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Sample records for benign appearing tumor

  1. Benign follicular tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, José Carlos; Reis, José Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Baptista, António Poiares

    2015-01-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dubé, Rombo and Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients. PMID:26734858

  2. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bony tumor of the ear canal Images Ear anatomy References Nicolai P, Castelnuovo P. Benign tumors of the sinonasal tract. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  3. [Radiotherapy of benign intracranial tumors].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Latorzeff, I; Chand, M E; Huchet, A; Dupin, C; Colin, P

    2016-09-01

    Most of the benign intracranial tumors are meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and glomus tumors. Some of them grow very slowly, and can be observed without specific treatment, especially if they are asymptomatic. Symptomatic or growing tumors are treated by surgery, which is the reference treatment. When surgery is not possible, due to the location of the lesion, or general conditions, radiotherapy can be applied, as it is if there is a postoperative growing residual tumor, or a local relapse. Indications have to be discussed in polydisciplinary meetings, with precise evaluation of the benefit and risks of the treatments. The techniques to be used are the most modern ones, as multimodal imaging and image-guided radiation therapy. Stereotactic treatments, using fractionated or single doses depending on the size or the location of the tumors, are commonly realized, to avoid as much a possible the occurrence of late side effects.

  4. Percutaneous ablation of benign bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Welch, Brian T; Welch, Timothy J

    2011-09-01

    Percutaneous image-guided ablation has become a standard of practice and one of the primary modalities for treatment of benign bone tumors. Ablation is most commonly used to treat osteoid osteomas but may also be used in the treatment of chondroblastomas, osteoblastomas, and giant cell tumors. Percutaneous image-guided ablation of benign bone tumors carries a high success rate (>90% in case series) and results in decreased morbidity, mortality, and expense compared with traditional surgical methods. The ablation technique most often applied to benign bone lesions is radiofrequency ablation. Because the ablation technique has been extensively applied to osteoid osteomas and because of the uncommon nature of other benign bone tumors, we will primarily focus this discussion on the percutaneous ablation of osteoid osteomas.

  5. Benign bone tumors--recent developments.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Roberto A; Inwards, Carrie Y; Unni, Krishnan K

    2011-02-01

    Benign bone tumors frequently pose a diagnostic challenge for general surgical pathologists. Accurate pathologic diagnosis requires careful clinical and radiological correlation. The most significant recent advances in some benign bone tumors have occurred at the molecular and cytogenetic level. The detection of clonal chromosomal aberrations, various specific molecular genetic events, and the description of the bone cell signaling pathways in the field of osteoimmunology have provided a better understanding of the pathophysiology of certain tumors and an important aid in the diagnostic workup and differential diagnosis of some bone lesions demonstrating overlapping clinical and pathologic features. Future directions include prognostic and therapeutic applications of these findings. Newer less invasive therapeutic techniques and medical management have been developed for the treatment of certain benign bone tumors.

  6. Unusual Benign Tumors of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Adrada, Beatriz E; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Carkaci, Selin; Posleman-Monetto, Flavia E; Ewere, Adesuwa; Whitman, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the imaging characteristics of a variety of benign breast tumors that may be encountered in daily practice, in order to formulate an appropriate differential diagnosis and to establish concordance between the imaging and the pathologic findings, and to assist the clinician with appropriate management. PMID:26085959

  7. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for benign adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, T; Inaba, M; Nishiguchi, Y; Ishibashi, R; Ogisawa, K; Yukimoto, K; Ogawa, Y; Onoda, N; Hirakawa, K; Chung, Y S

    2000-06-01

    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has been rapidly accepted for treatment of benign adrenal tumors. To evaluate the advantages of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, we examined 55 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy. In all patients, adrenal tumors were successfully removed. The mean operating time was 143 minutes, and the estimated mean blood loss was 49 mL in all patients. The postoperative course was uneventful in all cases. The mean frequency of administration of analgesics was only 2.9 times, and the time elapsed to first walking after surgery was 17 hours. The peak white blood cell count and C-reactive protein values after surgery were 8,266 +/- 1,963/mm3 and 2.5 +/- 1.2 mg/dL, respectively. Of the 55 patients, 44 underwent total adrenalectomy and another 11 underwent partial adrenalectomy, which was introduced in the expectation of preserving normal adrenal cortex; it is therefore indicated in solitary and peripherally located benign tumors. The mean operating time was 154 minutes for the total adrenalectomy, which was longer than that of partial adrenalectomy (92 minutes). The estimated blood loss was 50 mL for the total and 46 mL for the partial adrenalectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful and surgical outcome was excellent in each group. In conclusion, our results are encouraging enough to suggest that laparoscopic adrenalectomy should be a preferential therapeutic option for benign adrenal tumors; also, partial adrenalectomy could be a safe, effective, and less invasive procedure in selected cases.

  8. The clinical characteristics of benign oral mucosal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Ilana; Gal, Gavriel; Chaushu, Gavriel; Allon, Dror M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics and pre-biopsy provisional diagnoses of benign oral mucosal tumors. Material and Methods: A 10- year retrospective analysis of all benign tumors of the oral mucosa, from a university- affiliated oral and maxillofacial surgery department. Results: 146 benign tumors were included. The mean age was 49.6 years, with an approximately equal gender distribution. The most prevalent tumor types were lipomatous tumors (27.4%), vascular (23.3%), and salivary gland tumors (16.5%). Tongue, labial and buccal mucosa were the most frequently involved sites. The vast majority (98.6%) presented as non-ulcerated masses. Only 2 (1.4%) presented as ulcerated masses. The clinical provisional diagnosis correctly classified lesions as non-malignant in 93.3%. In only 9 (6.7%) suspicion of malignancy was included in the provisional diagnosis. However, benign neoplasia was unsuspected in 42.1% of tumors. These cases were clinically classified as reactive. Conclusions: Benign tumors were most likely to be clinically correctly classified as non-malignant, but even in the setting of experienced oral surgeons, neoplasia was unsuspected in more than 40% of cases. This data strongly supports the need to biopsy every oral mucosal mass, since inaccurate clinical evaluation of the lesion’s biological nature was a frequent event. Key words:Malignant, benign, reactive, ulcerated mass, non-ulcerated mass, clinical diagnosis. PMID:24316705

  9. Treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors using laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.

  10. Periareolar incision for the management of benign breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangnan; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Liyu; Ma, Tingting; Han, Baosan; Yang, Qifeng

    2016-11-01

    Benign breast tumors (BBTs) are common in women. The traditional surgical resection method for the various types of BBT leaves obvious scars and affects the appearance of the breast. The present study introduces the experience of a single institution in the treatment of BBT by periareolar incision. The clinical data of 153 patients (182 breasts) with BBT who had undergone a resection via a periareolar incision between January 2010 and December 2012 in Qilu Hospital, Shandong University (Jinan, Shandong, China), was retrospectively analyzed. All incisions were primary healing. Of the 153 patients, 1 (0.7%) developed a hematoma and 2 (1.3%) developed slight nipple ischemia. No infections or other complications were observed. During 1 month to 3 years of follow-up, the cosmetic effects were assessed. Periareolar incision is not only suitable for all types of breast surgery for benign tumor resection, but also has the advantage of a hidden incision, a small scar, no ischemic necrosis of the nipple areola, high patient satisfaction and good post-operative cosmetic effect. The technique is therefore a good surgical incision choice that is worthy of note.

  11. Periareolar incision for the management of benign breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangnan; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Liyu; Ma, Tingting; Han, Baosan; Yang, Qifeng

    2016-01-01

    Benign breast tumors (BBTs) are common in women. The traditional surgical resection method for the various types of BBT leaves obvious scars and affects the appearance of the breast. The present study introduces the experience of a single institution in the treatment of BBT by periareolar incision. The clinical data of 153 patients (182 breasts) with BBT who had undergone a resection via a periareolar incision between January 2010 and December 2012 in Qilu Hospital, Shandong University (Jinan, Shandong, China), was retrospectively analyzed. All incisions were primary healing. Of the 153 patients, 1 (0.7%) developed a hematoma and 2 (1.3%) developed slight nipple ischemia. No infections or other complications were observed. During 1 month to 3 years of follow-up, the cosmetic effects were assessed. Periareolar incision is not only suitable for all types of breast surgery for benign tumor resection, but also has the advantage of a hidden incision, a small scar, no ischemic necrosis of the nipple areola, high patient satisfaction and good post-operative cosmetic effect. The technique is therefore a good surgical incision choice that is worthy of note. PMID:27899991

  12. [Benign tumors of vulva: review and case report of achrocordon].

    PubMed

    Galeana, Cuauhtémoc; Casas, Donovan; Rodríguez, Alejandra; Cantú, Marco Antonio; Aguilar, Fabiola; Moreno, Víctor; Galindo, María Estela; Gutiérrez, Eduardo Ernesto

    2014-01-17

    The vulvovaginal region is a very complex area because of its anatomy and the fact that it can be source of a large number of benign tumors and less frequent malignant tumors. In recent decades, there have been significant gains in the diagnosis and treatment of vulvovaginal tumors, thanks to the contributions of cellular and molecular biology. The purpose of this review article is to serve as a practical reference for clinical and pathological diagnosis as well as in the outpatient treatment and monitoring of these benign tumors.

  13. Transformation of benign fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumor

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Megan E; Tortora, Matthew; Panasiti, Ryane

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of a benign fibroadenoma into a phyllodes tumor is uncommon and unpredictable. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with a core biopsy proven fibroadenoma that underwent transformation into a malignant phyllodes tumor after 3 years of size stability. We present ultrasound and magnetic resonance images, as well as pathology slides from core biopsy and surgical excision, to illustrate this transformation. It has been suggested that phyllodes tumors may be misdiagnosed as fibroadenomas by core biopsy. However, in this case, pathology supports correct initial diagnosis of fibroadenoma and demonstrates a portion of the original fibroadenoma along the periphery of the malignant phyllodes tumor. PMID:26331090

  14. Malignant nerve-sheath neoplasms in neurofibromatosis: distinction from benign tumors by using imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Huntrakoon, M.; Wetzel, L.H.

    1987-11-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve-sheath neoplasms frequently complicate neurofibromatosis causing pain, enlarging masses, or neurologic deficits. However, similar findings sometimes also occur with benign nerve neoplasms. Our study was done retrospectively to determine if imaging techniques can differentiate malignant from benign nerve tumors in neurofibromatosis. Eight patients with symptomatic neoplasms (three benign, five malignant) were studied by CT in eight, MR in six, and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy in seven. Uptake of /sup 67/Ga occurred in all five malignant lesions but not in two benign neoplasms studied. On CT or MR, all eight lesions, including three benign neoplasms, showed inhomogeneities. Of five lesions with irregular, infiltrative margins on CT or MR, four were malignant and one was benign. Of three lesions with smooth margins, one was malignant and two were benign. One malignant neoplasm caused irregular bone destruction. Accordingly, CT and MR could not generally distinguish malignant from benign lesions with certainty. However, both CT and MR provided structural delineation to help surgical planning for both types of lesion. /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy appears promising as a screening technique to identify lesions with malignant degeneration in patients with neurofibromatosis. Any area of abnormal radiogallium uptake suggests malignancy warranting further evaluation by CT or MR. Biopsy of any questionable lesion is essential.

  15. Rupture of benign thyroid tumors after radio-frequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Shin, J H; Jung, S L; Baek, J H; Kim, J-H

    2011-12-01

    Rupture of benign thyroid tumors after RFA is very rare. We experienced 6 cases in 4 institutions. All patients presented with abrupt neck swelling and pain between 9 and 60 days after RFA. Imaging and clinical findings of the ruptured tumors were anterior subcapsular location, mixed composition, large size, and repeated ablations. Conservative treatment was sufficient in 3 cases, whereas surgical management was required in 3.

  16. Benign liver tumors in pediatric patients - Review with emphasis on imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Chiorean, Liliana; Cui, Xin-Wu; Tannapfel, Andrea; Franke, Doris; Stenzel, Martin; Kosiak, Wojciech; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jüngert, Jörg; Chang, Jian-Min; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-01-01

    Benign hepatic tumors are commonly observed in adults, but rarely reported in children. The reasons for this remain speculative and the exact data concerning the incidence of these lesions are lacking. Benign hepatic tumors represent a diverse group of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. In pediatric patients, most benign focal liver lesions are inborn and may grow like the rest of the body. Knowledge of pediatric liver diseases and their imaging appearances is essential in order to make an appropriate differential diagnosis. Selection of the appropriate imaging test is challenging, since it depends on a number of age-related factors. This paper will discuss the most frequently encountered benign liver tumors in children (infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma, mesenchymal hamartoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and hepatocellular adenoma), as well as a comparison to the current knowledge regarding such tumors in adult patients. The current emphasis is on imaging features, which are helpful not only for the initial diagnosis, but also for pre- and post-treatment evaluation and follow-up. In addition, future perspectives of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in pediatric patients are highlighted, with descriptions of enhancement patterns for each lesion being discussed. The role of advanced imaging tests such as CEUS and magnetic resonance imaging, which allow for non-invasive assessment of liver tumors, is of utmost importance in pediatric patients, especially when repeated imaging tests are needed and radiation exposure should be avoided. PMID:26229397

  17. Benign triton tumor: multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Thakrar, Raj; Robson, Caroline D; Vargas, Sara O; Meara, John G; Rahbar, Reza; Smith, Edward R

    2014-01-01

    Benign Triton tumor (neuromuscular choristoma) is a rare mass that most commonly occurs as a multinodular expansion of tissue in or around large nerves. Intracranial occurrence is uncommon. We report on a 4-year-old girl presenting with a right-sided facial mass and trismus. Imaging revealed a large, complex mass extending from the ventral aspect of the pons, along the trigeminal nerve, through the foramen ovale, and into the right infratemporal fossa. The lesion was partially enhancing, invaded adjacent infratemporal musculature, was associated with marked overgrowth of the right coronoid process, and induced bony erosion of the middle cranial fossa. After needle biopsy, a multidisciplinary team, including plastic surgery, otolaryngology, and neurosurgery, performed a combined, multistep, single-day surgical approach for resection. Unique to this case was the resection of the coronoid process, a modified middle fossa intradural and extradural approach, coupled with a transfacial infratemporal approach. Microscopically, the resected tissue showed skeletal muscle, fibrous tissue, and nerve in a disorganized arrangement characteristic of a benign Triton tumor. We present this case to illustrate diagnostic clues and pitfalls in the preoperative evaluation of a benign Triton tumor. We also highlight the pathologist's role as a partner in a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment of this rare pediatric mass, potentially the largest Triton tumor in the head reported to date.

  18. Benign gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three snow leopards (Panthera uncia).

    PubMed

    Dobson, Elizabeth C; Naydan, Dianne K; Raphael, Bonnie L; McAloose, Denise

    2013-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are relatively rare neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells that are distributed throughout the body and are predominant in the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes benign, well-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia). All tumors were well circumscribed, were within the gastric mucosa or submucosa, and had histologic and immunohistochemical features of neuroendocrine tumors. Histologic features included packeted cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells that were arranged in palisades or pseudorosettes and contained finely granular cellular cytoplasm with centrally placed, round nuclei. Cytoplasmic granules of neoplastic cells strongly expressed chromogranin A, variably expressed neuron-specific enolase, and did not express synaptophysin or gastrin. Each leopard died or was euthanatized for reasons unrelated to its tumor.

  19. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of benign breast tumor tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, H.; Lasch, P.; Boese, M.; Haensch, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have applied infrared microspectroscopic imaging for the examination of benign breast tumor tissue sections. The IR spectra of the sections were obtained by classical point microscopy with a movable stage and via a microscope equipped with a focal plane array detector. The infrared microscopic data were analysed using functional group mapping techniques and cluster analysis. The output values of the two procedures were reassembled into infrared images of the tissues, and were compared with standard staining images of the corresponding tissue region. The comparative examination of identical tissue sections by the two IR approaches enabled us to assess potential problems associated with tissue microheterogeneity. It was found that in case of fibroadenoma, a benign lesion located in breast ducts, point microscopy with a spot size of ˜30 μm is a useful practical approach which minimizes the possibility of 'contamination' of the spectra because of spectral averaging of all tissue components present in the corresponding microareas. A comparison of the spectra of the benign breast tumor with those of a malignant ductal carcinoma in situ revealed that IR microspectroscopy has the potential to differentiate between these two breast tumor types.

  20. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults

    SciTech Connect

    al-Mefty, O.; Kersh, J.E.; Routh, A.; Smith, R.R. )

    1990-10-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors. One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered safe treatment for benign brain tumors. 163 refs.

  1. Bone Transport for Reconstruction in Benign Bone Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Seon; Cho, Yong Jin; Ahn, Yeong Seub; Na, Bo Ram

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the results of using the Ilizarov apparatus to transport bones in the treatment of benign bone tumors. Methods Seven patients (six males and one female) with benign bone tumors were treated by bone transport with an Ilizarov apparatus at our institution. Their mean age at surgery was 14.4 years (range, 4.8 to 36.9 years). The histological diagnoses were osteofibrous dysplasia (4), giant-cell tumor (1), intraosseous cavernous hemangioma (1), and aneurysmal bone cyst (1). Three radiological indices were used for evaluating the results: an external fixation index, a distraction index, and a maturation index. The bone and functional results were evaluated according to the Association for the Study and Application of the Method of Ilizarov classification. Results Five patients had bone union at the reconstructed site, one patient had a local recurrence, and the other had a nonunion at the docking site. The mean length of distraction was 7.3 cm (range, 5.1 to 12.1 cm). The mean external fixation index was 26.0 day/cm (range, 19.8 to 32.5 day/cm), the distraction index was 9.6 day/cm (range, 6.8 to 12.0 day/cm), and the maturation index was 14.9 day/cm (range, 8.0 to 22.5 day/cm). Ultimately, the bone and the functional results were rated excellent in six cases and good in one case. Conclusions Bone transport using the Ilizarov apparatus is a good treatment option in patients with bone defects after the resection of an active or aggressive benign bone tumor. PMID:26217473

  2. [Anogenital mammary-like glands and related lesions. Part 1. Benign tumors and tumor-like disorders].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, A M; Belousova, I E; Kacerovska, D; Michal, M; Shelekhova, K V; Kazakov, D V

    2017-01-01

    Anogenital mammary-like glands represent a normal anatomic constituent of the anogenital area and may give rise to many benign and malignant tumors that morphologically mimic similar breast diseases. The literature review is complemented by a description of 286 cases of benign tumors and tumor-like processes in the mammary-like glands. The paper presents the clinical and morphological characteristics of papillary hidradenoma, fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes tumor, lactating adenoma, sclerosing adenosis, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, etc.

  3. Ectomesenchymoma with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and ganglioneuroma, arising in association with benign triton tumor of the tongue.

    PubMed

    VandenHeuvel, Katherine A; Carpentieri, David F; Chen, Jie; Fung, Kar-Ming; Parham, David M

    2014-01-01

    Soft-tissue tumors known as "triton" tumors are rare lesions containing neural tissue and skeletal muscle at varying levels of maturity and malignant potential. Benign triton tumors, also called "neuromuscular choristomas" or "neuromuscular hamartomas," consist of neural tissue containing mature skeletal muscle in intimate relationship with peripheral nerve. These tumors are rare in the head and neck in children. Ectomesenchymomas are similar tumors consisting of a malignant mesenchymal component, usually embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and a neuroectodermal component represented by mature ganglion cells or primitive neuroblastic/neuroectodermal foci (primitive ectomesenchymoma). Benign triton tumors have been regarded as benign, whereas ectomesenchymomas have been operationally considered to be variants of rhabdomyosarcoma. We present here a unique case that combines features of these 2 entities in a recurrent lesion on the tongue of a 35-month-old girl. This lesion raises questions about the "benign" nature of benign triton tumor and its possible relationship to ectomesenchymoma.

  4. [Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract: triple malignant and one benign tumor].

    PubMed

    Dudnyikova, Anna; Vereczkey, Ildikó; Pete, Imre

    2012-03-01

    Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract are rare, accounting for 0.7-1.8% of all cases. Double synchronous tumors are most often mentioned in the literature. Reviewing the English literature on this topic, we have found only one case report of a triple synchronous tumor. The 55-year-old patient mentioned in our case has had advanced diabetes mellitus, and has been treated with corticosteroid therapy for a long time because of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was examined because of her vulvar tumor. During the diagnostic procedure, cervical and endometrial malignant tumors and a benign ovarian cyst have also been found. This event brings to our attention the fact that we should be prepared to manage synchronous even triple malignant gynecological tumors.

  5. Benign Brenner tumor of the ovary detected on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.B.; McCartney, W.H.

    1984-11-01

    Many disease states, including neoplasia, have been detected by bone scanning. Among the neoplastic processes detected by bone imaging agents are ovarian tumors, both benign and malignant. This report is concerned with the visualization of a benign Brenner tumor during routine Tc-99m MDP bone scanning.

  6. BENIGN BONE TUMORS AND TUMOR-LIKE BONE LESIONS: TREATMENT UPDATE AND NEW TRENDS

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira Drumond, José Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of benign bone tumors (BBT) and tumor-like bone lesions (TBL) has observed the introduction of new drugs, such as intravenous bisphosphonates, which have ossified bone lesions caused by fibrous dysplasia. Aneurismal bone cyst has been treated with sclerosing agents by percutaneous injection, yielding good results. Adjuvants allow joint salvage, maintenance of movements and function, with low rates of recurrence. Among them, the most used ones are bone cement (PMMA), phenol, nitrogen-based cryotherapy, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol and radiotherapy. New methods of treatment include thermal ablation with radiofrequency and laser, mainly utilized for treating osteoid osteoma. Arthroscopy allows resection of benign intra-joint lesions and assists the surgery of subchondral tumors. A great advance is the utilization of synthetic bone substitutes, which are a mixture of osteoinductive growth factors and osteoconductive ceramics, and have presented comparable results to autogenous bone grafts. There is a recent trend for closed treatments, with percutaneous injection of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and calcium sulfate. Autogenous cancellous bone graft remains as the gold standard. Vascularized fibula graft, on the other hand, incorporates faster in the treatment of large destructive lesions. Also, allogenic cortical support allows structural augmentation for aggressive tumors. Freeze-dried allografts are used to fill contained defects and as expanders of autografts. Joint endoprosthesis may be used in large destructive lesions of the distal femur, hip and shoulder. PMID:27004184

  7. Possible explanation of appearance of Warthin's tumor on I-123 and Tc-99m-pertechnetate scans

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.; Weisberger, E.C.

    1981-06-01

    A 71-year old man presented with a parotid mass and a thyroid nodule. An I-123 scan revealed a ''cold'' nodule in the thyroid and uptake of the radioactive iodine in the parotid mass. On a Tc-99m-pertechnetate salivary gland scan, the parotid mass was ''hot'' and did not wash out with sodium perchlorate. At surgery, he was found to have a Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland and an adenomatous goiter. The reasons for the scan appearance of the Warthin's tumor are discussed. Since Warthin's tumors are benign and uptake of radioactive iodine in the extrathyroidal deposits of thyroid carcinoma is rare with the thyroid gland in place, the uptake of iodine by a salivary gland mass probably indicates a benign process.

  8. Ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a strategy to visualize the scatterer properties of benign and malignant breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liao, Yin-Yin; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chang, King-Jen; Chen, Chiung-Nien

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the Nakagami parameter in characterizing breast tumors by ultrasound. However, physicians or radiologists may need imaging tools in a clinical setting to visually identify the properties of breast tumors. This study proposed the ultrasonic Nakagami image to visualize the scatterer properties of breast tumors and then explored its clinical performance in classifying benign and malignant tumors. Raw data of ultrasonic backscattered signals were collected from 100 patients (50 benign and 50 malignant cases) using a commercial ultrasound scanner with a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer. The backscattered signals were used to form the B-scan and the Nakagami images of breast tumors. For each tumor, the average Nakagami parameter was calculated from the pixel values in the region-of-interest in the Nakagami image. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the clinical performance of the Nakagami image. The results showed that the Nakagami image shadings in benign tumors were different from those in malignant cases. The average Nakagami parameters for benign and malignant tumors were 0.69 +/- 0.12 and 0.55 +/- 0.12, respectively. This means that the backscattered signals received from malignant tumors tend to be more pre-Rayleigh distributed than those from benign tumors, corresponding to a more complex scatterer arrangement or composition. The ROC analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve was 0.81 +/- 0.04 and the diagnostic accuracy was 82%, sensitivity was 92% and specificity was 72%. The results showed that the Nakagami image is useful to distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tumors.

  9. Bone Windows for Distinguishing Malignant from Benign Primary Bone Tumors on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Costelloe, Colleen M; Chuang, Hubert H; Chasen, Beth A; Pan, Tinsu; Fox, Patricia S; Bassett, Roland L; Madewell, John E

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The default window setting on PET/CT workstations is soft tissue. This study investigates whether bone windowing and hybrid FDG PET/CT can help differentiate between malignant and benign primary bone tumors. Materials and methods. A database review included 98 patients with malignant (n=64) or benign primary bone (n=34) tumors. The reference standard was biopsy for malignancies and biopsy or >1 year imaging follow-up of benign tumors. Three radiologists and/or nuclear medicine physicians blinded to diagnosis and other imaging viewed the lesions on CT with bone windows (CT-BW) without and then with PET (PET/CT-BW), and separate PET-only images for malignancy or benignity. Three weeks later the tumors were viewed on CT with soft tissue windows (CT-STW) without and then with PET (PET/CT-STW). Results. Mean sensitivity and specificity for identifying malignancies included: CT-BW: 96%, 90%; CT-STW: 90%, 90%; PET/CT-BW: 95%, 85%, PET/CT-STW: 95%, 86% and PET-only: 96%, 75%, respectively. CT-BW demonstrated higher specificity than PET-only and PET/CT-BW (p=0.0005 and p=0.0103, respectively) and trended toward higher sensitivity than CT-STW (p=0.0759). Malignant primary bone tumors were more avid than benign lesions overall (p<0.0001) but the avidity of benign aggressive lesions (giant cell tumors and Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis) trended higher than the malignancies (p=0.08). Conclusion. Bone windows provided high specificity for distinguishing between malignant and benign primary bone tumors and are recommended when viewing FDG PET/CT.

  10. Evaluation of the results of surgery treatment in patients with benign lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Reza; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Dalouee, Marziyeh Nouri; Nasiri, Zakiyeh; Rajabnejad, Ata’ollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung tumors are among the common tumors and can be benign or malignant. Benign lung tumors are less common compared to the malignant types. Recognition of the clinical symptoms, types of tumors, paraclinical findings, and treatment approaches can bring better therapeutic results. The present study aims to evaluate the characteristics, diagnosis methods, and therapeutic approaches of different benign lung tumors. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 32 patients with a diagnosis of benign lung tumor, who had been referred to the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between 1981 and 2009, were studied. Some of the studied variables were symptoms, the pulmonary location involved, surgery technique, pathology findings, recurrence, and surgery complications. Data were analyzed by SPSS package version 16. Results: The average age of the patients was 51.69 ± 20.5 years. Prevalence of benign lung tumors was equal in both genders. The most common symptom was cough (31.2%); right lung involvement was more common (71.9%), and the most common sampling technique was transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) (62.5%); 53.1% of the patients were operated on by thoracotomy and the wedge resection technique. In 78.1% of the patients, no complications occurred after surgery. There was no recurrence. Most operations were performed in one month after the start of the symptoms (68.8%). Conclusions: Benign lung tumors are commonly diagnosed by routine radiography because most of them are asymptomatic. The most common finding in radiography is the presence of mass in the lungs. Transbronchial lung biopsy is a valuable technique to be used for diagnosis. We chose thoracotomy and wedge resection for the treatment of patients. We recommend this approach as a useful method. PMID:25624593

  11. Expression of steroid hormone receptors in benign hepatic tumors. An immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Masood, S; West, A B; Barwick, K W

    1992-12-01

    Many hepatic adenomas have been demonstrated to have a clear relationship with oral contraceptive use, and it is presumed that there may be hormone receptors within the cytoplasm or nucleus of adenoma cells that mediate tumor growth in response to hormonal stimulation. Only a small number of examples of benign hepatic tumors have been analyzed for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors, and there has been a lack of consensus with regard to the findings. All previous studies have determined receptor levels by biochemical methods. In a retrospective study, we employed specific monoclonal antibodies against estrogen and progesterone receptors in 10 benign paraffin-embedded hepatic lesions: five examples of hepatic adenoma and five examples of focal nodular hyperplasia. All patients were female, except for one male with adenoma and one male with focal nodular hyperplasia. No patient had received tamoxifen citrate or any other form of hormonal therapy for their hepatic lesion. Positive controls included benign and malignant breast tissue. No positive staining was seen in hepatic adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, or normal adjacent liver parenchyma. Intense positive staining was seen in all positive control tissues. This negative result with the use of specific monoclonal antibodies in an established immunohistochemical method for analysis of estrogen and progesterone receptors does not exclude the presence of these receptors in benign hepatic lesions, but does suggest that, if present, they occur in much smaller amounts than in benign and malignant breast tissue. The presence of hormone receptors in benign hepatic tumors deserves further study.

  12. Treating benign optic nerve tumors with a 3-D conformal plan

    SciTech Connect

    Millunchick, Cheryl Hope

    2013-07-01

    A 68 year old male patient presented for radiation therapy for treatment of a benign tumor, a glioma of his left optic nerve. The radiation oncologist intended to prescribe 52.2 Gy to the planning target volume, while maintaining a maximum of 54 Gy to the optic nerves and the optic chiasm and a maximum of 40–45 Gy to the globes in order to minimize the possibility of damaging the optic system, which is especially important as this is a benign tumor. The dosimetrist devised a conformal non-coplanar three-dimensional plan with a slightly weighted forward planning component. This plan was created in approximately 15 minutes after the critical organs and the targets were delineated and resulted in an extremely conformal and homogenous plan, treating the target while sparing the nearby critical structures. This approach can also be extended to other tumors in the brain - benign or malignant.

  13. Multiple oncogenic mutations and clonal relationship in spatially distinct benign human epidermal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Christian; Toll, Agustí; Fernández-Casado, Alejandro; Earl, Julie; Marqués, Miriam; Acquadro, Francesco; Méndez-Pertuz, Marinela; Urioste, Miguel; Malats, Núria; Burns, Julie E.; Knowles, Margaret A.; Cigudosa, Juan C.; Hartmann, Arndt; Vogt, Thomas; Landthaler, Michael; Pujol, Ramón M.; Real, Francisco X.

    2010-01-01

    Malignant tumors result from the accumulation of genetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Much less is known about the genetic changes in benign tumors. Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are very frequent benign human epidermal tumors without malignant potential. We performed a comprehensive mutational screen of genes in the FGFR3-RAS-MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways from 175 SK, including multiple lesions from each patient. SK commonly harbored multiple bona fide oncogenic mutations in FGFR3, PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, EGFR, and AKT1 oncogenes but not in tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and PTEN. Despite the occurrence of oncogenic mutations and the evidence for downstream ERK/MAPK and PI3K pathway signaling, we did not find induction of senescence or a DNA damage response. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis revealed that SK are genetically stable. The pattern of oncogenic mutations and X chromosome inactivation departs significantly from randomness and indicates that spatially independent lesions from a given patient share a clonal relationship. Our findings show that multiple oncogenic mutations in the major signaling pathways involved in cancer are not sufficient to drive malignant tumor progression. Furthermore, our data provide clues on the origin and spread of oncogenic mutations in tissues, suggesting that apparently independent (multicentric) adult benign tumors may have a clonal origin. PMID:21078999

  14. Capillary hemangioma as a rare benign tumor of the oral cavity: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Hemangioma is a relatively common benign proliferation of blood vessels that primarily develops during childhood. Two main forms of hemangioma recognized: capillary and cavernous. The capillary form presents as a flat area consisting of numerous small capillaries. Cavernous hemangioma appears as an elevated lesion of a deep red color, and consists of large dilated sinuses filled with blood. The purpose of the study was to report the case of a capillary hemangioma in a patient and to describe the successful treatment of this case. Case presentation The patient was a 19-year-old female who presented herself to the Atatürk University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology, with the complaint of bleeding and slowly enlarging mass on the upper right molar region. The lesion was diagnosed as capillary hemangioma after clinical examination and biopsy. Treatment consisted of scaling, root planning and surgical excision. Four months after surgery healing was occurred and two years later area of the lesion appeared completely normal as clinically. Conclusions The surface is highly keratinized and no further growth was evidenced during the two year of follow-up. Early detection and biopsy is necessary to determine the clinical behavior of the tumor and potential dentoalveolar complications. PMID:20181211

  15. Gene expression profiles of metabolic aggressiveness and tumor recurrence in benign meningioma.

    PubMed

    Serna, Eva; Morales, José Manuel; Mata, Manuel; Gonzalez-Darder, José; San Miguel, Teresa; Gil-Benso, Rosario; Lopez-Gines, Concha; Cerda-Nicolas, Miguel; Monleon, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Around 20% of meningiomas histologically benign may be clinically aggressive and recur. This strongly affects management of meningioma patients. There is a need to evaluate the potential aggressiveness of an individual meningioma. Additional criteria for better classification of meningiomas will improve clinical decisions as well as patient follow up strategy after surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gene expression profiles and new metabolic subgroups of benign meningioma with potential clinical relevance. Forty benign and fourteen atypical meningioma tissue samples were included in the study. We obtained metabolic profiles by NMR and recurrence after surgery information for all of them. We measured gene expression by oligonucleotide microarray measurements on 19 of them. To our knowledge, this is the first time that distinct gene expression profiles are reported for benign meningioma molecular subgroups with clinical correlation. Our results show that metabolic aggressiveness in otherwise histological benign meningioma proceeds mostly through alterations in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of transcription, mainly the LMO3 gene. Genes involved in tumor metabolism, like IGF1R, are also differentially expressed in those meningioma subgroups with higher rates of membrane turnover, higher energy demand and increased resistance to apoptosis. These new subgroups of benign meningiomas exhibit different rates of recurrence. This work shows that benign meningioma with metabolic aggressiveness constitute a subgroup of potentially recurrent tumors in which alterations in genes regulating critical features of aggressiveness, like increased angiogenesis or cell invasion, are still no predominant. The determination of these gene expression biosignatures may allow the early detection of clinically aggressive tumors.

  16. Thoracic exophytic ependymoma masquerading as a benign extra-axial tumor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Charlotte Y; Koffie, Robert M; Dewitt, John C; Aronson, Joshua P

    2016-11-01

    Spinal tumors are conventionally differentiated based on location in relation to the spinal cord. Benign spinal tumors such as schwannomas and meningiomas are typically extra-axial (intradural extramedullary) lesions, whereas more aggressive primary spinal tumors such as ependymomas are typically intramedullary masses. Rarely, ependymomas can have both intramedullary and extramedullary components (typically referred to as exophytic ependymomas). We report a case of a spinal exophytic ependymoma that radiographically masqueraded as a benign intradural extramedullary lesion causing cord compression and neurologic deficit in a 47-year-old man. The diagnosis of exophytic ependymoma was made intra-operatively, with resultant gross total resection of the extramedullary portion and subtotal resection of the intramedullary portion. Histopathological examination confirmed ependymoma with World Health Organization grade II/IV. Pre-operative suspicion of an exophytic ependymoma influences operative planning and clinical management. We review the literature and discuss clinical management strategies for these interesting spinal tumors.

  17. More Cases of Benign Testicular Teratomas are Detected in Adults than in Children. A Clinicopathological Study of 543 Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Cases.

    PubMed

    David, Semjén; András, Farkas; Endre, Kalman; Balint, Kaszas; Árpad, Kovács; Csaba, Pusztai; Karoly, Szuhai; Tamás, Tornóczky

    2016-10-28

    Benign testicular teratomas are always thought to be pediatric neoplasms and previously all the teratoid tumors in the adult testis regarded as malignant. Recently, three publications reported benign testicular teratomas in adulthood and the latest WHO classification refers them as "prepubertal type of teratomas" which rarely appear in adulthood. These neoplasms behave benign and seemingly analogous independently whether they appear in pre- or postpubertal patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of benign testicular teratomas both in children and adults. 593 cases of testicular neoplasms were found in a period of 17 years ranging from 1998 to 2014 in the archive of our department (Department of Pathology, Medical Center, Pécs University). 543 cases diagnosed as germ cell tumor which have all been further evaluated in conjunction with the clinical data available. Of all germ cell tumor cases 14 (2.5 %) were pure teratomas. Ten out of 14 were the WHO-defined "conventional" teratoma, 4 of the 14 were the "benign or the so called prepubertal type" from which three occurred in adult patients. Only one of the 14 occurred in childhood, indicating that benign prepubertal type teratomas -which are regarded generally as childhood tumors- are more frequently detected in adults than in children. Benign adult testicular teratomas comprised 21 % of all pure teratoma cases in our series. Practicioners in the field have to be aware of its existence also in adulthood to avoid overtreatment and not to expose their patients to unnecessary chemotherapy, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RLA) and the potential complications of these interventions.

  18. An unusual presentation of a rare benign tumor in the head and neck: A review of hibernomas.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Oscar; Cui, Isabelle H; Malone, Melanie; Suurna, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Hibernomas are rare benign tumors that may present in the head and neck in an unusual manner similar to more common malignant tumors such as lymphoma. Our case report describes several characteristics of a patient and benign tumor presentation that is atypical for the usual presentation of hibernomas as reviewed in the literature. Although hibernomas are rare, our report and review of the literature highlights a particular patient population and important key findings that should make one consider these benign tumors in the differential diagnosis of a young patient presenting with a neck mass.

  19. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Benign Tumors With Symptoms From Brainstem Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaya, Kotaro; Niranjan, Ajay; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: This study evaluated the role of radiosurgery in the management of symptomatic patients with brainstem compression from benign basal tumors. Methods and Materials: Over a 17-year, period 246 patients (202 vestibular schwannomas and 44 meningiomas) with brainstem compression from benign skull-base tumors were managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Median tumor volumes were 3.9 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.8-39.0 mL) and 6.6 mL (range, 1.6-25.1 mL) for vestibular schwannomas and meningiomas, respectively. For both tumors, a median marginal dose of 13 Gy was prescribed. Median follow-up of patients was 65 months for vestibular schwannomas and 60 months for meningiomas. Patients were categorized into four groups on the basis of the tumor-brainstem relationship on neuroimaging. Results: Preservation of function was stratified according to grade of brainstem compression. We analyzed the effect of radiosurgery on symptoms of brainstem compression. The tumor control rate was 100 % for meningioma and 97% for vestibular schwannomas (although 5% required an additional procedure such as a ventriculoperitoneal shunt). In patients with vestibular schwannoma, serviceable hearing was preserved in 72.0%. Balance improved in 31.9%, remained unchanged in 56.5%, and deteriorated in 11.6% of patients who had imbalance at presentation. Balance improved significantly in patients who had less tumor compression (p = 0.0357) after radiosurgery. Symptoms improved in 43.2% of patients with meningioma. Conclusion: Radiosurgery is a minimally invasive option for patients with benign basal tumors that indent or distort the brainstem. A high tumor growth control rate and satisfactory rate of neurological preservation and symptom control can be obtained with radiosurgery.

  20. Integrated imaging of hepatic tumors in childhood. Part II. Benign lesions (congenital, reparative, and inflammatory)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Greenspan, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have encountered benign liver masses as frequently as malignant lesions in children with hepatomegaly. Lesions studied included abscesses, cavernous hemangioma/hemangioendothelioma, adenoma of glycogen storage disease, choledochal cysts, focal nodular hyperplasia, cystic hepatoblastoma, and hamartoma. An intergrated imaging protocol involving ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy proved to be more helpful than any one modality in establishing the benign or malignant nature of a hepatic neoplasm and the type of tumor, which is of particular importance when surgical exploration and/or biopsy is contraindicated.

  1. Application Value of Mass Spectrometry in the Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Liver Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Li, Boan; Guo, Tongsheng; Sun, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxi; Wang, Han; Chen, Weijiao; Chen, Peng; Qiao, Mengran; Xia, Lifang; Mao, Yuanli

    2017-01-01

    Background Differentiation of malignant from benign liver tumors remains a challenging problem. In recent years, mass spectrometry (MS) technique has emerged as a promising strategy to diagnose a wide range of malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to establish classification models to distinguish benign and malignant liver tumors and identify the liver cancer-specific peptides by mass spectrometry. Material/Methods In our study, serum samples from 43 patients with malignant liver tumors and 52 patients with benign liver tumors were treated with weak cation-exchange chromatography Magnetic Beads (MB-WCX) kits and analyzed by the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Then we established genetic algorithm (GA), supervised neural networks (SNN), and quick classifier (QC) models to distinguish malignant from benign liver tumors. To confirm the clinical applicability of the established models, the blinded validation test was performed in 50 clinical serum samples. Discriminatory peaks associated with malignant liver tumors were subsequently identified by a qTOF Synapt G2-S system. Results A total of 27 discriminant peaks (p<0.05) in mass spectra of serum samples were found by ClinPro Tools software. Recognition capabilities of the established models were 100% (GA), 89.38% (SNN), and 80.84% (QC); cross-validation rates were 81.67% (GA), 81.11% (SNN), and 86.11% (QC). The accuracy rates of the blinded validation test were 78% (GA), 84% (SNN), and 84% (QC). From the 27 discriminatory peptide peaks analyzed, 3 peaks of m/z 2860.34, 2881.54, and 3155.67 were identified as a fragment of fibrinogen alpha chain, fibrinogen beta chain, and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4), respectively. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that MS technique can be helpful in differentiation of benign and malignant liver tumors. Fibrinogen and ITIH4 might be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of malignant liver tumors

  2. Introducing Cichorium Pumilum as a potential therapeutical agent against drug-induced benign breast tumor in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Akhras, M-Ali H; Aljarrah, Khaled; Al-Khateeb, Hasan; Jaradat, Adnan; Al-Omari, Abdelkarim; Al-Nasser, Amjad; Masadeh, Majed M; Amin, Amr; Hamza, Alaaeldin; Mohammed, Karima; Al Olama, Mohammad; Daoud, Sayel

    2012-12-01

    Cichorium Pumilum (chicory) is could be a promising cancer treatment in which a photosensitizing drug concentrates in benign tumor cells and activated by quanta at certain wavelength. Such activated extracts could lead to cell death and tumor ablation. Previous studies have shown that Cichorium Pumilum (chicory) contains photosensitive compounds such as cichoriin, anthocyanins, lactucin, and Lactucopicrin. In the present study, the protective effect of sun light-activated Cichorium against the dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced benign breast tumors to female Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. Chicory's extract has significantly increase P.carbonyl (PC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreases the hepatic levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in benign breast tumors-induced group compared to control. It also significantly decrease the number of estrogen receptors ER-positive cells in tumor masses. These results suggest that chicory extracts could be used as herbal photosensitizing agent in treating benign breast tumor in rats.

  3. Bioimpedance spectroscopy can precisely discriminate human breast carcinoma from benign tumors

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhenggui; Wan, Hangyu; Chen, Yu; Pu, Yang; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Intraoperative frozen pathology is critical when a breast tumor is not diagnosed before surgery. However, frozen tumor tissues always present various microscopic morphologies, leading to a high misdiagnose rate from frozen section examination. Thus, we aimed to identify breast tumors using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), a technology that measures the tissues’ impedance. We collected and measured 976 specimens from breast patients during surgery, including 581 breast cancers, 190 benign tumors, and 205 normal mammary gland tissues. After measurement, Cole-Cole curves were generated by a bioimpedance analyzer and parameters R0/R∞, fc, and α were calculated from the curve. The Cole-Cole curves showed a trend to differentiate mammary gland, benign tumors, and cancer. However, there were some curves overlapped with other groups, showing that it is not an ideal model. Subsequent univariate analysis of R0/R∞, fc, and α showed significant differences between benign tumor and cancer. However, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated the diagnostic value of fc and R0/R∞ were not superior to frozen sections (area under curve [AUC] = 0.836 and 0.849, respectively), and α was useless in diagnosis (AUC = 0.596). After further research, we found a scatter diagram that showed a synergistic effect of the R0/R∞ and fc, in discriminating cancer from benign tumors. Thus, we used multivariate analysis, which revealed that these two parameters were independent predictors, to combine them. A simplified equation, RF′ = 0.2fc + 3.6R0/R∞, based on multivariate analysis was developed. The ROC curve for RF′ showed an AUC = 0.939, and the sensitivity and specificity were 82.62% and 95.79%, respectively. To match a clinical setting, the diagnostic criteria were set at 6.91 and 12.9 for negative and positive diagnosis, respectively. In conclusion, RF′ derived from BIS can discriminate benign tumor and cancers, and integrated criteria

  4. Kallikrein 4 and matrix metalloproteinase-20 immunoexpression in malignant, benign and infiltrative odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; de Mesquita, Ricardo Alves; de Sousa, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado; Loyola, Adriano Motta

    2016-01-01

    Context: Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) (enamelysin) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4) are enzymes secreted by ameloblasts that play an important role in enamel matrix degradation during amelogenesis. However, studies have shown that neoplastic cells can produce such enzymes, which may affect the tumor infiltrative and metastatic behaviors. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the biological role of MMP20 and KLK4 in odontogenic tumors. Materials and Methods: The enzymes were analyzed immunohistochemically in ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, keratocystic odontogenic tumor with or without recurrence and odontogenic carcinoma. Statistical Analysis Used: Clinicopathological parameters were statistically correlated with protein expression using the Fisher's exact test. Kruskal–Wallis and Wilcoxon-independent methods were used to evaluate the differences in median values. Results: Positive Immunoexpression was detected in all benign lesions, with a prevalence of 75–100% immunolabeled cells. Patients were predominantly young, Caucasian, female, with slow-growing tumors located in the mandible causing asymptomatic swelling. No KLK4 expression was seen in carcinomas, and the amount of MMP20-positive cells varied between 20% and 80%. Rapid evolution, recurrence and age >60 years characterized the malignant nature of these lesions. Conclusions: Data showed that KLK4 and MMP20 enzymes may not be crucial to tumoral infiltrative capacity, especially in malignant tumors, considering the diversity and peculiarity of these lesions. The significant immunoexpression in benign lesions, remarkably in AOT, is likely associated with differentiated tumor cells that can produce and degrade enamel matrix-like substances. This would be expected since the histogenesis of odontogenic tumors commonly comes from epithelium that recently performed a secretory activity in tooth formation. PMID:27601817

  5. Coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor and invasive ductal carcinoma in distinct breasts: case report.

    PubMed

    Neto, Guerino Barbalaco; Rossetti, Claudia; Souza, Natalia A; LA Fonseca, Fernando; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Junqueira, Virginia Berlanga Campos; Valenti, Vitor E; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2012-04-25

    This report describes a rare case of coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor, which measured 9 cm in the right breast, and invasive ductal carcinoma of 6 cm in the left breast, synchronous and independent, in a 66-year-old patient. The patient underwent a bilateral mastectomy due to the size of both lesions. Such situations are rare and usually refer to the occurrence of ductal or lobular carcinoma in situ when associated with malignant phyllodes tumors, and more often in ipsilateral breast or intra-lesional.

  6. Coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor and invasive ductal carcinoma in distinct breasts: case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor, which measured 9 cm in the right breast, and invasive ductal carcinoma of 6 cm in the left breast, synchronous and independent, in a 66-year-old patient. The patient underwent a bilateral mastectomy due to the size of both lesions. Such situations are rare and usually refer to the occurrence of ductal or lobular carcinoma in situ when associated with malignant phyllodes tumors, and more often in ipsilateral breast or intra-lesional. PMID:22534285

  7. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Jing-Jing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Zhe; Li, Na; Song, Chen; Li, Man

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Methods The scientific literature databases PubMed, Cochrane Library and CNKI were comprehensively searched for studies relevant to the use of CEUS technique for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian cancer. Pooled summary statistics for specificity (Spe), sensitivity (Sen), positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/LR−), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and their 95%CIs were calculated. Software for statistical analysis included STATA version 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) and Meta-Disc version 1.4 (Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain). Results Following a stringent selection process, seven high quality clinical trials were found suitable for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The 7 studies contained a combined total of 375 ovarian cancer patients (198 malignant and 177 benign). Statistical analysis revealed that CEUS was associated with the following performance measures in differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors: pooled Sen was 0.96 (95%CI = 0.92∼0.98); the summary Spe was 0.91 (95%CI = 0.86∼0.94); the pooled LR+ was 10.63 (95%CI = 6.59∼17.17); the pooled LR− was 0.04 (95%CI = 0.02∼0.09); and the pooled DOR was 241.04 (95% CI = 92.61∼627.37). The area under the SROC curve was 0.98 (95% CI = 0.20∼1.00). Lastly, publication bias was not detected (t = −0.52, P = 0.626) in the meta-analysis. Conclusions Our results revealed the high clinical value of CEUS in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Further, CEUS may also prove to be useful in differential diagnosis at early stages of this disease. PMID:25764442

  8. The Diagnostic Value of B-Mode Sonography in Differentiation of Malignant and Benign Tumors of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Khalife, Ali; Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Davachi, Behrouz; Mashhadi, Leila; Khazaeni, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Different imaging modalities are used to evaluate salivary gland diseases, including tumors. Ultrasonography (US) is the preferred method on account of its ease of use, affordability, safety profile, and good tolerance among patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of US in differentiating malignant from benign parotid tumors, in the context of previous controversy in the literature on this subject. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in patients who presented to Qaem Medical Center with parotid masses and who were candidates for parotidectomy between June 2013 and January 2015. Patients were initially referred for a diagnostic US of the parotid. US examinations were performed and sonographic features were reported. The tumors were then classified as benign or malignanton the basis of literature descriptions of the US features of parotid tumors, and were next diagnosed pathologically. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US for the purpose of differentiating malignant from benign tumors were then calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (aged 18–92 years) underwent US of parotid masses. Twenty-three tumors were diagnosed as benign and five were diagnosed as malignant. The final histopathologic examination showed 21 benign and seven malignant tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US for differentiating malignant from benign tumors were calculated as 57%, 95%, 80%, and 87%, respectively. Conclusion: US has a high specificity in differentiating between malignant and benign tumors. However, fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy is advocated for an exact diagnosis. PMID:27738606

  9. Indications of Free Grafts in Mandibular Reconstruction, after Removing Benign Tumors: Treatment Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Alister, Juan Pablo; Uribe, Francisca; Olate, Sergio; Arriagada, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mandibular reconstruction has been the subject of much debate and research in the fields of maxillofacial surgery and head and neck surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was undertaken with 14 patients diagnosed with benign tumorous pathologies and who underwent immediate mandibular resection and reconstruction at the Hospital del Salvador Maxillofacial Surgery Unit and Dr. Rodrigo Fariña’s private clinic between the years 2002 and 2012. We propose a treatment algorithm, which is previous teeth extractions in area that will be removed. Results: Fourteen patients underwent surgery, and a total of 40 dental implants were installed in 6 men and 8 women, the mean age of 33.5 (age range, 14–58 y). Reconstruction with iliac crest bone graft, and rehabilitation following this protocol (average of reconstruction was 8.7 cm), was successful with no complications at all in 12 patients. One patient had a minor complication, and the graft was partially reabsorbed because of communication of the graft with the oral cavity. This complication did not impede rehabilitation with dental implants. Another patient suffered the total loss of the graft due to infection because of dehiscence of oral mucosa and great communication with the mouth. Another iliac crest free graft reconstruction was undertaken 6 months later. Conclusions: The scientific evidence suggests that mandibular reconstruction using free grafts following the removal of benign tumors is a biologically sustainable alternative. The critical factor to improve the prognosis of free grafts reconstruction in benign tumors is to have good quality soft tissue and avoid communication with the oral cavity. For this, it is vital to do dental extractions before removing the tumor. PMID:27622113

  10. Utility of high-frequency ultrasonography in the diagnosis of benign and malignant skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Kalpana Deepak; Tambe, Swagata Arvind; Jerajani, Hemangi Rajiv; Dhurat, Rachita S

    2017-01-01

    Various benign and malignant tumors may arise from the skin. These may be of epidermal, dermal, subcutaneous or appendageal origin. Skin biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis of skin tumors. There is paucity of published data on the role of imaging modalities in diagnosis of skin tumors. High-frequency ultrasonography (7-50 MHz) is a potential non-invasive, objective modality which can be utilized in the diagnosis and localization of skin tumors. It provides valuable information about the tumor characteristics such as size, shape, depth, consistency and vascularity before invasive skin biopsy or surgery is planned. Sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma can be well visualized and studied by this technique. It is also a good modality to detect local recurrence of tumors during post-operative follow up, especially those with a high likelihood of local recurrence or lesions excised with inadequate margins. High-frequency ultrasonography is additive to clinical diagnosis and can be considered a useful non-invasive method to plan the management of various skin tumors and is of prognostic value in some cases.

  11. A Tete – a – tete of benign, borderline and malignant fibrohistiocytic tumor

    PubMed Central

    M.V, Rashmi.; P, Pavithra; G.M, Shivakumarappa

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protruberans is a relatively uncommon slow growing, locally aggressive fibrous tumor of the skin. It has a prospensity of progressing to fibrosarcomatous change in 5% of the cases. We present a case of a 56 yr old male with presented to the outpatient department of surgery, Sri Siddhartha Medical College, Tumkur with a chest swelling in 2013. FNAC was inconclusive and the mass was excised. On histopathology, areas of benign fibrohistiocytic tumor, dermatofibrosarcoma protruberans and fibrosarcomatous dermatofibrosarcoma were identified in the same tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of DFSP with fibrosarcomatous change. Although, transformed DFSP is more aggressive, the prognosis is influenced by the extent of excision and with wide excision, there may be little increased risk for recurrence and metastasis over that of conventional DFSP. PMID:27799980

  12. Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xinhua; Zhang, Hongbin; Meng, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Chuge

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the diagnostic values of computed tomography (CT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors and a meta-analysis to further confirm our results on DW-MRI. Methods: Totally 64 patients pathologically confirmed as ovarian cancer were included in this study. CT scan and DWI-MRI were performed and analyzed to get compared with pathological results, thereby assessing their accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Meta-analysis was conducted by database searching and strict eligibility criteria, using STATA 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) software. Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for diagnosis of ovarian cancer in CT were 81.82%, 84.48%, 76.67%, 87.50% and 71.88%, respectively; those in DW-MRI were 89.77%, 93.10%, 83.33%, 91.53% and 86.21%, respectively. The Kappa coefficient of DW-MRI (K = 0.771) compared with pathological results was higher than CT (K = 0.602). The average apparent diffusion coefficient values of DW-MRI in diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors suggested statistically significant difference (1.325 ± 0.269×10-3 mm2/s vs. 0.878 ± 0.246×10-3 mm2/s, P < 0.001). Meta-analysis results showed that the combined sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio of DW-MRI in discriminating benign versus malignant ovarian tumors were 0.93, 0.88, 7.70, 0.08 and 101.24, respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.95. Conclusions: Both CT and DW-MRI were of great diagnostic value in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors, while DW-MRI was superior to CT with higher accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26884905

  13. Benign phyllodes tumor with tubular adenoma-like epithelial component in FNAC: A diagnostic pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Kishori M

    2016-01-01

    Benign phyllodes tumor (BPT) is a biphasic neoplasm composed of bland stromal and epithelial elements. Cytologic diagnostic criteria of BPT, though documented in the literature, diagnostic pitfalls in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) may occur due to sampling error, high cellularity, ductal hyperplasia, paucity of stromal component, and occasional dissociation of epithelial cells. Here, we describe a case of BPT diagnosed by histology in a 19-year-old female, where FNAC features were inconclusive due to paucity of stromal component, predominance of tubular adenoma-like epithelial component, and due to the presence of other overlapping features with fibroadenoma. PMID:28028339

  14. Benign phyllodes tumor with tubular adenoma-like epithelial component in FNAC: A diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kishori M

    2016-01-01

    Benign phyllodes tumor (BPT) is a biphasic neoplasm composed of bland stromal and epithelial elements. Cytologic diagnostic criteria of BPT, though documented in the literature, diagnostic pitfalls in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) may occur due to sampling error, high cellularity, ductal hyperplasia, paucity of stromal component, and occasional dissociation of epithelial cells. Here, we describe a case of BPT diagnosed by histology in a 19-year-old female, where FNAC features were inconclusive due to paucity of stromal component, predominance of tubular adenoma-like epithelial component, and due to the presence of other overlapping features with fibroadenoma.

  15. Intraoperative /sup 99m/Tc bone imaging in the treatment of benign osteoblastic tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Sty, J.; Simons, G.

    1982-05-01

    Benign bone tumors can be successfully treated by local resection with the use of intraoperative bone imaging. Intraoperative bone imaging provided accurate localization of an osteoid osteoma in a patella of a 16-year-old girl when standard radiographs failed to demonstrate the lesion. In a case of osteoblastoma of the sacrum in a 12-year old girl, intraoperative scanning was used repeatedly to guide completeness of resection. In these cases in which routine intraoperative radiographs would have failed, intraoperative scanning proved to be essential for success.

  16. External bone remodeling after injectable calcium-phosphate cement in benign bone tumor: two cases in the hand.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, S; Vaiss, L; Acciaro, A L; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P

    2015-12-01

    Bone remodeling commonly occurred after fracture and curettage benign bone tumor. A lot of previous articles reported "internal" trabecular bone remodeling. There were no previous clinical reports about "external" cortical bone remodeling. We present here 2 clinical cases of "external" bone remodeling after injectable calcium-phosphate in benign bone tumor in the hand. In two cases of benign bone tumor, we performed complete removal of the tumor and immediate filling of the metacarpal bone with injectable calcium-phosphate cement Arexbone(®) from the mechanical viewpoint. With respect to the shape of the calcium-phosphate, by using an injection-type, calcium-phosphate is adhered uniformly to the bone cortex by injecting, remodeling has been promoted. After 5 and 8years, both cases were no recurrences, and the shape of the metacarpal looked close to the contralateral side. These findings supposed to be concerned with potential self-healing and self-protection mechanism in human body.

  17. Benign phyllodes tumor of the breast recurring as a malignant phyllodes tumor and spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Muller, Kristen E; Tafe, Laura J; de Abreu, Francine B; Peterson, Jason D; Wells, Wendy A; Barth, Richard J; Marotti, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    We report a unique case of a 59-year-old woman diagnosed with a benign phyllodes tumor (PT), which recurred twice in the same location over a 7-year period: first as a malignant PT and then as a malignant PT with coexisting spindle cell metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC). The MBC was differentiated from the malignant PT by expression of cytokeratins (CKs) AE1/AE3, CK MNF-116, CK 5/6, and p63. Somatic mutation analysis using a next-generation sequencing platform revealed a shared mutation in F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7, a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a ubiquitin ligase-associated protein, in the original benign PT and the first recurrent malignant PT. Chromosomal microarray analysis showed shared genetic gains and losses between the malignant PT and MBC. This case highlights the utility of immunohistochemistry to differentiate malignant PT from spindle cell MBC, describes a novel mutation in PT, and demonstrates a biologic relationship between these 2 entities.

  18. The use of reflectance confocal microscopy for examination of benign and malignant skin tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wielowieyska-Szybińska, Dorota; Białek-Galas, Kamila; Podolec, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a modern, non-invasive diagnostic method that enables real-time imaging of epidermis and upper layers of the dermis with a nearly histological precision and high contrast. The application of this technology in skin imaging in the last few years has resulted in the progress of dermatological diagnosis, providing virtual access to the living skin erasing the need for conventional histopathology. The RCM has a potential of wide application in the dermatological diagnostic process with a particular reference to benign and malignant skin tumors. This article provides a summary of the latest reports and previous achievements in the field of RCM application in the diagnostic process of skin neoplasms. A range of dermatological indications and general characteristics of confocal images in various types of tumors are presented. PMID:25610353

  19. Novel MIR143-NOTCH Fusions in Benign and Malignant Glomus Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Sboner, Andrea; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chun-Liang; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Agaram, Narasimhan P.; Briskin, Daniel; Basha, Basma M.; Singer, Samuel; Rubin, Mark A.; Tuschl, Thomas; Antonescu, Cristina R.

    2013-01-01

    Glomus tumors (GT) have been classified among tumors of perivascular smooth muscle differentiation, together with myopericytoma, myofibroma/tosis, and angioleiomyoma, based on their morphologic overlap. However, no molecular studies have been carried out to date to investigate their genetic phenotype and to confirm their shared pathogenesis. RNA sequencing was performed in three index cases (GT1, malignant GT; GT2, benign GT and M1, multifocal myopericytoma), followed by FusionSeq data analysis, a modular computational tool developed to discover gene fusions from paired-end RNA-seq data. A gene fusion involving MIR143 in band 5q32 was identified in both GTs with either NOTCH2 in 1p13 in GT1 or NOTCH1 in 9q34 in GT2, but none in M1. After being validated by FISH and RT-PCR, these abnormalities were screened on 33 GTs, 6 myopericytomas, 9 myofibroma/toses, 18 angioleiomyomas and in a control group of 5 sino-nasal hemangiopericytomas. Overall NOTCH2 gene rearrangements were identified in 52% of GT, including all malignant cases and one NF1-related GT. No additional cases showed NOTCH1 rearrangement. As NOTCH3 shares similar functions with NOTCH2 in regulating vascular smooth muscle development, the study group was also investigated for abnormalities in this gene by FISH. Indeed, NOTCH3 rearrangements were identified in 9% of GTs, all present in benign soft tissue GT, one case being fused to MIR143. Only 1/18 angioleiomyomas showed NOTCH2 gene rearrangement, while all the myopericytomas and myofibroma/toses were negative. In summary we describe novel NOTCH1-3 rearrangements in benign and malignant, visceral and soft tissue GTs. PMID:23999936

  20. Morphological Aspects and Immunophenotypic Profiles of Mammary Carcinomas in Benign-Mixed Tumors of Female Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Gustavo Meirelles; Bertagnolli, Angélica Cavalheiro; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma in benign-mixed tumor (CBMT) is common in the female canine mammary gland and comprises malignant epithelial between benign mesenchymal elements. This study investigated the morphological aspects of 29 CBMT and their immunophenotypical profiles, by using an immunohistochemistry panel based on five molecular markers—estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), cytokeratin 5 (CK5), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR). From these, CBMT was classified into four subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, HER2-like, basal-like, and normal. “In situ” and invasive carcinomatous components were analyzed and compared. Histological grade I carcinoma was observed in 16 cases (55.2%) of the tumors analyzed, grade II in 10 cases (34.5%), and grade III in three cases (10.3%). The invasive carcinomatous component has shown, more frequently, luminal A (12/29 cases, 41.4%), followed by basal-like phenotype (8/29 cases, 27.6%). There was high concordance between immunophenotypical profiles of the in situ and invasive carcinomatous components (kappa coefficient = 0.816, P < 0.001). We concluded that CBMT predominantly has features of low-grade neoplasms of malignancy. The various immunophenotypic profiles suggest the origin of these lesions in more than one cell type (luminal and myoepithelial). PMID:23029631

  1. Expression of gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1, COX-2) in some benign salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Lipari, L; Mauro, A; Gallina, S; Tortorici, S; Buscemi, M; Tete, S; Gerbino, A

    2012-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors, most of which are rare benign tumors, represent a histologically heterogenous group with the greatest diversity of morphological and cellular features. The aim of this study is to analyse the expression and possible interactions between gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1, COX-2) in some benign salivary gland tumors. We investigated the expression of gelatinases and cyclooxigenases in control salivary gland, Pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumor through immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). We identified the expression of both classes of enzyme in normal samples and in the two types of pathological samples without any quantitative differences. From the present data no significant differences emerge in the expression of these enzymes among the different pathologies examined. Nevertheless, due to the small number of samples included in this study, general statements regarding correlation between the degree of severity of the tumoral pathology and the quantitative expression of these potential tumoral markers can not be made.

  2. Spontaneous appearance of uterine tumors in vehicle and 3-methylcholanthrene-treated Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Anger, Dana L; Crankshaw, Denis J; Foster, Warren G

    2006-11-01

    During the conduct of a study designed to determine the effect of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), a synthetic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that acts through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), on uterine contractility in Wistar rats, uterine tumors were identified in both vehicle and 3-MC-treated animals. The objective of the current study was to describe the histological characteristics of these tumors. Sexually mature female rats (110 days old) were treated with 70 micro mol/kg 3-MC or vehicle (olive oil) for 4 days and euthanized by exsanguination. At necropsy uterine tumors were unexpected findings in two vehicle and four 3-MC-treated rats. The tumors appeared as multiple unilateral or bilateral subserosal nodes. No tumors were found in other tissues on gross inspection. Prior to necropsy, tumor-presenting animals were acyclic and arrested in a state of persistent proestrus. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of tumor sections revealed nests of acidophilic granule-containing cells within a highly vascular stroma of the uterine wall below the muscularis. Positive periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining suggested the presence of glycogen or glycophospholipids within these granules, however, negative PAS diastase staining indicated that the acidophilic bodies were not composed of glycogen. The tumors are histologically similar to human dysgerminomas. We conclude that these tumors are unrelated to treatment and are of a granular type not previously documented in Wistar rats.

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of saliva proteins for the noninvasive differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shangyuan; Huang, Shaohua; Lin, Duo; Chen, Guannan; Xu, Yuanji; Li, Yongzeng; Huang, Zufang; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    The capability of saliva protein analysis, based on membrane protein purification and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), for detecting benign and malignant breast tumors is presented in this paper. A total of 97 SERS spectra from purified saliva proteins were acquired from samples obtained from three groups: 33 healthy subjects; 33 patients with benign breast tumors; and 31 patients with malignant breast tumors. Subtle but discernible changes in the mean SERS spectra of the three groups were observed. Tentative assignments of the saliva protein SERS spectra demonstrated that benign and malignant breast tumors led to several specific biomolecular changes of the saliva proteins. Multiclass partial least squares-discriminant analysis was utilized to analyze and classify the saliva protein SERS spectra from healthy subjects, benign breast tumor patients, and malignant breast tumor patients, yielding diagnostic sensitivities of 75.75%, 72.73%, and 74.19%, as well as specificities of 93.75%, 81.25%, and 86.36%, respectively. The results from this exploratory work demonstrate that saliva protein SERS analysis combined with partial least squares-discriminant analysis diagnostic algorithms has great potential for the noninvasive and label-free detection of breast cancer.

  4. Radiation-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing White Matter in Patients With Cerebral Tumors: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nagesh, Vijaya Tsien, Christina I.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Ross, Brian D.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Junick, Larry; Cao Yue

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing white matter before, during, and after radiotherapy (RT) in cerebral tumor patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with low-grade glioma, high-grade glioma, or benign tumor treated with RT were studied using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. The biologically corrected doses ranged from 50 to 81 Gy. The temporal changes were assessed before, during, and to 45 weeks after the start of RT. The mean diffusivity of water (), fractional anisotropy of diffusion, diffusivity perpendicular ({lambda}{sub perpendicular}) and parallel ({lambda}{sub parallel}) to white matter fibers were calculated in normal-appearing genu and splenium of the corpus callosum. Results: In the genu and splenium, fractional anisotropy decreased and , {lambda}{sub parallel}, {lambda}{sub -perpendicular} increased linearly and significantly with time (p < 0.01). At 45 weeks after the start of RT, {lambda}{sub -perpendicular} had increased {approx}30% in the genu and splenium, and {lambda}{sub parallel} had increased 5% in the genu and 9% in the splenium, suggesting that demyelination is predominant. The increases in {lambda}{sub perpendicular} and {lambda}{sub parallel} were dose dependent, starting at 3 weeks and continuing to 32 weeks from the start of RT. The dose-dependent increase in {lambda}{sub perpendicular} and {lambda}{sub parallel} was not sustained after 32 weeks, indicating the transition from focal to diffuse effects. Conclusion: The acute and subacute changes in normal-appearing white matter fibers indicate radiation-induced demyelination and mild structural degradation of axonal fibers. The structural changes after RT are progressive, with early dose-dependent demyelination and subsequent diffuse dose-independent demyelination and mild axonal degradation. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging is potentially a biomarker for the assessment of radiation-induced white matter injury.

  5. Accessory spleen appearing as an intrasplenic pseudo-tumoral mass: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    LÜ, YAN-FENG; HAN, BING-BING; YU, HUA-LONG; CUI, ZHEN-HUA; LI, ZHI-WEN; WANG, JIAN-XIN

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents a rare case of an accessory spleen that manifested as a solid intrasplenic pseudotumor. The affected patient was previously healthy. Upon examination with computed tomography (CT), an ovoid, soft-tissue mass of ~4.1 cm in diameter was found on the upper pole of the spleen. Biochemical indices, such as blood routine and coagulation tests, and tumor marker analysis, revealed no abnormalities. Another CT scan was performed, but this failed to indicate whether the mass was benign or malignant. Therefore, the lesion was resected along with the spleen by laparoscopic surgery. The resected sample was subject to pathological examinations for final validation, and was finally diagnosed as an accessory spleen. The patient was followed up for six months with no signs of recurrence. PMID:26622609

  6. Benign granular cell tumor of the vulva: first report of multiple cases in a family.

    PubMed

    Kardhashi, Anila; Assunta Deliso, Maria; Renna, Alessandra; Trojano, Giuseppe; Zito, Francesco Alfredo; Trojano, Vito

    2012-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are uncommon soft tissue tumors of neural derivation, as supported by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural evidence. Vulvar involvement has been reported in 7-16%. This paper presents the cases of a 60-year-old woman and her 32-year-old niece with a strong family history of cancer, both presenting with an enlarging mass on their left labia majora. The lesions were treated by simple surgical excision. Histopathological examination revealed a benign vulvar GCT in both lesions. This is the first reported case of GCT of the vulva in the same family. The possible familial component of GCT needs further investigation. A systematic review of the literature on vulvar GCTs is carried out, the most complete one to date. This review unexpectedly reveals that there have been more than 130 cases of GCT of the vulva reported to date, only 7 of which were malignant. Since 5-25% of patients have multiple lesions, before planning treatment, clinicians should exclude multicentric lesions. After surgical treatment, if there is any evidence of tumor in the surgical margin, wider local excision should be performed. Regular follow-up is important for diagnosing a possible recurrence or a new lesion.

  7. Methylation Status of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Promoter in Benign and Malignant Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pilon, Catia; Rebellato, Andrea; Urbanet, Riccardo; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Cappellesso, Rocco; Sasano, Hironobu; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed a decreased expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA/protein in a small group of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) tissues, suggesting the loss of a protective role of VDR against malignant cell growth in this cancer type. Downregulation of VDR gene expression may result from epigenetics events, that is, methylation of cytosine nucleotide of CpG islands in VDR gene promoter. We analyzed methylation of CpG sites in the VDR gene promoter in normal adrenals and adrenocortical tumor samples. Methylation of CpG-rich 5′ regions was assessed by bisulfite sequencing PCR using bisulfite-treated DNA from archival microdissected paraffin-embedded adrenocortical tissues. Three normal adrenals and 23 various adrenocortical tumor samples (15 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) were studied. Methylation in the promoter region of VDR gene was found in 3/8 ACCs, while no VDR gene methylation was observed in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas. VDR mRNA and protein levels were lower in ACCs than in benign tumors, and VDR immunostaining was weak or negative in ACCs, including all 3 methylated tissue samples. The association between VDR gene promoter methylation and reduced VDR gene expression is not a rare event in ACC, suggesting that VDR epigenetic inactivation may have a role in adrenocortical carcinogenesis. PMID:26843863

  8. May bone cement be used to treat benign aggressive bone tumors of the feet with confidence?

    PubMed

    Özer, Devrim; Er, Turgay; Aycan, Osman Emre; Öke, Ramadan; Coşkun, Mehmet; Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz Selim

    2014-03-01

    Using bone cement for the reconstruction of defects created after curettage of benign aggressive bone tumors is among acceptable methods. The study aimed to assess the effect of bone cement used in aggressive bone tumors in the feet on the function of the feet. Five patients were reviewed. They were treated between 2004 and 2010. Three cases were female and two male. Their age ranged from 16 to 55 with an average of 34.8. Follow up period ranged from 14 to 86 months with an average of 34. Two cases were giant cell tumor of bone located in calcaneus and 3 were solid variant aneurysmal bone cyst located in talus, navicular and first proximal phalanx. None had any previous treatment. A biopsy was done in all cases. Treatment was curettage, high speed burring (except phalanx case), and filling the cavity with bone cement. The case located in talus recurred and re-operated 1 year later doing the same procedure. Final evaluation included physical examination, X-ray and Maryland Foot Score. No recurrence was present in the final evaluation. No problems were detected related to bone cement. Maryland Foot Scores ranged 84-100, average of 94. Cement integrity was not disturbed. The procedure is found not to effect foot functions adversely.

  9. Expression of master regulatory genes controlling skeletal development in benign cartilage and bone forming tumors.

    PubMed

    Dancer, Jane Y; Henry, Stephen P; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Lee, Sangkyou; Ayala, Alberto G; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2010-12-01

    Recent progress in skeletal molecular biology has led to the clarification of the transcriptional mechanisms of chondroblastic and osteoblastic lineage differentiation. Three master transcription factors-Sox9, Runx2, and Osterix-were shown to play an essential role in determining the skeletal progenitor cells' fate. The present study evaluates the expression of these factors in 4 types of benign bone tumors-chondromyxoid fibroma, chondroblastoma, osteoid osteoma, and osteoblastoma-using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays. Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma showed strong nuclear expression of Osterix and Runx2. In contrast, only a few chondroblastomas showed positive nuclear expression of Osterix. Strong nuclear expression of Sox9 was detected in all chondroblastomas, whereas nearly half of the osteoblastomas showed focal weak cytoplasmic expression of Sox9.

  10. Stem cell marker-positive stellate cells and mast cells are reduced in benign-appearing bladder tissue in patients with urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Isfoss, Björn L; Busch, Christer; Hermelin, Helena; Vermedal, Anette T; Kile, Marianne; Braathen, Geir J; Majak, Bernard; Berner, Aasmund

    2014-04-01

    Survival after invasive bladder cancer has improved less than that of other common non-skin cancers. In many types of malignancy, treatment failure has been attributed to therapy-resistant stem-like cancer cells. Our aim was therefore to determine identities of stem cell marker-positive cells in bladder cancer tissue and to investigate possible associations between these cells and different forms of bladder neoplasia. We investigated tissue from 52 patients with bladder neoplasia and 18 patients with benign bladder conditions, from a cohort that had been previously described with regard to diagnosis and outcome. The samples were analysed immunohistologically for the stem cell markers aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 A1 (ALDH1) and CD44, and markers of cell differentiation. The majority of stem cell marker-positive cells were located in connective tissue, and a smaller fraction in epithelial tissue. Stem cell marker-positive cells exhibiting possible stem cell characteristics included cells in deeper locations of benign and malignant epithelium, and sub-endothelial cells in patients with or without neoplasia. Stem cell marker-positive cells with non-stem cell character included stellate cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, foamy histiocytes, and neurons. Significantly, ALDH1+ stellate cells and ALDH1+ mast cells were reduced in number in stroma of benign-appearing mucosa of bladder cancer patients. The stem cell markers ALDH1 and CD44 label several types of differentiated cells in bladder tissue. ALDH1+ stellate cells and mast cells appear to be reduced in stroma of normal-appearing mucosa of bladder cancer patients, and may be part of a "field effect" in cancer-near areas.

  11. Extramedullary hematopoiesis in a case of benign mixed mammary tumor in a female dog: cytological and histopathological assessment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is defined as the presence of hematopoietic stem cells such as erythroid and myeloid lineage plus megakaryocytes in extramedullary sites like liver, spleen and lymph nodes and is usually associated with either bone marrow or hematological disorders. Mammary EMH is a rare condition either in human and veterinary medicine and can be associated with benign mixed mammary tumors, similarly to that described in this case. Case presentation Hematopoietic stem cells were found in a benign mixed mammary tumor of a 7-year-old female mongrel dog that presents a nodule in the left inguinal mammary gland. The patient did not have any hematological abnormalities. Cytological evaluation demonstrated two distinct cell populations, composed of either epithelial or mesenchymal cells, sometimes associated with a fibrillar acidophilic matrix, apart from megakaryocytes, osteoclasts, metarubricytes, prorubricytes, rubricytes, rubriblasts, promyelocytes, myeloblasts. Histological examination confirmed the presence of an active hematopoietic bone marrow within the bone tissue of a benign mammary mixed tumor. Conclusions EMH is a rare condition described in veterinary medicine that can be associated with mammary mixed tumors. It's detection can be associated with several neoplastic and non-neoplastic mammary lesions, i.e. osteosarcomas, mixed tumors and bone metaplasia. PMID:20846427

  12. Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression and humoral response in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sumit; Parashar, Deepak; Gupta, Namita; Jagadish, Nirmala; Thakar, Alok; Suri, Vaishali; Kumar, Rajive; Gupta, Anju; Ansari, Abdul S; Lohiya, Nirmal Kumar; Suri, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers are highly aggressive epithelial tumor associated with metastatic potential and high mortality. The tumors are biologically diverse and are of various histotypes. Besides, the detection and diagnosis is a major problem of salivary gland cancer for available treatment modalities. In the present study, we have investigated the association of sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression with salivary gland tumor (SGT). Clinical specimens of benign (n = 16) and malignant tumors (n = 86) were examined for the SPAG9 expression. In addition, the sera and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (n = 72) from available patients were obtained. Our in situ RNA hybridization and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis revealed significant difference (p = 0.0001) in SPAG9 gene and protein expression in benign (63%) and malignant tumor (84%) specimens. Further, significant association was also observed between SPAG9 expression and malignant tumors (P = 0.05). A cut-off value of >10% cells expressing SPAG9 protein designated as positive in IHC, predicted presence of malignant SGT with 83.72% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV and 83.72% NPV. Humoral response against SPAG9 protein was generated in 68% of SGT patients. A cut-off value of 0.212 OD for anti-SPAG9 antibodies in ELISA predicted presence of malignant SGT with 69.23% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV and 78.94% NPV. Collectively, our data suggests that the majority of SGT show significant difference and association among benign and malignant tumors for SPAG9 gene and protein expression and also exhibit humoral response against SPAG9 protein. Hence, SPAG9 may be developed as a biomarker for detection and diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. PMID:25941602

  13. HSP27 and 70 expression in thymic epithelial tumors and benign thymic alterations: diagnostic, prognostic and physiologic implications

    PubMed Central

    Janik, S.; Schiefer, A. I.; Bekos, C.; Hacker, P.; Haider, T.; Moser, J.; Klepetko, W.; Müllauer, L.; Ankersmit, H. J.; Moser, B.

    2016-01-01

    Thymic Epithelial Tumors (TETs), the most common tumors in the anterior mediastinum in adults, show a unique association with autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis (MG) and represent a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Neither risk factors nor established biomarkers for TETs exist. Predictive and diagnostic markers are urgently needed. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are upregulated in several malignancies promoting tumor cell survival and metastases. We performed immunohistochemical staining of HSP27 and 70 in patients with TETs (n = 101) and patients with benign thymic alterations (n = 24). Further, serum HSP27 and 70 concentrations were determined in patients with TETs (n = 46), patients with benign thymic alterations (n = 33) and volunteers (n = 49) by using ELISA. HSPs were differentially expressed in histologic types and pathological tumor stages of TETs. Weak HSP tumor expression correlated with worse freedom from recurrence. Serum HSP concentrations were elevated in TETs and MG, correlated with clinical tumor stage and histologic subtype and decreased significantly after complete tumor resection. To conclude, we found HSP expression in the vast majority of TETs, in physiologic thymus and staining intensities in patients with TETs have been associated with prognosis. However, although interesting and promising the role of HSPs in TETs as diagnostic and prognostic or even therapeutic markers need to be further evaluated. PMID:27097982

  14. HSP27 and 70 expression in thymic epithelial tumors and benign thymic alterations: diagnostic, prognostic and physiologic implications.

    PubMed

    Janik, S; Schiefer, A I; Bekos, C; Hacker, P; Haider, T; Moser, J; Klepetko, W; Müllauer, L; Ankersmit, H J; Moser, B

    2016-04-21

    Thymic Epithelial Tumors (TETs), the most common tumors in the anterior mediastinum in adults, show a unique association with autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis (MG) and represent a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Neither risk factors nor established biomarkers for TETs exist. Predictive and diagnostic markers are urgently needed. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are upregulated in several malignancies promoting tumor cell survival and metastases. We performed immunohistochemical staining of HSP27 and 70 in patients with TETs (n = 101) and patients with benign thymic alterations (n = 24). Further, serum HSP27 and 70 concentrations were determined in patients with TETs (n = 46), patients with benign thymic alterations (n = 33) and volunteers (n = 49) by using ELISA. HSPs were differentially expressed in histologic types and pathological tumor stages of TETs. Weak HSP tumor expression correlated with worse freedom from recurrence. Serum HSP concentrations were elevated in TETs and MG, correlated with clinical tumor stage and histologic subtype and decreased significantly after complete tumor resection. To conclude, we found HSP expression in the vast majority of TETs, in physiologic thymus and staining intensities in patients with TETs have been associated with prognosis. However, although interesting and promising the role of HSPs in TETs as diagnostic and prognostic or even therapeutic markers need to be further evaluated.

  15. Cystic nephroma/mixed epithelial stromal tumor: a benign neoplasm with potential for recurrence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Belinda L; Abern, Michael; Garzon, Steven; Setty, Suman

    2015-05-01

    Cystic nephroma (CN) is a rare, benign, renal neoplasm composed of epithelial and stromal elements. Only about 200 cases have been reported since 1892 and recurrence has rarely been observed. We report a 32-year-old Hispanic woman, with a history of a right, complex cystic, renal mass treated by robotic decortication 2 years ago, who presented with flank pain, hematuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection. A magnetic resonance imaging study showed a 3.4-cm multicystic lesion with thickened septa and enhancement at the right kidney. The partial nephrectomy specimen revealed a well-circumscribed, multicystic tumor abutting the renal pelvis, with thick septa and smooth walls, filled with clear fluid. Microscopic examination showed variably sized cysts lined by cuboidal epithelium with focal hobnailing, without significant cytologic atypia and mitosis. The epithelial lining was positive for CK19, high molecular weight cytokeratin, and α-methylacyl-CoA racemase suggesting a primitive tubular epithelial phenotype. Primitive glomeruli-like structures were also present. The ovarian-like stroma was condensed around the cysts and was variably cellular with areas of muscle differentiation and thick-walled vessels. The stroma was positive for desmin, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and CD10. We suggest that CN represents a variable mixture of epithelial and stromal elements, immature glomerular, tubular, muscle, and vascular elements, which may be present in variable proportions creating a spectrum of lesions previously described as CN and mixed epithelial and stromal tumors (MEST). This case emphasizes that CN/MEST clinically/radiologically mimics other cystic renal neoplasms, especially cystic renal cell carcinoma and tubulocystic carcinoma, necessitating histopathological examination and immunohistochemial studies for definitive diagnosis. Additionally, CN has the tendency to recur when not completely excised initially.

  16. Wavelet-Based 3D Reconstruction of Microcalcification Clusters from Two Mammographic Views: New Evidence That Fractal Tumors Are Malignant and Euclidean Tumors Are Benign

    PubMed Central

    Batchelder, Kendra A.; Tanenbaum, Aaron B.; Albert, Seth; Guimond, Lyne; Kestener, Pierre; Arneodo, Alain; Khalil, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) method was used to detect microcalcifications (MC) in human breast tissue seen in mammograms and to characterize the fractal geometry of benign and malignant MC clusters. This was done in the context of a preliminary analysis of a small dataset, via a novel way to partition the wavelet-transform space-scale skeleton. For the first time, the estimated 3D fractal structure of a breast lesion was inferred by pairing the information from two separate 2D projected mammographic views of the same breast, i.e. the cranial-caudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views. As a novelty, we define the “CC-MLO fractal dimension plot”, where a “fractal zone” and “Euclidean zones” (non-fractal) are defined. 118 images (59 cases, 25 malignant and 34 benign) obtained from a digital databank of mammograms with known radiologist diagnostics were analyzed to determine which cases would be plotted in the fractal zone and which cases would fall in the Euclidean zones. 92% of malignant breast lesions studied (23 out of 25 cases) were in the fractal zone while 88% of the benign lesions were in the Euclidean zones (30 out of 34 cases). Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical analysis shows that, with 95% credibility, the probability that fractal breast lesions are malignant is between 74% and 98%. Alternatively, with 95% credibility, the probability that Euclidean breast lesions are benign is between 76% and 96%. These results support the notion that the fractal structure of malignant tumors is more likely to be associated with an invasive behavior into the surrounding tissue compared to the less invasive, Euclidean structure of benign tumors. Finally, based on indirect 3D reconstructions from the 2D views, we conjecture that all breast tumors considered in this study, benign and malignant, fractal or Euclidean, restrict their growth to 2-dimensional manifolds within the breast tissue. PMID:25222610

  17. Wavelet-based 3D reconstruction of microcalcification clusters from two mammographic views: new evidence that fractal tumors are malignant and Euclidean tumors are benign.

    PubMed

    Batchelder, Kendra A; Tanenbaum, Aaron B; Albert, Seth; Guimond, Lyne; Kestener, Pierre; Arneodo, Alain; Khalil, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) method was used to detect microcalcifications (MC) in human breast tissue seen in mammograms and to characterize the fractal geometry of benign and malignant MC clusters. This was done in the context of a preliminary analysis of a small dataset, via a novel way to partition the wavelet-transform space-scale skeleton. For the first time, the estimated 3D fractal structure of a breast lesion was inferred by pairing the information from two separate 2D projected mammographic views of the same breast, i.e. the cranial-caudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views. As a novelty, we define the "CC-MLO fractal dimension plot", where a "fractal zone" and "Euclidean zones" (non-fractal) are defined. 118 images (59 cases, 25 malignant and 34 benign) obtained from a digital databank of mammograms with known radiologist diagnostics were analyzed to determine which cases would be plotted in the fractal zone and which cases would fall in the Euclidean zones. 92% of malignant breast lesions studied (23 out of 25 cases) were in the fractal zone while 88% of the benign lesions were in the Euclidean zones (30 out of 34 cases). Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical analysis shows that, with 95% credibility, the probability that fractal breast lesions are malignant is between 74% and 98%. Alternatively, with 95% credibility, the probability that Euclidean breast lesions are benign is between 76% and 96%. These results support the notion that the fractal structure of malignant tumors is more likely to be associated with an invasive behavior into the surrounding tissue compared to the less invasive, Euclidean structure of benign tumors. Finally, based on indirect 3D reconstructions from the 2D views, we conjecture that all breast tumors considered in this study, benign and malignant, fractal or Euclidean, restrict their growth to 2-dimensional manifolds within the breast tissue.

  18. Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Regine; Konecky, Soren D.; Corlu, Alper; Lee, Kijoon; Durduran, Turgut; Busch, David R.; Pathak, Saurav; Czerniecki, Brian J.; Tchou, Julia; Fraker, Douglas L.; Demichele, Angela; Chance, Britton; Arridge, Simon R.; Schweiger, Martin; Culver, Joseph P.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Putt, Mary E.; Rosen, Mark A.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a novel parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography (DOT) system for three-dimensional in vivo imaging of human breast tumor based on large optical data sets. Images of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentration as well as blood oxygen saturation and tissue scattering were reconstructed. Tumor margins were derived using the optical data with guidance from radiology reports and magnetic resonance imaging. Tumor-to-normal ratios of these endogenous physiological parameters and an optical index were computed for 51 biopsy-proven lesions from 47 subjects. Malignant cancers (N=41) showed statistically significant higher total hemoglobin, oxy-hemoglobin concentration, and scattering compared to normal tissue. Furthermore, malignant lesions exhibited a twofold average increase in optical index. The influence of core biopsy on DOT results was also explored; the difference between the malignant group measured before core biopsy and the group measured more than 1 week after core biopsy was not significant. Benign tumors (N=10) did not exhibit statistical significance in the tumor-to-normal ratios of any parameter. Optical index and tumor-to-normal ratios of total hemoglobin, oxy-hemoglobin concentration, and scattering exhibited high area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values from 0.90 to 0.99, suggesting good discriminatory power. The data demonstrate that benign and malignant lesions can be distinguished by quantitative three-dimensional DOT.

  19. Classification of Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors in Ultrasound Images with Posterior Acoustic Shadowing Using Half-Contour Features.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Chang, King-Jen; Chen, Wei-Ren; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Lin, Chung-Chih; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    Posterior acoustic shadowing (PAS) can bias breast tumor segmentation and classification in ultrasound images. In this paper, half-contour features are proposed to classify benign and malignant breast tumors with PAS, considering the fact that the upper half of the tumor contour is less affected by PAS. Adaptive thresholding and disk expansion are employed to detect tumor contours. Based on the detected full contour, the upper half contour is extracted. For breast tumor classification, six quantitative feature parameters are analyzed for both full contours and half contours, including standard deviation of degree (SDD), which is proposed to describe tumor irregularity. Fifty clinical cases (40 with PAS and 10 without PAS) were used. Tumor circularity (TC) and SDD were both effective full- and half-contour parameters in classifying images without PAS. Half-contour TC [74 % accuracy, 72 % sensitivity, 76 % specificity, 0.78 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), p > 0.05] significantly improved the classification of breast tumors with PAS compared to that with full-contour TC (54 % accuracy, 56 % sensitivity, 52 % specificity, 0.52 AUC, p > 0.05). Half-contour SDD (72 % accuracy, 76 % sensitivity, 68 % specificity, 0.81 AUC, p < 0.05) improved the classification of breast tumors with PAS compared to that with full-contour SDD (62 % accuracy, 80 % sensitivity, 44 % specificity, 0.61 AUC, p > 0.05). The proposed half-contour TC and SDD may be useful in classifying benign and malignant breast tumors in ultrasound images affected by PAS.

  20. Differential distribution of tumor-associated macrophages and Treg/Th17 cells in the progression of malignant and benign epithelial ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qinyi; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Xipeng

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the predominant causes of cancer-associated mortality in women with gynecological oncology. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and T helper cell 17 (Th17) cells have been hypothesized to be involved in the progression of EOC. However, the association between TAMs and T cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential distribution of TAMs, Treg cells and Th17 cells in benign ovarian tumor tissues and in tissues from patients with EOC, and to examine their association with the clinical pathology of EOC. A total of 126 tissue samples from patients with EOC and 26 tissue samples from patients with benign ovarian tumors were analyzed, and it was identified that the distribution of TAMs, Treg cells, Th17 cells and the ratio of Treg/Th17 cells were higher in the patients with EOC using triple color immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The high frequency of TAMs and ratio of Treg/Th17 cells in late tumor grades suggested that they may be significant in tumor progression. The frequency of TAMs was different between the histological types of EOC. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the microvessel density (MVD) in the EOC and benign ovarian tumor tissues. A higher MVD was observed in the EOC patient tissues, particularly, in the late tumor grade tissues. The present study provided clinical data demonstrating the high distribution of TAMs and T-cells in EOC, which may contribute to tumor progression through angiogenesis. The mechanisms by which TAMs are associated with Treg cells and Th17 cells requires further investigation as prognostic factors and therapeutic targets for EOC. PMID:28123537

  1. Reconstruction by bone transport after resection of benign tumors of tibia: A retrospective study of 38 patients

    PubMed Central

    Borzunov, Dmitry Y; Balaev, Pavel I; Subramanyam, Koushik N

    2015-01-01

    Background: The commonly used reconstructive options after post resection defects in bone tumors like megaprosthesis, autograft, allograft, bone graft substitutes and recycled bone have their own demerits on a long term. Bone transport that regenerates patient's own bone is a less explored option of reconstruction after resection of benign bone tumors and reports on this are limited. This technique is very much relevant in tibia where Ilizarov fixator is surgeon and patient friendly. We report our experience. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective series of resection and bone transport in 38 patients with benign tumor of tibia. There were 14 males and 24 females with mean age of 23.40 years (range 9–40 years). Lesion was located in proximal third tibia in 27, middle third in two and distal third in nine patients. The diagnosis was giant cell tumor in 32, chondroblastoma in three, chondromyxoid fibroma, enchondroma and desmoplasic fibroma in one patient each. The resection was intercalary in 28 and transarticular in 10 patients. Osteosynthesis was monofocal in three, bifocal in 31 and polyfocal in four cases. Results: Mean followup was 7.22 years (range 1.5–15 years). Mean resection length was 10.21 cm (range 3–22 cm). The mean duration of external fixator was 308.03 days (range 89–677 days) and mean external fixator index was 36.14 days/cm (range 16.84–97.43 days/cm). Twelve patients had difficulties in the form of 11 problems and five obstacles that were successfully managed. None of the patients had local recurrence of tumor or any long term complication. Mean Musculo-skeletal Tumour Society score at final followup was 27.18 (90.60%). Conclusions: Bone transport is an excellent option after resection of benign tumors of tibia with good local control and functional outcome, despite minor difficulties that need timely management. PMID:26538757

  2. Management of a Benign Phyllodes Tumor in a 13-Year-Old Girl with Trans-position of the Nipple Areola Complex and Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Erginel, B; Celet Ozden, B; Yesil Onder, S; Yuksel, S; Gun Soysal, F; Celik, A; Salman, T

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is a rare primary tumor of the breast. In children and adolescents, it is even rarer with only 20 cases, treatment of which vary in the literature. Herein we report the case of a 13-year-old female patient with a giant benign phyllodes tumor eroding the bottom of the breast skin and causing nipple retraction. We performed breast conservative surgery by mobilizing the areola, using skin flaps and inserting an implant. Breast malignancy, including phyllodes tumor (PT), is very rare in adolescents. PT, previously called cystosarcoma phylloides, consists of leaf-like fronds, from which the tumor gets its name (1, 2). Although PT is most often seen in the fourth decade of life, almost 20 cases have been reported in the adolescent period, most of which are benign. The histologic types are benign, borderline, and malignant, depending on the mitotic rate of the tumor (3, 4).

  3. Identification of a gain-of-function mutation of the prolactin receptor in women with benign breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bogorad, Roman L.; Courtillot, Carine; Mestayer, Chidi; Bernichtein, Sophie; Harutyunyan, Lilya; Jomain, Jean-Baptiste; Bachelot, Anne; Kuttenn, Frédérique; Kelly, Paul A.; Goffin, Vincent; Touraine, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    There is currently no known genetic disease linked to prolactin (Prl) or its receptor (PrlR) in humans. Given the essential role of this hormonal system in breast physiology, we reasoned that genetic anomalies of Prl/PrlR genes may be related to the occurrence of breast diseases with high proliferative potential. Multiple fibroadenomas (MFA) are benign breast tumors which appear most frequently in young women, including at puberty, when Prl has well-recognized proliferative actions on the breast. In a prospective study involving 74 MFA patients and 170 control subjects, we identified four patients harboring a heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 6 of the PrlR gene, encoding Ile146→Leu substitution in its extracellular domain. This sole substitution was sufficient to confer constitutive activity to the receptor variant (PrlRI146L), as assessed in three reconstituted cell models (Ba/F3, HEK293 and MCF-7 cells) by Prl-independent (i) PrlR tyrosine phosphorylation, (ii) activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling, (iii) transcriptional activity toward a Prl-responsive reporter gene, and (iv) cell proliferation and protection from cell death. Constitutive activity of PrlRI146L in the breast sample from a patient was supported by increased STAT5 signaling. This is a unique description of a functional mutation of the PrlR associated with a human disease. Hallmarks of constitutive activity were all reversed by a specific PrlR antagonist, which opens potential therapeutic approaches for MFA, or any other disease that could be associated with this mutation in future. PMID:18779591

  4. DNA Cytometry and Nuclear Morphometry in Ovarian Benign, Borderline and Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    el Din, Amina A. Gamal; Badawi, Manal A.; Aal, Shereen E. Abdel; Ibrahim, Nihad A.; Morsy, Fatma A.; Shaffie, Nermeen M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKDROUND: Ovarian carcinoma is a leading cause of death in gynecological malignancy. Ovarian surface epithelial serous and mucinous tumours are classified as benign, borderline, and malignant. The identification of borderline tumours most likely to act aggressively remains an important clinical issue. AIM: This work aimed to study DNA ploidy and nuclear area in ovarian serous and mucinous; benign, borderline and malignant tumours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included forty ovarian (23 serous and 17 mucinous) tumours. Paraffin blocks were sectioned; stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic and morphometric studies and with blue feulgen for DNA analysis. RESULTS: All four serous and six out of nine mucinous benign tumours were diploid. All eight serous and five mucinous malignant tumours were aneuploid. Nine of eleven (81.8%) serous and all three mucinous borderline tumours were aneuploid. There were highly significant differences in mean aneuploid cells percentage between serous benign (1.5%), borderline (45.6%) and malignant (74.5%) (p = 0.0001) and between mucinous benign (13.2%) and both borderline (63.7%) and malignant (68.4%) groups (p = 0.0001). There were significant differences in nuclear area between serous benign (26.191%), borderline (45.619%) and malignant (67.634 %) and a significant positive correlation between mean percentage aneuploid value and mean nuclear area in all serous and mucinous groups. CONCLUSION: We suggest that DNA ploidy and nuclear area combined, may be adjuncts to histopathology; in ovarian serous and mucinous benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms; identifying the aggressive borderline tumours. PMID:27275284

  5. Transient appearance of circulating tumor DNA associated with de novo treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kikuya; Uchida, Junji; Kukita, Yoji; Kumagai, Toru; Nishino, Kazumi; Inoue, Takako; Kimura, Madoka; Imamura, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    The limitation of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is its inability to detect cancer cell subpopulations with few or no dying cells. Lung cancer patients subjected to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment were prospectively collected, and ctDNA levels represented by the activating and T790M mutations were measured. The first data set (21 patients) consisting of samples collected in the period from before initiation of EGFR-TKI to at least 2 weeks after initiation: the ctDNA dynamics generally exhibited a rapid decrease and/or a transient increase. In 4 patients, we detected a transient increase of ctDNA bearing activating mutations not identified in biopsy samples. ctDNA with the same genotypical pattern was identified in 7 out of the 39 patients of the second data set intended to include samples until the onset of disease progression. In 6 of the 7 patients, this unique ctDNA appeared in the early period after treatment initiation, and did not reappear even after disease progression or chemotherapy. In another patient, similar ctDNA appeared upon radiation therapy. The identification of ctDNA with a unique genotype indicates the presence of cancer cell subpopulations that normally contain few or no dying cells, but generate dead cells because of the treatment. PMID:27934896

  6. Identification of novel candidate plasma metabolite biomarkers for distinguishing serous ovarian carcinoma and benign serous ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Buas, Matthew F.; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Drescher, Charles W.; Urban, Nicole; Raftery, Daniel; Li, Christopher I.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Serous ovarian carcinoma (OC) represents a leading cause of cancer-related death among U.S. women. Non-invasive tools have recently emerged for discriminating benign from malignant ovarian masses, but evaluation remains ongoing, without widespread implementation. In the last decade, metabolomics has matured into a new avenue for cancer biomarker development. Here, we sought to identify novel plasma metabolite biomarkers to distinguish serous ovarian carcinoma and benign ovarian tumor. METHODS Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we conducted global and targeted metabolite profiling of plasma isolated at the time of surgery from 50 serous OC cases and 50 serous benign controls. RESULTS Global lipidomics analysis identified 34 metabolites (of 372 assessed) differing significantly (P<0.05) between cases and controls in both training and testing sets, with 17 candidates satisfying FDR q<0.05, and two reaching Bonferroni significance. Targeted profiling of ~150 aqueous metabolites identified a single amino acid, alanine, as differentially abundant (P<0.05). A multivariate classification model built using the top four lipid metabolites achieved an estimated AUC of 0.85 (SD=0.07) based on Monte Carlo cross validation. Evaluation of a hybrid model incorporating both CA125 and lipid metabolites was suggestive of increased classification accuracy (AUC=0.91, SD=0.05) relative to CA125 alone (AUC=0.87, SD=0.07), particularly at high fixed levels of sensitivity, without reaching significance. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide insight into metabolic changes potentially correlated with the presence of serous OC versus benign ovarian tumor and suggest that plasma metabolites may help differentiate these two conditions. PMID:26521694

  7. Benign nodal lesions mimicking metastases from pediatric renal neoplasms: a report of the National Wilms' Tumor Study Pathology Center.

    PubMed

    Weeks, D A; Beckwith, J B; Mierau, G W

    1990-12-01

    Regional lymph node status is a key factor in the staging of pediatric renal tumors on the National Wilms' Tumor Study (NWTS). A review of cases entered on the NWTS has uncovered a number of cases where benign lymph node findings were mistaken for metastases. Most frequently, this was due to the presence of complexes of epithelial cells and Tamm-Horsfall protein within nodal sinuses. The epithelial cells were derived from damaged nephrons, usually resulting from obstruction by tumor. Another epithelial pseudometastic lesion, intranodal squamous epithelial cells, was found to originate from metaplastic calyceal urothelium. Benign mesothelial or coelomic inclusions similar to those previously described in pelvic and periaortic lymph nodes of adult females were found in nodes of four patients, including two boys, who are, to our knowledge, the first to be described with this finding. Other sources of confusion included protrusion of lymphoid follicles or germinal centers into nodal sinuses, thick endothelial cells of postcapillary venules mimicking epithelial tubules, nodal megakaryocytes resembling anaplastic nuclear changes, and histiocytic granulomas. Immunocytochemical methods were useful in evaluating some of these phenomena. Recognition of these pseudometastatic lesions is essential in order to avoid unnecessary and potentially hazardous therapeutic intensification.

  8. Laser polarization fluorescence of optically anisotropic crystals molecular imaging in the differentiation of biological benign and malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu. A.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Karachevtsev, A. O.; Motrich, A. V.; Sidor, M. I.

    2013-09-01

    The model of laser polarization fluorescence of biological tissues considering the mechanisms of optically anisotropic absorption - linear and circular dichroism of protein networks was suggested.Muellermatrix rotation invariants characterizing polarization manifestations of laser fluorescence are determined.The interconnections between the statistical, correlation and fractal parameters characterizing the Mueller-matrix images of laser polarization fluorescence and the peculiarities of the mechanisms of optically anisotropic absorption of histological sections of uterus wall biopsy were found. Effectiveness of the method of azimuthinvariant Mueller-matrix mapping of laser polarization fluorescence of protein networks in the task of differentiation of benign and malignant tumors of uterus wall was demonstrated.

  9. [Benign metastasizing pulmonary leiomyomatosis. A report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Pifarré, R; Izquierdo, J; Calatrava, A; Martínez, C; Ruiz, J; Morera, J

    1999-12-01

    The benign metastasizing leiomyoma is an uncommon variety of leiomyoma, tumor derived from smooth muscular tissue. The benign metastasizing leiomyoma affects a middle age women, with antecedents of uterine leiomyoma, the pulmonary lesions appeared as a multiple nodules, without systemic affectation. We present three cases of benign metastasizing leiomyoma that de diagnosis was made for biopsy by thoracotomy; and in one case the markers from estrogens' receivers were positive.

  10. Differential nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of PTEN in normal thyroid tissue, and benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Gimm, O; Perren, A; Weng, L P; Marsh, D J; Yeh, J J; Ziebold, U; Gil, E; Hinze, R; Delbridge, L; Lees, J A; Mutter, G L; Robinson, B G; Komminoth, P; Dralle, H; Eng, C

    2000-05-01

    Germline mutations in PTEN (MMAC1/TEP1) are found in patients with Cowden syndrome, a familial cancer syndrome which is characterized by a high risk of breast and thyroid neoplasia. Although somatic intragenic PTEN mutations have rarely been found in benign and malignant sporadic thyroid tumors, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been reported in up to one fourth of follicular thyroid adenomas (FAs) and carcinomas. In this study, we examined PTEN expression in 139 sporadic nonmedullary thyroid tumors (55 FA, 27 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 35 papillary thyroid carcinomas, and 22 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas) using immunohistochemistry and correlated this to the results of LOH studies. Normal follicular thyroid cells showed a strong to moderate nuclear or nuclear membrane signal although the cytoplasmic staining was less strong. In FAs the neoplastic nuclei had less intense PTEN staining, although the cytoplasmic PTEN-staining intensity did not differ significantly from that observed in normal follicular cells. In thyroid carcinomas as a group, nuclear PTEN immunostaining was mostly weak in comparison with normal thyroid follicular cells and FAs. The cytoplasmic staining was more intense than the nuclear staining in 35 to 49% of carcinomas, depending on the histological type. Among 81 informative tumors assessed for LOH, there seemed to be an associative trend between decreased nuclear and cytoplasmic staining and 10q23 LOH (P = 0.003, P = 0.008, respectively). These data support a role for PTEN in the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid tumors.

  11. Relationship between Expression of Onco-Related miRNAs and the Endoscopic Appearance of Colorectal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Akao, Yukihiro; Taniguchi, Kohei; Kamatani, Akemi; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Kamano, Toshiaki; Nakano, Naoko; Komura, Naruomi; Ikuno, Hirokazu; Ohmori, Takafumi; Jodai, Yasutaka; Miyata, Masahiro; Nagasaka, Mistuo; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Ohmiya, Naoki; Hirata, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating data indicates that certain microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are differently expressed in samples of tumors and paired non-tumorous samples taken from the same patients with colorectal tumors. We examined the expression of onco-related miRNAs in 131 sporadic exophytic adenomas or early cancers and in 52 sporadic flat elevated adenomas or early cancers to clarify the relationship between the expression of the miRNAs and the endoscopic morphological appearance of the colorectal tumors. The expression levels of miR-143, -145, and -34a were significantly reduced in most of the exophytic tumors compared with those in the flat elevated ones. In type 2 cancers, the miRNA expression profile was very similar to that of the exophytic tumors. The expression levels of miR-7 and -21 were significantly up-regulated in some flat elevated adenomas compared with those in exophytic adenomas. In contrast, in most of the miR-143 and -145 down-regulated cases of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence and in some of the de novo types of carcinoma, the up-regulation of oncogenic miR-7 and/or -21 contributed to the triggering mechanism leading to the carcinogenetic process. These findings indicated that the expression of onco-related miRNA was associated with the morphological appearance of colorectal tumors. PMID:25584614

  12. Incidence of malignant skin tumors in 14,140 patients after grenz-ray treatment for benign skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindelöf, B; Eklund, G

    1986-12-01

    During the years 1949 to 1975, 14,237 patients received therapeutic doses of grenz rays for the treatment of benign skin disorders such as chronic eczema, psoriasis, and warts. The records of 14,140 of these patients (99.3%) formed the basis for an epidemiologic study of the incidence of skin malignancies in this population. Information about the patients, diagnoses, doses, and sites of treatment was obtained from separate records. The follow-up time was 15 years on the average. We searched the Swedish Cancer Registry, Stockholm, for records reporting the incidence of malignant skin tumors in the study population (incidences of basal cell carcinoma are not registered). The expected number of malignancies was calculated on the basis of age- and sex-standardized incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. In 58 patients, a malignant skin tumor was diagnosed more than five years after grenz-ray therapy had first been administered. Nineteen patients had malignant melanomas, and 39 patients had other malignant skin tumors. The expected number of melanomas was 17.8, and that of other malignant skin tumors was 26.9. None of the patients with melanomas, and only eight of the patients with other malignant skin tumors, had received grenz-ray therapy at the site of the tumor. Six of these eight patients had also been exposed to other known carcinogens. Four hundred eighty-one patients had received an accumulated high dose of grenz rays (greater than or equal to 10 000 rad [greater than or equal to 100 Gy]) on one and the same area. No malignancies were found on those areas. Although we cannot exclude grenz-ray therapy as a risk factor in the development of nonmelanoma skin malignancies, this risk, if any, is small, if recommendations for therapy are followed.

  13. Incidence of malignant skin tumors in 14,140 patients after grenz-ray treatment for benign skin disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Lindeloef, B.E.; Eklund, G.

    1986-12-01

    During the years 1949 to 1975, 14,237 patients received therapeutic doses of grenz rays for the treatment of benign skin disorders such as chronic eczema, psoriasis, and warts. The records of 14,140 of these patients (99.3%) formed the basis for an epidemiologic study of the incidence of skin malignancies in this population. Information about the patients, diagnoses, doses, and sites of treatment was obtained from separate records. The follow-up time was 15 years on the average. We searched the Swedish Cancer Registry, Stockholm, for records reporting the incidence of malignant skin tumors in the study population (incidences of basal cell carcinoma are not registered). The expected number of malignancies was calculated on the basis of age- and sex-standardized incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. In 58 patients, a malignant skin tumor was diagnosed more than five years after grenz-ray therapy had first been administered. Nineteen patients had malignant melanomas, and 39 patients had other malignant skin tumors. The expected number of melanomas was 17.8, and that of other malignant skin tumors was 26.9. None of the patients with melanomas, and only eight of the patients with other malignant skin tumors, had received grenz-ray therapy at the site of the tumor. Six of these eight patients had also been exposed to other known carcinogens. Four hundred eighty-one patients had received an accumulated high dose of grenz rays (greater than or equal to 10 000 rad (greater than or equal to 100 Gy)) on one and the same area. No malignancies were found on those areas. Although we cannot exclude grenz-ray therapy as a risk factor in the development of nonmelanoma skin malignancies, this risk, if any, is small, if recommendations for therapy are followed.

  14. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients

  15. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients

  16. The nested variant of urothelial carcinoma: an aggressive tumor closely simulating benign lesions.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Emine; Acikalin, Mustafa Fuat; Can, Cavit

    2006-01-01

    The "nested" variant is a rare form of urothelial carcinoma and its biologic behavior is highly aggressive. Herein two new cases of nested variant of urothelial carcinoma with immunohistochemical examination are presented. In one of the cases, the tumor extended through the bladder wall into the perivesicular soft tissue, prostatic urethra and left vesicula seminalis, and metastasized to obturator lymph nodes. In the other case, invasion of muscular layer was observed and three recurrences were developed during a follow-up period of 23 months. Both tumors of our study demonstrated high p53 and Ki-67 indices, supporting the aggressive nature of such tumors.

  17. Cellular phone use and risk of benign and malignant parotid gland tumors--a nationwide case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Jarus-Hakak, Avital; Cardis, Elisabeth; Deutch, Yonit; Duvdevani, Shay; Zultan, Ahuva; Novikov, Ilya; Freedman, Laurence; Wolf, Michael

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this nationwide study was to assess the association between cellular phone use and development of parotid gland tumors (PGTs). The methods were based on the international INTERPHONE study that aimed to evaluate possible adverse effects of cellular phone use. The study included 402 benign and 58 malignant incident cases of PGTs diagnosed in Israel at age 18 years or more, in 2001-2003, and 1,266 population individually matched controls. For the entire group, no increased risk of PGTs was observed for ever having been a regular cellular phone user (odds ratio = 0.87; p = 0.3) or for any other measure of exposure investigated. However, analysis restricted to regular users or to conditions that may yield higher levels of exposure (e.g., heavy use in rural areas) showed consistently elevated risks. For ipsilateral use, the odds ratios in the highest category of cumulative number of calls and call time without use of hands-free devices were 1.58 (95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.24) and 1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.13), respectively. The risk for contralateral use was not significantly different from 1. A positive dose-response trend was found for these measurements. Based on the largest number of benign PGT patients reported to date, our results suggest an association between cellular phone use and PGTs.

  18. MED12 mutations occurring in benign and malignant mammalian smooth muscle tumors.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Dominique Nadine; Huhle, Sonja; Nimzyk, Rolf; Stenman, Göran; Löning, Thomas; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2013-03-01

    Mutations of the mediator subcomplex 12 gene (MED12) recently have been described in a large group of uterine leiomyomas (UL) but only in a single malignant uterine smooth muscle tumor. To further address the occurrence of fibroid-type MED12 mutations in smooth muscle tumors, we have analyzed samples from 34 leiomyosarcomas (LMS), 21 UL, two extrauterine leiomyomas (EL), and 10 canine genital leiomyomas for the presence of MED12 mutations of the UL-type. Interestingly, besides UL MED12 mutations were found in one uterine LMS, one EL, and two canine vaginal leiomyomas. The results confirm the occurrence of fibroid-type MED12 mutations in malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors thus suggesting a rare but existing leiomyoma-LMS sequence. In addition, for the first time MED12 mutations are reported in smooth muscle tumors in a non-primate mammalian species.

  19. Tumor growth delay by adjuvant alternating electric fields which appears non-thermally mediated.

    PubMed

    Castellví, Quim; Ginestà, Mireia M; Capellà, Gabriel; Ivorra, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    Delivery of the so-called Tumor Treatment Fields (TTFields) has been proposed as a cancer therapy. These are low magnitude alternating electric fields at frequencies from 100 to 300 kHz which are applied continuously in a non-invasive manner. Electric field delivery may produce an increase in temperature which cannot be neglected. We hypothesized that the reported results obtained by applying TTFields in vivo could be due to heat rather than to electrical forces as previously suggested. Here, an in vivo study is presented in which pancreatic tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice were treated for a week either with mild hyperthermia (41 °C) or with TTFields (6 V/cm, 150 kHz) and tumor growth was assessed. Although the TTFields applied singly did not produce any significant effect, the combination with chemotherapy did show a delay in tumor growth in comparison to animals treated only with chemotherapy (median relative reduction=47%). We conclude that concomitant chemotherapy and TTFields delivery show a beneficial impact on pancreatic tumor growth. Contrary to our hypothesis, this impact is non-related with the induced temperature increase.

  20. Expression of master regulatory genes controlling skeletal development in benign cartilage and bone forming tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dancer, Jane Y.; Henry, Stephen P.; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Lee, Sangkyou; Ayala, Alberto G.; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Recent progress in skeletal molecular biology has led to the clarification of the transcriptional mechanisms of chondroblastic and osteoblastic lineage differentiation. Three master transcription factors—Sox9, Runx2, and Osterix—were shown to play an essential role in determining the skeletal progenitor cells' fate. The present study evaluates the expression of these factors in 4 types of benign bone tumors—chondromyxoid fibroma, chondroblastoma, osteoid osteoma, and osteoblastoma—using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays. Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma showed strong nuclear expression of Osterix and Runx2. In contrast, only a few chondroblastomas showed positive nuclear expression of Osterix. Strong nuclear expression of Sox9 was detected in all chondroblastomas, whereas nearly half of the osteoblastomas showed focal weak cytoplasmic expression of Sox9. PMID:21078438

  1. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Cyriac, Jamie; Weizman, David; Urbach, David R

    2006-11-01

    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred approach for removal of the adrenal gland. Many published studies support the use of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, with comparisons to open adrenalectomy suggesting many advantages to laparoscopy, including less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay and earlier return to work. Adrenalectomy is usually required for the removal of adrenal tumors causing excess hormone production or because a malignant adrenal tumor cannot be excluded. Current controversies include the appropriateness of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large or malignant tumors, the role of partial adrenalectomy and the management of some conditions with uncertain natural history (such as subclinical hypercortisolism). With the increased use of sensitive cross-sectional imaging, the detection of clinically inapparent adrenal masses is likely to continue to increase. Due to the fact that malignancy cannot be excluded with certainty in some patients with cortical adenomas, it is expected that the rate of laparoscopic adrenalectomy will continue to increase.

  2. Genomic and Expression Profiling of Benign & Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Leland Stanford Junior University...NUMBER Leland Stanford Junior University Stanford, California 94305-4125 9...tumors, Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1994, 10:250-255 8. Menon AG, Anderson KM, Riccardi VM, Chung RY, Whaley JM, Yandell DW, Farmer GE, Freiman RN

  3. Process of Care for Patients With Benign Cysts and Tumors: Consensus Document of the Andalusian Regional Section of the Spanish Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (AEDV).

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ramírez, D; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; de Troya, M; Reyes-Alcázar, V; Alcalde, M; Galán, M; García-Lora, E; García, E I; Linares, M; Martínez, L; Pulpillo, Á; Suárez, C; Vélez, A; Torres, A

    2016-06-01

    Benign skin lesions are a common reason for visits to primary care physicians and dermatologists. However, access to diagnosis and treatment for these lesions varies considerably between users, primarily because no explicit or standardized criteria for dealing with these patients have been defined. Principally with a view to reducing this variability in the care of patients with benign cysts or tumors, the Andalusian Regional Section of the Spanish Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (AEDV) has created a Process of Care document that describes a clinical pathway and quality-of-care characteristics for each action. This report also makes recommendations for decision-making with respect to lesions of this type.

  4. Projected Second Tumor Risk and Dose to Neurocognitive Structures After Proton Versus Photon Radiotherapy for Benign Meningioma

    SciTech Connect

    Arvold, Nils D.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Broussard, George P.; Adams, Judith; Fullerton, Barbara; Loeffler, Jay S.; Shih, Helen A.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To calculated projected second tumor rates and dose to organs at risk (OAR) in patients with benign intracranial meningioma (BM), according to dosimetric comparisons between proton radiotherapy (PRT) and photon radiotherapy (XRT) treatment plans. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with BM treated at Massachusetts General Hospital during 2006-2010 with PRT were replanned with XRT (intensity-modulated or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy), optimizing dose to the tumor while sparing OAR. Total dose was 54 Gy in 1.8 Gy per fraction for all plans. We calculated equivalent uniform doses, normal tissue complication probabilities, and whole brain-based estimates of excess risk of radiation-associated intracranial second tumors. Results: Excess risk of second tumors was significantly lower among PRT compared with XRT plans (1.3 vs. 2.8 per 10,000 patients per year, p < 0.002). Mean equivalent uniform doses were lower among PRT plans for the whole brain (19.0 vs. 22.8 Gy, p < 0.0001), brainstem (23.8 vs. 35.2 Gy, p = 0.004), hippocampi (left, 13.5 vs. 25.6 Gy, p < 0.0001; right, 7.6 vs. 21.8 Gy, p = 0.001), temporal lobes (left, 25.8 vs. 34.6 Gy, p = 0.007; right, 25.8 vs. 32.9 Gy, p = 0.008), pituitary gland (29.2 vs. 37.0 Gy, p = 0.047), optic nerves (left, 28.5 vs. 33.8 Gy, p = 0.04; right, 25.1 vs. 31.1 Gy, p = 0.07), and cochleas (left, 12.2 vs. 15.8 Gy, p = 0.39; right,1.5 vs. 8.8 Gy, p = 0.01). Mean normal tissue complication probability was <1% for all structures and not significantly different between PRT and XRT plans. Conclusions: Compared with XRT, PRT for BM decreases the risk of RT-associated second tumors by half and delivers significantly lower doses to neurocognitive and critical structures of vision and hearing.

  5. Genomic and Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    which the miRNA signal from which this miRNA signal originates that we see in lysates of whole tumors. In the past 2 years we have spent considerable...the original statement of work: STATEMENT OF WORK CONTRACTUAL ISSUES: Information provided in this final report supports the following...0.6 4 2.3 1 0.4 mitochondrial 24 2.9 1 0.1 0 0 0 0 repeat 2 0.2 0 0 3 1.7 0 0 mRNA 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 2 0.8 not mapped/ unknown 5 0.6 5 0.6

  6. Multicentric benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors in two related bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps.

    PubMed

    Lemberger, K Y; Manharth, A; Pessier, A P

    2005-07-01

    Multiple subcutaneous masses from two sibling bearded dragons were removed. Nodules were well demarcated, restricted to the subcutis, and soft, white to yellow, resembling adipose tissue. Histologically, the masses were composed of short interlacing streams and bundles of spindle cells, with regions of vague nuclear palisading. Two of the tumors contained a subpopulation of polygonal cells with abundant periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cytoplasmic granules. Neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically positive for S100 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) but negative for desmin and smooth muscle actin. Electron microscopy and reticulin stains demonstrated a continuous basal lamina separating intertwining cells. Histologic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features were consistent with a peripheral nerve sheath origin. At 1 year postexcision, local reoccurrence of a single incompletely excised mass from the left shoulder was noted.

  7. Fluorescent biopsy of biological tissues in differentiation of benign and malignant tumors of prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoniuk, L. I.; Ushenko, Yu. A.; Sidor, M. I.; Minzer, O. P.; Gritsyuk, M. V.; Novakovskaya, O. Y.

    2014-08-01

    The work consists of investigation results of diagnostic efficiency of a new azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix method of analysis of laser autofluorescence coordinate distributions of biological tissues histological sections. A new model of generalized optical anisotropy of biological tissues protein networks is proposed in order to define the processes of laser autofluorescence. The influence of complex mechanisms of both phase anisotropy (linear birefringence and optical activity) and linear (circular) dichroism is taken into account. The interconnections between the azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix elements characterizing laser autofluorescence and different mechanisms of optical anisotropy are determined. The statistic analysis of coordinate distributions of such Mueller-matrix rotation invariants is proposed. Thereupon the quantitative criteria (statistic moments of the 1st to the 4th order) of differentiation of histological sections of uterus wall tumor - group 1 (dysplasia) and group 2 (adenocarcinoma) are estimated.

  8. Factors Influencing Neurocognitive Outcomes in Young Patients With Benign and Low-Grade Brain Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Conformal Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jalali, Rakesh; Mallick, Indranil; Dutta, Debnarayan

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To present the effect of radiotherapy doses to different volumes of normal structures on neurocognitive outcomes in young patients with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients (median age, 13 years) with residual/progressive brain tumors (10 craniopharyngioma, 8 cerebellar astrocytoma, 6 optic pathway glioma and 4 cerebral low-grade glioma) were treated with SCRT to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks. Prospective neuropsychological assessments were done at baseline before RT and at subsequent follow-up examinations. The change in intelligence quotient (IQ) scores was correlated with various factors, including dose-volume to normal structures. Results: Although the overall mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) at baseline before RT remained unchanged at 2-year follow-up after SCRT, one third of patients did show a >10% decline in FSIQ as compared with baseline. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patients aged <15 years had a significantly higher chance of developing a >10% drop in FSIQ than older patients (53% vs. 10%, p = 0.03). Dosimetric comparison in patients showing a >10% decline vs. patients showing a <10% decline in IQ revealed that patients receiving >43.2 Gy to >13% of volume of the left temporal lobe were the ones to show a significant drop in FSIQ (p = 0.048). Radiotherapy doses to other normal structures, including supratentorial brain, right temporal lobe, and frontal lobes, did not reveal any significant correlation. Conclusion: Our prospectively collected dosimetric data show younger age and radiotherapy doses to left temporal lobe to be predictors of neurocognitive decline, and may well be used as possible dose constraints for high-precision radiotherapy planning.

  9. Learning about the Importance of Mutation Prevention from Curable Cancers and Benign Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gangshi; Chen, Lichan; Yu, Baofa; Zellmer, Lucas; Xu, Ningzhi; Liao, D. Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Some cancers can be cured by chemotherapy or radiotherapy, presumably because they are derived from those cell types that not only can die easily but also have already been equipped with mobility and adaptability, which would later allow the cancers to metastasize without the acquisition of additional mutations. From a viewpoint of biological dispersal, invasive and metastatic cells may, among other possibilities, have been initial losers in the competition for resources with other cancer cells in the same primary tumor and thus have had to look for new habitats in order to survive. If this is really the case, manipulation of their ecosystems, such as by slightly ameliorating their hardship, may prevent metastasis. Since new mutations may occur, especially during and after therapy, to drive progression of cancer cells to metastasis and therapy-resistance, preventing new mutations from occurring should be a key principle for the development of new anticancer drugs. Such new drugs should be able to kill cancer cells very quickly without leaving the surviving cells enough time to develop new mutations and select resistant or metastatic clones. This principle questions the traditional use and the future development of genotoxic drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:26918057

  10. Laser-induced thermotherapy of benign and malignant tumors controlled by color-coded duplex sonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Carsten M.; Rohde, Ewa; Waldschmidt, Juergen; Berlien, Hans-Peter

    1994-12-01

    Since 1984 we use the interstitial application of laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) for the treatment of congenital vascular disorders (CVD) such as hemangiomas and vascular malformations. In most of the procedures a 600 micron core bare fiber is used to deliver the radiation of a cw Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1064 nm into the diseased tissue. As most of the CVD treated this way are located subcutaneously, the localization of the fiber and the interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) is controlled by transillumination and palpitation of the heat expansion of the skin surface, this way a crepitation can also be detected during the ILC. As the ILC in deeper body structures cannot be controlled directly we use color coded duplex sonography (CCDS), both for diagnostic and treatment control. In the procedures where we use the B-scan image for puncture control, a color signal is displayed representing tissue movements. These movements caused by degasification and vapor are those detectable as crepitations when using direct control. The color signal starts, changes, and moves in a reproducible pattern following the heat distribution and the subsequently occurring degasification in the tissue. Also the changes in perfusion are detectable by the means of CCDS. The precise extent of the coagulation is visible in the B-scan several minutes after laser exposure. The clinical experience and an extensive experimental evaluation has proven that CCDS is a valuable real time method to monitor the tissue reaction in ILC-procedures. For two years we have performed ILC-procedures with CCDS control in patients with CVD (n equals 65) successfully. Because of its reliable imaging and the clinical advantages recently we applied this type of ILC-control to the palliative treatment of nonresectable primary and secondary liver tumors (n equals 3) and subcutaneous metastases of mamma carcinoma. (n equals 6).

  11. Brain Tumor Therapy-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing Brainstem Measured With Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Chiaho; Merchant, Thomas E.; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto; Zhang, Yong; Li Yimei; Glenn, George R.; Kun, Larry E.; Ogg, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To characterize therapy-induced changes in normal-appearing brainstems of childhood brain tumor patients by serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 109 DTI studies from 20 brain tumor patients, aged 4 to 23 years, with normal-appearing brainstems included in the treatment fields. Those with medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (n = 10) received postoperative craniospinal irradiation (23.4-39.6 Gy) and a cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy to the primary site, followed by four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 10) received erlotinib during and after irradiation (54-59.4 Gy). Parametric maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were computed and spatially registered to three-dimensional radiation dose data. Volumes of interest included corticospinal tracts, medial lemnisci, and the pons. Serving as an age-related benchmark for comparison, 37 DTI studies from 20 healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 25 years, were included in the analysis. Results: The median DTI follow-up time was 3.5 years (range, 1.6-5.0 years). The median mean dose to the pons was 56 Gy (range, 7-59 Gy). Three patterns were seen in longitudinal FA and apparent diffusion coefficient changes: (1) a stable or normal developing time trend, (2) initial deviation from normal with subsequent recovery, and (3) progressive deviation without evidence of complete recovery. The maximal decline in FA often occurred 1.5 to 3.5 years after the start of radiation therapy. A full recovery time trend could be observed within 4 years. Patients with incomplete recovery often had a larger decline in FA within the first year. Radiation dose alone did not predict long-term recovery patterns. Conclusions: Variations existed among individual patients after therapy in longitudinal evolution of brainstem white matter injury and recovery. Early response in

  12. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Month Personal Story - David Roncori Liver Disease - The Big Picture 13 Ways to a Healthy Liver In the Field Call to Action - Change Tomorrow, Give Today Liver Lowdown Sept 2013 Recovery Month Path to Wellness 5 Facts About Recovery Patient Story In the Field ...

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis of mass-like lesion in breast MRI: differential analysis of the 3-D morphology between benign and malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Hao; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Wu, Tsung-Ju; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the value of using 3-D breast MRI morphologic features to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions. The 3-D morphological features extracted from breast MRI were used to analyze the malignant likelihood of tumor from ninety-five solid breast masses (44 benign and 51 malignant) of 82 patients. Each mass-like lesion was examined with regards to three categories of morphologic features, including texture-based gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) feature, shape, and ellipsoid fitting features. For obtaining a robust combination of features from different categories, the biserial correlation coefficient (|r(pb)|)≧0.4 was used as the feature selection criterion. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate performance and Student's t-test to verify the classification accuracy. The combination of the selected 3-D morphological features, including conventional compactness, radius, spiculation, surface ratio, volume covering ratio, number of inside angular regions, sum of number of inside and outside angular regions, showed an accuracy of 88.42% (84/95), sensitivity of 88.24% (45/51), and specificity of 88.64% (39/44), respectively. The AZ value was 0.8926 for these seven combined morphological features. In conclusion, 3-D MR morphological features specified by GLCM, tumor shape and ellipsoid fitting were useful for differentiating benign and malignant breast masses.

  14. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling and its involved molecular pathways from one individual with thyroid malignant/benign tumor and hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Liang-Liang; Liu, Guo-Yan; Tzeng, Chi-Meng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: During development, methylation permanently changes gene activity, while aberrant gene methylation is key to human tumorigenesis. Gene methylation is an epigenetic event leading to gene silencing and some tumor suppressor genes that are aberrantly methylated in both thyroid cancer and benign thyroid tumor, suggesting a role for methylation in early thyroid tumorigenesis. Specific gene methylation occurs in certain types of thyroid cancer and depends on particular signaling pathways. Most reports rely on data from varied samples that vary tremendously with respect to methylation. Results: We observed that hyperplastic/malignant (H/M) thyroid tissue and benign/manligant (B/M) tissue had the most profoundly methylated loci compared to hyperplastic/benign (H/B) tissue. These loci are mapped to 863 genes (|Δβ value| > 0.15) in B/M and 1082 genes (|Δβ value| > 0.15) in H/M. After bioinformatic analysis, these genes were found to be involved in T-cell receptor signaling pathway (B/M) and Jak–Stat signaling pathways (H/M). Conclusion: Our study offers the most comprehensive DNA methylation data for thyroid disease to date, using 1 patient with 3 tissue types and high-resolution 450K arrays. Our data may lay the foundation for future identification of novel epigenetic targets or diagnosis of thyroid cancer. PMID:27583899

  15. Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium associated with benign ovarian brenner tumor: a case report with immunohistochemistry molecular analysis and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Giovanna; D'Adda, Tiziana; Gnetti, Letizia; Merisio, Carla; Raboni, Stefano

    2007-07-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the endometrium (TCCE) is a subtype of endometrial carcinoma, characterized by a prominent papillary pattern, resembling the papillary carcinoma of the urothelium. This neoplasm is very rare, with only 13 cases reported in the international literature. In this paper, a new case of TCCE associated with benign ovarian Brenner tumor is described. This association is extremely rare, with only 1 other case reported. A review of the literature is performed to delineate the clinico pathologic features of this malignancy. Moreover, immunohistochemical and molecular studies are carried out in the effort to establish the phenotype and etiology of this rare neoplasm. The molecular study, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) failing to reveal the presence of HPV DNA, demonstrates that neither the TCCE nor the ovarian Brenner tumor is caused by an HPV infection. The association of TCCE with benign ovarian Brenner tumor could be a coincidental event. Conversely, this finding could be the manifestation of a multicentric metaplastic process (neometaplasia), involving both the coelomic epithelium of the ovary and the Mullerian epithelium of the uterus, or the evidence of "field effect" that manifests differently at different anatomical sites. In our view, other cases of TCCE associated with ovarian Brenner tumor should be reported to confirm the last 2 hypotheses.

  16. A novel mixed integer programming for multi-biomarker panel identification by distinguishing malignant from benign colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Zou, Meng; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Wen, Xin-Yu; Chen, Luonan; Tian, Ya-Ping; Wang, Yong

    2015-07-15

    Multi-biomarker panels can capture the nonlinear synergy among biomarkers and they are important to aid in the early diagnosis and ultimately battle complex diseases. However, identification of these multi-biomarker panels from case and control data is challenging. For example, the exhaustive search method is computationally infeasible when the data dimension is high. Here, we propose a novel method, MILP_k, to identify serum-based multi-biomarker panel to distinguish colorectal cancers (CRC) from benign colorectal tumors. Specifically, the multi-biomarker panel detection problem is modeled by a mixed integer programming to maximize the classification accuracy. Then we measured the serum profiling data for 101 CRC patients and 95 benign patients. The 61 biomarkers were analyzed individually and further their combinations by our method. We discovered 4 biomarkers as the optimal small multi-biomarker panel, including known CRC biomarkers CEA and IL-10 as well as novel biomarkers IMA and NSE. This multi-biomarker panel obtains leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) accuracy to 0.7857 by nearest centroid classifier. An independent test of this panel by support vector machine (SVM) with threefold cross validation gets an AUC 0.8438. This greatly improves the predictive accuracy by 20% over the single best biomarker. Further extension of this 4-biomarker panel to a larger 13-biomarker panel improves the LOOCV to 0.8673 with independent AUC 0.8437. Comparison with the exhaustive search method shows that our method dramatically reduces the searching time by 1000-fold. Experiments on the early cancer stage samples reveal two panel of biomarkers and show promising accuracy. The proposed method allows us to select the subset of biomarkers with best accuracy to distinguish case and control samples given the number of selected biomarkers. Both receiver operating characteristic curve and precision-recall curve show our method's consistent performance gain in accuracy. Our method

  17. Cannibalism in a benign soft tissue tumor (giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath, localized type): a study of 66 cases.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, A

    2012-01-01

    Cellular cannibalism refers to a phenomenon where a living cell is phagocytosed into a tumoral cell, where it eventually dies. With the exception of cells in suspension, cellular cannibalism has only been observed with malignant tumors. The finding of occasional images of cannibalism in our daily biopsies of giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath led us to examine this phenomenon further in a retrospective study of 66 cases from our archives. In each case, four morphological features were evaluated: evidence of giant cells, cannibalism, xanthomatous cells, and hemosiderin deposits. Five cases were randomly selected for further immunohistochemical study with the following antibodies: CD68, vimentin, leukocytary common antigen (LCA), Bcl-2 oncoprotein, p53, caspase-3, and Bax. Patients included 35 (53.03%) females and 31 (46.97%) males. Mean age was 50.73 years (range from 14 to 75 years). Giant cells were found in all cases but one (98.48%). Cannibalism was found in 56 cases (84.34%) and this phenomenon was graded as 1 in 35 cases, 2 in 13 cases, and 3 in six cases. The internalized cells frequently appeared apoptotic. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the internalized cells as well as the cannibal cells expressed CD68.

  18. [Phyllodes tumor: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Uribe, A; Bravo, G; Uribe, A; Viada, R; Capetillo, M; Villarroel, T

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed 1.178 benign tumors treated between 1981/93 among which 39 appeared with a Phylodes Tumors diagnosis, disregarding 5 of them because they did not have a precise description and histologic classification, studying 34 proved cases which represented 2.89% of all benign tumors; if we add 89% cancers in these years, we have 2.074 and the relation becomes 1.64% of the total. We found 22 benign phylodes (64.7%) 7 border line (20.5%) and 5 malignant (14.8%) whose clinic, histologic and evolutive characteristics are presented in this paper.

  19. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  20. Evolution of laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy without the Pringle maneuver: through resection of benign and malignant tumors to living liver donation

    PubMed Central

    Van Huysse, Jacques; Berrevoet, Frederik; Vandenbossche, Bert; Sainz-Barriga, Mauricio; Vinci, Alessio; Ricciardi, Salvatore; Bocchetti, Tommaso; Rogiers, Xavier; de Hemptinne, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (LLS) has gained popularity in its use for benign and malignant tumors. This report describes the evolution of the authors’ experience using laparoscopic LLS for different indications including living liver donation. Methods Between January 2004 and January 2009, 37 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic LLS for benign, primary, and metastatic liver diseases, and for one case of living liver donation. Resection of malignant tumors was indicated for 19 (51%) of the 37 patients. Results All but three patients (deceased due to metastatic cancer disease) are alive and well after a median follow-up period of 20 months (range, 8–46 months). Liver cell adenomas (72%) were the main indication among benign tumors, and colorectal liver metastases (84%) were the first indication of malignancy. One case of live liver donation was performed. Whereas 16 patients (43%) had undergone a previous abdominal surgery, 3 patients (8%) had LLS combined with bowel resection. The median operation time was of 195 min (range, 115–300 min), and the median blood loss was of 50 ml (range, 0–500 ml). Mild to severe steatosis was noted in 7 patients (19%) and aspecific portal inflammation in 11 patients (30%). A median free margin of 5 mm (range, 5–27 mm) was achieved for all cancer patients. The overall recurrence rate for colorectal liver metastases was of 44% (7 patients), but none recurred at the surgical margin. No conversion to laparotomy was recorded, and the overall morbidity rate was 8.1% (1 grade 1 and 2 grade 2 complications). The median hospital stay was 6 days (range, 2–10 days). Conclusions Laparoscopic LLS without portal clamping can be performed safely for cases of benign and malignant liver disease with minimal blood loss and overall morbidity, free resection margins, and a favorable outcome. As the ultimate step of the learning curve, laparoscopic LLS could be routinely proposed, potentially increasing

  1. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  2. A quantitative evaluation of diffusion-weighted MR imaging of focal hepatic lesions by using an optimal b-value for differentiation of malignant and benign tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Kang, Su-Man; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kim, Kwang

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine an optimized b-value for the characterization of focal hepatic lesions (malignant and benign tumors) and to perform a quantitative analysis of the results. To achieve this, we obtained diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) from 30 focal hepatic disease patients (liver metastasis: 20 patients, and liver hemangioma: 10 patients) by using a 1.5 T MR system and varying the b-value from 0 through 200. The experimental results revealed that at a b-value of 50, the DWIs of the lesions showed high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs; SN R liver_meta . = 229.83 ± 19.08, SNR liver_hema . = 241.66 ± 29.02), high contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs; CN R liver_meta . = 39.66 ± 3.87, C N R liver_hema . = 142.55 ± 12.97) and low signal intensities of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs; ADC liver_meta . = 1.40 × 10-3 ± 0.29, ADC liver_hema . = 2.55 × 10-3 ± 0.92). The focal hepatic lesions were clearly depicted, with DW images and ADC maps corresponding well. Thus, we could present an optimized b-value ( b = 50) for the characterization of focal hepatic lesions. Additionally, the ADC values of liver lesions were found to be useful in differentiating benign from malignant tumors.

  3. Stereotactic body radiation therapy of liver tumors: post-treatment appearances and evaluation of treatment response: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Mustafa M; Merrell, Kenneth W; Hallemeier, Christopher L; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Mounajjed, Taofic; Olivier, Kenneth R; Fidler, Jeff L; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K

    2016-10-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a noninvasive treatment technique for selected patients with primary liver tumors and liver-confined oligometastatic disease. Recently, SBRT has emerged as an alternative treatment option in non-surgical candidates and in whom percutaneous treatment methods are not possible or contraindicated. The experience with SBRT continues to grow. There are currently no imaging guidelines for assessment of tumor response and follow-up schedule following SBRT. SBRT produces characteristic radiation-induced changes in the treated tumor and surrounding liver parenchyma. Knowledge of these changes is essential in the interpretation of follow-up imaging and assessment of treatment response. In this review, we will describe the CT, MRI, and PET imaging findings following SBRT of both the targeted liver tumor and surrounding hepatic parenchyma.

  4. Serum alpha-fetoprotein subfractions identified by Ricinus communis agglutinin I in hepatic malignancies, yolk sac tumor, benign hepatic diseases, and fetal stage.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, T; Takahashi, Y

    1989-01-01

    Using Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA-I) affinity crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) subfractions were studied in sera from patients with primary hepatic cancer (PHC), hepatic metastasis of gastric cancer (HMGC), yolk sac tumor (YST), acute or chronic hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis. Fetal AFP subfractions were also examined in amniotic fluids or in culture fluids of fetal tissues. RCA-I non-reactive subfraction was commonly found in PHC, HMGC, YST, benign hepatic diseases, and fetal stage. RCA-I weakly reactive (WR) or strongly reactive (SR) subfraction was noted only in malignant diseases. RCA-I has a specific affinity to terminal galactose in oligosaccharide, and the presence of sialic acid on galactose residue(s) inhibits the affinity with RCA-I. Therefore, common AFP subfraction non-reactive with RCA-I was assumed to be galactosialyl form, while RCA-I WR and SR subfractions found only in malignancies were monogalactosyl and digalactosyl, respectively. Clinically this approach to detect the RCA-I WR or SR subfraction facilitates a differential diagnosis of AFP-producing malignancies and benign conditions.

  5. A ‘silent’ skull metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma mimicking as a benign scalp tumor in a pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tsung-Chun; Cheng, Yu-Kai; Chen, Tsung-Wei; Hsu, Yung-Chang; Liu, En-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Summary Thyroid cancer with cranial metastasis in a pregnant woman is very rare. In the literature, most cases are diagnosed early from neurogenic signs or symptomatic thyroid gland. Pregnancy also contributes to a hesitation toward early surgical and medical treatments. We reported a scalp tumor in a physically healthy 37-year-old pregnant female with a follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) with lung, bone and cranial metastasis in initial presentation. Silent neurogenic and physical examinations make an early diagnosis very challenging. Resection of scalp and intracranial tumor, a thyroidectomy, post-operative radioactive iodine therapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors were employed as treatment. The scalp tumor was confirmed as a metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma via positive immunoreactivity for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor 1 in tumor cells. Blood examination revealed an elevated thyroglobulin level (>5335 ng/mL). The patient was discharged without any neurological deficit. An asymptomatic scalp tumor in a pregnant woman with a normal thyroid disease history needs differential diagnosis from intracranial origin. Rapid progression and an elevated thyroglobulin level are the indicators that further image study is needed. Aggressive surgical excision of resectable thyroid gland and metastatic tumor are essential for a longer survival rate. There is nothing to indicate that a post-partum operation will worsen prognosis. Learning points: Follicular thyroid cancer with cranial metastasis in initial presentation can be asymptomatic. Follicular thyroid cancer with cranial metastasis in a pregnant woman can be treated after delivery. Rapid enlargement of scalp tumor is indicated for further image study even in a patient without any neurological deficit. PMID:28203373

  6. Neuropsychological status in children and young adults with benign and low-grade brain tumors treated prospectively with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jalali, Rakesh . E-mail: rjalali@medscape.com; Goswami, Savita; Sarin, Rajiv; More, Niteen; Siddha, Manish; Kamble, Rashmi

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To present prospective neuropsychological data at baseline and follow-up in children and young adults with benign and low-grade gliomas treated with focal stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients (age 4-25 years) with residual/progressive benign and low-grade brain tumors considered suitable for SCRT underwent detailed and in-depth neuropsychological and cognitive testing at baseline before SCRT. The test battery included measurement of age-adjusted intelligence quotients (IQs) and cognitive parameters of visual, spatial, visuomotor, and attention concentrations. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale for patients >16 years old. Patients were treated with high-precision conformal radiotherapy under stereotactic guidance to a dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions. All neuropsychological assessments were repeated at 6 and 24 months after SCRT completion and compared with the baseline values. Results: The baseline mean full-scale IQ before starting RT for patients <16 years was 82 (range, 33-105). For those >16 years, the corresponding value was 72 (range, 64-129). Of 20 evaluable patients, 14 (70%) had less than average IQs at baseline, even before starting radiotherapy. The verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full-scale IQ, as well as other cognitive scores, did not change significantly at the 6- and 24-month follow-up assessments for all patients. The memory quotient in older children and young adults was maintained at 6 and 24 months after SCRT, with a mean value of 93 and 100, respectively, compared with a mean baseline value of 81 before RT. The mean anxiety score in children measured by the C1 and C2 components of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was 48 and 40, respectively, which improved significantly to mean values of 30 and 26, respectively, at the 24-month follow-up assessment (p = 0.005). The mean depression score in

  7. Tumors and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  8. Inflammatory fibroid polyp: a rare benign tumor of the alimentary tract in children presenting as intussusception-case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Siminas, Sotirios; Qasem, Eyas; Shukla, Rajeev; Turnock, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) represents a rare cause of gastrointestinal polypoid disease in childhood. Τhe lesion has been described by various names beyond the currently accepted term, including "Vanek's tumour," eosinophilic or submucosal granuloma, gastric fibroma with eosinophilic infiltration, inflammatory pseudotumor, and hemangiopericytoma. The etiopathogenesis and origin of the mesenchymal spindle-shaped cells that comprise the polyp remains enigmatic. Recent studies have shown familial occurrence, expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRA) and oncogenic PDGFRA mutations in the majority of lesions, suggestive of a neoplastic nature. We present a rare case of a 10-year-old boy with an IFP of the terminal ileum, who presented acutely with intussusception and was treated with a right hemicolectomy. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient has been asymptomatic during follow-up. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis excluded inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (negative for Alk1, desmin, smooth muscle actin [SMA]), gastrointerstinal stromal tumors (GIST) (negative for CD117) and schwannoma (negative for S100). The lesion was positive for CD34 and faintly for vimentin. Despite the classification of IFPs as a mesenchymal benign neoplasm, in the vast majority of cases, surgical excision alone was curative, and no reports exist of a malignant transformation. A cautious approach with periodic surveillance of the affected children seems reasonable though.

  9. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Condition Family HealthMenWomen Share Benign Paroxysmal Positional ...

  10. Pathology of eyelid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pe’er, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  11. 5' long terminal repeats of myc-associated proviruses appear structurally intact but are functionally impaired in tumors induced by avian leukosis viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Goodenow, M M; Hayward, W S

    1987-01-01

    B-cell lymphomas induced in chickens infected with avian leukosis viruses are characterized by integration of the virus within the cellular myc locus and alteration of c-myc expression. Although avian leukosis viruses are intact, replication-competent retroviruses, the structures of many myc-associated proviruses are altered by deletions, raising the possibility that proviral defectiveness plays an essential role in oncogenesis. We found that all myc-associated proviruses in 21 independent tumors had deletions, which were confined to the viral genome and did not extend into adjacent cellular sequences. Deletions were not random but, in at least 85% of the myc-associated proviruses, involved a region near the 5' end of the proviral genome where elements implicated in control of viral gene expression have been localized. A second class of deletions involved sequences in the 3' half of the viral genome and included the splice acceptor site used in generating viral env mRNA. Both the 5' and 3' long terminal repeats of myc-associated proviruses appeared to be structurally intact in most tumors, although the 5' long terminal repeats were not involved in expression of either U5-myc transcripts or detectable steady-state viral RNAs. A complex array of repeated sequence elements surrounded the junctions of the internal deletions in two myc-associated proviruses. The organization of the deleted proviruses was similar to that of deleted unintegrated viral molecules, consistent with a model in which deletions occurred prior to integration. Images PMID:3037111

  12. Adenomatous tumors of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Stanley; Koss, Shira

    2015-04-01

    Adenomatous tumors are an uncommon cause of a middle ear mass. Clinical findings may be nonspecific, leading to difficulties in differentiation from other middle ear tumors. Controversy also exists whether to classify middle ear adenoma and carcinoid as separate neoplasms, or alternatively within a spectrum of the same pathologic entity. Most adenomatous middle ear tumors are indolent in behavior, with a benign histologic appearance and slowly progressive growth. The mainstay of treatment is complete surgical resection, which affords the greatest likelihood of cure.

  13. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Erica C.; Sciallis, Andrew P.; Miller, Barbra S.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Macrocscopically, the tumors are well circumscribed and firm with a white-tan appearance. Histologically, CFT comprised a hypocellular proliferation of bland spindle cells, densely hyalinized collagen, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications. Other considerations in the pathologic differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. PMID:27252518

  14. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Erica C; Sciallis, Andrew P; Miller, Barbra S

    2016-06-01

    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Macrocscopically, the tumors are well circumscribed and firm with a white-tan appearance. Histologically, CFT comprised a hypocellular proliferation of bland spindle cells, densely hyalinized collagen, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications. Other considerations in the pathologic differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.

  15. A giant benign clear cell hidradenoma on the anterior trunk.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Gulsen Tukenmez; Atis, Guldehan; Altunay, Ilknur Kivanç; Sakiz, Damlanur

    2011-10-05

    Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is an uncommon variant of benign cutaneous adnexal tumors. These tumors are clinically asymptomatic, solitary dermal nodules. They occur most frequently on the scalp, face abdomen and extremities. Growth is slow and malignant change is rare. 45-year-old woman presented with a nodule which had begun 4 years ago as a small nodular asymptomatic lesion and had a central ulceration and a minimal hemorrhagic discharge on her anterior abdomen wall. On dermatologic examination there was a 6.5×5×4 cm non-tender, soft reddish purple nodule, with lobular appearance and ulceration. In the laboratory investigations, all hematologic and biochemical tests were normal. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a cystic tumor with lobulated contour with contrast enhancement. The lesion was excised totally. In histopathological examination, the tumor was composed of biphasic smaller dark polygonal cells and larger clear cells and coarse nuclear chromatine. There were duct like structures. Immunohistochemical investigation was done for the suspicion of malignancy. Cytoplasm of clear cells and of duct like structures showed PAS-positive and d-PAS resistant staining. There was a positive reaction to epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen. The mitotic index in Ki 67 examination was low. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of benign CCH.

  16. Distribution of MED12 mutations in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors of the breast--implications for tumor biology and pathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pfarr, Nicole; Kriegsmann, Mark; Sinn, Peter; Klauschen, Frederick; Endris, Volker; Herpel, Esther; Muckenhuber, Alexander; Jesinghaus, Moritz; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Penzel, Roland; Lennerz, Jochen K; Weichert, Wilko; Stenzinger, Albrecht

    2015-07-01

    Somatic mutations in exon 2 of MED12 have been described in benign and malignant smooth muscle cell tumors suggesting a functional role in these neoplasms. Recently fibroadenomas of the breast were also reported to harbor MED12 mutations. Hence, we explored MED12 mutations in fibroepithelial tumors of the breast, histological subtypes of fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, to validate and extend previous efforts. Using conventional Sanger sequencing, we profiled 39 cases of fibroepithelial breast tumors comprising classic histological subtypes of fibroadenomas as well as benign and malignant phyllodes tumors for mutations in exon 2 of MED12. MED12 mutations were detected in 60% of all tumor samples with the majority being missense mutations affecting codon 44. Additionally, we report novel in-frame deletions that have not been described previously. Sixty-two percent of the fibroadenomas harbored mutated MED12 with intracanalicular fibroadenomas being the most frequently mutated histological subtype (82%). Of note, 8/11 of benign phyllodes tumors had MED12 mutations while only 1/5 of malignant phyllodes tumors showed mutations in exon 2 of MED12. In conclusion, we confirm the frequent occurrence of MED12 mutations in fibroadenomas, provide evidence that most intracanalicular fibroadenomas closely resembling benign phyllodes as well as benign phyllodes tumors harbor MED12 mutations, and conclude that MED12 mutations in malignant phyllodes tumors appear to be relatively rare.

  17. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  18. The appendix: a spectrum of benign and malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Lord, Christopher; Broadhurst, Jack; Sleight, Simon; McGee, Shaun; Wills, Mark

    2017-02-02

    This article discusses the radiological appearances and subsequent management of a diverse spectrum of benign and malignant appendiceal pathologies, including those masquerading as acute appendicitis.

  19. Encouraging Early Clinical Outcomes With Helical Tomotherapy-Based Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Residual, Recurrent, and/or Progressive Benign/Low-Grade Intracranial Tumors: A Comprehensive Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Tejpal

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To report early clinical outcomes of helical tomotherapy (HT)-based image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in brain tumors of varying shape, size, and location. Materials and Methods: Patients with residual, recurrent, and/or progressive low-grade intracranial and skull-base tumors were treated on a prospective protocol of HT-based IMRT and followed clinicoradiologically. Standardized metrics were used for plan evaluation and outcome analysis. Results: Twenty-seven patients with 30 lesions were treated to a median radiotherapy dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions. All HT plans resulted in excellent target volume coverage with steep dose-gradients. The mean (standard deviation) dose homogeneity index and conformity index was 0.07 (0.05) and 0.71 (0.08) respectively. At first response assessment, 20 of 30 lesions were stable, whereas 9 showed partial regression. One patient with a recurrent clival chordoma though neurologically stable showed imaging-defined progression, whereas another patient with stable disease on serial imaging had sustained neurologic worsening. With a median follow-up of 19 months (interquartile range, 11-26 months), the 2-year clinicoradiological progression-free survival and overall survival was 93.3% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: Careful selection of radiotherapy technique is warranted for benign/low-grade brain tumors to achieve durable local control with minimum long-term morbidity. Large or complex-shaped tumors benefit most from IMRT. Our early clinical experience of HT-based IMRT for brain tumors has been encouraging.

  20. Imaging Review of Skeletal Tumors of the Pelvis Malignant Tumors and Tumor Mimics

    PubMed Central

    Girish, Gandikota; Finlay, Karen; Fessell, David; Pai, Deepa; Dong, Qian; Jamadar, David

    2012-01-01

    Malignant lesions of the pelvis are not uncommon and need to be differentiated from benign lesions and tumor mimics. Appearances are sometimes nonspecific leading to consideration of a broad differential diagnosis. Clinical history, anatomic location, and imaging characterization can help narrow the differential diagnosis. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate the imaging features and the role of plain films, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting and characterizing malignant osseous pelvic lesions and their common mimics. PMID:22593667

  1. Disentangling of Malignancy from Benign Pheochromocytomas/Paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyong Young; Hong, A. Ram; Seong, Moon-Woo; Lee, Kyu Eun; Kim, Su-Jin; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many malignant tumors initially appear benign but subsequently exhibit extensive metastases. Early identification of malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) before metastasis is important for improved prognosis. However, there are no robust prognostic indices of recurrence and malignancy. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and histopathological factors that predict malignant PPGLs. Design Retrospective follow-up study. Methods In this study, we included 223 patients with pathologically confirmed PPGLs who were treated between 2000 and 2015 at the Seoul National University Hospital in South Korea. Results Of these patients, 29 were diagnosed with malignancy, 12 of whom presented with metastatic lesions at the initial diagnosis while 17 developed metastases during follow-up. Nineteen patients with recurrent PPGLs consisted of ones with malignant PPGLs (n = 17) and multifocal PPGLs (n = 2) who had VHL and RET mutations. The mean age at presentation for malignant PPGLs was significantly younger than that for benign PPGLs (43.0 vs. 49.0 years, respectively; p = 0.023). Tumor size was not a distinguishing factor between malignant and benign PPGLs (5.0 vs. 4.5 cm, respectively; p = 0.316) nor did it predict recurrence. Of 119 patients with available pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland scaled score (PASS) data, those with malignant PPGLs presented PASS values ≥4. Of 12 parameters of PASS, necrosis, capsular invasion, vascular invasion, cellular monotony, high mitosis, atypical mitotic figures, and nuclear hyperchromasia were significant predictors of malignancy. Conclusions Tumor size did not predict malignancy or recurrence of PPGLs. PPGL patients with characteristic pathologic findings and PASS ≥4 or germline mutations require close follow-up. PMID:27992508

  2. Noninvasive, label-free, three-dimensional imaging of melanoma with confocal photothermal microscopy: Differentiate malignant melanoma from benign tumor tissue

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinping; Wang, Nan; Tsurui, Hiromichi; Kato, Masashi; Iida, Machiko; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers. Melanoma accounts for less than 2% of skin cancer cases but causes a large majority of skin cancer deaths. Early detection of malignant melanoma remains the key factor in saving lives. However, the melanoma diagnosis is still clinically challenging. Here, we developed a confocal photothermal microscope for noninvasive, label-free, three-dimensional imaging of melanoma. The axial resolution of confocal photothermal microscope is ~3 times higher than that of commonly used photothermal microscope. Three-dimensional microscopic distribution of melanin in pigmented lesions of mouse skin is obtained directly with this setup. Classic morphometric and fractal analysis of sixteen 3D images (eight for benign melanoma and eight for malignant) showed a capability of pathology of melanoma: melanin density and size become larger during the melanoma growth, and the melanin distribution also becomes more chaotic and unregulated. The results suggested new options for monitoring the melanoma growth and also for the melanoma diagnosis. PMID:27445171

  3. Noninvasive, label-free, three-dimensional imaging of melanoma with confocal photothermal microscopy: Differentiate malignant melanoma from benign tumor tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jinping; Wang, Nan; Tsurui, Hiromichi; Kato, Masashi; Iida, Machiko; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2016-07-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers. Melanoma accounts for less than 2% of skin cancer cases but causes a large majority of skin cancer deaths. Early detection of malignant melanoma remains the key factor in saving lives. However, the melanoma diagnosis is still clinically challenging. Here, we developed a confocal photothermal microscope for noninvasive, label-free, three-dimensional imaging of melanoma. The axial resolution of confocal photothermal microscope is ~3 times higher than that of commonly used photothermal microscope. Three-dimensional microscopic distribution of melanin in pigmented lesions of mouse skin is obtained directly with this setup. Classic morphometric and fractal analysis of sixteen 3D images (eight for benign melanoma and eight for malignant) showed a capability of pathology of melanoma: melanin density and size become larger during the melanoma growth, and the melanin distribution also becomes more chaotic and unregulated. The results suggested new options for monitoring the melanoma growth and also for the melanoma diagnosis.

  4. Imaging and relative quantification of sup 127 I in human thyroid follicles by analytical ion microscope: Characterization of benign thyroid epithelial tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Fragu, P.; Briancon, C.; Noel, M.; Halpern, S. )

    1989-08-01

    Analytical ion microscopy (AIM) can be used for imaging and relative quantification of chemical elements in tissue sections. We used this technique to assess the changes in 127I mapping within thyroid follicular cells and follicular lumina in benign thyroid epithelial abnormalities from 17 patients and in macroscopically normal perinodular tissue surrounding solitary cold nodules from 8 patients. Among the 17 patients, 9 had simple goiters, 5 had toxic nodular goiters, and 3 had hypofunctioning (cold) nodules. The tissue samples were fixed chemically and embedded in methacrylate resin to ensure preservation of organified iodine, and thin sections were analyzed by AIM. 127I was found in the follicular lumina and follicular epithelial cells of most specimens. The local concentration of 127I, which is proportional to the ratio of the two secondary ion beam currents of iodine and carbon, was evaluated in 30 follicular lumina and 30 follicular epithelial cells of each specimen. In normal tissue, the relative 127I concentration within follicular cells (mean, 0.72; range 0.01-8.30) was much lower than that in follicular lumina (mean, 4.63; range, 0.18-36.74). In simple goiter tissue, follicular lumen (mean, 0.57; range, 0.00-5.76), and cell (mean, 0.17; range, 0.002-1.82) relative 127I concentrations were below normal, but both distributions remained different. On the contrary, in toxic nodular goiter tissue the follicular cell relative 127I concentration (mean, 0.96; range, 0.003-27.3) largely overlapped that of the follicular lumina (mean, 2.1; range, 0.001-36.5). The cold nodules had the lowest relative follicular lumina 127I concentration (mean, 0.008; range, undetectable-0.07), and the relative cellular 127I concentrations were undetectable in 67%. These results demonstrate the capacity of AIM to characterize the functional activity of thyroid tissue without prior administration of radio-iodine.

  5. [Mediastinal hibernoma: singular appearance on computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Arauzo Álvarez, E; Gómez Román, J; Fernández Martínez De Septien, C; Calvo Castillo, I

    2014-01-01

    Hibernomas are very uncommon benign tumors of brown fat; they are rarely located within the thorax and are even rarer in the mediastinum. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl with a hibernoma seen on CT as a homogeneous fat density mass located in the anterior mediastinum. Histological study revealed the typical microscopic characteristics of these tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first report of these CT imaging characteristics in association with a hibernoma.

  6. Huge benign mesenchymoma in pharynx-esophagus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Omo, Alfred; Liu, Ligang; Liu, Lisi; Tang, Yinxiong; Pan, Tiecheng

    2006-06-01

    Benign mesenchymoma is an uncommon neoplastic disease and its occurrence in pharynx-esophagus is even more rarely reported. A successful case operation is reported. The origin of this tumor was in the pharynx-esophagus, and complete excision was achieved through a laterocervical approach.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Appearances in the Postoperative Breast: The Clinical Target Volume-Tumor and Its Relationship to the Chest Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Whipp, Elisabeth C. Halliwell, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To describe and measure the postoperative complexes and their relationship to the chest wall in 100 randomly chosen MRI breast scans, to attempt a better understanding of the changes taking place in the postoperative breast. Methods and Materials: Appearances and measurements of MRI postoperative cavities were analyzed in a cohort of 100 randomly selected patients who underwent a single open MRI scan in the conventional breast radiotherapy treatment position before routine two-dimensional simulation. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging appearances of postoperative cavities seem to differ qualitatively from descriptions of CT and ultrasound cavities in the literature. Rather than being principally homogeneous, heterogeneous cavities were seen in 85%, irregular in 51%. The size of cavity was inversely related to the time elapsed since surgery. Cavities directly touched the chest wall in 53% of cases; 89% lay within 10 mm of the chest wall. Regular, annular concentric rings of differing signal were seen in 32% of cases; such appearances have not been previously described. These patterns suggest that seromas may not shrink entirely as a result of simple serous fluid absorption; instead, new tissue may be being laid down. Because large, regular spheroidal/ellipsoidal cavities with crisp margins may be seromas under pressure, greater target shifts during radiation may need to be anticipated in such cases. Conclusions: Postsurgical cavities in the conserved breast on MRI are commonly heterogeneous, irregular, and lie close to the chest wall. Magnetic resonance imaging studies may help in better understanding the natural history of postoperative cavities.

  8. The Use of Radiation Therapy Appears to Improve Outcome in Patients With Malignant Primary Tracheal Tumors: A SEER-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Liyi; Fan Min; Sheets, Nathan C.; Chen, Ronald C.; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To conduct a matched pair analysis assessing the impact of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with resectable and unresectable primary malignant tracheal tumors using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Patients and Methods: The SEER registry was used to identify every patient (or 'case') who received RT between 1988 and 2007 for primary malignant tracheal tumors, and to search for corresponding 'controls' (not treated with RT), with the same prognostic and treatment factors (surgery on the trachea, disease extension, histology, and gender). Overall survival (OS) was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier methods. Results of OS and cumulative incidence of death from tracheal cancer in the cases and controls, and in various subsets, were compared using log-rank and Gray's tests. Results: Two hundred fifty-eight patients who received RT were identified, and 78 of these had appropriate matched controls identified, forming the basis of this analysis. In the 78 (+RT) cases, the median follow-up was 60 months (range, 10-192) in the survivors vs. 55 months (range, 2-187) in the controls (no-RT group). Patients in RT group had significantly better OS, and a lower cumulative incidence of death from tracheal cancer than no-RT patients (p < 0.05). Treatment with radiation was associated with improved survival in patients with squamous cell histology [p < 0.0001], regional disease extension [p = 0.030], or those that did not undergo resection [p = 0.038]. There were four deaths in RT group and three in no-RT group attributed to cardiac and respiratory causes. Conclusion: Our data suggest a survival benefit for the use of RT broadly for all patients with tracheal cancer. Nevertheless, the retrospective nature of this observational study limits its interpretation.

  9. Benign Multicystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma: A Rare Tumour of the Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Soundappan; Khajanchi, Monty; Vaja, Tejas; Jajoo, Bhushan; Dey, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma: a rare tumor of the abdomen, is a diagnostic dilemma. This report emphasizes the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy in the diagnosis of the tumour. PMID:25866695

  10. Evaluation of salivary gland tumors with 99mTc-pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, H.; Ishii, Y.

    1984-07-01

    The clinical efficacy of salivary gland scintigraphy was evaluated in 32 histologically proven cases. In benign tumors, except Warthin's tumor, 16 of the 20 cases (80%) appeared as cold lesions. All six cases of Warthin's tumor appeared as hot lesions. In malignant tumors, one case each of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenopapillary carcinoma, and adenoid-cystic carcinoma were shown as cold lesions, while squamous cell carcinoma and malignant mixed tumor were delineated as a defect image (no uptake of radionuclide). On stimulation with ascorbic acid, retention of radionuclide within the tumor was noted only in Warthin's tumors, but it was noted at the periphery of the tumors in 21 of the 24 cases (87.5%), which might be due to inflammation and/or compression of the gland by the tumors. Salivary gland scintigraphy provided useful information for the evaluation of the site of the tumor and the function of the salivary gland.

  11. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  12. Cytokine appearance and effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies in a neonatal rat model of group B streptococcal infection.

    PubMed Central

    Teti, G; Mancuso, G; Tomasello, F

    1993-01-01

    Cytokines are suspected of playing an important role in the pathophysiology of septic shock. This study was undertaken to determine whether tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induces the production of other cytokines and mediates mortality in a neonatal rat model of sepsis caused by group B streptococci (GBS). We have measured TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) levels in neonatal rats infected with different strains (H738, 259, and 90) and doses (1 50% lethal dose [LD50] and 5 90% lethal doses [LD90]) of type III GBS. TNF-alpha and IL-6 were detected by the L929 cytotoxicity and the B9 proliferation assays, respectively, in serial plasma samples. IL-1 alpha and IFN-gamma were measured in spleen homogenates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits by using antibodies raised against the corresponding mouse cytokines. Plasma TNF-alpha levels significantly rose above baseline values within 12 h after intraperitoneal challenge with 5 LD90 of GBS strain H738, corresponding to 3 x 10(3) CFU. A mean peak TNF-alpha concentration of 232 +/- 124 U/ml was reached at 20 h. Peak IL-1 alpha and IL-6 levels of 766 +/- 404 U/g and 1,033 +/- 520 U/ml, respectively, were reached at 24 h after bacterial challenge. Maximal spleen concentrations of IFN-gamma (449 +/- 283 U/g) were measured at 36 h. Concentrations of TNF-alpha, but not other cytokines, remained significantly elevated at 72 h, a time when mortality approached 100%. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of each of the cytokines tested and the logs of CFU concentrations in the blood. In order to ascertain whether TNF-alpha influenced the production of other cytokines, rat pups received two injections of anti-murine TNF-alpha or normal rabbit serum at 2 h before and at 26 h after challenge with live GBS. Plasma TNF-alpha bioactivity was undetectable in anti-TNF-alpha-treated animals, while IL-6 and IFN-gamma, but not IL-1 alpha

  13. Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... plants (aflatoxins) Excessive sunlight exposure Genetic problems Obesity Radiation exposure Viruses Types of tumors known to be caused by or linked with viruses are: Cervical cancer (human papillomavirus) Most anal cancers (human papillomavirus) Some throat ...

  14. Granular cell tumor of trachea.

    PubMed

    Bekteshi, Edgar; Toth, Jennifer W; Benninghoff, Michael G; Kang, Jason; Betancourt, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumors of the tracheobronchial tree are rare benign lesions of neurogenic origin. These benign tumors mostly involve the skin, oral cavity, or esophagus. There is no consensus regarding treatment of granular cell tumors. Treatment varies from simple observation to different bronchoscopic interventions, such as laser therapy or fulguration to surgical resection.

  15. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  16. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  17. The Benign Hamburger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peaslee, Graham; Lantz, Juliette M.; Walczak, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a case study of food poisoning from hamburgers at the fictitious Jill-at-the-Grill to teach the nuclear science behind food irradiation. Includes case teaching notes on the benign hamburger. (ASK)

  18. Prevalence of sex chromosome loss in benign and malignant brain neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Al Saadi, A.

    1994-09-01

    Loss of gonosomes in a variety of benign and malignant neoplasms is well-documented, but the clinical and/or biological significance of such loss remains obscure. Loss of the Y chromosome from the leukocytes of elderly men is also well-known. In an attempt to elucidate the significance of the loss of gonosomes, we have determined the incidence of such loss in human brain tumors ranging from benign to highly malignant. Loss of the X or Y chromosomes were evaluated by karyotyping short-term cultures and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on uncultured samples of 129 tumors. Loss of gonosomes was also evaluated in leukocytes from these patients. In glioblastoma multiforme (GM), the Y chromosome was lost from 64% and the X from 41% of 42 tumors. The Y chromosome was lost from 36% of 55 meningiomas (MA) and from 33% of other less malignant gliomas. Loss of the X chromosome was negligible in both MAs and the pre- or less malignant gliomas. Loss of the X or the Y in GM was the most common nonrandom abnormality and loss of the Y was the most nonrandom abnormality in all brain tumors, other than MA in which loss of chromosome 22 is the most common. There was insignificant difference in the detection of gonosomes loss by karyotyping or by FISH of interphase cells. There was no loss of gonosomes in the leukocytes of the studied patients. Although the significance of the X or Y loss is not clear, it appears that gonosomes play a role in the development of brain tumors. The gonosomes may carry genes involved in growth regulation. Although loss of the X or Y is nonrandom, loss of the X was limited to the malignant brain neoplasms whereas loss of the Y was noted in both benign and malignant tumors, which may suggest different functions in growth regulation of the two chromosomes.

  19. Aqueduct stenosis-?Benign.

    PubMed

    Allan, Rodney; Chaseling, Raymond; Graf, Nicole; Dexter, Mark

    2005-02-01

    'Benign' aqueduct stenosis is a common cause of hydrocephalus in the paediatric population and is frequently treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Occasionally, aqueduct stenosis can be a prelude to the development of other pathology, as is seen in these two cases of pineal tumours developing in patients whose hydrocephalus was successfully treated with endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The case histories are presented, along with the recommendation for increased radiological screening of patients with this usually 'benign' presentation.

  20. Ovarian metastases: Computed tomographic appearances

    SciTech Connect

    Megibow, A.J.; Hulnick, D.H.; Bosniak, M.A.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1985-07-01

    Computed tomographic scans of 34 patients with ovarian metastases were reviewed to assess the radiographic appearances and to correlate these with the primary neoplasms. Primary neoplasms were located in the colon (20 patients), breast (six), stomach (five), small bowel (one), bladder (one), and Wilms tumor of the kidney (one). The radiographic appearance of the metastatic lesions could be described as predominantly cystic (14 lesions), mixed (12 lesions), or solid (seven lesions). The cystic and mixed lesions tended to be larger in overall diameter than the solid. The metastases from gastric carcinoma appeared solid in four of five cases. The metastases from the other neoplasms had variable appearances simulating primary ovarian carcinoma.

  1. Unusual Glomus Tumor of the Penis

    PubMed Central

    Dagur, Gautam; Warren, Kelly; Miao, Yimei; Singh, Navjot; Suh, Yiji; Khan, Sardar A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Glomus tumors are benign neoplasms commonly found in subungual regions of the extremities and rarely located in the penis. Misdiagnosis of glomus tumors is common; therefore, symptoms and clinical presentations should be reviewed. Objective The primary objective of this review article is to emphasize the pathogenesis, pathology, clinical presentation, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment methods of glomus tumors in order to better identify and manage the condition. Materials and Methods Research was conducted using PubMed/Medline. The inclusion criteria required glomus tumor to be present on the penis. Results Glomus tumors, which appear as symptomatic or asymptomatic lesions, are attributed to dispersion grouping of neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesions in a particular area. Conclusion Differential diagnosis of glomus tumors includes hemangiomas, neurofibromatosis, epithelial lesions, and spindle-cell lesions. Physical examination and histological findings should be used for diagnosis. Treatment options can be either conservative or invasive, in which the patient undergoes surgical excision. PMID:27867327

  2. Endobronchial ultrasound: morphological predictors of benign disease.

    PubMed

    Gogia, Pratibha; Insaf, Tabassum Z; McNulty, William; Boutou, Afroditi; Nicholson, Andrew G; Zoumot, Zaid; Shah, Pallav L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the utility of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) morphology of lymph nodes in predicting benign cytology of transbronchial needle aspirates in a prospective observational study. Five ultrasonic morphological characteristics of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes were recorded: size, shape, margins, echogenic appearance and the presence of a central blood vessel. These characteristics were correlated with the final diagnosis. A total of 402 consecutive patients (237 males and 165 females) undergoing EBUS were studied. The final diagnosis was malignant disease in 244 (60.6%) and benign disease in 153 (38.05%) subjects. Out of 740 sampled nodes, in 463 (62.6%) malignant cells were identified, whereas in 270 (36.5%) nodes, no malignant cells were identified. On univariate analysis small size, triangular shape and the presence of a central vessel were predictive of a benign aetiology. In the final multivariate model, a predictive probability of 0.811 (95% CI 0.72-0.91) for benign disease was found if lymph node size was <10 mm and a central vessel was present. Sonographic appearances of lymph nodes improve the predictive probability of EBUS for benign aetiologies, and may reduce the number of nodes requiring sampling and the need for further invasive investigations.

  3. TUMORS OF THE PATELLA: THE EXPERIENCE OF INSTITUTE OF ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY AT UNIVERSITY OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    BAPTISTA, ANDRÉ MATHIAS; SARGENTINI, SYLVIO CESAR; ZUMÁRRAGA, JUAN PABLO; CAMARGO, ANDRÉ FERRARI DE FRANÇA; CAMARGO, OLAVO PIRES DE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To obtain epidemiological data from the tumors of the patella diagnosed and treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo (IOT-HC-FMUSP) between 1998 and 2015. Methods: Series of cases with retrospective evaluation of patients diagnosed with tumors located in the patella. The data was obtained from the records and patients' charts at the Department of Pathology of IOT-HC-FMUSP. Results: A total of 2220 medical records from patients with anatomopathological reports were included in the study. Only eight (0.3%) patients had patellar tumors. We found that six (75%) of these were benign, one (12.5%) was a pseudotumoral lesions and one (12.5%) was reported as malignant. Among benign tumors, the giant cell tumor (GCT) was the most frequently reported corresponding to 50% of the cases. Hemagioendothelioma was the only case of malignant tumor in this series. As for the pseudotumoral lesions, we found a brown tumor. Conclusion: From the data obtained retrospectively in a 17 year time frame, in a service that treats benign, malignant and pseudotumoral bone lesions, we conclude that our casuistry in patellar tumors is similar to that reported in scientific literature, where benign tumors are predominant in a 7:1 ratio over malignant tumors, being a rare location of appearance, with the GCT as the most common diagnosis . Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:27217817

  4. Developmental Venous Anomaly: Benign or Not Benign

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Rie; SRIVATANAKUL, Kittipong

    2016-01-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), previously called venous angiomas, are the most frequently encountered cerebral vascular malformations. However, DVA is considered to be rather an extreme developmental anatomical variation of medullary veins than true malformation. DVAs are composed of dilated medullary veins converging centripetally into a large collecting venous system that drains into the superficial or deep venous system. Their etiology and mechanism are generally accepted that DVAs result from the focal arrest of the normal parenchymal vein development or occlusion of the medullary veins as a compensatory venous system. DVAs per se are benign and asymptomatic except for under certain unusual conditions. The pathomechanisms of symptomatic DVAs are divided into mechanical, flow-related causes, and idiopathic. However, in cases of DVAs associated with hemorrhage, cavernous malformations (CMs) are most often the cause rather than DVAs themselves. The coexistence of CM and DVA is common. There are some possibilities that DVA affects the formation and clinical course of CM because CM related to DVA is generally located within the drainage territory of DVA and is more aggressive than isolated CM in the literature. Brain parenchymal abnormalities surrounding DVA and cerebral varix have also been reported. These phenomena are considered to be the result of venous hypertension associated with DVAs. With the advance of diagnostic imagings, perfusion study supports this hypothesis demonstrating that some DVAs have venous congestion pattern. Although DVAs should be considered benign and clinically silent, they can have potential venous hypertension and can be vulnerable to hemodynamic changes. PMID:27250700

  5. Sinonasal Phosphaturic Mesenchymal Tumor: A Rare and Misinterpreted Entity

    PubMed Central

    Arnaoutakis, Demetri; Naseri, Iman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Oncogenic osteomalacia is a paraneoplastic syndrome in which the tumor secretes a peptide-like hormone, fibroblast growth factor, resulting in urinary loss of phosphates. Methods We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with a benign phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT) involving the ethmoid sinus with obstruction of the ostiomeatal complex causing unilateral nasal airway obstruction. Results The tumor was initially thought to be an esthesioneuroblastoma based on primary pathology interpretation and on clinical and radiographic appearance. However, a benign PMT was later confirmed by further testing. Conclusion The tumor was removed entirely by the endoscopic transnasal approach, leading to a full resolution of symptoms. PMID:26623233

  6. Benign cutaneous Degos disease.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, Mozheh; Jarrett, Paul; Snow, John

    2005-08-01

    A 24-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of a recurrent asymptomatic rash characterized by small erythematous papules which evolved to form atrophic porcelain white scars with a telangectatic rim. She had never had gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms. A short trial of aspirin did not alter the behavior of the disease. Histology confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Degos disease. Degos disease is a rare disorder that has been classified into the benign or malignant variety. The malignant type has a poor prognosis. Gastrointestinal involvement is the most frequent cause of death. The existence of patients with a prolonged, purely cutaneous or benign form has been increasingly recognized. It may be impossible to classify a patient at the time of initial presentation. Her progress is consistent with the benign form.

  7. Mammary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Mammary neoplasia is one of the more common malignancies affecting domestic species. Despite their importance, they are often over- diagnosed, undertreated and subject to several misconceptions propagated by veterinarians and pet owners alike. Mammary neoplasia is the most frequent tumor type encountered in the female accounting for almost half of all malignancies reported. The canine has the highest incidence of mammary tumors of all domestic species. In the dog, about 65 percent of mammary tumors are benign mixed tumors, and 25 percent are carcinomas. The rest are adenomas, myoepitheliomas, and malignant mixed tumors. The age distribution of mammary tumors closely follows the age distribution of most tumors in the dog. Mammary tumors are rare in dogs 2 years old, but incidence begins to increase sharply at approximately 6 years of age. Median age at diagnosis is about 10 years. No breed predilection has been consistently reported.

  8. Argon laser-assisted treatment of benign eyelid lesions.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Şafak; Ekici, Feyzahan; Sül, Sabahattin

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the treatment of benign eyelid lesions with argon laser as an alternative therapy to surgical excision. The charts of 73 patients with 95 lesions treated with argon laser photocoagulation were reviewed retrospectively. In all patients, the procedure was performed for cosmetic reasons. The laser spot size ranged from 50 to 200 μm, the power varied from 300 to 700 mW, and the exposure time ranged between 0.1 and 0.2 s. The lesions were mostly located on the upper eyelid (66%); the lid margin was involved in 30 cases. The mean follow-up time was 7.2 ± 3.5 months (range 3-15 months). A histopathological diagnosis was confirmed for 81 lesions (85.3%). All patients were satisfied with the cosmetic result. No intraoperative complications occurred, and none of the patients complained of pain during laser application. All wounds epithelialized in 3-4 weeks with skin that appeared normal. Hypopigmentation of the treated areas were observed in three cases. No recurrence occurred during the follow-up period. Argon laser-assisted benign eyelid tumor excision is a useful, cheap, accessible, and well-tolerated alternative to traditional surgery.

  9. Hemorrhagic, calcified, and ossified benign retroperitoneal schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shao-Yan; Sun, Ke; Xie, Hai-Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shu-Sen; Wang, Wei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Schwannomas are mesenchymal tumors arising from the neural sheaths of peripheral nerves. They can almost develop in any part of the body, while head, neck and extremities are the most common sites. Occurrence in the retroperitoneum is rare. Schwannomas can show secondary degenerative changes including cyst formation, hyalinization, hemorrhage, and calcification, whereas the ossified retroperitoneal schwannoma was only reported in a malignant one. Case summary: We first present a benign ossified retroperitoneal schwannoma in a 61-year-old female. The mass was found by a routine health examination. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-defined mass in the area among duodenum, right liver, and kidney. Definitive preoperative diagnosis of the mass was difficult. By laparotomy, the mass was found in the retroperitoneum. We completely removed the tumor and gross specimen showed a mass with a capsule and 6 × 6 × 4.8 cm in size. Microscopic examination showed the tumor is composed of spindle-shaped cells with degenerative changes of hemorrhage, calcification, and ossification. Immunohistochemically, S-100 protein was strongly positive. Finally, the mass was diagnosed as a hemorrhagic, calcified, and ossified benign schwannoma in the retroperitoneum. The patient was followed up for a period of 21 months, during which she was well with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: We report the first case of a benign retroperitoneal schwannoma with secondary degenerative changes including hemorrhage, calcification, and ossification. Precise preoperative diagnosis of the tumor is challenging even with multiple preoperative imaging modalities. After complete resection, patients with benign retroperitoneal schwanommas generally have good prognosis. PMID:27472709

  10. Laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal benign neurilemmoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Seong; Kang, Chang Moo; Yoon, Dong Sup; Lee, Woo Jung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to verify that laparoscopic resection for treating retroperitoneal benign neurilemmoma (NL) is expected to be favorable for complete resection of tumor with technical feasibility and safety. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 47 operations for retroperitoneal neurogenic tumor at Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital and Gangnam Severance Hospital between January 2005 and September 2015. After excluding 21 patients, the remaining 26 were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent open surgery (OS) and those who underwent laparoscopic surgery (LS). We compared clinicopathological features between the 2 groups. Results There was no significant difference in operation time, estimated blood loss, transfusion, complication, recurrence, or follow-up period between 2 groups. Postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the LS group versus the OS group (OS vs. LS, 7.00 ± 3.43 days vs. 4.50 ± 2.16 days; P = 0.031). Conclusion We suggest that laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal benign NL is feasible and safe by obtaining complete resection of the tumor. LS for treating retroperitoneal benign NL could be useful with appropriate laparoscopic technique and proper patient selection. PMID:28289669

  11. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... almost always benign (not cancerous), but can cause hormonal imbalances and interfere with the normal function of the pituitary gland. Because the pituitary affects so many functions of the body, ... the tumor mass or hormonal changes (either too much or too little hormone). ...

  12. Juxtaglomerular cell tumor: MR findings.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R; Jafri, S Z; Gibson, D P; Bis, K G; Ali-Reza

    1995-01-01

    Juxtaglomerular (JG) cell tumor is a rare benign neoplasm of the kidney that typically presents with hypertension, secondary hyperaldosteronism, hypocalcemia, and hyperreninism. We describe a case of JG cell tumor diagnosed with MRI.

  13. Scintigraphic appearances of osteoid osteoma

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.W.; Gilday, D.L.

    1980-10-01

    A series of 42 osteoid osteomas is reviewed, and the scintigraphic appearances are described. In all cases, a marked, well-localized area of increased activity was demonstrated at the tumor site in both the blood-pool and standard two-hour images. The blood-pool images were performed after the injection of technetium-99m methylene diphosphate which showed a small hyperemic lesion in all cases of osteoid osteoma, thus distinguishing this tumor from other lesions which may show uptake of radionuclide activity after two hours.

  14. Follicular adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Vera Sempere, Francisco José; Artes Martínez, María Jose; Vera Sirera, Beatriz; Bonet Marco, Jaime

    2006-07-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon benign odontogenic lesion that affects young patients, with female predominance, mainly in second decade, showing a radiolucent unilocular image associated with an unerupted tooth, usually a canine. In spite of previous and confusing denominations, such as adenoameloblastoma or adenomatoid ameloblastic tumor, AOT is a benign tumor with a very low rate of recurrence, that show a peculiar morphological picture (basaloid appearance with glandular-like structures, calcifying areas, and amiloid-like material) that allow its histopathological recognition. We present a clinicopathological analysis of a case of follicular AOT affecting the mandible in a 9 years-old female patient associated with unerupted lower left canine. Immunohistochemical study showed some data previously unrecognised. All cellular types that composed AOT showed nuclear positivity for p63 indicating a basal characterization in the different cellular components. According to its benign character and low potential for recurrence, AOT revealed a scant proliferative activity (2-3% nuclei showed Ki-67 positivity) limited to some epithelial nodules (AE1-3 +) of fusiform appearance. Absence of reactivity for hormonal receptors (RE and RPg) excluded a possible hormonodependence in AOT that could explain the observed female predominance.

  15. Gamma images in benign and metabolic bone diseases: volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Volume 1 of ''Gamma images in benign and metabolic bone diseases'' comprises chapters devoted to: general remarks and considerations, radiopharmaceuticals, Paget disease, osteomyelitis, trauma, benign bone tumors, chronic renal dialysis, acute renal failure, osteomalacia and rickets, and osteoporosis. Although published in 1981, the most recent references in the book were 1978 and most are 1977 or earlier. One of the strongest aspects of the volume are tables which categorize diseases, pathophysiology of disease, and image abnormalities. (JMT)

  16. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  17. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) BPPV is the most common vestibular disorder. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (or BPPV) is the most common cause of ...

  18. Soft tissue tumors induced by monomeric {sup 239}Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Angus, W.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    Individual records of soft tissue tumor occurrence (lifetime incidence) among 236 beagles injected with {sup 239}Pu citrate as young adults and 131 comparable control beagles given no radioactivity enabled us to analyze the possible effects on soft tissue tumor induction resulting from internal exposure to {sup 239}Pu. A significant trend was identified in the proportion of animals having malignant liver tumors with increasing radiation dose from {sup 239}. There was also a significant difference in the relative numbers of both malignant liver tumors (18.1 expected, 66 observed). Malignant tumors of the mouth, pancreas, and skin were more frequent among controls than among the dogs given {sup 239}Pu as well as tumors (malignant plus benign) of the mouth, pancreas, testis, and vagina. For all other tumor sites or types, there was no significant difference for both malignant and all (malignant plus benign) tumors. Mammary tumor occurrence appeared not to be associated with {sup 239}Pu incorporation. We conclude that the only soft-tissue neoplasia induced by the intake of {sup 239}Pu directly into blood is probably a liver tumor. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Tracheobronchial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Milenkovic, Branislava

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of trachea and bronchi are uncommon and can occur in the form of benign or low- and high-grade malignant tumors. Although tracheobronchial tumors (TBTs) represent only 0.6% of all pulmonary tumors, they are clinically significant. Delays in diagnosis of these tumors commonly occur because the signs and symptoms caused by these tumors are nonspecific and chest radiographs are often considered unremarkable. Therefore, novel radiological techniques and better access to flexible bronchoscopy enable detection of larger number of TBT. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of tracheal and bronchial tumors and discuss significant aspects of the different TBT with focus on clinical manifestations and diagnostic procedures. PMID:28066620

  20. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R J

    1997-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of benign prostatic hyperplasia reflects a complex interplay between benign prostatic enlargement, which will affect almost all men by the age of 80, and the resulting outlet obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms. The disease is now known to adversely affect the quality of life of around one man in three over the age of 50. New medical treatments and new surgical interventions are challenging the previous standard treatment of transurethral resection of prostate, which continues to have a morbidity of 17% and some mortality. Primary care will be increasingly involved in shared care with particular emphasis on monitoring of patients on watchful waiting medical therapy- and following operative intervention. PMID:9196969

  1. Benign cutaneous Degos' disease.

    PubMed

    Ojeda Cuchillero, R M; Sánchez Regaña, M; Umbert Millet, P

    2003-03-01

    Malignant atrophic papulosis is a rare systemic vaso-occlusive disorder characterized by thrombosis of vessels of the dermis, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and, occasionally, other organs. Cutaneous lesions consist of erythematous, dome-shaped papules that develop a central area of necrosis to leave a porcelain-like scar. The most accepted theory of pathogenesis is based on endothelial cell damage. There is no effective treatment of the disease. We describe a 26-year-old man with Degos' disease, a diagnosis based on the clinical and histologic pattern of skin lesions. The good response to antiplatelet therapy and the absence of systemic involvement over 8 years' follow-up is noteworthy. We believe that this case represents the benign form of the disease, typically referred to as benign cutaneous Degos' disease.

  2. [The tumoral microenvironment: feeding resources, battle field and therapeutic target in cancer].

    PubMed

    Fridman, Wolf H; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    Tumors grow surrounded by a complex cellular and tissular microenvironment. Its components influence disease outcome, some accelarating growth and invasion and others blocking it. From the very first steps leading a normal tissue to dysplasia, followed by a benign tumor which may become locally invasive and metastatic, interactions between the transformed cells and their microenvironment direct the evolution of this process. Chronic inflammation in a tissue favors tumor first appearance which then accentuate the nutritional and energetic properties of their microenvironment by producing neoangiogenic, immunosuppressive and inflammatory molecules. In contrast a strong memory Th1/cytotoxic reaction can prevent the transition from benign to malignant tumors and control cancer invasivness and metastasis. Knowledge of these multiple phenomena, discussed in the different articles of the present issue has a major clinical impact, since new prognostic tests and efficient novel therapeutic approaches which target the tumor microenvironment are actively developed.

  3. Environmentally Benign Pyrotechnic Delays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    jay.poret@us.army.mil † School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA ABSTRACT Pyrotechnic delays are used in...benign formulations are described. The delay time of the new system is easily tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum ...tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum housings which is generally difficult for delay compositions due to extreme thermal

  4. Benign familial hyperphosphatasemia

    SciTech Connect

    Siraganian, P.A.; Mulvihill, J.J.; Mulivor, R.A.; Miller, R.W. )

    1989-03-03

    Elevated alkaline phosphatase activity in serum suggests bone or liver disease or a neoplasm but can also indicate pregnancy or another benign condition. A family with benign hyperphosphatasemia was studied to elucidate the genetics and enzyme defect. Serum total alkaline phosphatase activity was greater than the population mean in all six family members, and more than 7 SDs above the mean in two of four offspring. Monoclonal antibodies to three alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes, intestinal, placental, and tissue nonspecific demonstrated markedly increased intestinal alkaline phosphatase levels in all family members and significantly elevated liver/bone/kidney activity in the two offspring. Guanidine hydrochloride denaturation of the liver/bone/kidney component showed high alkaline phosphatase activity from liver in both siblings and from bone in one. The mode of inheritance in this family is obscure, but a complex regulation of the products of two different alkaline phosphatase genes seems likely. Steps toward diagnosis are suggested. Early recognition of this benign biochemical abnormality should help to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests.

  5. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    von Brevern, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common and the most effectively treated vestibular disorder. The prevailing pathomechanism is canalolithiasis, which is otoconia falling in one of the semicircular canals where they move in response to changes of the head position, triggering excitation of the vestibular receptors of the affected canal. In the majority of patients with BPPV, the posterior canal is affected by canalolithiasis and there are two highly effective therapeutic maneuvers for treatment. About 20% of patients present with lithiasis of the horizontal or anterior canal. The author focuses on recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of the more rare variants of BPPV.

  6. Transanal Endoscopic Operation for Benign Rectal Lesions and T1 Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihara, Emi; Dedrye, Lieven; Vindevoghel, Koen; Nuytens, Frederiek; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Transanal endoscopic operation (TEO) is a minimally invasive technique used for local excision of benign and selected malignant rectal lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility, safety, and oncological outcomes of the procedure and to report the experience in 3 centers. Methods: Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was performed of all patients with benign lesions or ≤cT1N0 rectal cancer who underwent TEO with curative intent at 3 Belgian centers (2012 through 2014). Results: Eighty-three patients underwent 84 TEOs for 89 rectal lesions (37 adenomas, 43 adenocarcinomas, 1 gastrointestinal stromal tumor, 1 lipoma, 2 neuroendocrine tumors, and 5 scar tissues). Operative time was associated with lesion size (P < .001). Postoperative complications occurred in 13 patients: 7 hemorrhages, 1 urinary tract infection, 1 urinary retention, 2 abscesses, 1 anastomotic stenosis, and 1 entrance into the peritoneal cavity. Median hospital stay was 3 days (range, 1–8). During a median follow-up of 13 months (range, 2–27), there was 1 recurrence. Conclusion: Although longer follow-up is still necessary, TEO appears to be an effective method of excising benign tumors and low-risk T1 carcinomas of the rectum. However, TEO should be considered as part of the diagnostic work-up. Furthermore, the resected specimen of a TEO procedure allows adequate local staging in contrast to an endoscopic piecemeal excision. Nevertheless, definitive histology must be appreciated, and in case of unfavorable histology, radical salvage resection still has to be performed. PMID:28144126

  7. Benign familial Degos disease worsening during immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Powell, J; Bordea, C; Wojnarowska, F; Farrell, A M; Morris, P J

    1999-09-01

    We describe a 61-year-old woman with skin lesions consistent with those found in Degos disease, both in clinical and in histological appearance. She had had several of these lesions for many years, as had her mother, sister and niece. In 1991, she underwent cadaveric renal transplantation and was treated with immunosuppression: prednisolone, azathioprine and cyclosporin. At that time, she developed many more characteristic skin lesions, and these were slightly larger and more noticeable than those she had had previously. She and the other affected family members appear to fit into the more benign subgroup of Degos disease, and it seems that her immunosuppression aggravated her cutaneous disease.

  8. Benign Cystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma Revealed by Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bray Madoué, Kaimba; Boniface, Moifo; Annick Laure, Edzimbi; Pierre, Herve

    2016-01-01

    Benign cystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare tumor which frequently occurs in women of reproductive age. Abdominal pain associated with pelvic or abdominal mass is the common clinical presentation. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman with a pathological proved benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum revealed by a small bowel obstruction and a painful left-sided pelvic mass with signs of psoitis. Contrast enhanced abdominal CT-scan demonstrated a large pelvic cystic mass with mass effect on rectosigmoid and pelvic organs. The patient underwent surgical removal of the tumor. Pathological examination revealed the diagnosis of benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum. The outcome was excellent with a 12-month recoil. PMID:27066288

  9. Motion Alters Color Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sang-Wook; Kang, Min-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Chromatic induction compellingly demonstrates that chromatic context as well as spectral lights reflected from an object determines its color appearance. Here, we show that when one colored object moves around an identical stationary object, the perceived saturation of the stationary object decreases dramatically whereas the saturation of the moving object increases. These color appearance shifts in the opposite directions suggest that normalization induced by the object’s motion may mediate the shift in color appearance. We ruled out other plausible alternatives such as local adaptation, attention, and transient neural responses that could explain the color shift without assuming interaction between color and motion processing. These results demonstrate that the motion of an object affects both its own color appearance and the color appearance of a nearby object, suggesting a tight coupling between color and motion processing. PMID:27824098

  10. Measurement of appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Helen; Pointer, Michael

    2002-06-01

    The visual appearance can be one of the most critical parameters affecting customer choise and, therefore, it needs to be quantifiable to ensure uniformity and reproducibility. A starting point in assessing the appearance of a consumer product might be the measurement of its colour. The description of its total appearance, however, cannot be achieved by the definition of color alone; other attributes of the material from which it is fabricated contribute to the overall appearance. The texture of a surface, for example, will cause changes in colour depending on the lighting direction; the freshness of food is judged by its overall appearance, but in a way that is much more subtle than by just its color; and novel effects such as pearlescence are added to products to enhance their attractiveness. For some products, such as cosmetics, it is not only their own appearance characteristics that are important, but also the visual effect after they have been applied to the skin, nails, hair, etc. It is clear, therefore, that the interest of industry in the measurement of appearance goes beyond simply surface color.

  11. Benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may affect up to 30% of men in their early 70s, causing urinary symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction. Symptoms can improve without treatment, but the usual course is a slow progression of symptoms, with acute urinary retention occurring in 1-2% of men with BPH per year. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical, surgical, and herbal treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to May 2005 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 43 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, alpha-blockers, beta-sitosterol plant extract, less-invasive surgical techniques, pygeum africanum, rye grass pollen extract, saw palmetto plant extracts, transurethral microwave thermotherapy, transurethral needle ablation, and transurethral resection.

  12. Imaging of giant cell tumor of bone

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Shaligram; Pardiwala, Dinshaw N

    2007-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign but locally aggressive and destructive lesion generally occurring in skeletally mature individuals. Typically involving the epiphysiometaphyseal region of long bones, the most common sites include the distal femur, proximal tibia and distal radius. On radiographs, GCT demonstrates a lytic lesion centered in the epiphysis but involving the metaphysis and extending at least in part to the adjacent articular cortex. Most are eccentric, but become symmetric and centrally located with growth. Most cases show circumscribed borders or so-called geographical destruction with no periosteal reaction unless a pathological fracture is present. There is no mineralized tumor matrix. Giant cell tumor can produce wide-ranging appearances depending on site, complications such as hemorrhage or pathological fracture and after surgical intervention. This review demonstrates a spectrum of these features and describes the imaging characteristics of GCT in conventional radiographs, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scans, positron emission tomography scans and angiography. PMID:21139758

  13. Multicystic benign cystic mesothelioma presenting as a pelvic mass.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Mazdak; Pereira, Elena; Grigoryan, Gennadiy; Zakashansky, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Background. Benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM) is a rare tumor that arises from the abdominal peritoneum with a predilection to the pelvic peritoneum. For this reason, it can often mimic gynecologic malignancies. Case. A 47-year-old perimenopausal female presented reporting several weeks of abdominal distention associated with abdominal tenderness and constipation. Computed tomography revealed a 24 cm multiloculated pelvic mass, and tumor markers were notable for an elevated CA-125. The patient was taken to the operating room for an exploratory laparotomy, total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy, and removal of pelvic mass. Final pathologic evaluation revealed a benign cystic mesothelioma. Conclusion. Classically these tumors present as large multicystic masses with thin-walled septations and on preoperative evaluation BCM can mimic many different disease entities including ovarian malignancies and cystic lymphangioma. Often diagnosis can only be made at time of surgery.

  14. Hypomethylation of DNA from Benign and Malignant Human Colon Neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelz, Susan E.; Vogelstein, Bert; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    1985-04-01

    The methylation state of DNA from human colon tissue displaying neoplastic growth was determined by means of restriction endonuclease analysis. When compared to DNA from adjacent normal tissue, DNA from both benign colon polyps and malignant carcinomas was substantially hypomethylated. With the use of probes for growth hormone, γ -globin, α -chorionic gonadotropin, and γ -crystallin, methylation changes were detected in all 23 neoplastic growths examined. Benign polyps were hypomethylated to a degree similar to that in malignant tissue. These results indicate that hypomethylation is a consistent biochemical characteristic of human colonic tumors and is an alteration in the DNA that precedes malignancy.

  15. Appearances, Stigma, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the practical aspects of clothing are compared to effective practices in special education. Actual competence is more important than the appearance, or cloak, of competence. It is argued that speaking openly about disability will do more to reduce its stigma than will euphemisms. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  16. Benign Breast Problems and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a needle. Another example is a simple fibroadenoma . Simple fibroadenomas usually shrink or go away on their own. ... Cyst: A sac or pouch filled with fluid. Fibroadenoma: A type of solid, benign breast mass. Hormone: ...

  17. Expression of Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue, phospho-Akt, and p53 in Acral Benign and Malignant Melanocytic Neoplasms (Benign Nevi, Dysplastic Nevi, and Acral Melanomas)

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, So Min; Wu, Ju Yeon; Byun, Ji Yeon; Choi, Hae Young; Park, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling pathway in the development of acral melanoma has recently gained evidence. Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), one of the key molecules in the pathway, acts as a tumor suppressor through either an Akt-dependent or Akt-independent pathway. Akt accelerates degradation of p53. Objective We assessed the expression of PTEN, phospho-Akt (p-Akt), and p53 by immunohistochemistry in benign acral nevi, acral dysplastic nevi, and acral melanomas in the radial growth phase and with a vertical growth component. Methods Ten specimens in each group were included. Paraffin-embedded specimens were immunostained with antibodies for PTEN, p-Akt, and p53. We scored both the staining intensity and the proportion of positive cells. The final score was calculated by multiplying the intensity score by the proportion score. Results All specimens of benign acral nevi except one showed some degree of PTEN-negative cells. The numbers of p-Akt and p53-positive cells were higher in acral dysplastic nevi and melanoma than in benign nevi. P-Akt scores were 1.7, 1.8, 2.6, and 4.4, and p53 scores were 2.0, 2.1, 3.8, and 4.1 in each group. PTEN and p-Akt scores in advanced acral melanoma were higher than in the other neoplasms. Conclusion The expression of PTEN was decreased and the expression of p-Akt was increased in acral melanoma, especially in advanced cases. The PTEN-induced pathway appears to affect the late stage of melanomagenesis. Altered expression of p-Akt is thought to be due to secondary changes following the loss of PTEN. PMID:27746632

  18. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  19. Unusual radiographic appearance of adamantinoma.

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, Michele; Montalti, Maurizio; Bosco, Giuseppe; Gasbarrini, Alessandro; Boriani, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare tumor with an indolent course that occurs most commonly in the tibia. It is locally aggressive, and local recurrences are described after resection. Pain is the most common symptom. Since the lesion is typically slow growing, the pain can be present for many years before the patient seeks medical attention. Microscopically, adamantinoma consists of islands of epithelial cells in a fibrous stroma. Nuclear atypia is minimal, and mitotic figures are rare. The most common radiographic appearance is that of multiple sharply demarcated radiolucent lesions surrounded by areas of dense, sclerotic bone. This tumor most often affects the tibial diaphysis and produces lytic lesions that can cause fractures. A 31-year-old man presented with a rapidly growing lytic lesion of the distal tibia. On histological examination, many areas of epithelial cells in a fibrous stroma were identified. Diagnosis of adamantinoma was performed. The lesion was treated with en bloc resection and reconstruction with distal tibia allograft and ankle arthrodesis with retrograde nail. At 2-year follow-up, there were no clinical or radiological signs of recurrence of disease.

  20. Benign cementoblastoma of the anterior mandible: an unusual case report

    PubMed Central

    Karöz, Tuğçe Berre; Sumer, Mahmut; Açıkgöz, Aydan; Süllü, Yurdanur

    2016-01-01

    A benign cementoblastoma, which is another name for a true cementoma, is a rare neoplasm that develops from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. It is characterized by a mineralized mass attached to the apex of the root produced by neoplastic cementoblasts. More than 75% of cases arise in the mandible, with 90% of them manifesting in the molar and premolar regions. This neoplasm occurs most commonly in children and young adults, with males being affected slightly more than females. Radiographically, the tumor is observed as a well-defined radiopaque mass that is fused to a tooth root and is surrounded by a radiolucent rim. The treatment of benign cementoblastoma consists of removal of the lesion and extraction of the affected tooth. This report presents an unusual case of benign cementoblastoma in a 31-year-old female, presenting as a densely mineralized mass seen at the apex of the impacted right mandibular canine tooth on radiographs. PMID:27595092

  1. The Conundrum of Genetic “Drivers” in Benign Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Keith T.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-01-01

    Advances in deep genomic sequencing have identified a spectrum of cancer-specific passenger and driver aberrations. Clones with driver anomalies are believed to be positively selected during carcinogenesis. Accumulating evidence, however, shows that genomic alterations, such as those in BRAF, RAS, EGFR, HER2, FGFR3, PIK3CA, TP53, CDKN2A, and NF1/2, all of which are considered hallmark drivers of specific cancers, can also be identified in benign and premalignant conditions, occasionally at frequencies higher than in their malignant counterparts. Targeting these genomic drivers can produce dramatic responses in advanced cancer, but the effects on their benign counterparts are less clear. This benign-malignant phenomenon is well illustrated in studies of BRAF V600E mutations, which are paradoxically more frequent in benign nevi (∼80%) than in dysplastic nevi (∼60%) or melanoma (∼40%-45%). Similarly, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 is more commonly overexpressed in ductal carcinoma in situ (∼27%-56%) when compared with invasive breast cancer (∼11%-20%). FGFR3 mutations in bladder cancer also decrease with tumor grade (low-grade tumors, ∼61%; high-grade, ∼11%). “Driver” mutations also occur in nonmalignant settings: TP53 mutations in synovial tissue from rheumatoid arthritis and FGFR3 mutations in seborrheic keratosis. The latter observations suggest that the oncogenicity of these alterations may be tissue context–dependent. The conversion of benign conditions to premalignant disease may involve other genetic events and/or epigenetic reprogramming. Putative driver mutations can also be germline and associated with increased cancer risk (eg, germline RAS or TP53 alterations), but germline FGFR3 or NF2 abnormalities do not predispose to malignancy. We discuss the enigma of genetic “drivers” in benign and premalignant conditions and the implications for prevention strategies and theories of tumorigenesis. PMID:27059373

  2. Crowding changes appearance.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John A; Bex, Peter J; Dakin, Steven C

    2010-03-23

    Crowding is the breakdown in object recognition that occurs in cluttered visual environments and the fundamental limit on peripheral vision, affecting identification within many visual modalities and across large spatial regions. Though frequently characterized as a disruptive process through which object representations are suppressed or lost altogether, we demonstrate that crowding systematically changes the appearance of objects. In particular, target patches of visual noise that are surrounded ("crowded") by oriented Gabor flankers become perceptually oriented, matching the flankers. This was established with a change-detection paradigm: under crowded conditions, target changes from noise to Gabor went unnoticed when the Gabor orientation matched the flankers (and the illusory target percept), despite being easily detected when they differed. Rotation of the flankers (leaving target noise unaltered) also induced illusory target rotations. Blank targets led to similar results, demonstrating that crowding can induce apparent structure where none exists. Finally, adaptation to these stimuli induced a tilt aftereffect at the target location, consistent with signals from the flankers "spreading" across space. These results confirm predictions from change-based models of crowding, such as averaging, and establish crowding as a regularization process that simplifies the peripheral field by promoting consistent appearance among adjacent objects.

  3. Imagery of pineal tumors.

    PubMed

    Deiana, G; Mottolese, C; Hermier, M; Louis-Tisserand, G; Berthezene, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pineal tumors are rare and include a large variety of entities. Germ cell tumors are relatively frequent and often secreting lesions. Pineal parenchymal tumors include pineocytomas, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, pineoblastomas and papillary tumors of the pineal region. Other lesions including astrocytomas and meningiomas as well as congenital malformations i.e. benign cysts, lipomas, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, which can also arise from the pineal region. Imagery is often non-specific but detailed analysis of the images compared with the hormone profile can narrow the spectrum of possible diagnosis.

  4. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast With Malignant Melanoma Component: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vergine, Marco; Guy, Catherine; Taylor, Mark R

    2015-09-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast display a wide variation in histological appearance and are classified into benign, borderline, and malignant categories based on a combination of histological parameters. These tumors may include a malignant heterologous component that is believed to originate through a process of multidirectional differentiation from a cancer stem cell. In these cases, the tumor is classified as a malignant phyllodes tumor. Among the heterologous elements that have been described in malignant phyllodes tumors are rhabdomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, liposarcoma and angiosarcoma. We present the first case of a phyllodes tumor with a malignant melanoma component in the breast of a 71-year-old lady, discussing the clinical implications of this diagnosis.

  5. Primary carcinoid tumor of the skin: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Jedrych, Jaroslaw; Pulitzer, Melissa

    2014-04-01

    Primary carcinoid tumor of the skin (PCTS) is an uncommon indolent neoplasm, with 10 cases described in the literature. The tumors affect patients in the sixth to ninth decades of life (mean = 66.3 years) with an equal gender distribution and predilection for the head and trunk. They present as slowly enlarging nodules of variable duration, ranging from 1 to 60 years (mean = 11.4 years). PCTS is characterized by architectural, cytomorphologic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features typical of a low-grade neoplasm with neuroendocrine differentiation. PCTS typically follows a benign clinical course and therefore has to be distinguished from cutaneous metastases of visceral carcinoid tumors, which herald dissemination of malignancy and poor prognosis. While the distinction from other histologically similar entities can be achieved by histopathological examination, PCTS can be distinguished from a visceral metastasis only by a judicious clinicopathologic correlation. Herein we describe the clinical presentation, histological appearance, and management of these tumors.

  6. Pharmacotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, P; Indudhara, R

    1994-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a benign neoplasm of the prostate seen in men of advancing age. Microscopic evidence of the disorder is seen in about 70% of men by 70 years of age, whereas symptoms requiring some form of surgical intervention occur in 30% of men during their lifetime. Although the exact cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia is not clear, it is well recognized that high levels of intraprostatic androgens are required for the maintenance of prostatic growth. In recent years, extensive surveys of patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate reveal an 18% incidence of morbidity that has essentially not changed in the past 30 years. This procedure is also the second highest reimbursed surgical therapy under Medicare. These findings have resulted in an intensive search for alternative therapies for prostatic hyperplasia. An alternative that has now been well defined is the use of alpha-adrenergic blockers to relax the prostatic urethra. This is based on findings that a major component of benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms is spasm of the prostatic urethra and bladder neck, which is mediated by the alpha-adrenergic nerves. A second approach is to block androgens involved in maintaining prostate growth. Several such drugs are now available for clinical use, and we discuss their side effects and use. We also include the newer recommendations on evaluating benign prostatic hyperplasia that are cost-effective yet comprehensive. Images PMID:7528957

  7. Cholesterol and benign prostate disease.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association between BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept.

  8. Cholesterol and Benign Prostate Disease

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Michael R.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association bet ween BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemi, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept. PMID:21862201

  9. [Isotope nephrographic studies in benign gynecologic diseases].

    PubMed

    Lamm, D

    1977-01-01

    1014 patients with benigne gynaecological diseases (functional incontinence of urine with and without displacement, myoma of uterus, ovarian tumors, chronic salpingoophoritis) were examined by means of isotope nephrogram before gynaecological treatment was begun. A group of 156 patients was parallely examined by means of chromocystoscopy and intravenous urography. For judgement of the ING-curves we applicated an extra parameter--the drain value "A"--, through which it was possible to differenciate between emptying disturbances and functional urinary transport disorders. To obtain this value it is necessary to change the position of the patients during examination. Under these conditions approximately 95% of ING-findings conformed with those vaised by intravenous urography. Giving weight to these conditions, we recommend the application of ING in gynaecology as a screening method. Criteria for optimal usage of this method are mentioned.

  10. Hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Da; Wang, Jianmin; Tian, Yuepeng; Li, Qiuguo; Yan, Haixiong; Wang, Biao; Xiong, Li; Li, Qinglong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rational: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm which expresses both myogenic and melanocytic markers. PEComas are found in a variety locations in the body, but up to now only approximately 30 cases about hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor are reported in English language worldwide. Patient concerns: A 32-year-old woman was admitted in our hospital with intermittent right upper quadrant pain for 1 month and recent (1 day) progressive deterioration. Diagnoses: Based on the results of the laboratory examinations and the findings of the computed tomography, the diagnosis of hepatic hamartoma or the hepatocecullar carcinoma with hemorrhage was made. Interventions: The patient underwent a segmentectomy of the liver, and the finally diagnosis of hepatic PEComa was made with immunohistochemical confirmation with HMB-45 and SMA. Outcomes: There is no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence 9 months after surgery. Lessons: This kind of tumor is extremely rare and the natural history of PEComa is uncertain, as the treatment protocol for hepatic PEComa has not reached a consensus. But the main treatment of the disease may be surgical resection. Only after long term follow-up can we know whether the tumor is benign or malignant. It appears that longer clinical follow-up is necessary in all patients with hepatic PEComas. PMID:28002331

  11. Soft tissue tumors among beagles injected with 90Sr, 228Ra, OR 228Th.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, R D; Angus, W; Taylor, G N; Miller, S C

    1995-08-01

    The occurrence of soft-tissue tumors in beagles given 90Sr (88 dogs), 228Ra (76 dogs), or 228Th (81 dogs) as young adults and followed throughout their lifespans was compared with that of 133 control beagles given no radioactivity. For animals injected with 228Ra, tumors of the eye were more prominent (p < 0.05) than in the controls, and soft-tissue tumors of cavities in the head (excluding the brain, mouth, and eye) were more prominent in dogs given 90Sr than in the controls (p < 0.05). There was some indication that eye tumors in animals given about 0.56 kBq 228Th kg-1 were associated with their radionuclide exposure. For tumors at a few other locations, the relative occurrence was greater (p < 0.05) in the controls. These included malignant tumors of the testis and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae and vagina in 228Th dogs; both malignant and malignant plus benign tumors of the mouth and testis, and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae and vagina in 228Ra dogs; and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae in 90Sr dogs (p > 0.05 by Odds Ratio Chi Square analysis but p < 0.05 by Fisher's Exact Test). Differences in relative occurrence between radioactive dogs and controls of all other tumor types that appeared in any of the animals (notably lymphosarcoma, lymph node tumors, leukemia, mast cell tumors, liver tumors, etc.) were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Intercurrent mortality, mainly from bone cancer, was higher in the radioactive dogs than in the controls. Mean survival was reduced in the dogs given 90Sr, 228Ra, or 228Th (13.17 +/- 2.64 y in controls, 10.95 +/- 4.06 y in 90Sr dogs, 9.07 +/- 3.61 y in 228Ra dogs, and 9.20 +/- 4.15 y in 228Th dogs). Attenuated lifespans could account, at least in part, for the relative paucity of soft-tissue tumors not induced by radiation among the groups of dogs given radioactivity and occurring near the end of life for control animals.

  12. Endobronchial solitary fibrous tumor

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Marcelo Padovani Toledo; Colby, Thomas; Oliveira, Gilmar Felisberto; Hasimoto, Erica Nishida; Cataneo, Daniele Cristina; Cataneo, Antônio José Maria; De Faveri, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm that appears primarily in the pleura and rarely in intrapulmonary or endobronchial topography. The authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman who presented obstructive respiratory symptoms for 4 years. The chest computed tomography and bronchoscopy showed an obstructive polypoid lesion located between the trachea and the left main bronchus associated with distal atelectasis of the left lung. A resection of the lesion was performed and, macroscopically, the mass was oval, encapsulated, and firm, measuring 2.3 × 1.7 × 1.5 cm. Histology revealed low-grade mesenchymal spindle cell neoplasm, with alternating cellularity, myxoid areas, and mature adipose tissue outbreaks, as well as blood vessels with irregular walls. The immunohistochemical study was positive for CD34, CD99, and BCL2. The diagnosis was SFT in an unusual topography. The patient’s symptoms remitted after tumor excision, and no systemic problems were evident. SFTs primarily affect adults and often follow a benign course; however, their behavior is unpredictable. The presence of necrosis and mitotic activity may portend a poor prognosis. Endobronchial SFTs are rare but should be evaluated and monitored similar to SFTs at other sites, with a long-term follow-up. PMID:28210572

  13. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A E

    2006-07-07

    The coupling of energetic metallic multilayers (a.k.a. flash metal) with energetic sol-gel synthesis and processing is an entirely new approach to forming energetic devices for several DoD and DOE needs. They are also practical and commercially viable manufacturing techniques. Improved occupational safety and health, performance, reliability, reproducibility, and environmentally acceptable processing can be achieved using these methodologies and materials. The development and fielding of this technology will enhance mission readiness and reduce the costs, environmental risks and the necessity of resolving environmental concerns related to maintaining military readiness while simultaneously enhancing safety and health. Without sacrificing current performance, we will formulate new impact initiated device (IID) compositions to replace materials from the current composition that pose significant environmental, health, and safety problems associated with functions such as synthesis, material receipt, storage, handling, processing into the composition, reaction products from testing, and safe disposal. To do this, we will advance the use of nanocomposite preparation via the use of multilayer flash metal and sol-gel technologies and apply it to new small IIDs. This work will also serve to demonstrate that these technologies and resultant materials are relevant and practical to a variety of energetic needs of DoD and DOE. The goal will be to produce an IID whose composition is acceptable by OSHA, EPA, the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Recovery Act, etc. standards, without sacrificing current performance. The development of environmentally benign stab detonators and igniters will result in the removal of hazardous and toxic components associated with their manufacturing, handling, and use. This will lead to improved worker safety during manufacturing as well as reduced exposure of Service personnel during their storage and or use in operations. The

  14. Imaging Appearances in Gout

    PubMed Central

    Girish, Gandikota; Melville, David M.; Kaeley, Gurjit S.; Brandon, Catherine J.; Goyal, Janak R.; Jacobson, Jon A.; Jamadar, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Gout is an ancient disease. Last decade has brought about significant advancement in imaging technology and real scientific growth in the understanding of the pathophysiology of gout, leading to the availability of multiple effective noninvasive diagnostic imaging options for gout and treatment options fighting inflammation and controlling urate levels. Despite this, gout is still being sub-optimally treated, often by nonspecialists. Increased awareness of optimal treatment options and an increasing role of ultrasound and dual energy computed tomography (DECT) in the diagnosis and management of gout are expected to transform the management of gout and limit its morbidity. DECT gives an accurate assessment of the distribution of the deposited monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in gout and quantifies them. The presence of a combination of the ultrasound findings of an effusion, tophus, erosion and the double contour sign in conjunction with clinical presentation may be able to obviate the need for intervention and joint aspiration in a certain case population for the diagnosis of gout. The purpose of this paper is to review imaging appearances of gout and its clinical applications. PMID:23585966

  15. Radiotherapy of unusual benign disease

    SciTech Connect

    Aristizabel, S.A.; Runyon, T.D.

    1981-10-01

    Four different case reports are presented with a review of the literature in which radiation therapy was used for the treatment of four rare benign diseases: pyogenic granuloma of the middle ear, juvenile xanthogranuloma of the iris, a fourth ventricle choroid plexus papilloma, and an ovarian lymphangioma associated with peritoneal lymphangiomatosis. A trial of radiation therapy was given in each case, because of extenuating circumstances. We hope that the information presented here will contribute to current guidelines used in weighting patient benefits versus potential risks of therapy when ionizing radiation is considered as a mode of therapy for benign disorders.

  16. [Benign stenosis of the esophagus].

    PubMed

    Salis, G; Lazaroni, F; Chiocca, J C; Mazure, P A; Sferco, A

    1978-09-01

    In the present study 39 patients with benign esphageal stenosis were studied (average age 59,9 years). The most common etiology was refux esofagitis, and the most common associated pathology was esophageal hiatus hernia. Thirty one patients received medical treatment (diet. antireflux drugs and dilatations.) Twenty four were dilated with the slow continuous method, six with metalic bougies. One patient was not dilated. Seven patients were not treated since the stenosis was due to extrinsec compression. One patient was surgically treated from the onset. Seventy percent of the patients had goods results with esophageal dilatation. We propose that patients with benign esophageal stenosis should be treated by the slow continuous dilatation method.

  17. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Roehrborn, Claus G

    2005-01-01

    Despite the deceptively simple description of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the actual relationship between BPH, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), benign prostatic enlargement, and bladder outlet obstruction is complex and requires a solid understanding of the definitional issues involved. The etiology of BPH and LUTS is still poorly understood, but the hormonal hypothesis has many arguments in its favor. There are many medical and minimally invasive treatment options available for affected patients. In the intermediate and long term, minimally invasive treatment options are superior to medical therapy in terms of symptom and flow rate improvement; tissue ablative surgical treatment options are superior to both minimally invasive and medical therapy. PMID:16985902

  18. A Rare Case of a Benign Primary Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Saladi, Swetha; Patolia, Setu; Mahmoud Assaf, Sara; Stoeckel, David

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) constitute a small proportion of primary respiratory system neoplasms. Benign SGT comprises pleomorphic adenoma and is exceedingly rare in the lungs. We hereby present a rare case of a benign primary pleomorphic adenoma of the lung. The histological pattern of the tumor was indistinguishable from the head and neck SGT counterparts and showed biphasic morphology. Malignant features were not observed and a metastatic SGT was ruled out. Although little is known about the clinical progression of these rare tumors, surgical resection and interval surveillance remains the treatment of choice.

  19. Intramural esophageal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Katarzyna; Rębowski, Marek; Kozak, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intramural esophageal tumors (IET) are located between unchanged mucous membrane and muscularis mucosae. They can be both benign and malignant. Aim To evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties of IET. Material and methods During the years 2010–2015, 11 patients with IET were treated in our clinic. Diagnostics included gastroscopy, computed tomography of the chest, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle biopsy, and positron emission tomography (PET) of the esophagus in cases with no histopathological confirmation. Results Based on the conducted analysis we diagnosed 1 case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), 1 case of adenocarcinoma, and 2 cases of esophageal cysts. In another 7 cases radiological images resembled leiomyoma but with no histopathological confirmation. Esophagectomy was performed in 2 cases of malignant tumors and 1 case of a large benign tumor. In other cases surgical enucleation of tumors was performed. Postoperatively we diagnosed 6 cases of leiomyoma, 1 case of schwannoma, 2 esophageal cysts, 1 case of GIST and 1 of esophageal cancer. Conclusions Intramural esophageal tumors is a very diverse group of tumors, both malignant and benign. In every case of IET we should seek histopathological conformation. Treatment of IET depends on localization, size and histopathological type of lesion. PMID:28096828

  20. Immunocytochemical study of transforming growth factor expression in benign and malignant gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, V.; Barrett, J. M.; Bockman, S.; Pantazis, C. G.; Allen, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    Immunocytochemical studies using polyclonal antibodies to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha and beta were performed on 20 cases of human gliomas. EGF immunoreactive material was detected in both benign and malignant glial tumors. In addition, EGF immunoreactive material was detected in normal brain. TGF-beta was detected in both benign and malignant tumors, but was not detected in normal brain. In contrast, TGF-alpha was highly conserved in its expression, occurring predominantly in malignant compared with benign or normal brain tissue (P less than 0.0001). In malignant gliomas, glioblastomas contained 76% TGF-alpha reactivity (immunoreactive product), and anaplastic types contained 85% reactivity. Benign gliomas contained only 13% TGF-alpha reactivity. These findings support the role of TGF-alpha as an oncoprotein marker in brain neoplasms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2705509

  1. Benign Spine Lesions: Advances in Techniques for Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tomasian, A; Wallace, A N; Jennings, J W

    2017-02-09

    Minimally invasive percutaneous imaging-guided techniques have been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of benign tumors of the spine. Techniques available include a variety of tumor ablation technologies, including radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation, alcohol ablation, and laser photocoagulation. Vertebral augmentation may be performed after ablation as part of the same procedure for fracture stabilization or prevention. Typically, the treatment goal in benign spine lesions is definitive cure. Painful benign spine lesions commonly encountered in daily practice include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, vertebral hemangioma, aneurysmal bone cyst, Paget disease, and subacute/chronic Schmorl node. This review discusses the most recent advancement and use of minimally invasive percutaneous therapeutic options for the management of benign spine lesions.

  2. Immunohistochemical Expression of CD56 and ALDH1 in Common Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Safoura; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Gholinia, Hemmat; Aliakbarpour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Natural killer (NK) cells, of which CD56 is a specific marker, play an important role in host defense against tumors. Cancer stem cells, of which aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1 (ALDH1) is an immunohistochemical marker, are a group of tumorigenic cells which are involved in migration and tumor recurrences. We aimed to evaluate the expression of ALDH1 and CD56 in common salivary gland tumors, as well as their relationship with each other and with a number of clinicopathologic factors. Materials and Methods: Forty-five paraffin blocks of salivary gland tumors (pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma, 15 samples each) were selected. Malignant tumors were classified into two groups: low-grade (including mucoepidermoid carcinoma grade I) and high-grade (including mucoepidermoid carcinoma grade III and adenoid cystic carcinoma). Immunohistochemical staining for ALDH1 and CD56 markers was performed. Data were analyzed using SPSS (20) and the Chi-square test. Results: CD56 expression was significantly higher in benign and high-grade malignant tumors (P=0.01). ALDH1 overexpressed in all three salivary tumors, but not to statistically significant degree (P=0.54). There was no statistically significant correlation between ALDH1 and CD56 expression with demographic factors (age, gender, or location of tumor; P>0.05). Conclusion: It appears that the number of NK cells and their function change in different types of salivary gland tumors (benign/malignant) and stroma. NK cells are important components of the anti-tumor system; therefore immune dysfunction is associated with tumor progression in tumors of the salivary gland. ALDH1 overexpression suggests its role in tumorogenesis, but ALDH1 is not involved in the morphogenesis of salivary gland tumors. PMID:28008389

  3. [Minimally Invasive Treatment of Esophageal Benign Diseases].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Haruhiro

    2016-07-01

    As a minimally invasive treatment of esophageal achalasia per-oral endoscopic myotomy( POEM) was developed in 2008. More than 1,100 cases of achalasia-related diseases received POEM. Success rate of the procedure was more than 95%(Eckerdt score improvement 3 points and more). No serious( Clavian-Dindo classification III b and more) complication was experienced. These results suggest that POEM becomes a standard minimally invasive treatment for achalasia-related diseases. As an off-shoot of POEM submucosal tumor removal through submucosal tunnel (per-oral endoscopic tumor resection:POET) was developed and safely performed. Best indication of POET is less than 5 cm esophageal leiomyoma. A novel endoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was developed. Anti-reflux mucosectomy( ARMS) is nearly circumferential mucosal reduction of gastric cardia mucosa. ARMS is performed in 56 consecutive cases of refractory GERD. No major complications were encountered and excellent clinical results. Best indication of ARMS is a refractory GERD without long sliding hernia. Longest follow-up case is more than 10 years. Minimally invasive treatments for esophageal benign diseases are currently performed by therapeutic endoscopy.

  4. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Associated with Osteosarcoma in a True Malignant Mixed Tumor of the Submandibular Region.

    PubMed

    Marcotullio, Dario; de Vincentiis, Marco; Iannella, Giannicola; Cerbelli, Bruna; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. True malignant mixed tumor, also known as carcinosarcoma, is a rare tumor of the salivary gland composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal elements. Frequently carcinosarcoma arises in the background of a preexisting pleomorphic adenoma; however, if no evidence of benign mixed tumor is present, the lesion is known as carcinosarcoma "de novo." We reported the first case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland composed of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old Caucasian male came to our department complaining of the appearance of an asymptomatic left submandibular neoformation progressively increasing in size over 3 months. We opted for surgical treatment. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma with the coexistence of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, in the true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland, mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma has never been previously reported.

  5. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Associated with Osteosarcoma in a True Malignant Mixed Tumor of the Submandibular Region

    PubMed Central

    Marcotullio, Dario; de Vincentiis, Marco; Iannella, Giannicola; Cerbelli, Bruna; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. True malignant mixed tumor, also known as carcinosarcoma, is a rare tumor of the salivary gland composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal elements. Frequently carcinosarcoma arises in the background of a preexisting pleomorphic adenoma; however, if no evidence of benign mixed tumor is present, the lesion is known as carcinosarcoma “de novo.” We reported the first case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland composed of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old Caucasian male came to our department complaining of the appearance of an asymptomatic left submandibular neoformation progressively increasing in size over 3 months. We opted for surgical treatment. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma with the coexistence of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, in the true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland, mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma has never been previously reported. PMID:26600963

  6. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with an unerupted mandibular lateral incisor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare, benign odontogenic tumor that predominantly appears in the second decade of life in female patients. Most AOTs occur in the anterior part of the maxilla and are usually associated with impacted anterior teeth. There are three types of AOT, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral, which are classified based on the location of the lesion and its association with the impacted tooth. We report a rare case of AOT associated with an impacted right mandibular lateral incisor in an 11-year-old female patient. PMID:26734563

  7. Bone tumor mimics: avoiding misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gould, C Frank; Ly, Justin Q; Lattin, Grant E; Beall, Douglas P; Sutcliffe, Joseph B

    2007-01-01

    Whether discovered incidentally or as part of a focused diagnostic evaluation, the finding of a benign osseous lesion that has radiologic features resembling a bone tumor is not uncommon. Some of the more common benign and nonneoplastic entities that can sometimes be confused with tumors are the following: cortical desmoid, Brodie abscess, synovial herniation pit, pseudocyst, enostosis, intraosseous ganglion cyst, fibrous dysplasia, stress fracture, avulsion fracture (healing stage), bone infarct, myositis ossificans, brown tumor, and subchondral cyst. Accurate diagnosis and management of these lesions require a basic understanding of their epidemiology, clinical presentations, anatomic distributions, imaging features, differential considerations, and therapeutic options. This in-depth review of 13 potential bone tumor mimics will assist the radiologist in correctly identifying these benign lesions and in avoiding misdiagnosis and related morbidity. This review will also aid the radiologist in making appropriate recommendations to the referring physician for management or further imaging.

  8. Multiple cavitating pulmonary nodules: rare manifestation of benign metastatic leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn-I; Lee, Seok Jeong; Shim, Sung Shine; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Sung, Soon Hee

    2017-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease of pathologically benign, but the tumor metastasizes to other organs. The most common organ involved in BML is lung. Pulmonary involvement usually manifested as multiple nodules on chest X-ray, however we experienced an interesting case of a 52-year-old premenopausal woman who presented with multiple bilateral lung cavitations and nodules on a chest X-ray without any respiratory symptoms. Chest computed-tomography identified multiple cavitary lesions of 5–12 mm in diameter and well-defined nodules of 5–10 mm in diameter in both lung fields. Transthoracic needle biopsy was performed and the resected lesion consisted of benign spindle cells was positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and was diffuse positive for actin and desmin by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, suggesting leiomyoma. The final diagnosis was benign pulmonary metastasizing leiomyoma (BPML) and the patient underwent subcutaneous injection of a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist for 12 months, follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) scan at 15 months revealed decreased cavitations and nodular lesions. We should take into consideration the possibility of BPML when we encounter multiple cystic or cavitary lesions on chest X-ray, although the common form of BPML is nodulary lesions on imaging studies. PMID:28203428

  9. Collision Tumor Composed of Meningioma and Cavernoma.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Jens; Neher, Markus; Schrey, Michael; Wünsch, Peter H; Steiner, Hans-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A true collision tumor is a rare entity composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms coinciding in the same organ. This paper reports a unique case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. On the first hand, meningioma which is usually a benign lesion arising from the meningothelial cell in the arachnoidal membrane. On the other, cerebral cavernoma which is a well-circumscribed, benign vascular hamartoma within the brain. To our knowledge, there is no previously documented case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. A 56-year-old Caucasian male suffered in 2002 from an atypical meningioma WHO II° located in the left lateral ventricle. Three years after the tumor extirpation, the patient suffered from a hematoma in the fourth ventricle due to a recurrently haemorrhaged cavernoma. In 2008, a recurrence of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle was discovered. Additionally, another tumor located in the quadrigeminal lamina was detected. After surgical resection of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a collision tumor consisting of components of a meningioma WHO II° and a cavernoma. Postoperatively, no adjuvant treatment was needed and no tumor recurrence is discovered up to the present. A possible explanation for the collision of those two different tumors may be migration of tumor cells mediated by the cerebrospinal fluid. After 5-years of follow-up, there is no sign of any tumor recurrence; therefore, surgical tumor removal without adjuvant therapy seems to be the treatment of choice.

  10. A tumor profile in Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18).

    PubMed

    Satgé, Daniel; Nishi, Motoi; Sirvent, Nicolas; Vekemans, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Constitutional trisomy 18 causes Edwards syndrome, which is characterized by intellectual disability and a particular set of malformations. Although this condition carries high mortality during prenatal and early postnatal life, some of the rare infants who survive the first months develop benign and malignant tumors. To determine the tumor profile associated with Edwards syndrome, we performed a systematic review of the literature. This review reveals a tumor profile differing from those of Down (trisomy 21) and Patau (trisomy 13) syndromes. The literature covers 45 malignancies: 29 were liver cancers, mainly hepatoblastomas found in Japanese females; 13 were kidney tumors, predominantly nephroblastomas; 1 was neuroblastoma; 1 was a Hodgkin disease; and 1 was acute myeloid leukemia in an infant with both trisomy 18 and type 1 neurofibromatosis. No instances of the most frequent malignancies of early life-cerebral tumors, germ cell tumors, or leukemia--are reported in children with pure trisomy 18. Tumor occurrence does not appear to correlate with body weight, tissue growth, or cancer genes mapping to chromosome 18. Importantly, the most recent clinical histories report successful treatment; this raises ethical concerns about cancer treatment in infants with Edwards syndrome. In conclusion, knowledge of the Edwards' syndrome tumor profile will enable better clinical surveillance in at-risk organs (i.e., liver, kidney). This knowledge also provides clues to understanding oncogenesis, including the probably reduced frequency of some neoplasms in infants and children with this genetic condition. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nonfunctioning Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Ryoko; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Yanagisawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Makiyama, Kazuhide; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ohashi, Kenichi; Nagashima, Yoji; Yao, Masahiro; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    The juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) is a rare renal tumor characterized by excessive renin secretion causing intractable hypertension and hypokalemia. However, asymptomatic nonfunctioning JGCT is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of nonfunctioning JGCT in a 31-year-old woman. The patient presented with a left renal tumor without hypertension or hypokalemia. Under a clinical diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma, radical nephrectomy was performed. The tumor was located in the middle portion adjacent to the renal pelvis, measuring 2 cm in size. Pathologically, the tumor was composed of cuboidal cells forming a solid arrangement, immunohistochemically positive for renin. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as JGCT. In cases with hyperreninism, preoperative diagnosis of JGCT is straightforward but difficult in nonfunctioning case. Generally, JGCT presents a benign biological behavior. Therefore, we should take nonfunctioning JGCT into the differential diagnoses for renal tumors, especially in younger patients to avoid excessive surgery. PMID:23607027

  12. The Excessive Appearance of Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalko, Rod

    2009-01-01

    This paper engages the appearance of disability in contemporary Western culture. Rather than taking disability for granted as a biomedical condition, I interrogate how disability is made to appear in our culture, including its appearance as a biomedical condition. Fundamentally, disability appears to us as a trouble and, as such, cultural…

  13. Ameloblastic fibroma: A rare case appearing as a mixed radiographic image

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Jurema-Freire-Lisboa; Correia, Andreza-Veruska-Lira; Santos, Lucas-Alexandre-Moraes; Guerra, Luiz-Antônio-Portela; Ramos-Perez, Flávia-Maria-de-Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is a benign tumor of mixed odontogenic origin, which affects predominantly young individuals. AF appearing as a mixed radiographic image is very rare. This report describes a case of AF in a 12-year-old male identified during a routine radiographic exam for orthodontic treatment planning. The panoramic radiography revealed a well-defined multilocular mixed image located in the mandible between the roots of the left mandibular second premolar and first molar. The lesion was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological analysis revealed islands of epithelial cells and columnar peripheral cells showing a nucleus in inverted polarization, interspersed with spindle-shaped cells and abundant extracellular matrix deposition. No atypia was observed. The diagnosis of AF was established. No tumor recurred up to 30 months after treatment. Although rare, AF should be also considered in the differential diagnosis of mixed radiographic images of the jaws in young patients. Key words:Ameloblastic fibroma, differential diagnosis, incidental finding, mixed image, radiographic features. PMID:25674330

  14. Pleomorphic adenoma (formerly chondroid syringoma) of the eyelid margin with a pseudocystic appearance.

    PubMed

    Palioura, Sotiria; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Zakka, Fouad R; Iwamoto, Mami

    2013-01-01

    Among the adenomas and adenocarcinomas spawned by the adnexal glands of the eyelids, pleomorphic adenoma (also referred to as benign mixed tumor or chondroid syringoma in dermatopathology) is among the rarest. Pleomorphic adenomas (PAs) can arise from sweat glands in the dermis of the eyelid skin and must be distinguished from those of the accessory lacrimal glands of Krause and Wolfring. We describe an eyelid margin skin PA that appeared clinically to be a cyst and was not associated with an accessory lacrimal gland. Histopathologically, the lesion was circumscribed but nonencapsulated and composed of branching ductular structures with a double layer of epithelial cells set in a myxoid and sclerotic stroma that did not contain cartilage. The outer ductular (myoepithelial) cells delaminated to populate the stroma. Histochemistry disclosed abundant extracellular mucopolysaccharides that conferred the "cystic" character clinically. The inner ductular cells were uniformly positive for cytokeratin 7 and focally for gross cystic fluid disease protein-15, an apocrine marker. The inner and outer ductular cells were negative for alpha-smooth muscle actin. These pathologic findings support an apocrine (gland of Moll) origin for this tumor, which is consistent with the fact that there are no eccrine glands at the eyelid margin.

  15. Imaging of the postoperative liver: review of normal appearances and common complications.

    PubMed

    Mulé, S; Colosio, A; Cazejust, J; Kianmanesh, R; Soyer, P; Hoeffel, C

    2015-10-01

    Several benign and malignant liver diseases may require surgical treatment for cure, including anatomical resections based on the segmental anatomy of the liver, non-anatomical (wedge) resections, and surgical management of biliary cysts. The type of surgery depends not only on the location and the nature of the disease, but also on the expertise of the surgeon. Whereas ultrasonography is often the first-line imaging examination in case of suspected postoperative complication, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is of greater value for identifying normal findings after surgery, early postoperative pathologic fluid collections and vascular thromboses, and tumor recurrence in patients who have undergone hepatic surgery. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is the imaging modality of choice for depicting early postoperative bile duct injuries and ischemic cholangitis that may occur in the late postoperative phase. Both MDCT and MRCP can accurately depict tumor recurrence. Radiologists should become familiar with these surgical procedures to better understand postoperative changes, and with the normal imaging appearances of various postoperative complications to better differentiate between complications and normal findings.

  16. Ameloblastic fibroma: A rare case appearing as a mixed radiographic image.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Jurema-Freire-Lisboa; Correia, Andreza-Veruska-Lira; Santos, Lucas-Alexandre-Moraes; Guerra, Luiz-Antônio-Portela; Ramos-Perez, Flávia-Maria-de-Moraes; Perez, Danyel-Elias-da Cruz

    2014-12-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is a benign tumor of mixed odontogenic origin, which affects predominantly young individuals. AF appearing as a mixed radiographic image is very rare. This report describes a case of AF in a 12-year-old male identified during a routine radiographic exam for orthodontic treatment planning. The panoramic radiography revealed a well-defined multilocular mixed image located in the mandible between the roots of the left mandibular second premolar and first molar. The lesion was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological analysis revealed islands of epithelial cells and columnar peripheral cells showing a nucleus in inverted polarization, interspersed with spindle-shaped cells and abundant extracellular matrix deposition. No atypia was observed. The diagnosis of AF was established. No tumor recurred up to 30 months after treatment. Although rare, AF should be also considered in the differential diagnosis of mixed radiographic images of the jaws in young patients. Key words:Ameloblastic fibroma, differential diagnosis, incidental finding, mixed image, radiographic features.

  17. [A paraneoplastic Sharp syndrome reversible after resection of a benign schwannoma: a paraneoplastic syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Slimani, S; Sahraoui, M; Bennadji, A; Ladjouze-Rezig, A

    2014-08-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes commonly occur in malignancies and often precede the first symptoms of the tumor. By definition, paraneoplastic syndromes are only associated with malignancies although some exceptions have been reported, occurring with benign tumors. We report a patient presenting with a clinical and serological Sharp syndrome, followed a few months later by a cervical schwannoma. Curative surgical resection of the mass resulted in a clinical and serological healing from the Sharp syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a benign schwannoma complicated by a possible paraneoplastic Sharp syndrome.

  18. Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations of wolffian origin.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; González-Peramato, Pilar; Serrano, Alvaro; Vega-Perez, Maria; De Miguel, Maria P; Regadera, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations (BEPs) are rare. Only 10 cases were found in a series of 431 paratesticular cysts and were classified as follows: cystadenoma, 5; papilloma, 2; and hamartoma, 3. Four cystadenomas showed multiple papillae lined by CD10+ epithelial cells with hyperchromatic nuclei. The remaining lesion showed areas with a microcystic, glandular, cribriform pattern, with small, benign glands without atypia. Urothelial papilloma presented BEPs with cytokeratin (CK) 7+ and CD10+ and CK20- umbrella-like cells. The mural papilloma was lined by proliferative cylindrical cells exhibiting strong CK7 and CD10 expression. The 3 Wolffian hamartomas were characterized by strongly CD10+ epithelium surrounded by smooth muscle cells. The consistent CD10 expression in BEPs of paratesticular cysts suggests a Wolffian origin. The differential diagnosis of paratesticular cysts with BEP vs metastatic prostatic and primary borderline or malignant tumors is discussed.

  19. Benign External Hydrocephalus in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Adele Marino, Maria; Morabito, Rosa; Vinci, Sergio; Germanò, Antonino; Briguglio, Marilena; Alafaci, Concetta; Mormina, Enricomaria; Longo, Marcello; Granata, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Summary External hydrocephalus (EH) is a benign clinical entity in which macrocephaly is associated with an increase in volume of the subarachnoid space, especially overlying both frontal lobes, and a normal or only slight increase in volume of the lateral ventricles. Several pathogenic hypotheses have been proposed but the most accredited theory seems to be delayed maturation of the arachnoid villi. There is a consensus that this is a benign entity, correlated to a familial predisposition and, in some cases, inheritance. CT and MRI are very important to make a diagnosis but also to establish the prognosis in patients who encounter the rare complications such as subdural haematomas. In conclusion, CT and MRI can provide a highly accurate diagnosis in these patients, allowing a preliminary assessment of the prognosis, particularly regarding the enlarged subarachnoid space limits and the “cortical vein" sign which can predict a further complication. These results are obtained with the same examination performed in a standard CT or MRI study of the brain and no injection of contrast medium is needed. PMID:24750715

  20. Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi; Liu, Rui-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare condition that occurs in all age groups and that is particularly prevalent among women of late childbearing age. All patients have a history of uterine leiomyoma and/or myomectomy, often associated with distant metastases from the uterus, which commonly occurs in the lung. We report the case of a 32-year-old young woman suffering from chest stuffiness, labored respiration and weakness after a myomectomy performed one month earlier. The chest CT showed a diffuse miliary shadow in both sides of her lungs, but serum tumor markers such as CA125, CA199, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and CYFRA21-1 were normal. The patient underwent a lung biopsy by thoracoscopic surgery after four weeks of anti-TB treatment; there were no significant changes in the chest CT. H&E staining showed that the tumor cells had characteristics of smooth muscle cell differentiation. Immunohistochemical staining showed a low tumor cell proliferation index, which indicated that the likelihood of a malignancy was not high. There was no expression of CD10, indicating a diagnosis of pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML). Smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin as specific markers of smooth muscle and the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were all strongly positive, which is characteristic of PBML. The patient was given the anti-estrogen tamoxifen for 3 months. With no radiological evidence of disease development and further distant metastasis, the patient will continue to be followed. PMID:24977035

  1. Paratesticular Angiomyofibroblastoma-Like Tumor: Unusual Case of a Solidocystic Form

    PubMed Central

    Msakni, Issam; Ghachem, Dorra; Gargouri, Faten; Mansouri, Nada; Khiari, Ramzi; Bougrine, Fethi; Bouziani, Ammar; Laabidi, Besma

    2017-01-01

    The angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor of the male genital tract is a rare benign tumor. A total of 34 cases have been reported in the literature. We herein report an exceptional case of solidocystic form in its paratesticular location, in a 79-year-old man. Clinical examination objectified a right testicular induration. Macroscopic examination of the orchidectomy objectified a paratesticular solidocystic tumor formation. Microscopically, the solid area was composed of vessels with small caliber and turgidity of endothelial cells. These vessels were surrounded by clusters of epithelioid cells, sometimes having the appearance of giant cells. They were associated with spindle cells. The cystic area was uncoated. Immunohistochemically, the fusiform cells expressed Desmin and Smooth Muscle Actin. Endothelial cells and clusters of cells surrounding large vessels expressed CD34. The expression of receptors for estrogen and progesterone was negative. To our knowledge, this is the second solidocystic case of angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor of male genital tract. PMID:28348598

  2. Benign symmetrical lipomatosis and pellagra associated with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Fernanda de Marca; Stolarczuk, Dionne de Almeida; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Succi, Isabel Cristina Brasil

    2011-01-01

    A 42-year-old male patient, alcoholic, presented showing signs of tumors in the neck and around the shoulders, scaly, erythematous-violaceous lesions and some bullous lesions in sun-exposed areas of upper and lower limbs. Based on clinical features, laboratory tests and imaging studies we have established the diagnosis of pellagra associated with benign symmetrical lipomatosis, both justified by chronic alcoholism. Treated with intravenous B-complex and oriented about the importance of alcohol withdrawal, the patient showed complete remission of skin lesions, but with no change in the lipomatosis.

  3. Lipomatous meningioma: A rare subtype of benign metaplastic meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Mehmet Onur; Gürbüz, Mehmet Sabri; Tanrıverdi, Osman; Özmen, Sevilay Akalp

    2017-01-01

    Lipomatous meningiomas are extremely rare subtypes of benign meningiomas and are classified as metaplastic meningioma in the World Health Organization classification. We present a 77-year-old man presented with the history of a gradually intensifying headache for the last 3 months. A right frontoparietal mass was detected on his cranial magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was operated on via a right frontoparietal craniotomy, and histopathological diagnosis was lipomatous meningioma. Distinctive characteristics of lipomatous meningiomas were discussed with special emphasis to importance of immunohistochemical examinations, particularly for its differentiation from the tumors showing similar histology though having more aggressive character. PMID:28149104

  4. Benign fibrous histiocytoma: A rare case involving jaw bone.

    PubMed

    Shoor, Hitesh; Pai, Keerthilatha M; Shergill, Ankur Kaur; Kamath, Abhay Taranath

    2015-09-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a soft tissue neoplasm which occurs mostly on the skin of extremities. BFH rarely occurs in bone and may affect femur, tibia, and pelvic bone. Jaw bone involvement is very unusual with only 11 cases reported till date. This report describes a case of BFH occurring in a 30-year-old female patient affecting left mandibular posterior region. Computed tomography revealed a well-defined expansile lytic lesion in the posterior mandible. Gross examination of the tumor revealed an admixture of fibroblasts and histiocytes in a fascicular and storiform pattern. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD68.

  5. Benign fibrous histiocytoma: A rare case involving jaw bone

    PubMed Central

    Shoor, Hitesh; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Shergill, Ankur Kaur; Kamath, Abhay Taranath

    2015-01-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a soft tissue neoplasm which occurs mostly on the skin of extremities. BFH rarely occurs in bone and may affect femur, tibia, and pelvic bone. Jaw bone involvement is very unusual with only 11 cases reported till date. This report describes a case of BFH occurring in a 30-year-old female patient affecting left mandibular posterior region. Computed tomography revealed a well-defined expansile lytic lesion in the posterior mandible. Gross examination of the tumor revealed an admixture of fibroblasts and histiocytes in a fascicular and storiform pattern. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD68. PMID:26604585

  6. [Radiation-induced tumors of the nervous system in man].

    PubMed

    Hubert, D; Bertin, M

    1993-11-01

    The risk of developing a tumor of the nervous system in humans is analysed in several studies of populations, exposed to ionising radiation for medical reasons, or exposed to military or occupational radiation. The main data come from series of patients who underwent radiotherapy during childhood: a high incidence of tumors of the nervous system is found after irradiation of one to a few grays as treatment of a benign disease (especially tinea capitis), as well as after irradiation at higher doses of a few tens of grays for the treatment of cancer (in particular cerebral irradiation in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia). The type of radiation-induced tumors is variable, but meningioma is more frequent after low doses and glioma and sarcoma after higher doses used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. A dose-effect relationship appeared between the risk of tumor of the nervous system and the radiation dose. The risk was higher when radiation was delivered at a younger age. Much less data are available after radiotherapy in the adulthood, but an increased risk of cerebral tumor appears in the series of ankylosing spondylitis patients. As for the exposures to radiodiagnosis exams, the main problem is the risk of cerebral tumor in children whose mother has undergone abdominal or pelvic X-rays during pregnancy. No risk of neurologic tumor was found in the A-bomb survivors irradiated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Occupational exposure to ionising radiation has been incriminated in the first radiologists exposed to high doses. In nuclear industry workers, the results of epidemiological studies are contradictory and at the present time it is not possible to link their radiologic exposure with a risk of tumor of the nervous system. In populations living near nuclear plants, mortality due to tumors of the nervous system was not increased.

  7. Estimate of tissue composition in malignant and benign breast lesions by time-domain optical mammography

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Giovanna; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Pifferi, Antonio; Torricelli, Alessandro; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Taroni, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The optical characterization of malignant and benign breast lesions is presented. Time-resolved transmittance measurements were performed in the 630-1060 nm range by means of a 7-wavelength optical mammograph, providing both imaging and spectroscopy information. A total of 62 lesions were analyzed, including 33 malignant and 29 benign lesions. The characterization of breast lesions was performed applying a perturbation model based on the high-order calculation of the pathlength of photons inside the lesion, which led to the assessment of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, lipids, water and collagen concentrations. Significant variations between tumor and healthy tissue were observed in terms of both absorption properties and constituents concentration. In particular, benign lesions and tumors show a statistically significant discrimination in terms of absorption at several wavelengths and also in terms of oxy-hemoglobin and collagen content. PMID:25360382

  8. A benign presentation of primary ductal adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland: A rare malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Lindfay Laura; Lung, Chong Ka; Ahmad, Syed Shoeb

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old patient with a swelling over the upper eyelid for nearly 1 year was seen in our clinic. The history, examination and investigations were suggestive of a benign lacrimal gland tumor. The tumor and lacrimal gland were resected. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed the tumor was a primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland. This is a very rare tumor with less than half a dozen cases reported so far. This case report is being presented to highlight an unusual presentation of this rare malignancy. PMID:26669339

  9. [Glomus tumor of the finger pulp: an unusual pediatric case].

    PubMed

    Abbassi, A; Amrani, A; Dendane, M A; El Alami, Z; El Madhi, T; Gourinda, H

    2012-07-01

    Glomus tumor is a rare benign tumor. Diagnosis is often delayed because of the absence of specific symptoms and confirmation can only be made by histological study. Treatment is always surgical. We report a clinical case of glomus tumor of the thumb pulp in a 6-year-old girl, and we discuss clinical, radiological and histological aspects of this tumor.

  10. Concussion or benign paroxysmal torticollis?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who presented to the trauma service on 3 occasions over the course of 2 years, each time with symptoms typical of concussion (e.g., crying, change in mentation, and vomiting). On more in-depth evaluation, it was discovered that the child had torticollis, pallor, and brief dizziness or vertigo with each episode. Benign paroxysmal torticollis is a periodic, paroxysmal syndrome that may be mistaken for the more common concussion. In addition to illustrating a uniquely pediatric neurological syndrome, this case demonstrates the importance of taking a careful history and considering a full range of differential diagnoses when evaluating every patient, even those with seemingly routine injuries.

  11. [Phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Bracher, F

    1997-01-01

    Phytopharmaceutical agents have been used for a long time in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, until recently, it has been questioned whether phytotherapy is superior to a placebo treatment. In this article, the most widely used phytopharmaceutical agents, such as saw palmetto berry extracts, Radix urticae extracts, pumpkin seeds, pollen extracts and different phytosterols, are described. In addition, both in vitro and in vivo studies are discussed in an attempt to explain a possible mechanism of action. There are several new clinical studies which demonstrate a significant benefit compared with placebo treatment. Based on these results, the use of phytopharmaceutical agents for the treatment of mild to moderate symptomatic BPH seems to be well justified. So far, no significant inhibition of further prostate growth has been demonstrated. For this, a careful follow-up of the patients is necessary so as not to miss a deterioration and perhaps the need for an operation.

  12. Tumors of the spine

    PubMed Central

    Ciftdemir, Mert; Kaya, Murat; Selcuk, Esref; Yalniz, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Spine tumors comprise a small percentage of reasons for back pain and other symptoms originating in the spine. The majority of the tumors involving the spinal column are metastases of visceral organ cancers which are mostly seen in older patients. Primary musculoskeletal system sarcomas involving the spinal column are rare. Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of the musculoskeletal system are mostly seen in young patients and often cause instability and canal compromise. Optimal diagnosis and treatment of spine tumors require a multidisciplinary approach and thorough knowledge of both spine surgery and musculoskeletal tumor surgery. Either primary or metastatic tumors involving the spine are demanding problems in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Spinal instability and neurological compromise are the main and critical problems in patients with tumors of the spinal column. In the past, only a few treatment options aiming short-term control were available for treatment of primary and metastatic spine tumors. Spine surgeons adapted their approach for spine tumors according to orthopaedic oncologic principles in the last 20 years. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and implant technology resulted in better diagnosis and surgical treatment options, especially for primary tumors. Also, modern chemotherapy drugs and regimens with new radiotherapy and radiosurgery options caused moderate to long-term local and systemic control for even primary sarcomas involving the spinal column. PMID:26925382

  13. Benign pituitary adenoma associated with hyperostosis of the spenoid bone and monocular blindness. Case report.

    PubMed

    Milas, R W; Sugar, O; Dobben, G

    1977-01-01

    The authors describe a case of benign chromophobe adenoma associated with hyperostosis of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone and monocular blindness in a 38-year-old woman. The endocrinological and radiological evaluations were all suggestive of a meningioma. The diagnosis was established by biopsy of the tumor mass. After orbital decompression and removal of the tumor, the patient was treated with radiation therapy. Her postoperative course was uneventful, and her visual defects remained fixed.

  14. Fusions involving protein kinase C and membrane-associated proteins in benign fibrous histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Płaszczyca, Anna; Nilsson, Jenny; Magnusson, Linda; Brosjö, Otte; Larsson, Olle; Vult von Steyern, Fredrik; Domanski, Henryk A; Lilljebjörn, Henrik; Fioretos, Thoas; Tayebwa, Johnbosco; Mandahl, Nils; Nord, Karolin H; Mertens, Fredrik

    2014-08-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a mesenchymal tumor that most often occurs in the skin (so-called dermatofibroma), but may also appear in soft tissues (so-called deep BFH) and in the skeleton (so-called non-ossifying fibroma). The origin of BFH is unknown, and it has been questioned whether it is a true neoplasm. Chromosome banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, RNA sequencing, RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR were used to search for recurrent somatic mutations in a series of BFH. BFHs were found to harbor recurrent fusions of genes encoding membrane-associated proteins (podoplanin, CD63 and LAMTOR1) with genes encoding protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms PRKCB and PRKCD. PKCs are serine-threonine kinases that through their many phosphorylation targets are implicated in a variety of cellular processes, as well as tumor development. When inactive, the amino-terminal, regulatory domain of PKCs suppresses the activity of their catalytic domain. Upon activation, which requires several steps, they typically translocate to cell membranes, where they interact with different signaling pathways. The detected PDPN-PRKCB, CD63-PRKCD and LAMTOR1-PRKCD gene fusions are all predicted to result in chimeric proteins consisting of the membrane-binding part of PDPN, CD63 or LAMTOR1 and the entire catalytic domain of the PKC. This novel pathogenetic mechanism should result in constitutive kinase activity at an ectopic location. The results show that BFH indeed is a true neoplasm, and that distorted PKC activity is essential for tumorigenesis. The findings also provide means to differentiate BFH from other skin and soft tissue tumors. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Rare cancers.

  15. Serum anti - TPO levels in benign and malignant breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Sabitha; Suneetha; Mohanty, Shruti; Rao, Pragna

    2009-07-01

    Breast cancer is a hormone dependent neoplasm. Conflicting results regarding the clinical correlation between breast cancer and thyroid diseases have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the association of anti - TPO levels in patients having complaints of a lump in breast. Serum samples and Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples were collected from 31 female patients with a lump in breast between the age group of 20-75 years. 31 age matched normal healthy controls were also examined for the same parameters. Serum samples were analyzed for its anti - TPO levels. FNAC reports confirmed patients as having duct cell carcinoma. They had raised serum anti - TPO levels compared to controls. FNAC results of others (n=26) were reported as fibroadenoma whose anti - TPO levels were less than the controls.

  16. Benign lesions of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Tran, L P; Grundfast, K M; Selesnick, S H

    1996-10-01

    Benign mass lesions of the external auditory canal, such as exostoses and osteomas, are common findings on physical examination but most often do not require treatment. The differential diagnosis of lesions in the external auditory canal, however, should not be limited to those benign processes discussed here, but should also include infectious, dermatologic, congenital, and malignant processes.

  17. Malignant Transformation of Pulmonary Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung Sub; Keum, Dong Yoon; Hwang, Il Seon

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML) is defined as metastasis of a leiomyoma to lung tissue. It was first reported in 1937. P BML is known as a benign disease, but can undergo malignant transformation. Only 1 case of the malignant transformation of PBML to leiomyosarcoma has been reported previously. In this report, we present a case of malignant transformation of PBML. PMID:28180107

  18. Meckel Diverticulum Harboring a Rare Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Andrew C.; Nakshabendi, Rahman; Kanar, Ozdemir; Hamer, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tumors within a Meckel diverticulum are a rare complication observed in only 0.5%-3.2% of symptomatic cases. The majority of tumors are benign, but some malignant tumors, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) can occur. Case Report: We report the case of a 48-year-old female who presented with severe abdominal pain and nausea and was found to have a GIST arising from a Meckel diverticulum. Conclusion: The differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass in a middle-aged female presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms must remain broad. With an atypical presentation site, distinguishing benign tumors from malignant tumors such as GISTs is of paramount importance. PMID:28331460

  19. [Brenner tumor: one case report and bibliographic review].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Martínez, Elly; Mateos-Vizcayno, Julio; Huerta-Hentschel, José Manuel

    2014-06-01

    Brenner tumor is a rare tumor that represents approximately 1.5% of the tumors of ovary. It is defined as a tumor of transitional cells composed by urothelial cells arranged in solid or cystic groups absorbed in a fibrous stroma. It classifies in benign Brenner tumor (95%), borderline (3-4%) and malignant (1%). Let's sense beforehand the clinical case of a 46-year-old patient who underwent surgery having an adnexal mass of which the pathological intraoperative report brought a benign Brenner tumor.

  20. Cytodiagnosis of sternocleidomastoid tumor of infancy.

    PubMed

    Baisakh, Manas R; Mishra, Minakshi; Narayanan, Radhika; Mohanty, Rajesh

    2012-04-01

    Sterocleidomastoid tumor of infancy (SCMI), also known as fibromatosis colli of infancy, is a benign, self limiting disease of new born characterised by its classical history and clinical presentation of firm to hard fusiform mass in the lower and middle portion of sternocleidomastoid. SCMI often appears during early perinatal period between second to fourth weeks of life. A well recognized association between SCMI and primiparous birth, breech presentation, prolonged difficult labor and forceps deliveries is found. Cytology shows spindle shaped mature fibroblastic cells scattered singly along with degenerated and multinucleated giant muscle cells in a clean background. It is important to differentiate this lesion from different forms of infantile fibromatosis. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), as a time saving, rapid and reliable diagnostic procedure, has got bigger role to play in reassurance of anxious parents, guiding for conservative management and avoiding surgery.

  1. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  2. Evolution, appearance, and occupational success.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, Craig S

    2012-01-01

    Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a "kernel of truth" in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term "task-congruent selection" to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases, understanding their origin and current

  3. An Introduction To Appearance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harold, Richard W.

    1983-11-01

    The appearance of a manufactured product, given that it will fulfill its intended purpose, is its most important attribute. Appearance often determines the acceptability of a product to its seller, and ultimately to the consumer or end-user. The quality of the appearance of a product is psychologically related to its expected performance and useful life. It therefore determines its reception by potential purchasers. This paper describes the interaction of light with objects; reflection, absorption, transmission, or a combination of these phenomena, which result in the perception of the objects, and how measurements that correspond to the way the eye sees color may be made.

  4. Recurrent Giant Cell Tumor of Skull Combined with Multiple Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumors are benign but locally invasive and frequently recur. Giant cell tumors of the skull are extremely rare. A patient underwent a surgery to remove a tumor, but the tumor recurred. Additionally, the patient developed multiple aneurysms. The patient underwent total tumor resection and trapping for the aneurysms, followed by radiotherapy. We report this rare case and suggest some possibilities for treating tumor growth combined with aneurysm development. PMID:27195256

  5. [Abberant methylation of p16, HIC1, N33 and GSTP1 genes in tumor epitelium and tumor-associated stromal cells of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kekeeva, T V; Popova, O P; Shegaĭ, P V; Alekseev, B Ia; Adnreeva, Iu Iu; Zaletaev, D V; Nemtsova, M V

    2007-01-01

    The methylation status of four genes significant in prostate carcinogenesis p16, HIC1, N33 and GSTP1, were evaluated using quantitative methylationsensitive polymerase chain reaction. Tumor epithelia, tumor-associated stroma, normal epithelia, foci of PIN and benign prostate hyperplasia, and stroma adjacent to tumor tissues were isolated from whole-mount prostatectomy specimens of patients with localized prostate cancer by using laser capture microdissection. We found high levels of gene methylation in the tumor epithelium and tumor-associated stromal cells and some methylation in both hyperplastic epithelium and stromal cells in normal-appearing tissues located adjacent to tumors. Promoter methylation in the non-neoplastic cells of the prostate tumor microenvironment may play an important role in cancer development and progression. We examined the promoter methylation status of pl6, HIC1, N33 and GSTP1 in prostate biopsy fragments and prostate tissues after radical prostatectomy from patients with adenocarcinoma without laser capture microdissection. Methylation frequencies of all genes in tumor samples were considerably lower than frequencies in microdissected tumour samples (HIC1, 71 versus 89%; p16, 22 versus 78%; GSTP1, 32 versus 100%; N33, 20 versus 33%). The laser capture microdissection is required procedure in methylation studies taking into account multifocality and heterogenity of prostate cancer tissue.

  6. Benign Hereditary Chorea: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Peall, Kathryn J.; Kurian, Manju A.

    2015-01-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is a childhood-onset, hyperkinetic movement disorder normally with little progression of motor symptoms into adult life. The disorder is caused by mutations to the NKX2.1 (TITF1) gene and also forms part of the “brain–lung–thyroid syndrome”, in which additional developmental abnormalities of lung and thyroid tissue are observed. In this review, we summarize the main clinical findings in “classical” BHC syndrome and discuss more recently reported atypical features, including non-choreiform movement phenotypes. We highlight additional non-motor characteristics such as cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms, while discussing the evidence for BHC as a developmental disorder involving impaired neural migration and other multisystem developmental abnormalities. Finally, we will discuss the efficacy of available therapies in both affected pediatric and adult cohorts. Delineation of the BHC disease spectrum will no doubt expand our understanding of this disorder, facilitating better targeting of genetic testing and establish a framework for future clinical trials. PMID:26196025

  7. Management of Benign Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F.

    2002-12-15

    Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  8. Ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal glands in healthy and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Pey, Pascaline; Paepe, Dominique; Rosenberg, Dan; Daminet, Sylvie; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Duchateau, Luc; de Fornel-Thibaud, Pauline; Benchekroun, Ghita; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2013-06-01

    The first part of the study aimed to describe prospectively the ultrasonographic features of the adrenal glands in 94 healthy cats and 51 chronically sick cats. It confirmed the feasibility of ultrasonography of adrenal glands in healthy and chronically sick cats, which were not statistically different. The typical hypoechoic appearance of the gland surrounded by hyperechoic fat made it recognisable. A sagittal plane of the gland, not in line with the aorta, may be necessary to obtain the largest adrenal measurements. The reference intervals of adrenal measurements were inferred from the values obtained in the healthy and chronically sick cats (mean ± 0.96 SD): adrenal length was 8.9-12.5 mm; cranial height was 3.0-4.8 mm; caudal height was 3.0-4.5 mm. The second part of the study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal glands in cats with adrenal diseases (six had hyperaldosteronism and four had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism) and a descriptive comparison with the reference features obtained in the control groups from the prospective study. Cats with hyperaldosteronism presented with unilateral severely enlarged adrenal glands. However, a normal contralateral gland did not preclude a contralateral infiltration in benign or malignant adrenal neoplasms. The ultrasonographic appearance of the adrenal glands could not differentiate benign and malignant lesions. The ultrasonographic appearance of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was mainly a symmetrical adrenal enlargement; however, a substantial number of cases were within the reference intervals of adrenal size.

  9. Expression of CD44 isoforms in renal cell tumors. Positive correlation to tumor differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Terpe, H. J.; Störkel, S.; Zimmer, U.; Anquez, V.; Fischer, C.; Pantel, K.; Günthert, U.

    1996-01-01

    CD44 isoforms have been implicated in tumor progression and embryogenesis. Primary renal cell tumors (n = 100) of various histopathological differentiation and grading stages were analyzed for expression of CD44 isoforms in comparison with nonmalignant adult and fetal renal tissues. Evaluations were performed by immunohistochemistry using CD44 isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies and by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). In the nonmalignant kidney no CD44 variant isoforms were detected. There was a significant increase in expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) and several variant isoforms (CD44v) in the course of tumor differentiation in clear cell carcinomas (n = 68) from stages G1 to G3 (P < 0.0001 for CD44s and isoforms containing CD44-6v, and P < 0.007 for those containing CD44-9v). Also, in chromophilic cell carcinomas (n = 13), CD44 isoform expression correlated with grading; ie, no CD44 expression was detected in G1 tumors, whereas in approximately 50% of the G2 tumors, CD44s, CD44-6v, and CD44-9v isoforms were present. Oncocytomas (n = 8), which are benign renal cell tumors, did not express CD44 isoforms, whereas invasive chromophobe cell carcinomas (n = 11) were positive for CD44s and CD44v isoforms. Transcript analyses by RT-PCR revealed that the upregulated isoforms in the carcinoma cells contained exons 8 to 10 and 3, 8 to 10 in combination from the variant region. In conclusion, expression of variant CD44 isoforms was strongly correlated with grading and appears to mediate a more aggressive phenotype to renal cell tumors. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8579108

  10. Phytotherapeutic Agents for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Passi, Neelima Dhingra

    2016-06-20

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) the most common condition in aging men is the non malignant enlargement of the prostate gland with increase in numbers of both epithelial and stromal cells within the periurethal transition zone of the prostate. Sources of symptoms in patient with BPH appear to be both static and dynamic component. Management of BPH has undergone a rapid evolution over the past decade to aid men with lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to bladder outlet obstruction. Treatment of clinical BPH aims to improve symptoms, prevent urinary tract infections, avoid renal insult, relief obstruction and improve bladder emptying.Prostate cancer patients and those with benign prostatic hyperplasia are increasingly exploring the use of plant derived non-nutritive compounds with protective or disease preventive properties, especially due to long term side effects of pharmacological treatment and risk of mortality associated with surgical procedures. Phytotherapeutic preparations are plant extracts with different components obtained by different extraction procedures. Numerous mechanisms of action have been postulated for mono and combination plant extracts. This article give a brief account of rationale and efficacy of various existing phytotherapeutic agents in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia, including the herbs which hold the potential promise are also mentioned , although much research is still required.

  11. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, syndecan-1 and connective tissue growth factor in benign and malignant breast tissue from premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fahlén, M; Zhang, H; Löfgren, L; Masironi, B; von Schoultz, E; von Schoultz, B; Sahlin, L

    2017-02-21

    Stromal factors have been identified as important for tumorigenesis and metastases of breast cancer. From 49 premenopausal women, samples were collected from benign or malignant tumors and the seemingly normal tissue adjacent to the tumor. The factors studied, with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, were cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1 and COX-2), syndecan-1 (S-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). COX-1 and S-1 mRNA levels were higher in the malignant tumors than in normal and benign tissues. The COX-2 mRNA level was lower in the malignant tumor than in the normal tissue, while CTGF mRNA did not differ between the groups. COX-1 immunostaining was higher in stroma from malignant tumors than in benign tissues, whereas COX-2 immunostaining was higher in the malignant tissue. Glandular S-1 immunostaining was lower in malignant tumors compared to benign and normal tissues, and the opposite was found in stroma. Conclusively, mRNA levels of COX-1 and COX-2 were oppositely regulated, with COX-1 being increased in the malignant tumor while COX-2 was decreased. S-1 protein localization switched from glandular to stromal cells in malignant tissues. Thus, these markers are, in premenopausal women, localized and regulated differently in normal/benign breast tissue as compared to the malignant tumor.

  12. Does stimulus appearance affect learning?

    PubMed

    Pothos, Emmanuel M; Chater, Nick; Ziori, Eleni

    2006-01-01

    We examined the learning process with 3 sets of stimuli that have identical symbolic structure but differ in appearance (meaningless letter strings, arrangements of geometric shapes, and sequences of cities). One hypothesis is that the learning process aims to encode symbolic regularity in the same way, largely regardless of appearance. Another is that different types of stimuli bias the learning process to operate in different ways. Using the experimental paradigm of artificial grammar learning, we provided a preliminary test of these hypotheses. In Experiments 1 and 2 we measured performance in terms of grammaticality and found no difference across the 3 sets of stimuli. In Experiment 3 we analyzed performance in terms of both grammaticality and chunk strength. Again we found no differences in performance. Our tentative conclusion is that the learning process aims to encode symbolic regularity independent of stimulus appearance.

  13. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  14. Benign Sphenoid Wing Meningioma Presenting with an Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Frič, Radek; Hald, John K.; Antal, Ellen-Ann

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY OBJECT We report an unusual case of a benign lateral sphenoid wing meningioma that presented with, and was masked by, an acute intracerebral hemorrhage. CASE REPORT A 68-year-old woman was admitted after sudden onset of coma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage, without any underlying vascular pathology on CT angiography. During the surgery, we found a lateral sphenoid wing meningioma with intratumoral bleeding that extended into the surrounding brain parenchyma. RESULTS We removed the hematoma and resected the tumor completely in the same session. The histopathological classification of the tumor was a WHO grade I meningothelial meningioma. The patient recovered very well after surgery, without significant neurological sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Having reviewed the relevant references from the medical literature, we consider this event as an extremely rare presentation of a benign sphenoid wing meningioma in a patient without any predisposing medical factors. The possible mechanisms of bleeding from this tumor type are discussed. PMID:27127413

  15. Benign Schwannoma Mimicking Metastatic Lesion on F-18 FDG PET/CT in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungmin

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of benign schwannoma mimicking metastatic carcinoma. A 55-year-old female with papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent total thyroidectomy. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) demonstrated a focal hypermetabolic lesion with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) 5.3 at the right chest wall. Conventional chest CT demonstrated a 5.4 cm ovoid mass lesion between the intercostal muscles and liver. Pathology revealed a schwannoma by tumor excision. This case demonstrates that benign schwannoma may demonstrate FDG uptake mimicking metastatic carcinoma.

  16. Laser application in tracheobronchial tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, B. Krishna; Krishna, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Ninety three patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium - Aluminum - Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation over a period of six years. There were sixty seven Males and 26 Females with a mean age of 44.3 years (range 6- 79 years). 21 benign and 72 malignant lesions were treated with a total 212 sessions of laser photocoagulation (mean 2.4 sessions). The anatomical distribution of lesions were as follows; larynx 9 (three benign and 6 malignant) trachea 39 (27 benign and 12 malignant) left main bronchus 27 (14 malignant) right main bronchus 24 (14 malignant) and vocal cords - 9 (three malignant). There were 21 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, two adenocarcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of locally infiltrating tumors from thyroid and esophagus, 6 cases of carcinoid tumor and 16 benign lesions. Twenty one patients had a tracheostomy tube in place when treatment was started. Eighteen of the 21 patients with tracheostomy were weaned off the tube in a mean of 5.5 days from the start of treatment. Lumen was restored in 31 (79.4%) patients. In the other eight (20.6%), lumen was achieved, but not sustained. Complications included bleeding in three cases which were managed conservatively, two cases of pneumothorax, and four cases of bronchospasm. There were six deaths during the follow up but none attributable to the procedure. Laser photocoagulation offered effective treatment in the majority of patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors, with acceptable morbidity.

  17. Salivary Gland Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2017-03-01

    This current review focuses on current concepts and controversies for select key salivary gland epithelial neoplasms. Rather than the traditional organization of benign and malignant tumors, this review is structured around select key topics: biphasic tumors, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and the controversy surrounding polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland origin.

  18. Extremely rare borderline phyllodes tumor in the male breast: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Gyu; Kim, Shin Young; Jung, Hae Yoen; Lee, Deuk Young; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the male breast is an extremely rare disease, and far fewer cases of borderline phyllodes tumors than benign or malignant tumors in the male breast have been reported. We report a case of borderline phyllodes tumor in the male breast with imaging findings of the tumor and pathologic correlation.

  19. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  20. Duke University's Quality Appearance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The Grounds Services Unit at Duke University has implemented a new program that involves a process of self evaluation, which embraces the concept of perpetual and continuous improvement. The Quality Appearance Program (QAP) embellishes and expands upon the Quality Assurance Program concept, but with a twist to grounds management improvement…

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Bao; Dai, Wei-Gang; Liu, Da-Wei; Shi, Han-Ping; Dong, Wen-Guang

    2013-10-21

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM) is a rare cystic mesothelial lesion that occurs predominantly in reproductive aged women. A 56-year-old Caucasian male was admitted to our surgical department with a chief complaint of a painful mass in his right lower abdomen for almost 2 years. The physical examination revealed a palpable painful mass. Computed tomography demonstrated an irregular, cystic tumor in his right lower abdomen. There was no obvious capsule or internal septations. No enhancement after intravenous administration of contrast was noted. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a multicystic tumor and adherent to the caecum was noted. The walls of the cysts were thin and smooth, filled with clear fluid, and very friable. An en bloc resection of the tumor, including appendix and caecum, was performed. Histological examination revealed multiple cysts lined with flattened simple epithelial cells, and the capsule walls of the cysts were composed of fibrous tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis documented positive expression of mesothelial cells and calretinin. The final diagnosis was BMPM. The patient was well at 6-mo follow-up. BMPM is exceedingly rare lesion. A complete resection of the tumor is required. The diagnosis of BMPM is based on pathological analysis.

  2. Oxidative stress in benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Zabaiou, N; Mabed, D; Lobaccaro, J M; Lahouel, M

    2016-02-01

    To assess the status of oxidative stress in benign prostate hyperplasia, a very common disease in older men which constitutes a public health problem in Jijel, prostate tissues were obtained by transvesical adenomectomy from 10 men with benign prostate hyperplasia. We measured the cytosolic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) and cytosolic enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase. The development of benign prostate hyperplasia is accompanied by impaired oxidative status by increasing levels of MDA, depletion of GSH concentrations and a decrease in the activity of all the antioxidant enzymes studied. These results have allowed us to understand a part of the aetiology of benign prostate hyperplasia related to oxidative stress.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Close All Description Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) is characterized by episodes of liver dysfunction called ... a lack of appetite. A common feature of BRIC is the reduced absorption of fat in the ...

  4. ENVIRONMENTALLY-BENIGN MULTIPHASE CATALYSIS. (R826034)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental concerns stemming from the use of conventional solvents and from hazardous waste generation have propelled research efforts aimed at developing benign chemical processing techniques that either eliminate or significantly mitigate pollution at the source. This pap...

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Environmentally Benign Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been a growing interest in replacing current non-biodegradable and toxic nanosystems with environmentally benign biopolymer based ones to minimize post-utilization hazards due to uncontrolled accumulation of nanoparticles in the environment. Lignin based nanoparticles (...

  6. Oral benign fibrous histiocytoma: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Fibrous histiocytoma is a benign soft tissue tumour arising as a fibrous mass everywhere in the human body. The involvement of the oral cavity is rare. We report two cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma that localized in the oral cavity. The clinical and histological features of the lesion are reported. Finally, a literature revision of this pathology at the level of the oral cavity is reported. PMID:20066060

  7. Localization of functional adrenal tumors by computed tomography and venous sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Doppman, J.L.; Gill, J.R. Jr.; Strott, C.A.; Keiser, H.R.; Brennan, M.F.

    1982-02-01

    Fifty-eight patients with functional lesions of the adrenal glands underwent radiographic evaluation. Twenty-eight patients had primary aldosteronism (Conn syndrome), 20 had Cushing syndrome, and 10 had pheochromocytoma. Computed tomography (CT) correctly identified adrenal tumors in 11 (61%) of 18 patients with aldosteronomas, 6 of 6 patients with benign cortisol-producing adrenal tumors, and 5 (83%) of 6 patients with pheochromocytomas. No false-positive diagnoses were encountered among patients with adrenal adenomas. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia appeared on CT scans as normal or prominent adrenal glands with a normal configuration; however, CT was not able to exclude the presence of small adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling was correct in each case, and reliably distinguished adrenal tumors from hyperplasia. Recurrent pheochromocytomas were the most difficult to loclize on CT due to the surgical changes in the region of the adrenals and the frequent extra-adrenal locations.

  8. Juvenile fibroadenoma and granular cell tumor of the breast in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Andre P; Spottswood, Stephanie E; Grau, Ana M; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell

    2012-10-01

    We describe a case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with 2 painful masses in her right breast. Ultrasound confirmed the presence of 2 lesions, both of which appeared noncharacteristic for fibroadenomas. Both lesions were surgically resected. One was found to be a fibroadenoma and the other a granular cell tumor, both benign upon further histologic evaluation. Breast masses are rare in the pediatric population. The finding of a concurrent fibroadenoma and granular cell tumor is unique and has not been previously reported. Granular cell tumors of the breast are relatively uncommon. Often, they are mistaken for a breast malignancy. The concerning clinical and radiographic findings in this patient warranted operative excision.

  9. Outer Appearances Can Be Deceiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the chemical composition of the rock at Gusev Crater dubbed 'Mazatzal' after it was brushed and ground by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rock abrasion tool. The data, taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer over the last few sols, show that the amount of chlorine and sulfur tri-oxide in Mazatzal first increased after brushing, then diminished after grinding. The interior of the rock appears to have the same chemical make-up as other volcanic or basalt rocks studied in the Gusev Crater area ('Adirondack' and 'Humphrey'). Its outer coating or rind, on the other hand, appears to be of a different constitution. Scientists are still puzzling out the implications of these data.

    The larger symbols on the graph represent inferred rock compositions, while the smaller symbols are actual data points. Observations were made at the target dubbed 'New York' on Mazatzal.

  10. Middle ear adenoma. A tumor displaying mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wassef, M; Kanavaros, P; Polivka, M; Nemeth, J; Monteil, J P; Frachet, B; Tran Ba Huy, P

    1989-10-01

    Middle ear adenoma (MEA) is a distinctive, rare entity that appears to be derived from the lining epithelium of the middle ear mucosa. We report four cases of MEA displaying the typical histologic growth pattern. Two distinct tumor cell immunophenotypes were identified in all cases; the first type exhibited positivity with anti-epithelial membrane antigen and anti-keratin antibodies, and the second type showed immunoreactivity with anti-keratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-neuron-specific enolase antibodies. Ultrastructural studies revealed bidirectional mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation, demonstrated by the presence of two distinct cell types containing apically located mucous granules and basally concentrated neuroendocrine granules, respectively. The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation was supported by the immunohistochemical detection of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the tumor cells in one case and neuron-specific enolase in three cases. These findings suggest that the potential for mixed mucinous/neuroendocrine differentiation described in other endodermally derived tumors also exists in middle ear mucosa. We also believe that the rare lesions diagnosed as primary carcinoid tumors of the middle ear might in fact be MEA with predominant or only neuroendocrine differentiation. The clinical course of our four cases and our review of the pertinent literature confirm the benign nature of MEA and indicate that these tumors should be treated by complete local excision without additional therapy.

  11. Benign fibrous histiocytoma of the fronto-temporo-parietal region: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongxu; Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Zhiyong; Xu, Jianguo; Hui, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    Primary benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) at the skull is extremely rare. Here we report a case of a 22-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of progressive enlargement subcutaneous mass on the right side of the fronto-temporo-parietal region without symptoms. The tumor was radical resected through craniotomy and the bone defect was repaired by pre-plasticity titanium mesh. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign fibrous histiocytoma, and no signs of tumor recurrence were detected at 3-year follow-up. PMID:26823894

  12. Surgical transposition of the ovary: Radiologic appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Bashist, B.; Friedman, W.N.; Killackey, M.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Therapeutic irradiation of the pelvis of a young female patient will result in loss of ovarian function. In a surgical technique termed ovarian transposition, the ovary is repositioned to the iliac fossa or paracolic gutter outside the radiation field. The computed tomographic (CT) scans and sonograms of five patients with cervical carcinoma who underwent this procedure were reviewed. The normal transposed ovary was of soft-tissue attenuation, often with one or more small cysts. Large cysts developed in the ovaries of three patients. One cyst was functional, another was due to a mesothelial inclusion cyst, and the third was most probably related to the transposition itself. Since the transposed ovary is difficult to palpate, CT or sonography can be used to demonstrate and follow up a cystic mass. Recognition of the appearance and location of the transposed ovary is important to avoid misinterpretation of a solid or cystic mass in patients who are at risk for tumor recurrence.

  13. [New aspects of tumor pathology of the adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Saeger, W

    2015-05-01

    In daily routine pathology of the adrenal glands three tumor entities are important: adrenocortical tumors, adrenomedullary tumors and metastases. The differentiation of these three main tumor types can often be difficult structurally but immunostaining enables a definite diagnosis in nearly all cases. Adrenocortical tumors are positive for steroidogenic factor 1 and melan-A and always negative for chromogranin A whereas adrenomedullary tumors express chromogranin A but never keratin. A broad spectrum of antibodies is available for the identification of metastases and even the rare epithelioid angiosarcomas. For adrenocortical tumors, adenomas and carcinomas can be differentiated using three scoring systems and the Ki-67 index in adenomas should not exceed 3%. Using scoring systems and the Ki-67 index approximately 90% of cortical tumors can be differentiated into benign or malignant tumors. For pheochromocytomas two scoring systems are used for differentiating benign and malignant tumors but the results are less dependable.

  14. Collision Tumor Composed of Meningioma and Cavernoma

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Jens; Neher, Markus; Schrey, Michael; Wünsch, Peter H.; Steiner, Hans-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A true collision tumor is a rare entity composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms coinciding in the same organ. This paper reports a unique case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. On the first hand, meningioma which is usually a benign lesion arising from the meningothelial cell in the arachnoidal membrane. On the other, cerebral cavernoma which is a well-circumscribed, benign vascular hamartoma within the brain. To our knowledge, there is no previously documented case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. A 56-year-old Caucasian male suffered in 2002 from an atypical meningioma WHO II° located in the left lateral ventricle. Three years after the tumor extirpation, the patient suffered from a hematoma in the fourth ventricle due to a recurrently haemorrhaged cavernoma. In 2008, a recurrence of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle was discovered. Additionally, another tumor located in the quadrigeminal lamina was detected. After surgical resection of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a collision tumor consisting of components of a meningioma WHO II° and a cavernoma. Postoperatively, no adjuvant treatment was needed and no tumor recurrence is discovered up to the present. A possible explanation for the collision of those two different tumors may be migration of tumor cells mediated by the cerebrospinal fluid. After 5-years of follow-up, there is no sign of any tumor recurrence; therefore, surgical tumor removal without adjuvant therapy seems to be the treatment of choice. PMID:28061500

  15. Breast ultrasound tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging for clinical display of anatomy and tumor rendering: Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Ranger, Bryan; Littrup, Peter J.; Duric, Nebojsa; Chandiwala-Mody, Priti; Li, Cuiping; Schmidt, Steven; Lupinacci, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinical display thresholds of an ultrasound tomography (UST) prototype relative to magnetic resonance (MR) for comparable visualization of breast anatomy and tumor rendering. Materials and Methods The study was compliant with HIPAA, approved by the IRB, and performed after obtaining informed consent. Thirty-six women were imaged with MR and our UST prototype. The UST scan generated reflection, sound speed and attenuation images. The reflection images were fused with the components of sound speed and attenuation images that achieved thresholds to represent parenchyma and/or solid masses using an image arithmetic process. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of MR and UST clinical images were used to identify anatomical similarities, and optimized thresholds for tumor shapes and volumes. Results Thresholding techniques generated UST images comparable to MR for visualizing fibrous stroma, parenchyma, fatty tissues, and tumors, of which 25 were cancer and 11 benign. Optimized sound speed thresholds of 1.46±0.1 km/s and 1.52±0.03 km/s were identified to best represent the extent of fibroglandular tissue and solid masses, respectively. An arithmetic combination of attenuation images using the threshold of 0.16±0.04 dB/cm further characterized benign from malignant masses. No significant difference in tumor volume was noted between benign or malignant masses by UST or MR (p>0.1) using these universal thresholds. Conclusion UST demonstrated the ability to image and render breast tissues in a manner comparable to MR. Universal UST threshold values appear feasible for rendering of the size and distribution of benign and malignant tissues without intravenous contrast. PMID:22194502

  16. The role of temozolomide in the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, James K; Patel, Jimmy; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-06-01

    Pituitary tumors are amongst the most common intracranial neoplasms and are generally benign. However, some pituitary tumors exhibit clinically aggressive behavior that is characterized by tumor recurrence and continued progression despite repeated treatments with conventional surgical, radiation and medical therapies. More recently, temozolomide, a second generation oral alkylating agent, has shown therapeutic promise for aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas with favorable clinical and radiographic responses. Temozolomide causes DNA damage by methylation of the O(6) position of guanine, which results in potent cytotoxic DNA adducts and consequently, tumor cell apoptosis. The degree of MGMT expression appears to be inversely related to therapeutic responsiveness to temozolomide with a significant number of temozolomide-sensitive pituitary tumors exhibiting low MGMT expression. The presence of high MGMT expression appears to mitigate the effectiveness of temozolomide and this has been used as a marker in several studies to predict the efficacy of temozolomide. Recent evidence also suggests that mutations in mismatch repair proteins such as MSH6 could render pituitary tumors resistant to temozolomide. In this article, the authors review the development of temozolomide, its biochemistry and interaction with O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), its role in adjuvant treatment of aggressive pituitary neoplasms, and future works that could influence the efficacy of temozolomide therapy.

  17. Treatment of Cavernous Sinus Tumors with Linear Accelerator Radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Steven D.; Doty, James R.; Martin, David P.; Hancock, Steven L.; Adler, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1989, 79 patients with benign or malignant cavernous sinus tumors, have been treated at Stanford University with linear accelerator (linac) radiosurgery. Radiosurgery has been used as (1) a planned second-stage procedure for residual tumor following surgery, (2) primary treatment for patients whose medical conditions preclude surgery, (3) palliation of malignant lesions, and (4) definitive treatment for small, well-localized, poorly accessible tumors. Mean patient age was 52 years (range, 18 to 88); there were 28 males and 51 females. Sixty-one patients had benign tumors; 18 had malignant tumors. Mean tumor volume was 6.8 cm3 (range 0.5 to 22.5 cm3) covered with an average of 2.3 isocenter (range, 1 to 5). Radiation dose averaged 17.1 Gy. Mean follow-up was 46 months. Tumor control or shrinkage, or both, varied with pathology. Radiographic tumor improvement was most pronounced in malignant lesions, with greater than 85% showing reduction in tumor size; benign tumors (meningiomas and schwannomas) had a 63% control rate and 37% shrinkage rate, with none enlarging. We concluded that stereotactic radiosurgery is a valuable tool in managing cavernous sinus tumors. There was excellent control and stabilization of benign tumors and palliation of malignant lesions. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171089

  18. Granular Cell Tumor of Rectum: A Very Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Savitha V.

    2017-01-01

    Granular cell tumors are predominantly benign, occurring more commonly in women, with about 10% developing in the gastrointestinal tract. Rectal location of this tumor is very rare. We herein report one such case of a 61-year-old man with granular cell tumor in the rectum who underwent endoscopic curative resection. PMID:28255473

  19. Tropism of the in situ growth from biopsies of childhood neuroectodermal tumors following transplantation into experimental teratoma.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Seema; Hultman, Isabell; Cedervall, Jessica; Ali, Rouknuddin Q; Fuchs, Gabriel; Gustavsson, Bengt; Asmundsson, Jurate; Sandstedt, Bengt; Kogner, Per; Ährlund-Richter, Lars

    2014-04-01

    Experimental teratoma induced from human pluripotent stem cells with normal karyotype can be described as a failed embryonic process and includes besides advanced organoid development also large elements of tissue with a prolonged occurrence of immature neural components. Such immature components, although benign, exhibit strong morphological resemblance with tumors of embryonic neuroectodermal origin. Here, we demonstrate that biopsy material from childhood tumors of neural embryonic origin transplanted to mature experimental teratoma can show an exclusive preference for matching tissue. Tumor specimens from five children with; Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET); Pilocytic astrocytoma of the brainstem; Classic medulloblastoma; peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) or neuroblastoma (NB), respectively, were transplanted. Analysis of up to 120 sections of each tumor revealed an engraftment for three of the transplanted tumors: pPNET, sPNET, and NB, with a protruding growth from the latter two that were selected for detailed examination. The histology revealed a strict tropism with a non-random integration into what morphologically appeared as matched embryonic microenvironment recuperating the patient tumor histology. The findings suggest specific advantages over xenotransplantation and lead us to propose that transplantation to the human embryonic microenvironment in experimental teratoma can be a well-needed complement for preclinical in vivo studies of childhood neuroectodermal tumors.

  20. Multiple head and neck neoplasia following radiation for benign disease during childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Sirota, D.K.; Eden, A.R.; Biller, H.F.

    1988-06-01

    A woman received radiation therapy to the adenoids for benign disease at the age of 10 years and subsequently developed an adenocarcinoma of the middle ear, a parathyroid adenoma, and a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in adulthood. This appears to be the first such case on record. The literature of neoplasia after head and neck irradiation is briefly reviewed.

  1. Metanephric Adenofibroma Masquerading as Wilms’ Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Prince; Khanolkar, Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Metanephric adenofibroma is a rare, biphasic, benign tumor containing both stromal and epithelial components and could be potentially mistaken as Wilms’ tumor (WT). We present a 5-year-old girl who was suspected to have metastatic Wilms’ tumor on radiological investigations/tru-cut biopsy and had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, but postoperatively final histopathology revealed it as metanephric adenofibroma. No postoperative chemotherapy was given PMID:27900278

  2. Basosquamous carcinoma: appearance and reality

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Rakesh L.; Collins, Damian; Chapman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma (BsC) is a controversial entity and both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. BsC has mixed histopathological characteristics of both basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). BCC and SCC display characteristic histopathology and behaviour; on the other hand, BsC is a rare tumour, which has variable morphology and displays less predictable behaviour. An early diagnosis of BsC is important due to the particularly aggressive nature of the tumour, the increased likelihood of recurrence and the potential for metastasis. Here, we present a case of BsC presenting as an extensive ulcer on the back. The case highlights the aggressive nature of the tumour and variation in appearance. It is important for all clinicians to be aware of this diagnosis so that the urgency of adequate biopsy in specialist clinics is not underestimated. PMID:28058108

  3. Study of early appearance of skin lesions in coal gasification workers.

    PubMed

    Begraca, M; Ukmata, H; Morris, S C; Canhasi, B; Haxhiu, M A

    1991-09-01

    A retrospective cohort morbidity study was conducted among workers employed at the Kosovo coal gasification plant and a reference population of open-pit lignite miners. The aim was to determine the rate of early skin cancer and pre-cancerous skin lesions. In 15 years of commercial operation of the coal gasification plant, seven workers were diagnosed with benign skin tumors, six with pre-cancerous skin diseases, but none with skin cancer. The lesions were significantly fewer than were reported earlier over a shorter time period and in a smaller population at a coal hydrogenation plant. Compared to the reference population who received medical care in the same clinic, gasification workers had a lower skin cancer rate, but a higher rate of benign skin tumors and potentially pre-cancerous skin diseases.

  4. Benign, Premalignant, and Malignant Lesions Encountered in Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kini

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with several comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea. It is also well established that obese patients have an increased risk of several types of cancer like kidney, pancreas, endometrial, breast, and others. The bariatric surgeon needs to be aware of the problem of benign tumors and cancer in obese patients as well as the optimal management of these conditions that may be present at the time of evaluation for bariatric surgery, during the surgical procedure, and in the postoperative period. Database: A PubMed search for the words “cancer” and “bariatric surgery” and subsequent review of the abstracts identified 40 articles concerning cancerous, benign, and premalignant conditions in bariatric surgery patients. Data were then extracted from full-text articles. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery decreases cancer risk especially in women. RYGB can be an effective treatment for Barrett's esophagus. Patients having esophageal cancer should not undergo bariatric surgery, while those who develop the same postoperatively are usually managed by a combined abdominal and thoracic approach (Ivor Lewis technique). Gastric cancer of the remnant stomach is usually managed by a remnant gastrectomy. A remnant gastrectomy during RYGB would be necessary in conditions that require endoscopic surveillance of the stomach like gastric polyps, intestinal metaplasia, and carcinoid tumors. Sleeve gastrectomy is an excellent option in a patient with GIST or a carcinoid who needs a bariatric operation. Preoperative endoscopy usually does not detect malignant conditions. Postoperative evaluation of the bypassed stomach is possible using various percutaneous and novel endoscopic techniques. PMID:23318060

  5. [Modern pharmacotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław; Szkróbka, Witold; Herman, Zbigniew Stanisław

    2005-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most common medical problem affecting elderly men throughout the world. With increasing awareness of health issues amongst males, the morbidity caused by this disease is not longer being accepted as just part of growing old. Until about 10 years ago, surgery was the only effective treatment for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Now, many men suffering from this disorder may be effectively treated with a medical therapy. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and safety of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists and herbal remedies, putting special emphasis on the current place of these agents in the modem therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Wherever possible, our opinion is based on the detailed analysis of the results of available clinical trials.

  6. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Haley C; Schlarb, Alexander C; Ubert, H Adam; Schlarb, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumor is a rare tumor accounting for 1-2% of exocrine neoplasms involving the pancreas. This typically benign tumor is predominately found in young females of non-Caucasian descent between the second and fourth decades of life. Despite the reported increasing incidence of this neoplasm, many physicians are unfamiliar with this tumor, which may lead to uncertainty of diagnosis and treatment. While further delineating the clinical and imaging features of this tumor, we present two cases with review of the literature.

  7. Galaxies appear simpler than expected.

    PubMed

    Disney, M J; Romano, J D; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; West, A A; Dalcanton, J J; Cortese, L

    2008-10-23

    Galaxies are complex systems the evolution of which apparently results from the interplay of dynamics, star formation, chemical enrichment and feedback from supernova explosions and supermassive black holes. The hierarchical theory of galaxy formation holds that galaxies are assembled from smaller pieces, through numerous mergers of cold dark matter. The properties of an individual galaxy should be controlled by six independent parameters including mass, angular momentum, baryon fraction, age and size, as well as by the accidents of its recent haphazard merger history. Here we report that a sample of galaxies that were first detected through their neutral hydrogen radio-frequency emission, and are thus free from optical selection effects, shows five independent correlations among six independent observables, despite having a wide range of properties. This implies that the structure of these galaxies must be controlled by a single parameter, although we cannot identify this parameter from our data set. Such a degree of organization appears to be at odds with hierarchical galaxy formation, a central tenet of the cold dark matter model in cosmology.

  8. Female facial appearance and health.

    PubMed

    Gray, Alan W; Boothroyd, Lynda G

    2012-02-01

    The current study addressed whether rated femininity, attractiveness, and health in female faces are associated with numerous indices of self-reported health history (number of colds/stomach bugs/frequency of antibiotic use) in a sample of 105 females. It was predicted that all three rating variables would correlate negatively with bouts of illness (with the exception of rates of stomach infections), on the assumption that aspects of facial appearance signal mate quality. The results showed partial support for this prediction, in that there was a general trend for both facial femininity and attractiveness to correlate negatively with the reported number of colds in the preceding twelve months and with the frequency of antibiotic use in the last three years and the last twelve months. Rated facial femininity (as documented in September) was also associated with days of flu experienced in the period spanning the November-December months. However, rated health did not correlate with any of the health indices (albeit one marginal result with antibiotic use in the last twelve months). The results lend support to previous findings linking facial femininity to health and suggest that facial femininity may be linked to some aspects of disease resistance but not others.

  9. Radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Stacul, F; Zecchin, M; Dobrinja, C; Zanconati, F; Fabris, B

    2016-09-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are an extremely common occurrence. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is gaining ground as an effective technique for their treatment, in case they become symptomatic. Here we review what are the current indications to RFA, its outcomes in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and cost, and also how it compares to the other conventional and experimental treatment modalities for benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, we will also address the issue of treating with this technique patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), as it is a rather frequent occurrence that has never been addressed in detail in the literature.

  10. Osteoid osteoma and benign osteoblastoma in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Levick, R K; Sharrard, W J

    1979-01-01

    Three cases of osteoid osteoma and one of benign osteoblastoma in children are described. The main complaint was severe pain which was worse at night; it was relieved by aspirin or other analgesics. The diagnosis was made on clinical and radiological grounds and was confirmed on histological examination of the central nidus removed at operation. The pain was relieved in the patients with osteoid osteoma, and it was very much less after operative removal of the benign osteoblastoma. Both conditions are probably variations of the same disease process, depending on the anatomical site and the type of bone affected. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:475430

  11. Differential vitamin D 24-hydroxylase/CYP24A1 gene promoter methylation in endothelium from benign and malignant human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Karpf, Adam R; Omilian, Angela R; Bshara, Wiam; Tian, Lili; Tangrea, Michael A; Morrison, Carl D; Johnson, Candace S

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations occur in tumor-associated vessels in the tumor microenvironment. Methylation of the CYP24A1 gene promoter differs in endothelial cells isolated from tumors and non-tumor microenvironments in mice. The epigenetic makeup of endothelial cells of human tumor-associated vasculature is unknown due to difficulty of isolating endothelial cells populations from a heterogeneous tissue microenvironment. To ascertain CYP24A1 promoter methylation in tumor-associated endothelium, we utilized laser microdissection guided by CD31 immunohistochemistry to procure endothelial cells from human prostate tumor specimens. Prostate tissues were obtained following robotic radical prostatectomy from men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Adjacent histologically benign prostate tissues were used to compare endothelium from benign versus tumor microenvironments. Sodium bisulfite sequencing of CYP24A1 promoter region showed that the average CYP24A1 promoter methylation in the endothelium was 20% from the tumor microenvironment compared with 8.2% in the benign microenvironment (p < 0.05). A 2-fold to 17-fold increase in CYP24A1 promoter methylation was observed in the prostate tumor endothelium compared with the matched benign prostate endothelium in four patient samples, while CYP24A1 promoter methylation remained unchanged in two patient samples. In addition, there is no correlation of the level of CYP24A1 promoter methylation in prostate tumor-associated endothelium with that of epithelium/stroma. This study demonstrates that the CYP24A1 promoter is methylated in tumor-associated endothelium, indicating that epigenetic alterations in CYP24A1 may play a role in determining the phenotype of tumor-associated vasculature in the prostate tumor microenvironment. PMID:21725204

  12. Two Case Reports of Benign Testicular Mesothelioma and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Admella Salvador, Carme; Feliu Canaleta, Josep; Llopis Manzanera, Juan; Barranco Sanz, Miguel Angel; Romero Martin, Juan Antoni; Bernal Salguero, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Mesothelioma is usually diagnosed in people over the age of 50 with large history of asbestos-related exposure. It is frequently located in pleural cavity, peritoneum, and pericardium. At the testicles the mesothelioma had been reported first in 1957 like a malignant non-germ-cells tumor. The objective is to present two case reports of benign testicular mesothelioma and review of the literature. PMID:28168071

  13. Smoking habits and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Fu, Shi; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have warned against the promoting effects of cigarette smoking on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In contrast, some have argued that smoking confers a protective effect regarding BPH, while others have observed an aggravated effect. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine whether cigarette use is associated with BPH risk. To identify articles from observational studies of relevance, a search was performed concurrent to March 21, 2016, on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model, according to the heterogeneity, was calculated to reveal the relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eight articles were included in this meta-analysis, representing data for 44,100 subjects, of which 5221 (11.8%) had BPH as defined according to the criteria. Seven reports are concerned with analysis between nonsmokers and ex-smokers, in which no significant difference was observed (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94–1.05). Another meta-analysis of 7 studies indicated an observable trend, but without significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and current smokers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41). Between groups of heavy (6 articles; RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84–1.24) and light smokers (5 articles; RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.71–1.15), again no significant difference appears. Finally, we combined individuals as never-smokers and ever-smokers and still found no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92–1.15). Sensitivity analysis was displayed and confirmed the stability of the present results. Combined evidence from observational studies shows no significant association between cigarette smoking and BPH risk, either for ex-smokers or for current smokers. The trend of elevated BPH risk from smoking was observed only in current smokers compared with nonsmokers, while marginal significance was observed in comparing ever-smokers with

  14. Benign fasciculations and corticosteroid use: possible association? An update

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Marco; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Araújo Leite, Marco Antonio; Júnior, Salem Peter; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; Sholer, Marzia Puccioni; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Pereira, Alessandra Cardoso; de Menezes, Sara Lúcia Silveira; da Silva Catharino, Antonio Marcos; Bino, Fabrício

    2011-01-01

    Fasciculations are characterized by visible subtle and fast contractions of muscle, even wormlike in movement, by the contraction of a fascicle of muscle fibers. The authors present the case study of a 28-year-old patient with the appearance of migratory and diffuse fasciculations with an onset after partial tapering off of oral corticosteroides (60 mg total dose) indicated for treatment of Minimal change Glomerulopathy. Clinical Neurological physical exam allied with an ENMG, besides other complementary laboratory exams were used for screening the above-mentioned patient. Afterwards, current research relating to the topic at hand was made in order to update the data available in the Bireme, Scielo and PubMed Data Banks using the following key words: Fasciculation's, motor neuron disease, and benign fasciculations in the Portuguese, English as well as Spanish language. Although fasciculation's are most commonly associated with Motor neuron disease as well as with certain metabolic disorders, they may also be present in individuals with absolutely no underlying pathological disorders. In our case, fasciculation potentials that have been present for six months, with no other signs of a neurogenic disorder as well as absence of laboratory findings, the patient received a diagnosis of Benign Fasciculation Syndrome (BFS).We believe that the use of corticosteroides in high doses with subsequent tapering contributed to the fasciculation's, especially due to the changes that this causes on the ionic channels. Fasciculation's are symptoms seen in a large range of conditions, and also being the main symptom of the so-called Benign Fasciculation Syndrome. We have presented an example of this clinical syndrome in a patient whose complaint was fasciculation's, with complete clinical remission of symptoms following complete tapering off of corticosteroid six months previously. PMID:22053258

  15. Phyllodes Tumor in a Lactating Breast

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Sudha S.; Raju, K. V. V. N.; Nair, Haripreetha G.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is attributed to a small fraction of primary tumors of the breast. Such tumors occur rarely in pregnancy and lactation. We report a case of a 25-year-old lactating mother presenting with a lump in the left breast. Core needle biopsy was opined as phyllodes tumor with lactational changes, and subsequent wide local excision confirmed the diagnosis of benign phyllodes tumor with lactational changes. The characteristic gross and microscopic findings of a well-circumscribed lesion with leaf-like fibroepithelial growth pattern and typical nonuniform or diffuse stromal proliferation with periductal accentuation even in the absence of mitotic figures can help clinch the diagnosis. Benign phyllodes is known for its recurrence and requires wide excision and close follow-up. It is vital to identify these lesions even on limited biopsies as therapeutic options differ. This case is presented for its rarity and the diagnostic challenge it poses in limited biopsy. PMID:27081326

  16. Treatment of Extra — Abdominal Desmoid Tumors with Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Corey; Emory, Cynthia; Adams, Sheila; Cohen, Jonathan; Pitcher, John David; Potter, Benjamin Kyle; Temple, H. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Fibromatosis, or extra-abdominal desmoid tumor, is a benign disease which often has an aggressive clinical course that can be difficult to treat. We performed a retrospective review of 16 patients (12 females and four males) with a mean age of 34.2 years treated with methotrexate and vinblastine for newly diagnosed or recurrent extra-abdominal desmoid tumor. The mean age of our patient cohort was 34.2 years (range 11–70), and the mean tumor size was 11.5 cm (range 2.5–21.2 cm). The mean duration of therapy was 12 months with an average follow-up of 43 months (range 1–149 months). Fourteen of 16 patients demonstrated a clinical response to treatment. Eight of 14 patients demonstrated a radiologic decrease in tumor size. Only one patient progressed on therapy. Six patients developed recurrent symptoms after discontinuation of treatment. Chemotherapy-related symptoms including neutropenia, nausea, and vomiting were common and observed in most patients, however these side effects were mild and transient. Five patients developed peripheral neuropathy that prompted a change from vinblastine to vinorelbine during treatment. One potentially life-threatening complication (pneumocystis pneumonia) occurred which was diagnosed early and successfully treated. The use of methotrexate and vinblastine/vinorelbine in the management of fibromatosis appears to be an effective treatment with minimal treatment-related side effects. PMID:24212959

  17. A rare location of benign osteoblastoma: case study and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, R; Serra, A; Bonfiglio, M; Platania, N; Albanese, V; Lanzafame, S; Cocuzza, S

    2012-11-01

    Osteoblastoma is a solitary, benign bone tumor that is rarely localized in the frontal sinus. It consists of hypocellular mineralized tissue that may form large masses or irregular trabeculae. A 31 year old man came to our attention with a 7 month history of diplopia, photophobia, frontal headhaches and progressive exophthalmos with proptosis of the left eye. The patient was submitted to computed tomography (CT) which allowed to appraise the extension of the lesion. The mass expanded inside the left frontal sinus and the upper ethmoidal cells invading the left orbital roof. Considering the extension of the tumor, the site and the connections with contiguous structures, a combination of endoscopic endonasal technique with intraorbital approach was performed. At histological examination typical features of benign osteoblastoma were observed. The sites of predilection for the tumor are the long bones, vertebral column, and small bones of hands and feet. Its occurrence in the skull and jaw bones is relatively rare and represents only 15% of all osteoblastomas. To our knowledge, only 5 cases of osteoblastoma of the frontal sinus have been previously reported in the English-language literature. This report describes a case of benign osteoblastoma in a rare site, namely, the frontal sinus with particular attention about the differential diagnosis and the treatment.    

  18. An unusual case of a borderline Brenner tumor associated with bilateral serous cystadenoma and endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Galarza, Daniel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Omar; Laboy-Torres, Joaquín; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Brenner tumor accounts for 1.5 to 2.5% of ovarian tumors. Nearly all are benign and 1% malignant. Less than twenty-five cases of borderline Brenner tumor have been reported worldwide. Our case is the first one related to a bilateral ovarian serous cystadenofibroma and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. This unusual case increases the limited data for borderline Brenner tumors.

  19. PEComa: morphology and genetics of a complex tumor family.

    PubMed

    Thway, Khin; Fisher, Cyril

    2015-10-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, or PEComas, are mesenchymal neoplasms composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive epithelioid or spindle cells, which are immunoreactive for both smooth muscle and melanocytic markers. The cells in PEComas are typically arranged around blood vessels and appear to form the vessel wall, often infiltrating the smooth muscle of small- to medium-sized vessels. Periluminal cells are usually epithelioid and the more peripheral cells are spindle shaped. The cells have small, round to oval nuclei, sometimes with focal nuclear atypia, and clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, and no counterpart normal cell has been identified. The PEComa "family" now includes angiomyolipoma, pulmonary clear cell "sugar" tumor and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, primary extrapulmonary sugar tumor, clear cell myomelanocytic tumor of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres, abdominopelvic sarcoma of perivascular epithelioid cells, and other tumors with similar features at various sites that are simply termed PEComa. Some PEComas occur in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and share the genetic abnormalities. There is a behavioral spectrum from benign to frankly malignant, and histologic criteria have been proposed for assessing malignant potential. The differential diagnosis can include carcinomas, smooth muscle tumors, other clear cell neoplasms, and adipocytic tumors. PEComas constitute a genetically diverse group that includes neoplasms harboring TFE3 gene rearrangements and those with TSC2 mutations, indicating alternative tumorigenic pathways. Recent advances in therapy of malignant PEComas relate to increased knowledge of specific genetic changes and their effects on metabolic pathways that are susceptible to specific interventions. We review PEComas, emphasizing the diagnostic spectrum and recent immunohistochemical and genetic findings.

  20. Treatment and outcome of giant cell tumors of the pelvis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone rarely affect the pelvis. We report on 20 cases that have been treated at our institution during the last 20 years. Methods 20 patients with histologically benign GCT of the pelvis were included in this study. 9 tumors were primarily located in the iliosacral area, 6 in the acetabular area, and 5 in the ischiopubic area. 8 patients were treated by intralesional curettage and 6 by intralesional resection with additional curettage of the margins. 3 patients with iliacal tumors were treated by wide resection. 2 patients were treated by a combination of external beam irradiation and surgery, and 1 patient solely by irradiation. In addition, 9 patients received selective arterial embolization one day before surgery. Of the 6 patients with acetabular tumors, 1 secondarily received an endoprosthesis and 1 was primarily treated by hip transposition. The patients were followed for a median time of 3 (1–11) years. Results 1 patient with a pubic tumor developed a local recurrence 1 year after intralesional resection and additional curettage of the margins. The recurrence presented as a small soft tissue mass within the scar tissue of the gluteal muscles and was treated by resection. No secondary sarcoma was detected and none of the patients developed pulmonary metastases or multicentricity. No major complication occurred during surgery. Interpretation We conclude that most GCTs of the pelvis can be treated by intralesional procedures. For tumors of the iliac wing, wide resection can be an alternative. Surgical treatment of tumors affecting the acetabular region often results in functional impairment. Pre-surgical selective arterial embolization appears to be a safe procedure that may reduce the risk of local recurrence. PMID:19916695

  1. [New surgical treatment options for bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Andreou, D; Henrichs, M P; Gosheger, G; Nottrott, M; Streitbürger, A; Hardes, J

    2014-11-01

    Primary bone neoplasms can be classified into benign, locally/aggressive and rarely metastasizing and malignant tumors. Patients with benign tumors usually undergo surgical treatment in cases of local symptoms, mainly consisting of pain or functional deficits due to compression of important anatomical structures, such as nerves or blood vessels. Locally/aggressive and rarely metastasizing tumors exhibit an infiltrative growth pattern, so that surgical treatment is necessary to prevent further destruction of bone leading to local instability. Finally, the surgical treatment of malignant tumors is, with few exceptions, considered to be a prerequisite for long-term survival, either alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy. Whereas the main objective of surgery in the treatment of benign tumors is relief of local symptoms with a minimum amount of damage to healthy tissue and minimizing the risk of local recurrence while ensuring bone stability in locally aggressive and rarely metastasizing tumors, the primary goal in the operative treatment of bone sarcomas is the resection of the tumor with clear surgical margins followed by defect reconstruction and the preservation of function. This review examines the current developments in the surgical treatment of primary bone neoplasms with respect to the management of the tumors and novel reconstructive options.

  2. Adamantinoma of the tibia mimicking a benign cystic lesion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Galanakos, Spyridon; Savvidou, Olga D; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2010-01-01

    Adamantinoma of the long bones is a rare primary malignant bone tumor accounting for less than 1% of all primary malignant bone tumors. Most typical imaging findings include heterogeneous osteolytic cortical lesions showing multiple sharply circumscribed lucent zones of various sizes with sclerotic bone surroundings, interspersing between, and extending above and below the lucent zones by the thinning and bulging cortex. Advanced or recurrent lesions may be associated with destruction of the cortex and soft tissue extension. In this article, the authors present a case report of a patient with a distal tibia adamantinoma mimicking a benign cystic lesion.

  3. Imaging features of benign adrenal cysts.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Kocaoglu, Murat; Yildirim, Duzgun; Bulakbasi, Nail; Guvenc, Inanc; Tayfun, Cem; Ucoz, Taner

    2006-12-01

    Benign adrenal gland cysts (BACs) are rare lesions with a variable histological spectrum and may mimic not only each other but also malignant ones. We aimed to review imaging features of BACs which can be helpful in distinguishing each entity and determining the subsequent appropriate management.

  4. Congenital epulis: A rare benign tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, D K C; Ramli, R; Muhaizan, W M; Primuharsa Putra, S H A

    2016-10-01

    Congenital epulis is a rare benign pedunculated tumour of the oral cavity arising from the alveolar ridges. It is usually detected in newborns and can be successfully resected surgically. We report a case of a newborn baby who had a 5x3x3cm pedunculated lobar mass arising from the upper alveolar ridge.

  5. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: from Bench to Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Ju

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease, especially in old men, and often results in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This chronic disease has important care implications and financial risks to the health care system. LUTS are caused not only by mechanical prostatic obstruction but also by the dynamic component of obstruction. The exact etiology of BPH and its consequences, benign prostatic enlargement and benign prostatic obstruction, are not identified. Various theories concerning the causes of benign prostate enlargement and LUTS, such as metabolic syndrome, inflammation, growth factors, androgen receptor, epithelial-stromal interaction, and lifestyle, are discussed. Incomplete overlap of prostatic enlargement with symptoms and obstruction encourages focus on symptoms rather than prostate enlargement and the shifting from surgery to medicine as the treatment of BPH. Several alpha antagonists, including alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, have shown excellent efficacy without severe adverse effects. In addition, new alpha antagonists, silodosin and naftopidil, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are emerging as BPH treatments. In surgical treatment, laser surgery such as photoselective vaporization of the prostate and holmium laser prostatectomy have been introduced to reduce complications and are used as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy. The status of TURP as the gold standard treatment of BPH is still evolving. We review several preclinical and clinical studies about the etiology of BPH and treatment options. PMID:22468207

  6. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  7. Epididymal Adenomatoid Tumor: A Very Rare Paratesticular Tumor of Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kaselas, Christos; Theocharides, Constantine; Kalogirou, Maria; Farmakis, Konstantinos; Feidantsis, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Adenomatoid tumor is an uncommon benign mesothelial neoplasm, usually localized in the epididymis. It is the most common paratesticular tumor of middle-aged patients (average age of clinical presentation: 36 years). However, these tumors in pediatric and pubertal patients are extremely rare. Due to their rarity, we present a case of adenomatoid tumor of the tail of the epididymis in a 16-year-old patient. After systematic research of the current literature, we did not find another case report of epididymal adenomatoid tumor in a male patient aged 16 years old or less. This notice and our concern, as well, about the patient's surveillance protocol during the postoperative period were the motive for this case study. PMID:28003830

  8. Does Intracerebral Hemorrhage Mimic Benign Dizziness Presentations? A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Burke, James F.; Brown, Devin L.; Meurer, William J.; Smith, Melinda A.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Zahuranec, Darin B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A principal reason to order a head computerized tomography (CT) scan for dizziness patients is to exclude stroke. Since CT imaging is substantially limited in assessing for any acute lesions other than hemorrhage, the most important stroke syndrome adequately evaluated by CT is intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We used a population-based stroke database to assess the frequency with which ICH might mimic a benign dizziness presentation. Methods The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project was used to identify cases of ICH from January 1, 2000, to December 26, 2007. The hospital records of ICH cases with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of < 2 were abstracted for more detailed information. Cases were classified as benign dizziness presentations when isolated dizziness and a normal general neurological examination were documented. Results Of 595 ICH cases, only 2.2% (13 of 595) had dizziness as the primary presenting symptom and an NIHSS < 2. No case mimicked a benign dizziness presentation. Only one case had isolated dizziness symptoms but this patient had dysmetria documented on the exam. All other cases had either focal or global neurological symptoms or exam abnormalities. Conclusions This study provides further support for the notion that ICH is highly unlikely to mimic a benign dizziness presentation. Coupled with the limitations of CT to show acute ischemia in the posterior fossa, these results suggest that screening for ICH may not be necessary in benign appearing dizziness presentations, though more research is needed. PMID:21245473

  9. [Küttner's tumor (chronic sclerosing sialadenitis) - a rare cause of submandibular gland enlargement].

    PubMed

    Markowski, Jarosław; Gierek, Tatiana; Witkowska, Małgorzata; Paluch, Jarosław; Swiderek, Monika; Zielińska-Pająk, Ewa; Pająk, Jacek; Klimczak-Gołąb, Lucyna; Smółka, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Küttner's tumor is a benign tumour-like lesion of the salivary glands. Predominantly affects the submandibular gland. It is also known as chronic sclerosing sialoadenitis or cirrhosis of submandibular gland. This is an underrecognized entity in the surgical pathology and cytology literature. Most patients experience recurrent pain, discharge and swelling that is often associated with eating, but others only have asymptomatic hard swelling of the submandibular gland. Histologic examination of the excised submandibular glands revealed preserved lobular architecture, thickening of interlobular septa by sclerotic tissue, dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, preservation of ducts with periductal fibrosis, and variable loss of acini. The morphologic appearance, in conjunction with the elevated IgG4 expression, distinguishes chronic sclerosing sialadenitis from other inflammatory diseases of the salivary glands. Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis belongs to the spectrum of IgG4-related diseases. We present a case of Küttner's tumor in a 62-year-old female treated by surgery. Although this disease was first described by Küttner in 1896, this clinical entity which masquerades as carcinoma is underdiagnosed by many surgeons. There is not enough evidence to support any diagnostic means that could help in the differential diagnosis of this benign condition. Given the high rate of malignancy in firm, painless lesions of the submandibular gland, surgical excision is often advocated and Küttner's tumor is usually diagnosed by the histopathologist.

  10. Rare benign pleomorphic adenoma of the nose: short study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wierzchowska, Małgorzata; Bodnar, Magdalena; Burduk, Paweł K; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech; Marszałek, Andrzej

    2015-07-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is one of the most common benign tumors of the major salivary glands. It can also occur in the minor salivary glands, which exist in the nasal cavity. Intranasal pleomorphic adenoma usually originates from glands of the nasal septum mucosa. We present the results of endoscopic endonasal surgery of this pathology. The aim of the study was to present the endoscopic technique for nasal septum pleomorphic adenoma surgery. The retrospective examination of 3 patients was performed. There were 2 women and 1 man. Age ranged from 15 to 46 years. All the patients presented with nasal obstruction and occasional epistaxis for at least for 6 months. We performed endoscopic surgery to remove the tumors. In all cases we dissected the septal perichondrium to achieved free margins of the tumor. The microscopic examination revealed an epithelial and myoepithelial component with tubular structures composed of two cell layers, ducts, and a solid area found in a loose myxochondroid area. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining was performed using antibodies against cytokeratin, Ki-67, and vimentin. Patients' postoperative course was uneventful, and no complications were encountered. No recurrence was present during patients' postoperative visits. Nasal benign pleomorphic adenoma is a rare tumor which should be taken into consideration in the nasal cavity during surgery. The correct histological diagnosis can be confirmed by additional histological studies. Endoscopic endonasal surgery is reserved for small tumors.

  11. Chondroma of the diaphragm mimicking a giant liver tumor with calcification: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Asahi, Yoh; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Nakanishi, Kazuaki; Yokoo, Hideki; Tahara, Munenori; Usui, Akihiro; Funakoshi, Tohru; Sato, Masanori; Sasaki, Ayami; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Taketomi, Akinobu; Todo, Satoru

    2014-12-01

    Extraskeletal chondroma is an unusual benign tumor, which rarely arises in the diaphragm. We report a case of chondroma of the diaphragm in a 31-year-old woman. Initially, a benign liver tumor with calcification was suspected, based on pre and intraoperative examination findings. Although parts of the tumor were contiguous with the diaphragm, its connections with the diaphragm were much narrower than its connection with the liver, which suggested a liver tumor. Pathological examination subsequently revealed that the chondroma was contiguous with the diaphragm and that there was a distinct border between the tumor and the liver; thus, the tumor was diagnosed as a chondroma of the diaphragm.

  12. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone - An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sobti, Anshul; Agrawal, Pranshu; Agarwala, Sanjay; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Giant Cell tumors (GCT) are benign tumors with potential for aggressive behavior and capacity to metastasize. Although rarely lethal, benign bone tumors may be associated with a substantial disturbance of the local bony architecture that can be particularly troublesome in peri-articular locations. Its histogenesis remains unclear. It is characterized by a proliferation of mononuclear stromal cells and the presence of many multi- nucleated giant cells with homogenous distribution. There is no widely held consensus regarding the ideal treatment method selection. There are advocates of varying surgical techniques ranging from intra-lesional curettage to wide resection. As most giant cell tumors are benign and are located near a joint in young adults, several authors favor an intralesional approach that preserves anatomy of bone in lieu of resection. Although GCT is classified as a benign lesion, few patients develop progressive lung metastases with poor outcomes. Treatment is mainly surgical. Options of chemotherapy and radiotherapy are reserved for selected cases. Recent advances in the understanding of pathogenesis are essential to develop new treatments for this locally destructive primary bone tumor. PMID:26894211

  13. FGFR3 has tumor suppressor properties in cells with epithelial phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to frequent mutations in certain cancers, FGFR3 gene is considered as an oncogene. However, in some normal tissues, FGFR3 can limit cell growth and promote cell differentiation. Thus, FGFR3 action appears paradoxical. Results FGFR3 expression was forced in pancreatic cell lines. The receptor exerted dual effects: it suppressed tumor growth in pancreatic epithelial-like cells and had oncogenic properties in pancreatic mesenchymal-like cells. Distinct exclusive pathways were activated, STATs in epithelial-like cells and MAP Kinases in mesenchymal-like cells. Both FGFR3 splice variants had similar effects and used the same intracellular signaling. In human pancreatic carcinoma tissues, levels of FGFR3 dropped in tumors. Conclusion In tumors from epithelial origin, FGFR3 signal can limit tumor growth, explaining why the 4p16.3 locus bearing FGFR3 is frequently lost and why activating mutations of FGFR3 in benign or low grade tumors of epithelial origin are associated with good prognosis. The new hypothesis that FGFR3 can harbor both tumor suppressive and oncogenic properties is crucial in the context of targeted therapies involving specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). TKIs against FGFR3 might result in adverse effects if used in the wrong cell context. PMID:23902722

  14. Plasminogen activators, their inhibitors, and urokinase receptor emerge in late stages of melanocytic tumor progression.

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, T. J.; Quax, P. H.; Denijn, M.; Verrijp, K. N.; Verheijen, J. H.; Verspaget, H. W.; Weidle, U. H.; Ruiter, D. J.; van Muijen, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix and other tissue barriers by proteases like plasminogen activators (PAs) is a prerequisite for neoplastic growth and metastasis. Recently, we reported that highly metastatic behavior of human melanoma cells in nude mice correlates with urokinase-type PA (u-PA) expression and activity and with PA inhibitor type 1 and 2 (PAI-1, PAI-2) expression. Here we report on the occurrence of components of the PA system in the various stages of human melanoma tumor progression in situ. We studied the protein distribution on freshly frozen lesions of common nevocellular nevi (n = 25), dysplastic (= atypical) nevi (n = 16), early primary melanomas (n = 8), advanced primary melanomas (n = 11), and melanoma metastases (n = 17). Tissue-type PA was present in endothelial cells in all lesions, whereas in metastases it could be detected in tumor cells in a minority of the lesions. u-PA, its receptor, PAI-1, and PAI-2 could not be detected in benign and in early stages but appeared frequently in advanced primary melanoma and melanoma metastasis lesions. u-PA was detected in stromal cells and in tumor cells at the invasive front, the u-PA receptor and PAI-2 in tumor cells, and PAI-1 in the extracellular matrix surrounding tumor cells. Localization of the corresponding messenger RNAs and enzyme activities revealed a similar distribution. We conclude that plasminogen activation is a late event in melanoma tumor progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8291613

  15. Recent advancement of therapeutic endoscopy in the esophageal benign diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bechara, Robert; Inoue, Haruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the field of endoscopy has witnessed several advances. With the advent of endoscopic mucosal resection, removal of large mucosal lesions have become possible. Thereafter, endoscopic submucosal resection was refined, permitting en bloc removal of large superficial neoplasms. Such techniques have facilitated the development of antireflux mucosectomy, a promising novel treatment for gastroesophageal reflux. The introduction and use of over the scope clips has allowed for endoscopic closure of defects in the gastrointestinal tract, which were traditionally treated with surgical intervention. With the development of per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), the treatment of achalasia and spastic disorders of the esophagus have been revolutionized. From the submucosal tunnelling technique developed for POEM, Per oral endoscopic tumor resection of subepithelial tumors was made possible. Simultaneously, advances in biotechnology have expanded esophageal stenting capabilities with the introduction of fully covered metal and plastic stents, as well as biodegradable stents. Once deemed a primarily diagnostic tool, endoscopy has quickly transcended to a minimally invasive intervention and therapeutic tool. These techniques are reviewed with regards to their application to benign disease of the esophagus. PMID:25992187

  16. Fractionated Proton Radiotherapy for Benign Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Jerry D.; Loredo, Lilia N.; Chung, Arthur; Bush, David A.; Patyal, Baldev; Johnson, Walter D.; Hsu, Frank P.K.; Slater, James M.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of fractionated proton radiotherapy for a population of patients with benign cavernous sinus meningiomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2002, 72 patients were treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center with proton therapy for cavernous sinus meningiomas. Fifty-one patients had biopsy or subtotal resection; 47 had World Health Organization grade 1 pathology. Twenty-one patients had no histologic verification. Twenty-two patients received primary proton therapy; 30 had 1 previous surgery; 20 had more than 1 surgery. The mean gross tumor volume was 27.6 cm{sup 3}; mean clinical target volume was 52.9 cm{sup 3}. Median total doses for patients with and without histologic verification were 59 and 57 Gy, respectively. Mean and median follow-up periods were 74 months. Results: The overall 5-year actuarial control rate was 96%; the control rate was 99% in patients with grade 1 or absent histologic findings and 50% for those with atypical histology. All 21 patients who did not have histologic verification and 46 of 47 patients with histologic confirmation of grade 1 tumor demonstrated disease control at 5 years. Control rates for patients without previous surgery, 1 surgery, and 2 or more surgeries were 95%, 96%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusions: Fractionated proton radiotherapy for grade 1 cavernous sinus meningiomas achieves excellent control rates with minimal toxicities, regardless of surgical intervention or use of histologic diagnosis. Disease control for large lesions can be achieved by primary fractionated proton therapy.

  17. Tumors of the nail unit. A review. Part I: acquired localized longitudinal melanonychia and erythronychia.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    The article aims to be a guide to the interpretation of tumors specific to the nail, that is, tumors presenting peculiar histological features linked specifically to the nail unit. Therefore, the classical epithelial, fibroepithelial, and fibrous skin tumors occurring in the nail region are not analyzed. The interpretation of nail biopsies requires the identification and integration of the 2 main clinical modes of presentation of nail tumors, the acquired localized (monodactylous) longitudinal (ALL) band pattern, and the "masked" nail tumor. The ALL band pattern often allows the recognition of a nail tumor in its early phase of progression, with a limited differential diagnosis. The masked nail tumor mimics an inflammatory nail process, as a clinically misleading reactive benign lesion, which delays diagnosis with the subsequent development of partial nail loss and a locally destructive evolution. ALL band pattern appears as a longitudinal band starting at the matrix and extending to the tip of the nail plate. The band is usually single, rarely bifid. This clinical pattern can divided into 2 presentations. The generic term of ALL maculonychia could be proposed to define the macular aspect of the colored band of the nail plate. It encompasses 3 syndromes: longitudinal melanonychia, longitudinal erythronychia, and longitudinal leukonychia. ALL pachyonychia is a rare presentation. Pachyonychia indicates a localized thickening of the nail plate specific to the matrical nail tumor. In this group, there is differentiation toward cells of the nail matrix. The prototype tumor is the onychomatricoma, which present classically with a yellow (xantholeukonychia) band pattern. Recently, a new clinical band pattern has been described as longitudinal pachymelanonychia with 2 etiologies: pigmented onychomatricoma and onychocytic matricoma. The first part of this review delineate, in the first section, the distinctive microanatomical features of the nail unit and the second is

  18. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  19. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  20. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  1. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  2. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  3. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  4. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  5. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  6. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  7. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  8. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  9. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  10. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating...

  11. 16 CFR 1025.63 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Written appearances. 1025.63 Section 1025.63... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.63 Written appearances. (a) Filing. Any person who appears in any proceedings shall file a written notice of appearance with the Secretary or deliver...

  12. 49 CFR 511.73 - Written appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written appearances. 511.73 Section 511.73... Written appearances. (a) Any person who appears in a proceeding shall file a written notice of appearance with the Executive Secretary or deliver a written notice of appearance to the reporter at the...

  13. Cerebral metabolism of glucose in benign hereditary chorea

    SciTech Connect

    Suchowersky, O.; Hayden, M.R.; Martin, W.R.; Stoessl, A.J.; Hildebrand, A.M.; Pate, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by chorea of early onset with little or no progression. There is marked clinical variability in this disease with some subjects having onset in infancy and others with onset in early adulthood. In contrast to Huntington's disease (HD), there is no dementia. Computed tomography is normal in all subjects with no evidence of caudate nucleus atrophy. We present the results of positron emission tomography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose on three patients with this disorder from two families. Cerebral glucose metabolism in one patient was decreased in the caudate nucleus, as previously reported in HD. The other two persons from a second family showed a relative decrease in metabolic rates of glucose in the caudate when compared with the thalamus. It appears that caudate hypometabolism is not specific for HD. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some persons with BHC.

  14. Difficulties in the diagnosis of intracystic tumors of the female breast.

    PubMed

    Egyed, Z S; Péntek, Z; Ormándy, K; Járay, B; Kulka, J; László, Z S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the accuracy of radiological and cytological diagnoses of intracystic and papillary lesions in distinguishing between true papillary benign and malignant lesions. Seventy cytological reports of intracystic proliferations were selected from our cytopathological database at the Breast Health Corporation, Budapest, Hungary, dating back to the last 7 years. Retrospective analysis of the diagnostic approaches--mammography, ultrasonography, clinical examination and cytology--was performed in selected cases. The results of imaging and cytological examination are routinely reported on a categorical scale ranging from 1 to 5. 44 patients underwent surgical excision: histology showed benign lesions in 21 and malignant lesions in 23 cases. Twelve patients, who did not undergo biopsy and presented a stable disease at follow-ups, were also included in the group of benign lesion. Fifteen patients were not available for follow-up. Concerning the total investigated cases the mean categorical values of mammography, ultrasonography and cytology were 2.24, 2.78 and 3.05 respectively. The malignant and benign groups significantly differ from each other concerning the mean age of the patients (p=0.0216), the distribution of the coded mammographical results (p= 0.0171) the cytological results (p=0.0001), and average tumor size measured on mammogram images (p=0.0199). The two group does not significantly differ over the distribution of mammographical density patterns (p=0.1075), radiomorphological appearance (p=0.1101), average tumor size measured on ultrasonography (p=0.2665), and patient complaints (p=0.2634). The evaluation of ultrasonography shows borderline significance (Pearson Chi-square test: p=0.0616, M-L Chi-square test: p=0.0404) between the malignant and benign groups. Differential diagnosis between malignant and benign intracystic and papillary lesions is feasible using common radiological diagnostics. However, more

  15. A novel benign solution for collagen processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoult, Olivier

    Collagen is the main protein constituting the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tissues in the body (skin, cartilage, blood vessels...). It exists many types of collagen, this work studies only fibrillar collagen (e.g. collagen type I contained in the skin) that exhibits a triple helical structure composed of 3 alpha-helical collagen chains. This particular and defined hierarchical structure is essential to the biological and mechanical properties of the collagen. Processing collagen into scaffolds to mimic the ECM is crucial for successful tissue engineering. Recently collagen was processed into fibrous and porous scaffold using electrospinning process. However the solvent (HFIP) used for electrospinning is extremely toxic for the user and expensive. This work shows that HFIP can be replaced by a benign mixture composed of water, salt and alcohol. Yet only three alcohols (methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol) enable the dissolution of large quantity of collagen in the benign mixture, with a wide range of alcohol to buffer ratio, and conserve the collagen hierarchical structure at least as well as the HFIP. Collagen can be electrospun from the benign mixture into sub-micron fibers with concentrations as low as 6 wt-% for a wide range of alcohol to buffer ratio, with at least 10wt-% of salt, and any of the three alcohols. Specific conditions yield nano size fibers. After processing from HFIP or a benign mixture, collagen is water soluble and needs to be chemically crosslink for tissue engineering application. Post-crosslinking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) results in the loss of the scaffold fibrous aspect and porosity, hence it is useless for tissue engineering. Such issue could be prevented by incorporating the crosslinker into the mixture prior to electrospinning. When EDC is used alone, collagen forms a gel in the mixture within minutes, preventing electrospinning. The addition of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) in excess to EDC

  16. Anorectal giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Loewenstein tumor): CT and radiographic manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Balthazar, E.J.; Streiter, M.; Megibow, A.J.

    1984-03-01

    Giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Loewenstein tumor) is an unusual variety of venereal wart characterized by a large size, cauliflower-like appearance, and locally invasive nature. CT examination of two patients with anorectal giant condylomata revealed the papillomatous and invasive nature of the lesion and the extent of tumor; there was infiltration of the subcutaneous tissue, perirectal fascial planes, and luminal narrowing with marked thickening of the rectal wall. The pathologic specimens showed benign histologic finding in one case and a mixed pattern with areas of malignant degeneration in the other. CT accurately demonstrated the exact location and extent of the lesions. The presence of malignant degeneration in this inherently invasive lesion can be established only on histologic examination.

  17. Central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy for benign pancreatic pathology.

    PubMed

    Efron, David T; Lillemoe, Keith D; Cameron, John L; Yeo, Charles J

    2004-01-01

    Benign lesions of the neck and proximal body of the pancreas pose an interesting surgical challenge. If the lesions are not amenable to simple enucleation, surgeons may be faced with the choice of performing a right-sided resection (pancreaticoduodenectomy) or a left-sided resection (distal pancreatectomy) to include the lesion, resulting in resection of a substantial amount of normal pancreatic parenchyma. Central pancreatic resection has been reported with Roux-en-Y pancreaticojejunostomy reconstruction; however, this interrupts small bowel continuity and obligates an additional anastomosis. We have reviewed our experience with central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) for benign central pancreatic pathology. Between January 1999 and December 2002, 14 central pancreatectomies were performed with PG reconstruction. There were 7 women and 7 men with a mean age of 60.9 years. Five resections were performed for islet cell tumors, three were performed for noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, two were performed for serous cystadenoma, and one each was performed for a simple cyst, pseudocyst, mucinous metaplasia, and focal chronic pancreatitis. Seven out of 14 patients experienced a total of 10 complications. Pancreatic fistulae manifested by drainage of amylase-rich fluid from the operatively placed drains developed in 5 patients (36%). Reoperation or interventional radiologic procedures were not required in any patient with a fistula. Postoperative follow-up demonstrated 13 out of 14 patients to be alive and well without evidence of pancreatic insufficiency. One patient died at home on postoperative day 57 of cardiac pathology. Central pancreatectomy with PG is a safe and effective procedure that allows for preservation of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function without disruption of enteric continuity. The complication of pancreatic fistula was managed conservatively via maintenance of operatively placed drains.

  18. Feline peripheral nerve sheath tumors: histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinicopathologic correlation (59 tumors in 53 cats).

    PubMed

    Schulman, F Y; Johnson, T O; Facemire, P R; Fanburg-Smith, J C

    2009-11-01

    Feline peripheral nerve sheath tumors are uncommonly reported, and their clinical behavior has not been well documented. Fifty-nine peripheral nerve sheath tumors were collected from 53 cats. All of the tumors involved skin, subcutis, skeletal muscle, and/or mucous membranes. Histologically, the tumors were composed of compact to loosely arranged streams and fascicles of spindled cells with eosinophilic, often wavy cytoplasmic processes; small to occasionally moderate amounts of collagenous to myxoid matrix; and nuclear palisading. Immunohistochemically, all tumors were positive for vimentin and S-100 protein, 44 of 59 were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and all were negative for muscle specific actin. The tumors fell into 3 histologic categories: 34 benign tumors with Antoni A areas that were S-100 protein and GFAP positive, 9 benign tumors that lacked Antoni A areas and were S-100 protein positive and GFAP negative, and 16 tumors with features of malignancy. Seventy-five percent of these cases involved the head, neck, or limbs. Recurrent tumors were submitted or tumors were reported to have recurred in 9 cases. Tumor recurrence was reported for all 3 of the histologic subtypes. None was documented as having metastasized.

  19. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Koc, Eltaf Ayca Ozbal; Koc, Bulent; Eryaman, Esra; Ozluoglu, Levent N

    2013-01-01

    We present 2 cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) following septorhinoplasty. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following septorhinoplasty is an unusual entity. Two young women who had difficulty in breathing and nasal deformity underwent septorhinoplasty. On the second and the third postoperative days, the patients experienced vertigo that was induced by position changes. Both patients had neither preexisting ear disease nor vertigo before the surgery. All the examinations were normal. With Dix-Hallpike maneuver, which is the criterion-standard test, the characteristic nystagmus was observed. Right posterior canal BPPV was diagnosed, and they were both treated with Epley canalith repositioning maneuver. Publications related to postsurgical vertigo are available in literature, but it is still an underdiagnosed disorder. We would like to mention about this rare entity and inform the surgeons that they must keep in mind that a patient who is complaining about vertigo or dizziness after the surgery should be observed and investigated for BPPV.

  20. Benign recurrent VI nerve palsy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bixenman, W W; von Noorden, G K

    1981-01-01

    The case of a child with six documented episodes of benign recurrent unilateral VI nerve palsy between the ages of 2 1/2 months and 3 years is presented. Despite the recognized self-limiting course of this disorder, its possible evolution into a comitant esotropia makes close follow-up mandatory. The practical aspects of management including maintenance occlusion therapy are stressed as well as the need for prompt surgical intervention once the acquired stabismus has become stabilized. The etiology of benign VI nerve palsy of childhood may have the same immunological basis as other cases of para-infectious neuropathy. This isolated postinfective cranial mononeuropathy easily blends into the continuum of neurological involvement seen with the Landry-Guillian-Barre syndrome. With recovery from the initial episode, the abducens nerve may have become predisposed to recurrent inflammatory episodes and recurrent loss of function. Most often these recurrences are triggered by febrile illnesses of childhood.

  1. Laser Thermal Ablation of Thyroid Benign Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Shahrzad, Mohammad Karim

    2015-01-01

    Thermal ablation therapies for benign thyroid nodules have been introduced in recent years to avoid the complications of traditional methods such as surgery. Despite the little complications and the reportedly acceptable efficacy of thermal ablation methods, quite few medical centers have sought the potential benefits of employing them. This paper provides an introduction to the literature, principles and advances of Percutaneous Laser Ablation therapy of thyroid benign nodules, as well as a discussion on its efficacy, complications and future. Several clinical research papers evaluating the thermal effect of laser on the alleviation of thyroid nodules have been reviewed to illuminate the important points. The results of this research can help researchers to advance the approach and medical centers to decide on investing in these novel therapies. PMID:26705459

  2. Tumors of the foot and ankle: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Cristina P; Casanova, José M; Guerra, Marta G; Santos, António L; Portela, Maria I; Tavares, Paulo F

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the foot and ankle are rare, and the particular clinicopathologic features, therapeutic approach, and outcomes in this setting are not well established. From January 2000 to December 2010, 72 patients with primary musculoskeletal tumors of the foot and ankle, both benign and malignant, were treated at a single institution. Of the 72 patients, 56% were female. The median age was 52 years. Of the 72 tumors, 62 (86.11%) were located in the foot and 10 were located in the ankle; 63 (87.5%) were soft tissue tumors and 9 (12.5%) were bone tumors. Overall, 56 (78%) were benign tumors and 16 (22%) were malignant tumors. The most frequent soft tissue and bone diagnosis was giant cell tumor. The median follow-up period was 49 months. The vast majority of the tumors were located in the foot. Benign tumors were dominant, outnumbering malignant tumors by more than 3 to 1. The diversity of the histologic benign types was evident, with giant cell tumor, angiomyoma, and lipoma the most frequent. Regarding the malignant tumors, a clear male predominance was present, the median age was 45 years, and the most frequent tumor was synoviosarcoma. The 9-year overall and disease-free survival rate was 65% and 40%, respectively.

  3. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection.

  4. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection. PMID:27004193

  5. [Surgical treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Y; Grosjean, P; Maire, R

    2012-10-03

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common disorder that presents to the general practitioner. This condition represents one of the most common causes of peripheral vertigo. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds. The treatment relies on repositioning maneuvers with relief of symptoms that occur in a few weeks in the majority of the cases. Rarely, patients are incapacitated by persistent or recurrent BPPV despite multiple repositioning maneuvers. In these cases, surgical therapies are available which provide excellent results.

  6. Management of familial benign chronic pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Harleen; Bray, Fleta N; Cervantes, Jessica; Falto Aizpurua, Leyre A

    2016-01-01

    Benign familial chronic pemphigus or Hailey–Hailey disease is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in the ATP2C1 gene leading to suprabasilar acantholysis. The disease most commonly affects intertriginous areas symmetrically. The chronic nature of the disease and multiple recurrences make the disease bothersome for patients and a treatment challenge for physicians. Treatments include topical and/or systemic agents and surgery including laser. This review summarizes the available treatment options. PMID:27695354

  7. Surgical treatment of benign endobronchial tumours

    PubMed Central

    Halttunen, P; Meurala, H; Standertskjöld-Nordenstam, C-G

    1982-01-01

    Four cases of benign endobronchial tumour are reported which were successfully treated by bronchial resection. In two cases (of fibroma and leiomyoma respectively) a cylinder of bronchus alone was resected; in one case (lipoma) a healthy right upper lobe was preserved by a bronchoplastic procedure and in the other (chondroma) the tumour was removed with the right lower lobe, which was irreversibly damaged. It is important to recognise that such tumours are unsuitable for treatment by endoscopic means alone. Images PMID:7157223

  8. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Gee, J.M.; Menna, P.; Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V.

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  9. Soft tissue tumors among beagles injected with {sup 90}Sr, {sup 228}Ra, or {sup 228}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Angus, W.; Taylor, G.N.

    1995-08-01

    The occurrence of soft-tissue tumors in beagles given {sup 90}Sr (88 dogs), {sup 228}Ra (76 dogs), or {sup 228}Th (81 dogs) as young adults and followed throughout their lifespans was compared with that of 133 control beagles given no radioactivity. For animals injected with {sup 228}Ra, tumors of the eye were more prominent (p<0.05) than in the controls, and soft-tissue tumors of cavities in the head (excluding the brain, mouth, and eye) were more prominent in dogs given {sup 90}Sr than in the controls (p<0.05). There was some indication that eye tumors in animals given about 0.56 kBq {sup 228}Th kg{sup {minus}1} were associated with their radionuclide exposure. For tumors at a few other locations, the relative occurrence was greater (p<0.05) in the controls. These included malignant tumors of the testis, and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae and vagina in {sup 228}Ra dogs; and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae in {sup 90}Sr dogs (p>0.05 by Odds Ratio Chi Square analysis but p<0.05 by Fiosher`s Exact Test). Differences in relative occurrence between radioactive dogs and controls of all other tumor types that appeared in any of the animals (notably lymphosarcoma, lymph node tumors, leukemia, mast cell tumors, liver tumors, etc.) were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Intercurrent mortality, mainly from bone cancer, was higher in the radioactive dogs than in the controls. Mean survival was reduced in the dogs given {sup 90}Sr, {sup 228}Ra, or {sup 228}Th(13.17 {plus_minus} 2.64 y in controls, 10.95 {plus_minus} 4.06 y in {sup 90}Sr dogs, 9.07 {plus_minus} 3.61 y in {sup 228}Ra dogs, and 9.20 {plus_minus}4.15 y in {sup 228}Th dogs). Attenuated lifespans could account, at least in part, for the relative paucity of soft-tissue tumors not induced by radiation among the groups of dogs given radioactivity and occurring near the end of life for control animals. 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Pediatric Suprasellar Tumors.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Heather J; George, Emilie; Settler, Allison; Schwartz, Theodore H; Greenfield, Jeffrey P

    2016-10-01

    The various childhood suprasellar tumors, while pathologically distinct, present similar clinical and surgical challenges as a result of their common anatomic location. These lesions are in close proximity to or may invade the optic nerve and chiasm, pituitary gland and infundibulum, hypothalamus, and third ventricle, leading to presenting features including visual field loss, impairment in visual acuity, endocrine dysfunction, and hydrocephalus. Though many suprasellar lesions are relatively benign in pathology, treatment may be complicated by high surgical morbidity resulting from damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Here we review the most frequent pediatric lesions occurring in the suprasellar region: craniopharyngioma, chiasmatic glioma, germ cell tumor, Rathke cleft and arachnoid cysts, pituitary adenoma, and histiocytosis. This review outlines both common presenting features and differentiating aspects of these lesions. It also includes classic radiographic presentations and treatment considerations for each lesion.

  11. [Retroperitoneal Tumor: Neurofibroma.

    PubMed

    Lada, Paul Eduardo; Marriot, Daniela; Sanchez Tasonne, Carlos; Sanchez, Martin; Caballero, Fabian; Massa, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The neurofibroma is a benign tumor that grows from the sheath of the peripheral nerves, which is often localized on superficial tissues, especially in isolated forms. The neurofibromas can be of two types, localized or diffuse, the last one closely related to Von Recklinghausen disease or NF-1. We described a 37 years old male e patient, 37 years without symptoms, and the computed tomography scan (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor in proximity to the right kidney, the psoas muscle, the spine and compressing the cava vein, but cannot be accurately determinate the invasion of these structures. We review the differential diagnosis, therapeutic and the management of this disease in this clinical case.

  12. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid in benign and malignant breast disease.

    PubMed

    Romppanen, J; Eskelinen, M; Tikanoja, S; Mononen, I

    1997-01-01

    Elevation in the total sialic acid (TSA), TSA/total protein (TSA/TP) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LASA) concentration in serum occurs in breast cancer and we have studied the applicability of the assays in classification of undefined breast tumors. Sialic acid was determined by HPLC and the statistical evaluation included the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Youden's index analyses. In cancer patients, the serum LASA and TSA concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in patients with benign breast disease and all the markers were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in normal controls. All the markers had a low accuracy (AUCs < 0.75) in differentiating between breast cancer and benign breast disease and at the specificity level of 0.95 the corresponding sensitivities were 0.32 (TSA), 0.14 (TSA/TP) and 0.23 (LASA). The results indicate that both breast cancer and benign breast disease cause elevation of TSA, TSA/TP and LASA values in serum and do not provide reliable classification of undefined breast tumors.

  13. [Tumoral calcinosis: a case report].

    PubMed

    En-Nafaa, I; Africha, T; Boussouga, M; Semlali, S; Chaouir, S; Amil, T; Hanine, A

    2010-08-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare benign disease, defined by the presence of calcified deposits in periarticular tissues. The pathogenesis is unclear. We report a new case of tumoral calcinosis in a young girl, involving the left hip and both elbows. The clinical exam found a voluminous mass of soft tissues and the radiological exam showed the presence of voluminous periarticular calcifications with no bone involvement. The diagnosis was confirmed by the anatomopathological exam. The treatment remains essentially surgical and the prognosis is very good.

  14. Tumor of follicular infundibulum with unique features*

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Natalie; de Oliveira Filho, Jayme; Reis, Mariana Junqueira Lacerda; Michalany, Alexandre Ozores; Nasser, Kassila da Rosa; Corbett, Ana Maria França

    2014-01-01

    Tumor of the follicular infundibulum is a rare benign cutaneous adnexal neoplasm with variable clinical presentation. In most cases the diagnosis is made with the help of histopathology, due to lack of a characteristic clinical presentation. The most common form is a solitary lesion, but it can be multiple or eruptive, then called infundibulomatose. This case report illustrates a patient with multiple lesions of tumor of the follicular infundibulum with bizarre aspect and atypical location. PMID:25387502

  15. Giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor: a challenging diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Rachna; Punyani, Silky Rajesh; Raj, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor, although a benign lesion, is peculiarly aggressive with a high recurrence rate. Its involvement with the maxillary antrum is atypical. We report the unusual case of a 20-year-old male patient with an extensive antral tumor associated with an impacted third molar, which was initially misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic aspects were analyzed to provide useful information for the correct diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:27818958

  16. In vitro studies on odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Catón, Javier; Mitsiadis, Thimios A; Morgan, Peter R

    2012-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are uncommon benign neoplasms of the jaws. They originate from dental epithelial cells, but they are not capable of mineralizing or forming enamel. The study of these tumors is limited to live tissue collected from patients during scheduled surgery. Ameloblastomas grow slowly in vivo and this property is translated to their behavior in vitro. Here, we describe the methods to culture ameloblastomas in organotypic cultures, as well as to isolate stem/progenitor cells from these tumors.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of benign liver nodules: Brazilian Society of Hepatology (SBH) recommendations.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Edna; Ferreira, Adalgisa de Souza Paiva; França, Alex Vianey Callado; Lyra, Andre Castro; Barros, Fabio Marinho do Rego; Silva, Ivonete; Garcia, José Huygens Parente; Parise, Edison Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Space-occupying lesions of the liver may be cystic or solid. Ultrasonography is an extremely useful method for initial screening, and suffices for diagnosis of simple hepatic cysts. Complex cysts and solid masses require computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for confirmation. Wide surgical excision is indicated in cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Clinical and epidemiological data are important, as nodules in noncirrhotic livers are more likely to be benign. Hemangiomas, the most common benign tumors, require no follow-up after diagnostic confirmation if they are small and asymptomatic. Patients with giant, symptomatic hemangiomas or compression of adjacent structures should be referred to hepatobiliary centers for potential surgery. The genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular adenomas and their epidemiology and prognosis prompted classification of these tumors into four subtypes based on histology and immunohistochemistry. The major complications of hepatocellular adenomas are rupture with bleeding and malignant transformation. Rupture occurs in approximately 30% of cases. The main risk factors are tumors size >5 cm and inflammatory subtype. Hepatocellular adenomas may enlarge during pregnancy due to marked hormonal stimulation. As oral contraceptive pills and anabolic steroids have associated with hepatocellular adenomas growth, particularly of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alfa subtype, these drugs should be discontinued. Focal nodular hyperplasia is the second most common benign tumor of the liver. It is most frequent in women aged 20 to 60, and 70% to 90% of cases are asymptomatic. In the absence of a central scar and/or other hallmarks of Focal nodular hyperplasia, with uncertainty between this diagnosis and hepatocellular adenoma, liver-specific contrast agents are indicated.

  18. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    PubMed

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects.

  19. Unexpected Tumor: Primary Asymptomatic Schwannoma in Thyroid Gland.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Benítez, G; Pérez-Campos, A; Masgrau, N Alberti; Pérez-Barrios, A

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of a tumor as a primary schwannoma in the thyroid gland is rare (Andrion et al. in Virchows Arch 413:367-372, 1988). It represents less than 1 % of mesenchymal neoplasms of this gland. Therefore, few cases of this type are described in medical literature (Aron et al. in Cytopathology 16:206-209, 2005; Cashman et al. in Medscape J Med 10(8):201, 2008; Coleman et al. in AJR Am J Roentgenol 140:383-7, 1983). In this article, we introduce the clinical case of a 27-year-old female patient, who presented a nodular mass located in the neck region. This mass was not associated with other symptoms and during the imagistic investigation it appeared to be a thyroglossal duct cyst. A fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed which revealed benign mesenchymal cells. After a pathology study of the piece resected through a thyroidectomy, it was confirmed that the tumor had neural characteristics, the final diagnosis being a primary schwannoma. The importance of a cytology study is emphasized, since in this case, it made it possible to accurately diagnose a mesenchymal tumor, despite their low frequency. It constitutes a highly useful tool for diagnosing non-epithelial neoplasia of the thyroid gland.

  20. Percutaneous ablation of adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Aradhana M; Locklin, Julia; Dupuy, Damian E; Wood, Bradford J

    2010-06-01

    Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma, and adrenal metastases. Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation, and chemical ablation. Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland's unique anatomic and physiological features. The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed.

  1. Intracranial epidermoid tumor; microneurosurgical management: An experience of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Forhad Hossain; Haque, Mohammod Raziul; Sarker, Mainul Haque

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: An intracranial epidermoid tumor is relatively a rare tumor, accounting for approximately 0.1% of all intracranial space occupying lesions. These are also known as pearly tumor due to their pearl like appearance. In this series, the localization of the tumor, presenting age and symptoms, imaging criteria for diagnosis, surgical management strategy with completeness of excision and overall outcome were studied prospectively. Here, we report our short experience of intracranial epidermoid as a whole. Materials and Methods: Between January 2006 to December 2010, 23 cases of intracranial epidermoid were diagnosed preoperatively with almost certainty by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain in plain, contrast and other relevant studies. All of them underwent operation in Dhaka Medical College Hospital and in some Private Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. All patients were followed-up routinely by clinical examination and neuroimaging. Average follow-up was 39 (range-71-11months) months. Patients of the series were prospectively studied. Results: Supratentorial epidermoids were 04 cases and infratemporal epidermoids were 19 cases. Clinical features and surgical strategy varies according to the location and extension of the tumors. Age range was 19-71 years (37.46 years). Common clinical features were headache, cerebellar features, seizure, vertigo, hearing impairment and features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Investigation was CT scan or/+ MRI of brain in all cases. Pre-operative complete excision was 20 cases, but post-operative images showed complete excision in 17 cases. Content of tumor was pearly white/white material in all cases except one, where content was putty material. Re-operation for residual/recurrent tumor was nil. Complications included pre-operative mortality one case, persisted sixth nerve palsy in one case, transient memory disturbance one case, and extra dural hematoma one case. One senior patient

  2. An Extremely Rare Case of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Floating Benign Mesenchymal Mass in Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Yigit; Yilmaz, Mehmet Ogur

    2017-01-01

    A 48-year-old man admitted to the urology outpatient clinic with major symptoms of right-side pain and intermittent lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) such as low urine flow rate, dysuria, and frequency. Uroflowmetry showed low urine flow, and laboratory tests revealed no pathology. Ultrasound (US) showed a 7 cm calcific mass above the bladder and a kidney cyst with a diameter of 5.3 cm in the upper pole of the right kidney. Enhanced computed tomography confirmed the US findings. Laparoscopic transperitoneal renal cyst decortication was performed. There was no sign of additional tumors. An independent mass in the abdomen was diagnosed, and the mass was removed. Based on the pathology, the diagnosis was a benign mesenchymal calcific mass. This is the first report of LUTSs due to a free benign mesenchymal mass in the published literature. PMID:28326221

  3. A case of metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma in the maxillary bone appearing twenty years after initial resection of pleomorphic adenoma of the hard palate.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Jun; Harada, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Akihiko; Todoroki, Keita; Nagata, Shuji; Yano, Hirohisa

    2013-09-01

    Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma (MPA) is the inexplicable metastasis of a histologically benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Approximately 50 cases have been reported. A 62-year-old woman noticed pain in the upper molar area. Her medical history included an operation for PA in the hard palate that was performed 20 years previously. On imaging, four relatively well-defined lesions were demonstrated in the maxillary bone. She underwent an operation for these lesions. Each lesion revealed the same histological features. Morphological findings displayed typical features of PA. Immunohistochemical staining showed that tumor cells of both primary and metastasizing lesions were positive for pleomorphic adenoma gene (PLAG) 1, which is a sensitive marker for PA. Gene fusions involving PLAG1 were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. However, no gene rearrangements of PLAG1 were found. We report here on a case of MPA in the maxillary bone, which appeared 20 years after resection of the primary tumor and review the relevant literature.

  4. Schloffer's tumor: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yazyi, Federico J.; Canullan, Carlos M.; Baglietto, Nicolas F.; Klappenbach, Roberto F.; Alonso Quintas, Facundo; Alvarez Rodriguez, Juan; Chiappetta Porras, Luis T.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The so-called Schloffer tumor (ST) is a rare inflammatory pseudotumor. It usually appears several years after abdominal surgery or trauma. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 32-year-old man was referred to our hospital complaining of a painful mass in the left hypochondrium, postprandial distension and a weight loss of about 14 kg. He had had a left inguinal hernioplasty without mesh the previous year. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed a 2 cm × 2 cm hypoechoic lesion in contact with the abdominal wall. Computerized tomography of the abdomen showed a heterogeneous mass in the great omentum. Laparoscopic exploration revealed an omental mass firmly attached to the abdominal wall. A great deal of purulent fluid spread during the procedure. Due to the difficult exploration, the procedure converted to hand assisted laparoscopy. We find an omental tumor involving the stomach and the transverse colon. Inside the mass there were purulent material and non-absorbable sutures. A drain was left inside the cavity of the abscess. Histological examination showed chronic inflammation. DISCUSSION ST characteristically presents a central chronic abscess containing non-absorbable sutures. It has been described after appendectomy, hernioplasty, hysterectomy, gastrectomy or colonic resections. Although benign, its progressive growth and infiltrating behavior resemble malignant tumors. CONCLUSION We suggest that a mini-invasive approach should always be performed. The interesting thing about this case is the appearance of the tumor in a place far away from the previous surgical site. A simple drainage and removal of suture material solves the problem of these patients. PMID:25437684

  5. Determinants of times of appearance of radium-induced osteosarcomas in humans: age at appearance and dose

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbings, J.H.; Lucas, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    Determinants of time-until-tumor for osteosarcoma in US radium cases have been reevaluated. Classically, a minimum induction period (latency period) of about five years has been recognized, but not an expression period. Lack of long induction periods at igh doses has been ascribed to scarcity of subjects at risk. Recent experiments have suggested that induction periods are directly lengthened as doses decrease. Reanalyses of time-until-tumor data for 57 measured female osteosarcoma cases exposed to /sup 226/Ra and /or /sup 228/Ra support new interpretations: time-until-tumor for osteosarcomas is best described by age at tumor appearance, not by induction period; age at diagnosis increases as estimated initial radium intake decreases; and, there exists an expression period which can be truncated at the low end by the minimum induction period (or by age at exposure). The downturn in sarcoma incidence at very high doses is describable as the truncation of the expression period on its early side by the minimum induction period. These results depend strongly on the assumption of homogeneity of time-until-tumor processes in diial workers and in iatrogenic radium exposure cases.

  6. Myxoid Plexiform Fibrohistiocytic Tumor Masquerading as Ganglion Cyst: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Jui; Huang, Hsuan-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background. Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor is a distinctive mesenchymal neoplasm of low-grade malignancy, with the capacity for biphasic differentiation toward a fibroblastic or histiocyte-like morphology. Clinically, these lesions affect different areas of the body and appear as painless, slowly growing, dermal or subcutaneous masses. To date, only three cases of myxoid variant have been reported in the English literature. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old female patient presented with a subcutaneous nodule in the right popliteal fossa. The initial impression was a benign ganglion cyst. The soft tissue tumor has been treated by local excision. The histopathological and the immunohistochemical findings supported the diagnosis of myxoid plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient received regular follow-up examination. She is alive without any recurrence. Conclusions. This case demonstrates how to distinguish this distinctive plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor from other problematic soft tissue tumors. It is also remarkable for its rarely reported extensive myxoid change. Currently, there is no clear-cut correlation between the clinicopathologic findings and the behavior of this unusual variant. PMID:28255491

  7. Unusual malignant tumors of the breast: MRI features and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Linda, Anna; Zuiani, Chiara; Girometti, Rossano; Londero, Viviana; Machin, Piernicola; Brondani, Giovanni; Bazzocchi, Massimo

    2010-08-01

    Unusual malignant breast tumors are well-differentiated subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma, including mucinous, tubular, medullary and papillary carcinomas, and account for about 10% of malignant breast tumors. They are increasingly being encountered during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the breast. Therefore, breast radiologists should be aware of their appearance on MRI. This review provides an overview of MRI characteristics of a range of unusual tumors (mucinous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, intraductal papillary carcinoma, intracystic papillary carcinoma and invasive papillary carcinoma), highlighting specific clues for diagnosis and correlating MRI and pathologic features. Many unusual breast tumors exhibit MRI features similar to those of benign or low suspicious lesions (oval shape, well-defined margins, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, continuous increase kinetics, i.e. type I dynamic curve), leading to a possible misdiagnosis. Nevertheless, an understanding of pathologic features of these tumors, especially tissue content (mucinous, fibrous) and growth pattern, can help to define some specific clues for their diagnosis.

  8. Thallium-201 uptake in a benign thymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, R.J.; Ey, E.H.; Varma, D.G.

    1986-07-01

    A 68-year-old woman was admitted with atypical angina. A chest radiograph showed an anterior mediastinal mass that was confirmed on CT. The mass was relatively avascular and separate from the heart and great vessels. She underwent stress thallium testing that demonstrated no exercise-induced ischemia; however, an abnormal focus of thallium activity was present in the anterior mediastinum on stress and redistribution images. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated a normal left ventriculogram, coronary arteries and thoracic aorta. Subsequent surgery and pathologic examination revealed the mass to be a benign thymoma arising in the right lobe of the thymus gland.

  9. Spatial contrast sensitivity in benign intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Bulens, C; Meerwaldt, J D; Koudstaal, P J; Van der Wildt, G J

    1988-01-01

    Spatial Contrast Sensitivity (CS) was studied in 20 patients with benign intracranial hypertension (BIH). At presentation CS loss was found in 43% of the eyes, and impairment of visual acuity attributed to BIH in only 16%. Nine patients had blurred vision or visual obscurations, all of whom had abnormal CS. The clinical application of CS measurement in BIH for monitoring the progression or regression of the disease is illustrated by serial measurements in 11 patients. Progressive visual loss in longstanding papilloedema and improvement of visual function in subsiding papilloedema can occur without any change in Snellen acuity or visual field charting. PMID:3225588

  10. Developmental and benign movement disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cecilia; Roubertie, Agathe; Doummar, Diane; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Cochen de Cock, Valérie; Roze, Emmanuel

    2010-07-30

    Developmental and benign movement disorders are a group of movement disorders with onset in the neonatal period, infancy, or childhood. They are characterized by the absence of associated neurological manifestations and by their favorable outcome, although developmental abnormalities can be occasionally observed. Knowledge of the clinical, neurophysiological, and pathogenetic aspects of these disorders is poor. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and our practical experience, this article summarizes current knowledge in this area. We pay special attention to the recognition and management of these movement disorders in children.

  11. [Extracapsular lobectomy in benign monolobar thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Prete, F; Di Ciaula, G; Sammarco, D; Parlati, C

    1995-12-01

    On the basis of their experience acquired in the field of thyroid surgery the authors examine the problems related to extracapsular lobectomy from a tactical and technical point of view, starting with its principal indications: benign monolobar thyroid disease in a single or multiple nodular form. The validity of extemporary histological tests is also assessed on the basis of their experience of rare false negatives and the relative successive totalization programme. Lastly, the paper underlines the fundamental identification of the recurrent nerve as the central point of the operation, before which the authors emphasize that nothing should be cut or ligated apart from the superior vascular peduncle and vena media.

  12. Spatial contrast sensitivity in benign intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bulens, C; Meerwaldt, J D; Koudstaal, P J; Van der Wildt, G J

    1988-10-01

    Spatial Contrast Sensitivity (CS) was studied in 20 patients with benign intracranial hypertension (BIH). At presentation CS loss was found in 43% of the eyes, and impairment of visual acuity attributed to BIH in only 16%. Nine patients had blurred vision or visual obscurations, all of whom had abnormal CS. The clinical application of CS measurement in BIH for monitoring the progression or regression of the disease is illustrated by serial measurements in 11 patients. Progressive visual loss in longstanding papilloedema and improvement of visual function in subsiding papilloedema can occur without any change in Snellen acuity or visual field charting.

  13. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Mezzalira, Raquel Mezzalira; Furtado, Paula Lobo; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos; Sampaio, Andre Luis Lopes; Pires de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a common disorder in Neurotology. This vestibular syndrome is characterized by transient attacks of vertigo, caused by change in head position, and associated with paroxysmal characteristic nystagmus. The symptoms result from movement of the free floating otoconia particles in the endolymph or their attachment to the cupulae of the semicircular canal. The diagnosis is essentially clinical and should be confirmed by performing diagnostic maneuvers. Treatment is based on the identification of the affected semicircular canal and performance of liberatory maneuvers or repositioning of free floating particles of otoliths. The effectiveness varies from 70 to 100%.

  14. Physicians' attitudes about their professional appearance.

    PubMed

    Gjerdingen, D K; Simpson, D E

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-five residents and 77 staff physicians from three residency programs in Minnesota and Wisconsin completed questionnaires about their attitudes toward various components of the physician's appearance. Most participants showed positive responses to traditional physician attire such as white coat, name tag, shirt and tie, dress pants, skirt or dress, nylons, and dress shoes. Negative responses were associated with casual items such as sandals, clogs, athletic shoes, scrub suits, and blue jeans. Cronbach's alpha analysis identified four cohesive appearance scales: traditional male appearance, casual male appearance, traditional female appearance, and casual female appearance. Older physician participants favored a more traditional appearance than did younger physicians, and of the physicians who were 35 years and younger, staff physicians tended to show more conservative views toward professional appearance than did residents.

  15. Ghost Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Jason; Cohen, Molly D; Ramer, Naomi; Payami, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ghost cell tumors are a family of lesions that range in presentation from cyst to solid neoplasm and in behavior from benign to locally aggressive or metastatic. All are characterized by the presence of ameloblastic epithelium, ghost cells, and calcifications. This report presents the cases of a 14-year-old girl with a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and a 65-year-old woman with a peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) with dysplastic changes, a rare locally invasive tumor of odontogenic epithelium. The first patient presented with a 1-year history of slowly progressing pain and swelling at the left body of the mandible. Initial panoramic radiograph displayed a mixed radiolucent and radiopaque lesion. An incisional biopsy yielded a diagnosis of CCOT. Decompression of the mass was completed; after 3 months, it was enucleated and immediately grafted with bone harvested from the anterior iliac crest. The second patient presented with a 3-month history of slowly progressing pain and swelling at the left body of the mandible. Initial panoramic radiograph depicted a mixed radiolucent and radiopaque lesion with saucerization of the buccal mandibular cortex. An incisional biopsy examination suggested a diagnosis of DGCT because of the presence of ghost cells, dentinoid, and islands of ameloblastic epithelium. Excision of the mass with peripheral ostectomy was completed. At 6 and 12 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was noted.

  16. Gene Therapy for Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Seilicovich, Adriana; Pisera, Daniel; Sciascia, Sandra A.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Jaita, Gabriela; Castro, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Although most pituitary tumors are considered typically benign, others can cause severe and progressive disease. The principal aims of pituitary tumor treatment are the elimination or reduction of the tumor mass, normalization of hormone secretion and preservation of remaining pituitary function. In spite of major advances in the therapy of pituitary tumors, for some of the most difficult tumors, current therapies that include medical, surgical and radiotherapeutic methods are often unsatisfactory and there is a need to develop new treatment strategies. Gene therapy, which uses nucleic acids as drugs, has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of pituitary tumors that do not respond to classical treatment strategies if the patients become intolerant to the therapy. The development of animal models for pituitary tumors and hormone hypersecretion has proven to be critical for the implementation of novel treatment strategies and gene therapy approaches. Preclinical trials using several gene therapy approaches for the treatment of anterior pituitary diseases have been successfully implemented. Several issues need to be addressed before clinical implementation becomes a reality, including the development of more effective and safer viral vectors, uncovering novel therapeutic targets and development of targeted expression of therapeutic transgenes. With the development of efficient gene delivery vectors allowing long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity, gene therapy will become one of the most promising approaches for treating pituitary adenomas. PMID:16457646

  17. Feminizing adrenocortical tumors: Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Bekkaye, Ilyes; Azzoug, Said

    2015-01-01

    Feminizing adrenal tumors (FAT) are extremely rare tumors prevailing in males. Clinical manifestations are gynecomastia and/or other hypogonadism features in adults. They are rarer in pediatric population and their main manifestation is peripheral sexual precocity. In women genital bleeding, uterus hypertrophy, high blood pressure and/or abdomen mass may be the only manifestations. On the biological point, estrogen overproduction with or without increase in other adrenal hormones are the main abnormalities. Radiological examination usually shows the tumor, describes its limits and its eventual metastases. Adrenal and endocrine origins are confirmed by biochemical assessments and histology, but that one is unable to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors, except if metastases are already present. Immunostaining using anti-aromatase antibodies is the only tool that distinguishes FAT from other adrenocortical tumors. Abdominal surgery is the best and the first line treatment. For large tumors (≥10 cm), an open access is preferred to coeliosurgery, but for the small ones, or when the surgeon is experienced, endoscopic surgery seems to give excellent results. Surgery can be preceded by adrenolytic agents such as ortho paraprime dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane (Mitotane), ketoconazole or by aromatase inhibitors, but till now there is not any controlled study to compare the benefit of different drugs. New anti-estrogens can be used too, but their results need to be confirmed in malignant tumors resistant to classical chemotherapy and to conventional radiotherapy. Targeted therapy can be used too, as in other adrenocortical tumors, but the results need to be confirmed. PMID:25932386

  18. 8 CFR 292.4 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prescribed by DHS by the attorney or accredited representative appearing in each case. The form must be... order for the appearance to be recognized by DHS. The appearance will be recognized by the specific immigration component of DHS in which it was filed until the conclusion of the matter for which it was...

  19. 8 CFR 292.4 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prescribed by DHS by the attorney or accredited representative appearing in each case. The form must be... order for the appearance to be recognized by DHS. The appearance will be recognized by the specific immigration component of DHS in which it was filed until the conclusion of the matter for which it was...

  20. BRAF exon 15 mutations in pediatric renal stromal tumors: prevalence in metanephric stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Lily; Jennings, Lawrence J; Gadd, Samantha; Yu, Min; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Cajaiba, Mariana M

    2017-02-01

    Metanephric stromal tumors (MSTs) are rare renal stromal tumors that predominantly affect children. They belong to the metanephric family of tumors, along with metanephric adenofibroma and metanephric adenoma. The previous documentation of BRAF exon 15 mutations in 88% of metanephric adenomas and in isolated cases of metanephric adenofibroma prompted us to investigate the prevalence of these mutations in MSTs and in other pediatric renal stromal tumors. In this study, 17 MSTs, 22 congenital mesoblastic nephromas, and 6 ossifying renal tumors of infancy were selected for BRAF exon 15 testing. Tumor genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and Sanger dideoxy sequencing with primers flanking the BRAF exon 15 gene. BRAF exon 15 mutations were found in 11 (65%) of the 17 cases of MST, all corresponding to a thymidine-to-adenine substitution at codon 600 (BRAF V600E). All other renal stromal tumors tested were negative for BRAF exon 15 mutations. In conclusion, BRAF V600E mutations are encountered in most MSTs, supporting a link with other metanephric tumors and suggesting a clonal event possibly affecting primordial renal cells. In addition, BRAF V600E mutations have been associated with oncogene-induced senescence in other benign tumors, providing clues to the pathogenesis of metanephric neoplasms in keeping with their overall benign behavior. Our results also suggest a potential diagnostic use for BRAF exon 15 mutations in differentiating MSTs from other pediatric renal stromal tumors, particularly in limited samples.

  1. A rare ovarian tumor, leydig stromal cell tumor, presenting with virilization: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Hashemi, Forough

    2012-01-01

    Leydig stromal cell tumor is a rare ovarian tumor that belongs to the group of sex-cord stromal tumors. They produce testosterone leading to hyperandrogenism. We present a 41yr old woman with symptoms of virilization and a mass of right adenex via ultra Sonography, and a rise of total and free serum testosterone. An ovarian source of androgen was suspected and a surgery performed. A diagnosis of leydig-stromal cell tumor was confirmed. Our report is a reminder that although idiopathic hirsutism and other benign androgen excess disorder like Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOs) are common, ovarian mass should be considered in differential diagnosis. PMID:23482693

  2. Incidentally Discovered Extensive Squamous Metaplasia within Borderline Phyllodes Tumor: Presentation of a Rare Tumor.

    PubMed

    Uğraş, Nesrin; Tolunay, Şahsine; Öz Atalay, Fatma; Gökgöz, Şehsuvar

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are uncommon biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of breast, comprising less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. We therefore aimed to present the case with its microscopic findings. In this article, we report a 59-year-old female admitted to the general surgery department with a rapidly, enlarging, palpable mass in right breast. After histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as borderline phyllodes tumor with extensive squamous metaplasia. Metaplastic changes are infrequent in the stromal and epithelial component of these tumors. Extensive squamous metaplasia within phyllodes tumor is rare and may occur in benign, borderline and malign subtypes.

  3. [Cytogenetic aberrations in histologically benign infiltratively growing sphenoid wing meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Korshunov, A G; Cherekaev, V A; Bekiashev, A Kh; Sycheva, R V

    2007-01-01

    Meningiomas of the sphenoid wing (SW) frequently show an invasive pattern of growth and cause destruction of the adjacent structures. As a result, the rate of recurrent SW meningiomas is as high as 30%. Cytogenetic investigations showed no aberrations specific to invasively growing meningiomas. During this study, the authors evaluated 10 invasive and 5 non-invasive SW meningiomas via comparative genome hybridization (CGH) (matrix CGH), by using the gene chips of GenoSensor Array micromatrixes. The mean number of aberrations in the tumor cells was much greater in case of invasive meningiomas (67.4 versus 40.5 in case of non-invasive SW meningiomas. Furthermore, in invasive SW meningiomas, there were frequently losses in loci 1p, 6q, and 14q and gains in loci 15q and 10, which had been predetermined as molecular markers of stepwise progression of meningioma. Thus, the presence of a complex cytogenetic profile and progression-associated chromosome aberrations in benign SW meningiomas is linked with the increase of their invasive potential. Due to the fact that there are no well-defined adjuvant therapy regimens for recurring meningiomas at present, the revealed genomic aberrations may become potential targets for searching for drugs and a therapeutic intervention in future.

  4. Ear Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis Tumors of the ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis NOTE: This is ...

  5. MR and CT appearance of cardiac hemangioma

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, J.L.; Kessler, R.M.; Raizada, V.; Williamson, M.R.

    1996-05-01

    We present a case of cardiac hemangioma in a symptomatic patient. MR and CT each have specific characteristics that should make one consider including or excluding this in the differential diagnosis of a cardiac tumor. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Benign Pulmonary Metastasizing Leiomyoma of the Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Iscan, Reyyan; Köse, Gültekin; Kaban, Isik

    2016-01-01

    Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease which represents with multiple leiomyomatous lesions in many tissues and organs especially in lungs. These patients have been operated for leiomyoma of the uterus. Here we report a case of a 41-year-old woman who was evaluated in a thoracic surgery hospital for dyspnea and bilateral nodules in chest roentgenogram. She had no history of neoplasm, only myomectomy history of uterine leiomyoma 10 years ago. Biopsy and histopathological examination were consistent with pulmonary leiomyoma. The patient was reffered to our clinic and we performed a total abdominal hysterectomy for her multiple uterine leiomyomas. The final diagnosis was ‘benign pulmonary metastasizing leiomyoma’. After this diagnosis, surgical castration was performed but two years later, repeat imaging showed progression in pulmonary lesions and progesterone therapy was administered to the patient. Patient has continued on this hormonal therapy to date and during the 5-years follow-up, the persisting lesions in both lungs regressed. PMID:27790528

  7. Diagnosis and management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jonathan L

    2008-05-15

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common condition affecting older men. Typical presenting symptoms include urinary hesitancy, weak stream, nocturia, incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Acute urinary retention, which requires urgent bladder catheterization, is relatively uncommon. Irreversible renal damage is rare. The initial evaluation should assess the frequency and severity of symptoms and the impact of symptoms on the patient's quality of life. The American Urological Association Symptom Index is a validated instrument for the objective assessment of symptom severity. The initial evaluation should also include a digital rectal examination and urinalysis. Men with hematuria should be evaluated for bladder cancer. A palpable nodule or induration of the prostate requires referral for assessment to rule out prostate cancer. For men with mild symptoms, watchful waiting with annual reassessment is appropriate. Over the past decade, numerous medical and surgical interventions have been shown to be effective in relieving symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Alpha blockers improve symptoms relatively quickly. Although 5-alpha reductase inhibitors have a slower onset of action, they may decrease prostate size and alter the disease course. Limited evidence shows that the herbal agents saw palmetto extract, rye grass pollen extract, and pygeum relieve symptoms. Transurethral resection of the prostate often provides permanent relief. Newer laser-based surgical techniques have comparable effectiveness to transurethral resection up to two years after surgery with lower perioperative morbidity. Various outpatient surgical techniques are associated with reduced morbidity, but symptom relief may be less durable.

  8. Vitamin A metabolism in benign and malignant melanocytic skin cells: importance of lecithin/retinol acyltransferase and RPE65.

    PubMed

    Amann, Philipp M; Luo, Chonglin; Owen, Robert W; Hofmann, Claudia; Freudenberger, Muriel; Schadendorf, Dirk; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Bazhin, Alexandr V

    2012-02-01

    Disturbance in vitamin A metabolism seems to be an important attribute of cancer cells. Retinoids, particularly retinoic acid, have critical regulatory functions and appear to modulate tumor development and progression. The key step of vitamin A metabolism is the esterification of all-trans retinol, catalyzed by lecithin/retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). In this work, we show that malignant melanoma cells are able to esterify all-trans retinol and subsequently isomerize all-trans retinyl esters (RE) into 11-cis retinol, whereas their benign counterparts-melanocytes are not able to catalyze these reactions. Besides, melanoma cell lines express lecithin/retinol acyltranseferase both at the mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, melanocytes do not express this enzyme at the protein level, but mRNA of lecithin/retinol acyltransefrase could still be present at mRNA level. RPE65 is expressed in both melanocytic counterparts, and could be involved in the subsequent isomerization of RE produced by lecithin/retinol acyltransefrase to 11-cis retinol. Cellular retinol-binding protein 2 does not appear to be involved in the regulation of all-trans retinol esterification in these cells. Expression of LRAT and RPE65 can be modulated by retinoids. We propose that the post-transcriptional regulation of lecithin/retinol acyltransefrase could be involved in the differential expression of this enzyme. Besides, activities of LRAT and RPE65 may be important for removal of all-trans retinal which is the substrate for retinoic acid production in skin cells. Consequently, the decreasing cellular amount of retinoic acid and its precursor molecules could result in a change of gene regulation.

  9. Primary tumors of the liver.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, B. B.; Ukah, F.; Tette, A.; Villaflor, S. G.; Koh, D.; Seton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Primary tumors of the liver that are of clinical significance are rare. Ninety-five percent of such lesions when encountered will be malignant and only 5% will be benign. Malignant primary hepatic lesions represent 2% to 3% of primary cancers encountered in the United States. Hepatocellular carcinoma constitutes 90% of malignant liver primaries in the adult. Seventy-five percent of cases are associated with cirrhosis of the liver and patients with hepatitis B infection have a 33- to 200-fold excess risk for this malignancy. Cholangiocarcinoma represents 5% to 10% of hepatic primary malignancies while hepatoblastoma is distinctly uncommon in adults. Treatment is primarily surgical, and resectability is limited by the presence of cirrhosis and spread of the tumor within and outside of the liver. Of the benign liver tumors, the liver cell adenoma seem to be associated with oral contraception and have a proclivity for intraperitoneal hemorrhage, especially during pregnancy. Focal nodular hyperplasia is a tumor-like condition that also may be associated with oral contraception. This article describes five cases, two of which had quite unique presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:1602511

  10. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-11-15

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy.

  11. Ovarian tumor characterization using 3D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Sree, S Vinitha; Krishnan, M Muthu Rama; Saba, Luca; Molinari, Filippo; Guerriero, Stefano; Suri, Jasjit S

    2012-12-01

    Among gynecological malignancies, ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of death. Preoperative determination of whether a tumor is benign or malignant has often been found to be difficult. Because of such inconclusive findings from ultrasound images and other tests, many patients with benign conditions have been offered unnecessary surgeries thereby increasing patient anxiety and healthcare cost. The key objective of our work is to develop an adjunct Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) technique that uses ultrasound images of the ovary and image mining algorithms to accurately classify benign and malignant ovarian tumor images. In this algorithm, we extract texture features based on Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and Laws Texture Energy (LTE) and use them to build and train a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Our technique was validated using 1000 benign and 1000 malignant images, and we obtained a high accuracy of 99.9% using a SVM classifier with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel. The high accuracy can be attributed to the determination of the novel combination of the 16 texture based features that quantify the subtle changes in the images belonging to both classes. The proposed algorithm has the following characteristics: cost-effectiveness, complete automation, easy deployment, and good end-user comprehensibility. We have also developed a novel integrated index, Ovarian Cancer Index (OCI), which is a combination of the texture features, to present the physicians with a more transparent adjunct technique for ovarian tumor classification.

  12. Denosumab-treated Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Exhibits Morphologic Overlap With Malignant Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, John; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Bredella, Miriam A; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Nielsen, G Petur; Deshpande, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign neoplasm characterized by an abundance of osteoclastic giant cells that are induced by the neoplastic mononuclear cells; the latter express high levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). Denosumab, a RANKL inhibitor, which is clinically used to treat GCT, leads to a marked alteration in the histologic appearance of the tumor with giant cell depletion and new bone deposition, leading to substantial histologic overlap with other primary tumors of bone. Most significantly, denosumab-treated GCT (tGCT) with abundant bone deposition may mimic de novo osteosarcoma, or GCT that has undergone malignant transformation. To histologically characterize tGCT, we identified 9 cases of GCT biopsied or resected after denosumab treatment. tGCT cases included 16 specimens from 9 patients including 6 female and 3 male individuals aged 16 to 47 (median 32) years. Duration of treatment varied from 2 to 55 months. We compared these tumors with malignant neoplasms arising in GCTs (n=9). The histology of tGCT was variable but appeared to relate to the length of therapy. All tGCTs showed marked giant cell depletion. Early lesions were highly cellular, and the combination of cellularity, atypia, and haphazard bone deposition caused the lesion to resemble high-grade osteosarcoma. Unlike de novo high-grade osteosarcoma or malignancies arising in GCT, however, tGCT showed less severe atypia, reduced mitotic activity, and lack of infiltrative growth pattern. Tumor in patients on prolonged therapy showed decreased cellularity and abundant new bone, deposited as broad, rounded cords or long, curvilinear arrays. The latter morphology was reminiscent of low-grade central osteosarcoma, but, unlike low-grade central osteosarcoma, tGCT was negative for MDM2 and again lacked an infiltrative growth pattern. Overall, tGCT may have a wide range of morphologic appearances. Because the treated tumors bear little

  13. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Tools & Publications Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors World Health Organization (WHO) Updates Official Classification of Tumors ... Central Nervous System On May 9, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) published an official reclassification of ...

  14. Clinical and cytopathological aspects in phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Pătraşcu, Anca; Popescu, Carmen Florina; Pleşea, I E; Bădulescu, Adriana; Tănase, Florentina; Mateescu, Garofiţa

    2009-01-01

    The frequency of mesenchymal breast tumors is very low, being represented mostly by tumors with biphasic proliferation (phyllodes tumors) and less by other types of non-epithelial tumors. From clinical point of view, phyllodes tumors (PT) can mimic a breast carcinoma. Therefore, the preoperative diagnosis by cytological examination on material obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA) is very important for adequate treatment of these tumors. In current study, we assessed clinical aspects of 79 phyllodes tumors regarding patient's age and localization of the tumors. In 17 out of 79 cases, it has been performed FNA within the tumors with further cytological examination on the smears obtained. The median age of the patients was 46.07-year-old, being progressively higher with grade of the tumors with significant values between benign and borderline tumors (p=0.04954) and between benign and malignant ones (p=0.02890). The distinguish on the smears of stromal fragments and naked stromal nuclei with variable grade of atypia regarding the tumoral type, in detriment of epithelial elements have been conclusive for fibroepithelial lesion as cytopathological diagnosis. The preoperative differentiation between a breast phyllodes tumor and a breast carcinoma is extremely important for avoiding of a useless radical surgery for the patient. If the fine needle aspiration was correctly performed, the accuracy of the cytodiagnosis has been 82% in current study.

  15. Do you know this syndrome? Type 2 benign symmetric lipomatosis (Launois-Bensaude)*

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Ana Cláudia Cavalcante; Munhoz, Tania; Abbade, Luciana Patrícia Fernandes; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old female showed bulky, loose tumors, which progressively spread to her arms, anterior chest, and back. She reported dysphagia and dyspnea after mild exertion. She denied alcohol consumption. CT scan of her chest showed no internal lesions. Benign symmetric lipomatosis is a rare syndrome, clinically described as multiple nonencapsulated lipomas of various sizes and symmetrical distribution. This syndrome has three known phenotypes; in type 2 (Launois-Bensaude syndrome), lesions occur primarily on the shoulders, upper arms, and chest, and is unrelated to alcoholism. It causes aesthetic deformities and might block the upper airways. Mediastinal invasion might occur as well. PMID:28099616

  16. Intracranial meningioma with polygonal granular cell appearance in a Chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Ohnishi, Yumi; Matsunaga, Satoru; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Uetsuka, Koji

    2008-05-01

    A menigioma with polygonal granular cell proliferation in an 11-year and 8-month-old male Chihuahua is described. The tumor was observed under the dura matter of the right cerebrum. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of solid growth foci of small- or large- sized polygonal cells, with pale-stained nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and fine granular to foamy eosinophilic cytoplasm. Some of the proliferating cells contained variable amounts of cytoplasmic PAS-positive granules. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and S-100 protein. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells contained vesicular structures with a few small round-shaped bodies in the cytoplasm. We diagnosed the case as canine meningioma with granular cell appearance.

  17. [Periosteal reactions in bone tumors (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Heuck, F

    1979-08-01

    Morphology of solid, lamellar and spicular periosteal reactions of benign and malignant primary and metastatic bone tumors in x-ray-pictures with regard to common and specific characteristics of different bone tumors is presented. The specific behaviour of the periosteum itself and of the subperiosteal region as an expression of the reactive biodynamics in skeletal neoplasia is demonstrated; and the diagnostic value of the radiograph is explained. The possibilities but also the limitations of sophisticated radiologic image analysis in establishing a differential diagnosis and a diagnosis of bone tumors and other bone lesions are discussed.

  18. Merkel cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, M; Watanabe, H; Kobayashi, H; Ohnishi, Y; Shitara, A; Nitto, H

    1987-06-01

    A Merkel cell tumor appeared on the left cheek of an 83-year-old female was reported. The tumor was located mainly in the dermis and infiltrated to the subcutaneous adipose tissue with an involvement of the blood vessels and lymphatics at the periphery. Electron-microscopically, few of the dense-cored granules and the single globular aggregates of intermediate filaments at the nuclear indentations were observed. Electron-microscopic uranaffin reaction proved positive reaction on the dense-cored granules. Half of the cytoplasmic border was smooth, while the rest had short projections. Desmosomes or junctional complexes were not detected among the tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of tumor cell showed positive reaction to both neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and keratin. The single globular positive spots of the latter were localized in accordance with the aggregates of intermediate filaments. These findings suggested a neurogenic origin with double differentiation, epithelial and neuroendocrine, of the Merkel cell tumor.

  19. Piezoelectric-assisted removal of a benign fibrous histiocytoma of the mandible: An innovative technique for prevention of dentoalveolar nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present our experience with a piezoelectric-assisted surgical device by resection of a benign fibrous histiocytoma of the mandible. A 41 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of slowly progressive right buccal swelling. After further radiographic diagnosis surgical removal of the yellowish-white mass was performed. Histologic analysis showed proliferating histiocytic cells with foamy, granular cytoplasm and no signs of malignancy. The tumor was positive for CD68 and vimentin in immunohistochemical staining. Therefore the tumor was diagnosed as primary benign fibrous histiocytoma. This work provides a new treatment device for benign mandibular tumour disease. By using a novel piezoelectric-assisted cutting device, protection of the dentoalveolar nerve could be achieved. PMID:22040611

  20. GATA3 Expression in Normal Skin and in Benign and Malignant Epidermal and Cutaneous Adnexal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Richard B; de Peralta-Venturina, Mariza N; Balzer, Bonnie L; Frishberg, David P

    2015-12-01

    Initial investigations reported GATA3 to be a sensitive and relatively specific marker for mammary and urothelial carcinomas. Recently, GATA3 expression has been described in several other epithelial tumors. However, there has been only limited investigation of GATA3 expression in cutaneous epithelial tumors. The objective of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of GATA3 in a wide variety of cutaneous epithelial neoplasms. GATA3 expression was evaluated in 99 benign and 63 malignant cutaneous epithelial tumors. GATA3 was consistently and usually strongly expressed in clear cell acanthoma, trichofolliculoma, trichoepithelioma, trichilemmoma, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, apocrine hidrocystoma, apocrine tubular papillary adenoma, hidradenoma papilliferum, and syringocystadenoma papilliferum. Hidradenomas exhibited variable positive staining. Most poromas, syringomas, chondroid syringomas, cylindromas, and spiradenomas were negative or only focally and weakly positive. Focal staining was present in all pilomatrixomas. Thirteen of 14 basal cell carcinomas, 21 of 24 squamous carcinomas, and all 6 sebaceous carcinomas exhibited positive staining. The 1 apocrine carcinoma, both mucinous carcinomas, and 2 of 3 microcystic adnexal carcinomas also exhibited positive staining, whereas the 1 eccrine porocarcinoma and the 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma were negative. One of 11 Merkel cell carcinomas exhibited focal weak staining. Our findings demonstrate that GATA3 is expressed in a wide variety of benign and malignant cutaneous epithelial neoplasms. In addition to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin and other more recently described GATA3-positive tumors, the differential diagnosis of a metastatic tumor of unknown primary origin that expresses GATA3 should also include a carcinoma of cutaneous epithelial origin.

  1. [Oncocytic tumors of the thyroid. Diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Report of 17 cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Gaschignard, N; Letessier, E; Hamy, A; Sagan, C; Cuillière, P; Courant, O; Paineau, J; Visset, J

    1996-07-01

    Histopathologic and clinical follow-up data of 17 patients observed 3-104 months (mean: 38 months) after operation for oncocytic tumors of the thyroid gland are presented. Mean patient age was 50 +/- 15 years. Benign and malignant lesions were respectively 13 and 4. Frozen sections were positive for benign and malignant lesions in respectively 7 and 2 cases. Total thyroidectomy was performed in all cases of malignant lesions and in 7 cases of benign lesion, the latter in order to treat high volume adenomas or associated controlateral lesions. No tumor relapse was observed during the follow-up period (data about 16 patients). A review of the literature indicates that thyroid oncocytic adenoma diagnosis can be trusted and that this tumor is not especially prone to a malignant course with the mode of treatment applied. Thus total thyroidectomy should be recommended for: 1) malignant tumors. 2) and for selected benign adenomas depending on the tumor volume or on associated lesions.

  2. Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Arnold C; Fowler, B Zach

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the outcome of patients who develop a second neoplasm after radiotherapy (RT) for a childhood solid tumor. From 1956 to 1998, 429 children with a malignant solid tumor were treated at a single radiation oncology facility. The medical records and radiotherapy charts were reviewed to determine if the patient developed a secondary neoplasm after treatment for malignancy. Twenty-three (5.4%) patients developed a secondary neoplasm. There were 12 males and 11 females with a median age at RT of 6.6 years (range, 2 months to 20 years). There were 14 malignant neoplasms in 13 (3.0%) and 14 benign neoplasms in 11 patients (2.6%). The types of initial solid tumors treated with RT were Ewing sarcoma in 6, Wilms tumor in 6, medulloblastoma in 5, neuroblastoma in 3, and other in 3. Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 12.3 to 60 Gy) using 4 MV in 9, 1.25 MV in 8, 250 KV in 4, and 6 MV photons in 1 patient. One child was treated using 15-MeV electrons. Fourteen had chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 23.2 years (range, 5.3 to 44.4 years). For the 14 malignant neoplasms, the median time interval from initial tumor to second malignancy was 10.1 years. The 14 second malignant neoplasms (SMN) were osteosarcoma in 3, breast carcinoma in 2, melanoma in 2, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 1, dermatofibrosarcoma in 1, leiomyosarcoma in 1, mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 1, colon cancer in 1, chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1, and basal cell carcinoma in 1. Ten of the 14 SMN (71%) were at the edge or inside the RT field. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rate after diagnosis of an SMN was 69.2%; it was 70% for children with a SMN at the edge or inside the RT field and 66.7% for those outside of the RT field. The 14 benign neoplasms appeared at a median time of 16.9 years and included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 3, osteochondroma in 3, thyroid adenoma in 1, duodenal adenoma in 1, lipoma in 1, cherry angioma in 1, uterine leiomyoma in 1, ovarian

  3. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: a clinico-radio-pathological dilemma.

    PubMed

    Hada, M S; Sable, M; Kane, S V; Pai, Prathamesh S; Juvekar, S L

    2014-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign neoplasm of mandible in adults. The presentation of this entity is varied and often confused with a variety of mucosal and jaw lesions and clinical, radiological, and pathological feature of CEOT often-mimic malignancy. The objective of this report is to highlight the clinical features and radiological findings which should arouse suspicion of a benign lesion and importance of providing adequate clinical information to the pathologist to attain accurate diagnosis.We discussed two cases with tumors located in the maxilla. Both presented as expansile lesions with one biopsy proven squamous cell carcinoma. Both were pursued with clinico-radiological suspicion of benign lesions and confirmed with pathological correlation of histology and immunohistochemistry as CEOT. Therefore a High index of suspicion and clinico-radiological information are the key feature for diagnosis of this rare tumor.

  4. Distinct profile of the mitochondrial DNA common deletion in benign skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Christian; Kamenisch, York; Landthaler, Michael; Berneburg, Mark

    2011-02-01

    Mutations of mitochondrial (mt) DNA, particularly the 4977 bp long common deletion, are increased in aging tissues and preferentially found in chronologically and photoaged skin. Mutations of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have also been identified in malignant tumors of the skin and of other organs. However, benign skin lesions have not yet been investigated. We analyzed the frequency of the common deletion in 27 benign skin lesions [8 seborrheic keratoses (SK), 5 epidermal nevi (EN), 14 solar lentigos (SL)] by quantitative real-time PCR, because SK and especially SL have been related to (photo)aged skin. All SK and four of five EN displayed reduced common deletion levels compared with adjacent normal skin. In contrast, 50% of SL revealed a higher percentage of the common deletion than the adjacent normal skin, and some SL showed very high absolute common deletion levels up to 14% of total mtDNA. Our results show that the amount of the common deletion is significantly different in benign skin lesions and raise further questions regarding the pathogenesis of SL and its possible role as a precursor lesion of SK.

  5. Expression of the KAI1 protein in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, T.; Ichikawa, T.; Tamaru, J.; Mikata, A.; Akakura, K.; Akimoto, S.; Imai, T.; Yoshie, O.; Shiraishi, T.; Yatani, R.; Ito, H.; Shimazaki, J.

    1996-01-01

    The KAI1 gene, recently identified as a metastatic suppressor gene for prostate cancer, was cloned and was revealed to be identical to the C33/IA4/ R2/4R9 gene. The expression of KAI1 protein was examined immunohistochemically in the tissues from 14 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and 46 cases of prostate cancer using mouse monoclonal anti-human C33 antibody. In benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues, KAI1 protein was uniformly expressed in the glandular cell membrane at cell-to-cell borders. The KAI1 protein in the tissues of untreated prostate cancer was also located at similar sites to those of benign prostatic hyperplasia, but the percentage of strongly positive cancer cells was correlated inversely to the Gleason pattern (P < 0.0001, one-way analysis of variance). There was also a statistically inverse correlation between the percentage of KAI1-positive cancer cells and the clinical stage (chi 2 = 9.6; P = 0.0081). In 4 cancer death cases relapsed from endocrine therapy, KAI1 protein was not stained in either primary or metastatic foci. These results indicate that the expression of KAI1 protein correlates to tumor characteristics in prostate cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:8909232

  6. Differential Utilization of Dietary Fatty Acids in Benign and Malignant Cells of the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Dueregger, Andrea; Schöpf, Bernd; Eder, Theresa; Höfer, Julia; Gnaiger, Erich; Aufinger, Astrid; Kenner, Lukas; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs) and long chain triglycerides (LCTs) under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1) have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3) as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  7. Differential Utilization of Dietary Fatty Acids in Benign and Malignant Cells of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Theresa; Höfer, Julia; Gnaiger, Erich; Aufinger, Astrid; Kenner, Lukas; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs) and long chain triglycerides (LCTs) under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1) have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3) as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26285134

  8. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Flowers, Sarah A.; Lindén, Sara K.; Premaratne, Pushpa; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Sundfeldt, Karin; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Methods In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant) and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC) coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes. Results The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline) and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC). Conclusion Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas

  9. The debate over robotics in benign gynecology.

    PubMed

    Rardin, Charles R

    2014-05-01

    The debate over the role of the da Vinci surgical robotic platform in benign gynecology is raging with increasing fervor and, as product liability issues arise, greater financial stakes. Although the best currently available science suggests that, in the hands of experts, robotics offers little in surgical advantage over laparoscopy, at increased expense, the observed decrease in laparotomy for hysterectomy is almost certainly, at least in part, attributable to the availability of the robot. In this author's opinion, the issue is not whether the robot has any role but rather to define the role in an institutional environment that also supports the safe use of vaginal and laparoscopic approaches in an integrated minimally invasive surgery program. Programs engaging robotic surgery should have a clear and self-determined regulatory process and should resist pressures in place that may preferentially support robotics over other forms of minimally invasive surgery.

  10. Saw palmetto and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gong, Edward M; Gerber, Glenn S

    2004-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common health issue that affects 8% of all men at the age of 40, 60% of men in their 70s, and 90% of those greater than 80 years of age. One-fourth of these men will develop moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms that greatly affect their quality of life. Recent evidence suggests that the use of saw palmetto leads to improvements in urinary function for those suffering from BPH. The favorable comparison of saw palmetto with tamsulosin, a well-known first line agent in the treatment of urinary tract symptoms, demonstrates promise towards a beneficial effect of this herbal agent, with very few, if any, adverse effects. However, what degree of this beneficial activity is due to placebo effects is yet to be determined. In addition, the precise mechanism of action of saw palmetto in men with BPH remains unclear.

  11. Diagnosing and treating benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Kovar, Mary; Jepson, Terry; Jones, Susan

    2006-12-01

    Gerontological nurses play a critical role in the early recognition of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), a condition that accounts for approximately 50% of vertigo in older adults. BPPV results in vertigo when debris collects in one or more of the semicircular canals, most typically the posterior canal. It may be differentiated from other forms of vertigo because it results in dizziness when recumbent or with head position changes. BPPV may be successfully treated with repositioning therapy, such as the Epley maneuver. Nurses working in medical offices, longterm care facilities, and assisted living may be called on to perform this maneuver. Gerontological nurses play a key role in assessing and treating BPPV, therefore minimizing unnecessary testing and medication and reducing the suffering and expense for patients with this condition.

  12. Risk stratification for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Zattoni, Fabio; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Novara, Giacomo

    2017-03-18

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents an important public health problem in ageing men due to frequently associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which may impair quality of life. BPH is also a progressive disease, mainly characterized by a worsening of LUTS over time, and in some patients by the occurrence of serious outcomes such as acute urinary retention and need for BPH-related surgery. The management of BPH and LUTS in men should move forward its focus on symptom control only. Indeed, the goals of therapy for BPH are not only to improve bothersome LUTS but also to identify those patients at risk of unfavourable outcomes in order to optimize their management and reduce complications. Risk stratification and tailored treatment should improve the reductions in both symptoms and the long-term consequences of BPH and BPH treatments. To do this, clinicians need to know possible factors that may support the develop of PBH and possible risks due to the BPH itself.

  13. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical manifestations and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Santos Dias, José

    2012-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a very common condition, related to aging and causing symptoms, called lower urinary tract symptoms. On account of its huge prevalence, it is important for clinicians who are involved in the management of patients with BPH to be aware of the very strict recommendations for BPH evaluation. In this article, we describe the different steps and procedures doctors should follow to evaluate these patients; symptoms and signs of BPH are reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation steps and examinations available. The basic evaluation of the patients with BPH should include, according to the recommendations of the most relevant international guidelines, lower urinary tract symptoms evaluation with appropriate symptom scores, digital rectal examination, voiding charts, prostate-specific antigen and creatinine measurement, urinalysis, and imaging of the urinary tract.

  14. Optimizing the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Elterman, Dean S.; Kaplan, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges facing primary care physicians and specialists as the population ages is the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). While as many as 18% of men in their 40s report bother from an enlarged prostate, that figure rises dramatically, whereby 50% of men in their 50s and 90% of men in their 90s will complain of bothersome symptoms related to an enlarged prostate. Studies have shown that BPH is a progressive disease, which if left untreated can result in worsening of symptoms, acute urinary retention and renal failure. Until about 20 years ago the only management option available to urologists was surgery. In the early 1990s medical therapy emerged as the predominant treatment for BPH. Therapy may be tailored to target symptoms and progression of disease. PMID:22496710

  15. A multi-gene approach to differentiate papillary thyroid carcinoma from benign lesions: gene selection using support vector machines with bootstrapping

    PubMed Central

    Fujarewicz, Krzysztof; Jarząb, Michał; Eszlinger, Markus; Krohn, Knut; Paschke, Ralf; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Wiench, Małgorzata; Kukulska, Aleksandra; Jarząb, Barbara; Świerniak, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Selection of novel molecular markers is an important goal of cancer genomics studies. The aim of our analysis was to apply the multivariate bioinformatical tools to rank the genes – potential markers of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) according to their diagnostic usefulness. We also assessed the accuracy of benign/malignant classification, based on gene expression profiling, for PTC. We analyzed a 180-array dataset (90 HG-U95A and 90 HG-U133A oligonucleotide arrays), which included a collection of 57 PTCs, 61 benign thyroid tumors, and 62 apparently normal tissues. Gene selection was carried out by the support vector machines method with bootstrapping, which allowed us 1) ranking the genes that were most important for classification quality and appeared most frequently in the classifiers (bootstrap-based feature ranking, BBFR); 2) ranking the samples, and thus detecting cases that were most difficult to classify (bootstrap-based outlier detection). The accuracy of PTC diagnosis was 98.5% for a 20-gene classifier, its 95% confidence interval (CI) was 95.9–100%, with the lower limit of CI exceeding 95% already for five genes. Only 5 of 180 samples (2.8%) were misclassified in more than 10% of bootstrap iterations. We specified 43 genes which are most suitable as molecular markers of PTC, among them some well-known PTC markers (MET, fibronectin 1, dipeptidylpeptidase 4, or adenosine A1 receptor) and potential new ones (UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, cadherin 16, gap junction protein 3, sushi, nidogen, and EGF-like domains 1, inhibitor of DNA binding 3, RUNX1, leiomodin 1, F-box protein 9, and tripartite motif-containing 58). The highest ranking gene, metallophosphoesterase domain-containing protein 2, achieved 96.7% of the maximum BBFR score. PMID:17914110

  16. Recently characterized soft tissue tumors that bring biologic insight.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2014-01-01

    Previously unrecognized but clinicopathologically (and often molecularly) distinct types of soft tissue tumor continue to be characterized, allowing wider recognition, more consistent application of diagnostic criteria, more reliable prediction of tumor behavior and enhancement of existing classification schemes. Examples of such 'entities' that have become much better understood over the past decade or so include deep 'benign' fibrous histiocytoma, hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor, PEComa, spindle cell liposarcoma, myoepithelial tumors of soft tissue and spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. These tumor types, as well as the insights which they have engendered, are briefly reviewed here.

  17. Proton therapy for tumors of the base of the skull.

    PubMed

    Noel, Georges; Gondi, Vinai

    2016-08-01

    Relative to conventional photon irradiation, proton therapy has distinct advantages in its ability to more precisely target tumor while shielding adjacent normal tissues. In the setting of skull base tumors, proton therapy plays a critical role in the dose-escalation required for optimal tumor control of chordomas, chondrosarcomas, and malignancies of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. For benign tumors such as craniopharyngiomas, pituitary adenomas and meningiomas, proton therapy can limit long-term adverse effects, such as secondary malignancies. This review summarizes published literature to date regarding the role of proton therapy in skull base tumors and introduces emerging proton therapy approaches such as pencil-beam scanning (PBS).

  18. Childhood pheochromocytoma in a survivor of central primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoshiko; Fujimaru, Rika; Ishii, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Hiroaki; Inoue, Takeshi; Sako, Masahiro; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Pheochromocytoma and central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor are both neural crest-derived tumors. The former is usually benign and develops mainly in adulthood and the latter brain tumor mainly occurs in childhood and has a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who developed pheochromocytoma after more than 10 years of complete remission of central primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Thus far, there have been no reports of childhood cancer survivors who developed pheochromocytoma. This quite rare occurrence of two tumors in a single patient may imply some unidentified linkage or common genetic background.

  19. An unusual cuticular tumor-like growth on the abdomen of a lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Shields, Jeffrey D; Small, Hamish J

    2013-11-01

    Tumors are rare in crustaceans, and whereas a few have been reported from the lobster Homarus americanus none have been adequately described. A lobster with an unusual, large, blue-colored tumor-like growth projecting laterally outward from the first abdominal somite was caught off Stonington, Maine, USA. The growth was rugose and covered by a relatively normal appearing cuticle with dispersed focal melanization. The underlying stroma consisted of an internal area of rescaffolded fibrous connective tissue, restructured muscle fibers, few arterioles, and an epidermal area comprised of columnar, highly vacuolated epithelial cells. No infectious pathogens or unusual inclusions were observed with microscopy and no eukaryotic pathogens were detected via molecular sequencing. Given the nature of the histology and the appearance of the growth, we identify the mass as a benign papilliform hamartoma that likely originated as a result of abnormal wound repair possibly initiated around ecdysis. This represents the first tumor-like hamartoma reported from a lobster, and the second hamartoma reported from a crustacean.

  20. Application of Single Voxel 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Hepatic Benign and Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zifeng; Sun, Shiqiang; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background To quantify the metabolite changes in hepatic tumors by single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3.0 T and explore the application value of 1HMRS in the diagnosis of hepatic benign and malignant lesions. Material/Methods A total of 45 patients (55 lesions) diagnosed with hepatic lesions by ultrasound and/or computer topography (CT) from November 2006 to March 2007 were included in this study. All patients underwent 3D-dynamic enhanced scan with liver acquisition with acceleration volume acquisition (LAVA) sequence and single-voxel 1HMRS imaging with PRESS (point-resolved spectroscopy) sequence. The metabolite concentrations such as choline (Cho) and lipids (Lip) were measured. Results There was significant difference regarding the occurrence rate of the obvious elevated Cho peaks between benign and malignant tumors (7/27 vs. 21/28, p=0.000). There was statistical significant differences regarding the Cho/Lip ratios in hepatic benign (0.0686±0.0283, 95% CI: 0.0134–0.1245) and malignant (0.1266±0.1124, 95% CI: 0.0937–0.2203) lesions (p<0.05). When compared with the pathological results, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy were 85.7% (24/28), 92.6% (25/27), 92.3% (24/26), 86.2% (25/29), and 89.1% (49/55) respectively for the MRI assessment, and 92.6% (26/28), 88.9% (24/27), 89.7 (26/29), 92.3 (24/26), and 90.9% (50/55) respectively for 1HMRS combined with MRI assessment. Conclusions Single Cho peaks or Lip peaks cannot be used for the diagnosis of hepatic benign and malignant lesions. Combined use of 1HMRS and MRI can greatly improve the application value of MRI assessment in the diagnosis of hepatic benign and malignant lesions with a higher sensitivity, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy. PMID:27992399

  1. Cyst or tumor in the buccomaxillary region: Review of literature and a case report

    PubMed Central

    Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Kujan, Omar Bashar; Dwedary, Hisham Mohammed Najeeb; Sikander, Mohammed Hilal; Mankar, Sunil; Amrin, M. Nidha

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors (OTs) include entities of a hamartomatous nature, such as odontoma, benign neoplasms like an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), some benign neoplasms are aggressive as in the case of ameloblastoma. The AOT is a rare odontogenic tumor constituting only 3% of all the OT and very often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. We report a case of an intra-osseous type of AOT occurred in a young 16-year-old female located in the anterior maxilla along with the clinical, radiological, histological features, and literature review related to the tumor affecting the patient. PMID:26538960

  2. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Parties and Appearances § 305... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appearances. 305.10 Section 305.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  3. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Parties and Appearances § 305... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appearances. 305.10 Section 305.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  4. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Parties and Appearances § 305... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 305.10 Section 305.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  5. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Parties and Appearances § 305... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appearances. 305.10 Section 305.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  6. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Parties and Appearances § 305... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appearances. 305.10 Section 305.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  7. 39 CFR 963.5 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 963.5 Section 963.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.5 Appearances. (a) Petitioner. A petitioner...

  8. 39 CFR 3001.6 - Appearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 3001.6 Section 3001.6 Postal Service... Commission online as a Principal Account Holder, or signs a paper filed with the Commission, his/her personal appearance, online submission, or signature, shall constitute a representation to the Commission that...

  9. The Cost of Keeping Up Appearances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This issue focuses on the costs of keeping up appearances by landscaping the environment. Although insects can be a threat to plant health, much of the injury they cause will only threaten plant appearance. The study comes from a survey of two groups, landscape specialists and homeowners, who were asked to identify which plants in a photograph…

  10. Cardiac tumors: echo assessment.

    PubMed

    Mankad, Rekha; Herrmann, Joerg

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac tumors are exceedingly rare (0.001-0.03% in most autopsy series). They can be present anywhere within the heart and can be attached to any surface or be embedded in the myocardium or pericardial space. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific and highly variable related to the localization, size and composition of the cardiac mass. Echocardiography, typically performed for another indication, may be the first imaging modality alerting the clinician to the presence of a cardiac mass. Although echocardiography cannot give the histopathology, certain imaging features and adjunctive tools such as contrast imaging may aid in the differential diagnosis as do the adjunctive clinical data and the following principles: (1) thrombus or vegetations are the most likely etiology, (2) cardiac tumors are mostly secondary and (3) primary cardiac tumors are mostly benign. Although the finding of a cardiac mass on echocardiography may generate confusion, a stepwise approach may serve well practically. Herein, we will review such an approach and the role of echocardiography in the assessment of cardiac masses.

  11. Cardiac tumors: echo assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mankad, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are exceedingly rare (0.001–0.03% in most autopsy series). They can be present anywhere within the heart and can be attached to any surface or be embedded in the myocardium or pericardial space. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific and highly variable related to the localization, size and composition of the cardiac mass. Echocardiography, typically performed for another indication, may be the first imaging modality alerting the clinician to the presence of a cardiac mass. Although echocardiography cannot give the histopathology, certain imaging features and adjunctive tools such as contrast imaging may aid in the differential diagnosis as do the adjunctive clinical data and the following principles: (1) thrombus or vegetations are the most likely etiology, (2) cardiac tumors are mostly secondary and (3) primary cardiac tumors are mostly benign. Although the finding of a cardiac mass on echocardiography may generate confusion, a stepwise approach may serve well practically. Herein, we will review such an approach and the role of echocardiography in the assessment of cardiac masses. PMID:27600455

  12. Rare appearance of an odontogenic myxoma in cone-beam computed tomography: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Dabbaghi, Arash; Nikkerdar, Nafiseh; Bayati, Soheyla; Golshah, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an infiltrative benign bone tumor that occurs almost exclusively in the facial skeleton. The radiographic characteristics of odontogenic myxoma may produce several patterns, making diagnosis difficult. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) may prove extremely useful in clarifying the intraosseous extent of the tumor and its effects on surrounding structures. Here, we report a case of odontogenic myxoma of the mandible in a 27-year-old female. The patient exhibited a slight swelling in the left mandible. Surgical resection was performed. No recurrence was noted. In the CBCT sections, we observed perforation of the cortical plate and radiopaque line that extended from the periosteum, resembling "sunray" appearance—a rare feature of OM—which could not be assessed by panoramic radiography. PMID:27092217

  13. Primary Salivary Gland Type Tumors of the Thymus.

    PubMed

    Kalhor, Neda; Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2017-01-01

    The existence of primary salivary gland type tumors (SGTs), similar to those occurring in the major salivary glands, is well known in the thoracic cavity. When they occur in this anatomic area, these tumors more commonly arise from the lung. However, the existence of these tumors primarily affecting the thymus, although recognized in the literature, is rather not well documented or known. In addition, contrary to the primary lung SGTs, which are predominantly of the malignant type, these tumors when occur in thymus encompass a wider spectrum of biology ranging from benign to low grade, and high grade malignancy. The recognition of SGTs in the thymus, even though rare, is important to properly address treatment and prognosis. Herein, we will discuss the numerous benign a malignant SGTs that have been described in the thymus and highlight the difficulty that these tumors may pose when occurring in the thymic area.

  14. Cystic Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sonal; Rahim, Ahmed Mujib Bangalore; Parakkat, Nithin Kavassery; Kapoor, Shekhar; Mittal, Kumud; Sharma, Bhushan; Shivappa, Anil Bangalore

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) is a well-established benign epithelial lesion of odontogenic origin. Rightfully called “the master of disguise,” this lesion has been known for its varied clinical and histoarchitectural patterns. Not only does AOT predominantly present radiologically as a unilocular cystic lesion enclosing the unerupted tooth (which is commonly mistaken as a dentigerous cyst) but the lesion also presents rarely with a cystic component histopathologically. We present one such unusual case of cystic AOT associated with an impacted canine, mimicking a dentigerous cyst. The present case aims to highlight the difference between cystic AOT and dentigerous cyst radiographically. The exact histogenesis of AOT and its variants still remains obscure. An attempt has been made to hypothesize the new school of thought regarding the origin of AOT. PMID:26579317

  15. Update on desmoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Escobar, C; Munker, R; Thomas, J O; Li, B D; Burton, G V

    2012-03-01

    Desmoid tumors (DTs) are histologically benign proliferations of stromal cells but may grow locally aggressive. Overall, DTs are rare (0.03% of all neoplasms). A minority of DTs is associated with Gardner syndrome and mutations of the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) gene. Most spontaneous DTs are associated with mutations of the beta-catenin gene. This mutation results in the activation of Wnt/catenin signaling. Due to their variable clinical presentation and behavior, no standard approach for DTs can be recommended. In most cases of DTs of the extremities surgical extirpation is indicated, whereas in many other cases, a multimodal and multidisciplinary concept should be followed. In this review article, we discuss the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment options for DTs, including targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  16. Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a dog with benign renal angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Gajanayake, Isuru; Priestnall, Simon L; Benigni, Livia; English, Kate; Summers, Brian A; Garden, Oliver A

    2010-09-01

    An 11-year-old, male, neutered crossbred Collie dog was presented for a history of polydipsia and polyuria. Diagnostic investigations revealed total and ionized hypercalcemia and an increased concentration of parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Abdominal ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a right-sided, cystic-appearing renal mass. Cytological examination of ultrasound-guided aspirates of the mass revealed high numbers of spindle cells. The mass was removed en bloc via an ureteronephrectomy. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed neoplastic spindle cells in loosely packed and interlacing streams within a myxomatous stroma. Immunohistochemical examination with vimentin, von Willebrand Factor, and alpha-smooth muscle actin confirmed the mass to be a renal angiomyxoma. A minority of the neoplastic spindle cells showed positive cytoplasmic parathyroid hormone-related peptide immunostaining. The hypercalcemia resolved following surgery, and the parathyroid hormone-related peptide concentration returned to within the reference interval. The dog was no longer polydipsic or polyuric 1 year following surgery. The present report describes a previously unreported renal neoplasm causing paraneoplastic hypercalcemia and highlights the possibility of paraneoplastic hypercalcemia being caused by a benign neoplasm.

  17. [Drugs for the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Caprino, L

    2000-06-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) usually occurs in males 45-50 old and progressively involves 75% of the male population over 75 years of age. The clinical manifestations of BPH are related primarily to bladder outlet obstructions resulting from enlargement (mechanical component) of the prostate gland, and from extrinsic and intrinsic sympathetic activation of alpha-adrenoceptors (dynamic component) present in the prostatic muscle tissue, prostatic urethra, bladder base and neck. Several drugs have been employed in the last decades: LHRH analogs (Leuprorelin and Goserelin) which can reduce the testicular production of androgens with reduction in prostate size; Serenoa repens for its anti-androgenic and anti-estrogenic activities; Finasteride (5-alpha-reductase inhibitor) which blocks the conversion of testosterone into the more active dihydrotestosterone. Finally, the alpha 1 blocking agents (Terazosin, Doxazosin, Tamsulosin) that improve urinary symptoms by acting on dynamic component. Clinical improvements derive from their antagonist action on alpha 1 adrenergic receptors which mediate contraction of the prostate gland, proximal urethra, bladder base and neck, with the consequent reduction of urethral pressure, bladder outlet resistance, and increase of urinary flow. Due to its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, as well as the clinical results obtained, Terazosin, alpha 1 blocker, appears to be particularly useful in the treatment of patients with mild- to moderate symptomatic BPH.

  18. Study of nuclear morphometry on cytology specimens of benign and malignant breast lesions: A study of 122 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Anamika; Jain, Manjula; Shukla, Shailaja; Andley, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer has emerged as a leading site of cancer among women in India. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been routinely applied in assessment of breast lesions. Cytological evaluation in breast lesions is subjective with a “gray zone” of 6.9–20%. Quantitative evaluation of nuclear size, shape, texture, and density parameters by morphometry can be of diagnostic help in breast tumor. Aims: To apply nuclear morphometry on cytological breast aspirates and assess its role in differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions with derivation of suitable cut-off values between the two groups. Settings and Designs: The present study was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study of nuclear morphometric parameters of benign and malignant cases. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 benign breast disease (BBD), 8 atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and 64 carcinoma cases. Image analysis was performed on Papanicolaou-stained FNAC slides by Nikon Imaging Software (NIS)–Elements Advanced Research software (Version 4.00). Nuclear morphometric parameters analyzed included 5 nuclear size, 2 shape, 4 texture, and 2 density parameters. Results: Nuclear morphometry could differentiate between benign and malignant aspirates with a gradually increasing nuclear size parameters from BBD to ADH to carcinoma. Cut-off values of 31.93 μm2, 6.325 μm, 5.865 μm, 7.855 μm, and 21.55 μm for mean nuclear area, equivalent diameter, minimum feret, maximum ferret, and perimeter, respectively, were derived between benign and malignant cases, which could correctly classify 7 out of 8 ADH cases. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry is a highly objective tool that could be used to supplement FNAC in differentiating benign from malignant lesions, with an important role in cases with diagnostic dilemma. PMID:28182052

  19. Differentially expressed genes in giant cell tumor of bone.

    PubMed

    Babeto, Erica; Conceição, André Luis Giacometti; Valsechi, Marina Curado; Peitl Junior, Paulo; de Campos Zuccari, Débora Aparecida Pires; de Lima, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano; Bonilha, Jane Lopes; de Freitas Calmon, Marília; Cordeiro, José Antônio; Rahal, Paula

    2011-04-01

    Giant cells tumors of bone (GCTB) are benign in nature but cause osteolytic destruction with a number of particular characteristics. These tumors can have uncertain biological behavior often contain a significant proportion of highly multinucleated cells, and may show aggressive behavior. We have studied differential gene expression in GCTB that may give a better understanding of their physiopathology, and might be helpful in prognosis and treatment. Rapid subtractive hybridization (RaSH) was used to identify and measure novel genes that appear to be differentially expressed, including KTN1, NEB, ROCK1, and ZAK using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry in the samples of GCTBs compared to normal bone tissue. Normal bone was used in the methodology RaSH for comparison with the GCTB in identification of differentially expressed genes. Functional annotation indicated that these genes are involved in cellular processes related to their tumor phenotype. The differential expression of KTN1, ROCK1, and ZAK was independently confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The expression of the KTN1 and ROCK1 genes were increased in samples by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, and ZAK had reduced expression. Since ZAK have CpG islands in their promoter region and low expression in tumor tissue, their methylation pattern was analyzed by MSP-PCR. The genes identified KTN1, ROCK1, and ZAK may be responsible for loss of cellular homeostasis in GCTB since they are responsible for various functions related to tumorigenesis such as cell migration, cytoskeletal organization, apoptosis, and cell cycle control and thus may contribute at some stage in the process of formation and development of GCTB.

  20. MRI appearance of normal articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Douglas W

    2011-05-01

    At each joint, the extracellular matrix of cartilage is arranged in a complex and characteristic organization that is specific for that joint. This structure exerts a strong influence on the appearance of magnetic resonance (MR) images through orientation-related alterations in T2 decay. As a result, the MR appearance of cartilage at each joint is predictable and specific for that joint. The diagnostic utility of MR imaging for evaluating cartilage is enhanced when the acquisition and review of the images is informed by an understanding of this relationship between normal structure and the MR appearance of cartilage.

  1. Genomic landscapes of breast fibroepithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Ong, Choon Kiat; Lim, Weng Khong; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Thike, Aye Aye; Ng, Ley Moy; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Myint, Swe Swe; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Thangaraju, Saranya; Dey, Sucharita; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; Wijaya, Giovani Claresta; Lim, Jing Quan; Huang, Dachuan; Li, Zhimei; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Chan, Jason Yong Sheng; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Poore, Gregory; Tay, Su Ting; Tan, Wai Jin; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Ahmad, Buhari Shaik; Iau, Philip; Chan, Ching Wan; Tang, Anthony P H; Yong, Wei Sean; Madhukumar, Preetha; Ho, Gay Hui; Tan, Veronique Kiak Mien; Wong, Chow Yin; Hartman, Mikael; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Benita K T; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Patrick; Tan, Puay Hoon; Teh, Bin Tean

    2015-11-01

    Breast fibroepithelial tumors comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of pathological entities, from benign fibroadenomas to malignant phyllodes tumors. Although MED12 mutations have been frequently found in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, the landscapes of genetic alterations across the fibroepithelial tumor spectrum remain unclear. Here, by performing exome sequencing of 22 phyllodes tumors followed by targeted sequencing of 100 breast fibroepithelial tumors, we observed three distinct somatic mutation patterns. First, we frequently observed MED12 and RARA mutations in both fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, emphasizing the importance of these mutations in fibroepithelial tumorigenesis. Second, phyllodes tumors exhibited mutations in FLNA, SETD2 and KMT2D, suggesting a role in driving phyllodes tumor development. Third, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors harbored additional mutations in cancer-associated genes. RARA mutations exhibited clustering in the portion of the gene encoding the ligand-binding domain, functionally suppressed RARA-mediated transcriptional activation and enhanced RARA interactions with transcriptional co-repressors. This study provides insights into the molecular pathogenesis of breast fibroepithelial tumors, with potential clinical implications.

  2. Robotic lung segmentectomy for malignant and benign lesions

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Alper; Ayalp, Kemal; Uyumaz, Elena; Kaba, Erkan; Demirhan, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Surgical use of robots has evolved over the last 10 years. However, the academic experience with robotic lung segmentectomy remains limited. We aimed to analyze our lung segmentectomy experience with robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Prospectively recorded clinical data of 21 patients who underwent robotic lung anatomic segmentectomy with robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were done using the da Vinci System. A three incision portal technique with a 3 cm utility incision in the posterior 10th to 11th intercostal space was performed. Individual dissection, ligation and division of the hilar structures were performed. Systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling was performed in 15 patients either with primary or secondary metastatic cancers. Results Fifteen patients (75%) were operated on for malignant lung diseases. Conversion to open surgery was not necessary. Postoperative complications occurred in four patients. Mean console robotic operating time was 84±26 (range, 40-150) minutes. Mean duration of chest tube drainage and mean postoperative hospital stay were 3±2.1 (range, 1-10) and 4±1.4 (range, 2-7) days respectively. The mean number of mediastinal stations and number of dissected lymph nodes were 4.2 and 14.3 (range, 2-21) from mediastinal and 8.1 (range, 2-19) nodes from hilar and interlobar stations respectively. Conclusions Robot-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomy for malignant and benign lesions appears to be practical, safe, and associated with few complications and short postoperative hospitalization. Lymph node removal also appears oncologically acceptable for early lung cancer patients. Benefits in terms of postoperative pain, respiratory function, and quality of life needs a comparative, prospective series particularly with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. PMID:25093090

  3. Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumors of the cerebrum: 10 cases of a distinctive seizure-associated lesion.

    PubMed

    Huse, Jason T; Edgar, Mark; Halliday, John; Mikolaenko, Irina; Lavi, Ehud; Rosenblum, Marc K

    2013-09-01

    We report 10 cases of a non-neurocytic, purely neuronal tumor affecting adults. Situated in the cerebral hemispheres, with 7 of 10 confined to the temporal lobes, most presented with seizures as their principal clinical manifestations. On magnetic resosnance imaging (MRI), the tumors generally appeared solid and non-contrast enhancing with minimal diffuse infiltration, edema, or mass effect. Six examples demonstrated internal nodularity. Microscopically, the tumor cells were largely distributed into discrete and coalescent nodules exhibiting varying degrees of matrix vacuolization, principally within the deep cortical ribbon and superficial subcortical white matter. Populating elements ranged from morphologically ambiguous to recognizably neuronal, with only two cases manifesting overt ganglion cell cytology. In all cases, tumor cells exhibited widespread nuclear immunolabeling for the HuC/HuD neuronal antigens, although expression of other neuronal markers, including synaptophysin, neurofilament and chromogranin was variable to absent. Tumor cells also failed to express GFAP, p53, IDH1 R132H, or CD34, although CD34-labeling ramified neural elements were present in the adjoining cortex of seven cases. Molecular analysis in a subset of cases failed to reveal DNA copy number abnormalities or BRAF V600E mutation. Follow-up data indicate that this unusual neuronal lesion behaves in benign, World Health Organization (WHO) grade I fashion and is amenable to surgical control.

  4. Presence of cytoadhesins (IIb-IIIa-like glycoproteins) on human metastatic melanomas but not on benign melanocytes.

    PubMed

    McGregor, B C; McGregor, J L; Weiss, L M; Wood, G S; Hu, C H; Boukerche, H; Warnke, R A

    1989-10-01

    Glycoproteins IIb and IIIa, a heterodimer complex, play a vital role in blood platelet aggregation and are members of a wide family of membrane receptors known as integrins or cytoadhesins. Cellular interaction to extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesive proteins is mediated by integrins. Certain tumor cells are known to interact with ECM and blood platelets in the process of metastasis. However, it is not known if tumor cells, compared with their normal counterparts, acquire IIb-IIIa-like receptors to help them in their metastatic spread. In this study, monoclonal antibodies directed against the IIb-IIIa platelet glycoprotein complex were used on frozen biopsies of normal and various tumor tissues to detect the presence of these integrins. These studies demonstrate the presence of IIb-IIIa-like glycoproteins on the cells of metastatic malignant melanoma but not on benign melanocytes and rarely on other tumors. The presence of integrins on melanomas may help explain their propensity for frequent metastasis.

  5. Benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast. A cytomorphologic study.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, P B; Ljung, B M

    1994-04-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology of benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast has been infrequently described. To define the cytologic features of benign and malignant papillary breast lesions better, the authors retrospectively reviewed the fine-needle aspiration cytology of five cases of histologically proven intracystic papillary carcinoma (IPC) and six cases of histologically proven papilloma. Clinical information was obtained from the medical records in each case. Intracystic papillary carcinoma tended to present as a larger tumor (average, 5 cm) in older women (average, 65.4 years). Papilloma, however, tended to present as a smaller tumor (average, 1.5 cm) in younger women (average, 43 years). Eighty percent of the IPC cases (4/5) and 50% of the papilloma cases (3/6) yielded highly cellular aspirates with complex vascular papillae and single columnar cells. Macrophages were a constant feature of IPC and were present in all but one case of papilloma. Although cellular atypia was not a prominent feature in either IPC or papilloma, moderate atypia was noted in one case of IPC and two cases of papilloma. Severe atypia was noted in a single case of IPC. Although IPC tended to yield a harvest with higher cellularity and single intact cells, no single feature or constellation of findings was consistently reliable in distinguishing IPC from papilloma. The authors found that papillary lesions of the breast demonstrate a distinct cytomorphology characterized by complex vascular papillae, columnar cells, and macrophages. They concluded, however, that, in the absence of overt cytologic malignancy, distinguishing between benign and malignant papillary breast lesions is difficult, if not impossible.

  6. The current role of U tubes for benign and malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, K W; Gleason, T G; Deziel, D J; Doolas, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The recent experience with U tubes at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Lukes Medical Center was reviewed in order to assess their current role in hepatobiliary surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA. Transhepatic intubation by a variety of methods has been used routinely for biliary decompression and inhibition of anastomotic stricture since the 1960s. U tubes were popularized in the early 1970s. However, little has been written about their use and efficacy in recent years. Because of the apparent benefits associated with the use of U tubes versus other stenting techniques, the authors performed this study. METHODS. The hospital and office charts of all patients who had U tubes placed between 1980 and 1992 were reviewed retrospectively. Between 1980 and 1992, U tubes were placed intraoperatively in 54 patients for biliary decompression and/or stenting. Twelve patients were operated on for benign causes of obstruction. Forty-two patients with malignant tumors underwent surgery for U tube placement in conjunction with or without tumor resection and anastomotic bypass. RESULTS. There was a 0% operative mortality rate in the benign group. In six patients, the U tube played a major role in the long-term management of their disease processes. None of these patients has had restricture since removal of the tube. In the malignant group, the 30-day operative mortality rate was 12%. After 3 months, marked clinical improvement and complete biliary decompression were achieved, with mean bilirubin levels dropping from 14.0 mg/dL to 1.3 mg/dL. No patients in the malignant group required reoperation for recurrent biliary obstruction after U tube placement. CONCLUSIONS. The use of U tubes is advocated for biliary decompression and/or anastomotic stenting in patients with benign stricture or resectable malignancy and in patients with nonresectable, malignant biliary obstruction for adequate palliation of intractable jaundice. PMID:8239776

  7. CT appearance of thickened nerves in neurofibromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Daneman, A.; Mancer, K.; Sonley, M.

    1983-11-01

    In neutrofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen disease), peripheral nerves may develop enlarged diameters or focal fusiform enlargement due to neurofibromatous involvement. Their appearance on computed tomography (CT) forms the basis of this report.

  8. Ebola Vaccine Appears Very Effective in Trial

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162715.html Ebola Vaccine Appears Very Effective in Trial Drug manufacturer says ... Dec. 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental Ebola vaccine was highly effective against the deadly virus in ...

  9. Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Adsay, N V; Eble, J N; Srigley, J R; Jones, E C; Grignon, D J

    2000-07-01

    We describe the clinicopathologic features of 12 patients with a distinctive tumor of the kidney characterized by a mixture of epithelial and stromal elements that form solid and cystic growth patterns. Similar tumors were reported previously in the literature under various names, including adult mesoblastic nephroma. All but one of the patients were women. The only man had a long history of treatment with lupron and diethylstilbesterol. Seven of the women had histories of long-term oral estrogen use of whom six had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy several years prior, and the seventh patient had been using oral contraceptives for many years. Another woman had this operation but did not receive any hormone therapy. Ages ranged from 31 to 71 years (mean, 56 yrs). Six patients presented with symptoms, including pain and infections attributable to mass effect, and in six the tumor was detected incidentally. Grossly, the tumors were well-circumscribed (mean size, 6 cm; range, 3-12 cm) and consisted of solid and cystic components, most often in equal proportions but in variable distribution. Microscopically, the spindle cell component ranged in appearance from scar-like fibrous tissue to leiomyoma-like interlacing fascicles; usually there was a mixture of both. More cellular foci reminiscent of ovarian stroma or solitary fibrous tumor were also present. No blastema was present. Epithelial elements (composed of clusters of tubules with variable lining) were scattered amidst the spindle cells, and focally transformed into large cysts lined by cells with abundant pink cytoplasm and a hobnail appearance. Immature epithelial elements typical of Wilms' tumor were not present. Muscle markers (desmin and smooth muscle actin) were positive diffusely and strongly in the spindle cells of all tumors, whereas HMB-45 and CD34 were absent. Estrogen receptors were detected in the nuclei of spindle cells in seven tumors and progesterone

  10. Glomus Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won; Kwon, Soon Beom; Eo, Su Rak; Kwon, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors were first described by Wood in 1812 as painful subcutaneous tubercles. It is an uncommon benign neoplasm involving the glomus body, an apparatus that involves in thermoregulation of cutaneous microvasculature. Glomus tumor constitutes 1%-5% of all hand tumors. It usually occurs at the subungual region and more commonly in aged women. Its classical clinical triad consists of pain, tenderness and temperature intolerance, especially cold sensitivity. This study reviews 15 cases of glomus tumor which were analyzed according to its anatomic location, surgical approach and histologic findings. Methods Fifteen patients with subungual glomus tumors of the hand operated on between January 2006 and March 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively with standard physical examination including ice cube test and Love's test. Diagnostic imaging consisted of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. All procedures were performed with tourniquet control under local anesthesia. Eleven patients underwent excision using the transungual approach, 3 patients using the volar approach and 1 patient using the lateral subperiosteal approach. Results Total of 15 cases were reviewed. 11 tumors were located in the nail bed, 3 in the volar pulp and 1 in the radial aspect of the finger tip. After complete excision, patients remained asymptomatic in the immediate postoperative period. In the long term follow up, patients exhibited excellent cosmetic results with no recurrence. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis should be made by physical, radiologic and pathologic examinations. Preoperative localization and complete extirpation is essential in preventing recurrence and subsequent nail deformity. PMID:26015884

  11. Na+ Micro-Current Value Detection as a New Modality for Identification of Benign and Malignant Disease in Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Feng; Long, Zhi-Da; Liu, Xue-Min; Ma, Feng; Li, Qiang; Lv, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Increase of intracellular positive ions (mainly Na+) indicates greater possibility of cell malignancy. The present study investigated the correlation between the Na+ micro-current value (MCV) and tissue characteristics (normal, benign or malignant). 346 tissue samples have been detected within 30 min after surgical isolation by Na+ detector. MCV in 102 malignant tumor was significantly higher than that in benign/borderline tumor or normal tissue (33.3 ± 8.9 μA vs. 24.4 ± 8.6 μA and 14.0 ± 4.0 μA, p < 0.001, respectively). MCV in malignant tumor parenchyma was significantly higher than that in the paired paracanceroustissue, normal tissue and surgical margin tissue (33.3 ± 8.9 μA vs. 18.9 ± 4.1, 14.2 ± 4.0 or 15.2 ± 3.3, p < 0.001, respectively). However, the coincidence rate between Na+ detector and pathological examination was different in tissues from different organs or systems, which was high in pancreas, bile duct system, gastrointestinal system, esophagus, breasts, lungs, nose & throat and thyroids, but poor in urinary tissue. The overall coincidence rate was 83.1% (108/130) between Na+ detector and pathological examination. The sensitivity and specificity of correct diagnosis by Na+ detector was 83.3% (70/84) and 82.6% (38/46), respectively. This new modality may have diagnostic potential in complementing frozen examination in differentiating malignant tumor from benign or normal tissue, justifying tumor metastatic scope and confirming surgical margin. PMID:27103487

  12. Na(+) Micro-Current Value Detection as a New Modality for Identification of Benign and Malignant Disease in Surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Feng; Long, Zhi-Da; Liu, Xue-Min; Ma, Feng; Li, Qiang; Lv, Yi

    2016-04-22

    Increase of intracellular positive ions (mainly Na(+)) indicates greater possibility of cell malignancy. The present study investigated the correlation between the Na(+) micro-current value (MCV) and tissue characteristics (normal, benign or malignant). 346 tissue samples have been detected within 30 min after surgical isolation by Na(+) detector. MCV in 102 malignant tumor was significantly higher than that in benign/borderline tumor or normal tissue (33.3 ± 8.9 μA vs. 24.4 ± 8.6 μA and 14.0 ± 4.0 μA, p < 0.001, respectively). MCV in malignant tumor parenchyma was significantly higher than that in the paired paracanceroustissue, normal tissue and surgical margin tissue (33.3 ± 8.9 μA vs. 18.9 ± 4.1, 14.2 ± 4.0 or 15.2 ± 3.3, p < 0.001, respectively). However, the coincidence rate between Na(+) detector and pathological examination was different in tissues from different organs or systems, which was high in pancreas, bile duct system, gastrointestinal system, esophagus, breasts, lungs, nose &throat and thyroids, but poor in urinary tissue. The overall coincidence rate was 83.1% (108/130) between Na(+) detector and pathological examination. The sensitivity and specificity of correct diagnosis by Na(+) detector was 83.3% (70/84) and 82.6% (38/46), respectively. This new modality may have diagnostic potential in complementing frozen examination in differentiating malignant tumor from benign or normal tissue, justifying tumor metastatic scope and confirming surgical margin.

  13. A Giant Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Schillebeeckx, Charlotte; Verbeeck, Guy; Daenen, Geert; Servaes, Dirk; Bronckaers, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare, accounting for less than 1% of the breast tumors. They are mostly seen in women between 45 and 49 years old. These are fast growing tumors with a large spectrum of behavior (from benign to metastatic) and can resemble fibroadenomas. Correct diagnosis mostly through core needle biopsy is important to decide whether a surgical excision has to be done. Here we report a case of a 57-year-old woman with a fast growing, ulcerated tumor in the left breast. Core needle biopsy suggested a malignant phyllodes tumor with heterologous liposarcomatous differentiation. Treatment with total mastectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy followed. Primary treatment is always surgery, whether radiotherapy or chemotherapy has to follow remains uncertain. There is a high-recurrence rate, especially when the surgical margins are narrow. PMID:27746880

  14. Metabolic heterogeneity in human lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Christopher T.; Faubert, Brandon; Yuan, Qing; Lev-Cohain, Naama; Jin, Eunsook; Kim, Jiyeon; Jiang, Lei; Ko, Bookyung; Skelton, Rachael; Loudat, Laurin; Wodzak, Michelle; Klimko, Claire; McMillan, Elizabeth; Butt, Yasmeen; Ni, Min; Oliver, Dwight; Torrealba, Jose; Malloy, Craig R.; Kernstine, Kemp; Lenkinski, Robert E.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in the genetic and environmental parameters that influence cell metabolism in culture. Here, we assessed the impact of these factors on human NSCLC metabolism in vivo using intra-operative 13C-glucose infusions in nine NSCLC patients to compare metabolism between tumors and benign lung. While enhanced glycolysis and glucose oxidation were common among these tumors, we observed evidence for oxidation of multiple nutrients in each of them, including lactate as a potential carbon source. Moreover, metabolically heterogeneous regions were identified within and between tumors, and surprisingly, our data suggested potential contributions of non-glucose nutrients in well-perfused tumor areas. Our findings not only demonstrate the heterogeneity in tumor metabolism in vivo but also highlight the strong influence of the microenvironment on this feature. PMID:26853473

  15. Knee bone tumors: findings on conventional radiology*

    PubMed Central

    Andrade Neto, Francisco; Teixeira, Manuel Joaquim Diógenes; Araújo, Leonardo Heráclio do Carmo; Ponte, Carlos Eduardo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The knee is a common site for bone tumors, whether clinically painful or not. Conventional radiology has been established as the first line of investigation in patients with knee pain and can reveal lesions that often generate questions not only for the generalist physician but also for the radiologist or general orthopedist. History, image examination, and histopathological analysis compose the essential tripod of the diagnosis of bone tumors, and conventional radiology is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with knee pain. This pictorial essay proposes to depict the main conventional radiography findings of the most common bone tumors around the knee, including benign and malignant tumors, as well as pseudo-tumors. PMID:27403019

  16. Esophageal Lipoma: A Rare Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jeremy; Tejerina, Manfred; Hallowell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal lipomas are rare tumors, making up 0.4% of all digestive tract benign neoplasms. Most of these lesions are clinically silent as a result of their small size, however, the majority of lesions over 4 cm have been reported to cause dysphagia, regurgitation and/or epigastralgia. We report a case of a 53 year-old African American female who presented with dysphagia. Computed tomography of the chest and esophagram confirmed esophageal lipoma as the cause of the patient’s symptoms. Accurately diagnosing an esophageal lipoma is crucial in order to rule out potential malignant lesions, relieve patient symptoms and plan the appropriate treatment. PMID:23365708

  17. Multiple primary intracranial tumors and association of intra- and extracranial tumors. An autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Tiszlavicz, L

    1993-01-01

    In 37504 autopsies performed during the last 3 decades at the Department of Pathology of Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University (Szeged, Hungary) gliomas were found in 498 cases. These gliomas were associated with other types of intra- or extracranial tumors in 1.2-3.2% of the cases. Despite the male predominance observed in other types of multiple tumors, the multiple intracranial tumors and the intracranial tumors associated with extracranial malignancies were more frequent in females (possible role of hormonal influences). A relatively frequent association of various intracranial tumors with gastrointestinal carcinomas and in one quarter of the cases with extracranial benign tumors indicates that genetic factors may be involved in the pathomechanism.

  18. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with ameloblastic fibro-odontoma of the anterior mandible.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Song, Young-Gook; Moon, Seong-Yong; Choi, Boyoung; Kim, Bong Chul; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, which was formerly named calcifying odontogenic cyst, is a benign odontogenic tumor containing clusters of ghost cells within ameloblastic epithelium. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors have been associated with other odontogenic tumors, a finding that is a rare event in other types of odontogenic cysts or tumors. This report describes a case of hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastic fibroma-odontoma of the anterior mandible that occurred in a 4-year-old Korean girl.

  19. Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy: An underdiagnosed condition.

    PubMed

    Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Efstathiou, Elisavet; Neubauer, David

    2015-07-01

    Benign paroxysmal torticollis is probably an under-diagnosed condition of infancy. It is a self-limiting disorder characterised by periods of unusual, sustained posture of the head and neck, during which the head tilts to one side. Episodes are often accompanied by marked autonomic features, irritability, ataxia, apathy and drowsiness. They last several hours to a few days and are often recurring every few weeks. They subside within the pre-school years; however, during later childhood, there is a tendency to develop migraine. Three cases of benign paroxysmal torticollis are presented and are compared with cases in the literature. A telephone survey has been conducted to determine what is the general awareness of paediatricians of this condition in Cyprus. Eighty-two paediatricians were randomly selected out of 235 paediatricians. All of them agreed to participate. Our cases revealed that benign paroxysmal torticollis may coexist with other problems during infancy. The telephone survey showed that only two out of eighty-two (2.4%) of the paediatricians are aware of the condition, and none of them was confident regarding the management. Our telephone survey clearly shows that Cypriot paediatricians are not familiar with benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy which is a benign, self-limiting disorder. It is essential to recognise the condition and to reassure parents of its benign course and not to be misdiagnosed for other disorders, such as epileptic seizures. We have shown again that benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy may coexist with motor delay and hearing problems.

  20. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up. PMID:26689234

  1. Diode Laser Excision of Oral Benign Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ena; Sareen, Mohit; Dhaka, Payal; Baghla, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lasers have made tremendous progress in the field of dentistry and have turned out to be crucial in oral surgery as collateral approach for soft tissue surgery. This rapid progress can be attributed to the fact that lasers allow efficient execution of soft tissue procedures with excellent hemostasis and field visibility. When matched to scalpel, electrocautery or high frequency devices, lasers offer maximum postoperative patient comfort. Methods: Four patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of benign lesions of the oral cavity. 810 nm diode lasers were used in continuous wave mode for excisional biopsy. The specimens were sent for histopathological examination and patients were assessed on intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results: Diode laser surgery was rapid, bloodless and well accepted by patients and led to complete resolution of the lesions. The excised specimen proved adequate for histopathological examination. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after the procedure with minimal postoperative problems, discomfort and scarring. Conclusion: We conclude that diode lasers are rapidly becoming the standard of care in contemporary dental practice and can be employed in procedures requiring excisional biopsy of oral soft tissue lesions with minimal problems in histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26464781

  2. [Benign pleural effusion caused by asbestos exposure].

    PubMed

    Vieira, J R; Alfarroba, E; Viegas, J; Freitas e Costa, M

    1992-05-01

    The Authors present the first case described among us of benign pleural effusion of an asbestotic origin. They stress the importance of thoracoscopy (pleuroscopy) in the diagnosis of this situation. Attention is drawn to the fact that asbestotic lesions and asbestotic bodies have been found in the lung and, in particular, in the parietal pleura as well. They emphasize the fact that exposure to asbestos was not realized by the patient, which made the clarification of the situation more difficult. It was a CT scan that showed the signs suggestive of exposure to asbestos which raised the diagnostic suspicion. They conclude that every patient with a pleural effusion must be thoroughly questioned about exposure to asbestos. Even if the exposure is accepted, they consider that one should proceed to a pleuro-pulmonar biopsy by thoracoscopy. This biopsy allows demonstration of the characteristic histopathological lesions and rule out other etiologies, namely malignancy and tuberculosis. They suggest that these patients must be highly motivated to stop any smoking and kept under periodic surveillance.

  3. Laparoscopy for Benign Diseases of the Colon.

    PubMed

    Smith, Radhika; Maron, David J

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has revolutionized the delivery of care to the surgical patient undergoing colorectal resection. Since the first laparoscopic-assisted colectomy in 1991, significant advances have been made in minimally invasive colorectal surgery. For many benign conditions, laparoscopic colectomy has been proven to be safe and effective, and in some instances superior when compared with open surgery. Complex laparoscopic resections such as those for diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease have also been shown to have equivalent outcomes when compared with open surgery. Short-term benefits of a minimally invasive approach include less pain, decreased rates of wound infection and postoperative morbidity, faster return of bowel function, and shorter length of stay. Improvements in long-term complications have also been noted with lower incidence of incisional hernias and small bowel obstructions secondary to adhesions. As surgeons become more facile with laparoscopic resection, more complex cases such as those for complicated diverticulitis and reoperative surgery for inflammatory bowel disease can be completed with shorter operative times and decreased cost.

  4. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Salvinelli, F; Firrisi, L; Casale, M; Trivelli, M; D'Ascanio, L; Lamanna, F; Greco, F; Costantino, S

    2004-09-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) has been recognized as the most common vestibular disorder; it is a term coined in 1952 by Dix and Hallpike, and it is most commonly used to describe a disease with a characteristic clinical presentation believed to be caused by free-floating particles leaving the macula and entering one of the semicircular canals, usually the posterior one, more rarely the horizontal or superior ones. A lot of studies showed as the prevalence is higher in females than in males with a ratio of 2:1; furthermore, prevalence increases with the age: the mean age at onset is 54 years, with a range of 11 to 84 years. The most important clinical manifestations of BPPV are: vertigo, lightheadedness, dysequilibrium and sometimes nausea, vomiting, pallor and sweating. The diagnosis of BPPV is very simple through the Dix-Hallpike test or the diagnostic Semont's maneuver; the increasing information about the BPPV's pathogenesis has led most authors to consider the rehabilitative therapy, and in particular the so-called Semont's "liberatory" maneuver, as the first choice treatment of BPPV, in relation to its quickness and efficacy. In this treatment the debris are moved from the posterior semicircular canal to another location within the vestibular labyrinth. In our review we consider the possible pathogenesis of this disease and the best therapies, like repositioning maneuvers, in a patient affected by BPPV.

  5. Searching for "environmentally-benign" antifouling biocides.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan Ting; Teo, Serena L M; Leong, Wai; Chai, Christina L L

    2014-05-26

    As the result of the ecological impacts from the use of tributyltins (TBT) in shipping, environmental legislation for the registration of chemicals for use in the environment has grown to a monumental challenge requiring product dossiers to include information on the environmental fate and behavior of any chemicals. Specifically, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, collectively known as PBT, are properties of concern in the assessment of chemicals. However, existing measurements of PBT properties are a cumbersome and expensive process, and thus not applied in the early stages of the product discovery and development. Inexpensive methods for preliminary PBT screening would minimize risks arising with the subsequent registration of products. In this article, we evaluated the PBT properties of compounds reported to possess anti-fouling properties using QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) prediction programs such as BIOWIN™ (a biodegradation probability program), KOWWIN™ (log octanol-water partition coefficient calculation program) and ECOSAR™ (Ecological Structure Activity Relationship Programme). The analyses identified some small (Mr < 400) synthetic and natural products as potential candidates for environmentally benign biocides. We aim to demonstrate that while these methods of estimation have limitations, when applied with discretion, they are powerful tools useful in the early stages of research for compound selection for further development as anti-foulants.

  6. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up.

  7. Emerging drug therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Travis L; Andriole, Gerald L

    2006-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland caused by increases in number of both epithelial and stromal cells. Clinically, BPH leads to voiding dysfunction, which is most often referred to as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Historically, the only treatments for LUTS due to BPH were watchful waiting or surgery (transurethral or open prostatectomy). However, over the last 20 years medical therapy has taken a prominent role in the management of BPH. Current medical treatments for BPH include alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists, inhibitors of the 5-alpha reductase enzyme and various phytotherapies. These agents are generally effective and safe; however, many patients are unable to tolerate the side effects or are refractory to medical management and require surgery. In light of this, many potential new therapies for the treatment of BPH are under development. Some represent a variation of current treatments, whereas others target novel molecular pathways within the prostate. The aim of this review is to examine current pharmacotherapies as well as to highlight emerging drugs that may improve our treatment of patients with LUTS secondary to BPH.

  8. Dutasteride/tamsulosin: in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2012-05-01

    The 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride and the α(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist tamsulosin are available as a fixed-dose combination for use in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and an enlarged prostate. Dutasteride 0.5 mg/day plus tamsulosin 0.4 mg/day improved lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) to a significantly greater extent than dutasteride or tamsulosin alone in men with BPH, moderate to severe LUTS and an increased risk of disease progression, according to the results of the randomized, double-blind, multinational CombAT trial. The mean change from baseline in the total International Prostate Symptom Score was significantly greater with dutasteride plus tamsulosin than with dutasteride or tamsulosin alone after 2 years (primary endpoint) and 4 years of therapy. After 4 years' therapy in the CombAT trial, the time to first acute urinary retention or BPH-related surgery (primary endpoint) significantly favoured men with symptomatic BPH who were receiving dutasteride plus tamsulosin versus those receiving tamsulosin alone, with no significant difference between recipients of dutasteride plus tamsulosin and recipients of dutasteride alone. In the CombAT trial, health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction were improved to a significantly greater extent with dutasteride plus tamsulosin than with dutasteride or tamsulosin alone. Combination therapy with oral dutasteride plus tamsulosin was generally well tolerated in patients with symptomatic BPH in the CombAT trial.

  9. Phyllodes tumor of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Herazo, Fernando; Gil, Monica; Echeverri, Carolina; Ángel, Gonzalo; Borrero, Mauricio; Madrid, Jorge; Jaramillo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors present in less than 1% of new cases of breast cancer, usually occurring among middle-aged women (40-50 yrs). Objective: This study shows diagnostic experience, surgical management and follows up of patients with this disease during a period of ten years in a oncology referral center. Methods: Retrospectively, breast cancer registries at the institution were reviewed, identifying 77 patients with Phyllodes tumors between 2002 and 2012, who had been operated on at the Instituto de Cancerología - Clínica Las Américas, in Medellín (Colombia). Clinical and histopathological data belonging to these cases was captured and analyzed and descriptive statistics were used. Results: The follow up median was 22.5 months (IQR: 10.5-60.0), average age was 47.2 yrs (SD: 12.4), mean tumor size was 3.6 cm (SD: 4.6), 88.3% of the patients (68 cases) presented negative margins and none of them received adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the patients with Phyllodes tumors; 33.8% had benign, 31.2% had borderline and 35.0% had malignant tumor. Disease-free survival was 85.8% and overall survival was 94.5%. Discussion: Reported data in this article is in accordance with what has been reported in worldwide literature. In our cohort even the high mean size of the tumors, the risk of local relapse and metastatic disease is low than previously reported in literature. Trials with longer follow up and molecular trials in Phyllodes tumors are necessary to understand the behavior of these tumors in Hispanics population. PMID:26600624

  10. Analytical and clinical evaluation of a new tumor marker in breast cancer: CA 27.29.

    PubMed

    Correale, M; Abbate, I; Gargano, G; Catino, A; Dragone, C D; Musci, M D; Serio, G; Paradiso, A; De Lena, M

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for a new tumor marker, named CA 27.29, recently proposed for use in breast cancer patients, is reported in this study. After considering the analytical performance, the clinical study was directed to a control group of 66 apparently healthy subjects (Controls), a group of 25 women with benign breast disease (BBD) and a group of 164 breast cancer patients divided into primary before any treatment (M-), in follow-up with no evidence of disease (NED) and presence of metastases (M+). When compared to CA 15.3, our results showed similar sensitivity of both markers with a slightly lower specificity for CA 27.29. In some cases, however, CA 27.29 elevation appears earlier than CA 15.3 as a sign of metastases. We thus propose their associated use.

  11. Benign mesocolon schwannoma in PET/CT and immunohistochemistry assessment: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Schwannoma is a common soft tissue tumour, but it appears to be very rare in the gastrointestinal tract. Benign schwannoma develops extremely rarely in the mesocolon, with only 2 patients reported in the literature. A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our Department of Oncological Surgery with an abdominal mass, which was discovered incidentally during abdominal ultrasound examination. Positron emission tomography/ computed tomography imaging with the use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET/CT) showed an abnormal mass in the upper right abdomen with the presence of diffuse FDG uptake. A laparotomy revealed an encapsulated, non-invasive mesocolon tumour in the hepatic flexure region. Definitive diagnosis was confirmed by the histopathological examination of the postoperative preparation. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed benign mesocolon schwannoma. Previous cases indicate that schwannomas in the mesocolon are benign tumours. Our patient had a good prognosis even after enucleation treatment. Although schwannomas are very rare and generally asymptomatic, the differential diagnosis of schwannomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumours is important for practical purposes. PMID:23788911

  12. 27.12 MHz Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Cutaneous Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Hyun, Dong Ju; Piquette, Raymonde; Beaumont, Clément; Germain, Lucie; Larouche, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    As surgical and/or ablative modalities, radiofrequency (RF) has been known to produce good clinical outcomes in dermatology. Recently, 27.12 MHz RF has been introduced and has several advantages over conventional 4 or 6 MHz in terms of the precise ablation and lesser pain perception. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 27.12 MHz RF for the treatment of benign cutaneous lesions. Twenty female patient subjects were enrolled. Digital photography and a USB microscope camera were used to monitor the clinical results before one session of treatment with 27.12 MHz RF and after 1 and 3 weeks. Treated lesions included telangiectasias, cherry and spider angiomas, skin tags, seborrheic keratoses, lentigo, milium, dilated pore, acne, piercing hole, and one case of neurofibroma. For vascular lesions, clinical results were excellent for 33.3%, good for 44.4%, moderate for 11.1%, and poor for 11.1%. For nonvascular lesions (epidermal lesions and other benign cutaneous lesions), clinical results were excellent for 48.3%, good for 45.2%, moderate for 3.2%, and poor for 3.2%. No serious adverse events were observed. Mild adverse events reported were slight erythema, scale, and crust. The 27.12 MHz RF treatment of benign vascular and nonvascular lesions appears safe and effective after 3 weeks of follow-up. PMID:27127789

  13. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Wilms Tumor KidsHealth > For Parents > Wilms Tumor Print A A A What's in this article? ... their child has cancer. Fortunately, most kids with Wilms tumor, a rare kidney cancer, survive and go on ...

  15. Ultrasound appearance of the normal Lisfranc ligament.

    PubMed

    Kaicker, Jatin; Zajac, Mercedes; Shergill, Ravi; Choudur, Hema N

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to prospectively evaluate the ultrasound appearance of the normal Lisfranc's ligament in 50 patients (100 ft) with no prior or current ligament injury. Fifty normal asymptomatic patients between the ages of 18 and 80 years were assessed. Three key features were recorded: ultrasound appearance, thickness, and length of the Lisfranc's ligament. Patients excluded from this study included pediatric patients and those with history of injury or symptoms related to the foot. The mean right- and left-sided ligament (RT) thickness were 0.096 (0.021) and 0.104 (0.023), respectively. The mean right- and left-sided ligament RT length was 0.54 (0.11) and 0.57 (0.11), respectively. The appearance of the ligament was similar in all patients with a central thin band of hypoechogenicity lined by hyperechoic lines on either side. Understanding the normal appearance, thickness, and length of the Lisfranc's ligament in a large sample is imperative to diagnose abnormal appearances of this ligament including sprains and tears by ultrasound. Ultrasound, with its easy accessibility, can be used in the emergency department to rapidly exclude injury of the ligament. Increased understanding and awareness of the Lisfranc's ligament on ultrasound can allow for more accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Expression analysis of thrombospondin 2 in prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Matos, A R; Coutinho-Camillo, C M; Thuler, L C S; Fonseca, F P; Soares, F A; Silva, E A; Gimba, E R

    2013-06-01

    Thrombospondin 2 (TSP2) is a protein with important roles in different tumor types, mainly related to tumor inhibition. However, there are limiting data regarding TSP2 in prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We aimed to investigate TSP2 transcript and protein expression in tumoral and non-tumoral prostate tissues and cell lines, and its implications for PCa diagnosis and progression. TSP2 transcript expression was evaluated by real time PCR in PCa and BPH tissue samples and in tumoral and non-tumoral cell lines. TSP2 protein expression analysis was conducted by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (TMA) containing PCa and BPH tissue samples. TSP2 transcript was down-regulated in PCa tissue samples and cell lines, when compared to BPH and non-tumoral samples (P<0.01). Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis demonstrated that TSP2 transcript levels can better distinguish PCa from BPH tissue samples (P<0.01) than serum PSA levels (P=0.299). TSP2 protein expression has been observed in the cytoplasm of both PCa and BPH epithelial and stromal compartments. TSP2 stromal staining scores were significantly lower in PCa than in BPH tissues (P<0.01), while similar TSP2 epithelial staining patterns were observed in both diseases. Notably, the TSP2 epithelial staining score was significantly correlated to vascular invasion and biochemical recurrence in PCa tissue samples (P<0.05). Our data indicate that TSP2 is down-regulated at PCa tissues and cell lines, especially at stroma compartment, which could be related to PCa progression. TSP2 levels could potentially be applied for differential PCa and BPH diagnosis.

  17. MRI findings of benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

    PubMed

    Hamano, T; Mutoh, T; Hirayama, M; Ito, K; Kimura, M; Aita, T; Kiyosawa, K; Ohtaki, T; Kuriyama, M

    1999-06-01

    We report here magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of two patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb. Both subjects showed unilateral amyotrophy of the lower limb with a benign clinical course, and the affected muscles demonstrated neurogenic changes. On T1- and T2-weighted MRI, marked atrophy and increased signal intensity were found mainly in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Moreover, MRI examination also revealed that thigh muscles including semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and vastus intermedius and lateralis muscles were involved in one of the patients. We concluded that muscle MRI is very useful for detecting affected muscles, especially deep skeletal muscles in patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

  18. Dental benign cementomas in three horses.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, R; Wohlsein, P; Staszyk, C; Nowak, M; Sill, V; Baumgärtner, W

    2007-07-01

    Cementoma is a very rare odontogenic neoplasm of mesenchymal origin. Clinically, in 3 horses, multiple bony enlargements of the upper and lower jaw extending into the oral cavity were observed. Radiographically, multiple, well-circumscribed, radiopaque masses surrounding the roots of the upper and lower incisors or an upper premolar tooth were present. Due to malocclusion and local pain, single teeth were extracted in each case. Grossly, a hard grayish-white mass surrounding the root of the incisors and the premolars was identified. Histopathologically, the tumors consisted of excessive deposition of cementum-like tissue. Cells, resembling cementoblasts, lined irregularly shaped lacunae, which were present in the tumor tissue, and showed minimal cellular pleomorphism. Mitotic figures were not present. Macroscopically and histologically, all 3 equine cases displayed great similarities to cementomas in other species. However, due to their high degree of differentiation, hypercementosis must be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  19. Detection of benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules in T2W MR images using fuzzy decision forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Nathan; Freeman, Sabrina; Turkbey, Baris; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men MRI has proven useful for detecting prostate cancer, and CAD may further improve detection. One source of false positives in prostate computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is the presence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) nodules. These nodules have a distinct appearance with a pseudo-capsule on T2 weighted MR images but can also resemble cancerous lesions in other sequences such as the ADC or high B-value images. Describing their appearance with hand-crafted heuristics (features) that also exclude the appearance of cancerous lesions is challenging. This work develops a method based on fuzzy decision forests to automatically learn discriminative features for the purpose of BPH nodule detection in T2 weighted images for the purpose of improving prostate CAD systems.

  20. Material appearance acquisition from a single image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Cui, Shulin; Cui, Hanwen; Yang, Lin; Wu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to present a method of material appearance acquisition(MAA) from a single image. In this paper, material appearance is represented by spatially varying bidirectional reflectance distribution function(SVBRDF). Therefore, MAA can be reduced to the problem of recovery of each pixel's BRDF parameters from an original input image, which include diffuse coefficient, specular coefficient, normal and glossiness based on the Blinn-Phone model. In our method, the workflow of MAA includes five main phases: highlight removal, estimation of intrinsic images, shape from shading(SFS), initialization of glossiness and refining SVBRDF parameters based on IPOPT. The results indicate that the proposed technique can effectively extract the material appearance from a single image.