs toward the incident laser beam. The bending angle depends on a lot of laser process and material parameters. In particular we found that the irra-diation regime is well suited to control the bending angle. First substantial FEM based calculations of laser induced temperature fields using a moving laser heat source show the temperature field propagation in the material and reveal some regions of complicated overheating. As a result of our experiments we show a variety of examples including mul-tiple and also continuous bendings. There are several essential advantages compared to conventional bending technologies with this new method: Laser bending is contactless without using additional tools or external forces. Because of the local laser treatment the heat flux to the neighbouring material is minimized. The laser beam can be applied through windows of glass that means to al-most hermetically sealed micro devices. So laser technology is suitable for machining of already finished microsystems. It opens up a wide field of applications in micro system technologies: clip-chip-mechanism or sliding chips for micro optical benches, the adjustment of optical mirrors or other components or the ability of continuous bending for electro-static drives and so on.
A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor.
Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao
2016-05-01
Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.
A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao
2016-05-01
Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.
Peeling, sliding, pulling and bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lister, John; Peng, Gunnar
2015-11-01
The peeling of an elastic sheet away from thin layer of viscous fluid is a simply-stated and generic problem, that involves complex interactions between the flow and elastic deformation on a range of length scales. Consider an analogue of capillary spreading, where a blister of injected viscous fluid spreads due to tension in the overlying elastic sheet. Here the tension is coupled to the deformation of the sheet, and thus varies in time and space. A key question is whether or not viscous shear stresses ahead of the blister are sufficient to prevent the sheet sliding inwards and relieving the tension. Our asymptotic analysis reveals a dichotomy between fast and slow spreading, and between two-dimensional and axisymmetric spreading. In combination with bending stresses and gravity, which may dominate parts of the flow but not others, there is a plethora of dynamical regimes.
Peeling, sliding, pulling and bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lister, John; Peng, Gunnar
2016-11-01
The peeling of an elastic sheet away from thin layer of viscous fluid is a simply-stated and generic problem, that involves complex interactions between the flow and elastic deformation on a range of length scales. Consider an analogue of capillary spreading, where a blister of injected viscous fluid spreads due to tension in the overlying elastic sheet. Here the tension is coupled to the deformation of the sheet, and thus varies in time and space. A key question is whether or not viscous shear stresses ahead of the blister are sufficient to prevent the sheet sliding inwards and relieving the tension. Our asymptotic analysis reveals a dichotomy between fast and slow spreading, and between two-dimensional and axisymmetric spreading. In combination with bending stresses and gravity, which may dominate parts of the flow but not others, there is a plethora of dynamical regimes.
Plastic properties of matrix composites in bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novikov, V. V.; Papkovskaya, O. B.
1997-11-01
Using the methods of integrated cross-sections and elastic solutions, we solve an elastico-plastic problem of bending of a Kirchhoff inhomogeneous square plate. The elastico-plastic properties and the effective yield stress of the inhomogeneous plate are calculated on an electronic computer. The computational results form the basis for a qualitative analysis and for the conclusions made.
Torsion and bending of prismatic rods of hollow rectangular section
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abramyan, B L
1951-01-01
The torsion and bending of hollow rectangular beams was investigated without the requirement that wall thickness be small compared with the transverse dimensions. The limits of applicability of the usual Bredt formula are indicated for the case of a square hollow tube in torsion. Formulas are given for bending stresses at different parts of the cross section of a hollow rectangular beam.
Dispersion suppressors with bending
Garren, A.
1985-10-01
Dispersion suppressors of two main types are usually used. In one the cell quadrupole focussing structure is the same as in normal cells but some of the dipoles are replaced by drifts. In the other, the quadrupole strengths and/or spacings are different from those of the normal cells, but the bending is about the same as it is in the cells. In SSC designs to date, dispersion suppressors of the former type have been used, consisting of two cells with bending equivalent to one. In this note a suppressor design with normal bending and altered focussing is presented. The advantage of this scheme is that circumference is reduced. The disadvantages are that additional special quadrupoles must be provided (however, they need not be adjustable), and the maximum beta values within them are about 30% higher than the cell maxima.
Study on bending fretting fatigue damage in 17CrNiMo6 steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, J. F.; Jin, X.; Xu, Z. B.; Cai, Z. B.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhu, M. H.
2017-07-01
Bending fretting fatigue behavior of 17CrNiMo6 alloy structural steel at room temperature was investigated under different bending and contact loads; and the S-N curve also was built up. The results showed that the S-N curve had a “C” shape. The bending fretting fatigue life was mainly dependent on the bending fatigue stress and fretting displacement. The limit of the specimens and the fretting fatigue life were dramatically decreased by fretting actions. The bending fretting fatigue damage changed under varied bending fatigue stress levels. When the wear first occurred, there is a lower bending fatigue stress; and with a higher bending fatigue load, microcracks were generated. However, some serious wear and surface delamination were observed under the highest fatigue load.
Occipital bending in depression.
Maller, Jerome J; Thomson, Richard H S; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Anderson, Rodney; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B
2014-06-01
There are reports of differences in occipital lobe asymmetry within psychiatric populations when compared with healthy control subjects. Anecdotal evidence and enlarged lateral ventricles suggests that there may also be a different pattern of curvature whereby one occipital lobe wraps around the other, termed 'occipital bending'. We investigated the prevalence of occipital bending in 51 patients with major depressive disorder (males mean age = 41.96 ± 14.00 years, females mean age = 40.71 ± 12.41 years) and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (males mean age = 40.29 ± 10.23 years, females mean age = 42.47 ± 14.25 years) and found the prevalence to be three times higher among patients with major depressive disorder (18/51, 35.3%) when compared with control subjects (6/48, 12.5%). The results suggest that occipital bending is more common among patients with major depressive disorder than healthy subjects, and that occipital asymmetry and occipital bending are separate phenomena. Incomplete neural pruning may lead to the cranial space available for brain growth being restricted, or ventricular enlargement may exacerbate the natural occipital curvature patterns, subsequently causing the brain to become squashed and forced to 'wrap' around the other occipital lobe. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, they provide an impetus for further research into the relevance of occipital bending in major depression disorder. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Probing the elastic limit of DNA bending.
Le, Tung T; Kim, Harold D
2014-01-01
Sharp bending of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) plays an essential role in genome structure and function. However, the elastic limit of dsDNA bending remains controversial. Here, we measured the opening rates of small dsDNA loops with contour lengths ranging between 40 and 200 bp using single-molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer. The relationship of loop lifetime to loop size revealed a critical transition in bending stress. Above the critical loop size, the loop lifetime changed with loop size in a manner consistent with elastic bending stress, but below it, became less sensitive to loop size, indicative of softened dsDNA. The critical loop size increased from ∼ 60 bp to ∼ 100 bp with the addition of 5 mM magnesium. We show that our result is in quantitative agreement with the kinkable worm-like chain model, and furthermore, can reproduce previously reported looping probabilities of dsDNA over the range between 50 and 200 bp. Our findings shed new light on the energetics of sharply bent dsDNA.
An analytical study on the bending of prismatic SMA beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Arghavani, Jamal; Poorasadion, Saeid
2015-12-01
In this study, an analytical solution is presented for pure bending of shape memory alloy (SMA) beams with symmetric cross section as well as symmetric behavior in tension and compression. To this end, a three-dimensional constitutive equation is reduced to one-dimensional form and employed to study the bending response of SMA beams at high (pseudo-elasticity) and low (shape memory effect) temperatures. An analytical expression for bending stress as well as polynomial approximation for shear stress and deflection are obtained. Derived equations for bending are employed to analyze an SMA beam with rectangular cross section and results are compared with those of the finite element method. The results of this work show good agreement when compared with experimental data and finite element results. Furthermore, the existence of several zero-stress fibers during unloading of SMA beams at low temperature is demonstrated.
Strong bending of the DNA double helix
Vologodskii, Alexander; D. Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim
2013-01-01
During the past decade, the issue of strong bending of the double helix has attracted a lot of attention. Here, we overview the major experimental and theoretical developments in the field sorting out reliably established facts from speculations and unsubstantiated claims. Theoretical analysis shows that sharp bends or kinks have to facilitate strong bending of the double helix. It remains to be determined what is the critical curvature of DNA that prompts the appearance of the kinks. Different experimental and computational approaches to the problem are analyzed. We conclude that there is no reliable evidence that any anomalous behavior of the double helix happens when DNA fragments in the range of 100 bp are circularized without torsional stress. The anomaly starts at the fragment length of about 70 bp when sharp bends or kinks emerge in essentially every molecule. Experimental data and theoretical analysis suggest that kinks may represent openings of isolated base pairs, which had been experimentally detected in linear DNA molecules. The calculation suggests that although the probability of these openings in unstressed DNA is close to 10−5, it increases sharply in small DNA circles reaching 1 open bp per circle of 70 bp. PMID:23677618
Strong bending of the DNA double helix.
Vologodskii, Alexander; Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim D
2013-08-01
During the past decade, the issue of strong bending of the double helix has attracted a lot of attention. Here, we overview the major experimental and theoretical developments in the field sorting out reliably established facts from speculations and unsubstantiated claims. Theoretical analysis shows that sharp bends or kinks have to facilitate strong bending of the double helix. It remains to be determined what is the critical curvature of DNA that prompts the appearance of the kinks. Different experimental and computational approaches to the problem are analyzed. We conclude that there is no reliable evidence that any anomalous behavior of the double helix happens when DNA fragments in the range of 100 bp are circularized without torsional stress. The anomaly starts at the fragment length of about 70 bp when sharp bends or kinks emerge in essentially every molecule. Experimental data and theoretical analysis suggest that kinks may represent openings of isolated base pairs, which had been experimentally detected in linear DNA molecules. The calculation suggests that although the probability of these openings in unstressed DNA is close to 10(-5), it increases sharply in small DNA circles reaching 1 open bp per circle of 70 bp.
Active vibration control of structures undergoing bending vibrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor)
1995-01-01
An active vibration control subassembly for a structure (such as a jet engine duct or a washing machine panel) undergoing bending vibrations caused by a source (such as the clothes agitator of the washing machine) independent of the subassembly. A piezoceramic actuator plate is vibratable by an applied electric AC signal. The plate is connected to the structure such that vibrations in the plate induced by the AC signal cause canceling bending vibrations in the structure and such that the plate is compressively pre-stressed along the structure when the structure is free of any bending vibrations. The compressive prestressing increases the amplitude of the canceling bending vibrations before the critical tensile stress level of the plate is reached. Preferably, a positive electric DC bias is also applied to the plate in its poling direction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
Saturn's rings appear strangely warped in this view of the rings seen through the upper Saturn atmosphere.
The atmosphere acts like a lens in refracting (bending) the light reflected from the rings. As the rings pass behind the overexposed limb (edge) of Saturn as seen from Cassini, the ring structure appears to curve downward due to the bending of the light as it passes through the upper atmosphere.
This image was obtained using a near-infrared filter. The filter samples a wavelength where methane gas does not absorb light, thus making the far-off rings visible through the upper atmosphere.
By comparing this image to similar ones taken using filters where methane gas does absorb, scientists can estimate the vertical profile of haze and the abundance of methane in Saturn's high atmosphere.
The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on April 14, 2005, through a filter sensitive to wavelengths of infrared light centered at 938 nanometers and at a distance of approximately 197,000 kilometers (123,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 820 meters (2,680 feet) per pixel.
Damage Analysis of Rectangular Section Composite Beam under Pure Bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yiping; Xiao, Fan; Liu, Zejia; Tang, Liqun; Fang, Daining
2013-02-01
Laminated composite beams are commonly used in engineering applications involving macro to nano structures. Based on the assumption that plain sections remain plain after deformation, this paper analyzes stress distributions in cross-ply laminated composite beams with rectangular cross-sections, and formulates the basic damage equations through Kachanov's damage definition and Janson's failure criterion. The location of the neutral axis and the ultimate bending moment are obtained for pure bending cases. The effect of the elastic modulus of the two layers on the damage evolution is analyzed; a reasonable damage composite beam model is proposed to predict the ultimate bending moment.
Light bending in radiation background
Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Taekoon E-mail: tlee@kunsan.ac.kr
2014-01-01
We consider the velocity shift of light in presence of radiation emitted by a black body. Within geometric optics formalism we calculate the bending angle of a light ray when there is a gradient in the energy density. We model the bending for two simplified cases. The bending angle is proportional to the inverse square power of the impact parameter (∝1/b{sup 2}) when the dilution of energy density is spherically symmetric. The bending angle is inversely proportional to the impact parameter (∝1/b) when the energy density dilutes cylindrically. Assuming that a neutron star is an isothermal black body, we estimate the order of magnitude for such bending angle and compare it with the bending angle by magnetic field.
Calibration of combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability data reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kececioglu, D.; Mcconnell, J. B.
1969-01-01
The combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability research machines are described. Three such machines are presently in operation. The calibration of these machines is presented in depth. Fatigue data generated with these machines for SAE 4340 steel grooved specimens subjected to reversed bending and steady torque loading are given. The data reduction procedure is presented. Finally, some comments are made about notch sensitivity and stress concentration as applied to combined fatigue.
Courant, E.D.; Garren, A.
1985-10-01
The phase shifting trombones considered up to now for SSC application consisted of sets of evenly spaced quadrupoles separated by drift spaces. One such trombone was placed between a dispersion suppressor and a crossing insertion, so that the trombone had zero dispersion. With such trombones, it is possible to change {beta}{sup *} at constant tune, or to change the tunes by several units without altering the cell phase advances in the arcs. An objection to the above type of phase trombone is that it adds to the circumference, since no bending is included. This objection may or may not be valid depending on the potential usefulness of the drift spaces in them. In this note the authors show an alternative trombone design in which dipoles are included between the quadrupoles as in the normal arc cells. Since these trombones have dispersion, they are placed at the ends of the arcs, to be followed in turn by the dispersion suppressors and crossing insertions.
Tension bending ratcheting tests of 304 stainless steel
Larson, L.D.; Jones, D.P.; Rapp, D.G.
1996-12-31
This paper discusses results of an experimental program conducted to investigate the strain ratcheting behavior of 304 stainless steel under various combinations of applied membrane load and displacement controlled cyclic bending strain. Tests were performed on uniaxial specimens at temperatures of 70 F (21 C) and 550 F (288 C). Bending strain, ratchet strain and axial displacement of the specimens were monitored throughout the tests. Membrane stress to monotonic yield stress ratios of 2/3, 1/2, and 1/3 were tested with pseudo-elastic bending stress to yield stress ratios ranging from 1.4 to 10.7. Test output was in the form of plots of cumulative axial membrane strain versus cycles up to the point of shakedown, i.e., the point at which no additional progressive strain was observed. Shakedown was demonstrated in the 500 F tests but not the room temperature tests. The 550 F results are shown in terms of shakedown membrane strain versus equivalent bending stress ratio for each of the tested membrane stress ratios. The cyclic and monotonic stress-strain curves for the test materials are presented to enable the use of various models for predicting the ratcheting and shakedown behavior. The results may be used to develop improved ratcheting and shakedown rules permitting a relaxation of the traditional ratcheting rules in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
Beam bending via plasmonic lenses.
Zhao, Yanhui; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Kiraly, Brian; Hao, Qingzhen; Liu, Yanjun; Huang, Tony Jun
2010-10-25
We have designed and characterized three different types of plasmonic lenses that cannot only focus, but can also bend electromagnetic (EM) waves. The bending effect is achieved by constructing an asymmetric phase front caused by varying phase retardations in EM waves as they pass through a plasmonic lens. With an incident wave normal to the lens surface, light bends up to 8° off the axial direction. The optical wave propagation was numerically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Simulation results show that the proposed plasmonic lenses allow effective beam bending under both normal and tilted incidence. With their relatively large bending range and capability to perform in the far field, the plamsonic lenses described in this article could be valuable in applications such as photonic communication and plasmonic circuits.
A closed form large deformation solution of plate bending with surface effects.
Liu, Tianshu; Jagota, Anand; Hui, Chung-Yuen
2017-01-04
We study the effect of surface stress on the pure bending of a finite thickness plate under large deformation. The surface is assumed to be isotropic and its stress consists of a part that can be interpreted as a residual stress and a part that stiffens as the surface increases its area. Our results show that residual surface stress and surface stiffness can both increase the overall bending stiffness but through different mechanisms. For sufficiently large residual surface tension, we discover a new type of instability - the bending moment reaches a maximum at a critical curvature. Effects of surface stress on different stress components in the bulk of the plate are discussed and the possibility of self-bending due to asymmetry of the surface properties is also explored. The results of our calculations provide insights into surface stress effects in the large deformation regime and can be used as a test for implementation of finite element methods for surface elasticity.
What determines the bending strength of compact bone?
Currey, J D
1999-09-01
The bending strength of a wide variety of bony types is shown to be nearly linearly proportional to Young's modulus of elasticity/100. A somewhat closer and more satisfactory fit is obtained if account is taken of the variation of yield strain with Young's modulus. This finding strongly suggests that bending strength is determined by the yield strain. The yield stress in tension, which might be expected to predict the bending strength, underestimates the true bending strength by approximately 40 %. This may be explained by two phenomena. (1) The post-yield deformation of the bone material allows a greater bending moment to be exerted after the yield point has been reached, thereby increasing the strength as calculated from beam formulae. (2) Loading in bending results in a much smaller proportion of the volume of the specimens being raised to high stresses than is the case in tension, and this reduces the likelihood of a weak part of the specimen being loaded to failure.
2016-09-05
Saturn's rings appear to bend as they pass behind the planet's darkened limb due to refraction by Saturn's upper atmosphere. The effect is the same as that seen in an earlier Cassini view (see PIA20491), except this view looks toward the unlit face of the rings, while the earlier image viewed the rings' sunlit side. The difference in illumination brings out some noticeable differences. The A ring is much darker here, on the rings' unlit face, since its larger particles primarily reflect light back toward the sun (and away from Cassini's cameras in this view). The narrow F ring (at bottom), which was faint in the earlier image, appears brighter than all of the other rings here, thanks to the microscopic dust that is prevalent within that ring. Small dust tends to scatter light forward (meaning close to its original direction of travel), making it appear bright when backlit. (A similar effect has plagued many a driver with a dusty windshield when driving toward the sun.) This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from about 19 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in red light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 24, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 527,000 miles (848,000 kilometers) from Saturn and at a sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 169 degrees. Image scale is 3 miles (5 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20497
Boundary shear stress along rigid trapezoidal bends
Christopher I. Thornton; Kyung-Seop Sin; Paul Sclafani; Steven R. Abt
2012-01-01
The migration of alluvial channels through the geologic landform is an outcome of the natural erosive processes. Mankind continually attempts to stabilize channel meandering processes, both vertically and horizontally, to reduce sediment discharge, provide boundary definition, and enable economic development along the river's edge. A critical component in the...
Sheet Bending using Soft Tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinke, J.
2011-05-01
Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most
Mixed-Mode-Bending Delamination Apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crews, John H., Jr.; Reeder, James R.
1991-01-01
Mixed-mode-bending delamination apparatus generates two types of delamination stress simultaneously in specimen from single externally applied point load. In technique, indivial mode I and mode II contributions to delamination in specimen analyzed by use of simple beam-theory equations, eliminating need for time-consuming, difficult numerical analysis. Allows wider range of mode I/mode II ratios than possible with many other methods. Mixed-mode delamination testing of interest in all fields utilizing composite materials, used mostly in aerospace field, but also used in automobiles, lightweight armored military vehicles, boats, and sporting equipment. Useful in general lumber, plywood, and adhesive industries, as well.
Bending Instabilities of Carbon Nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silvestre, N.; Camotim, D.
This paper presents an investigation on the buckling behaviour of single-walled carbon nanotubes (NTs) under bending and unveils several aspects concerning the dependence of critical bending curvature on the NT length. The buckling results are obtained by means of non-linear shell finite element analyses using ABAQUS code. It is shown that eigenvalue analyses do not give a correct prediction of the critical curvature of NTs under bending. Conversely, incremental-iterative non-linear analyses provide a better approximation to the molecular dynamics results due to the progressive ovalization of the NT cross-section under bending. For short NTs, the limit curvature drops with the increasing length mostly due to the decreasing influence of end effects. For moderate to long tubes, the limit curvature remains practically constant and independent on the tube length. An approximate formula based on the Brazier expression is proposed to predict the limit curvature.
Analytical model for a polymer optical fiber under dynamic bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leal Junior, Arnaldo G.; Frizera, Anselmo; Pontes, Maria José
2017-08-01
Advantages such as sensibility in bending, high fracture toughness, and high sensibility in strain enable the application of polymer optical fibers as sensors for strain, temperature, level, and for angle measurements. In order to enhance the sensor design, this paper presents an analytical model for a side polished polymer optical fiber under dynamic bending. Differently from analytical models that use only the geometrical optics approach with no correction for the stress-optical effects, here the refractive index is corrected at every bending angle to consider the stress-optical effects observed polymer optical fibers. Furthermore, the viscoelastic response of the polymer is also considered. The model is validated in quasi-static and dynamic tests for a polymer optical fiber curvature sensor. Results show good agreement between the model and the experiments.
Passive, achromatic, nearly isochronous bending system
Douglas, David R.; Yunn, Byung C.
2004-05-18
A particle beam bending system having a geometry that applies active bending only beyond the chord of the orbit for any momentum component. Using this bending configuration, all momentum components emerge dispersed in position only; all trajectories are parallel by construction. Combining a pair of such bends with reflective symmetry produces a bend cell that is, by construction, achromatic to all orders. By the particular choice of 45.degree. individual bends, a pair of such achromats can be used as the basis of a 180.degree. recirculation arc. Other rational fractions of a full 180.degree. bend serve equally well (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.90.degree./bend.times.1 cell /arc; 2 bends/cell.times.30.degree./bend.times.3 cells/arc, etc), as do combinations of multiple bending numerologies (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.22.5.degree./bend.times.2 cells+2 bends/cell.times.45.degree./bend.times.1 cell). By the choice of entry pole face rotation of the first magnet and exit pole face rotation of the second magnet (with a value to be determined from the particular beam stability requirements imposed by the choice of bending angle and beam properties to be used in any particular application), desirable focusing properties can be introduced and beam stability can be insured.
Bending equation for a quasianisotropic plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shachnev, V. A.
2010-10-01
In the framework of the linear theory of elasticity, an exact bending equation is obtained for the median plane of a plate whose material is a monoclinic system with the axis of symmetry perpendicular to the plate plane. As an example, the equation of the median plane of an isotropic plate is considered; the operator of this equation coincides with the operator of Sophie Germain's approximate equation. As the plate thickness tends to zero, the right-hand side of the equation is asymptotically equivalent to the right-hand side of the approximate equation. In addition, equations relating the median plane transverse stresses and the total stresses in the plate boundary planes to the median plane deflexions are obtained.
Reducing stem bending increases the height growth of tall pines.
Meng, Shawn X; Lieffers, Victor J; Reid, Douglas E B; Rudnicki, Mark; Silins, Uldis; Jin, Ming
2006-01-01
The hypothesis was tested that upper limits to height growth in trees are the result of the increasing bending moment of trees as they grow in height. The increasing bending moment of tall trees demands increased radial growth at the expense of height growth to maintain mechanical stability. In this study, the bending moment of large lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. Ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) was reduced by tethering trees at 10 m height to counter the wind load. Average bending moment of tethered trees was reduced to 38% of control trees. Six years of tethering resulted in a 40% increase in height growth relative to the period before tethering. By contrast, control trees showed decreased height growth in the period after tethering treatment. Average radial growth along the bole, relative to height growth, was reduced in tethered trees. This strongly suggests that mechanical constraints play a crucial role in limiting the height growth of tall trees. Analysis of bending moment and basal area increment at both 10 m and 1.3 m showed that the amount of wood added to the stem was closely related to the bending moment produced at these heights, in both control and tethered trees. The tethering treatment also resulted in an increase in the proportion of latewood at the tethering height, relative to 1.3 m height. For untethered control trees, the ratio of bending stresses at 10 m versus 1.3 m height was close to 1 in both 1998 and 2003, suggesting a uniform stress distribution along the outer surface of the bole.
Velaga, Sitaram P; Vangala, Venu R; Basavoju, Srinivas; Boström, Dan
2010-05-28
Acesulfame is found to exist in two crystalline forms of which Form I (needles) shows bending upon mechanical stress. Crystal structures explain their mechanical response. This is the first case of aliphatic organic compounds featuring a bending phenomenon. Form I is physically more stable than Form II in ambient conditions.
Simulation of non-Newtonian oil-water core annular flow through return bends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Fan; Wang, Ke; Skote, Martin; Wong, Teck Neng; Duan, Fei
2017-07-01
The volume of fluid (VOF) model is used together with the continuum surface force (CSF) model to numerically simulate the non-Newtonian oil-water core annular flow across return bends. A comprehensive study is conducted to generate the profiles of pressure, velocity, volume fraction and wall shear stress for different oil properties, flow directions, and bend geometries. It is revealed that the oil core may adhere to the bend wall under certain operating conditions. Through the analysis of the total pressure gradient and fouling angle, suitable bend geometric parameters are identified for avoiding the risk of fouling.
Bending rules for animal propulsion.
Lucas, Kelsey N; Johnson, Nathan; Beaulieu, Wesley T; Cathcart, Eric; Tirrell, Gregory; Colin, Sean P; Gemmell, Brad J; Dabiri, John O; Costello, John H
2014-01-01
Animal propulsors such as wings and fins bend during motion and these bending patterns are believed to contribute to the high efficiency of animal movements compared with those of man-made designs. However, efforts to implement flexible designs have been met with contradictory performance results. Consequently, there is no clear understanding of the role played by propulsor flexibility or, more fundamentally, how flexible propulsors should be designed for optimal performance. Here we demonstrate that during steady-state motion by a wide range of animals, from fruit flies to humpback whales, operating in either air or water, natural propulsors bend in similar ways within a highly predictable range of characteristic motions. By providing empirical design criteria derived from natural propulsors that have convergently arrived at a limited design space, these results provide a new framework from which to understand and design flexible propulsors.
Method for uniformly bending conduits
Dekanich, S.J.
1984-04-27
The present invention is directed to a method for bending metal tubing through various radii while maintaining uniform cross section of the tubing. The present invention is practical by filling the tubing to a sufficient level with water, freezing the water to ice and bending the ice-filled tubing in a cooled die to the desired radius. The use of the ice as a filler material provides uniform cross-sectional bends of the tubing and upon removal of the ice provides an uncontaminated interior of the tubing which will enable it to be used in its intended application without encountering residual contaminants in the tubing due to the presence of the filler material.
Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface topography?
Lakshmoji, K.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S. Jayapandian, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sundar, C. S.
2014-01-27
We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface topography on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface topography shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface topography confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface topography.
Elastostatic bending of a bimaterial plate with a circular interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogbonna, Nkem
2015-08-01
The elastostatic bending of an arbitrarily loaded bimaterial plate with a circular interface is analysed. It is shown that the deflections in the composite solid are directly related to the deflection in the corresponding homogeneous material by integral and differential operators. It is further shown that, by a simple transformation of elastic constants, the Airy stress function induced in the composite by a stretching singularity can be deduced from the deflection induced by a bending singularity. This result is significant for reduction of mathematical labour and for systematic construction of solutions for more complex structures with circular geometry.
Bending Rules in Graphene Kirigami
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosso, Bastien F.; Mele, E. J.
2015-11-01
The three-dimensional shapes of graphene sheets produced by nanoscale cut-and-join kirigami are studied by combining large-scale atomistic simulations with continuum elastic modeling. Lattice segments are selectively removed from a graphene sheet, and the structure is allowed to close by relaxing in the third dimension. The surface relaxation is limited by a nonzero bending modulus which produces a smoothly modulated landscape instead of the ridge-and-plateau motif found in macroscopic lattice kirigami. The resulting surface shapes and their interactions are well described by a new set of microscopic kirigami rules that resolve the competition between bending and stretching energies.
Bending Rules in Graphene Kirigami.
Grosso, Bastien F; Mele, E J
2015-11-06
The three-dimensional shapes of graphene sheets produced by nanoscale cut-and-join kirigami are studied by combining large-scale atomistic simulations with continuum elastic modeling. Lattice segments are selectively removed from a graphene sheet, and the structure is allowed to close by relaxing in the third dimension. The surface relaxation is limited by a nonzero bending modulus which produces a smoothly modulated landscape instead of the ridge-and-plateau motif found in macroscopic lattice kirigami. The resulting surface shapes and their interactions are well described by a new set of microscopic kirigami rules that resolve the competition between bending and stretching energies.
Bending of floating flexible legs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Kun Joong; Kim, Ho-Young
When long thin flexible solid objects, such as the legs of water striders, disposable spoons and human hairs, are pressed against a liquid surface, they bend due to interfacial and hydrostatic forces. To understand the phenomenon, we study the bending of a sheet touching the liquid surface at an angle while clamped at the other end, to find its deflection and the load that the sheet can support before sinking. The theoretically predicted shapes of the sheet and the meniscus match well with experiments. Our theory shows that flexible sheets can support more load than rigid ones before sinking when the sheets are highly hydrophobic.
Compaction managed mirror bend achromat
Douglas, David [Yorktown, VA
2005-10-18
A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.
ZERODUR: bending strength data for etched surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, Peter; Leys, Antoine; Carré, Antoine; Kerz, Franca; Westerhoff, Thomas
2014-07-01
In a continuous effort since 2007 a considerable amount of new data and information has been gathered on the bending strength of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR®. By fitting a three parameter Weibull distribution to the data it could be shown that for homogenously ground surfaces minimum breakage stresses exist lying much higher than the previously applied design limits. In order to achieve even higher allowable stress values diamond grain ground surfaces have been acid etched, a procedure widely accepted as strength increasing measure. If surfaces are etched taking off layers with thickness which are comparable to the maximum micro crack depth of the preceding grinding process they also show statistical distributions compatible with a three parameter Weibull distribution. SCHOTT has performed additional measurement series with etch solutions with variable composition testing the applicability of this distribution and the possibility to achieve further increase of the minimum breakage stress. For long term loading applications strength change with time and environmental media are important. The parameter needed for prediction calculations which is combining these influences is the stress corrosion constant. Results from the past differ significantly from each other. On the basis of new investigations better information will be provided for choosing the best value for the given application conditions.
Experimentation and numerical modeling of forging induced bending (FIB) process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naseem, S.; van den Boogaard, A. H.
2016-10-01
Accurate prediction of the final shape using numerical modeling has been a top priority in the field of sheet and bulk forming. Better shape prediction is the result of a better estimation of the physical stress and strain state. For experimental and numerical investigations of such estimations, simple benchmark processes are used. In this paper a benchmark process involving forging (flattening) of sheet metal between punch and die with negative clearance is proposed. The introduced material flow results in bending. Easy measurability of the angle of this bend makes this process suitable for validation purpose. Physical experiments are performed to characterize this bending angle due to flattening. Furthermore a numerical model is developed to capture this phenomenon. The main focus of this paper is the validation of the numerical model in terms of accurate prediction of the physical results.
Contact and Bending Durability Calculation for Spiral-Bevel Gears
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vijayakar, Sandeep
2016-01-01
The objective of this project is to extend the capabilities of the gear contact analysis solver Calyx, and associated packages Transmission3D, HypoidFaceMilled, HypoidFaceHobbed. A calculation process for the surface durability was implemented using the Dowson-Higginson correlation for fluid film thickness. Comparisons to failure data from NASA's Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue rig were carried out. A bending fatigue calculation has been implemented that allows the use of the stress-life calculation at each individual fillet point. The gears in the NASA test rig did not exhibit any bending fatigue failure, so the bending fatigue calculations are presented in this report by using significantly lowered strength numbers.
Bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in germanium nanowires.
Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong-Min
2014-08-13
From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in the electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on the one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics and on the other the electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending the GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion.
Bending-induced Symmetry Breaking of Lithiation in Germanium Nanowires
Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.
2014-08-01
From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics, and on the other electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion.
The Influence of Secondary Bending on Fatigue Life Improvement in Bolted Joints
1993-08-01
Canberra) ASTA Engineering, Document Control Office Ansett Airlines of Australia, Library Qantas Airways Limit»! . Hawker de Havilland Aast Pty Ltd...320 MPa. The four non-bending specimens were tested at a net-area stress level of 350 MPa only. SPATE (Stress Pattern Analysis by measurement of...Lives A two-way analysis of variance of the fatigue data from the secondary-bending specimens (Table 4) indicated that cold expansion provides a
Hormonal regulation of gravitropic bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, X.; Cui, D.; Xu, X.; Hu, L.; Cai, W.
Gravitropic bending is an important subject in the research of plant Recent data support the basics of the Cholodny-Went hypothesis indicating that differential growth in gravitropism is due to redistribution of auxin to the lower sides of gravistimulated roots but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects So we carried a series of work surround the signals induced by auxin end center We found the endogenous signaling molecules nitric oxide NO and cGMP mediate responses to gravistimulation in primary roots of soybean Glycine max Horizontal orientation of soybean roots caused the accumulation of both NO and cGMP in the primary root tip Fluorescence confocal microcopy revealed that the accumulation of NO was asymmetric with NO concentrating in the lower side of the root Auxin induced NO accumulation in root protoplasts and asymmetric NO accumulation in root tips Gravistimulation NO and auxin also induced the accumulation of cGMP a response inhibited by removal of NO or by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase compounds that also reduced gravitropic bending Asymmetric NO accumulation and gravitropic bending were both inhibited by an auxin transport inhibitor and the inhibition of bending was overcome by treatment with NO or 8-bromo-cGMP a cell-permeable analog of cGMP These data indicate that auxin-induced NO and cGMP mediate gravitropic curvature in soybean roots From Hu et al Plant Physiol 2005 137 663-670 The asymmetric distribution of auxin plays a fundamental role in plant gravitropic bending
Bending of the looping heart: differential growth revisited.
Shi, Yunfei; Yao, Jiang; Xu, Gang; Taber, Larry A
2014-08-01
In the early embryo, the primitive heart tube (HT) undergoes the morphogenetic process of c-looping as it bends and twists into a c-shaped tube. Despite intensive study for nearly a century, the physical forces that drive looping remain poorly understood. This is especially true for the bending component, which is the focus of this paper. For decades, experimental measurements of mitotic rates had seemingly eliminated differential growth as the cause of HT bending, as it has commonly been thought that the heart grows almost exclusively via hyperplasia before birth and hypertrophy after birth. Recently published data, however, suggests that hypertrophic growth may play a role in looping. To test this idea, we developed finite-element models that include regionally measured changes in myocardial volume over the HT. First, models based on idealized cylindrical geometry were used to simulate the bending process in isolated hearts, which bend without the complicating effects of external loads. With the number of free parameters in the model reduced to the extent possible, stress and strain distributions were compared to those measured in embryonic chick hearts that were isolated and cultured for 24 h. The results show that differential growth alone yields results that agree reasonably well with the trends in our data, but adding active changes in myocardial cell shape provides closer quantitative agreement with stress measurements. Next, the estimated parameters were extrapolated to a model based on realistic 3D geometry reconstructed from images of an actual chick heart. This model yields similar results and captures quite well the basic morphology of the looped heart. Overall, our study suggests that differential hypertrophic growth in the myocardium (MY) is the primary cause of the bending component of c-looping, with other mechanisms possibly playing lesser roles.
Finite versus small strain discrete dislocation analysis of cantilever bending of single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irani, Nilgoon; Remmers, Joris J. C.; Deshpande, Vikram S.
2017-08-01
Plastic size effects in single crystals are investigated by using finite strain and small strain discrete dislocation plasticity to analyse the response of cantilever beam specimens. Crystals with both one and two active slip systems are analysed, as well as specimens with different beam aspect ratios. Over the range of specimen sizes analysed here, the bending stress versus applied tip displacement response has a strong hardening plastic component. This hardening rate increases with decreasing specimen size. The hardening rates are slightly lower when the finite strain discrete dislocation plasticity (DDP) formulation is employed as curving of the slip planes is accounted for in the finite strain formulation. This relaxes the back-stresses in the dislocation pile-ups and thereby reduces the hardening rate. Our calculations show that in line with the pure bending case, the bending stress in cantilever bending displays a plastic size dependence. However, unlike pure bending, the bending flow strength of the larger aspect ratio cantilever beams is appreciably smaller. This is attributed to the fact that for the same applied bending stress, longer beams have lower shear forces acting upon them and this results in a lower density of statistically stored dislocations.
Bend ductility of tungsten heavy alloys
Gurwell, W.E.; Garnich, M.R.; Dudder, G.B.; Lavender, C.A.
1992-11-01
A bend ductility test is used to indicate the formability of tungsten heavy alloys sheet. The primary test bends a notchless Charpy impact specimen to a bend angle of approximately 100C. This can be augmented by a bend-completion test. Finite element modeling as well as strain-gaged bend specimens elucidate the strain distribution in the specimen as a function of material thickness and bend angle. The bend ductilities of 70%W, 807.W and 90%W alloys are characterized. As expected, decreasing thickness or tungsten content enhances bend ductility. Oxidation is not detrimental; therefore, controlled atmosphere is not required for cooling. The potentially detrimental effects of mechanical working (e.g., rolling, roller-leveling, grit blasting, and peening) and machining (e.g., cutting and sanding) are illustrated.
Bend ductility of tungsten heavy alloys
Gurwell, W.E.; Garnich, M.R.; Dudder, G.B.; Lavender, C.A.
1992-11-01
A bend ductility test is used to indicate the formability of tungsten heavy alloys sheet. The primary test bends a notchless Charpy impact specimen to a bend angle of approximately 100C. This can be augmented by a bend-completion test. Finite element modeling as well as strain-gaged bend specimens elucidate the strain distribution in the specimen as a function of material thickness and bend angle. The bend ductilities of 70%W, 807.W and 90%W alloys are characterized. As expected, decreasing thickness or tungsten content enhances bend ductility. Oxidation is not detrimental; therefore, controlled atmosphere is not required for cooling. The potentially detrimental effects of mechanical working (e.g., rolling, roller-leveling, grit blasting, and peening) and machining (e.g., cutting and sanding) are illustrated.
Springback Analysis of U-bending with Bottoming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogawa, Takayuki; Yoshida, Fusahito
2011-08-01
The effect of bottoming on the reduction of springback was investigated by performing U-shaped bending experiments and corresponding 3D FE simulation on 590 MPa level high strength steel sheet. From experiments using three punch-die sets, each have different gaps between punch and die (0, 5 and 10% less than the sheet thickness) at punch corner, it was clarified that springback decreases with increasing bottoming load to some extent but a certain amount of springback remains even under a higher load. From 3D FE simulation of the bottoming on U-shaped bending, it was found that bending stresses at punch R-corner are much reduced by bottoming, but these stresses around the end of R-corner cannot be eliminated. This is a reason why complete elimination of springback by bottoming on U-bending is so difficult. Therefore, it would be recommended in actual press forming operations to apply a certain amount of bottoming load, but it should not be too large, for reduction of springback. Another important conclusion, found in the present study, is that an appropriate choice of material model is essential for accurate FE simulation of bottoming. Furthermore, deformation of punch/die slightly affects the springback. The best combination is the use of Yoshida-Uemori kinematic hardening law for material model and 3D deformable solid model for tools.
Bending loss of terahertz pipe waveguides.
Lu, Jen-Tang; Hsueh, Yu-Chun; Huang, Yu-Ru; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Sun, Chi-Kuang
2010-12-06
We present an experimental study on the bending loss of terahertz (THz) pipe waveguide. Bending loss of pipe waveguides is investigated for various frequencies, polarizations, core diameters, cladding thicknesses, and cladding materials. Our results indicate that the pipe waveguides with lower guiding loss suffer lower bending loss due to stronger mode confinement. The unexpected low bending loss in the investigated simple leaky waveguide structure promises variety of flexible applications.
Acoustic characteristics of circular bends in pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firth, D.; Fahy, F. J.
1984-11-01
The acoustic properties of circular bends in pipework systems are investigated by calculation of the mode shapes and propagation constants of the acoustic modes of the bend, the torus modes, and by evaluation of the transmission and reflection coefficients at a bend in an otherwise infinite straight pipe. The coefficients for the first three cylinder and torus modes are plotted against frequency for the case of a plane wave incident upon a 90° bend. The pipe walls are assumed to be rigid.
Improved Method Of Bending Concentric Pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schroeder, James E.
1995-01-01
Proposed method for bending two concentric pipes simultaneously while maintaining void between them replaces present tedious, messy, and labor-intensive method. Array of rubber tubes inserted in gap between concentric pipes. Tubes then inflated with relatively incompressible liquid to fill gap. Enables bending to be done faster and more cleanly, and amenable to automation of significant portion of bending process on computer numerically controlled (CNC) tube-bending machinery.
Steam-bending properties of southern pine
Truett J. Lemoine; Peter Koch
1971-01-01
Southern pine wood can be successfully steam-bent if the bending jig incorporates a flexible metal bending strap together with a mechanism to apply a uniform end compression load during the bending operation. With clear, 1/2- and 1-inch-thick southern pine at 17-percent moisture content, highest bending rating where obtained with fast-grown, vertical-grain, low-density...
FFAG lattice without opposite bends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trbojevic, Dejan; Courant, Ernest D.; Garren, Al
2000-08-01
A future "neutrino factory" or Muon Collider requires fast muon acceleration before the storage ring. Several alternatives for fast muon acceleration have previously been considered. One of them is the FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) synchrotron. The FFAG concept was developed in 1952 by K. R. Symon (ref. 1). The advantages of this design are the fixed magnetic field, large range of particle energy, simple RF; power supplies are simple, and there is no transition energy. But a drawback is that reverse bending magnets are included in the configuration; this increases the size and cost of the ring. Recently some modified FFAG lattice designs have been described where the amount of opposite bending was significantly reduced (ref. 2, ref. 3).
Interaction between bending and tension forces in bilayer membranes.
Secomb, T W
1988-01-01
A theoretical analysis is presented of the bending mechanics of a membrane consisting of two tightly-coupled leaflets, each of which shears and bends readily but strongly resists area changes. Structures of this type have been proposed to model biological membranes such as red blood cell membrane. It is shown that when such a membrane is bent, anisotropic components of resultant membrane tension (shear stresses) are induced, even when the tension in each leaflet is isotropic. The induced shear stresses increase as the square of the membrane curvature, and become significant for moderate curvatures (when the radius of curvature is much larger than the distance between the leaflets). This effect has implications for the analysis of shape and deformation of freely suspended and flowing red blood cells. PMID:3224154
Tsukada, Gakuji; Sueyoshi, Hidekazu; Kamibayashi, Hiroki; Tokuda, Masayuki; Torii, Mitsuo
2014-12-01
The purpose of this study was to fabricate functionally graded materials (FGMs) consisting of yttria-stabilised tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) and porcelain using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and examine the influence of their microstructures and thermal stress on their bending strengths. Two types of four-layered Y-TZP/porcelain FGMs having a constant layer thickness and a varying layer thickness, Y-TZP/porcelain composite materials having a microstructure corresponding to each layer in FGMs and monolithic materials of Y-TZP and porcelain were fabricated by SPS. The Y-TZP/porcelain volume fraction of each layer in FGMs was varied over 100/0-70/30. Three-point bending test, X-ray diffraction, density measurement, microstructure observation, and thermal stress estimation were performed to characterise the materials. The bending strength of the Y-TZP/porcelain composite materials decreased with the volume fraction of the porcelain. About FGMs, when the 100%Y-TZP layer was on the tensile stress side during the bending test, the bending strength was almost the same as that of the 100%Y-TZP monolithic material. On the other hand, when the 100%Y-TZP layer was on the compressive stress side, the bending strength of FGM having a constant layer thickness was almost the same as that of the 70%Y-TZP+30%porcelain composite material, while the bending strength of FGM with a varying layer thickness was significantly higher than that of the 70%Y-TZP+30%porcelain composite material. The FGMs prepared and analyzed in this research can potentially be used for crowns and bridges as well as for inlays and onlays. The SPS method could effectively fabricate the Y-TZP/porcelain FGMs, and the bending strength results revealed that the graded structure was very efficient to raise the bending strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Propagation path length variations due to bending of optical fibers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lau, K. Y.
1981-01-01
The geometric effect and material stress effects are included. Calculations are shown that put an upper limit on the expected phase shift in single mode fibers. The fractional change in propagation constant is presented. Moding effects in multimode fibers cause extraneous phase shifts of unusually high magnitude. This does not occur in single mode fibers, rendering them very insensitive to bending with a theoretical limit given by the above relation.
Khomenko, E.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Schmidt, W.; Knoelker, M.
2010-11-10
Based on IMaX/SUNRISE data, we report on a previously undetected phenomenon in solar granulation. We show that in a very narrow region separating granules and intergranular lanes, the spectral line width of the Fe I 5250.2 A line becomes extremely small. We offer an explanation of this observation with the help of magneto-convection simulations. These regions with extremely small line widths correspond to the places where the granular flows bend from upflow in granules to downflow in intergranular lanes. We show that the resolution and image stability achieved by IMaX/SUNRISE are important requisites to detect this interesting phenomenon.
Geodynamics of Bending-related Normal Faults in Subducting Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Z.; Lin, J.
2016-12-01
We investigated bending-related normal faults in subducting plates along several subduction zones through analyzing high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and geodynamic modeling. The investigated systems include the Tonga, Izu-Bonin-Mariana, Japan, Middle America, Chile, and Puerto Rico trenches. Investigation was focused on spatial variations in normal faulting patterns from trench axes to the outer rise regions. Results of analyses revealed several key observations: (1) Most bending-related normal faults are sub-parallel to the local and regional strikes of the trench axis, including regions of significant trench-axis curvatures. (2) For trenches of significant oblique subduction components, e.g., Tonga and Puerto Rico trenches, the strikes of normal faults still remain sub-parallel to the trench axes. (3) Normal faults could be identified near outer-rise region, but normal faults with relatively large throws are generally located much closer to the trench axis, in regions of relatively large topographic slope. (4) Normal faults can cut through most of the seamounts near trench axes. We speculate that near-trench normal faults are generated by extensional stress due to plate bending and gravity sliding. Geodynamic models are being developed to investigate how near-trench normal faults evolve subjected to various tectonic forces at subduction zones, including subduction-induced plate bending, slab pulling, gravity sliding, and seamount loading, etc.
Bending strength model for internal spur gear teeth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savage, Michael; Rubadeux, K. L.; Coe, H. H.
1995-07-01
Internal spur gear teeth are normally stronger than pinion teeth of the same pitch and face width since external teeth are smaller at the base. However, ring gears which are narrower have an unequal addendum or are made of a material with a lower strength than that of the meshing pinion may be loaded more critically in bending. In this study, a model for the bending strength of an internal gear tooth as a function of the applied load pressure angle is presented which is based on the inscribed Lewis constant strength parabolic beam. The bending model includes a stress concentration factor and an axial compression term which are extensions of the model for an external gear tooth. The geometry of the Lewis factor determination is presented, the iteration to determine the factor is described, and the bending strength J factor is compared to that of an external gear tooth. This strength model will assist optimal design efforts for unequal addendum gears and gears of mixed materials.
Bending strength model for internal spur gear teeth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savage, Michael; Rubadeux, K. L.; Coe, H. H.
1995-01-01
Internal spur gear teeth are normally stronger than pinion teeth of the same pitch and face width since external teeth are smaller at the base. However, ring gears which are narrower have an unequal addendum or are made of a material with a lower strength than that of the meshing pinion may be loaded more critically in bending. In this study, a model for the bending strength of an internal gear tooth as a function of the applied load pressure angle is presented which is based on the inscribed Lewis constant strength parabolic beam. The bending model includes a stress concentration factor and an axial compression term which are extensions of the model for an external gear tooth. The geometry of the Lewis factor determination is presented, the iteration to determine the factor is described, and the bending strength J factor is compared to that of an external gear tooth. This strength model will assist optimal design efforts for unequal addendum gears and gears of mixed materials.
Workshop proceedings: U-bend tube cracking in steam generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoemaker, C. E.
1981-06-01
A design to reduce the rate of tube failure in high pressure feedwater heaters, a number of failed drawn and stress relieved Monel 400 U-bend tubes removed from three high pressure feedwater heaters was examined. Steam extracted from the turbine is used to preheat the boiler feedwater in fossil fuel fired steam plants to improve thermal efficiency. This is accomplished in a series of heaters between the condenser hot well and the boiler. The heaters closest to the boiler handle water at high pressure and temperature. Because of the severe service conditions, high pressure feedwater heaters are frequently tubed with drawn and stress relieved Monel 400.
Strength Tests of Thin-walled Duralumin Cylinders in Pure Bending
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lundquist, Eugene E
1933-01-01
This report is the third of a series presenting the results of strengths tests on thin-walled cylinders and truncated cones of circular and elliptic section; it includes the results obtained from pure bending tests on 58 thin-walled duralumin cylinders of circular section with ends clamped to rigid bulkheads. The tests show that the stress on the extreme fiber at failure as calculated by the ordinary theory of bending is from 30 to 80 percent greater than the compressive stress at failure for thin-walled cylinders in compression. The tests also show that length/radius ratio has no consistent effect upon the bending strength and that the size of the wrinkles that form on the compression half of a cylinder in bending is approximately equal to the size of the wrinkles that form in the complete circumference of a cylinder of the same dimensions in compression.
Structural basis for DNA bending
Nadeau, J.G.; Crothers, D.M. )
1989-04-01
The authors report proton NMR studies on DNA oligonucleotides that contain A tracts of lengths known to produce various degrees of bending. Spectra of duplexes in the series 5{prime}-(GGCA{sub n}CGG){center dot}(CCGT{sub n}GCC) (n = 3,4,5,7,9) reveal substantial structural changes within the A{sub n}{center dot}T{sub n} tract as its length is increased. Chemical-shift comparisons show that A tracts with fewer than about seven members do not contain regions of uniform structure. Throughout the series, there is a striking monotonic relationship between the location of an A{center dot}T pair in the A tract and the relative position of its ThyH3 resonance. The direction of this chemical-shift dispersion is opposite to that expected from consideration of ring-current effects alone. This model features a substantial negative base-pair tilt, which has been suggested previously as the source of A-tract bending. In contrast, the nuclear Overhauser effect distances are inconsistent with at least one known crystallographic A-tract structure which lacks appreciable base-pair tilt.
Experimental and analytical investigation of a monocoque wing model loaded in bending
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schapitz, E; Feller, H; Koller, H
1939-01-01
Bending tests with transverse loads and with pure bending were undertaken on a double-web monocoque wing model in order to establish the relation between the state of stress and the results from the elementary bending theory. The longitudinal stresses in the stiffeners were measured with tensiometers and the shear stresses in the sheet were calculated from them. The measurements were made at both moderate loads with no buckles in the covering and at loads with which the critical stress in the individual panels was exceeded. For the comparison, the wing skin was considered as stiffened sheet according to the shear panel scheme. In this way, the statistically indeterminate calculation was confirmed by the test results.
A pulsatile developing flow in a bend
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiriet, M.; Graham, J. M. R.; Issa, R. I.
1992-06-01
Low frequency pulsatile flow of an incompressible viscous fluid has been numerically investigated in a rigid 90° bend of circular cross-section, using the finite-volume method. The governing parameters are as follows : amplitude ratio of 1.25, Womersley parameter of 4, peak Reynolds number of 358, peak Dean number of 113, Strouhal number ranging from 0.05 to 0.45. With this set of input data, no flow reversal is observed and a single axial vortex occurs in the half cross-section. Upstream and downstream effects of the bend are mainly characterized by an inward shift of the peak axial velocity in the upstream straight tube and the persistency of the secondary motions several diameters down the exit straight pipe. Secondary motions, present in steady flow, weaken greatly when the unsteady axial component of the flow (W) is lower than the mean flow bar{W}. The axial shear stress tau_a, whose maximum is more often located at the outer part of the bend, increases and remains nearly constant about 8 diameters downstream from the bend inlet. The circumferential shear stress tau_c maximum, located slightly towards the outer bend, is 28% of tau_a maximum, and 20% when W < bar{W}. The magnitude of both tau_a and tau_c increases during the accelerative phase. The low shear region is more often located near the inner tube wall. However, the existence of bends in a tube network might increase the deposit of solid particles, with respect to straight pipes, only when W (t)>W, and locally at the inner edge. Un écoulement pulsé à basse fréquence d'un fluide incompressible visqueux a été étudié numériquement dans un coude, à 90°, de parois rigides et de section droite circulaire et constante, par la méthode des volumes finis. Les valeurs des paramètres adimensionnels gouvernant l'écoulement sont: un rapport d'amplitude de 1,25, un paramètre de Womersley de 4, un nombre de Reynolds crête de 358, un nombre de Dean crête de 113; le nombre de Strouhal varie entre 0
Guanine tracts enhance sequence directed DNA bends.
Milton, D L; Casper, M L; Wills, N M; Gesteland, R F
1990-01-01
Synthetic DNA fragments were constructed to determine the effect of G tracts, in conjunction with periodically spaced A tracts, on DNA bends. Relative length measurements showed that the G tracts spaced at the half helical turn enhanced the DNA bend. When the G tract was interrupted with a thymine or shortened to one or two guanines, the relative lengths decreased. If the G tract was replaced with either an A tract or a T tract, the bend was cancelled. Replacement with a C tract decreased the relative length to that of a thymine interruption suggesting that bend enhancement due to G tracts requires A tracts on the same strand. PMID:2315040
Ovalization of Tubes Under Bending and Compression
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demer, L J; Kavanaugh, E S
1944-01-01
An empirical equation has been developed that gives the approximate amount of ovalization for tubes under bending loads. Tests were made on tubes in the d/t range from 6 to 14, the latter d/t ratio being in the normal landing gear range. Within the range of the series of tests conducted, the increase in ovalization due to a compression load in combination with a bending load was very small. The bending load, being the principal factor in producing the ovalization, is a rather complex function of the bending moment, d/t ratio, cantilever length, and distance between opposite bearing faces. (author)
Protein-induced bending and DNA cyclization.
Kahn, J D; Crothers, D M
1992-07-15
We have applied T4 ligase-mediated DNA cyclization kinetics to protein-induced bending in DNA. The presence and direction of a static bend can be inferred from J factors for cyclization of 150- to 160-base-pair minicircles, which include a catabolite activator protein binding site phased against a sequence-directed bend. We demonstrate a quasi-thermodynamic linkage between cyclization and protein binding; we find that properly phased DNAs bind catabolite activator protein approximately 200-fold more tightly as circles than as linear molecules. The results unambiguously distinguish DNA bends from isotropically flexible sites and can explain cooperative binding by proteins that need not contact each other.
... sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness Traumatic stress, which happens when you ... stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health
Springback Mechanism Analysis and Experiments on Robotic Bending of Rectangular Orthodontic Archwire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Jin-Gang; Han, Ying-Shuai; Zhang, Yong-De; Liu, Yan-Jv; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Yi
2017-05-01
Fixed-appliance technology is the most common and effective malocclusion orthodontic treatment method, and its key step is the bending of orthodontic archwire. The springback of archwire did not consider the movement of the stress-strain-neutral layer. To solve this problem, a springback calculation model for rectangular orthodontic archwire is proposed. A bending springback experiment is conducted using an orthodontic archwire bending springback measurement device. The springback experimental results show that the theoretical calculation results using the proposed model coincide better with the experimental testing results than when movement of the stress-strain-neutral layer was not considered. A bending experiment with rectangular orthodontic archwire is conducted using a robotic orthodontic archwire bending system. The patient expriment result show that the maximum and minimum error ratios of formed orthodontic archwire parameters are 22.46% and 10.23% without considering springback and are decreased to 11.35% and 6.13% using the proposed model. The proposed springback calculation model, which considers the movement of the stress-strain-neutral layer, greatly improves the orthodontic archwire bending precision.
How two-dimensional bending can extraordinarily stiffen thin sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pini, V.; Ruz, J. J.; Kosaka, P. M.; Malvar, O.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.
2016-07-01
Curved thin sheets are ubiquitously found in nature and manmade structures from macro- to nanoscale. Within the framework of classical thin plate theory, the stiffness of thin sheets is independent of its bending state for small deflections. This assumption, however, goes against intuition. Simple experiments with a cantilever sheet made of paper show that the cantilever stiffness largely increases with small amounts of transversal curvature. We here demonstrate by using simple geometric arguments that thin sheets subject to two-dimensional bending necessarily develop internal stresses. The coupling between the internal stresses and the bending moments can increase the stiffness of the plate by several times. We develop a theory that describes the stiffness of curved thin sheets with simple equations in terms of the longitudinal and transversal curvatures. The theory predicts experimental results with a macroscopic cantilever sheet as well as numerical simulations by the finite element method. The results shed new light on plant and insect wing biomechanics and provide an easy route to engineer micro- and nanomechanical structures based on thin materials with extraordinary stiffness tunability.
How two-dimensional bending can extraordinarily stiffen thin sheets.
Pini, V; Ruz, J J; Kosaka, P M; Malvar, O; Calleja, M; Tamayo, J
2016-07-11
Curved thin sheets are ubiquitously found in nature and manmade structures from macro- to nanoscale. Within the framework of classical thin plate theory, the stiffness of thin sheets is independent of its bending state for small deflections. This assumption, however, goes against intuition. Simple experiments with a cantilever sheet made of paper show that the cantilever stiffness largely increases with small amounts of transversal curvature. We here demonstrate by using simple geometric arguments that thin sheets subject to two-dimensional bending necessarily develop internal stresses. The coupling between the internal stresses and the bending moments can increase the stiffness of the plate by several times. We develop a theory that describes the stiffness of curved thin sheets with simple equations in terms of the longitudinal and transversal curvatures. The theory predicts experimental results with a macroscopic cantilever sheet as well as numerical simulations by the finite element method. The results shed new light on plant and insect wing biomechanics and provide an easy route to engineer micro- and nanomechanical structures based on thin materials with extraordinary stiffness tunability.
How two-dimensional bending can extraordinarily stiffen thin sheets
Pini, V.; Ruz, J. J.; Kosaka, P. M.; Malvar, O.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.
2016-01-01
Curved thin sheets are ubiquitously found in nature and manmade structures from macro- to nanoscale. Within the framework of classical thin plate theory, the stiffness of thin sheets is independent of its bending state for small deflections. This assumption, however, goes against intuition. Simple experiments with a cantilever sheet made of paper show that the cantilever stiffness largely increases with small amounts of transversal curvature. We here demonstrate by using simple geometric arguments that thin sheets subject to two-dimensional bending necessarily develop internal stresses. The coupling between the internal stresses and the bending moments can increase the stiffness of the plate by several times. We develop a theory that describes the stiffness of curved thin sheets with simple equations in terms of the longitudinal and transversal curvatures. The theory predicts experimental results with a macroscopic cantilever sheet as well as numerical simulations by the finite element method. The results shed new light on plant and insect wing biomechanics and provide an easy route to engineer micro- and nanomechanical structures based on thin materials with extraordinary stiffness tunability. PMID:27403938
Bending Gold Nanorods with Light.
Babynina, Anastasia; Fedoruk, Michael; Kühler, Paul; Meledin, Alexander; Döblinger, Markus; Lohmüller, Theobald
2016-10-12
V-shaped gold nanoantennas are the functional components of plasmonic metasurfaces, which are capable of manipulating light in unprecedented ways. Designing a metasurface requires the custom arrangement of individual antennas with controlled shape and orientation. Here, we show how highly crystalline gold nanorods in solution can be bent, one-by-one, into a V-shaped geometry and printed to the surface of a solid support through a combination of plasmonic heating and optical force. Significantly, we demonstrate that both the bending angle and the orientation of each rod-antenna can be adjusted independent from each other by tuning the laser intensity and polarization. This approach is applicable for the patterning of V-shaped plasmonic antennas on almost any substrate, which holds great potential for the fabrication of ultrathin optical components and devices.
Photo-Origami -- Using Light to Bend, Fold, and Buckle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Jennie; D'Amato, Matteo; Long, Kevin; Cui, Xiaodong; Qi, H. Jerry; Dunn, Martin
2012-02-01
We describe photo-origami, a method to program spatially- and temporally-variable mechanical, chemical, and optical fields into a polymer that enable controllable, sequenced, macroscopic bending and folding to create three-dimensional structures. We combine mechanical and optical stimuli to locally rearrange the polymer's network topology which allows us to program a residual stress state into the film; upon release of mechanical constraints, we realize a wide variety of desired shapes. We demonstrate, through a combination of theory, simulation-based design, synthesis, and experiment, the operative phenomena and capabilities of photo-origami. We demonstrate architectures that rely on bending, folding, instabilities, and post-buckling behavior to achieve their three-dimensional form, starting from a flat sheet. We also describe a theory that couples the hereditary nature of photophysics, chemistry, and large-deformation mechanics and enables simulations of the fabricated structures that are in good agreement with the experiments.
Mechanical response of cardiovascular stents under vascular dynamic bending.
Xu, Jiang; Yang, Jie; Huang, Nan; Uhl, Christopher; Zhou, Yihua; Liu, Yaling
2016-02-20
Currently, the effect of vascular dynamic bending (VDB) has not been fully considered when studying cardiovascular stents' long-term mechanical properties, as the previous studies about stent's mechanical properties mostly focus on the effect of vascular pulsation (VP). More and more clinical reports suggested that the effect of VDB have a significant impact on stent. In this paper, an explicit-implicit coupling simulation method was applied to analyze the mechanical responses of cardiovascular stents considering the effect of VDB. The effect of VP on stent mechanical properties was also studied and compared to the effect of VDB. The results showed that the dynamic bending deformation occurred in stents due to the effect of VDB. The effects of VDB and VP resulted in alternating stress states of the stent, while the VDB alternate stresses effective on the stent were almost three times larger than that of the VP. The stress concentration under VDB mainly occurred in bridge struts and the maximal stress was located in the middle loops of the stent. However, the stress distributed uniformly in the stents under the effect of VP. Stent fracture occurred more frequently as a result of VDB with the predicted fracture position located in the bridging struts of the stent. These results are consistent with the reported data in clinical literatures. The stress of the vessel under VDB was higher, than that caused by VP. The results showed that the effect of VDB has a significant impact on the stent's stress distribution, fatigue performance and overall stress on the vessel, thus it is necessary to be considered when analyzing stent's long-term mechanical properties. Meanwhile, the results showed that the explicit-implicit coupling simulation can be applied to analyze stent mechanical properties.
Tension, compression, and bending of superelastic shape memory alloy tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reedlunn, Benjamin; Churchill, Christopher B.; Nelson, Emily E.; Shaw, John A.; Daly, Samantha H.
2014-02-01
While many uniaxial tension experiments of shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been published in the literature, relatively few experimental studies address their behavior in compression or bending, despite the prevalence of this latter deformation mode in applications. In this study, superelastic NiTi tubes from a single lot of material were characterized in tension, compression, and pure bending, which allowed us to make direct comparisons between the deformation modes for the first time. Custom built fixtures were used to overcome some long-standing experimental difficulties with performing well-controlled loading and accurate measurements during uniaxial compression (avoiding buckling) and large-rotation bending. In all experiments, the isothermal, global, mechanical responses were measured, and stereo digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure the evolution of the strain fields on the tube's outer surface.As is characteristic of textured NiTi, our tubes exhibited significant tension-compression asymmetry in their uniaxial responses. Stress-induced transformations in tension exhibited flat force plateaus accompanied by strain localization and propagation. No such localization, however, was observed in compression, and the stress "plateaus" during compression always maintained a positive tangent modulus. While our uniaxial results are similar to the observations of previous researchers, the DIC strain measurements provided details of localized strain behavior with more clarity and allowed more quantitative measurements to be made. Consistent with the tension-compression asymmetry, our bending experiments showed a significant shift of the neutral axis towards the compression side. Furthermore, the tube exhibited strain localization on the tension side, but no localization on the compression side during bending. This is a new observation that has not been explored before. Detailed analysis of the strain distribution across the tube diameter revealed that the
DNA bending induced by cruciform formation.
Gough, G W; Lilley, D M
Cruciform structures in DNA are of considerable interest, both as extreme examples of sequence-dependent structural heterogeneity and as models for four-way junctions such as the Holliday junction of homologous genetic recombination. Cruciforms are of lower thermodynamic stability than regular duplex DNA, and have been observed only in negatively supercoiled molecules, where the unfavourable free energy of formation is offset by the topological relaxation of the torsionally stressed molecule. From an experimental viewpoint this can be a disadvantage, as cruciform structures can be studied only in relatively large supercoiled DNA circles, and are destabilized when a break is introduced at any point. We therefore set out to construct a pseudo-cruciform junction--by generating hereroduplex formation between two inverted repeat sequences. Stereochemically, this should closely resemble a true cruciform but remain stable in a linear DNA fragment. We have now created such a junction and find that it has the expected sensitivities to endonucleases. These DNA fragments exhibit extremely anomalous gel electrophoretic mobility, the extent of which depends on the relative position of the pseudo-cruciform along the length of the molecule. Our results are very similar to those obtained by Wu and Crothers using kinetoplast DNA, and we conclude that the pseudo-cruciform junction introduces a bend in the linear DNA molecule.
Restorying the Self: Bending toward Textual Justice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth; Stornaiuolo, Amy
2016-01-01
In this essay, Ebony Elizabeth Thomas and Amy Stornaiuolo explore new trends in reader response for a digital age, particularly the phenomenon of bending texts using social media. They argue that bending is one form of "restorying," a process by which people reshape narratives to represent a diversity of perspectives and experiences that…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Millett, A. U.
1977-01-01
Combination protractor and scale for measuring tube bends has novel pivot that allows tube to remain in contact with scale arms for all bend angles. Device permits rapid and accurate scribing and measurement of mockup fluid lines to obtain production data.
Restorying the Self: Bending toward Textual Justice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth; Stornaiuolo, Amy
2016-01-01
In this essay, Ebony Elizabeth Thomas and Amy Stornaiuolo explore new trends in reader response for a digital age, particularly the phenomenon of bending texts using social media. They argue that bending is one form of "restorying," a process by which people reshape narratives to represent a diversity of perspectives and experiences that…
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result in a bend surface free of cracks, as determined by a method of inspection specified in the design... ultrasonics or other acceptable method. Alternatively, the pipe may be drilled, gaged, and fitted with a...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result in a bend surface free of cracks, as determined by a method of inspection specified in the design... ultrasonics or other acceptable method. Alternatively, the pipe may be drilled, gaged, and fitted with a...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result in a bend surface free of cracks, as determined by a method of inspection specified in the design... ultrasonics or other acceptable method. Alternatively, the pipe may be drilled, gaged, and fitted with a...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result in a bend surface free of cracks, as determined by a method of inspection specified in the design... ultrasonics or other acceptable method. Alternatively, the pipe may be drilled, gaged, and fitted with a...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result in a bend surface free of cracks, as determined by a method of inspection specified in the design... ultrasonics or other acceptable method. Alternatively, the pipe may be drilled, gaged, and fitted with a...
Bending of light in conformal Weyl gravity
Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2010-06-15
We reexamine the bending of light issue associated with the metric of the static, spherically symmetric solution of Weyl gravity discovered by Mannheim and Kazanas (1989). To this end we employ the procedure used recently by Rindler and Ishak to obtain the bending angle of light by a centrally concentrated spherically symmetric matter distribution in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter background. In earlier studies the term {gamma}r in the metric led to the paradoxical result of a bending angle proportional to the photon impact parameter, when using the usual formalism appropriate to asymptotically flat space-times. However, employing the approach of light bending of Rindler and Ishak we show that the effects of this term are in fact insignificant, with the discrepancy between the two procedures attributed to the definition of the bending angle between the asymptotically flat and nonflat spaces.
Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colozza, Anthony
2010-01-01
One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.
Impact compressive and bending behaviour of rocks accompanied by electromagnetic phenomena.
Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Horikawa, Keitaro; Ogawa, Kinya; Watanabe, Keiko
2014-08-28
It is well known that electromagnetic phenomena are often observed preceding earthquakes. However, the mechanism by which these electromagnetic waves are generated during the fracture and deformation of rocks has not been fully identified. Therefore, in order to examine the relationship between the electromagnetic phenomena and the mechanical properties of rocks, uniaxial compression and three-point bending tests for two kinds of rocks with different quartz content, granite and gabbro, have been carried out at quasi-static and dynamic rates. Especially, in the bending tests, pre-cracked specimens of granite were also tested. Using a split Hopkinson pressure bar and a ferrite-core antenna in close proximity to the specimens, both the stress-strain (load-displacement) curve and simultaneous electromagnetic wave magnitude were measured. It was found that the dynamic compressive and bending strengths and the stress increase slope of both rocks were higher than those observed in static tests; therefore, there is a strain-rate dependence in their strength and stress increase rate. It was found from the tests using the pre-cracked bending specimens that the intensity of electromagnetic waves measured during crack extension increased almost proportionally to the increase of the maximum stress intensity factor of specimens. This tendency was observed in both the dynamic and quasi-static three-point bending tests for granite. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....
49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....
49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....
49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....
49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....
Bio-inspired bending actuator for controlling conical nose shape using piezoelectric patches.
Na, Tae-Won; Jung, Jin-Young; Oh, Ii-Kwon
2014-10-01
In this paper, a bio-inspired bending actuator was designed and fabricated using piezoelectric patches and cantilever-shaped beam for controlling nose shape. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of the bending actuator. PZT and single crystal PMN-PT actuators were used to generate translational strain and shear stress. The piezoelectric patches were attached on the clamped cantilever beam to convert their translational strains to bending motion of the beam. First, finite element analysis was performed to identify and to make an accurate estimate of the feasibility on the bending actuation by applying various voltages and frequencies. Based on the results of the FEM analysis, the experiments were also performed. Static voltages and dynamic voltages with various frequencies were applied to the bending actuators with PZTs and PMN-PTs, and the rotation angles of the nose connected to the top of bending actuators were measured, respectively. As the results, the bending actuator using PMN-PT patches showed better performances in all cases. With the increases of signal frequency and input voltage, the rotation angle also found to be increased. Especially at the frequency of 5 Hz and input voltage of 600 V, the nose generated the maximum rotation angle of 3.15 degree.
Elastoplastic dynamic analysis of strike-slip faults with bends using finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, B.; Day, S. M.
2006-12-01
Nonelastic off-fault response may play a role in rupture dynamics on geometrically complex faults, particularly in the vicinity of bends or other points of stress concentration. In this study, we have performed nonelastic dynamic analysis of strike-slip faults with bends by using a finite element method. The Coulomb yield criterion has been implemented in the code to model off-fault nonelastic response. We find that a smooth scheme (such as viscoplasticity) is required to regularize the numerical calculation of plastic yielding near a fault bend. The method is extensible to other material rheologies (e.g., damage mechanics models, tensile failure, etc), and amenable to parallel implementation. Compared with those from a calculation with elastic off-fault response, results from a calculation with nonelastic off-fault response show that (1) bends are locations of large plastic deformation; (2) stress near a bend is less heterogeneous; (3) less radiation is generated from a bend; (4) lower strong ground motion is produced.
Effect of laser shock peening on bending fatigue performance of AISI 9310 steel spur gear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Chong; Xiao, Yuzhe; Wang, Yanzhong; Guo, Wei
2017-09-01
The effect of laser shock peening (LSP) on bending fatigue performance of AISI 9310 steel spur gear has been investigated in this study. To help to explain bending fatigue test results, residual stress distribution induced by LSP is studied by means of finite element modelling, results of which are verified by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that a compressive layer of desirable depth can be induced on the gear root fillet after LSP, and both magnitude and depth of compressive stress increase with laser energy. The bending fatigue test is conducted using the single-tooth bending method to compare fatigue performance of laser peened teeth and non-peened teeth, which is followed by relevant statistical analysis. S-N curves acquired from the fatigue test reveal that bending fatigue lives of gear teeth has been significantly improved after LSP in comparison with those non-peened teeth, and the bending fatigue limit is enhanced correspondingly. It is noticeable that higher laser energy does not necessarily lead to much better fatigue performance of test gears.
Bending effects of unsymmetric adhesively bonded composite repairs on cracked aluminum panels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arendt, Cory; Sun, C. T.
1994-09-01
The bending effects of unsymmetrically bonded composite repairs on cracked aluminum panels were quantified using a plate linear finite element model. Stress intensity factors and strain energy release rates were obtained from the model twice, once with out-of-plane displacement suppressed and another time without these restrictions. Several configurations were examined, crack growth stability was identified, and the effect of a debond was considered. The maximum stress intensity factor was also analyzed. Previous work by other authors was found to underpredict the bending effect.
Exact solutions for laminated composite cylindrical shells in cylindrical bending
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, F. G.
1992-01-01
Analytic elasticity solutions for laminated composite cylindrical shells under cylindrical bending are presented. The material of the shell is assumed to be general cylindrically anisotropic. Based on the theory of cylindrical anisotropic elasticity, coupled governing partial differential equations are developed. The general expressions for the stresses and displacements in the laminated composite cylinders are discussed. The closed form solutions based on Classical Shell Theory (CST) and Donnell's (1933) theory are also derived for comparison purposes. Three examples illustrate the effect of radius-to-thickness ratio, coupling and stacking sequence. The results show that, in general, CST yields poor stress and displacement distributions for thick-section composite shells, but converges to the exact elasticity solution as the radius-to-thickness ratio increases. It is also shown that Donnell's theory significantly underestimates the stress and displacement response.
Failure analysis of composite laminated plates with circular holes under bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradshaw, R. D.; Pang, S. S.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the failure of composite laminated plates with centrally located circular holes under bending. The stress state at any point in an orthotropic lamina with a circular hole was developed in terms of a stress concentration factor matrix multiplied by the stress vector at a point far from the hole. Classical lamination theory was applied to determine the ply-level stresses under bending. By applying the Tsai-Wu failure criterion to each ply at the hole edge, the crack modes were determined for various plate configurations. Knowledge of the crack direction and the stress concentration factor matrix led to a failure criterion based upon the ply-level hoop stress at some distance away from the hole. Point stress and average stress criteria were developed to determine the failure loading for any hole size, based on an experimental data point. Both criteria predicted the average failure load for other experimental points within 3 percent, but the point stress criteria was the more accurate of the two. The material used was a T650-42 graphite fiber with EYMYD polyimide resin system. Three stacking sequences were studied under four-point bending. In each case, three hole sizes were analyzed.
How a short double-stranded DNA bends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Jaeoh; Lee, O.-Chul; Sung, Wokyung
2015-04-01
A recent experiment using fluorescence microscopy showed that double-stranded DNA fragments shorter than 100 base pairs loop with the probabilities higher by the factor of 102-106 than predicted by the worm-like chain (WLC) model [R. Vafabakhsh and T. Ha, Science 337, 1101(2012)]. Furthermore, the looping probabilities were found to be nearly independent of the loop size. The results signify a breakdown of the WLC model for DNA mechanics which works well on long length scales and calls for fundamental understanding for stressed DNA on shorter length scales. We develop an analytical, statistical mechanical model to investigate what emerges to the short DNA under a tight bending. A bending above a critical level initiates nucleation of a thermally induced bubble, which could be trapped for a long time, in contrast to the bubbles in both free and uniformly bent DNAs, which are either transient or unstable. The trapped bubble is none other than the previously hypothesized kink, which releases the bending energy more easily as the contour length decreases. It leads to tremendous enhancement of the cyclization probabilities, in a reasonable agreement with experiment.
Analyzing refractive index changes and differential bending in microcantilever arrays.
Huber, François; Lang, Hans Peter; Hegner, Martin; Despont, Michel; Drechsler, Ute; Gerber, Christoph
2008-08-01
A new microcantilever array design is investigated comprising eight flexible microcantilevers introducing two solid bars, enabling to subtract contributions from differences in refractive index in an optical laser read out system. Changes in the refractive index do not contribute undesirably to bending signals at picomolar to micromolar DNA or protein concentrations. However, measurements of samples with high salt concentrations or serum are affected, requiring corrections for refractive index artifacts. Moreover, to obtain a deeper understanding of molecular stress formation, the differential curvature of cantilevers is analyzed by positioning the laser spots along the surface of the levers during pH experiments.
Analyzing refractive index changes and differential bending in microcantilever arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, François; Lang, Hans Peter; Hegner, Martin; Despont, Michel; Drechsler, Ute; Gerber, Christoph
2008-08-01
A new microcantilever array design is investigated comprising eight flexible microcantilevers introducing two solid bars, enabling to subtract contributions from differences in refractive index in an optical laser read out system. Changes in the refractive index do not contribute undesirably to bending signals at picomolar to micromolar DNA or protein concentrations. However, measurements of samples with high salt concentrations or serum are affected, requiring corrections for refractive index artifacts. Moreover, to obtain a deeper understanding of molecular stress formation, the differential curvature of cantilevers is analyzed by positioning the laser spots along the surface of the levers during pH experiments.
Side cracked plated subject to combined direct and bending forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srawley, J. E.; Gross, B.
1975-01-01
The opening mode stress intensity factor and the associated crack mouth displacement are comprehensively treated using planar boundary collocation results supplemented by end point values from the literature. Data are expressed in terms of dimensionless coefficients of convenient form which are each functions of two dimensionless parameters, the relative crack length, and a load combination parameter which uniquely characterizes all possible combinations of tension or compression with bending or counterbending. Accurate interpolation expressions are provided which cover the entire ranges of both parameters. Application is limited to specimens with ratios of effective half-height to width not less than unity.
Side cracked plates subject to combined direct and bending forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srawley, J. E.; Gross, B.
1975-01-01
The opening mode stress intensity factor and the associated crack mouth displacement are comprehensively treated using planar boundary collocation results supplemented by end point values from the literature. Data are expressed in terms of dimensionless coefficients of convenient form which are each functions of two dimensionless parameters, the relative crack length, and a load combination parameter which uniquely characterizes all possible combinations of tension or compression with bending or counterbending. Accurate interpolation expressions are provided which cover the entire ranges of both parameters. Application is limited to specimens with ratios of effective half-height to width not less than unity.
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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreira, L. P.; Romão, E. C.; Ferron, G.; Vieira, L. C. A.; Sampaio, A. P.
2005-08-01
A simple bend-draw experimental device is employed to analyze the behavior of narrow strips submitted to a nearly cyclic bending deformation mode followed by a steady state drawing. In this bending-drawing experiment, the strip is firstly bent over a central bead and two lateral beads by applying a controlled holding load and then is pulled out of device throughout the bead radii by a drawing load. The apparatus is mounted in a standard tensile test machine where the holding and drawing loads are recorded with an acquisition data system. The specimen is a rectangular strip cut with 320 mm long and 7 mm wide. The longitudinal (1) and width (w) strip plastic strains are determined from two hardness marks 120 mm spaced whereas the corresponding thickness (t) strain is obtained by volume conservation. Previous experiments showed a correlation between the plastic strain (ɛw/ɛt)BD resulting from the bending-drawing and the Lankford R-values obtained from the uniaxial tensile test. However, previous 3D numerical simulations based upon Hill's quadratic and Ferron's yield criteria revealed a better correlation between the (ɛw/ɛt)BD and the stress ratio σPS/σ(α), where σPS stands for the plane-strain tension yield stress and σ(α) for the uniaxial yield stress in uniaxial tension along the drawing direction making an angle α with the rolling direction. In the present work, the behavior of an IF steel sheet is firstly evaluated by means of uniaxial tensile and drawing-bending experiments conducted at every 15 degrees with respect to the rolling direction. Afterwards, the bending-drawing experiment is investigated with the commercial finite element (FE) code ABAQUS/Standard in an attempt to assess the influence of cyclic loadings upon the bending-drawing strain-ratios.
Initial Ares I Bending Filter Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jang, Jiann-Woei; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Robert; Norris, H. Lee; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark
2007-01-01
The Ares-I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for control system design. Software filtering of the inertial sensor output will be required to ensure control system stability and adequate performance. This paper presents a design methodology employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares-I bending filters. The filter design methodology was based on a numerical constrained optimization approach to maximize stability margins while meeting performance requirements. The resulting bending filter designs achieved stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency and hence phase stabilizing the first Ares-I flex mode. To minimize rigid body performance impacts, a priority was placed via constraints in the optimization algorithm to minimize bandwidth decrease with the addition of the bending filters. The bending filters provided here have been demonstrated to provide a stable first stage control system in both the frequency domain and the MSFC MAVERIC time domain simulation.
Bending instability in electrospinning of nanofibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarin, A. L.; Koombhongse, S.; Reneker, D. H.
2001-03-01
A localized approximation was developed to calculate the bending electric force acting on an electrified polymer jet, which is a key element of the electrospinning process for manufacturing of nanofibers. Using this force, a far reaching analogy between the electrically driven bending instability and the aerodynamically driven instability was established. Continuous, quasi-one-dimensional, partial differential equations were derived and used to predict the growth rate of small electrically driven bending perturbations of a liquid column. A discretized form of these equations, that accounts for solvent evaporation and polymer solidification, was used to calculate the jet paths during the course of nonlinear bending instability leading to formation of large loops and resulting in nanofibers. The results of the calculations are compared to the experimental data acquired in the present work. Agreement of theory and experiment is discussed.
Bending artificial muscle from nylon filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirvakili, Seyed M.; Hunter, Ian W.
2016-04-01
Highly oriented nylon and polyethylene fibers shrink in length and expand in diameter when heated. Using this property, in this work, for the first time we are introducing a type of bending artificial muscle from nylon filaments such as fishing line. Reversible radius of curvature of 0.23 mm-1 was achieved with maximum reversible bending amplitude of 115 mm for the nylon bending actuator. Peak force of up to 2040 mN was measured with a catch-state force of up to 40% of the active force. A 3 dB roll-off frequency of around 0.7 Hz was observed in the frequency response of the bending actuator in water.
Thermal static bending of deployable interlocked booms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Staugaitis, C. L.; Predmore, R. E.
1973-01-01
Metal ribbons processed with a heat-forming treatment are enabled to form tubelike structures when deployed from a roll. Deployable booms of this have been utilized for gravity-gradient stabilization on the RAE, ATS, and Nimbus D satellites. An experimental thermal-mechanics test apparatus was developed to measure the thermal static bending and twist of booms up to 3 meters long. The apparatus was calibrated by using the correlation between calculated and observed thermal bending of a seamless tube. Thermal static bending values of 16 interlocked deployable booms were observed to be within a factor of 2.5 of the values calculated from seamless-tube theory. Out-of-Sun-plane thermal bending was caused by complex heat transfer across the interlocked seam. Significant thermal static twisting was not observed.
Minimal Bending Energies of Bilayer Polyhedra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Phillips, Rob
2010-11-01
Motivated by recent experiments on bilayer polyhedra composed of amphiphilic molecules, we study the elastic bending energies of bilayer vesicles forming polyhedral shapes. Allowing for segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges of polyhedra, we find that bilayer polyhedra can indeed have lower bending energies than spherical bilayer vesicles. However, our analysis also implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the snub dodecahedron, rather than the icosahedron, generally represents the energetically favorable shape of bilayer polyhedra.
Tool bending in New Caledonian crows
Sugasawa, Shoko; van der Wal, Jessica E. M.; Klump, Barbara C.; St Clair, James J. H.
2016-01-01
‘Betty’ the New Caledonian crow astonished the world when she ‘spontaneously’ bent straight pieces of garden wire into hooked foraging tools. Recent field experiments have revealed that tool bending is part of the species' natural behavioural repertoire, providing important context for interpreting Betty's iconic wire-bending feat. More generally, this discovery provides a compelling illustration of how natural history observations can inform laboratory-based research into the cognitive capacities of non-human animals. PMID:27853622
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Yong-Sik; Song, Jeon-Young
2011-12-01
Exhaust manifolds are subjected to an environment in which heating and cooling cycles occur due to the running pattern of automotive engines. This temperature profile results in the repeated bending stress of exhaust pipes. Therefore, among high-temperature characteristics, the bending fatigue strength is an important factor that affects the lifespan of exhaust manifolds. Here, we report on the effect of the alloy composition, namely the weight fraction of the elements Cr, Mo, Nb, and Ti, on the high-temperature bending fatigue strength of the ferritic stainless steel used in exhaust manifolds. Little difference in the tensile strength and bending fatigue strength of the different composition steels was observed below 600 °C, with the exception of the low-Cr steel. However, steels with high Cr, Mo, or Nb fractions showed considerably larger bending fatigue strength at temperatures of 800 °C. After heating, the precipitates from the specimens were extracted electrolytically and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. Alloying with Cr and Mo was found to increase the bending fatigue strength due to the substitutional solid solution effect, while alloying with Nb enhanced the strength by forming fine intermetallic compounds, including NbC and Fe2Nb.
Velocity profiles and the structure of turbulence at the outer bank of a compound meander bend
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engel, Frank L.; Rhoads, Bruce L.
2017-10-01
Few studies have quantified near-bank turbulence at the field-scale in meander bends. As a result, details of the structure of turbulence at the outer bank of bends are poorly understood, despite recognized linkages among turbulence, bank erosion, and channel migration. This study uses high-frequency measurements of flow velocities to analyze the characteristics of turbulence in close proximity to the outer bank of an actively migrating compound meander bend. Results show that the structure of turbulence in the bend is linked to curvature-induced effects through the progressive advection of high momentum fluid toward the outer bank as flow moves through the bend. Vertical profiles of streamwise-vertical Reynolds stresses near the outer bank differ considerably from those in wide straight channels because of the effects both of curvature-induced helical motion and of local frictional effects associated with the complex bank morphology. The results of the study provide the basis for a conceptual model of the structure of outer bank turbulence in this meander bend.
Prediction of bending limits in friction-stir-processed thick plate aluminum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miles, M. P.; Mahoney, M. W.; Fuller, C. B.
2006-02-01
Friction-stir processing (FSP) was used to modify surface microstructures, to enhance the bending of thick-plate 6061-T6 and 7050-T7451 aluminum alloys. Plates were bent at room temperature into a V-shaped die, to various angles. Bending performance in the friction-stir-processed plates was significantly better than that in the base plates, where processing caused localized softening of the pretensile surface of the plate. A finite-element model of the plate-bending process was developed, to predict the bending limits of both the unprocessed base plates and of the friction-stir-processed plates. For the friction-stir-processed plates, the model employed a mesh divided into two or more zones; one zone was for unprocessed base material and other zones were for the processed material or for material that was affected by the heat of processing. The model used both the von Mises and the Latham and Cockroft criteria to predict bending limits. The bending-limit predictions were reasonably accurate, provided the gradient in true stress-strain behavior through the plate thickness was well characterized.
Modelling The Bending Test Behaviour Of Carbon Fibre Reinforced SiC By Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, S.; Koch, D.; Voggenreiter, H.
2012-07-01
Liquid silicon infiltrated carbon fibre reinforced SiC, has shown to be a high-potential material for thermal protection systems. The tensile and bending behaviour of the ceramic-matrix composite, C/C-SiC, were investigated in varying orientations relative to the 0/90° woven carbon fibres. The ratio of bending to tensile strength was about 1.7 to 2 depending on the loading direction. With the goal to understand this large difference finite element analyses (FEA) of the bending tests were performed. The different stress-strain behaviour of C/C-SiC under tensile and compression load were included in the FEA. Additionally the bending failure of the CMC-material was modelled by Cohesive Zone Elements (CZE) accounting for the directional tensile strength and Work of Fracture (WOF). The WOF was determined by Single Edge Notched Bending (SENB) tests. Comparable results from FEA and bending test were achieved. The presented approach could also be adapted for the design of C/C-SiC-components and structures.
Light-induced bending and smart control of photochromic liquid crystal elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Lihua; Yan, Yan; Huo, Yongzhong
2007-07-01
Light-induce bending of photochromic LCEs is a newly found phenomenon, with potential applications such as artificial muscles, nano actuators and remote-controllable implements. To simulate this, light-induced bending models of straight and curved beams can be derived from the simple beam theory. The effect of the light is substituted as an effective bending moment. Several examples, with different approximations, boundary conditions, under uniform or nonuniform illuminations, are demonstrated to calculate the curvature, the restraining force or the deflection. Especially, under weak light intensities and low temperature, the analytical expression of the curvature is obtained. A simplified remote controllable grip hand is simulated by the curved beam bending model. We calculate the grip force of the hand to hold a body, controlled by light and heat. The simulation shows that the largest value of grip stress can be about 1Mpa. In order to optimize the light-induced bending, the effects on the effective moment of the parameters, such as the light intensity, the thickness of the beam and the decay distance of the material are further analyzed. It is found that the effective moment is not a monotonic function of these parameters. Therefore, proper light intensity, material and thickness must be chosen to get the largest bending.
Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Shuying; Zheng, Jiaju; Sang, Jie; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Wenmei
2015-05-01
A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device.
Small bending and stretching of sandwich-type shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reissner, Eric
1950-01-01
A theory has been developed for small bending and stretching of sandwich-type shells. This theory is an extension of the known theory of homogeneous thin elastic shells. It was found that two effects are important in the present problem, which are not normally of importance in the theory of curved shells: (1) the effect of transverse shear deformation and (2) the effect of transverse normal stress deformation. The first of these two effects has been known to be of importance in the theory of plates and beams. The second effect was found to occur in a manner which is typical for shells and has no counterpart in flat-plate theory. The general results of this report have been applied to the solution of problems concerning flat plates, circular rings, circular cylindrical shells, and spherical shells. In each case numerical examples have been given, illustrating the magnitude of the effects of transverse shear and normal stress deformation.
Dynamic hysteretic sensing model of bending-mode Galfenol transducer
Cao, Shuying Zheng, Jiaju; Sang, Jie; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Bowen; Huang, Wenmei
2015-05-07
A dynamic hysteretic sensing model has been developed to predict the dynamic responses of the magnetic induction, the stress, and the output voltage for a bending-mode Galfenol unimorph transducer subjected simultaneously to acceleration and bias magnetic field. This model is obtained by coupling the hysteretic Armstrong model and the structural dynamic model of the Galfenol unimorph beam. The structural dynamic model of the beam is founded based on the Euler-Bernouli beam theory, the nonlinear constitutive equations, and the Faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show the model can describe dynamic nonlinear voltage characteristics of the device, and can predict hysteretic behaviors between the magnetic induction and the stress. Moreover, the model can effectively analyze the effects of the bias magnetic field, the acceleration amplitude, and frequency on the root mean square voltage of the device.
Effects of repetitive bending on the magnetoresistance of a flexible spin-valve
Kwon, J.-H.; Kwak, W.-Y.; Cho, B. K.; Choi, H. Y.; Kim, G. H.
2015-05-07
A positive magnetostrictive single layer (CoFe) and top-pinned spin-valve structure with positive magnetostrictive free (NiFe) and pinned (CoFe) layers were deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate film to investigate the changes in the magnetic properties in flexible environments, especially with a repetitive bending process. It was found that the stress, applied by repetitive bending, changes significantly the magnetic anisotropy of both layers in a single and spin-valve structure depending on the direction of applied stress. The changes in magnetic anisotropy were understood in terms of the inverse magnetostriction effect (the Villari effect) and the elastic recovery force from the flexibility of the polymer substrate. Repetitive bending with tensile stress transverse (or parallel) to the magnetic easy axis was found to enhance (or reduce) the magnetic anisotropy and, consequently, the magnetoresistance ratio of a spin-valve. The observed effects of bending stress in this study should be considered for the practical applications of electro-magnetic devices, especially magneto-striction sensor.
Kic size effect study on two high-strength steels using notched bend specimens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stonesifer, F. R.
1974-01-01
Five methods are used to calculate plane strain fracture toughness (K sub Q) values for bend-specimens of various sizes from two high-strength steels. None of the methods appeared to satisfactorily predict valid stress intensity factor (K sub IC) values from specimens of sizes well below that required by E399 standard tests.
Mechanical properties of the hindlimb bones of bullfrogs and cane toads in bending and torsion.
Wilson, Megan P; Espinoza, Nora R; Shah, Sagar R; Blob, Richard W
2009-07-01
When compared with most vertebrates, frogs use a novel style of jumping locomotion powered by the hindlimbs. Hindlimb bones of frogs must withstand the potentially erratic loads associated with such saltatory locomotion. To evaluate the load bearing capacity of anuran limb bones, we used three-point bending, torsion, and hardness tests to measure the mechanical properties of the femur and tibiofibula from adults of two species that use different jumping styles: explosively jumping bullfrogs (Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana) and cyclically hopping cane toads (Bufo (Chaunus) marinus). Yield stress and strain values for R. catesbeiana and B. marinus hindlimb bones are within the range of values previously reported for other vertebrates. However, anuran hindlimb bones generally stand out as having higher yield stresses in bending than those of closely related, nonsaltatory salamanders, highlighting the importance of considering phylogenetic context in comparisons of bone functional capacity and adaptation. Stiffness values for both frog species tested were also high, which may facilitate efficient transmission of muscular forces while jumping. Elevated stiffness may also contribute to some discrepancies between determinations of bone properties via hardness versus bending tests. In comparisons between species, B. marinus bones showed significantly higher bending yield stresses than R. catesbeiana, whereas R. catesbeiana bones showed significantly higher torsional yield stresses than B. marinus. These differences may correlate with differences in jumping style and limb anatomy between ranid and bufonid frogs, suggesting that evolutionary changes in bone mechanical properties may help to accommodate new functional demands that emerge in lineages.
46 CFR 56.80-15 - Heat treatment of bends and formed components.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... forming requires no subsequent heat treatment. (b) Ferritic alloy steel piping which has been heated for... ferritic-alloy pipe in nominal pipe sizes of 4 inches and larger, or one-half-inch wall thickness or heavier, will require a stress-relieving treatment. (d) Cold bending of carbon-steel and...
46 CFR 56.80-15 - Heat treatment of bends and formed components.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... forming requires no subsequent heat treatment. (b) Ferritic alloy steel piping which has been heated for... ferritic-alloy pipe in nominal pipe sizes of 4 inches and larger, or one-half-inch wall thickness or heavier, will require a stress-relieving treatment. (d) Cold bending of carbon-steel and...
46 CFR 56.80-15 - Heat treatment of bends and formed components.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... forming requires no subsequent heat treatment. (b) Ferritic alloy steel piping which has been heated for... ferritic-alloy pipe in nominal pipe sizes of 4 inches and larger, or one-half-inch wall thickness or heavier, will require a stress-relieving treatment. (d) Cold bending of carbon-steel and...
Axisymmetric Bending Oscillations of Stellar Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sellwood, J. A.
1996-12-01
Self-gravitating stellar disks with random motion support both exponentially growing and, in some cases, purely oscillatory axisymmetric bending modes, unlike their cold disk counterparts. A razor-thin disk with even a very small degree of random motion in the plane is both unstable and possesses a discrete spectrum of neutral modes, irrespective of the sharpness of the edge. Random motion normal to the disk plane is stabilizing but at the same time allows bending waves to couple to the internal vibrations of the particles, which causes the formerly neutral modes to decay through Landau damping. Focusing first on instabilities, I here determine the degree of random motion normal to the plane needed to suppress global, axisymmetric, bending instabilities in a family of self-gravitating disks. As found previously, bending instabilities are suppressed only when the thickness exceeds that expected from a local criterion when the degree of pressure support within the disk plane is comparable to, or exceeds, the support from rotation. Nevertheless, a modest disk thickness would seem to be adequate for the bending stability of most disk galaxies, except perhaps near their centers. The discretization of the neutral spectrum in a zero-thickness disk is due to the existence of a turning point for bending waves in a warm disk, which is absent when the disk is cold. When the disk is given a finite thickness, the discrete neutral modes generally become strongly damped through wave-particle interactions. It is surprising therefore that I find some simulations of warm, stable disks can support (quasi-)neutral, large-scale, bending modes that decay very slowly, if at all.
Autogenic Scour and Channel Widening in Sharp Bends of the River Mahakam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoitink, T.; Vermeulen, B.; van Berkum, S.; Hidayat, H.; Labeur, R. J.
2014-12-01
Field evidence of the River Mahakam reveals autogenic scour and channel widening in a series of sharp bends. An integral analysis of a 300 km reach of the river is presented, including a comprehensive survey of the river banks, delineation of the river corridor from radar observations, Large Eddy Simulations of observed flow patterns, and a geometric analysis of planform and depth information. Scour depths strongly exceed what can be expected based on existing understanding of sharp bends, and are highly correlated with curvature. Histograms of the occurrence of erosive, stable, advancing, and bar-type banks as a function of curvature quantify the switch from a mildly curved bend regime to a sharp bend regime. In mild bends, outer banks erode and inner banks advance. In sharp bends the erosion pattern inverts. Outer banks stabilize or advance, while inner banks erode. In sharply curved river bends, bars occur near the outer banks that become less erosive for higher curvatures. Inner banks become more erosive for higher curvatures, but nevertheless accommodate the larger portion of exposed bars. Soil processes may play a crucial role in the formation of sharp bends, which is inferred from iron and manganese concretions observed in the riverbanks, indicating ferric horizons and early stages of the formation of plinthic horizons. Historical topographic maps show the planform activity of the river is low, which may relate to the scours slowing down planimetric development. The occurrence of exceptionally deep scours is attributed to downflow near the scour exceeding 12 cm/s, increasing the bed shear stress. The downflow, in turn, is explained from the cross-sectional area increase, which is shown to be important in generating adverse surface gradients driving flow recirculation in the Large Eddy Simulations. Strong secondary flow distorts the vertical pressure distribution that is no longer hydrostatic. The downflow advects longitudinal momentum, moving the core of the
Bend-insensitive optical fibers for FTTH applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ming-Jun
2009-01-01
This paper reviews recent development in bend-insensitive fibers for fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) applications. First, requirements for bend-insensitive fibers are discussed. Then different design approaches for reducing fiber bending loss are described and compared. A new bend-insensitive fiber using the nano-engineered ring design is presented in detail.
49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend...
49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend...
49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend...
49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend...
49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend...
Accumulated bending energy elicits neutral sphingomyelinase activity in human red blood cells.
López, David J; Egido-Gabas, Meritxell; López-Montero, Iván; Busto, Jon V; Casas, Josefina; Garnier, Marie; Monroy, Francisco; Larijani, Banafshé; Goñi, Félix M; Alonso, Alicia
2012-05-02
We propose that accumulated membrane bending energy elicits a neutral sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity in human erythrocytes. Membrane bending was achieved by osmotic or chemical processes, and SMase activity was assessed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The activity induced by hypotonic stress in erythrocyte membranes had the pH dependence, ion dependence, and inhibitor sensitivity of mammalian neutral SMases. The activity caused a decrease in SM contents, with a minimum at 6 min after onset of the hypotonic conditions, and then the SM contents were recovered. We also elicited SMase activity by adding lysophosphatidylcholine externally or by generating it with phospholipase A(2). The same effect was observed upon addition of chlorpromazine or sodium deoxycholate at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration, and even under hypertonic conditions. A unifying factor of the various agents that elicit this SMase activity is the accumulated membrane bending energy. Both hypo-and hypertonic conditions impose an increased curvature, whereas the addition of surfactants or phospholipase A(2) activation increases the outer monolayer area, thus leading to an increased bending energy. The fact that this latent SMase activity is tightly coupled to the membrane bending properties suggests that it may be related to the general phenomenon of stress-induced ceramide synthesis and apoptosis.
Microstructure-Based RVE Approach for Stretch-Bending of Dual-Phase Steels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Sheng; He, ChunFeng; Zhao, YiXi
2016-03-01
Fracture behavior and micro-failure mechanism in stretch-bending of dual-phase (DP) steels are still unclear. Representative volume elements (RVE) have been proved to be an applicable approach for describing microstructural deformation in order to reveal the micro-failure mechanism. In this paper, 2D RVE models are built. The deformation behavior of DP steels under stretch-bending is investigated by means of RVE models based on the metallographic graphs with particle geometry, distribution, and morphology. Microstructural failure modes under different loading conditions in stretch-bending tests are studied, and different failure mechanisms in stretch-bending are analyzed. The computational results and stress-strain distribution analysis indicate that in the RVE models, the strain mostly occurs in ferrite phase, while martensite phase undertakes most stress without significant strain. The failure is the results of the deformation inhomogeneity between martensite phase and ferrite phase. The various appearance and growth of initial voids are different depending on the bending radius.
Accumulated Bending Energy Elicits Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activity in Human Red Blood Cells
López, David J.; Egido-Gabas, Meritxell; López-Montero, Iván; Busto, Jon V.; Casas, Josefina; Garnier, Marie; Monroy, Francisco; Larijani, Banafshé; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia
2012-01-01
We propose that accumulated membrane bending energy elicits a neutral sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity in human erythrocytes. Membrane bending was achieved by osmotic or chemical processes, and SMase activity was assessed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The activity induced by hypotonic stress in erythrocyte membranes had the pH dependence, ion dependence, and inhibitor sensitivity of mammalian neutral SMases. The activity caused a decrease in SM contents, with a minimum at 6 min after onset of the hypotonic conditions, and then the SM contents were recovered. We also elicited SMase activity by adding lysophosphatidylcholine externally or by generating it with phospholipase A2. The same effect was observed upon addition of chlorpromazine or sodium deoxycholate at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration, and even under hypertonic conditions. A unifying factor of the various agents that elicit this SMase activity is the accumulated membrane bending energy. Both hypo-and hypertonic conditions impose an increased curvature, whereas the addition of surfactants or phospholipase A2 activation increases the outer monolayer area, thus leading to an increased bending energy. The fact that this latent SMase activity is tightly coupled to the membrane bending properties suggests that it may be related to the general phenomenon of stress-induced ceramide synthesis and apoptosis. PMID:22824271
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lederer, M.; Khatibi, G.
2017-01-01
It is a well known fact that linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) predicts stress singularities at the tips of sharp cracks, at sharp edges, at corners and at the surface of material transitions. However, from the viewpoint of the strengths of atomic bonds it is clear that only finite forces may be present at the tip of a stable crack. Therefore, theories of strain gradient elasticity were developed which reduce the values of stress concentrations. Within these theories a bending modulus is postulated which introduces an increased stiffness of the crystal lattice against bending. In the present study, the value of this bending modulus is evaluated on the basis of the electrostatic energy of a bent crystal lattice. This is done for the face centred cubic structure of NaCl. In fact, results for the bending modulus could be obtained although they depend on the crystal size.
Analysis of Basal Plane Bending and Basal Plane Dislocations in 4H-SiC Single Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohtani, Noboru; Katsuno, Masakazu; Fujimoto, Tatsuo; Nakabayashi, Masashi; Tsuge, Hiroshi; Yashiro, Hirokatsu; Aigo, Takashi; Hirano, Hosei; Hoshino, Taizo; Ohashi, Wataru
2009-06-01
4H-SiC single crystals were grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) growth method under different thermoelastic stress conditions, and the degree of basal plane bending in the crystals was characterized by the peak shift measurement of X-ray rocking curves. The results indicate that the degree of basal plane bending largely depends on the magnitude of the thermoelastic stresses imposed on the crystals during PVT growth. Quantitative analysis of basal plane bending revealed that the density of basal plane dislocations (BPDs) estimated from basal plane bending is much smaller than that obtained from defect-selective etching. It was also found that the BPD density is correlated with the threading screw dislocation (TSD) density in PVT-grown SiC crystals. These aspects of BPDs were discussed in terms of the BPD multiplication process triggered by the intersection of BPDs with a forest of TSDs extending along the c-axis.
Arbitrary angle waveguide bends based on zero-index metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y. H.; Zhang, L. H.; Chen, Y. Q.; Feng, T. H.; Jiang, H. T.; Chen, H.
2014-08-01
In this paper, efficient arbitrary angle bends based on impedance-matched zero-index metamaterials (ZIMs) are proposed. Numerical simulations on ZIM-based bends are carried out in waveguide systems. The results show clearly that electromagnetic waves can tunnel through the ZIM-based bends with high transmittance at any bending angles. Moreover, a realistic ZIM-based bends are designed and fabricated on microstrip transmission line. Both simulated and experimental results confirm well the low loss and arbitrary angle bending effects in a system hiring ZIM-based microstrip ring resonator as bending corners.
Sudden bending of cracked laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sih, G. C.; Chen, E. P.
1980-01-01
A dynamic approximate laminated plate theory is developed with emphasis placed on obtaining effective solution for the crack configuration where the 1/square root of r stress singularity and the condition of plane strain are preserved. The radial distance r is measured from the crack edge. The results obtained show that the crack moment intensity tends to decrease as the crack length to laminate plate thickness is increased. Hence, a laminated plate has the desirable feature of stabilizing a through crack as it increases its length at constant load. Also, the level of the average load intensity transmitted to a through crack can be reduced by making the inner layers to be stiffer than the outer layers. The present theory, although approximate, is useful for analyzing laminate failure to crack propagation under dynamic load conditions.
The effect of skin passing on the material behavior of metal strip in pure bending and tension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, Matthias; Ryan, Will; Rolfe, Bernard; Yang, Chunhui
2010-06-01
The metal strip used in roll forming has often been preprocessed by (tension or roller) leveling or by skin-pass rolling, and as a consequence, may contain residual stresses. These stresses are not well observed by the tensile test, but could have a significant effect on the bending and springback behavior. With the advent of improved process design techniques for roll forming, including advanced finite element techniques, the need for precise material property data has become important. The major deformation mode of roll forming is that of bending combined with unloading and reverse bending, and hence property data derived from bend tests could be more relevant than that from tensile testing. This work presents a numerical study on the effect of skin passing on the material behavior of stainless steel strip in pure bending and tension. A two dimensional (2-D) numerical model was developed using Abaqus Explicit to analyze the affect of skin passing on the residual stress profile across a section for various working conditions. The deformed meshes and their final stress fields were then imported as pre-defined fields into Abaqus Standard, and the post-skin passing material behavior in pure bending was determined. The results show that a residual stress profile is introduced into the steel strip during skin passing, and that its shape and stress level depend on the overall thickness reduction as well as the number of rolling passes used in the skin passing process. The material behavior in bending and the amount of springback changed significantly depending on the skin pass condition.
Bending analysis of different material distributions of functionally graded beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldousari, S. M.
2017-04-01
Most analyses of functional graded materials (FGM) focusing on power law distribution, which presents stress concentration at the interface when material properties change rapidly. The objective of the current paper is to develop two symmetric and anti-symmetric functions and compare their effects on the static deflection and bending stresses with classical power-law distribution. The proposed distributions are a symmetric power-law and a sigmoid function which is anti-symmetric. To homogenized micromechanical properties of FGM, the effective material properties are derived on the basis of Voigt model. Kinematic relation of Euler-Bernoulli beam is assumed and virtual work is proposed to derive the equilibrium equations. A finite element model is proposed to form stiffness matrix and force vector and then solve the problem numerically. Proposed model has been validated. Numerical results presents the effect of power exponent, and elasticity ratios on a static deflection and stresses of FG beams. The most significant finding is that, the symmetric power function is more reliable and can considerably reduce the stress than the other two functions. However, the sigmoid function distribution represents the highest stress.
longitudinal compressive stress of the unnotched Charpy specimen correlated well with the uniaxial tension test yield stress data. Also, the yield loads...unnotched Charpy yield-load data. Finally, it is shown that it is possible to calculate from uniaxial tension test data the maximum bending load of an
46 CFR Appendix B to Part 154 - Stress Analyses Definitions
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... value of the stress across the thickness of the section under consideration. Bending stress means the variable stress across the thickness of the section under consideration, after the subtraction of...
Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamyan, V. M.; Bondarev, V. N.; Zavalniuk, V. V.
2016-11-01
It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.
FLUCTUATING MOTOR FORCES BEND GROWING MICROTUBULES
Shekhar, Nandini; Neelam, Srujana; Wu, Jun; Ladd, Anthony JC; Dickinson, Richard B.; Lele, Tanmay P.
2013-01-01
Despite their rigidity, microtubules in living cells bend significantly during polymerization resulting in greater curvature than can be explained by thermal forces alone. However, the source of the non-thermal forces that bend growing microtubules remains obscure. We analyzed the motion of microtubule tips in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts expressing EGFP-EB1, a fluorescent +TIP protein that specifically binds to the growing ends of microtubules. We found that dynein inhibition significantly reduced the deviation of the growing tip from its initial trajectory. Inhibiting myosin modestly reduced tip fluctuations, while simultaneous myosin and dynein inhibition caused no further decrease in fluctuations compared to dynein inhibition alone. Our results can be interpreted with a model in which dynein linkages play a key role in generating and transmitting fluctuating forces that bend growing microtubules. PMID:24039637
Bend detector for a pipeline pig
Laymon, D.; Berry, J.M.
1986-12-16
A bend detector is described for use on a pipeline pig assembly; the pipeline pig assembly comprising a front pig element and a rear pig element pivotally connected to each other by the bend detector, the front pig element having a longitudinally disposed housing with means for driving the pipeline assembly by the flow of a fluid through a pipeline system. The rear pig element has a longitudinally disposed housing with means for axially supporting the housing in the pipeline system. The detector includes a means for determining the distance traversed by the pipeline pig assembly through the pipeline system. The bend detector comprises a universal joint having a pair of yoke members being pivotally interconnected to a central member so as to oscillate about a pair of mutually perpendicular axes lying in a plane generally perpendicular to the axis of the pipeline, each of the yoke members having a yoke and a collar. The detector also includes a means for mounting each collar to the front pig element and the rear pig element, respectively, the central member being provided with a substantially longitudinal bore for receiving a hollow sleeve, a central opening in each collar thereby forming an axially aligned passageway with the hollow sleeve. A cable is received in the passageway and has its rear end anchored to the mounting means of the rear pig element, the forward end of the cable connected to an actuator shaft for a stylus for recording a bend along the pipeline system, whereby when the pig assembly traverses a bend. The front pig element pivots with respect to the rear pig element thereby pivoting the sleeve relative to the passageway and thereby exerting a pull on the cable causing the actuator shaft to move longitudinally rearward; thereby indicating the location and degree of the bend.
Critical bending torque of DNA is a materials parameter independent of local base sequence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Juan; Qu, Hao; Zocchi, Giovanni
2013-09-01
Short double-stranded DNA molecules exhibit a softening transition under large bending which is quantitatively described by a critical bending torque τc at which the molecule develops a kink. Through equilibrium measurements of the elastic energy of short (˜10 nm), highly stressed DNA molecules with a nick at the center we determine τc for different sequences around the nick. We find that τc is a robust materials parameter essentially independent of sequence. The measurements also show that, at least for nicked DNA, the local structure at the origin of the softening transition is not a single-stranded “bubble.”
Critical bending torque of DNA is a materials parameter independent of local base sequence.
Wang, Juan; Qu, Hao; Zocchi, Giovanni
2013-09-01
Short double-stranded DNA molecules exhibit a softening transition under large bending which is quantitatively described by a critical bending torque τ_{c} at which the molecule develops a kink. Through equilibrium measurements of the elastic energy of short (∼10 nm), highly stressed DNA molecules with a nick at the center we determine τ_{c} for different sequences around the nick. We find that τ_{c} is a robust materials parameter essentially independent of sequence. The measurements also show that, at least for nicked DNA, the local structure at the origin of the softening transition is not a single-stranded "bubble."
Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.
2010-01-01
The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to
Minimal Bending Energies of Bilayer Polyhedra
Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Phillips, Rob
2011-01-01
Motivated by recent experiments on bilayer polyhedra composed of amphiphilic molecules, we study the elastic bending energies of bilayer vesicles forming polyhedral shapes. Allowing for segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges of polyhedra, we find that bilayer polyhedra can indeed have lower bending energies than spherical bilayer vesicles. However, our analysis also implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the snub dodecahedron, rather than the icosahedron, generally represents the energetically favorable shape of bilayer polyhedra. PMID:21231425
Band bending in conjugated polymer layers.
Lange, Ilja; Blakesley, James C; Frisch, Johannes; Vollmer, Antje; Koch, Norbert; Neher, Dieter
2011-05-27
We use the Kelvin probe method to study the energy-level alignment of four conjugated polymers deposited on various electrodes. Band bending is observed in all polymers when the substrate work function exceeds critical values. Through modeling, we show that the band bending is explained by charge transfer from the electrodes into a small density of states that extends several hundred meV into the band gap. The energetic spread of these states is correlated with charge-carrier mobilities, suggesting that the same states also govern charge transport in the bulk of these polymers. © 2011 American Physical Society
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Byoung-Joon; Shin, Hae-A.-Seul; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Joo, Young-Chang
2016-06-01
The electrical reliability of a multi-layer metal film on a polymer substrate during cyclic inner bending and outer bending is investigated using a bending fatigue system. The electrical resistance of a Cu film on a polymer substrate during cyclic outer bending increases due to fatigue damage formation, such as cracks and extrusion. Cyclic inner bending also leads to fatigue damage and a similar increase in the electrical resistance. In a sample having a NiCr under-layer, however, the electrical resistance increases significantly during outer bending but not during inner bending mode. Cross-sectional observations reveal that brittle cracking in the hard under-layer results in different fatigue behaviors according to the stress mode. By applying an Al over-layer, the fatigue resistance is improved during both outer bending and inner bending by suppressing fatigue damage formation. The effects of the position, materials, and thickness of the inter-layer on the electrical reliability of a multi-layer sample are also investigated. This study can provide meaningful information for designing a multi-layer structure under various mechanical deformations including tensile and compressive stress.
Calculation of muscle forces during normal gait under consideration of femoral bending moments.
Lutz, Frederick; Mastel, Roland; Runge, Martin; Stief, Felix; Schmidt, André; Meurer, Andrea; Witte, Hartmut
2016-09-01
This paper introduces a new approach for computing lower extremity muscle forces by incorporating equations that consider "bone structure" and "prevention of bending by load reduction" into existing optimization algorithms. Lower extremity muscle and joint forces, during normal gait, were calculated and compared using two different optimization approaches. We added constraint equations that prevent femoral bending loads to an existing approach that considers "minimal total muscular force". Gait parameters such as kinematics, ground reaction forces, and surface electromyographic activation patterns were examined using standardized gait analysis. A subject-specific anatomic model of the lower extremities, obtained from magnetic resonance images of a healthy male, was used for the simulations. Finite element analysis was used to calculate femoral loads. The conventional method of calculating muscle forces leads to higher rates of femoral bending and structural stress than the new approach. Adding equations with structural subject-specific parameters in our new approach resulted in reduced femoral stress patterns. These findings show that our new approach improves the accuracy of femoral stress and strain simulations. Structural overloads caused by bending can be avoided during inverse calculation of muscle forces. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Photomechanical bending mechanics of polydomain azobenzene liquid crystal polymer network films
Cheng Liang; Torres, Yanira; Oates, William S.; Lee, Kyung Min; McClung, Amber J.; Baur, Jeffery; White, Timothy J.
2012-07-01
Glassy, polydomain azobenzene liquid crystal polymer networks (azo-LCNs) have been synthesized, characterized, and modeled to understand composition dependence on large amplitude, bidirectional bending, and twisting deformation upon irradiation with linearly polarized blue-green (440-514 nm) light. These materials exhibit interesting properties for adaptive structure applications in which the shape of the photoresponsive material can be rapidly reconfigured with light. The basis for the photomechanical output observed in these materials is absorption of actinic light by azobenzene, which upon photoisomerization dictates an internal stress within the local polymer network. The photoinduced evolution of the underlying liquid crystal microstructure is manifested as macroscopic deformation of the glassy polymer film. Accordingly, this work examines the polarization-controlled bidirectional bending of highly concentrated azo-LCN materials and correlates the macroscopic output (observed as bending) to measured blocked stresses upon irradiation with blue-green light of varying polarization. The resulting photomechanical output is highly dependent on the concentration of crosslinked azobenzene mesogens employed in the formulation. Experiments that quantify photomechanical bending and photogenerated stress are compared to a large deformation photomechanical shell model to quantify the effect of polarized light interactions with the material during static and dynamic polarized light induced deformation. The model comparisons illustrate differences in internal photostrain and deformation rates as a function of composition and external mechanical constraints.
A comparison of fixation screws for the scaphoid during application of cyclical bending loads.
Toby, E B; Butler, T E; McCormack, T J; Jayaraman, G
1997-08-01
Matched pairs of scaphoids from cadavera were stressed with ramped intensity cyclical bending loads after osteotomy and fixation of one scaphoid with a Herbert screw and fixation of the other with an AO 3.5-millimeter cannulated screw, a Herbert-Whipple screw, an Acutrak cannulated screw, or a Universal Compression screw. The AO screw, Acutrak screw, and Herbert-Whipple screw demonstrated superior resistance to cyclical bending loads compared with the Herbert screw. The Universal Compression screw did not provide better fixation than the Herbert screw because of fractures that occurred at the time of insertion. The AO screw and the Herbert screw were then tested in a separate setup in which a segment of volar cortex had been removed in addition to the simple osteotomy. The loss of volar cortex greatly diminished the quality of the fixation provided by both of the screws during application of ramped intensity cyclical bending loads. A fixation device in the scaphoid must be able to withstand the stresses that are placed on the scaphoid as a result of its position spanning the proximal and distal carpal rows. Also, because of the prolonged time required for healing of fractures or non-unions of the scaphoid, the device must be able to withstand many such cycles of stress. The present study demonstrates that commonly used screws for fixation of the scaphoid vary significantly (p < 0.005) in their ability to resist cyclical bending loads.
Fiber stress values for design of glulam timber utility structures
R. Hernandez; R. C. Moody; R. H. Falk
In this study, we developed a simple equation to calculate average fiber stress values for design of glued-laminated (glulam) timber utility structures as a function of design bending stress. We took design stress in bending values specified by the American Institute of Timber Construction (AITC) for various combinations of glulam timber, applied appropriate end-use...
Delocalization and stretch-bend mixing of the HOH bend in liquid water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carpenter, William B.; Fournier, Joseph A.; Biswas, Rajib; Voth, Gregory A.; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2017-08-01
Liquid water's rich sub-picosecond vibrational dynamics arise from the interplay of different high- and low-frequency modes evolving in a strong yet fluctuating hydrogen bond network. Recent studies of the OH stretching excitations of H2O indicate that they are delocalized over several molecules, raising questions about whether the bending vibrations are similarly delocalized. In this paper, we take advantage of an improved 50 fs time-resolution and broadband infrared (IR) spectroscopy to interrogate the 2D IR lineshape and spectral dynamics of the HOH bending vibration of liquid H2O. Indications of strong bend-stretch coupling are observed in early time 2D IR spectra through a broad excited state absorption that extends from 1500 cm-1 to beyond 1900 cm-1, which corresponds to transitions from the bend to the bend overtone and OH stretching band between 3150 and 3550 cm-1. Pump-probe measurements reveal a fast 180 fs vibrational relaxation time, which results in a hot-ground state spectrum that is the same as observed for water IR excitation at any other frequency. The fastest dynamical time scale is 80 fs for the polarization anisotropy decay, providing evidence for the delocalized or excitonic character of the bend. Normal mode analysis conducted on water clusters extracted from molecular dynamics simulations corroborate significant stretch-bend mixing and indicate delocalization of δHOH on 2-7 water molecules.
Blair, Rebecca H.; Goodrich, James A.; Kugel, Jennifer F.
2012-01-01
TATA binding protein (TBP) is a key component of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription machinery that binds to TATA boxes located in the core promoter regions of many genes. Structural and biochemical studies have shown that when TBP binds DNA, it sharply bends the DNA. We used single-molecule FRET (smFRET) to study DNA bending by human TBP on consensus and mutant TATA boxes in the absence and presence of TFIIA. We found that the state of the bent DNA within populations of TBP/DNA complexes is homogeneous; partially bent intermediates were not observed. In contrast to previous ensemble studies, TBP was found to bend a mutant TATA box to the same extent as the consensus TATA box. Moreover, in the presence of TFIIA the extent of DNA bending was not significantly changed, although TFIIA did increase the fraction of DNA molecules bound by TBP. Analysis of the kinetics of DNA bending and unbending revealed that on the consensus TATA box two kinetically distinct populations of TBP/DNA complexes exist, however, the bent state of the DNA is the same in the two populations. Our smFRET studies reveal that human TBP bends DNA in a largely uniform manner under a variety of different conditions, which was unexpected given previous ensemble biochemical studies. Our new observations lead to us to revise the model for the mechanism of DNA binding by TBP and for how DNA bending is affected by TATA sequence and TFIIA. PMID:22934924
Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Teng, Zhongzhao; Billiar, Kristen; Bach, Richard; Ku, David N
2009-06-01
Heart attack and stroke are often caused by atherosclerotic plaque rupture, which happens without warning most of the time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based atherosclerotic plaque models with fluid-structure interactions (FSIs) have been introduced to perform flow and stress/strain analysis and identify possible mechanical and morphological indices for accurate plaque vulnerability assessment. For coronary arteries, cyclic bending associated with heart motion and anisotropy of the vessel walls may have significant influence on flow and stress/strain distributions in the plaque. FSI models with cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties for coronary plaques are lacking in the current literature. In this paper, cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties were added to 3D FSI coronary plaque models so that the models would be more realistic for more accurate computational flow and stress/strain predictions. Six computational models using one ex vivo MRI human coronary plaque specimen data were constructed to assess the effects of cyclic bending, anisotropic vessel properties, pulsating pressure, plaque structure, and axial stretch on plaque stress/strain distributions. Our results indicate that cyclic bending and anisotropic properties may cause 50-800% increase in maximum principal stress (Stress-P1) values at selected locations. The stress increase varies with location and is higher when bending is coupled with axial stretch, nonsmooth plaque structure, and resonant pressure conditions (zero phase angle shift). Effects of cyclic bending on flow behaviors are more modest (9.8% decrease in maximum velocity, 2.5% decrease in flow rate, 15% increase in maximum flow shear stress). Inclusion of cyclic bending, anisotropic vessel material properties, accurate plaque structure, and axial stretch in computational FSI models should lead to a considerable improvement of accuracy of computational stress/strain predictions for coronary plaque vulnerability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gui, M.; Eybel, R.; Asselin, B.; Monerie-Moulin, F.
2015-03-01
In this work, WC-10Co-4Cr coating was sprayed by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) process on Almen strip and axial fatigue coupon. Three-point bend test was used to bend Almen strip coating specimens with tensile and compressive stress applied to the coating. Axial fatigue coating specimens were tested at a load stress of 1250 MPa and a stress ratio of R = -1. Process condition of Thermal spraying was found to have an effect on spalling performance of the coating in the fatigue test. The mechanism of cracking and spalling process in the coating was studied in bend and fatigue conditions. Based on deformation difference between the coating and the substrate, the factors, especially coating thickness, to impact the coating spalling behavior in axial fatigue test are discussed. HVOF-sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr coating matches the deformation of base substrate by cracking when tensile stress is applied in bend and fatigue tests because the coating has very limit deformation capability. In axial fatigue test of WC-10Co-4Cr coating specimen, the substrate works in a stress-to-strain manner; however the coating works in a strain-to-stress manner and is stressed due to the substrate deformation.
Simulation of thick-walled submarine pipeline collapse under bending and hydrostatic pressure
Al-Sharif, A.M.; Preston, R.
1996-12-31
The problem of submarine pipeline buckling or collapse as a result of bending and external pressure is investigated by numerical modeling using finite element analysis. The model takes into account the initial variability of material properties, the effect of cold-work on the pipe material properties and initial geometric imperfections. It is capable of simulating the nonlinear behavior, and structural instability due to the combined effects of bending and pressure. The solution algorithm and verification against experimental results are presented. In addition, a deterministic model for collapse under combined pressure and bending based on measured stress-strain behavior and pipe geometry is derived. Results from both finite element and deterministic models for different parameter sensitivities are examined.
Age of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend
Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.
1976-01-01
40Ar/39Ar age data on alkalic and tholeiitic basalts from Diakakuji and Kinmei Seamounts in the vicinity of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend indicate that these volcanoes are about 41 and 39 m.y. old, respectively. Combined with previously published age data on Yuryaku and Ko??ko Seamounts, the new data indicate that the best age for the bend is 42.0 ?? 1.4 m.y. Petrochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks recovered from bend seamounts are indistinguishable from Hawaiian volcanic rocks, strengthening the hypothesis that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend is part of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages on altered whole-rock basalt samples are consistent with feldspar ages and with 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data and appear to reflect the crystallization ages of the samples even though conventional K-Ar ages are significantly younger. The cause of this effect is not known but it may be due to low-temperature loss of 39Ar from nonretentive montmorillonite clays that have also lost 40Ar. ?? 1976.
Design of a hydraulic bending machine
Steven G. Hankel; Marshall Begel
2004-01-01
To keep pace with customer demands while phasing out old and unserviceable test equipment, the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Laboratory (EML) at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, designed and assembled a hydraulic bending test machine. The EML built this machine to test dimension lumber, nominal 2 in. thick and up to 12 in. deep, at spans up to...
Bending rate damping in elastic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, H. T.; Wang, Y.; Fabiano, R. H.
1989-01-01
Preliminary results of an investigation of the bending rate damping model for elastic structures are presented. A model for which the internal damping term is physically plausible and which can accomodate cantilevered boundary conditions is discussed. The model formulation and mathematical foundations are given, and numerical results are discussed.
Monitoring the Bending Stiffness of DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Chongli; Lou, Xiongwen; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Chen, Huimin; Archer, Lynden
2007-03-01
In eukaryotic cells, the accessibility of genomic sequences provides an inherent regulation mechanism for gene expression through variations in bending stiffness encoded by the nucleic acid sequence. Cyclization of dsDNA is the prevailing method for determining DNA bending stiffness. Recent cyclization data for short dsDNA raises several fundamental questions about the soundness of the cyclization method, particularly in cases where the probability of highly bent DNA conformations is low. We herein evaluate the role of T4 DNA ligase in the cyclization reaction by inserting an environmental sensitive base analogue, 2-amino purine, to the DNA molecule. By monitoring the 2-AP fluorescence under standard cyclization conditions, it is found that in addition to trapping highly-bent cyclic DNA conformations, T4 DNA ligase enhances the apparent base pair flip out rate, thus exaggerating the measured flexibility. This result is further confirmed using fluorescence anisotropy experiments. We show that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on suitably labeled dsDNA provides an alternative approach for quantifying the bending stiffness of short fragments. DNA bending stiffness results obtained using FRET are compared with literature values.
Interdisciplinary Invitations: Exploring Gee's Bend Quilts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Rebecca; Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David
2012-01-01
Engaging with the quilts of Gee's Bend offers a rich opportunity for students in grades four through eight to develop appreciation for pattern, rhythm, and innovation while learning about history, entrepreneurship, and political activism. By easily accessing print, film, and Internet resources teachers can include these vibrant quilts and…
Interdisciplinary Invitations: Exploring Gee's Bend Quilts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Rebecca; Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David
2012-01-01
Engaging with the quilts of Gee's Bend offers a rich opportunity for students in grades four through eight to develop appreciation for pattern, rhythm, and innovation while learning about history, entrepreneurship, and political activism. By easily accessing print, film, and Internet resources teachers can include these vibrant quilts and…
Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow
McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B.
1997-08-01
The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
The surface crack problem in an orthotropic plate under bending and tension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Bing-Hua; Erdogan, F.
1987-01-01
The elasticity problem for an infinite orthotropic flat plate containing a series of through and part through cracks and subjected to bending and tension loads is considered. The problem is formulated by using Reissner's plate bending theory and considering three-dimensional material orthotropy. The Line-spring model developed by Rice and Levy is used to formulate the surface crack problem in which a total of nine material constants were used. The effects of material orthotropy on the stress intensity factors was determined, the interaction between two asymmetrically arranged collinear cracks was investigated, and extensive numerical results regarding the stress intensity factors are provided. The problem is reduced to a system of singular integral equations which is solved by using the Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature formulas. The calculated results show that the material orthotropy does have a significant effect on the stress intensity factor.
The surface crack problem in an orthotropic plate under bending and tension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, B. H.; Erdogan, F.
1986-01-01
The elasticity problem for an infinite orthotropic flat plate containing a series of through and part-through cracks and subjected to bending and tension loads is considered. The problem is formulated by using Reissner's plate bending theory and considering three dimensional materials orthotropy. The Line-spring model developed by Rice and Levy is used to formulate the surface crack problem in which a total of nine material constants has been used. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of material orthotropy on the stress intensity factors, to investigate the interaction between two asymmetrically arranged collinear cracks, and to provide extensive numerical results regarding the stress intensity factors. The problem is reduced to a system of singular integral equations which is solved by using the Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature formulas. The calculated results show that the material orthotropy does have a significant effect on the stress intensity factor.
Electrical Bending and Mechanical Buckling Instabilities in Electrospinning Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Tao; Reneker, Darrell H.
2007-03-01
The electrospinning jet was a continuous fluid flow ejected from the surface of a fluid when the applied electrical force overcomes the surface tension. The jet moved straight away from the tip and then became unstable and bent into coils. This phenomenon is the electrical bending instability [1]. When the distance between the tip and collector was reduced to less than the maximal straight segment length, the electrical bending instability did not occur. The periodic buckling of a fluid jet incident onto a surface is a striking fluid mechanical instability [2]. When axial compressive stress along the jet reached a sufficient value, it produced the fluid mechanics analogue to the buckling of a slender solid column. In the electrospinning, the buckling instability occurred just above the collector where the jet was compressed as it encountered the collector. The buckling frequencies of these jets are in the range of 10^4 to 10^5 Hz. The buckling lengths of these jets are in the range of 10 to 100μm. *Reneker,D.H.; Yarin, A. L.; Fong, H.; Koombhongse, S., Journal of Applied Physics, 87, 4531, 2000 *Tchavdarov B.; Yarin, A. L.; Radev S., Journal of Fluid Mechanics; 253, 593,1993
Thermal fluctuations and bending rigidity of bilayer membranes.
Tarazona, Pedro; Chacón, Enrique; Bresme, Fernando
2013-09-07
We present a new scheme to estimate the elastic properties of biological membranes in computer simulations. The method analyzes the thermal fluctuations in terms of a coupled undulatory mode, which disentangle the mixing of the mesoscopic undulations and the high-q protrusions. This approach makes possible the accurate estimation of the bending modulus both for membranes under stress and in tensionless conditions; it also extends the applicability of the fluctuation analysis to the small membrane areas normally used in atomistic simulations. Also we clarify the difference between the surface tension imposed in simulations through a pressure coupling barostat, and the surface tension that can be extracted from the analysis of the low wave vector dependence of the coupled undulatory fluctuation spectrum. The physical analysis of the peristaltic mode is also refined, by separating the bulk and protrusions contributions. We illustrate the procedure by analyzing 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayers. The bending moduli obtained from our analysis, shows good agreement with available experiments.
The first ANDES elements: 9-DOF plate bending triangles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.
1991-01-01
New elements are derived to validate and assess the assumed natural deviatoric strain (ANDES) formulation. This is a brand new variant of the assumed natural strain (ANS) formulation of finite elements, which has recently attracted attention as an effective method for constructing high-performance elements for linear and nonlinear analysis. The ANDES formulation is based on an extended parametrized variational principle developed in recent publications. The key concept is that only the deviatoric part of the strains is assumed over the element whereas the mean strain part is discarded in favor of a constant stress assumption. Unlike conventional ANS elements, ANDES elements satisfy the individual element test (a stringent form of the patch test) a priori while retaining the favorable distortion-insensitivity properties of ANS elements. The first application of this formulation is the development of several Kirchhoff plate bending triangular elements with the standard nine degrees of freedom. Linear curvature variations are sampled along the three sides with the corners as gage reading points. These sample values are interpolated over the triangle using three schemes. Two schemes merge back to conventional ANS elements, one being identical to the Discrete Kirchhoff Triangle (DKT), whereas the third one produces two new ANDES elements. Numerical experiments indicate that one of the ANDES element is relatively insensitive to distortion compared to previously derived high-performance plate-bending elements, while retaining accuracy for nondistorted elements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Starbuck, J. Michael; Guerdal, Zafer; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Poe, Clarence C.
1990-01-01
Damage states in laminated composites were studied by considering the model problem of a laminated beam subjected to three-point bending. A combination of experimental and theoretical research techniques was used to correlate the experimental results with the analytical stress distributions. The analytical solution procedure was based on the stress formulation approach of the mathematical theory of elasticity. The solution procedure is capable of calculating the ply-level stresses and beam displacements for any laminated beam of finite length using the generalized plane deformation or plane stress state assumption. Prior to conducting the experimental phase, the results from preliminary analyses were examined. Significant effects in the ply-level stress distributions were seen depending on the fiber orientation, aspect ratio, and whether or not a grouped or interspersed stacking sequence was used. The experimental investigation was conducted to determine the different damage modes in laminated three-point bend specimens. The test matrix consisted of three-point bend specimens of 0 deg unidirectional, cross-ply, and quasi-isotropic stacking sequences. The dependence of the damage initiation loads and ultimate failure loads were studied, and their relation to damage susceptibility and damage tolerance of the mean configuration was discussed. Damage modes were identified by visual inspection of the damaged specimens using an optical microscope. The four fundamental damage mechanisms identified were delaminations, matrix cracking, fiber breakage, and crushing. The correlation study between the experimental results and the analytical results were performed for the midspan deflection, indentation, damage modes, and damage susceptibility.
Oceanic Plate Bending Along the Manila Trench
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, F.; Lin, J.; Zhan, W.
2014-12-01
We quantify along-trench variations in plate flexural bending along the Manila trench in the South China Sea. A 3-D interpreted flexural deformation surface of the subducting South China Sea Plate was obtained by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, isostatically-compensated topography based on gravity modeling, age-related lithospheric thermal subsidence, and residual short-wavelength features. We analyzed flexural bending of 21 across-trench profile sections along the Manila trench and then calculated five best-fitting tectonic and plate parameters that control the flexural bending for each of the across-trench profile sections. Results of analysis revealed significant along-trench variations: The trench relief of the Manila trench varies from 0.8 to 2.2 km, trench-axis vertical loading (-V0) from -0.4x1012 to 1.21x1012 N/m, and axial bending moment (-M0) from 0.005x1017 to 0.6x1017 N. The effective elastic plate thickness seaward of the Manila outer-rise region (TeM) ranges from 30 to 40 km, while that trench-ward of the outer-rise (Tem) ranges from 11 to 30 km. This corresponds to a reduction in Te of 26-63% for the Manila trench. The transition from TeM to Tem occurs at a breaking distance of 50-120 km from the Manila trench axis. The axial vertical loading, bending moment, and the effective elastic thickness of the Manila trench are much smaller than the Mariana trench (Zhang et al., 2014). The contrast in the flexural bending between the Mariana and Manila trenches might be related to the difference in the ages of the subducting plates and other tectonic variables. Zhang, F., Lin, J., Zhan, W., 2014. Variations in oceanic plate bending along the Mariana trench, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 401, 206-214. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.032
Design and optimization of a bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tummala, Y.; Frecker, M. I.; Wissa, A. A.; Hubbard, J. E., Jr.
2013-09-01
A novel contact aided compliant mechanism called bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism is presented in this paper. This mechanism has nonlinear stiffness properties in two orthogonal directions. An angled compliant joint (ACJ) is the fundamental element of this mechanism. Geometric parameters of ACJs determine the stiffness of the compliant mechanism. This paper presents the design and optimization of bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated for design optimization of the bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism. The objectives of the optimization problem were to maximize or minimize the bending and sweep displacements, depending on the situation, while minimizing the von Mises stress and mass of each mechanism. This optimization problem was solved using NSGA-II (a genetic algorithm). The results of this optimization for a single ACJ during upstroke and downstroke are presented in this paper. Results of two different loading conditions used during optimization of a single ACJ for upstroke are presented. Finally, optimization results comparing the performance of compliant mechanisms with one and two ACJs are also presented. It can be inferred from these results that the number of ACJs and the design of each ACJ determines the stiffness of the bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism. These mechanisms can be used in various applications. The goal of this research is to improve the performance of ornithopters by passively morphing their wings. In order to achieve a bio-inspired wing gait called continuous vortex gait, the wings of the ornithopter need to bend, and sweep simultaneously. This can be achieved by inserting the bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism into the leading edge wing spar of the ornithopters.
Bending effects on lasing action of semiconductor nanowires.
Yang, Weisong; Ma, Yaoguang; Wang, Yipei; Meng, Chao; Wu, Xiaoqin; Ye, Yu; Dai, Lun; Tong, Limin; Liu, Xu; Yang, Qing
2013-01-28
High flexibility has been one of advantages for one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires (NWs) in wide application of nanoscale integrated circuits. We investigate the bending effects on lasing action of CdSe NWs. Threshold increases and differential efficiency decreases gradually when we decrease the bending radius step by step. Red shift and mode reduction in the output spectra are also observed. The bending loss of laser oscillation is considerably larger than that of photoluminescence (PL), and both show the exponential relationship with the bending radius. Diameter and mode dependent bending losses are investigated. Furthermore, the polarizations of output can be modulated linearly by bending the NWs into different angles continuously.
Experimental Characterization of Stretch-Bending Formability of AHSS Sheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitting, Daniela; Ofenheimer, Aldo; Pauli, Heinrich; Till, Edwin T.
2011-05-01
Deformation conditions of combined stretching and bending are known to enhance material formability compared to forming conditions without bending (e.g. in-plane stretching). These phenomena can be observed for most conventional steel grades but is even more pronounced for Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) sheets. Consequently, there is an urgent need in industry to quantify the phenomena of enhanced material formability due to bending effects. In this work new stretch-bend test setups are presented which can be used in addition to the conventional Angular Stretch Bend Test to systematically investigate the influence of various stretch-bending deformation conditions on the formability of AHSS sheets.
Bone strength in pure bending: bearing of geometric and material properties.
Winter, Werner
2008-01-01
Osteoporosis is characterized by decreasing of bone mass and bone strength with advanced age. For characterization of material properties of dense and cellular bone the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) is one of the most important contributing factors to bone strength. Often bending tests of whole bone are used to get information about the state of osteoporosis. In a first step, different types of cellular structures are considered to characterize vBMD and its influence to elastic and plastic material properties. Afterwards, the classical theory of plastic bending is used to describe the non-linear moment-curvature relation of a whole bone. For bending of whole bone with sandwich structure an effective second moment of area can be defined. The shape factor as a pure geometrical value is considered to define bone strength. This factor is discussed for a bone with circular cross section and different thickness of cortical bone. The deduced relations and the decrease of material properties are used to demonstrate the influence of osteoporosis to bone bending strength. It can be shown that the elastic and plastic material properties of bone are related to a relative bone mineral density. Starting from an elastic-plastic bone behavior with an constant yield stress the non-linear moment-curvature relation in bending is related to yielding of the fibres in the cross section. The ultimate moment is characterized by a shape factor depending on the geometry of the cross section and on the change of cortical thickness.
Bending induced electrical response variations in ultra-thin flexible chips and device modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidari, Hadi; Wacker, Nicoleta; Dahiya, Ravinder
2017-09-01
Electronics that conform to 3D surfaces are attracting wider attention from both academia and industry. The research in the field has, thus far, focused primarily on showcasing the efficacy of various materials and fabrication methods for electronic/sensing devices on flexible substrates. As the device response changes are bound to change with stresses induced by bending, the next step will be to develop the capacity to predict the response of flexible systems under various bending conditions. This paper comprehensively reviews the effects of bending on the response of devices on ultra-thin chips in terms of variations in electrical parameters such as mobility, threshold voltage, and device performance (static and dynamic). The discussion also includes variations in the device response due to crystal orientation, applied mechanics, band structure, and fabrication processes. Further, strategies for compensating or minimizing these bending-induced variations have been presented. Following the in-depth analysis, this paper proposes new mathematical relations to simulate and predict the device response under various bending conditions. These mathematical relations have also been used to develop new compact models that have been verified by comparing simulation results with the experimental values reported in the recent literature. These advances will enable next generation computer-aided-design tools to meet the future design needs in flexible electronics.
[KCl] Dependence of B-DNA Groove Bending Anisotropy.
Ma, Ning; van der Vaart, Arjan
2017-06-01
The energetics of B-DNA bending toward the major and minor grooves were quantified by free energy simulations at four different KCl concentrations. Increased [KCl] led to more flexible DNA, with persistence lengths that agreed well with experimental values. At all salt concentrations, major groove bending was preferred, although preferences for major and minor groove bending were similar for the A-tract containing sequence. Since the phosphate repulsions and DNA internal energy favored minor groove bending, the preference for major groove bending was thought to originate from differences in solvation. Water in the minor groove was tighter bound than water in the major groove, and harder to displace than major groove water, which favored the compression of the major groove upon bending. Higher [KCl] decreased the persistence length for both major and minor groove bending but did not greatly affect the free energy spacing between the minor and major groove bending curves. For sequences without A-tracts, salt affected major and minor bending to nearly the same degree, and did not change the preference for major groove bending. For the A-tract containing sequence, an increase in salt concentration decreased the already small energetic difference between major and minor groove bending. Since salts did not significantly affect the relative differences in bending energetics and hydration, it is likely that the increased bending flexibilities upon salt increase are simply due to screening.
Degradation of bimorph piezoelectric bending beams in energy harvesting applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pillatsch, P.; Xiao, B. L.; Shashoua, N.; Gramling, H. M.; Yeatman, E. M.; Wright, P. K.
2017-03-01
Piezoelectric energy harvesting is an attractive alternative to battery powering for wireless sensor networks. However, in order for it to be a viable long term solution the fatigue life needs to be assessed. Many vibration harvesting devices employ bimorph piezoelectric bending beams as transduction elements to convert mechanical to electrical energy. This paper introduces two degradation studies performed under symmetrical and asymmetrical sinusoidal loading. It is shown that besides a loss in output power, the most dramatic effect of degradation is a shift in resonance frequency which is highly detrimental to resonant harvester designs. In addition, micro-cracking was shown to occur predominantly in piezoelectric layers under tensile stress. This opens the opportunity for increased life time through compressive operation or pre-loading of piezoceramic layers.
Bending Fatigue Strength of Austempered Ductile Iron Spur Gears
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanaka, Masashi; Tamura, Ryo; Inoue, Katsumi; Narita, Yukihito
This paper deals with an experimental evaluation of bending fatigue strength for austempered ductile iron (ADI) spur gears. The module is 2.5 and the number of teeth is 26 in the test gears. The material of the test gears corresponds to Japan Industrial Standard (JIS) FCAD1100-15. Some gears are processed by one of two types of fine particle bombarding (FPB). The surface roughness is slightly increased by FPB. The obtained strengths are 623 MPa for the as-austempered gears, and 1011 and 1085 MPa for the gears after FPB. The strength is expressed by the fillet stress level, which is calculated by FEM. The strength of a gear with the same dimensions made of carburized SCr420H alloy steel is 1205 MPa, and the strength of the ADI gear is approximately half that of the carburized steel gear. The FPB process has a significant effect on the ADI gear, improving its strength by 62-74%.
Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana
2015-12-01
Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).
Implementing residual bend in a tubing forces model
Bhalla, K.
1994-12-31
Coiled Tubing (CT) is being used increasingly to service highly deviated wells. Among the mechanical problems encountered in running coiled tubing into a highly deviated well is helical buckling of the tubing which leads to lockup. Furthermore, contact between the CT and casing can restrict the weight that can be applied to a downhole tool, thereby limiting the placement of tools in deviated sections. A tubing forces model has been developed that calculates the resulting stresses and deformation of the coiled tubing as the coiled tubing is run into and pulled out of the well, the points at which helical buckling occurs and an indication of whether lockup has occurred. An inconsistency in current tubing forces models is that they utilize two differing coefficients of friction for running in hole and pulling out of hole. This criterion suggests some technical deficiency in the formulation of the models. Results from the tubing forces model presented in this paper account for the residual bend due to coiled tubing being wound on the reel and gooseneck. A consequence of this is that it is unnecessary to use two differing friction coefficients for running in hole and pulling out of hole. Results are presented in the form of the surface weight indicator and compared to field data. It is observed that the surface weight indicator predictions are in good agreement with field data. This work suggests that accounting for residual bend, the tubing forces model accurately provides the state of stress, operating forces and deformations during coiled tubing placement. This allows for accurate job design prior to running the tubing in the hole at the well site.
Sensitivity analysis of channel-bend hydraulics influenced by vegetation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bywater-Reyes, S.; Manners, R.; McDonald, R.; Wilcox, A. C.
2015-12-01
Alternating bars influence hydraulics by changing the force balance of channels as part of a morphodynamic feedback loop that dictates channel geometry. Pioneer woody riparian trees recruit on river bars and may steer flow, alter cross-stream and downstream force balances, and ultimately change channel morphology. Quantifying the influence of vegetation on stream hydraulics is difficult, and researchers increasingly rely on two-dimensional hydraulic models. In many cases, channel characteristics (channel drag and lateral eddy viscosity) and vegetation characteristics (density, frontal area, and drag coefficient) are uncertain. This study uses a beta version of FaSTMECH that models vegetation explicitly as a drag force to test the sensitivity of channel-bend hydraulics to riparian vegetation. We use a simplified, scale model of a meandering river with bars and conduct a global sensitivity analysis that ranks the influence of specified channel characteristics (channel drag and lateral eddy viscosity) against vegetation characteristics (density, frontal area, and drag coefficient) on cross-stream hydraulics. The primary influence on cross-stream velocity and shear stress is channel drag (i.e., bed roughness), followed by the near-equal influence of all vegetation parameters and lateral eddy viscosity. To test the implication of the sensitivity indices on bend hydraulics, we hold calibrated channel characteristics constant for a wandering gravel-bed river with bars (Bitterroot River, MT), and vary vegetation parameters on a bar. For a dense vegetation scenario, we find flow to be steered away from the bar, and velocity and shear stress to be reduced within the thalweg. This provides insight into how the morphodynamic evolution of vegetated bars differs from unvegetated bars.
Failure mechanisms in three and four point short beam bending tests of unidirectional glass/epoxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, W. C.; Wisnom, M. R.; Jones, M.
1992-10-01
Three and four point bending tests are compared both analytically and experimentally. In all the three point bending tests, damage was observed under the loading roller in addition to the interlaminar shear failure, while in the four point bending tests, only interlaminar shear failure was observed. Therefore, this four point bending test is valid for measuring the interlaminar shear strength. From the finite element analysis, it is found that the roller diameter is a critical parameter in determining the stress concentrations in short beam tests. In order to avoid damage under the roller and thus to make the short beam test a valid means for measuring the interlaminar shear strength, the appropriate roller diameters should be chosen. The damage under the loading roller in the three point bending test basically reduces the effective specimen thickness and thus this test underestimates the interlaminar shear strength. The interlaminar shear cracks in the short beam tests were found to be randomly distributed in a region between 30 percent and 70 percent through the thickness from the top surface. This is due to the non-linear shear response which means that the shear stress distribution is more uniform near the middle of the section. Also the maximum value of the shear stress is lower than the maximum value given by beam theory. A non-linear shear correction factor is suggested to account for this effect and for the glass/epoxy composite tested here, the actual interlaminar shear strength is only about 83 percent of the apparent value from classical beam theory.
Study of interface influence on bending performance of CFRP with embedded optical fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Rong-mei; Liang, Da-kai
2008-11-01
Studies showed that the bending strength of composite would be affected by embedded optical fibers. Interface strength between the embedded optical fiber and the matrix was studied in this paper. Based on the single fiber pull out tests, the interfacial shear strength between the coating and the clad is the weakest. The shear strength of the optical fiber used in this study is near to 0.8MPa. In order to study the interfacial effect on bending property of generic smart structure, a quasi-isotropic composite laminates were produced from Toray T300C/ epoxy prepreg. Optical fibers were embedded within different orientation plies of the plates, with the optical fibers embedded in the same direction. Accordingly, five different types of plates were produced. Impact tests were carried out on the 5 different plate types. It is shown that when the fiber was embedded at the upper layer, the bending strength drops mostly. The bending normal stress on material arrives at the maximum. So does the normal stress applied on the optical fiber at the surface. Therefore, destructions could originate at the interface between the coating and the clad foremost. The ultimate strength of the smart structure will be affected furthest.
Finite element modeling of bending failure at HPFRC plates using 2-dimensional isoparametric element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krisnamurti, Soehardjono, Agoes; Zacoeb, Achfas; Wibowo, Ari
2017-03-01
This paper presents finite element modeling of the bending failure on High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) plate subjected to monotonic loading. Plate analysis is commonly used approach to plate bending theory. The results are sometimes less in accordance with laboratory tests. The aim of this study is to analyze the behavior of bending until failure which occurred at HPFRC plate, and load-displacement relation caused by variations of plate depth. Analysis carried out by 2-D isoparametric finite element method, with the approach of plane strain condition. The analysis was done by decreasing the stiffness of plate elements layer gradually in accordance with the development of maximum stress in the element due to workload. The rigidity of plate elements layer will be close to zero when maximum stress reaches a maximum tensile strength of HPFRC. Validation testing program conducted on plate specimen with a span length of 600 mm, width 300 mm and thickness variation of 40 mm, 50 mm and 60 mm. HPFRC compressive strength is 93.045 MPa, and splitting tensile strength is 6.018 MPa. Test performed with four points bending pattern at a distance of 1/3 span length. Comparison between the calculation by the finite element method and laboratory testing showed very consistent results.
Fresh-wood bending: linking the mechanical and growth properties of a Norway spruce stem.
Lundström, Tor; Heiz, Urs; Stoffel, Markus; Stöckli, Veronika
2007-09-01
To provide data and methods for analyzing stem mechanics, we investigated bending, density and growth characteristics of 207 specimens of fresh wood from different heights and radial positions of the stem of one mature Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) tree. From the shape of each stress-strain curve, which was calculated from bending tests that accounted for shear deformation, we determined the modulus of elasticity (MOE), the modulus of rupture (MOR), the completeness of the material, an idealized stress-strain curve and the work involved in bending. In general, all mechanical properties increased with distance from the pith, with values in the ranges of 5.7-18 GPa for MOE, 23-90 MPa for MOR and 370-630 and 430-1100 kg m(-3) for dry and fresh wood densities, respectively. The first three properties generally decreased with stem height, whereas fresh wood density increased. Multiple regression equations were calculated, relating MOR, MOE and dry wood density to growth properties. We applied these equations to the growth of the entire stem and considered the annual rings as superimposed cylindrical shells, resulting in stem-section values of MOE, MOR and dry and fresh densities as a function of stem height and cambial age. The standing tree exhibits an inner stem structure that is well designed for bending, especially at a mature stage.
Fatigue of dentin-composite interfaces with four-point bend.
Staninec, Michal; Kim, Paul; Marshall, Grayson W; Ritchie, R O; Marshall, Sally J
2008-06-01
The objective was to determine the fracture and cyclic fatigue properties of composite-dentin beams bonded with a self-etching adhesive in four-point bend. Beams of rectangular cross-section were shaped to a size of approximately 0.87mmx0.87mmx10mm and placed in a four-point bending apparatus, with the loading points 1.8 and 7.2mm apart, with the interface centered between the inner rollers. Cyclical loading was performed in Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution at 25 degrees C, with forces between 54% and 99% of the bending strength of the bonded beams. Solid dentin and solid composite beams [n=6] had bending strengths of 164.4 and 164.6MPa, respectively, under monotonically increasing loads. Bonded beams [n=6] had strengths of 90.6MPa. No significant difference was found between solid composite and solid dentin beams, the bonded beams were different (ANOVA, p<0.0001) With long-term cycling, stresses below 49MPa were tolerated for 10(6) cycles, but with increasing stress up to 90MPa, beams failed earlier, demonstrating that subcritical fatigue cycling will eventually cause failure. Fatigue may be a significant mechanism of dentin-composite bond degradation.
Fatigue of dentin-composite interfaces with four-point bend
Staninec, Michal; Kim, Paul; Marshall, Grayson W.; Ritchie, R. O.; Marshall, Sally J.
2008-01-01
Objectives The objective was to determine the fracture and cyclic fatigue properties of composite-dentin beams bonded with a self–etching adhesive in four-point bend. Methods Beams of rectangular cross-section were shaped to a size of ~0.87 × 0.87 × 10 mm and placed in a four-point bending apparatus, with the loading points 1.8 and 7.2 mm apart, with the interface centered between the inner rollers. Cyclical loading was performed in Hanks’ Balanced Salt Solution at 25°C, with forces between 54% and 99% of the bending strength of the bonded beams. Results Solid dentin and solid composite beams [n = 6] had bending strengths of 164.4 and 164.6 MPa, respectively, under monotonically increasing loads. Bonded beams [n = 6] had strengths of 90.6 MPa. No significant difference was found between solid composite and solid dentin beams, the bonded beams were different (ANOVA, p = 0.000) With long-term cycling, stresses below 49 MPa were tolerated for 106 cycles, but with increasing stress up to 90 MPa, beams failed earlier, demonstrating that subcritical fatigue cycling will eventually cause failure. Significance Fatigue may be a significant mechanism of dentin-composite bond degradation. PMID:17996931
Verma, Bhupesh; Mishra, Tarun Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu
2014-03-01
The use of ultrasonic guided waves for the inspection of pipes with elbow and U-type bends has received much attention in recent years, but studies for more general bend angles which may also occur commonly, for example in cross-country pipes, are limited. Here, we address this topic considering a general bend angle φ, a more general mean bend radius R in terms of the wavelength of the mode studied and pipe thickness b. We use 3D Finite Element (FE) simulation to understand the propagation of fundamental axisymmetric L(0,2) mode across bends of different angles φ. The effect of the ratio of the mean bend radius to the wavelength of the mode studied, on the transmission and reflection of incident wave is also considered. The studies show that as the bend angle is reduced, a progressively larger extent of mode-conversion affects the transmission and velocity characteristics of the L(0,2) mode. However the overall message on the potential of guided waves for inspection and monitoring of bent pipes remains positive, as bends seem to impact mode transmission only to the extent of 20% even at low bend angles. The conclusions seem to be valid for different typical pipe thicknesses b and bend radii. The modeling approach is validated by experiments and discussed in light of physics of guided waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talja, Asko
1992-10-01
Open channel sections manufactured from High Strength Steels (HSS) were tested. The sections were bent in the plane of symmetry of the cross sections. The roll formed test profiles, one double U, two C and two hat profiles with yield stress of 560 to 670 N/sq mm and material thickness of 4 to 6 mm were taken from normal production. The buckling of plates or edge stiffeners was observed in some profiles. Tests for bending, eccentric compression and concentrated load were made. The test results together with other tests results from literature are compared with the design resistances determined according to the proposed design method. The method is satisfactory for normal design, but in some cases it was found to be too conservative. Comparisons with the other test results confirmed that the accuracy of the design rules do not depend on the yield strength or wall thickness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Kai-Han; Zhang, Cary; Song, Shanshan; Chien, Liang-Chy
2017-03-01
We demonstrate a fast-switching optically compensated bend (OCB) mode with polymerized liquid crystal photoalignment (PAL). The polymerized liquid crystal PAL is achieved by spin coating a mixture of reactive mesogens and a photoinitiator and polymerizing it with ultraviolet (UV) light on top of the PAL material, which is illuminated with linear-polarized ultraviolet light to introduce anisotropy and a pretilt angle for liquid crystal alignment. The experimental results show the dependency of the electro-optical properties of OCB cells on the morphology-modulated surface anchoring of polymerized liquid crystal PAL. Furthermore, the polymerized liquid crystal PAL exhibits superior stability against UV exposure and thermal stress, which makes PAL applicable in spatial light modulator application.
Investigation of Low-Cycle Bending Fatigue of AISI 9310 Steel Spur Gears
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Burke, Christopher S.
2007-01-01
An investigation of the low-cycle bending fatigue of spur gears made from AISI 9310 gear steel was completed. Tests were conducted using the single-tooth bending method to achieve crack initiation and propagation. Tests were conducted on spur gears in a fatigue test machine using a dedicated gear test fixture. Test loads were applied at the highest point of single tooth contact. Gear bending stresses for a given testing load were calculated using a linear-elastic finite element model. Test data were accumulated from 1/4 cycle to several thousand cycles depending on the test stress level. The relationship of stress and cycles for crack initiation was found to be semi-logarithmic. The relationship of stress and cycles for crack propagation was found to be linear. For the range of loads investigated, the crack propagation phase is related to the level of load being applied. Very high loads have comparable crack initiation and propagation times whereas lower loads can have a much smaller number of cycles for crack propagation cycles as compared to crack initiation.
Investigation of Low-Cycle Bending Fatigue of AISI 9310 Steel Spur Gears
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Burke, Christopher S.
2007-01-01
An investigation of the low-cycle bending fatigue of spur gears made from AISI 9310 gear steel was completed. Tests were conducted using the single-tooth bending method to achieve crack initiation and propagation. Tests were conducted on spur gears in a fatigue test machine using a dedicated gear test fixture. Test loads were applied at the highest point of single tooth contact. Gear bending stresses for a given testing load were calculated using a linear-elastic finite element model. Test data were accumulated from 1/4 cycle to several thousand cycles depending on the test stress level. The relationship of stress and cycles for crack initiation was found to be semilogarithmic. The relationship of stress and cycles for crack propagation was found to be linear. For the range of loads investigated, the crack propagation phase is related to the level of load being applied. Very high loads have comparable crack initiation and propagation times whereas lower loads can have a much smaller number of cycles for crack propagation cycles as compared to crack initiation.
Investigation of Low-Cycle Bending Fatigue of AISI 9310 Steel Spur Gears
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Burke, Christopher S.
2007-01-01
An investigation of the low-cycle bending fatigue of spur gears made from AISI 9310 gear steel was completed. Tests were conducted using the single-tooth bending method to achieve crack initiation and propagation. Tests were conducted on spur gears in a fatigue test machine using a dedicated gear test fixture. Test loads were applied at the highest point of single tooth contact. Gear bending stresses for a given testing load were calculated using a linear-elastic finite element model. Test data were accumulated from 1/4 cycle to several thousand cycles depending on the test stress level. The relationship of stress and cycles for crack initiation was found to be semilogarithmic. The relationship of stress and cycles for crack propagation was found to be linear. For the range of loads investigated, the crack propagation phase is related to the level of load being applied. Very high loads have comparable crack initiation and propagation times whereas lower loads can have a much smaller number of cycles for crack propagation cycles as compared to crack initiation.
Development of Bend Sensor for Catheter Tip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagano, Yoshitaka; Sano, Akihito; Fujimoto, Hideo
Recently, a minimally invasive surgery which makes the best use of the catheter has been becoming more popular. In endovascular coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm, the observation of the catheter's painting phenomenon is very important to execute the appropriate manipulation of the delivery wire and the catheter. In this study, the internal bend sensor which consists of at least two bending enhanced plastic optical fibers was developed in order to measure the curvature of the catheter tip. Consequently, the painting could be more sensitively detected in the neighborhood of the aneurysm. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the developed sensor system are described and its usefulness is confirmed from the comparison of the insertion force of delivery wire and the curvature of catheter tip in the experiment of coil embolization.
Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity
Kurtisovski, Erol; Taulier, Nicolas; Waks, Marcel; Ober, Raymond; Urbach, Wladimir
2007-06-22
The behavior of the bending modulus {kappa} of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic C{sub i}E{sub j} surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of {kappa} decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of {kappa} decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to {kappa}.
Monitoring thermoplastic composites under cyclic bending tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boccardi, Simone; Meola, Carosena; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; Simeoli, Giorgio; Acierno, Domenico; Russo, Pietro
2016-05-01
This work is concerned with the use of infrared thermography to visualize temperature variations linked to thermo-elastic effects developing over the surface of a specimen undergoing deflection under bending tests. Several specimens are herein considered, which involve change of matrix and/or reinforcement. More specifically, the matrix is either a pure polypropylene, or a polypropylene added with a certain percentage of compatibilizing agent; the reinforcement is made of glass, or jute. Cyclic bending tests are carried out by the aid of an electromechanical actuator. Each specimen is viewed, during deflection, from one surface by an infrared imaging device. As main finding the different specimens display surface temperature variations which depend on the type of material in terms of both matrix and reinforcement.
Holey fibers for low bend loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, Kazuhide; Saito, Kotaro; Yamada, Yusuke; Kurokawa, Kenji; Shimizu, Tomoya; Fukai, Chisato; Matsui, Takashi
2013-12-01
Bending-loss insensitive fiber (BIF) has proved an essential medium for constructing the current fiber to the home (FTTH) network. By contrast, the progress that has been made on holey fiber (HF) technologies provides us with novel possibilities including non-telecom applications. In this paper, we review recent progress on hole-assisted type BIF. A simple design consideration is overviewed. We then describe some of the properties of HAF including its mechanical reliability. Finally, we introduce some applications of HAF including to high power transmission. We show that HAF with a low bending loss has the potential for use in various future optical technologies as well as in the optical communication network.
Effect of confinements: Bending in Paramecium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eddins, Aja; Yang, Sung; Spoon, Corrie; Jung, Sunghwan
2012-02-01
Paramecium is a unicellular eukaryote which by coordinated beating of cilia, generates metachronal waves which causes it to execute a helical trajectory. We investigate the swimming parameters of the organism in rectangular PDMS channels and try to quantify its behavior. Surprisingly a swimming Paramecium in certain width of channels executes a bend of its flexible body (and changes its direction of swimming) by generating forces using the cilia. Considering a simple model of beam constrained between two walls, we predict the bent shapes of the organism and the forces it exerts on the walls. Finally we try to explain how bending (by sensing) can occur in channels by conducting experiments in thin film of fluid and drawing analogy to swimming behavior observed in different cases.
Torsion and transverse bending of cantilever plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reissner, Eric; Stein, Manuel
1951-01-01
The problem of combined bending and torsion of cantilever plates of variable thickness, such as might be considered for solid thin high-speed airplane or missile wings, is considered in this paper. The deflections of the plate are assumed to vary linearly across the chord; minimization of the potential energy by means of the calculus of variations then leads to two ordinary linear differential equations for the bending deflections and the twist of the plate. Because the cantilever is analyzed as a plate rather than as a beam, the effect of constraint against axial warping in torsion is inherently included. The application of this method to specific problems involving static deflection, vibration, and buckling of cantilever plates is presented. In the static-deflection problems, taper and sweep are considered.
Vortex breakdown in simple pipe bends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ault, Jesse; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard
2016-11-01
Pipe bends and elbows are one of the most common fluid mechanics elements that exists. However, despite their ubiquity and the extensive amount of research related to these common, simple geometries, unexpected complexities still remain. We show that for a range of geometries and flow conditions, these simple flows experience unexpected fluid dynamical bifurcations resembling the bubble-type vortex breakdown phenomenon. Specifically, we show with simulations and experiments that recirculation zones develop within the bends under certain conditions. As a consequence, fluid and particles can remain trapped within these structures for unexpectedly-long time scales. We also present simple techniques to mitigate this recirculation effect which can potentially have impact across industries ranging from biomedical and chemical processing to food and health sciences.
Environmental Analysis of the Air Bending Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kellens, Karel; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R.
2011-05-01
This paper presents the results of a data collection effort, allowing to assess the overall environmental impact of the air bending process using the CO2PE!-Methodology. First the different modes of the air bending process are investigated, including both productive and non-productive modes. In particular consumption of electric power is recorded for the different modes. Subsequently, time studies allow determining the importance of productive and nonproductive modes of the involved process. The study demonstrates that the influence of standby losses can be substantial. In addition to life cycle analysis, in depth process analysis also provides insight in achievable environmental impact reducing measures towards machine tool builders and eco-design recommendations for product developers. The energy consumption of three different machine tool architectures are analysed and compared within this paper.
Monoclinal bending of strata over laccolithic intrusions
Koch, F.G.; Johnson, A.M.; Pollard, D.D.
1981-01-01
Sedimentary strata on top of some laccolithic intrusions are nearly horizontal and little deformed, but are bent into steeply dipping monoclinal flexures over the peripheries of these intrusions. This form of bending is not explained by previous theories of laccolithic intrusion, which predict either horizontal undeformed strata over the center and faulted strata around the periphery, or strata bent continuously into a dome. However, a slight generalization of these theories accomodates the observed form and contains the previous forms as special cases. A critical assumption is that the strength of contacts within a multilayered overburden is overcome locally by layer-parallel shear. If this strength is less than the strength of the layers themselves, then layers over the center remain bonded together and display negligible bending, whereas layers over the periphery slip over one another and are readily bent into a monoclinal flexure. ?? 1981.
Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1991-01-01
The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.
DNA Bending Stiffness on Small Length Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Chongli; Chen, Huimin; Lou, Xiong Wen; Archer, Lynden A.
2008-01-01
Bending properties of short (15 90 bp), double-stranded DNA fragments are quantified using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and small angle x-ray scattering. Results from both types of measurements indicate that short double-stranded DNA fragments exhibit surprisingly high flexibility. These observations are discussed in terms of base-pair-level length fluctuations originating from dynamic features of Watson-Crick base pairs.
The multi-bend achromat storage rings
Eriksson, Mikael
2016-07-27
Not very long ago, the 3{sup rd} generation storage ring technology was judged as mature. Most of the 3{sup rd} generation storage rings used the Double-Bend Achromat (DBA) or Triple-Bend Achromat (TBA) concepts. It was however a well-known fact that increasing the number of magnet cells in the rings is a powerful way of decreasing the electron beam emittance and thus the source brilliance, but at the penalty of increasing the size and cost of the rings. Preserving the Dynamic Aperture (DA) in the rings became also an issue when increasing the number of magnet cells. The Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) concept, including a miniaturization of the ring elements, has now drastically changed the picture. The MBA rings, now in construction or being planned, offer orders of magnitudes higher brilliance than rings of conventional designs. Several light sources around the world are now implementing or planning to implement this MBA concept. This article touches on the science drivers for higher brilliance. We will then describe the MBA concept with its advantages as well as its challenges. A short survey of the MBA activity around the world will also be presented. The author apologies for focusing on the MAX IV project regarding technical solutions. This is motivated by that MAX IV is the facility he knows best and it might be regarded as a fore-runner for the MBA concept.
Forming and Bending of Metal Foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nebosky, Paul; Tyszka, Daniel; Niebur, Glen; Schmid, Steven
2004-06-01
This study examines the formability of a porous tantalum foam, known as trabecular metal (TM). Used as a bone ingrowth surface on orthopedic implants, TM is desirable due to its combination of high strength, low relative density, and excellent osteoconductive properties. This research aims to develop bend and stretch forming as a cost-effective alternative to net machining and EDM for manufacturing thin parts made of TM. Experimentally, bending about a single axis using a wiping die was studied by observing cracking and measuring springback. It was found that die radius and clearance strongly affect the springback properties of TM, while punch speed, embossings, die radius and clearance all influence cracking. Depending on the various combinations of die radius and clearance, springback factor ranged from .70-.91. To examine the affect of the foam microstructure, bending also was examined numerically using a horizontal hexagonal mesh. As the hexagonal cells were elongated along the sheet length, elastic springback decreased. This can be explained by the earlier onset of plastic hinging occurring at the vertices of the cells. While the numerical results matched the experimental results for the case of zero clearance, differences at higher clearances arose due to an imprecise characterization of the post-yield properties of tantalum. By changing the material properties of the struts, the models can be modified for use with other open-cell metallic foams.
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THE STRUCTURAL BASIS OF CILIARY BEND FORMATION
Warner, Fred D.; Satir, Peter
1974-01-01
The sliding microtubule model of ciliary motility predicts that cumulative local displacement (Δl) of doublet microtubules relative to one another occurs only in bent regions of the axoneme. We have now tested this prediction by using the radial spokes which join the A subfiber of each doublet to the central sheath as markers of microtubule alignment to measure sliding displacements directly. Gill cilia from the mussel Elliptio complanatus have radial spokes lying in groups of three which repeat at 860 Å along the A subfiber. The spokes are aligned with the two rows of projections along each of the central microtubules that form the central sheath. The projections repeat at 143 Å and form a vernier with the radial spokes in the precise ratio of 6 projection repeats to 1 spoke group repeat. In straight regions of the axoneme, either proximal or distal to a bend, the relative position of spoke groups between any two doublets remains constant for the length of that region. However, in bent regions, the position of spoke groups changes systematically so that Δl (doublet 1 vs. 5) can be seen to accumulate at a maximum of 122 Å per successive 860-Å spoke repeat. Local contraction of microtubules is absent. In straight regions of the axoneme, the radial spokes lie in either of two basic configurations: (a) the parallel configuration where spokes 1–3 of each group are normal (90°) to subfiber A, and (b) the tilted spoke 3 configuration where spoke 3 forms an angle (θ) of 9–20°. Since considerable sliding of doublets relative to the central sheath (∼650 Å) has usually occurred in these regions, the spokes must be considered, functionally, as detached from the sheath projections. In bent regions of the axoneme, two additional spoke configurations occur where all three spokes of each group are tilted to a maximum of ± 33° from normal. Since the spoke angles do not lie on radii through the center of bend curvature, and Δl accumulates in the bend, the spokes
The Crinkling Strength and the Bending Strength of Round Aircraft Tubing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osgood, William R
1938-01-01
The upper limit of the column strength of structural members composed of thin material is the maximum axial stress such members can carry when short enough to fail locally, by crinkling. This stress is a function of the mechanical properties of the material and of the geometrical shape of the cross section. The bending strength, as measured by the modulus of rupture, of structural members is also a function of these same variables. Tests were made of round tubes of chromium-molybdenum steel and of duralumin to determine the crinkling strengths and the bending strengths in terms of the specified yield strength and the ratio of diameter to thickness. Empirical formulas are given relating these quantities.
Beam-type bending of space-based inflated membrane structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.
1995-04-01
An improved model for the bending behavior of space-based inflated cylindrical shells used as load-bearing beams is developed. This model reflects the biaxial state of stress present in the beam fabric due to the combination of pressurization and structural loads. Also discussed is the dependence of fabric mechanical properties on the level of transverse stress that a fabric element experiences, and how this characteristic is accounted for in the present model. As an accuracy evaluation, the predictions of inflated-beam bending behavior calculated from the new model are compared to experimental data from a previous study. The model predictions agree both in magnitude and shape with the experimental data.
Springback After the Lateral Bending of T-Section Rails of Work-Hardening Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Youshuo; Yu, Zhonghua
2013-11-01
This paper studies the springback after the lateral bending of T-section rails, considering the work-hardening materials. A linear-hardening model and an elastic-plastic power-exponent hardening model of the material are adopted and compared with the real experimental stress-strain curve obtained from the uniaxial tension tests. The analytical formulas for the springback and residual curvatures are given. The numerical results indicate that the material hardening directly affects the accuracy of springback prediction compared with the experimental results. Besides, springback prediction is not sensitive to hardening parameters in the beginning of elastic-plastic bending deformation. Although there is an apparent yield stage in the true stress-strain curve, the adopted hardening models can achieve an allowable relative error, if hardening parameters are properly selected.
Analysis of three-point-bend test for materials with unequal tension and compression properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, C. C.
1974-01-01
An analysis capability is described for the three-point-bend test applicable to materials of linear but unequal tensile and compressive stress-strain relations. The capability consists of numerous equations of simple form and their graphical representation. Procedures are described to examine the local stress concentrations and failure modes initiation. Examples are given to illustrate the usefulness and ease of application of the capability. Comparisons are made with materials which have equal tensile and compressive properties. The results indicate possible underestimates for flexural modulus or strength ranging from 25 to 50 percent greater than values predicted when accounting for unequal properties. The capability can also be used to reduce test data from three-point-bending tests, extract material properties useful in design from these test data, select test specimen dimensions, and size structural members.
Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhao-xian; Chen, Ze-guo; Ming, Yang; Wu, Ying; Lu, Yan-qing
2016-02-01
We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.
Recent developments in bend-insensitive and ultra-bend-insensitive fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boivin, David; de Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Provost, Lionel; Montaigne, Nelly; Gooijer, Frans; Aldea, Eugen; Jensma, Jaap; Sillard, Pierre
2010-02-01
Designed to overcome the limitations in case of extreme bending conditions, Bend- and Ultra-Bend-Insensitive Fibers (BIFs and UBIFs) appear as ideal solutions for use in FTTH networks and in components, pigtails or patch-cords for ever demanding applications such as military or sensing. Recently, however, questions have been raised concerning the Multi-Path-Interference (MPI) levels in these fibers. Indeed, they are potentially subject to interferences between the fundamental mode and the higher-order mode that is also bend resistant. This MPI is generated because of discrete discontinuities such as staples, bends and splices/connections that occur on distance scales that become comparable to the laser coherent length. In this paper, we will demonstrate the high MPI tolerance of all-solid single-trench-assisted BIFs and UBIFs. We will present the first comprehensive study combining theoretical and experimental points of view to quantify the impact of fusion splices on coherent MPI. To be complete, results for mechanical splices will also be reported. Finally, we will show how the single-trench- assisted concept combined with the versatile PCVD process allows to tightly control the distributions of fibers characteristics. Such controls are needed to massively produce BIFs and to meet the more stringent specifications of the UBIFs.
Anton, Steven R; Erturk, Alper; Inman, Daniel
2012-06-01
The topic of multifunctional material systems using active or smart materials has recently gained attention in the research community. Multifunctional piezoelectric systems present the ability to combine multiple functions into a single active piezoelectric element, namely, combining sensing, actuation, or energy conversion ability with load-bearing capacity. Quantification of the bending strength of various piezoelectric materials is, therefore, critical in the development of load-bearing piezoelectric systems. Three-point bend tests are carried out on a variety of piezoelectric ceramics including soft monolithic piezoceramics (PZT-5A and PZT-5H), hard monolithic ceramics (PZT-4 and PZT-8), single-crystal piezoelectrics (PMN-PT and PMN-PZT), and commercially packaged composite devices (which contain active PZT-5A layers). A common 3-point bend test procedure is used throughout the experimental tests. The bending strengths of these materials are found using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to be 44.9 MPa for PMN-PZT, 60.6 MPa for PMN-PT, 114.8 MPa for PZT- 5H, 123.2 MPa for PZT-4, 127.5 MPa for PZT-8, 140.4 MPa for PZT-5A, and 186.6 MPa for the commercial composite. The high strength of the commercial configuration is a result of the composite structure that allows for shear stresses on the surfaces of the piezoelectric layers, whereas the low strength of the single-crystal materials is due to their unique crystal structure, which allows for rapid propagation of cracks initiating at flaw sites. The experimental bending strength results reported, which are linear estimates without nonlinear ferroelastic considerations, are intended for use in the design of multifunctional piezoelectric systems in which the active device is subjected to bending loads.
Characterization of bending loss in hollow flexible terahertz waveguides.
Doradla, Pallavi; Joseph, Cecil S; Kumar, Jayant; Giles, Robert H
2012-08-13
Attenuation characteristics of hollow, flexible, metal and metal/dielectric coated polycarbonate waveguides were investigated using an optically pumped far infrared (FIR) laser at 215 µm. The bending loss of silver coated polycarbonate waveguides were measured as a function of various bending angles, bending radii, and bore diameters. Minimal propagation losses of 1.77, 0.96 dB/m were achieved by coupling the lowest loss TE11 mode into the silver or gold coated waveguide, and HE11 mode into the silver/polystyrene coated waveguides respectively. The maximal bending loss was found to be less than 1 dB/m for waveguides of 2 to 4.1 mm bore diameters, with a 6.4 cm bend radius, and up to 150° bending angle. The investigation shows the preservation of single laser mode in smaller bore waveguides even at greater bending angles.
Noma, Nobuyasu; Kuwabara, Toshihiko
2011-01-17
Draw-bending experiment is carried out using a 1.2 mm-thick high strength steel sheet with a tensile strength of 980 MPa and the residual curvature of the draw-bent specimens are precisely measured. The die profile of the draw-bending testing machine rotates, so that the effect of friction force on the curvature data after springback can be neglected. Moreover, in order to quantitatively evaluate the Bauschinger effect of the test material, stress reversal tests are performed using an in-plane stress reversal testing machine. Furthermore, the finite element analyses (FEA) of the draw-bending experiment are carried out. The effect of the work hardening models (isotropic or combined), element types (shell or solid), and the number of integration points in the through-thickness direction on the amount of springback (residual curvature) are investigated in detail.
Zemel, Assaf; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; May, Sylvio
2008-06-12
Amphipathic alpha-helical peptides are often ascribed an ability to induce curvature stress in lipid membranes. This may lead directly to a bending deformation of the host membrane, or it may promote the formation of defects that involve highly curved lipid layers present in membrane pores, fusion intermediates, and solubilized peptide-micelle complexes. The driving force is the same in all cases: peptides induce a spontaneous curvature in the host lipid layer, the sign of which depends sensitively on the peptide's structural properties. We provide a quantitative account for this observation on the basis of a molecular-level method. To this end, we consider a lipid membrane with peptides interfacially adsorbed onto one leaflet at high peptide-to-lipid ratio. The peptides are modeled generically as rigid cylinders that interact with the host membrane through a perturbation of the conformational properties of the lipid chains. Through the use of a molecular-level chain packing theory, we calculate the elastic properties, that is, the spontaneous curvature and bending stiffness, of the peptide-decorated lipid membrane as a function of the peptide's insertion depth. We find a positive spontaneous curvature (preferred bending of the membrane away from the peptide) for small penetration depths of the peptide. At a penetration depth roughly equal to half-insertion into the hydrocarbon core, the spontaneous curvature changes sign, implying negative spontaneous curvature (preferred bending of the membrane toward the peptide) for large penetration depths. Despite thinning of the membrane upon peptide insertion, we find an increase in the bending stiffness. We discuss these findings in terms of how the peptide induces elastic stress.
Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.).
Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W
2014-01-01
Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to "unfold" and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.
Evolving efficiency of restraining bends within wet kaolin analog experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatem, Alexandra E.; Cooke, Michele L.; Madden, Elizabeth H.
2015-03-01
Restraining bends along strike-slip fault systems evolve by both propagation of new faults and abandonment of fault segments. Scaled analog modeling using wet kaolin allows for qualitative and quantitative observations of this evolution. To explore how bend geometry affects evolution, we model bends with a variety of initial angles, θ, from θ = 0° for a straight fault to θ = 30°. High-angle restraining bends (θ ≥ 20°) overcome initial inefficiencies by abandoning unfavorably oriented restraining segments and propagating multiple new, inwardly dipping, oblique-slip faults that are well oriented to accommodate convergence within the bend. Restraining bends with 0° < θ ≤ 15° maintain activity along the restraining bend segment and grow a single new oblique slip fault on one side of the bend. In all restraining bends, the first new fault propagates at ~5 mm of accumulated convergence. Particle Image Velocimetry analysis provides a complete velocity field throughout the experiments. From these data, we quantify the strike-slip efficiency of the system as the percentage of applied plate-parallel velocity accommodated as slip in the direction of plate motion along faults within the restraining bend. Bends with small θ initially have higher strike-slip efficiency compared to bends with large θ. Although they have different fault geometries, all systems with a 5 cm bend width reach a steady strike-slip efficiency of 80% after 50 mm of applied plate displacement. These experimental restraining bends resemble crustal faults in their asymmetric fault growth, asymmetric topographic gradient, and strike-slip efficiency.
Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.)
Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W.
2014-01-01
Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to “unfold” and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head. PMID:25018734
Analysis of surface cracks in finite plates under tension or bending loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Raju, I. S.
1979-01-01
Stress-intensity factors calculated with a three-dimensional, finite-element analysis for shallow and deep semielliptical surface cracks in finite elastic isotropic plates subjected to tension or bending loads are presented. A wide range of configuration parameters was investigated. The ratio of crack depth to plate thickness ranged from 0.2 to 0.8 and the ratio of crack depth to crack length ranged from 0.2 to 2.0. The effects of plate width on stress-intensity variations along the crack front was also investigated. A wide-range equation for stress-intensity factors along the crack front as a function of crack depth, crack length, plate thickness, and plate width was developed for tension and bending loads. The equation was used to predict patterns of surface-crack growth under tension or bending fatigue loads. A modified form of the equation was also used to correlate surface-crack fracture data for a brittle epoxy material within + or - 10 percent for a wide range of crack shapes and crack sizes.
Weibull statistical analysis of Krouse type bending fatigue of nuclear materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haidyrah, Ahmed S.; Newkirk, Joseph W.; Castaño, Carlos H.
2016-03-01
A bending fatigue mini-specimen (Krouse-type) was used to study the fatigue properties of nuclear materials. The objective of this paper is to study fatigue for Grade 91 ferritic-martensitic steel using a mini-specimen (Krouse-type) suitable for reactor irradiation studies. These mini-specimens are similar in design (but smaller) to those described in the ASTM B593 standard. The mini specimen was machined by waterjet and tested as-received. The bending fatigue machine was modified to test the mini-specimen with a specially designed adapter. The cycle bending fatigue behavior of Grade 91 was studied under constant deflection. The S-N curve was created and mean fatigue life was analyzed using mean fatigue life. In this study, the Weibull function was predicted probably for high stress to low stress at 563, 310 and 265 MPa. The commercial software Minitab 17 was used to calculate the distribution of fatigue life under different stress levels. We have used 2 and 3- parameters Weibull analysis to introduce the probability of failure. The plots indicated that the 3- parameter Weibull distribution fits the data well.
Determination of dynamic fracture-initiation toughness using a novel impact bend test procedure
Yokoyama, T. . Faculty of Engineering Okayama Univ. of Science . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1993-11-01
A novel impact bend test procedure is described for determining the dynamic fracture-initiation toughness, K[sub Id], at a loading rate (stress intensity factor rate), K[sub I], of the order of 10[sup 6] MPa [radical]m/s. A special arrangement of the split Hopkinson pressure bar is adopted to measure accurately dynamic loads applied to a fatigue-precracked bend specimen. The dynamic stress intensity factor history for the bend specimen is evaluated by means of a dynamic finite element technique. The onset of crack initiation is detected using a string gage attached on the side of the specimen near a crack tip. The value of K[sub Id] is determined from the critical dynamic stress intensity factor at crack initiation. A series of dynamic fracture tests is carried out on a 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, a Ti-6246 alloy and an AISI 4340 steel. The K[sub Id] values obtained for the three structural materials are compared with the corresponding values obtained under quasi-static loading conditions.
The Dependency of Nematic and Twist-bend Mesophase Formation on Bend Angle
Mandle, Richard J.; Archbold, Craig T.; Sarju, Julia P.; Andrews, Jessica L.; Goodby, John W.
2016-01-01
We have prepared and studied a family of cyanobiphenyl dimers with varying linking groups with a view to exploring how molecular structure dictates the stability of the nematic and twist-bend nematic mesophases. Using molecular modelling and 1D 1H NOESY NMR spectroscopy, we determine the angle between the two aromatic core units for each dimer and find a strong dependency of the stability of both the nematic and twist-bend mesophases upon this angle, thereby satisfying earlier theoretical models. PMID:27819300
COMPARISON OF DOUBLE BEND AND TRIPLE BEND ACHROMATIC LATTICE STRUCTURES AND NSLS-II.
KRAMER, S.L.; KRINSKY, S.; BENGTSSON, J.
2006-06-26
The Double Bend Achromatic (DBA) and the Triple Bend Achromatic (TBA) lattice have been studied rather extensively for use for the NSLS-II storage ring. The advantage of the TBA compared to the DBA in terms of emittance per period is well known. However, the DBA has the advantage of greater number of ID straight sections for the users and maybe easier to tune the dispersive section for reduced chromatic sextupole strength. We present a comparison of these lattices based on optimization of the non-linear driving terms using high order achromatic cancellation of driving terms of the nonlinear lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmah, Fitri; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo; Hatta, Agus Muhamad
2016-11-01
Modelling of load effect on macro-bend losses for a singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber structure with small bend radius is presented. Load effect on macro-bend losses for the SMS fiber structure placed between two high-density polyethylene (HDPE) boards are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A model on macro-bend losses for SMS fiber structure is constructed by using the light transmission formula in a straight SMS fiber structure and taking into account the effective number of guided modes due to the macrobending. In the experimental, a mandrel with a diameter of 0.8 mm is used to induce the bend. When the loads are applied on the system, the mandrel will affect the bend losses for the SMS fiber structure. It is shown numerically and experimentally that the bend-loss of SMS fiber structure strongly depends on the applied loads and the multimode fiber (MMF) lengths.
A numerical study of strike-slip bend formation with application to the Salton Sea pull-apart basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Jiyang; Liu, Mian; Wang, Hui
2015-03-01
How stepovers of strike-slip faults connect to form bends is a question important for understanding the formation of push-up ranges (restraining bends) and pull-apart basins (releasing bends). We investigated the basic mechanics of this process in a simple three-dimensional viscoelastoplastic finite element model. Our model predicts localized plastic strain within stepovers that may eventually lead to the formation of strike-slip bends. Major parameters controlling strain localization include the relative fault strength, geometry of the fault system, and the plasticity model assumed. Using the Drucker-Prager plasticity model, in which the plastic yield strength of the crust depends on both shear and normal stresses, our results show that a releasing bend is easier to develop than a restraining bend under similar conditions. These results may help explain the formation of the Salton Sea pull-apart basin in Southern California 0.5-0.1 Ma ago, when the stepover between the Imperial Fault and the San Andreas Fault was connected by the Brawley seismic zone.
A theory for the fracture of thin plates subjected to bending and twisting moments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hui, C. Y.; Zehnder, Alan T.
1993-01-01
Stress fields near the tip of a through crack in an elastic plate under bending and twisting moments are reviewed assuming both Kirchhoff and Reissner plate theories. The crack tip displacement and rotation fields based on the Reissner theory are calculated. These results are used to calculate the J-integral (energy release rate) for both Kirchhoff and Reissner plate theories. Invoking Simmonds and Duva's (1981) result that the value of the J-integral based on either theory is the same for thin plates, a universal relationship between the Kirchhoff theory stress intensity factors and the Reissner theory stress intensity factors is obtained for thin plates. Calculation of Kirchhoff theory stress intensity factors from finite elements based on energy release rate is illustrated. It is proposed that, for thin plates, fracture toughness and crack growth rates be correlated with the Kirchhoff theory stress intensity factors.
A theory for the fracture of thin plates subjected to bending and twisting moments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hui, C. Y.; Zehnder, Alan T.
1993-01-01
Stress fields near the tip of a through crack in an elastic plate under bending and twisting moments are reviewed assuming both Kirchhoff and Reissner plate theories. The crack tip displacement and rotation fields based on the Reissner theory are calculated. These results are used to calculate the J-integral (energy release rate) for both Kirchhoff and Reissner plate theories. Invoking Simmonds and Duva's (1981) result that the value of the J-integral based on either theory is the same for thin plates, a universal relationship between the Kirchhoff theory stress intensity factors and the Reissner theory stress intensity factors is obtained for thin plates. Calculation of Kirchhoff theory stress intensity factors from finite elements based on energy release rate is illustrated. It is proposed that, for thin plates, fracture toughness and crack growth rates be correlated with the Kirchhoff theory stress intensity factors.
Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas.
Ni, Xingjie; Emani, Naresh K; Kildishev, Alexander V; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Shalaev, Vladimir M
2012-01-27
The precise manipulation of a propagating wave using phase control is a fundamental building block of optical systems. The wavefront of a light beam propagating across an interface can be modified arbitrarily by introducing abrupt phase changes. We experimentally demonstrated unparalleled wavefront control in a broadband optical wavelength range from 1.0 to 1.9 micrometers. This is accomplished by using an extremely thin plasmonic layer (~λ/50) consisting of an optical nanoantenna array that provides subwavelength phase manipulation on light propagating across the interface. Anomalous light-bending phenomena, including negative angles of refraction and reflection, are observed in the operational wavelength range.
Light-bending tests of Lorentz invariance
Tso, Rhondale; Bailey, Quentin G.
2011-10-15
Classical light-bending is investigated for weak gravitational fields in the presence of hypothetical local Lorentz violation. Using an effective field theory framework that describes general deviations from local Lorentz invariance, we derive a modified deflection angle for light passing near a massive body. The results include anisotropic effects not present for spherical sources in General Relativity as well as Weak Equivalence Principle violation. We develop an expression for the relative deflection of two distant stars that can be used to analyze data in past and future solar-system observations. The measurement sensitivities of such tests to coefficients for Lorentz violation are discussed.
Bending of light in quantum gravity.
Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Donoghue, John F; Holstein, Barry R; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre
2015-02-13
We consider the scattering of lightlike matter in the presence of a heavy scalar object (such as the Sun or a Schwarzschild black hole). By treating general relativity as an effective field theory we directly compute the nonanalytic components of the one-loop gravitational amplitude for the scattering of massless scalars or photons from an external massive scalar field. These results allow a semiclassical computation of the bending angle for light rays grazing the Sun, including long-range ℏ contributions. We discuss implications of this computation, in particular, the violation of some classical formulations of the equivalence principle.
Big Bend sees big environmental push
Blankinship, S.
2007-10-15
The 1800 MW Big Bend Power Station is a coal-fired facility in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA owned by Tampa Electric. It has four pulverized coal- fired steam units equipped with FGD scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators. Currently the addition of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems is under consideration. The Unit 4 SCR retrofit was completed in June 2007; the remaining three systems are scheduled for completion by 2010. Boiler draft systems will be modified to a balance draft design to accommodate the increased pressure drop of the new systems. 3-D computer models were developed to determine constructability due to the tight clearance at the site. 1 photo.
Thermoelastic bending of locally heated orthotropic shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shevchenko, V. P.; Gol'tsev, A. S.
2007-03-01
The thermoelastic bending of locally heated orthotropic shells is studied using the classical theory of thermoelasticity of thin shallow orthotropic shells and the method of fundamental solutions. Linear distribution of temperature over thickness and the Newton's law of cooling are assumed. Numerical analysis is carried out for orthotropic shells of arbitrary Gaussian curvature made of a strongly anisotropic material. The behavior of thermal forces and moments near the zone of local heating is studied for two areas of thermal effect: along a coordinate axis and along a circle of unit radius. Generalized conclusions are drawn
Self-bending symmetric cusp beams
Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lu, Yao; Li, Yin-Mei; Ren, Yu-Xuan
2015-12-07
A type of self-bending symmetric cusp beams with four accelerating intensity maxima is theoretically and experimentally presented. Distinguished from the reported regular polygon beams, the symmetric cusp beams simultaneously exhibit peculiar features of natural autofocusing and self-acceleration during propagation. Further, such beams take the shape of a fine longitudinal needle-like structure at the focal region and possess the strong ability of self-healing over obstacles. All these intriguing properties were verified experimentally. Particularly, the spatial profile of the reconstructed beam exhibits spatially sculpted optical structure with four siamesed curved arms. Thus, we anticipate that the structured beam will benefit optical guiding and optofluidics in surprising ways.
MHD bending waves in a current sheet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.
1986-01-01
Transverse MHD bending waves are considered in an isothermal and compressible two-dimensional current sheet of finite thickness in which the magnetic field changes direction and strength. The general form of the wave equation is obtained. It is shown that rotation of the magnetic field across the current sheet prevents the existence of singular points so that continuous spectrum solutions and the concomitant wave decay disappear. Instead, normal modes exist and closed integral solution for arbitrary current sheet structure are found. The results are discussed in terms of small-scale waves on the heliospheric current sheet.
Great Bend tornadoes of August 30, 1974
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.; Dundas, R.
1977-01-01
Photogrammetric analyses of movies and still pictures taken of the Great Bend, Kansas Tornado series have been used to develop design specifications for nuclear power plants and facilities. A maximum tangential velocity of 57 m/sec and a maximum vertical velocity of 27 m/sec are determined for one suction vortex having a translational velocity of 32 m/sec. Three suction vortices with radii in the 20 to 30 m range are noted in the flow field of one tornado; these suction vortices apparently form a local convergence of inflow air inside the outer portion of the tornado core.
Great Bend tornadoes of August 30, 1974
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.; Dundas, R.
1977-01-01
Photogrammetric analyses of movies and still pictures taken of the Great Bend, Kansas Tornado series have been used to develop design specifications for nuclear power plants and facilities. A maximum tangential velocity of 57 m/sec and a maximum vertical velocity of 27 m/sec are determined for one suction vortex having a translational velocity of 32 m/sec. Three suction vortices with radii in the 20 to 30 m range are noted in the flow field of one tornado; these suction vortices apparently form a local convergence of inflow air inside the outer portion of the tornado core.
Anomalous bending effect in photonic crystal fibers.
Tu, Haohua; Jiang, Zhi; Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A
2008-04-14
An unexpected transmission loss up to 50% occurs to intense femtosecond pulses propagating along an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber over a length of 1 m. A specific leaky-fiber mode gains amplification along the fiber at the expense of the fundamental fiber mode through stimulated four-wave mixing and Raman scattering, leading to this transmission loss. Bending near the fiber entrance dissipates the propagating seed of this leaky mode, preventing the leaky mode amplification and therefore enhancing the transmission of these pulses.
Thomas Lundin; Robert H. Falk; Colin Felton
2002-01-01
Mechanical properties of bending stiffness and yield stress were used to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet exposure on natural fiber-thermoplastic composites. Four different specimen formulations were evaluated. Injection molded high density polyethylene (HDPE) served as the polymer base for all formulations. Two lignocellulosic fillers, wood flour and kenaf fiber,...
Bending analysis of a general cross-ply laminate using 3D elasticity solution and layerwise theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yazdani Sarvestani, H.; Naghashpour, A.; Heidari-Rarani, M.
2015-12-01
In this study, the analytical solution of interlaminar stresses near the free edges of a general (symmetric and unsymmetric layups) cross-ply composite laminate subjected to pure bending loading is presented based on Reddy's layerwise theory (LWT) for the first time. First, the reduced form of displacement field is obtained for a general cross-ply composite laminate subjected to a bending moment by elasticity theory. Then, first-order shear deformation theory of plates and LWT is utilized to determine the global and local deformation parameters appearing in the displacement fields, respectively. One of the main advantages of the developed solution based on the LWT is exact prediction of interlaminar stresses at the boundary layer regions. To show the accuracy of this solution, three-dimensional elasticity bending problem of a laminated composite is solved for special set of boundary conditions as well. Finally, LWT results are presented for edge-effect problems of several symmetric and unsymmetric cross-ply laminates under the bending moment. The obtained results indicate high stress gradients of interlaminar stresses near the edges of laminates.
Membrane bending energy and fusion pore kinetics in Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis.
Zhang, Zhen; Jackson, Meyer B
2010-06-02
A fusion pore composed of lipid is an obligatory kinetic intermediate of membrane fusion, and its formation requires energy to bend membranes into highly curved shapes. The energetics of such deformations in viral fusion is well established, but the role of membrane bending in Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis remains largely untested. Amperometry recording showed that during exocytosis in chromaffin and PC12 cells, fusion pores formed by smaller vesicles dilated more rapidly than fusion pores formed by larger vesicles. The logarithm of 1/(fusion pore lifetime) varied linearly with vesicle curvature. The vesicle size dependence of fusion pore lifetime quantitatively accounted for the nonexponential fusion pore lifetime distribution. Experimentally manipulating vesicle size failed to alter the size dependence of fusion pore lifetime. Manipulations of membrane spontaneous curvature altered this dependence, and applying the curvature perturbants to the opposite side of the membrane reversed their effects. These effects of curvature perturbants were opposite to those seen in viral fusion. These results indicate that during Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis membrane bending opposes fusion pore dilation rather than fusion pore formation. Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis begins with a proteinaceous fusion pore with less stressed membrane, and becomes lipidic as it dilates, bending membrane into a highly curved shape. Copyright (c) 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara
2014-01-01
The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (−19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. PMID:24697679
Guided Wave Travel Time Tomography for Bends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volker, Arno; Bloom, Joost
2011-06-01
The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography has been developed to map the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. The method has been demonstrated for straight pipes. The extension of this method to bends is not straightforward because natural focusing occurs due to geometrical path differences. This yields a phase jump, which complicates travel time picking. Because ray-tracing is no longer sufficient to predict the travel times a recursive wave field extrapolation has been developed. The method uses a short spatial convolution operator to propagate a wave field through a bend. The method allows to calculate the wave field at the detector ring, including the phase jump as a consequence of the natural focusing. The recursive wave field extrapolation is done in the space-frequency domain. Therefore dispersion effects can be included easily in the forward modeling. Comparison with measurements shows the accuracy of the method.
Characterization of the bending stiffness of large space structure joints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, K. Chauncey
1989-01-01
A technique for estimating the bending stiffness of large space structure joints is developed and demonstrated for an erectable joint concept. Experimental load-deflection data from a three-point bending test was used as input to solve a closed-form expression for the joint bending stiffness which was derived from linear beam theory. Potential error sources in both the experimental and analytical procedures are identified and discussed. The bending stiffness of a mechanically preloaded erectable joint is studied at three applied moments and seven joint orientations. Using this technique, the joint bending stiffness was bounded between 6 and 17 percent of the bending stiffness of the graphite/epoxy strut member.
2007-11-01
back gauges in both the RTD and ETW specimens diverged, indicating bending in these specimens. There was no bending limit prescribed in ASTM D 3039 ...of the stiffness matrix ASC Average Stress Criterion ASTM American Society for the Testing of Materials b Specimen width CCSM Composite Compressive...Recommend Test Methods (SRM) SRM 5R-94 [8], OHC SACMA SRM 3R-94 [9], OHB American Society for the Testing of Materials ( ASTM ) D790 [10]. Four
Bending response of single layer MoS2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Si; Cao, Guoxin
2016-03-01
Using molecular mechanics (or dynamics) simulations, three different approaches, including the targeted molecular mechanics, four-point bending and nanotube methods, are employed to investigate the bending response of single layer MoS2 (SLMoS2), among which four-point bending is the most accurate approach to determine the bending stiffness according to the continuum theory. It is found that when the bending curvature radius is large enough (e.g. >4 nm), three approaches will give the same bending stiffness of SLMoS2 and the bending behavior is isotropic for SLMoS2, whereas the nanotube method with small tubes (e.g. <4 nm) cannot give the correct bending stiffness. Compared with the reported result from the MoS2 nanotube calculated by density functional theory, the revised Stillinger-Weber (SW) and reactive empirical bond-order (REBO) potentials can give the reasonable bending stiffness of SLMoS2 (8.7-13.4 eV) as well as the effective deformed conformation. In addition, since the Mo-S bond deformation of SLMoS2 under bending is similar to that under in-plane tension/compression, the continuum bending theory can quite accurately predict the bending stiffness of SLMoS2 if a reasonable thickness of SLMoS2 is given. For SLMoS2, the reasonable thickness should be larger than the distance between its two S atomic planes and lower than the distance between two Mo atomic planes of bulk MoS2 crystal, e.g. 0.375-0.445 nm.
Transient Pinning and Pulling: A Mechanism for Bending Microtubules
Kent, Ian A.; Rane, Parag S.; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.; Lele, Tanmay P.
2016-01-01
Microtubules have a persistence length of the order of millimeters in vitro, but inside cells they bend over length scales of microns. It has been proposed that polymerization forces bend microtubules in the vicinity of the cell boundary or other obstacles, yet bends develop even when microtubules are polymerizing freely, unaffected by obstacles and cell boundaries. How these bends are formed remains unclear. By tracking the motions of microtubules marked by photobleaching, we found that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells local bends develop primarily by plus-end directed transport of portions of the microtubule contour towards stationary locations (termed pinning points) along the length of the microtubule. The pinning points were transient in nature, and their eventual release allowed the bends to relax. The directionality of the transport as well as the overall incidence of local bends decreased when dynein was inhibited, while myosin inhibition had no observable effect. This suggests that dynein generates a tangential force that bends microtubules against stationary pinning points. Simulations of microtubule motion and polymerization accounting for filament mechanics and dynein forces predict the development of bends of size and shape similar to those observed in cells. Furthermore, simulations show that dynein-generated bends at a pinning point near the plus end can cause a persistent rotation of the tip consistent with the observation that bend formation near the tip can change the direction of microtubule growth. Collectively, these results suggest a simple physical mechanism for the bending of growing microtubules by dynein forces accumulating at pinning points. PMID:26974838
The mechanics of gravitropic bending in leafy dicot stems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salisbury, F. B.; Mueller, W. J.; Blotter, P. T.; Harris, C. S.; White, R. G.; Gillespie, L. S.; Sliwinski, J. E.
1982-01-01
The mechanism of the gravitropic bending in stems of the cocklebur and castor bean are investigated. The results of these experiments demonstrate the quick stopping of growth and the increased tensions on the upper layer of a horizontal stem. It is suggested that bending apparently occurs as the resistance of the upper surface layers is extended to the inner cells below. A model of stem bending is developed which can explain the asymmetry of the stem-cell response.
The mechanics of gravitropic bending in leafy dicot stems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salisbury, F. B.; Mueller, W. J.; Blotter, P. T.; Harris, C. S.; White, R. G.; Gillespie, L. S.; Sliwinski, J. E.
1982-01-01
The mechanism of the gravitropic bending in stems of the cocklebur and castor bean are investigated. The results of these experiments demonstrate the quick stopping of growth and the increased tensions on the upper layer of a horizontal stem. It is suggested that bending apparently occurs as the resistance of the upper surface layers is extended to the inner cells below. A model of stem bending is developed which can explain the asymmetry of the stem-cell response.
BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization.
Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G
2015-01-01
Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization.
BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization
Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G
2015-01-01
Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization. PMID:26507581
Multiple-cladding fibers with reduced bend loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Bulla, Douglas A. P.; Ankiewicz, Adrian; Love, John D.; Bailey, Ron
2007-04-01
We demonstrate that a highly bend-resistant fiber can be realized. It is shown theoretically that, by introducing both depressed and elevated rings into the cladding, bending loss can be reduced significantly. A fiber based on this design has been fabricated and characterized as a first step toward achieving this goal. The results show that a multiple-cladding fiber is highly bend resistant when compared with the standard telecom single-mode fiber.
Bending response of single layer MoS2.
Xiong, Si; Cao, Guoxin
2016-03-11
Using molecular mechanics (or dynamics) simulations, three different approaches, including the targeted molecular mechanics, four-point bending and nanotube methods, are employed to investigate the bending response of single layer MoS2 (SLMoS2), among which four-point bending is the most accurate approach to determine the bending stiffness according to the continuum theory. It is found that when the bending curvature radius is large enough (e.g. >4 nm), three approaches will give the same bending stiffness of SLMoS2 and the bending behavior is isotropic for SLMoS2, whereas the nanotube method with small tubes (e.g. <4 nm) cannot give the correct bending stiffness. Compared with the reported result from the MoS2 nanotube calculated by density functional theory, the revised Stillinger-Weber (SW) and reactive empirical bond-order (REBO) potentials can give the reasonable bending stiffness of SLMoS2 (8.7-13.4 eV) as well as the effective deformed conformation. In addition, since the Mo-S bond deformation of SLMoS2 under bending is similar to that under in-plane tension/compression, the continuum bending theory can quite accurately predict the bending stiffness of SLMoS2 if a reasonable thickness of SLMoS2 is given. For SLMoS2, the reasonable thickness should be larger than the distance between its two S atomic planes and lower than the distance between two Mo atomic planes of bulk MoS2 crystal, e.g. 0.375-0.445 nm.
High-efficiency beam bending using graded photonic crystals.
Oner, B B; Turduev, M; Kurt, H
2013-05-15
We explore beam-bending properties of graded index (GRIN) waveguide with hyperbolic secant profile. The transmission efficiency and bandwidth features are extracted for GRIN photonic crystal (PC) media composed of dielectric rods. Light guiding performance of the GRIN PC medium is analyzed for 90° and 180° waveguide bends. The finite-difference time-domain method is deployed to investigate the performance of the designed GRIN waveguides. By the help of proposed photonic configuration, bending of light is achieved with a high efficiency within a broad bandwidth, which promotes the use of GRIN PC structures for efficient light-bending purposes.
Electrostatic effects in DNA bending by GCN4 mutants.
Strauss-Soukup, J K; Maher, L J
1998-01-27
DNA architecture has been shown to be important for cellular processes such as activation of transcription, recombination, and replication. Many proteins reconfigure the shape of duplex DNA upon binding. Previous experiments have shown that some members of the eukaryotic bZIP family of DNA binding proteins appear to bend DNA, while others do not. We are exploring the role of electrostatic effects in DNA bending by bZIP proteins. The yeast bZIP transcription factor GCN4 does not induce DNA bending in vitro. Previously we substituted basic residues for three neutral amino acids in GCN4 to produce a GCN4 derivative that bends DNA by approximately 15 degrees. This result is consistent with a model of induced DNA bending wherein excess positive charge in proximity to one face of the double helix neutralizes local phosphate diester anions resulting in a laterally-asymmetric charge distribution along the DNA. Such an unbalanced charge distribution can result in collapse of the DNA toward the neutralized surface. We now present a more comprehensive analysis of electrostatic effects in DNA bending by GCN4 derivatives. It is shown that the direction and extent of DNA bending by these derivatives are a linear function of the charges of the amino acids adjacent to the basic domain of the protein. This relation holds over the charge range +6 (16 degrees bend toward the minor groove) to -6 (25 degrees bend toward the major groove).
Bending-induced extension in two-dimensional crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Douxing; Li, Yao; Wang, Tzu-Chiang; Guo, Wanlin
2017-02-01
We find by ab initio simulations that significant overall tensile strain can be induced by pure bending in a wide range of two-dimensional crystals perpendicular to the bending moment, just like an accordion being bent to open. This bending-induced tensile strain increases in a power law with bent curvature and can be over 20% in monolayered black phosphorus and transition metal dichalcogenides at a moderate curvature of 2 nm^{-1} but more than an order weaker in graphene and hexagon boron nitride. This accordion effect is found to be a quantum mechanical effect raised by the asymmetric response of chemical bonds and electron density to the bending curvature.
Bending Behavior of Porous Sintered Stainless Steel Fiber Honeycombs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Shuiping; Wan, Zhenping; Lu, Longsheng; Tang, Yong
2017-02-01
A novel porous honeycomb-type substrate has been developed using solid-state sintering stainless steel fibers. The porous sintered stainless steel fiber honeycombs (PSSSFH) are composed of a skeleton of sintered stainless steel fibers, three-dimensionally interconnected porous structures and multiple parallel microchannels. The bending behavior of the PSSSFH is investigated using three-point bending tests. Four stages, including an elastic stage, a yielding stage with a plateau, a hardening stage and a failure stage, are observed during the bending process of the PSSSFH. In the initial yielding stage, the bending forces increase slowly with displacement increasing, and then a yielding plateau follows, which is unique compared with other porous materials. Moreover, the structure parameters of the PSSSFH are varied to investigate the influence on the bending strength. It is determined that the multiple parallel microchannels can enhance the bending strength of porous stainless steel fiber sintered substrates (PSSFSS) and do not influence the variation trend of bending strength of PSSFSS with porosity increasing. The open ratio is conducive to increasing the bending strength, and the microchannel diameters ranging from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm have little influence on the bending strength. In addition, both the increasing of sintering temperature and sintering time can strengthen the PSSSFH.
Bending Behavior of Porous Sintered Stainless Steel Fiber Honeycombs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Shuiping; Wan, Zhenping; Lu, Longsheng; Tang, Yong
2016-12-01
A novel porous honeycomb-type substrate has been developed using solid-state sintering stainless steel fibers. The porous sintered stainless steel fiber honeycombs (PSSSFH) are composed of a skeleton of sintered stainless steel fibers, three-dimensionally interconnected porous structures and multiple parallel microchannels. The bending behavior of the PSSSFH is investigated using three-point bending tests. Four stages, including an elastic stage, a yielding stage with a plateau, a hardening stage and a failure stage, are observed during the bending process of the PSSSFH. In the initial yielding stage, the bending forces increase slowly with displacement increasing, and then a yielding plateau follows, which is unique compared with other porous materials. Moreover, the structure parameters of the PSSSFH are varied to investigate the influence on the bending strength. It is determined that the multiple parallel microchannels can enhance the bending strength of porous stainless steel fiber sintered substrates (PSSFSS) and do not influence the variation trend of bending strength of PSSFSS with porosity increasing. The open ratio is conducive to increasing the bending strength, and the microchannel diameters ranging from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm have little influence on the bending strength. In addition, both the increasing of sintering temperature and sintering time can strengthen the PSSSFH.
Modified Numerical Simulation Model of Blood Flow in Bend
Liu, X; Zhou, X; Hao, X; Sang, X
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT The numerical simulation model of blood flow in bend is studied in this paper. The curvature modification is conducted for the blood flow model in bend to obtain the modified blood flow model in bend. The modified model is verified by U tube. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental results obtained by measuring the flow data in U tube, it was found that the modified blood flow model in bend can effectively improve the prediction accuracy of blood flow data affected by the curvature effect. PMID:27398727
Hot bending with a fiber coupled solid state laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bammer, F.; Schumi, T.; Schuöcker, D.
2010-09-01
For bending of brittle materials it is necessary to heat up the forming zone. This can be done with a fiber coupled solid state laser, whose beam is evenly distributed on the bending line with a beam splitter installed in the lower tool (die) of a bending press. With polarization optics the laser beam is divided there into partial beams that are evenly distributed on the bending line with lenses and prisms. A setup for a bending length of 200mm heated by a fiber-coupled 3kW Nd:YAG-laser shows the feasibility of the concept. Successful operation was shown for the Mg-alloy AZ31, which breaks during forming at room temperature, but can be well formed at temperatures in the range of 200-300°C. Other materials benefiting from this method are Ti-alloys, high-strength-Al-alloys, and high-strength-steels. Typical heating times are in the range of up to 5s and much of the heat input is generated during the bending operation where the laser continues to work. Laser Assisted Bending with a fiber coupled solid state laser is a straightforward way to perform the bending of brittle materials in a process as simple as cold bending.
Sorting of bed load sediment by flow in meander bends.
Parker, G.; Andrews, E.D.
1985-01-01
Equilibrium sorting of coarse mobile bed load sediment in meander bends is considered. A theory of two-dimensional bed load transport of graded material, including the effects of gravity on lateral slopes and secondary currents, is developed. This theory is coupled with a simple tratement of flow in bends, an analytically determined bend shape, and the condition of continuity of each grain size range in transport to describe sorting. The theory indicates that the locus of coarse sediment shifts from the inside bank to the outside bank near the bend apex, as is observed.-Authors
PERMEABILITY OF SALTSTONE MEASUREMENT BY BEAM BENDING
Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Vickie Williams, V
2008-01-30
One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and, quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. A performance property for Saltstone mixes that is important but not routinely measured is the liquid permeability or saturated hydraulic conductivity of the cured Saltstone mix. The value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity is an input into the Performance Assessment for the SRS Z-Area vaults. Therefore, it is important to have a method available that allows for an accurate and reproducible measurement of permeability quickly and inexpensively. One such method that could potentially meet these requirements for the measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity is the technique of beam bending, developed by Professor George Scherer at Princeton University. In order to determine the feasibility of this technique for Saltstone mixes, a summer student, David Feliciano, was hired to work at Princeton under the direction of George Scherer. This report details the results of this study which demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the beam bending method to measurement of permeability of Saltstone samples. This research effort used samples made at Princeton from a Modular Caustic side solvent extraction Unit based simulant (MCU) and premix at a water to premix ratio of 0.60. The saturated hydraulic conductivities for these mixes were measured by the beam bending technique and the values determined were of the order of 1.4 to 3.4 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. These values of hydraulic conductivity are consistent with independently measured values of this property on similar MCU based mixes by Dixon and Phifer. These values are also consistent with the hydraulic conductivity of a generic Saltstone mix measured by Langton in 1985. The high water to premix ratio used for Saltstone along with the relatively low degree of hydration for
Notch effects on room temperature tensile and bend properties of Ni3Al and Ni3Al+B
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khadkikar, P. S.; Rigney, J. D.; Lewandowski, J. J.; Vedula, K.
1989-01-01
The notched mechanical properties of Ni3Al and Ni3Al+B prepared by powder metallurgy techniques have been determined in both tension and bending at room temperature. Tensile tests performed using double-notched specimens containing relatively blunt notches produced intergranular fracture in both Ni3Al and Ni3Al+B, with evidence of fracture initiating in an intergranular manner ahead of the blunt notch in both cases. Estimates of notched fracture toughness from bend tests and of local grain boundary fracture stress from the notched tensile tests suggest an increase in these values with boron addition.
Interfacial strength analyses of Al/Mg compounds using bending tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehmann, T.; Kirbach, C.; Müller, J.; Stockmann, M.; Ihlemann, J.
2017-03-01
In the Collaborative Research Center 692, subproject B3 Al/Mg compounds are investigated. The hydrostatic co-extruded compounds presented in this paper were further manufactured by the forging process Rising. To continue the first investigations of Rising specimens regarding interface strength, a bending test developed in a previous project period was used. The specific load case and the bending specimen geometry considers the requirements concerning the special geometry of the Rising specimen. Based on experimentally determined failure forces (maximum forces), the stress state for the investigation of the interface strength was calculated by means of the elementary bending theory extended with a numerical determined correction factor. The numerical analyses were based on a parametric FE model of the load case. Crack initiation was caused by the maximum interlaminar interfacial tension stress. In the demonstrated investigations co-extruded compounds with different ratio of core material (Mg) in the transversal cross sectional area of the initial billet were analyzed. A particular feature of the investigations is the interfacial strength analysis of a subset of Rising specimens in different areas of the transversal cross section. This was enabled by using compounds with larger sleeve thickness due to a lower Mg ratio. Thus, in this case a more extensive characterization could be performed. The results show higher strength values for Rising specimens with the largest sleeve thickness compared to the other investigated configurations.
Representation of horizontal strain due to tidal bending by observation and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rack, Wolfgang; King, Matt; Marsh, Oliver; Wild, Christian; Floricioiu, Dana
2017-04-01
An important control of ice sheet mass balance is the ice dynamics in the grounding zones around Antarctica. On many outflow glaciers a large temporal variability in ice flow has been observed, which is at least partly related to tides. Here we investigate the tide induced short term ice deformation in an ice shelf grounding zone and the related bending stresses and strain. We make use of the arguably most precise measurement method, differential SAR interferometry, in combination with ground based measurements and model assumptions for tidal bending. Ground validation and satellite data have been acquired within a dedicated field campaign. The Southern McMurdo Ice Shelf in the Western Ross Ice Shelf region was chosen as the experiment site. This area is optimal for the data interpretation because of a simple grounding line configuration, small ice flux, and favourable satellite imaging geometry. It is also a safe area which allowed the installation of tiltmeters and GPS stations, and glaciological measurements such as ice thickness and snow accumulation. From November 2014 to January 2015 the tidal movement was recorded over a period of 2.5 months. TerrSAR-X radar images have been acquired over the same period as a basis to derive ice shelf flexure maps. Despite the viscoelastic effects in ice shelf bending a simple elastic bending model for a beam of finite ice thickness can largely explain the GPS-observed surface strain. Using the same model and taking into account the viewing geometry of the satellite radar, it is now possible to separate horizontal and vertical displacement components in the satellite data. As a result we can obtain more realistic ice shelf flexure profiles from the interferometric SAR measurement. The newly derived flexure profiles are therefore more suitable to recover viscoelastic effects of tidal bending in grounding zones of ice shelves and outlet glaciers. These effects would have otherwise remained unnoticed.
Torsional and bending resistance of WaveOne Gold, Reciproc and Twisted File Adaptive instruments.
Elsaka, S E; Elnaghy, A M; Badr, A E
2016-12-05
To compare the torsional and bending resistance of WaveOne Gold (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA), Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) and Twisted File Adaptive (Axis/SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) instruments. Torsional strength of WaveOne Gold primary size 25, .07 taper, Reciproc size 25, .08 taper and Twisted File Adaptive M-L1 size 25, .08 taper was measured by fastening the apical 3 mm of the instrument firmly and applying a constant rotation at 2 rpm to the instrument using a torsiometer. The fractured instruments were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The bending resistance of the instruments was measured using the cantilever bending test. The data were statistically analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey post hoc tests. The statistical significance level was set at P < 0.05. WaveOne Gold had a significantly higher torsional resistance than Reciproc and Twisted File Adaptive (P < 0.001). Reciproc had a significantly higher torsional resistance than Twisted File Adaptive (P < 0.001). WaveOne Gold had a significantly lower resistance to bend than Reciproc and Twisted File Adaptive (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference in bending resistance between Reciproc and Twisted File Adaptive instruments (P < 0.001). SEM of the fracture cross-sectional surface displayed the classical features of torsional failure, including fibrous dimple marks near the centre of rotation and circular abrasion marks. WaveOne Gold exhibited higher resistance to torsional stress and flexibility compared with Reciproc and Twisted File Adaptive instruments. Torsional resistance and flexibility properties of the instruments could be affected by the alloy from which the instrument is manufactured and different cross-sectional design. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bend-insensitive fiber based vibration sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yanping; Lu, Ping; Baset, Farhana; Bhardwaj, Vedula Ravi; Bao, Xiaoyi
2014-05-01
We report two novel fiber-optic vibration sensors based on standard telecom bend-insensitive fiber (BIF). A tapered BIF forming a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer could measure continuous and damped vibration from 1 Hz up to 500 kHz. An enclosed microcantilever is fabricated inside the BIF by chemical etching and fusion spliced with a readout singlemode fiber that exhibits a frequency range from 5 Hz to 10 kHz with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) up to 68 dB. The unique double cladding structure of the BIF ensures both sensors with advantages of compactness, high resistance to the external disturbance and stronger mechanical strength.
Separation of blood in microchannel bends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blattert, Christoph; Jurischka, Reinhold; Schoth, Andreas; Kerth, Paul; Menz, Wolfgang
2004-01-01
Biological applications of micro assay devices require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. This is achieved by a new blood separation technique based on a microchannel bend structure developed within the collaborative Micro-Tele-BioChip (μTBC) project co-funded by the German Ministry For Education and Research (BMBF). Different prototype polymer chips have been manufactured with an UV-LIGA process and hot embossing technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been determined by experimental measurements using human whole blood. Results show different separation efficiencies for cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry and blood sample characteristics and suggest an alternative blood separation method as compared to existing micro separation technologies.
Separation of blood in microchannel bends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blattert, Christoph; Jurischka, Reinhold; Schoth, Andreas; Kerth, Paul; Menz, Wolfgang
2003-12-01
Biological applications of micro assay devices require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. This is achieved by a new blood separation technique based on a microchannel bend structure developed within the collaborative Micro-Tele-BioChip (μTBC) project co-funded by the German Ministry For Education and Research (BMBF). Different prototype polymer chips have been manufactured with an UV-LIGA process and hot embossing technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been determined by experimental measurements using human whole blood. Results show different separation efficiencies for cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry and blood sample characteristics and suggest an alternative blood separation method as compared to existing micro separation technologies.
Floating objects with finite resistance to bending.
Vella, Dominic
2008-08-19
We consider the equilibrium flotation of a thin, flexible cylinder at the interface between a liquid and a gas. In particular, we determine the maximum load that such a cylinder can support without sinking. We find that as the length of such a cylinder increases the maximum load at first increases. However, the maximum load reaches a plateau when the length of the cylinder is comparable to the elastocapillary length, which is determined by a balance between the bending of the cylinder and surface tension. We then consider the implications of our analysis for the walking on water of both arthropods and man-made robots. In particular, we show that the legs of water striders are typically slightly shorter than this 'optimal' length, suggesting that elastocapillary effects may act as a selection pressure.
Bending of Light in Ellis Wormhole Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Amrita; Potapov, Alexander A.
A recent work by Dey and Sen derived the approximate light deflection angle α by an Ellis wormhole in terms of proper radial distance ℓ that covers the entire spacetime. On the other hand, Bodenner and Will calculated the expressions for light bending in Schwarzschild geometry using various coordinates and showed that they all reduce to a single formula when re-expressed in the coordinate independent language of "circumferential radius" rC identified with the standard radial coordinate rS. We shall argue that the coordinate invariant language for two-way wormholes should be ℓ rather than rS. Hence here we find the exact deflection α in Ellis wormhole geometry first in terms of ℓ and then in terms of rS. We confirm the latter expression using three different methods. We argue that the practical measurement scheme does not necessarily single out either ℓ or rS. Some errors in the literature are corrected.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruggiero, Matteo Luca
2016-05-01
In the framework of f(T) gravity, we focus on a weak-field and spherically symmetric solution for the Lagrangian f(T) = T + αT2, where α is a small constant which parametrizes the departure from general relativity (GR). In particular, we study the propagation of light and obtain the correction to the general relativistic bending angle. Moreover, we discuss the impact of this correction on some gravitational lensing observables, and evaluate the possibility of constraining the theory parameter α by means of observations. In particular, on taking into account the astrometric accuracy in the Solar System, we obtain that |α|≤ 1.85 × 105m2; this bound is looser than those deriving from the analysis of Solar System dynamics, e.g. |α|≤ 5 × 10-1m2 [L. Iorio, N. Radicella and M. L. Ruggiero, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 1508 (2015) 021, arXiv:1505.06996 [gr-qc].], |α|≤ 1.8 × 104m2 [L. Iorio and E. N. Saridakis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427 (2012) 1555, arXiv:1203.5781 [gr-qc].] or |α|≤ 1.2 × 102m2 [Y. Xie and X. M. Deng, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 433 (2013) 3584, arXiv:1312.4103 [gr-qc].]. However, we suggest that, since the effect only depends on the impact parameter, better constraints could be obtained by studying light bending from planetary objects.
Analysis of damage in composite laminates under bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuriakose, Sunil
The focus of this research was damage formation in composite laminates subjected to bending. Matrix cracking and internal delamination are common damage modes before final failure for a composite laminate under thermo-mechanical loading. Two configurations of cross-ply laminates, namely [0m/90 n]s and [90m/0n]s, were considered for the study. Approximate analytical solutions for the stress states in the two laminates subjected to constant bending moment, with matrix cracks in the 90° layers, were derived using a variational approach. The evolution of matrix cracking under monotonically increasing load was studied for a number of composite materials. The analytical predictions showed an initial stage of rapid matrix crack multiplication followed by a slowing down in the crack multiplication. In the case of [0m/90n] s laminate, 0° ply failure in tension or compression was found to be likely even at the initial stages of matrix cracking for laminates with thin 90° layer. The 0° ply failure is delayed for laminates with thicker 90° layer. The analytical model for the stress state in the [90m/0 n]s laminate was extended to include delamination from the matrix crack-tip along the 0/90 interface. The bending moment required to initiate crack-tip delamination was computed as a function of the crack density. By comparing this result with matrix crack evolution, the relative dominance of the two modes of damage could be determined. The critical crack density beyond which delamination dominates matrix cracking is obtained from the analysis. The critical crack density is interpreted as the stage beyond which growth of delamination rather than matrix cracking is likely to occur. Parametric studies conducted by varying the laminate configuration showed that the critical crack density for delamination onset strongly depends on the thickness of the 90° layer and the distance of the 90° layer from the laminate mid-plane. Quasi-static growth of delamination under monotonic
Shamid, Shaikh M; Dhakal, Subas; Selinger, Jonathan V
2013-05-01
We develop a Landau theory for bend flexoelectricity in liquid crystals of bent-core molecules. In the nematic phase of the model, the bend flexoelectric coefficient increases as we reduce the temperature toward the nematic to polar phase transition. At this critical point, there is a second-order transition from high-temperature uniform nematic phase to low-temperature nonuniform polar phase composed of twist-bend or splay-bend deformations. To test the predictions of Landau theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to find the director and polarization configurations as functions of temperature, applied electric field, and interaction parameters.
Relating tensile, bending, and shear test data of asphalt binders to pavement performance
Chen, J.S.; Tsai, C.J.
1998-12-01
Eight different asphalt binders representing a wide range of applications for pavement construction were tested in uniaxial tension, bending, and shear stresses. Theoretical analyses were performed in this study to covert the data from the three engineering tests to stiffness moduli for predicting pavement performance. At low temperatures, high asphalt stiffness may induce pavement thermal cracking; thus, the allowable maximum stiffness was set at 1,000 MPa. At high temperatures, low asphalt stiffness may lead to pavement rutting (ruts in the road); master curves were constructed to rank the potential for rutting in the asphalts. All three viscoelastic functions were shown to be interchangeable within the linear viscoelastic region. When subjected to large deformation in the direct tension test, asphalt binders behaved nonlinear viscoelastic in which the data under bending, shear and tension modes were not comparable. The asphalts were, however, found toe exhibit linear viscoelasticity up to the failure point in the steady-state strain region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wei-Chih; Huang, Chu-Yu; Chiang, Te-Kuang; Reinhall, Per G.
2007-04-01
The paper describes the development of a mesh waveguide sensor capable of measuring pressure force at the plantar interface. The uniqueness of the system is in its batch fabrication process, which involves a microfabrication molding technique with poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) as the optical medium. The pressure sensor consists of an array of optical waveguides lying in perpendicular rows and columns separated by elastomeric pads. A map of normal stress was constructed based on observed macro bending which causes intensity attenuation from the physical deformation of two adjacent perpendicular waveguides. In this paper, optical and mechanical analysis of the bend loss will be presented. We will also present the results using a two-layer neural network system for force and image construction of fourteen different shape patterns and its corresponding four different applied forces.
Polymer optical fiber twisted macro-bend coupling system for liquid level detection.
Hou, Yu-Long; Liu, Wen-Yi; Su, Shan; Zhang, Hui-Xin; Zhang, Jia-Wei; Liu, Jun; Xiong, Ji-Jun
2014-09-22
The liquid level detection principle of cladding mode frustrated total internal reflection (CMFTIR) effect is proposed. The significant enhancement of CMFTIR effect is realized through macro-bend coupling system in which the dark-field coupling phenomenon between two multimode polymer optic fibers is observed through experiment. Especially twisted macro-bend coupling structure (TMBCS) is adopted to achieve stable coupling of two naked POF. The testing result showed that the dark-filed forward coupling efficiency reached 2‰ and the extinction ratio of the liquid level probe reached 4.18 dB. Compared with existing optical fiber liquid level sensors, the TMBCS probe is simpler, robuster, and cheaper. In addition, the TMBCS has the potential for displacement or stress sensing.
Developments of a force image algorithm for micromachined optical bend loss sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chu-Yu; Liu, Chao-Shih; Panergo, Reynold; Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Chih
2005-05-01
A flexible high-resolution sensor capable of measuring the distribution of both shear and pressure at the plantar interface are needed to study the actual distribution of this force during daily activities, and the role that shear plays in causing plantar ulceration. We have previously developed a novel means of transducing plantar shear and pressure stress via a new microfabricated optical system. However, a force image algorithm is needed to handle the complexity of construction of two-dimensional planar pressure and shear images. Here we have developed a force image algorithm for a micromachined optical bend loss sensor. A neural network is introduced to help identify different load shapes. According to the experimental result, we can conclude that once the neural network has been well trained, it can correctly identify the loading shape. With the neural network, our micromachined optical bend loss Sensor is able to construction the two-dimensional planar force images.
Bending Tests of Circular Cylinders of Corrugated Aluminum-alloy Sheet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buckwalter, John C; Reed, Warren D; Niles, Alfred S
1937-01-01
Bending tests were made of two circular cylinders of corrugated aluminum-alloy sheet. In each test failure occurred by bending of the corrugations in a plane normal to the skin. It was found, after analysis of the effect of short end bays, that the computed stress on the extreme fiber of a corrugated cylinder is in excess of that for a flat panel of the same basic pattern and panel length tested as a pin-ended column. It is concluded that this increased strength was due to the effects of curvature of the pitch line. It is also concluded from the tests that light bulkheads closely spaced strengthen corrugated cylinders very materially.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bemis, S. P.; Benowitz, J.
2012-12-01
The processes of restraining bend formation and evolution along strike-slip faults remain poorly understood. Although connections between exhumation, fault displacement, and structural geometry are difficult to establish, long-lived active faults contribute to rock uplift, partition strain, and provide insight into the crustal stresses that result from the complex geometry of a restraining bend. The highest topography in North America, Mount McKinley (also known as Denali), is closely associated with an ~17 degree bend in the Denali fault and the region exhibits structural, geomorphic, and thermochronologic constraints on the late Cenozoic evolution of the Mount McKinley restraining bend. As a component of our investigation into the initiation and growth of this restraining bend, we are mapping the bedrock and surficial geology along the north side of the restraining bend to document evidence for Quaternary-active faults. Previous workers only document one active fault, the East Fork fault, north of the Denali fault. The lack of active faults is surprising due to the high rate of regional seismicity. Our initial studies recognize several previously undocumented faults that offset late Pleistocene glacial moraines and fluvial/alluvial surfaces, indicating active deformation is more widely spread than previously recognized and illustrating distinct patterns of strain accommodation. The East Fork fault and nearby structures occur east of the apex of the restraining bend and are sub-vertical with characteristically south-side-down displacements. Faults occurring adjacent to, and west of, the restraining bend apex are all south-side-up thrust faults and appear to have accommodated a significant component of the modern topographic development on the north side of the Denali fault. Future work will target the structural geometry and slip rates of these faults in order to determine how this restraining bend has evolved to the present configuration, and these results will
Coupled-Mode Flutter of Bending-Bending Type in Highly-Flexible Uniform Airfoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pourazarm, Pariya; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya
2016-11-01
We study the behavior of a highly flexible uniform airfoil placed in wind both numerically and experimentally. It is shown that for a non-rotating highly-flexible cantilevered airfoil, placed at very small angles of attack (less than 1 degree), the airfoil loses its stability by buckling. For slightly higher angles of attack (more than 1 degree) a coupled-mode flutter in which the first and the second flapwise modes coalesce toward a flutter mode is observed, and thus the observed flutter has a bending-bending nature. The flutter onset and frequency found experimentally matched the numerical predictions. If the same airfoil is forced to rotate about its fixed end, the static deflection decreases and the observed couple-mode flutter becomes of flapwise-torsional type, same as what has already been observed for flutter of rotating wind turbine blades. The support provided by the National Science Foundation, CBET-1437988, is greatly acknowledged.
Bending the Curve: Sensitivity to Bending of Curved Paths and Application in Room-Scale VR.
Langbehn, Eike; Lubos, Paul; Bruder, Gerd; Steinicke, Frank
2017-04-01
Redirected walking (RDW) promises to allow near-natural walking in an infinitely large virtual environment (VE) by subtle manipulations of the virtual camera. Previous experiments analyzed the human sensitivity to RDW manipulations by focusing on the worst-case scenario, in which users walk perfectly straight ahead in the VE, whereas they are redirected on a circular path in the real world. The results showed that a physical radius of at least 22 meters is required for undetectable RDW. However, users do not always walk exactly straight in a VE. So far, it has not been investigated how much a physical path can be bent in situations in which users walk a virtual curved path instead of a straight one. Such curved walking paths can be often observed, for example, when users walk on virtual trails, through bent corridors, or when circling around obstacles. In such situations the question is not, whether or not the physical path can be bent, but how much the bending of the physical path may vary from the bending of the virtual path. In this article, we analyze this question and present redirection by means of bending gains that describe the discrepancy between the bending of curved paths in the real and virtual environment. Furthermore, we report the psychophysical experiments in which we analyzed the human sensitivity to these gains. The results reveal encouragingly wider detection thresholds than for straightforward walking. Based on our findings, we discuss the potential of curved walking and present a first approach to leverage bent paths in a way that can provide undetectable RDW manipulations even in room-scale VR.
Tsao, C C; Liou, J U; Wen, P H; Peng, C C; Liu, T S
2013-04-01
To develop analytical models and analyse the stress distribution and flexibility of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments subject to bending forces. The analytical method was used to analyse the behaviours of NiTi instruments under bending forces. Two NiTi instruments (RaCe and Mani NRT) with different cross-sections and geometries were considered. Analytical results were derived using Euler-Bernoulli nonlinear differential equations that took into account the screw pitch variation of these NiTi instruments. In addition, the nonlinear deformation analysis based on the analytical model and the finite element nonlinear analysis was carried out. Numerical results are obtained by carrying out a finite element method. According to analytical results, the maximum curvature of the instrument occurs near the instrument tip. Results of the finite element analysis revealed that the position of maximum von Mises stress was near the instrument tip. Therefore, the proposed analytical model can be used to predict the position of maximum curvature in the instrument where fracture may occur. Finally, results of analytical and numerical models were compatible. The proposed analytical model was validated by numerical results in analysing bending deformation of NiTi instruments. The analytical model is useful in the design and analysis of instruments. The proposed theoretical model is effective in studying the flexibility of NiTi instruments. Compared with the finite element method, the analytical model can deal conveniently and effectively with the subject of bending behaviour of rotary NiTi endodontic instruments. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.
Evolution of tensile design stresses for lumber
William L. Galligan; C. C. Gerhards; R. L. Ethington
1979-01-01
Until approximately 1965, allowable design stresses for lumber in tension were taken as equal to those assigned for bending. As interest in tensile properties increased, testing machines were designed specifically to stress lumber in tension. Research results that accumulated on tensile tests of full-size lumber suggested lower design stresses for tension than for...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nijhuis, A.; Wessel, W. A. J.; Ilyin, Y.; den Ouden, A.; ten Kate, H. H. J.
2006-05-01
We have developed and validated a straightforward and fast method to investigate the response of technological superconducting strain sensitive wires (e.g., Nb3Sn) to a spatial periodic bending strain. In the present concept of cabled superconductors for application in nuclear fusion reactors the wires are twisted and cabled in several stages. When subjected to transverse electromagnetic forces after charging the magnet, the individual strands are subjected to spatial periodic bending with wavelengths in the order of 5-10mm. Several apparatuses are presently under development to study the effect of bending on the transport properties, i.e., the voltage-current transition in terms of critical current (Ic) and n value. We propose a supplementary simple method to investigate the influence of bending strain by using a spatial periodic wire support on a broadly used standard Ic measurement barrel in combination with a Lorentz force. The bending force (BI) is varied by changing the applied field B. The peak bending strain in the Nb3Sn filaments is determined by the amplitude of the bending deflection, which is deduced from the mechanical axial tensile stress-strain properties of the wire. Three different spatial periodic wavelengths are applied and the results are in good agreement with the predictions. In addition we found a good agreement with results obtained by a more advanced experiment, named TARSIS, which is described briefly. The "barrel-with-slots" method can be applied easily and straightforward with minor effort and cost in laboratories having a standard Ic measurement facility for superconducting wire.
Nijhuis, A.; Wessel, W.A.J.; Ilyin, Y.; Ouden, A. den; Kate, H.H.J. ten
2006-05-15
We have developed and validated a straightforward and fast method to investigate the response of technological superconducting strain sensitive wires (e.g., Nb{sub 3}Sn) to a spatial periodic bending strain. In the present concept of cabled superconductors for application in nuclear fusion reactors the wires are twisted and cabled in several stages. When subjected to transverse electromagnetic forces after charging the magnet, the individual strands are subjected to spatial periodic bending with wavelengths in the order of 5-10 mm. Several apparatuses are presently under development to study the effect of bending on the transport properties, i.e., the voltage-current transition in terms of critical current (I{sub c}) and n value. We propose a supplementary simple method to investigate the influence of bending strain by using a spatial periodic wire support on a broadly used standard I{sub c} measurement barrel in combination with a Lorentz force. The bending force (BI) is varied by changing the applied field B. The peak bending strain in the Nb{sub 3}Sn filaments is determined by the amplitude of the bending deflection, which is deduced from the mechanical axial tensile stress-strain properties of the wire. Three different spatial periodic wavelengths are applied and the results are in good agreement with the predictions. In addition we found a good agreement with results obtained by a more advanced experiment, named TARSIS, which is described briefly. The 'barrel-with-slots' method can be applied easily and straightforward with minor effort and cost in laboratories having a standard I{sub c} measurement facility for superconducting wire.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Qibin; Yu, Guo; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Oskin, Michael E.; Shao, Guihang
2017-05-01
Large restraining bends along active strike-slip faults locally enhance the accumulation of clamping tectonic normal stresses that may limit the size of major earthquakes. In such settings, uncertain fault geometry at depth limits understanding of how effectively a bend arrests earthquake ruptures. Here we demonstrate fault imaging within a major restraining bend along the Altyn Tagh Fault of western China using the magnetotelluric (MT) method. The new MT data were collected along two profiles across the Aksay restraining double bend, which is bounded by two subparallel strands of the Altyn Tagh Fault: Northern (NATF) and Southern (SATF). Both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) inversion models show that the Aksay bend may be the center of a positive flower structure, imaged as a high-resistivity body extending to an 40 km depth and bounded by subvertical resistivity discontinuities corresponding to the NATF and SATF. In the western section of the Aksay bend, both the NATF and SATF show similar low-resistivity structure, whereas in the eastern part of the bend, the low-resistivity anomaly below the SATF is wider and more prominent than that below the NATF. This observation indicates that the SATF shear zone may be wider and host more fluid than the NATF, lending structural support to the contention that fault slip at depth is asymmetrically focused on the SATF, even though surface slip is focused on the NATF. A south dipping, low-resistivity interface branching upward from the SATF toward the NATF indicates a fault link between these strands at depth.
Observation and Modeling of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Bend Junctions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Jie; Anantram, M. P.; Jaffe, R. L.; Kong, J.; Dai, H.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bends, with diameters from approx. 1.0 to 2.5 nm and bend angles from 18 deg. to 34 deg., are observed in catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons at 600 - 1200 C. An algorithm using molecular dynamics simulation (MD) techniques is developed to model these structures that are considered to be SWNT junctions formed by topological defects (i.e. pentagon-heptagon pairs). The algorithm is used to predict the tube helicities and defect configurations for bend junctions using the observed tube diameters and bend angles. The number and arrangement of the defects at the junction interfaces are found to depend on the tube helicities and bend angle. The structural and energetic calculations using the Brenner potential show a number of stable junction configurations for each bend angle with the 34 deg. bends being more stable than the others. Tight binding calculations for local density of state (LDOS) and transmission coefficients are carried out to investigate electrical properties of the bend junctions.
36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed waters...
36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed waters...
36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed waters...
36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed waters...
36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed waters...
View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located ...
View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located in southeast corner of the structural shop building (building 57). The computer controlled tube bender can be programmed to bend boiler tubing to nearly any required configuration - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Flexible DNA bending in HU-DNA cocrystal structures.
Swinger, Kerren K; Lemberg, Kathryn M; Zhang, Ying; Rice, Phoebe A
2003-07-15
HU and IHF are members of a family of prokaryotic proteins that interact with the DNA minor groove in a sequence-specific (IHF) or non-specific (HU) manner to induce and/or stabilize DNA bending. HU plays architectural roles in replication initiation, transcription regulation and site-specific recombination, and is associated with bacterial nucleoids. Cocrystal structures of Anabaena HU bound to DNA (1P71, 1P78, 1P51) reveal that while underlying proline intercalation and asymmetric charge neutralization mechanisms of DNA bending are similar for IHF and HU, HU stabilizes different DNA bend angles ( approximately 105-140 degrees ). The two bend angles within a single HU complex are not coplanar, and the resulting dihedral angle is consistent with negative supercoiling. Comparison of HU-DNA and IHF-DNA structures suggests that sharper bending is correlated with longer DNA binding sites and smaller dihedral angles. An HU-induced bend may be better modeled as a hinge, not a rigid bend. The ability to induce or stabilize varying bend angles is consistent with HU's role as an architectural cofactor in many different systems that may require differing geometries.
BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, ...
BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, two elevations, sections, and details. Alben Froberg, Architect, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 1 of 1. Various scales. December 15, 1941. pencil on tracing paper - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Bending Shop & Oven, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA
Studies reveal effects of pipe bends on fluid flow cavitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stonemetz, R. E.
1966-01-01
Incipient cavitation in liquids flowing in pipes curved in one plane are affected by the pipe bend radii and pipe diameters, but little by pipe bend angles ranging from 60 to 120 degrees. Critical cavitation indices decrease with higher Reynolds number and pressure ratio. Bulk liquid temperature increase lowers the mean critical velocity at which cavitation occurs.
Actuators Help Correct For Gravitational Bending Of Antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levy, Roy; Strain, Douglas M.
1996-01-01
Force-actuator scheme devised to help correct for decrease, caused by gravitational bending, in gain of 34-m-diameter paraboloidal microwave antenna reflector used for tracking distant spacecraft and observing celestial radio sources. Also applicable to other antennas bending significantly under own weight, with consequent degradation of performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta, Supratik
2009-12-01
Iron-gallium alloys (Galfenol) are structural magnetostrictive materials that exhibit high free-strain at low magnetic fields, high stress-sensitivity and useful thermo-mechanical properties. Galfenol, like smart materials in general, is attractive for use as a dynamic actuator and/or sensor material and can hence find use in active shape and vibration control, real-time structural health monitoring and energy harvesting applications. Galfenol possesses significantly higher yield strength and greater ductility than most smart materials, which are generally limited to use under compressive loads. The unique structural attributes of Galfenol introduce opportunities for use of a smart material in applications that involve tension, bending, shear or torsion. A principal motivation for the research presented in this dissertation is that bending and shear loads lead to development of non-uniform stress and magnetic fields in Galfenol which introduce significantly more complexity to the considerations to be modeled, compared to modeling of purely axial loads. This dissertation investigates the magnetostrictive response of Galfenol under different stress and magnetic field conditions which is essential for understanding and modeling Galfenol's behavior under bending, shear or torsion. Experimental data are used to calculate actuator and sensor figures of merit which can aid in design of adaptive structures. The research focuses on the bending behavior of Galfenol alloys as well as of laminated composites having Galfenol attached to other structural materials. A four-point bending test under magnetic field is designed, built and conducted on a Galfenol beam to understand its performance as a bending sensor. An extensive experimental study is conducted on Galfenol-Aluminum laminated composites to evaluate the effect of magnetic field, bending moment and Galfenol-Aluminum thickness ratio on actuation and sensing performance. A generalized recursive algorithm is presented for
In vivo measurement of bending stiffness in fracture healing
Hente, Reiner; Cordey, Jacques; Perren, Stephan M
2003-01-01
Background Measurement of the bending stiffness a healing fracture represents a valid variable in the assessment of fracture healing. However, currently available methods typically have high measurement errors, even for mild pin loosening. Furthermore, these methods cannot provide actual values of bending stiffness, which precludes comparisons among individual fractures. Thus, even today, little information is available with regards to the fracture healing pattern with respect to actual values of bending stiffness. Our goals were, therefore: to develop a measurement device that would allow accurate and sensitive measurement of bending stiffness, even in the presence of mild pin loosening; to describe the course of healing in individual fractures; and help to evaluate whether the individual pattern of bending stiffness can be predicted at an early stage of healing. Methods A new measurement device has been developed to precisely measure the bending stiffness of the healing fracture by simulating four-point-bending. The system was calibrated on aluminum models and intact tibiae. The influence of pin loosening on measurement error was evaluated. The system was tested at weekly intervals in an animal experiment to determine the actual bending stiffness of the fracture. Transverse fractures were created in the right tibia of twelve sheep, and then stabilized with an external fixator. At ten weeks, bending stiffness of the tibiae were determined in a four-point-bending test device to validate the in-vivo-measurement data. Results In-vivo bending stiffness can be measured accurately and sensitive, even in the early phase of callus healing. Up to a bending stiffness of 10 Nm/degree, measurement error was below 3.4% for one pin loose, and below 29.3% for four pins loose, respectively. Measurement of stiffness data over time revealed a significant logarithmic increase between the third and seventh weeks, whereby the logarithmic rate of change among sheep was similar, but
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyunok; Mohr, William; Yang, Yu-Ping; Zelenak, Paul; Kimchi, Menachem
2011-08-01
Numerical modeling of local formability, such as hole-edge cracking and shear fracture in bending of AHSS, is one of the challenging issues for simulation engineers for prediction and evaluation of stamping and crash performance of materials. This is because continuum-mechanics-based finite element method (FEM) modeling requires additional input data, "failure criteria" to predict the local formability limit of materials, in addition to the material flow stress data input for simulation. This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for predicting hole-edge failures during static bend tests of AHSS structures. A local-strain-based failure criterion and a stress-triaxiality-based failure criterion were developed and implemented in LS-DYNA simulation code to predict hole-edge failures in component bend tests. The holes were prepared using two different methods: mechanical punching and water-jet cutting. In the component bend tests, the water-jet trimmed hole showed delayed fracture at the hole-edges, while the mechanical punched hole showed early fracture as the bending angle increased. In comparing the numerical modeling and test results, the load-displacement curve, the displacement at the onset of cracking, and the final crack shape/length were used. Both failure criteria also enable the numerical model to differentiate between the local formability limit of mechanical-punched and water-jet-trimmed holes. The failure criteria and static bend test developed here are useful to evaluate the local formability limit at a structural component level for automotive crash tests.
Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, Bradley
1995-01-01
Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.
Ultimate bending capacity of strain hardening steel pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yan-fei; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jing; Cao, Jing
2016-04-01
Based on Hencky's total strain theory of plasticity, ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes can be determined analytically assuming an elastic-linear strain hardening material, the simplified analytical solution is proposed as well. Good agreement is observed when ultimate bending capacities obtained from analytical solutions are compared with experimental results from full-size tests of steel pipes. Parametric study conducted as part of this paper indicates that the strain hardening effect has significant influence on the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. It is shown that pipe considering strain hardening yields higher bending capacity than that of pipe assumed as elastic-perfectly plastic material. Thus, the ignorance of strain hardening effect, as commonly assumed in current codes, may underestimate the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. The solutions proposed in this paper are applicable in the design of offshore/onshore steel pipes, supports of offshore platforms and other tubular structural steel members.
Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, Bradley
1995-01-01
Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.
Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph
1995-01-01
Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting, This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Two color-imaging techniques were employed to differentiate between the phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hyroxide surface loading on each electrode, thereby relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keivani, M.; Abadian, N.; Koochi, A.; Mokhtari, J.; Abadyan, M.
2016-10-01
It has been well established that the physical performance of nanodevices might be affected by the microstructure. Herein, a two-degree-of-freedom model base on the modified couple stress theory is developed to incorporate the impact of microstructure in the torsion/bending coupled instability of rotational nanoscanner. Effect of microstructure dependency on the instability parameters is determined as a function of the microstructure parameter, bending/torsion coupling ratio, van der Waals force parameter and geometrical dimensions. It is found that the bending/torsion coupling substantially affects the stable behavior of the scanners especially those with long rotational beam elements. Impact of microstructure on instability voltage of the nanoscanner depends on coupling ratio and the conquering bending mode over torsion mode. This effect is more highlighted for higher values of coupling ratio. Depending on the geometry and material characteristics, the presented model is able to simulate both hardening behavior (due to microstructure) and softening behavior (due to torsion/bending coupling) of the nanoscanners.
Improving the quality of rolled pipe steel products by minimizing the bending of the ends of plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salganik, V. M.; Chikishev, D. N.; Denisov, S. V.; Stekanov, P. A.; Shmakov, A. V.; Fomichev, A. V.
2013-11-01
The causes of the vertical bending of the front ends of plates during hot rolling are revealed. A finite-element mathematical model is developed to describe the state of stress of the metal in an asymmetric deformation zone with allowance for solving a temperature problem, and the model is adapted to the conditions of the 5000 rolling mill in OAO MMK. It is found that, in rolling with mismatched work roll speeds, the direction of bending of the front strip end is determined by the strip thickness and the deformation zone shape. The main cause of the bending of the front plate end at the stage of finishing stage of rolling is shown to be the difference between the roller bed level and the rolling line. New asymmetric deformation regimes are developed with allowance for the effect of the deformation zone shape on the direction of bending of the front strip end. The developed technological regimes of asymmetric rolling make it possible to decrease the mill downtime because of the bending of the breakdown bar ends and to reduce the metal volume rejected because of violated temperature regimes of the thermomechanical treatment of plates.
Bending and buckling of viscoplastic threads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hewitt, Ian; Balmforth, Neil
2012-11-01
We use a slender body theory to describe the dynamics of a thin viscoplastic thread undergoing extrusion, such as occurs when squeezing toothpaste from a tube. The theory adopts the Bingham model for a yield stress fluid, together with an asymptotic approximation for the stress and strain-rate profiles across the narrow width of the thread, which imply that the thread must either be rigid or fully yielded across its entire width. A compact description of the resultant longitudinal stress and moment acting on the thread allows these yielded and unyielded regions to be identified for given external forces. The theory is applied to extrusion flows; the yield stress prevents any deformation until a critical length of extrusion is reached, after which the dynamically evolving yielded regions mediate a distinctive drooping of a horizontal beam, or a catastrophic collapse of an upright beam.
Zhang, En-Wei; Cheung, Gary S P; Zheng, Yu-Feng
2010-08-01
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the cross-sectional configuration and dimensions (size and taper) on the torsional and bending behavior of nickel-titanium rotary instruments, taking into account the nonlinear mechanical properties of material. Ten cross-sectional configurations, square, triangular, U-type, S-type (large and small), convex-triangle, and 4 proprietary ones (Mani NRT and RT2, Quantec, and Mtwo), were analyzed under torsion or bending by using a 3-dimensional finite element method. The von Mises stresses were correlated with the critical values for various phases of the nickel-titanium material. Different loading conditions led to unequal patterns of stress distribution. Increasing the applied torque or bending angle resulted in a rise in the corresponding stresses in the instrument. Favorable stress distribution without dangerous stress concentration was observed if the material was undergoing superelastic transformation at that applied load. The ultimate strength of the material was not exceeded when the instrument was bent up to a 50-degree curvature. On the other hand, when a torsional moment of greater than 1.0 N*mm was applied, the maximum stresses developed in some designs would exceed the ultimate strength of the material. Little variation in the von Mises stresses was observed for instruments of different nominal sizes and tapers on bending to similar extent. The cross-sectional design has a greater impact than taper or size of the instrument on the stresses developed in the instrument under either torsion or bending. Certain cross-sectional configurations are prone to fracture by excess torsional stresses. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Large Deformation Dynamic Bending of Composite Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Derian, E. J.; Hyer, M. W.
1986-01-01
Studies were conducted on the large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load. The beams were loaded with a moderate eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied to determine potential differences between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different laminate types were tested. The beams tested were 23 in. by 2 in. and generally 30 plies thick. The beams were loaded dynamically with a gravity-driven impactor traveling at 19.6 ft/sec and quasi-static tests were conducted on identical beams in a displacement controlled manner. For laminates of practical interest, the failure modes under static and dynamic loadings were identical. Failure in most of the laminate types occurred in a single event involving 40% to 50% of the plies. However, failure in laminates with 300 or 150 off-axis plies occurred in several events. All laminates exhibited bimodular elastic properties. The compressive flexural moduli in some laminates was measured to be 1/2 the tensile flexural modulus. No simple relationship could be found among the measured ultimate failure strains of the different laminate types. Using empirically determined flexural properties, a finite element analysis was reasonably accurate in predicting the static and dynamic deformation response.
Large Deformation Dynamic Bending of Composite Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Derian, E. J.; Hyer, M. W.
1986-01-01
Studies were conducted on the large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load. The beams were loaded with a moderate eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied to determine potential differences between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different laminate types were tested. The beams were loaded dynamically with a gravity driven impactor traveling at 19.6 ft/sec and quasi-static tests were conducted on identical beams in a displacement controlled manner. For laminates of practical interest, the failure modes under static and dynamic loadings were identical. Failure in most of the laminate types occurred in a single event involving 40% to 50% of the plies. However, failure in laminates with 30 deg or 15 deg off-axis plies occured in several events. All laminates exhibited bimodular elastic properties. Using empirically determined flexural properties, a finite element analysis was reasonably accurate in predicting the static and dynamic deformation response.
2014 land cover land use horseshoe bend
Hanson, Jenny L.; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.
2016-01-01
This collection of conservation areas consists of the floodplain of the combined streams of the Iowa River and the Cedar River. The study area begins just southeast of Wapello, IA, and continues southeast until the Horseshoe Bend Division, Port Louisa NWR. The area is currently managed to maintain meadow or grassland habitat which requires intensive management due to vegetative succession. In addition, this floodplain area contains a high proportion of managed lands and private lands in the Wetland Reserve Program and is a high priority area for cooperative conservation actions. This project provides a late-summer baseline vegetation inventory to assess future management actions in an adaptive process. Changes in levees, in addition to increased water flows and flood events due to climate change and land use practices, make restoration of floodplain processes more complex. Predictive models could help determine more efficient and effective restoration and management techniques. Successful GIS tools developed for this project would be applicable to other floodplain refuges and conservation areas.
Bending strength of delaminated aerospace composites.
Kinawy, Moustafa; Butler, Richard; Hunt, Giles W
2012-04-28
Buckling-driven delamination is considered among the most critical failure modes in composite laminates. This paper examines the propagation of delaminations in a beam under pure bending. A pre-developed analytical model to predict the critical buckling moment of a thin sub-laminate is extended to account for propagation prediction, using mixed-mode fracture analysis. Fractography analysis is performed to distinguish between mode I and mode II contributions to the final failure of specimens. Comparison between experimental results and analysis shows agreement to within 5 per cent in static propagation moment for two different materials. It is concluded that static fracture is almost entirely driven by mode II effects. This result was unexpected because it arises from a buckling mode that opens the delamination. For this reason, and because of the excellent repeatability of the experiments, the method of testing may be a promising means of establishing the critical value of mode II fracture toughness, G(IIC), of the material. Fatigue testing on similar samples showed that buckled delamination resulted in a fatigue threshold that was over 80 per cent lower than the static propagation moment. Such an outcome highlights the significance of predicting snap-buckling moment and subsequent propagation for design purposes.
Bending fluidic actuator for smart structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Che-Ming Chang, Benjamin; Berring, John; Venkataram, Manu; Menon, Carlo; Parameswaran, M.
2011-03-01
This paper presents a novel silicone-based, millimeter-scale, bending fluidic actuator (BFA). Its unique parallel micro-channel design enables, for the first time, operation at low working pressure while at the same time having a very limited thickness expansion during pressurization. It also enables the actuator to have the highest ratios of angular displacement over length and torque over volume among previously proposed BFAs. In this work, this parallel micro-channel design is implemented by embedding the BFA with an innovative single winding conduit, which yields a simple, single-component configuration suitable for low-cost production and reliable performance. The BFA design can be easily scaled down to smaller dimensions and can be adapted to applications in restricted space, particularly minimally invasive surgery. In this work, the actuator is manufactured in TC-silicone through poly(methyl methacrylate) molds obtained by using laser cutting technology. Repeated angular displacement measurements on multiple prototypes having different stiffness are carried out. The experimental results are compared with an analytical model, which accurately predicts the performance of the device.
A photoelastic investigation of asymmetric four point bend shear test for composite materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prabhakaran, R.; Sawyer, W.
1986-01-01
The shear stress fringe value of orthotropic birefringent model materials is presently used in an asymmetric four-point bend test that employs a notched specimen and is a modification of the Iosipescu test (1967). While in the case of a unidirectionally reinforced glass-polyester model material, shear stress fringe values obtained from 90- and 120-deg (sharp and radiused) notches are reasonably close to the values obtained for an off-axis tensile specimen, no conclusions can be drawn on the influence of the notch parameters, due to the peculiarities of the photoelastic response of the inhomogeneous orthotropic model material. The failure modes nevertheless indicate that a notch radius, and the 120-deg notch angle, reduce the stress concentration. Comparisons are made with finite element results.
A Higher-Order Bending Theory for Laminated Composite and Sandwich Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, Geoffrey M.
1997-01-01
A higher-order bending theory is derived for laminated composite and sandwich beams. This is accomplished by assuming a special form for the axial and transverse displacement expansions. An independent expansion is also assumed for the transverse normal stress. Appropriate shear correction factors based on energy considerations are used to adjust the shear stiffness. A set of transverse normal correction factors is introduced, leading to significant improvements in the transverse normal strain and stress for laminated composite and sandwich beams. A closed-form solution to the cylindrical elasticity solutions for a wide range of beam aspect ratios and commonly used material systems. Accurate shear stresses for a wide range of laminates, including the challenging unsymmetric composite and sandwich laminates, are obtained using an original corrected integration scheme. For application of the theory to a wider range of problems, guidelines for finite element approximations are presented.
Fixed bending current for Elekta SL25 linear accelerators.
Kok, J G
2001-01-01
In a medical linear accelerator a bending magnet is used to bend the electron beam produced by the accelerator tube, in the treatment direction. For each electron energy the strength of the magnetic field has to be set to a specific level. Changing the magnetic field strength is done by changing the electric current through the bending magnet. When electron energy and magnetic field strength are not matched, performance of the linac can be affected. As electron energy, magneticfield strength and electrical current through the bending magnet are related to each other, it is reasonable to assume that for each electron energy the correct bending current can be predetermined. This calculated bending current reduces the number of variable parameters used to set up a treatment beam. Predetermining a variable simplifies the tuning procedures. It also prevents a deviation of the electron beam energy being compensated by variation of the bending current. Preventing false machine settings can contribute to increase linac performance and reduce down time and cost of ownership.
Free Energy Coupling between DNA Bending and Base Flipping.
Ma, Ning; van der Vaart, Arjan
2017-08-28
Free energy simulations are presented to probe the energetic coupling between DNA bending and the flipping of a central thymine in double stranded DNA 13mers. The energetics are shown to depend on the neighboring base pairs, and upstream C or T or downstream C tended to make flipping more costly. Flipping to the major groove side was generally preferred. Bending aids flipping, by pushing the system up in free energy, but for small and intermediate bending angles the two were uncorrelated. At higher bending angles, bending and flipping became correlated, and bending primed the system for base flipping toward the major groove. Flipping of the 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone and pyrimidine dimer photoproducts is shown to be more facile than for undamaged DNA. For the damages, major groove flipping was preferred, and DNA bending was much facilitated in the 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone damaged system. Aspects of the calculations were verified by structural analyses of protein-DNA complexes with flipped bases.
Analytical and Numerical Results for an Adhesively Bonded Joint Subjected to Pure Bending
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Lundgren, Eric
2006-01-01
A one-dimensional, semi-analytical methodology that was previously developed for evaluating adhesively bonded joints composed of anisotropic adherends and adhesives that exhibit inelastic material behavior is further verified in the present paper. A summary of the first-order differential equations and applied joint loading used to determine the adhesive response from the methodology are also presented. The method was previously verified against a variety of single-lap joint configurations from the literature that subjected the joints to cases of axial tension and pure bending. Using the same joint configuration and applied bending load presented in a study by Yang, the finite element analysis software ABAQUS was used to further verify the semi-analytical method. Linear static ABAQUS results are presented for two models, one with a coarse and one with a fine element meshing, that were used to verify convergence of the finite element analyses. Close agreement between the finite element results and the semi-analytical methodology were determined for both the shear and normal stress responses of the adhesive bondline. Thus, the semi-analytical methodology was successfully verified using the ABAQUS finite element software and a single-lap joint configuration subjected to pure bending.
Cooperative cluster formation, DNA bending and base-flipping by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase
Tessmer, Ingrid; Melikishvili, Manana; Fried, Michael G.
2012-01-01
O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) repairs mutagenic O6-alkylguanine and O4-alkylthymine adducts in DNA, protecting the genome and also contributing to the resistance of tumors to chemotherapeutic alkylating agents. AGT binds DNA cooperatively, and cooperative interactions are likely to be important in lesion search and repair. We examined morphologies of complexes on long, unmodified DNAs, using analytical ultracentrifugation and atomic force microscopy. AGT formed clusters of ≤11 proteins. Longer clusters, predicted by the McGhee–von Hippel model, were not seen even at high [protein]. Interestingly, torsional stress due to DNA unwinding has the potential to limit cluster size to the observed range. DNA at cluster sites showed bend angles (∼0, ∼30 and ∼60°) that are consistent with models in which each protein induces a bend of ∼30°. Distributions of complexes along the DNA are incompatible with sequence specificity but suggest modest preference for DNA ends. These properties tell us about environments in which AGT may function. Small cooperative clusters and the ability to accommodate a range of DNA bends allow function where DNA topology is constrained, such as near DNA-replication complexes. The low sequence specificity allows efficient and unbiased lesion search across the entire genome. PMID:22730295
Dancing Discs: Bending and Twisting of Soft Materials by Anisotropic Swelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmes, Douglas; Roché, Matthieu; Sinha, Tarun; Stone, Howard
2011-03-01
Soft materials, e.g. biological tissues and gels, undergo morphological changes, motion, and instabilities when subjected to external stimuli. Tissues can exhibit residual internal stresses induced by growth, and generate elastic deformations to move in response to light or touch, curl articular cartilage, aid in seed dispersal, and actuate hygromorphs, such as pine cones. Understanding the dynamics of such osmotically driven movements, in the influence of geometry and boundary conditions, is crucial to the controlled deformation of soft materials. We examine how thin elastic plates undergo rapid bending and buckling instabilities after anisotropic exposure to a favorable solvent that swells the network. An unconstrained beam bends along its length, while a circular disc bends and buckles with multiple curvatures. In the case of a disc, a large-amplitude transverse travelling wave rotates azimuthally around the disc. Theoretical interpretations inspired by the complementary thermal expansion problem of transient shape changes triggered by time-dependent heating are presented and allow collapse of time-dependent data on universal curves. Understanding the dynamics of strain-driven shape changes provides new insight into natural systems and control of advanced functional materials.
Assessment of Local Wall Thinned Pipeline Under Combined Bending and Pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shim, D. J.; Choi, J. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, J. W.; Park, C. Y.
Failure of a pipeline due to local wall thinning is getting more attention in the nuclear power plant industry. Although guidelines such as ANSI/ASME B31G are still useful for assessing the integrity of a wall thinned pipeline, there are some limitations in these guidelines. For instance, these guidelines consider only pressure loading and thus neglect bending loading. However, most pipelines in nuclear power plants are subjected to internal pressure and bending moment due to dead-weight loads and seismic loads. Therefore, an assessment procedure for locally wall thinned pipeline subjected to combined loading is needed. In this paper, three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses were performed to simulate full-scale pipe tests conducted for various shapes of wall thinned area under internal pressure and bending moment. Maximum moments based on true ultimate stress (σu,t) were obtain from FE results to predict the failure of the pipe. These results were compared with test results, which showed good agreement. Additional finite element analyses were performed to investigate the effect of key parameters, such as wall thinned depth, wall thinned angle and wall thinned length, on maximum moment. Also, the effect of internal pressure on maximum moment was investigated. Change of internal pressure did not show significant effect on the maximum moment.
Assumed strain formulation for the four-node quadrilateral with improved in-plane bending behaviour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stolarski, Henryk K.; Chen, Yung-I.
1995-04-01
A new assumed strain quadrilateral element with highly accurate in-plane bending behavior is presented for plane stress and plane strain analysis. The basic idea of the formulation consists in identification of various modes of deformation and then in proper modification of the strain field in some of these modes. In particular, the strain operator corresponding to the in-plane bending modes is modified to simulate the strain field resulting from the assumptions usually made in structural mechanics. The modification of the strain field leads to the assumed strain operator on the element level. As a result, the so-called shear and membrane locking phenomena are alleviated. The element exhibits remarkable success in bending-dominated problems even when severely distorted and high aspect ratio meshes are used. Another advantage of the present assumed strain element is that locking for nearly incompressible materials is also mitigated. While this assumed strain element passes the patch test only for the parallelogram shapes, the element provides convergent solutions as long as the initially general form of the element approaches a parallelogram shape with the refinement of the mesh.
The use of experimental bending tests to more accurate numerical description of TBC damage process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadowski, T.; Golewski, P.
2016-04-01
Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been extensively used in aircraft engines to protect critical engine parts such as blades and combustion chambers, which are exposed to high temperatures and corrosive environment. The blades of turbine engines are additionally exposed to high mechanical loads. These loads are created by the high rotational speed of the rotor (30 000 rot/min), causing the tensile and bending stresses. Therefore, experimental testing of coated samples is necessary in order to determine strength properties of TBCs. Beam samples with dimensions 50×10×2 mm were used in those studies. The TBC system consisted of 150 μm thick bond coat (NiCoCrAlY) and 300 μm thick top coat (YSZ) made by APS (air plasma spray) process. Samples were tested by three-point bending test with various loads. After bending tests, the samples were subjected to microscopic observation to determine the quantity of cracks and their depth. The above mentioned results were used to build numerical model and calibrate material data in Abaqus program. Brittle cracking damage model was applied for the TBC layer, which allows to remove elements after reaching criterion. Surface based cohesive behavior was used to model the delamination which may occur at the boundary between bond coat and top coat.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hooper, Steven J.
1989-01-01
Delamination is a common failure mode of laminated composite materials. This type of failure frequently occurs at the free edges of laminates where singular interlaminar stresses are developed due to the difference in Poisson's ratios between adjacent plies. Typically the delaminations develop between 90 degree plies and adjacent angle plies. Edge delamination has been studied by several investigators using a variety of techniques. Recently, Chan and Ochoa applied the quasi-three-dimensional finite element model to the analysis of a laminate subject to bending, extension, and torsion. This problem is of particular significance relative to the structural integrity of composite helicopter rotors. The task undertaken was to incorporate Chan and Ochoa's formulation into a Raju Q3DG program. The resulting program is capable of modeling extension, bending, and torsional mechanical loadings as well as thermal and hygroscopic loadings. The addition of the torsional and bending loading capability will provide the capability to perform a delamination analysis of a general unsymmetric laminate containing four cracks, each of a different length. The solutions obtained using this program are evaluated by comparing them with solutions from a full three-dimensional finite element solution. This comparison facilitates the assessment of three dimensional affects such as the warping constraint imposed by the load frame grips. It wlso facilitates the evaluation of the external load representation employed in the Q3D formulation. Finally, strain energy release rates computed from the three-dimensional results are compared with those predicted using the quasi-three-dimensional formulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nestola, Yago; Storti, Fabrizio; Cavozzi, Cristian; Magistroni, Corrado; Meda, Marco; Piero Righetti, Fabrizio
2016-04-01
Structural inheritance plays a fundamental role during crustal deformation because pre-existing fault and shear zones typically provide weakness zone suitable to fail again when affected by a new regional stress field. Re-activation of structural inheritance is expected to unavoidably increase the complexity of structural architectures, whose geometric and kinematic patterns can significantly deviate from what expected in newly deformed crustal sectors. Availability of templates from analogue models can provide a very effective tool to help unraveling such a structural complexity. For this purpose, we simulated the reworking of a set of basement hosted pre-existing fault zones at strike-slip restraining fault bends. In the models, the mechanical stratigraphy consists of a basement, made of a mixture of dry kaolin and sand to slightly increase cohesion, and a sedimentary cover made by pure dry sand. Inherited fault zones are confined to the basement and coated by a thin veneer of silicone putty. In the experimental programme, the geometry of the left-lateral restraining bend is maintained the same, with a bending angle of 30° of the restraining fault segment. The strike of the inherited fault zones, measured counterclockwise with respect to that of the master strike-slip fault zone outside the restraining bend, was 0°, 30°, and 60° in different experiments, respectively. An end member experiment without inheritance was also run for comparison. Our experimental results show that the angle that the inherited fault zones make with the restraining bend plays a fundamental role in governing the deformation pattern. When structural inheritance is near parallel to the master strike-slip fault zone, synthetic shears form and severely compartmentalize the transpressional pop-up anticline growing on top of the restraining bend. Fault-bounded blocks undergo sinistral escape during transpression. On the other hand, when structural inheritance makes a high angle to the
Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.
2012-09-01
The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of
Is the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend Coeval for all Pacific Seamount Trails?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koppers, A. A.; Staudigel, H.
2004-12-01
By far the largest number of hotspots can be found in the South Pacific Thermal and Isotopic Anomaly (SOPITA). Its Cretaceous counterpart is preserved in a large range of seamounts and guyots found in the West Pacific Seamount Province (WPSP). The seamounts in these regions display very distinct and long-lived isotopic signatures (Staudigel et al., 1991; Koppers et al., 2003) that can be used to combine source region chemistry and seamount geochronology to map out mantle melting anomalies over geological time. These mappings may resolve many important questions regarding the stationary character, continuity and longevity of the hotspots in the South Pacific mantle. Most importantly, it may also answer the question whether the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend (HEB) is coeval for all Pacific Seamount trails at 47 Ma? Fixed hotspots should be expressed in volcanic trails on the lithospheric plates revealing absolute rates of motion from their age progressions and the direction of motion based on their azimuths. By definition, bends in these hotspot trails thus should give an indication of changing plate motion happening simultaneously across individual lithospheric plates. Based on the morphology of seamounts in the Pacific, the Hawaiian-Emperor, Louisville, Gilbert Ridge and Tokelau seamount trails may be identified as the only hotspot trails to exhibit a clear HEB-type bend (Kroenke et al. 2004). Of these, the Louisville seamount trail only displays a faint bend that may be coeval with the sharp 60 degree bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor trail (Koppers et al. 2004) at 47 Ma. However, new 40Ar/39Ar analyses indicate that the HEB-type bends in the Gilberts Ridge and Tokelau seamount trails are asynchronous around 67 Ma and 57 Ma, respectively. We argue, therefore, that plate motion alone cannot explain these age systematics, but that both hotspot motion and changing lithospheric stress regimes may play an important role in their creation. The simple and elegant hotspot model that
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathieson, Haley Aaron
This thesis investigates experimentally and analytically the structural performance of sandwich panels composed of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins and a soft polyurethane foam core, with or without thin GFRP ribs connecting skins. The study includes three main components: (a) out-of-plane bending fatigue, (b) axial compression loading, and (c) in-plane bending of sandwich beams. Fatigue studies included 28 specimens and looked into establishing service life (S-N) curves of sandwich panels without ribs, governed by soft core shear failure and also ribbed panels governed by failure at the rib-skin junction. Additionally, the study compared fatigue life curves of sandwich panels loaded under fully reversed bending conditions (R=-1) with panels cyclically loaded in one direction only (R=0) and established the stiffness degradation characteristics throughout their fatigue life. Mathematical models expressing fatigue life and stiffness degradation curves were calibrated and expanded forms for various loading ratios were developed. Approximate fatigue thresholds of 37% and 23% were determined for non-ribbed panels loaded at R=0 and -1, respectively. Digital imaging techniques showed significant shear contribution significantly (90%) to deflections if no ribs used. Axial loading work included 51 specimens and examined the behavior of panels of various lengths (slenderness ratios), skin thicknesses, and also panels of similar length with various rib configurations. Observed failure modes governing were global buckling, skin wrinkling or skin crushing. In-plane bending involved testing 18 sandwich beams of various shear span-to-depth ratios and skin thicknesses, which failed by skin wrinkling at the compression side. The analytical modeling components of axially loaded panels include; a simple design-oriented analytical failure model and a robust non-linear model capable of predicting the full load-displacement response of axially loaded slender sandwich panels
Cast-stone sectors for lining bends in pipework
Chechulin, V.A.; Novikov, A.I.; Karpov, V.M.; Sotnik, A.A.; Sedyshev, B.L.
1987-03-01
The authors disclose an efficient method for lining the bends of pipelines used to deliver coal dust to the burners of coal-fired power plants or to transport coal slurries in mining and preparation enterprises. The method consists of melting a wear-resistant silicate compound and casting it in the form of rings whose increased width on the outboard side accounts for the angle of the bend when the rings are installed consecutively inside the pipe. Enhanced service life estimations and cost benefit analyses are given for pipe bends thus lined in both of the above applications.
Buffers affect the bending rigidity of model lipid membranes.
Bouvrais, Hélène; Duelund, Lars; Ipsen, John H
2014-01-14
In biophysical and biochemical studies of lipid bilayers the influence of the used buffer is often ignored or assumed to be negligible on membrane structure, elasticity, or physical properties. However, we here present experimental evidence, through bending rigidity measurements performed on giant vesicles, of a more complex behavior, where the buffering molecules may considerably affect the bending rigidity of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Furthermore, a synergistic effect on the bending modulus is observed in the presence of both salt and buffer molecules, which serves as a warning to experimentalists in the data interpretation of their studies, since typical lipid bilayer studies contain buffer and ion molecules.
Nonlocal membrane bending: a reflection, the facts and its relevance.
Svetina, S; Žekš, B
2014-06-01
About forty years ago it was realized that phospholipid membranes, because they are composed of two layers, exhibit particular, and specific mechanical properties. This led to the concept of nonlocal membrane bending, often called area difference elasticity. We present a short history of the development of the concept, followed by arguments for a proper definition of the corresponding elastic constant. The effects of the nonlocal bending energy on vesicle shape are explained. It is demonstrated that lipid vesicles, cells and cellular aggregates exhibit phenomena that can only be described in a complete manner by considering nonlocal bending. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
"Bending the cost curve" in gastroenterology.
Slattery, E; Harewood, G C; Murray, F; Patchett, S
2013-12-01
Increasing attention is being focused on reigning in escalating costs of healthcare, i.e. trying to 'bend the cost curve'. In gastroenterology (GI), inpatient hospital care represents a major component of overall costs. This study aimed to characterize the trend in cost of care for GI-related hospitalizations in recent years and to identify the most costly diagnostic groups. All hospital inpatients admitted between January 2008 and December 2009 with a primary diagnosis of one of the six most common GI-related Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) in this hospital system were identified; all DRGs contained at least 40 patients during the study period. Patient Level Costing (PLC) was used to express the total cost of hospital care for each patient; PLC comprised a weighted daily bed cost plus cost of all medical services provided (e.g., radiology, pathology tests) calculated according to an activity-based costing approach; cost of medications were excluded. All costs were discounted to 2009 values. Mean length of stay (LOS) was also calculated for each DRG. Over 2 years, 470 patients were admitted with one of the six most common GI DRGs. Mean cost of care increased from 2008 to 2009 for all six DRGs with the steepest increases seen in 'GI hemorrhage (non-complex)' (31 % increase) and 'Cirrhosis/Alcoholic hepatitis (non-complex)' (45 % increase). No differences in readmission rates were observed over time. There was a strong correlation between year-to-year change in costs and change in mean LOS, r = 0.93. The cost of GI-related inpatient care appears to be increasing in recent years with the steepest increases observed in non-complex GI hemorrhage and non-complex Cirrhosis/Alcoholic hepatitis. Efforts to control the increasing costs should focus on these diagnostic categories.
Realistic loading conditions for upper body bending.
Rohlmann, A; Zander, T; Rao, M; Bergmann, G
2009-05-11
Different modes of load applications are used to simulate flexion and extension of the upper body. It is not clear which loading modes deliver realistic results and allow the comparison of different studies. In a numerical study, a validated finite element model of the lumbar spine, ranging from the vertebra L1 to the disc L5-S1 was employed. Each of six different loading modes was studied for simulating flexion and extension, including pure moments, an eccentric axial force, using a wedged fixture, and applying upper body weight plus follower load plus muscle forces. Intersegmental rotations, intradiscal pressures and facet joint contact forces were calculated. Where possible, results were compared to data measured in vivo. The results of the loading modes studied show a large variance for some values. Outcome measures such as flexion angle and intradiscal pressure differed at a segment by up to 44% and 88%, respectively, related to their maximum values. Intradiscal pressure is mainly determined by the magnitude of the applied compressive force. For flexion maximum contact forces between 0 and 69 N are predicted in each facet joint for different loading modes. For both flexion and extension, applying upper body weight plus follower load plus muscle forces as well as a follower load together with a bending moment delivers results which agreed well with in vivo data from the literature. Choosing an adequate loading mode is important in spine biomechanics when realistic results are required for intersegmental rotations, intradiscal pressure and facet joint contact forces. Only then will results of different studies be comparable.
Lithospheric bending at subduction zones based on depth soundings and satellite gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levitt, Daniel A.; Sandwell, David T.
1995-01-01
A global study of trench flexure was performed by simultaneously modeling 117 bathymetric profiles (original depth soundings) and satellite-derived gravity profiles. A thin, elastic plate flexure model was fit to each bathymetry/gravity profile by minimization of the L(sub 1) norm. The six model parameters were regional depth, regional gravity, trench axis location, flexural wavelength, flexural amplitude, and lithospheric density. A regional tilt parameter was not required after correcting for age-related trend using a new high-resolution age map. Estimates of the density parameter confirm that most outer rises are uncompensated. We find that flexural wavelength is not an accurate estimate of plate thickness because of the high curvatures observed at a majority of trenches. As in previous studies, we find that the gravity data favor a longer-wavelength flexure than the bathymetry data. A joint topography-gravity modeling scheme and fit criteria are used to limit acceptable parameter values to models for which topography and gravity yield consistent results. Even after the elastic thicknesses are converted to mechanical thicknesses using the yield strength envelope model, residual scatter obscures the systematic increase of mechanical thickness with age; perhaps this reflects the combination of uncertainties inherent in estimating flexural wavelength, such as extreme inelastic bending and accumulated thermoelastic stress. The bending moment needed to support the trench and outer rise topography increases by a factor of 10 as lithospheric age increases from 20 to 150 Ma; this reflects the increase in saturation bending moment that the lithosphere can maintain. Using a stiff, dry-olivine rheology, we find that the lithosphere of the GDH1 thermal model (Stein and Stein, 1992) is too hot and thin to maintain the observed bending moments. Moreover, the regional depth seaward of the oldest trenches (approximately 150 Ma) exceeds the GDH1 model depths by about 400 m.
Lithospheric bending at subduction zones based on depth soundings and satellite gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levitt, Daniel A.; Sandwell, David T.
1995-01-01
A global study of trench flexure was performed by simultaneously modeling 117 bathymetric profiles (original depth soundings) and satellite-derived gravity profiles. A thin, elastic plate flexure model was fit to each bathymetry/gravity profile by minimization of the L(sub 1) norm. The six model parameters were regional depth, regional gravity, trench axis location, flexural wavelength, flexural amplitude, and lithospheric density. A regional tilt parameter was not required after correcting for age-related trend using a new high-resolution age map. Estimates of the density parameter confirm that most outer rises are uncompensated. We find that flexural wavelength is not an accurate estimate of plate thickness because of the high curvatures observed at a majority of trenches. As in previous studies, we find that the gravity data favor a longer-wavelength flexure than the bathymetry data. A joint topography-gravity modeling scheme and fit criteria are used to limit acceptable parameter values to models for which topography and gravity yield consistent results. Even after the elastic thicknesses are converted to mechanical thicknesses using the yield strength envelope model, residual scatter obscures the systematic increase of mechanical thickness with age; perhaps this reflects the combination of uncertainties inherent in estimating flexural wavelength, such as extreme inelastic bending and accumulated thermoelastic stress. The bending moment needed to support the trench and outer rise topography increases by a factor of 10 as lithospheric age increases from 20 to 150 Ma; this reflects the increase in saturation bending moment that the lithosphere can maintain. Using a stiff, dry-olivine rheology, we find that the lithosphere of the GDH1 thermal model (Stein and Stein, 1992) is too hot and thin to maintain the observed bending moments. Moreover, the regional depth seaward of the oldest trenches (approximately 150 Ma) exceeds the GDH1 model depths by about 400 m.
Advantages of customer/supplier involvement in the upgrade of River Bend`s IST program
Womack, R.L.; Addison, J.A.
1996-12-01
At River Bend Station, IST testing had problems. Operations could not perform the test with the required repeatability; engineering could not reliably trend test data to detect degradation; licensing was heavily burdened with regulatory concerns; and maintenance could not do preventative maintenance because of poor prediction of system health status. Using Energy`s Total Quality principles, it was determined that the causes were: lack of ownership, inadequate test equipment usage, lack of adequate procedures, and lack of program maintenance. After identifying the customers and suppliers of the IST program data, Energy management put together an upgrade team to address these concerns. These customers and suppliers made up the IST upgrade team. The team`s mission was to supply River Bend with a reliable, functional, industry correct and user friendly IST program. The IST program in place went through a verification process that identified and corrected over 400 individual program discrepancies. Over 200 components were identified for improved testing methods. An IST basis document was developed. The operations department was trained on ASME Section XI testing. All IST tests have been simplified and shortened, due to heavy involvement by operations in the procedure development process. This significantly reduced testing time, resulting in lower cost, less dose and greater system availability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, L. Y.; Singh, D.; Shetty, D. K.
1988-01-01
A numerical computational study was carried out to assess the effects of subcritical crack growth on crack stability in the chevron-notched three-point bend specimens. A power-law relationship between the subcritical crack velocity and the applied stress intensity were used along with compliance and stress-intensity relationships for the chevron-notched bend specimen to calculate the load response under fixed deflection rate and a machine compliance. The results indicate that the maximum load during the test occurs at the same crack length for all the deflection rates; the maximum load, however, is dependent on the deflection rate for rates below the critical rate. The resulting dependence of the apparent fracture toughness on the deflection rate is compared to experimental results on soda-lime glass and polycrystalline alumina.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, L. Y.; Singh, D.; Shetty, D. K.
1988-01-01
A numerical computational study was carried out to assess the effects of subcritical crack growth on crack stability in the chevron-notched three-point bend specimens. A power-law relationship between the subcritical crack velocity and the applied stress intensity were used along with compliance and stress-intensity relationships for the chevron-notched bend specimen to calculate the load response under fixed deflection rate and a machine compliance. The results indicate that the maximum load during the test occurs at the same crack length for all the deflection rates; the maximum load, however, is dependent on the deflection rate for rates below the critical rate. The resulting dependence of the apparent fracture toughness on the deflection rate is compared to experimental results on soda-lime glass and polycrystalline alumina.
9. NORTH SIDE, FROM A BOAT. THE TWO BENDING SHOP ...
9. NORTH SIDE, FROM A BOAT. THE TWO BENDING SHOP AND OVEN BUILDINGS ARE VISIBLE AT THE RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA
Research on wood bending in a macrosonic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Filipovici, J.; Mihai, D.; Mihai, S.; Dragan, O.; Ciovica, S.
1974-01-01
Woodworking often requires the wood to be bent into different shapes. In view of the fact that macrosonic waves compress and expand the medium through which they are being propagated we assumed that wood subjected to the action of these waves during the bending process would have enhanced plasticity as a result of the loosening-up that takes place in it, as well as of the reduction in effort. To this effect, the bending of wood plasticized in a macrosonic field was studied. This bending took place under good conditions, and structural analyses conducted with the aid of an electron microscope proved initial premises to be corrent. Applied on an industrial scale, this procedure would contribute to improving the technology of wood bending as well as to eliminating factory spoilage.
VIEW OF NORTHWEST BEND IN BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING WEST ...
VIEW OF NORTHWEST BEND IN BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI
Bending of multiwalled carbon nanotubes over gold lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walkeajärvi, T.; Lievonen, J.; Ahlskog, M.; Åström, J.; Koshio, A.; Yudasaka, M.; Iijima, S.
2005-11-01
We have investigated an experimentally moderate bending of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in the perpendicular direction from flat substrates. The tubes were in the diameter range of 3-13nm and deposited over lithographically fabricated gold lines whose height determined the total bending. In our model for the bending profile we take into account the van der Waals attraction between the substrate and the MWNT and the opposing elastic bending force. With reasonable parameters for the competing forces we obtain an agreement between the model and the experimental data for the critical distance between two adjacent lines when the van der Waals attraction can no longer prevent elastic forces from straightening the tube to a suspended position between the lines. However, for the smallest nanotubes a simple classical model is clearly insufficient.
Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph
1996-01-01
Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study, the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.
A soft stretchable bending sensor and data glove applications.
Shen, Zhong; Yi, Juan; Li, Xiaodong; Lo, Mark Hin Pei; Chen, Michael Z Q; Hu, Yong; Wang, Zheng
2016-01-01
Soft sensors are required to accommodate the flexible and deformable natures of the human body in wearable device applications. They are also suitable for integration with soft robotic devices to monitor the performance status and provide references for feedback control. However, the choices for bending sensors are still highly limited. In this paper, a soft bending sensor is presented. By careful design with a blend of sensitive and insensitive regions, the sensor could be stretchable while being insensitive to stretching. An analytical study was presented on how to design the sensor with the named bending/stretching feature. This feature enables the sensor to be implemented in measuring human motions where a large amount of skin stretch is involved. Two sensor gloves were designed and fabricated based on the proposed soft bending sensor, aiming for different application scenarios. Both the sensor and the gloves were evaluated using a dedicated evaluation platform with experimental results compared against each other.
Plastic optical fibre sensor for spine bending monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zawawi, M. A.; O'Keeffe, S.; Lewis, E.
2013-06-01
This paper presents a study on the application of plastic optical fibre for spine bending monitoring based on an intensity modulation. The bending angle is measured as the angle between the emitting and receiving fibres is changed. The measured light attenuation is compared with a theoretical evaluation and the differences between these values are discussed. It was found that the light attenuation for the light intensity agreed well (margin of error < 15%) with the theoretical value for the range between 180° (representing no bend) and 200° and it was significantly increased for the bending angle beyond that value due to the effect of fibre gap increment which resulted in a less reliable experimental estimation.
Thickness-dependent bending modulus of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets.
Li, Chun; Bando, Yoshio; Zhi, Chunyi; Huang, Yang; Golberg, Dmitri
2009-09-23
Bending modulus of exfoliation-made single-crystalline hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) with thicknesses of 25-300 nm and sizes of 1.2-3.0 microm were measured using three-point bending tests in an atomic force microscope. BNNSs suspended on an SiO(2) trench were clamped by a metal film via microfabrication based on electron beam lithography. Calculated by the plate theory of a doubly clamped plate under a concentrated load, the bending modulus of BNNSs was found to increase with the decrease of sheet thickness and approach the theoretical C(33) value of a hexagonal BN single crystal in thinner sheets (thickness<50 nm). The thickness-dependent bending modulus was suggested to be due to the layer distribution of stacking faults which were also thought to be responsible for the layer-by-layer BNNS exfoliation.
Bending properties of carbon nanotubes encapsulating solid nanowires.
Danailov, D; Keblinski, P; Nayak, S; Ajayan, P M
2002-10-01
Using empirical potentials and atomistic simulations, we model three-point bend tests of single-walled carbon nanotubes encapsulating metal nanowires. The presence of a metal nanowire inside the nanotube greatly suppresses the tube-buckling instability. Increasing tube diameter leads to an increase in the bending strength; however, in contrast to hollow tubes, there is no decrease in the maximum deflection before buckling. Analysis of the principal bending vibrational mode shows a lowering of the frequency, associated with increased tube inertia. Remarkably, metal-filled tubes exhibit strong damping of oscillations whereas unfilled single-walled and multiwalled tubes show no damping. Our studies demonstrate the benefits of filling tubes with solids to modify bending strength and flexibility, suggesting applications for nanotube-based elements in micromechanical devices or nanoprobes.
Thickness-dependent bending modulus of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chun; Bando, Yoshio; Zhi, Chunyi; Huang, Yang; Golberg, Dmitri
2009-09-01
Bending modulus of exfoliation-made single-crystalline hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) with thicknesses of 25-300 nm and sizes of 1.2-3.0 µm were measured using three-point bending tests in an atomic force microscope. BNNSs suspended on an SiO2 trench were clamped by a metal film via microfabrication based on electron beam lithography. Calculated by the plate theory of a doubly clamped plate under a concentrated load, the bending modulus of BNNSs was found to increase with the decrease of sheet thickness and approach the theoretical C33 value of a hexagonal BN single crystal in thinner sheets (thickness<50 nm). The thickness-dependent bending modulus was suggested to be due to the layer distribution of stacking faults which were also thought to be responsible for the layer-by-layer BNNS exfoliation.
The Stabilizing Effect of Bending-Under-Tension
Emmens, W. C.; Boogaard, A. H. van den
2011-05-04
A well know effect is that work hardening can stabilize tension processes, as can be shown by the so-called maximum force condition. It is not well known that bending-under-tension can have a similar effect, namely that it can create a situation where the tension force increases with elongation therefore stabilizing the process. This happens in situations where the bending is so severe that the fibers at the inner side are in compression. This mechanism is explained. In cases where the bending radius is constant, for example determined by a tool, the created stable elongation is proportional to the thickness of the material. In cases where the radius is not constant but results from an equilibrium between pulling force and bending moment the situation is more complex. The situations are analyzed by a simple model and successfully verified with experimental results.
Magnetostrictive bending micro-actuator using iron gallium-alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ueno, Toshiyuki; Higuchi, Toshiro
2007-04-01
We investigate a micro bending actuator based on unimorph, lamination of Galfenol (Iron-gallium alloy) and non-magnetic material. Galfenol C-shape yoke bonded with stainless plates (lamination) is wound coils, and is composed close magnetic loop with connected an iron plate. The magnetostriction in longitude direction is constrained by the stainless, thus, the laminations yield bending deformation with the current flowing. The advantage of the actuator is simple, compact and ease of assembling including winding coil, and high tolerance against bending, tensile and impact. We machined the yoke from a plate of 1mm thickness of polycrystalline Galfenol (Fe 81.4Ga 18.6 Research grade) using ultra high precision cutting technique. The prototype, thickness of 1mm and length of 10mm, was observed the displacement 13μm and 1st resonance at 1.6 kHz, and the high bending (tensile) tolerance withstanding suspended weight of 500g.
Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph
1996-01-01
Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study, the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.
Effect of size on bending strength of wood members
Billy Bohannan
1966-01-01
This paper discusses the assumptions used in the statistical theory of strength, shows the application of the theory to wood bending members, and gives a comparison between theory and actual data for wood beams.
Magnetically Assisted Bilayer Composites for Soft Bending Actuators
Jang, Sung-Hwan; Na, Seon-Hong; Park, Yong-Lae
2017-01-01
This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward one side of the structure. The nonhomogeneous distribution of the particles induces bending of the structure when inflated, as a result of asymmetric stiffness of the composite. The bilayer composites were then characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The bending performance and the axial expansion of the actuator were discussed for manipulation applications in soft robotics and bioengineering. The magnetically assisted manufacturing process for the soft bending actuator is a promising technique for various applications in soft robotics. PMID:28773007
Xing, Libo; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Caiping; Li, Youmei; Ma, Juanjuan; An, Na; Han, Mingyu
2016-02-01
Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees plays an important life cycle role, but young trees produce fewer and inferior quality flower buds. Therefore, shoot bending has become an important cultural practice, significantly promoting the capacity to develop more flower buds during the growing seasons. Additionally, microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in plant growth, flower induction and stress responses. In this study, we identified miRNAs potentially involved in the regulation of bud growth, and flower induction and development, as well as in the response to shoot bending. Of the 195 miRNAs identified, 137 were novel miRNAs. The miRNA expression profiles revealed that the expression levels of 68 and 27 known miRNAs were down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively, in response to shoot bending, and that the 31 differentially expressed novel miRNAs between them formed five major clusters. Additionally, a complex regulatory network associated with auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) plays important roles in cell division, bud growth and flower induction, in which related miRNAs and targets mediated regulation. Among them, miR396, 160, 393, and their targets associated with AUX, miR159, 319, 164, and their targets associated with ABA and GA, and flowering-related miRNAs and genes, regulate bud growth and flower bud formation in response to shoot bending. Meanwhile, the flowering genes had significantly higher expression levels during shoot bending, suggesting that they are involved in this regulatory process. This study provides a framework for the future analysis of miRNAs associated with multiple hormones and their roles in the regulation of bud growth, and flower induction and formation in response to shoot bending in apple trees. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Echocardiography stress test; Stress test - echocardiography; CAD - stress echocardiography; Coronary artery disease - stress echocardiography; Chest pain - stress echocardiography; Angina - stress ...
Bending strength studies on hot-pressed silicon carbide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kriegesmann, J.
1984-01-01
The 4-point bending strength of 4 grades of hot-pressed SiC was determined at different temperatures. With a transgranular mode of fracture the values for bending strength are retained up to high temperatures. For intergranular fracture the decrease of strength is governed by subcritical crack growth. The intergranular fracture is caused by a high content of silicate glassy phase at the grain boundaries of hot-pressed SiC.
Theory of bending waves with applications to disk galaxies
Mark, J.W.K.
1982-01-01
A theory of bending waves is surveyed which provides an explanation for the required amplification of the warp in the Milky Way. It also provides for self-generated warps in isolated external galaxies. The shape of observed warps and partly their existence in isolated galaxies are indicative of substantial spheroidal components. The theory also provides a plausible explanation for the bending of the inner disk (<2 kpc) of the Milky Way.
Bending effect on fiber acousto-optic mode coupling.
Zhao, Jianhui; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yan; Luo, Ye
2005-08-20
The acousto-optic effect in a bent fiber is studied experimentally and numerically by using the scalar finite-element method. The resulting transmission spectra show that new mode-coupling peaks appear due to the breaking of the mode spatial symmetry. The strength of new peaks increases as the fiber-bending curvature increases with a redshift or blueshift in wavelength, strongly depending on the orientation of fiber bending with respect to the acoustic-wave vibration direction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baikova, L. G.; Pesina, T. I.; Mansyrev, E. I.; Kireenko, M. F.; Tikhonova, L. V.
2017-01-01
We consider the problem of asymmetric strain and stress distribution in silica fiber under threepoint bending. The parameters of nonlinear elasticity of silica glass under tension and compression are estimated using available data from the literature. It has been found that consideration of the nonlinear elasticity of silica glass leads to a slight increase in the calculated values of strength compared to the data obtained from estimates based on the linear theory of elasticity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babuscu Yesil, U.
2017-05-01
The effect of combined own weight and a prestretching load on stress and displacement distributions around a circular hole in a composite plate-strip subjected to bending is investigated using the three-dimensional linearized theory of elasticity. The corresponding boundary-value problems are solved numerically by the finite-element method. It is found that the own weight of the plate-strip affects these distributions considerably.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerasimchuk, O. N.; Gorodetskij, S. S.; Gryaznov, B. A.; Nalimov, Yu. S.
1994-04-01
Programs of a block loading with a prescribed and random alternation of stress amplitudes, simulating service load spectra, are presented. The results of fatigue testing of straight and bent tubular structural elements are given. A conclusion is drawn that low fatigue strength of VNS25 steel bent TSEs is due to an unfavorable technological inheritance of the tube bending and deplanation of the section during the test.
A cylindrical standing wave ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducer.
Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun
2011-07-01
A cylindrical standing wave ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducer was proposed in this paper. The proposed stator contains a cylinder and a bending vibration transducer. The two combining sites between the cylinder and the transducer locate at the adjacent wave loops of bending vibration of the transducer and have a distance that equal to the half wave length of bending standing wave excited in the cylinder. Thus, the bending mode of the cylinder can be excited by the bending vibration of the transducer. Two circular cone type rotors are pressed in contact to the end rims of the teeth, and the preload between the rotors and stator is accomplished by a spring and nut system. The working principle of the proposed motor was analyzed. The motion trajectories of teeth were deduced. The stator was designed and analyzed with FEM. A prototype motor was fabricated and measured. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 165rpm and maximum torque of 0.45Nm at an exciting voltage of 200V(rms).
Active Bending Electric Endoscope Using Shape Memory Alloy Coil Actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makishi, Wataru; Matsunaga, Tadao; Esashi, Masayoshi; Haga, Yoichi
Bending motions of the tip of a conventional endoscope are controlled from outside the body by wire traction. A shaft of an endoscope should be relatively hard to avoid buckling by wire traction. Therefore, precise operation of the endoscope is difficult in complex shape areas such as the intestine. Furthermore, patients suffer pain during a procedure with an endoscope. An active bending electric endoscope using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators has been developed. A CCD camera (410,000 pixels) is mounted at the end of the endoscope and the tip has an omni-directional bending mechanism using three SMA coil actuators. The SMA coil actuators contract by supplying electrical current and bend the endoscope. The external diameter of the fabricated endoscope is 5.5 mm. The maximum bending angle of the fabricated endoscope is 90° (Curvature radius: 29 mm). The observation of the inside of a blood vessel model by the CCD imager of a fabricated endoscope was confirmed. The active bending shaft of the fabricated endoscope, which is realized using SMA coil actuators instead of wire traction, is soft. Therefore, using this endoscope, it may be possible to perform precise observations and treatment of deep areas of the human body.
ACHRO: A program to help design achromatic bends
Rusthoi, D.
1993-01-01
ACHRO is a very simple 2000-line. FORTRAN code that provides help for the designer of the achromatic bend. Given a beam momentum, the program calculates the required drift lengths and dipole parameters which it will apply to any one of several different types of achromats. The types of achromats that the code helps to design include the Enge dual-270,'' the Brown 2-dipole, the Leboutet 3-dipole, and the Enge 4-dipole, as well as the periodic systems which can be designed to any order in symmetric, nonsymmetric and stair-step varieties. Given the dimensions into which a bend must fit, ACHRO will calculate the geometrical parameters in an X-Y plane for a single or multiple achromat, and for achromatic S-bend'' configurations where possible. ACHRO makes it very easy to optimize a bend with respect to drift lengths and magnet parameters by allowing the user to change parameter values and see the resulting calculation. Used in conjunction with a beam-transport code, ACHRO makes it possible for a designer to consider various types of achromatic bends in the same beamline layout in order to compare important bend characteristics such as dispersion, Isochronicity, sensitivity, geometric and chromatic aberrations, aperture requirements, space for diagnostics, etc., all of which are largely a function of the geometry and the type of achromat selected.
Bending of Light in Modified Gravity at Large Distances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2012-01-01
We discuss the bending of light in a recent model for gravity at large distances containing a Rindler type acceleration proposed by Grumiller. We consider the static, spherically symmetric metric with cosmological constant and Rindler-like term 2ar presented in this model, and we use the procedure by Rindler and Ishak. to obtain the bending angle of light in this metric. Earlier work on light bending in this model by Carloni, Grumiller, and Preis, using the method normally employed for asymptotically flat space-times, led to a conflicting result (caused by the Rindler-like term in the metric) of a bending angle that increases with the distance of closest approach r(sub 0) of the light ray from the centrally concentrated spherically symmetric matter distribution. However, when using the alternative approach for light bending in nonasymptotically flat space-times, we show that the linear Rindler-like term produces a small correction to the general relativistic result that is inversely proportional to r(sub 0). This will in turn affect the bounds on Rindler acceleration obtained earlier from light bending and casts doubts on the nature of the linear term 2ar in the metric
Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III
2000-01-01
An analytical, parametric study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers or edge effects in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated thin cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize and quantify the effects of laminate orthotropy and laminate anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general and encompassing manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all the laminate constructions considered, the results show that the differences between results that were obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that in some cases neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and in other cases it results in an overestimation.
Variations in epidural catheter manufacture: implications for bending and stiffness.
Eckmann, David M
2003-01-01
There is no formal evaluation method used to relate epidural catheter design and manufacture to clinical outcomes, such as subarachnoid or intravascular catheter placement. We analyzed catheter bending stiffness to determine the range of stiffness of catheters commonly used. We hypothesized that catheter material has a greater influence on stiffness than does cross-sectional shape. We determined the elastic modulus by axial load testing and the area moment of inertia using calibrated microscopic measurements of cross-sectional geometry for 6 different catheter types, including 2 types of wire styletted catheters. We calculated bending stiffness as the product of the elastic modulus and the area moment of inertia. Catheters had similar area moments of inertia, but markedly different elastic moduli. Nylon and polyurethane catheters had the same bending stiffness, which was twice as high as that of coil reinforced catheters (P <.05), but 35% lower than that of radiopaque catheters (P <.05). Nylon and radiopaque wire styletted catheters had similar bending stiffness, which were 23-fold to 90-fold greater than that of the nonstyletted catheters (P <.05). Catheters currently available establish the range of bending stiffness that should not be exceeded, only optimized to clinical outcome. Clinical studies are needed to correlate the incidence of unintentional intravascular or subarachnoid catheter placement or migration and bending stiffness. Catheter technology improvements may enhance safety and increase the likelihood of successful catheter insertion, maintenance, and removal.
Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III
2000-01-01
A study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all laminates considered, the results show that the differences between results obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that, in some cases, neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and, in other cases, results in an overestimation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schöpfer, Martin; Lehner, Florian; Grasemann, Bernhard; Kaserer, Klemens; Hinsch, Ralph
2017-04-01
John G. Ramsay's sketch of structures developed in a layer progressively folded and deformed by tangential longitudinal strain (Figure 7-65 in Folding and Fracturing of Rocks) and the associated strain pattern analysis have been reproduced in many monographs on Structural Geology and are referred to in numerous publications. Although the origin of outer-arc extension fractures is well-understood and documented in many natural examples, geomechanical factors controlling their (finite or saturation) spacing are hitherto unexplored. This study investigates the formation of bending-induced fractures during constant-curvature forced folding using Distinct Element Method (DEM) numerical modelling. The DEM model comprises a central brittle layer embedded within weaker (low modulus) elastic layers; the layer interfaces are frictionless (free slip). Folding of this three-layer system is enforced by a velocity boundary condition at the model base, while a constant overburden pressure is maintained at the model top. The models illustrate several key stages of fracture array development: (i) Prior to the onset of fracture, the neutral surface is located midway between the layer boundaries; (ii) A first set of regularly spaced fractures develops once the tensile stress in the outer-arc equals the tensile strength of the layer. Since the layer boundaries are frictionless, these bending-induced fractures propagate through the entire layer; (iii) After the appearance of the first fracture set, the rate of fracture formation decreases rapidly and so-called infill fractures develop approximately midway between two existing fractures (sequential infilling); (iv) Eventually no new fractures form, irrespective of any further increase in fold curvature (fracture saturation). Analysis of the interfacial normal stress distributions suggests that at saturation the fracture-bound blocks are subjected to a loading condition similar to three-point bending. Using classical beam theory an
Bone stress in runners with tibial stress fracture.
Meardon, Stacey A; Willson, John D; Gries, Samantha R; Kernozek, Thomas W; Derrick, Timothy R
2015-11-01
Combinations of smaller bone geometry and greater applied loads may contribute to tibial stress fracture. We examined tibial bone stress, accounting for geometry and applied loads, in runners with stress fracture. 23 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture & 23 matched controls ran over a force platform while 3-D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. An elliptical model of the distal 1/3 tibia cross section was used to estimate stress at 4 locations (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). Inner and outer radii for the model were obtained from 2 planar x-ray images. Bone stress differences were assessed using two-factor ANOVA (α=0.05). Key contributors to observed stress differences between groups were examined using stepwise regression. Runners with tibial stress fracture experienced greater anterior tension and posterior compression at the distal tibia. Location, but not group, differences in shear stress were observed. Stepwise regression revealed that anterior-posterior outer diameter of the tibia and the sagittal plane bending moment explained >80% of the variance in anterior and posterior bone stress. Runners with tibial stress fracture displayed greater stress anteriorly and posteriorly at the distal tibia. Elevated tibial stress was associated with smaller bone geometry and greater bending moments about the medial-lateral axis of the tibia. Future research needs to identify key running mechanics associated with the sagittal plane bending moment at the distal tibia as well as to identify ways to improve bone geometry in runners in order to better guide preventative and rehabilitative efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stress Analysis and Fracture in Nanolaminate Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chamis, Christos C.
2008-01-01
A stress analysis is performed on a nanolaminate subjected to bending. A composite mechanics computer code that is based on constituent properties and nanoelement formulation is used to evaluate the nanolaminate stresses. The results indicate that the computer code is sufficient for the analysis. The results also show that when a stress concentration is present, the nanolaminate stresses exceed their corresponding matrix-dominated strengths and the nanofiber fracture strength.
Coupled bending-bending-torsion flutter of a mistuned cascade with nonuniform blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaza, K. R. V.; Kielb, R. E.
1982-01-01
A set of aeroelastic equations describing the motion of an arbitrarily mistuned cascade with flexible, pretwisted, nonuniform blades is developed using an extended Hamilton's principle. The derivation of the equations has its basis in the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity in which the elongations and shears are negligible compared to unity. A general expression for foreshortening of a blade is derived and is explicity used in the formulation. The blade aerodynamic loading in the subsonic and supersonic flow regimes is obtained from two dimensional, unsteady, cascade theories. The aerodynamic, inertial and structural coupling between the bending (in two planes) and torsional motions of the blade is included. The equations are used to investigate the aeroelastic stability and to quantify the effect of frequency mistuning on flutter in turbofans. Results indicate that a moderate amount of intentional mistuning has enough potential to alleviate flutter problems in unshrouded, high aspect ratio turbofans.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kvaternik, R. G.; Kaza, K. R. V.
1976-01-01
The nonlinear curvature expressions for a twisted rotor blade or a beam undergoing transverse bending in two planes, torsion, and extension were developed. The curvature expressions were obtained using simple geometric considerations. The expressions were first developed in a general manner using the geometrical nonlinear theory of elasticity. These general nonlinear expressions were then systematically reduced to four levels of approximation by imposing various simplifying assumptions, and in each of these levels the second degree nonlinear expressions were given. The assumptions were carefully stated and their implications with respect to the nonlinear theory of elasticity as applied to beams were pointed out. The transformation matrices between the deformed and undeformed blade-fixed coordinates, which were needed in the development of the curvature expressions, were also given for three of the levels of approximation. The present curvature expressions and transformation matrices were compared with corresponding expressions existing in the literature.
Li Heng; Yang He; Zhan Mei
2010-06-15
Thin-walled tube bending(TWTB) method of Al-alloy tube has attracted wide applications in aerospace, aviation and automobile,etc. While, under in-plane double tensile stress states at the extrados of bending tube, the over-thinning induced ductile fracture is one dominant defect in Al-alloy tube bending. The main objective of this study is to predict the critical wall-thinning of Al-alloy tube bending by coupling two ductile fracture criteria(DFCs) into FE simulation. The DFCs include Continuum Damage Mechanics(CDM)-based model and GTN porous model. Through the uniaxial tensile test of the curved specimen, the basic material properties of the Al-alloy 5052O tube is obtained; via the inverse problem solution, the damage parameters of both the two fracture criteria are interatively determined. Thus the application study of the above DFCs in the TWTB is performed, and the more reasonable one is selected to obtain the critical thinning of Al-alloy tube in bending. The virtual damage initiation and evolution (when and where the ductile fracture occurs) in TWTB are investigated, and the fracture mechanisms of the voided Al-alloy tube in tube bending are consequently discussed.
Texture and Strain Measurements from Bending of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carl, Matthew; Zhang, Baozhuo; Young, Marcus L.
2016-09-01
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a new generation of materials that exhibit unique nonlinear deformations due to a phase transformation which allows the material to return to its original shape after removal of stress or a change in temperature. These unique properties are the result of a martensitic/austenitic phase transformation through the application of temperature changes or applied stress. Many technological applications of austenitic SMAs involve cyclical mechanical loading and unloading in order to take advantage of pseudoelasticity, but are limited due to poor fatigue life. In this paper, commercial pseudoelastic NiTi SMA wires (50.7 at.% Ni) were placed under different bending strains and examined using scanning electron microscopy and high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD). By observing the microstructure, phase transformation temperatures, surface texture and diffraction patterns along the wire, it is shown that the wire exhibits a strong anisotropic behavior whether on the tensile or compressive side of the bending axis and that the initiation of micro-cracks in the wires is localized on the compression side, but that crack propagation will still happen if the wire is reloaded in the opposite direction. In addition, lattice strains are examined for both the austenite and martensite phases.