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Sample records for benign neurofibroma masquerading

  1. Toward a Survey of Somatic Mutation of the NF1 Gene in Benign Neurofibromas of Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Ingrid; Beyer, Kim; Krone, Winfrid; Assum, Günter

    2000-01-01

    Summary Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations of the NF1 gene, is characterized by multiple neurofibromas, pigmentation anomalies, and a variety of other possible complications, including an increased risk of malignant neoplasias. Tumorigenesis in NF1 is believed to follow the two-hit hypothesis postulated for tumor-suppressor genes. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been shown to occur in NF1-associated malignancies and in benign neurofibromas, but only few of the latter yielded a positive result. Here we describe a systematic approach of searching for somatic inactivation of the NF1 gene in neurofibromas. In the course of these studies, two new intragenic polymorphisms of the NF1 gene, a tetranucleotide repeat and a 21-bp duplication, could be identified. Three tumor-specific point mutations and two LOH events were detected among seven neurofibromas from four different NF1 patients. Our results suggest that small subtle mutations occur with similar frequency to that of LOH in benign neurofibromas and that somatic inactivation of the NF1 gene is a general event in these tumors. The spectrum of somatic mutations occurring in various tumors from individual NF1 patients may contribute to the understanding of variable expressivity of the NF1 phenotype. PMID:10677298

  2. Spontaneous Coronary Dissection Masquerading as Benign Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sara Wei-Fen; Lin, Weiqin; Chan, Koo Hui; Seow, Swee-Chong

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome. Diagnosis of coronary artery dissection is made on coronary angiogram and prompt revascularisation is the key in management. We present a case of coronary artery dissection with an atypical presentation of cardiac arrhythmia mimicking benign fascicular ventricular tachycardia. A high index of suspicion and early coronary angiogram allowed us to diagnose and treat this potentially life-threatening disease.

  3. Thoracic exophytic ependymoma masquerading as a benign extra-axial tumor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Charlotte Y; Koffie, Robert M; Dewitt, John C; Aronson, Joshua P

    2016-11-01

    Spinal tumors are conventionally differentiated based on location in relation to the spinal cord. Benign spinal tumors such as schwannomas and meningiomas are typically extra-axial (intradural extramedullary) lesions, whereas more aggressive primary spinal tumors such as ependymomas are typically intramedullary masses. Rarely, ependymomas can have both intramedullary and extramedullary components (typically referred to as exophytic ependymomas). We report a case of a spinal exophytic ependymoma that radiographically masqueraded as a benign intradural extramedullary lesion causing cord compression and neurologic deficit in a 47-year-old man. The diagnosis of exophytic ependymoma was made intra-operatively, with resultant gross total resection of the extramedullary portion and subtotal resection of the intramedullary portion. Histopathological examination confirmed ependymoma with World Health Organization grade II/IV. Pre-operative suspicion of an exophytic ependymoma influences operative planning and clinical management. We review the literature and discuss clinical management strategies for these interesting spinal tumors.

  4. Regressing basal-cell carcinoma masquerading as benign lichenoid keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Kulberg, Aleksandra; Weyers, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background Benign lichenoid keratosis (BLK, LPLK) is often misdiagnosed clinically as superficial basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), especially when occurring on the trunk. However, BCCs undergoing regression may be associated with a lichenoid interface dermatitis that may be misinterpreted as BLK in histopathologic sections. Methods In order to assess the frequency of remnants of BCC in lesions interpreted as BLK, we performed step sections on 100 lesions from the trunk of male patients that had been diagnosed as BLK. Results Deeper sections revealed remnants of superficial BCC in five and remnants of a melanocytic nevus in two specimens. In the original sections of cases in which a BCC showed up, crusts tended to be more common, whereas vacuolar changes at the dermo-epidermal junction and melanophages in the papillary dermis tended to be less common and less pronounced. Conclusions Lesions from the trunk submitted as BCC and presenting histopathologically as a lichenoid interface dermatitis are not always BLKs. Although no confident recommendations can be given on the basis of this limited study, deeper sections may be warranted if lesions are crusted and/or associated with only minimal vacuolar changes at the dermo-epidermal junction and no or few melanophages in the papillary dermis. PMID:27867740

  5. Subcutaneous Fungal Cyst Masquerading as Benign Lesions – A Series of Eight Cases

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Renu G’Boy; Phansalkar, Manjiri; Ramdas, Anita; K, Authy; G, Thangiah

    2015-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous fungal infections are caused by penetration of the causative fungi into the subcutaneous layer and are usually localised. We present a series of eight cases with subcutaneous fungal cystic lesions masquerading as benign lesions. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted on subcutaneous fungal infections seen between January 2007 to July 2014 in the Department of Pathology. Eight patients with biopsy proven subcutaneous fungal infection were included. We collected and analysed their demographic, clinical and histopathological details. Results Among eight patients, six were male and two were female. The mean age was 47 years (Range: 21-70). All the eight patients presented with non-tender cystic swelling. The size of the swellings varied from a minimum of 3x3 cm to maximum of 10x4 cm. Out of eight, hand was involved in three, forearm in one, elbow in two, leg in one and foot in one. On H&E staining, all the cases showed fibro collagenous cyst wall, lined by histiocytes, granulomatous reaction, foreign body type of giant cells with acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrate containing fungal elements. Six were identified as hyalohyphomycosis and two were identified as phaeohyphomycotic cysts based on pigmentation of hyphae. Conclusion Fungal infection should be suspected in all subcutaneous cystic lesions. Excised tissue should always be sent for culture and histopathology. PMID:26557537

  6. [Retroperitoneal Tumor: Neurofibroma.

    PubMed

    Lada, Paul Eduardo; Marriot, Daniela; Sanchez Tasonne, Carlos; Sanchez, Martin; Caballero, Fabian; Massa, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The neurofibroma is a benign tumor that grows from the sheath of the peripheral nerves, which is often localized on superficial tissues, especially in isolated forms. The neurofibromas can be of two types, localized or diffuse, the last one closely related to Von Recklinghausen disease or NF-1. We described a 37 years old male e patient, 37 years without symptoms, and the computed tomography scan (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor in proximity to the right kidney, the psoas muscle, the spine and compressing the cava vein, but cannot be accurately determinate the invasion of these structures. We review the differential diagnosis, therapeutic and the management of this disease in this clinical case.

  7. [Management of plexiform neurofibroma isolated in childhood: four patients].

    PubMed

    Lange, F; Herlin, C; Frison, L; Bessis, D; Rouleau-Dubois, C; Bigorre, M; Captier, G

    2013-12-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma is a rare and benign tumor often associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1) or Von Recklinghausen's disease. Present in one third of cases of NF1, there are isolated forms where the diagnosis should remain a diagnosis of exclusion. We report four cases of isolated plexiform neurofibromas found in children from topographies and we discuss the pretherapeutic assessment, the surgical management and the long-term follow-up.

  8. Progesterone and Estrogen Receptors in Neurofibromas of Patients with NF1.

    PubMed

    Geller, Mauro; Mezitis, Spyros G E; Nunes, Fabio Pereira; Ribeiro, Marcia G; Araújo, Alexandra Prufer de Q C; Bronstein, Marcello D; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Oliveira, Lisa; Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or von Recklinghausen disease is a genetic disorder affecting the growth of cells in nervous system. One of the most remarkable characteristics of this disease is the development of benign tumors of the nervous system (neurofibromas).The purpose of this study was to test tissue samples taken from neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas of NF1 patients for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors. We used previously collected samples from patients registered in the database of the Centro Nacional de Neurofibromatose (CNNF-Brazil). Samples from twenty-five patients in the database presenting plexiform neurofibromas (N1 group) and 25 samples from the same database from patients presenting neurofibromas (N2 group) were tested.We observed positive staining for progesterone receptors in 13 of the neurofibroma samples and 19 of the plexiform neurofibroma samples. Among the neurofibroma samples, we observed one sample with positive estrogen receptor staining, but none of the plexiform neurofibroma samples showed positive staining. We suggest further studies to investigate in greater depth possible hormonal influences on the development and growth of neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas in NF1.

  9. Progesterone and Estrogen Receptors in Neurofibromas of Patients with NF1

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Mauro; Mezitis, Spyros G.E.; Nunes, Fabio Pereira; Ribeiro, Marcia G.; Araújo, Alexandra Prufer de Q.C.; Bronstein, Marcello D.; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Oliveira, Lisa; Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or von Recklinghausen disease is a genetic disorder affecting the growth of cells in nervous system. One of the most remarkable characteristics of this disease is the development of benign tumors of the nervous system (neurofibromas). The purpose of this study was to test tissue samples taken from neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas of NF1 patients for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors. We used previously collected samples from patients registered in the database of the Centro Nacional de Neurofibromatose (CNNF-Brazil). Samples from twenty-five patients in the database presenting plexiform neurofibromas (N1 group) and 25 samples from the same database from patients presenting neurofibromas (N2 group) were tested. We observed positive staining for progesterone receptors in 13 of the neurofibroma samples and 19 of the plexiform neurofibroma samples. Among the neurofibroma samples, we observed one sample with positive estrogen receptor staining, but none of the plexiform neurofibroma samples showed positive staining. We suggest further studies to investigate in greater depth possible hormonal influences on the development and growth of neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas in NF1. PMID:21876657

  10. The appendix: a spectrum of benign and malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Lord, Christopher; Broadhurst, Jack; Sleight, Simon; McGee, Shaun; Wills, Mark

    2017-02-02

    This article discusses the radiological appearances and subsequent management of a diverse spectrum of benign and malignant appendiceal pathologies, including those masquerading as acute appendicitis.

  11. The Solitary Variant of Mandibular Intraosseous Neurofibroma: Report of a Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibroma (NF) is a benign neoplasm derived from peripheral nerve cells. NF may extend either as a solitary lesion or as part of a generalized syndrome of neurofibromatosis. Intraorally, the intraosseous variant of neurofibroma is a very rare tumor. The literature provides only few cases of solitary intraosseous neurofibroma of the mandible. We report a case of 28-year-old female who was diagnosed with a solitary intraosseous neurofibroma involving the lower left quadrant of the mandible. The present case is rare in regard to its dimensions and its location. PMID:26770842

  12. Immortalization of human normal and NF1 neurofibroma Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Chang, Lung-Ji; Neubauer, Debbie R; Muir, David F; Wallace, Margaret R

    2016-10-01

    Neurofibromas, which are benign Schwann cell tumors, are the hallmark feature in the autosomal dominant condition neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and are associated with biallelic loss of NF1 gene function. There is a need for effective therapies for neurofibromas, particularly the larger, plexiform neurofibromas. Tissue culture is an important tool for research. However, it is difficult to derive enriched human Schwann cell cultures, and most enter replicative senescence after 6-10 passages, impeding cell-based research in NF1. Through exogenous expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase and murine cyclin-dependent kinase (mCdk4), normal (NF1 wild-type), neurofibroma-derived Schwann cells heterozygous for NF1 mutation, and neurofibroma-derived Schwann cells homozygous for NF1 mutation were immortalized, including some matched samples from the same NF1 patient. Initial experiments employed retroviral vectors, while subsequent work utilized lentiviral vectors carrying these genes because of improved efficiency. Expression of both transgenes was required for immortalization. Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that these cell lines are of Schwann cell lineage and have a range of phenotypes, many of which are consistent with their primary cultures. This is the first report of immortalization and detailed characterization of multiple human NF1 normal nerve and neurofibroma-derived Schwann cell lines, which will be highly useful research tools to study NF1 and other Schwann tumor biology and conditions.

  13. Giant melanocytic nevi with neurocutaneous melanosis masquerading as neurofibromas

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Vykuntaraju K.; Basude, Anita; Srinivas, Sahana M.; Bhat, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Neurocutaneous melanosis is congenital melanocytic nevus with neurological manifestations. We report a 4-year-old female child presenting with hyperpigmented and nodular skin lesion associated with developmental delay and convulsions. The child had multiple brownish-black nevi on the face and chest and giant melanocytic nevi on thoraco-abdomen, back, and gluteal region. Computed tomography scan of the brain showed calcification in the pons, right cerebellar hemisphere, and left medial temporal lobe. Skin biopsy done from nodular hyperpigmented site was suggestive of melanocytic nevi. Electroencephalogram showed multifocal epileptiform discharges. PMID:27857802

  14. Intraosseous Neurofibroma of the Mandible: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Palaskar, Sangeeta Jayant; Bartake, Anirudha Ratnadeep; Pawar, Rasika Balkrishna; Rongte, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Neurofibroma (NF) is a benign tumor of the peripheral nervous system. Head and neck NF are generally located in the soft tissue. The tumour is rarely seen intraosseously and most commonly such tumours are seen as solitary lesions, rather than part of neurofibromatosis. The following report describes a case of an intraosseous neurofibroma in a 45-year-old male located in the left posterior mandible. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical findings, radio graphical features, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. A literature review has been done on intraosseuos neurofibromas located in the jaws, with a discussion on the possible differential diagnosis. PMID:28384986

  15. Magnetic resonance neurographic confirmation of extensive Plexiform neurofibroma in neurofibromatosis-1 presenting as ambiguous genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ishan; Verma, Ashish; Ojha, Ritu; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Shukla, Ram C; Srivastava, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary involvement of neurofibromatosis is uncommon and genital neurofibromatosis is even rarer. Involvement of clitoris by neurofibroma can lead to clitoromegaly masquerading as a male penis. We report such a case of ambiguous genitalia in a 7-year-old female child presenting with clitoromegaly since birth, in which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the presence of extensive neurofibromatosis in the clitoris and lumbosacral regions. We emphasize the central role of MRI in evaluation of hormonal and non-hormonal causes of ambiguous genitalia. We further discuss the merits of including MR neurography in the imaging protocol for comprehensive delineation of neurofibromatosis. PMID:27857458

  16. Plexiform neurofibroma tissue classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weizman, L.; Hoch, L.; Ben Sira, L.; Joskowicz, L.; Pratt, L.; Constantini, S.; Ben Bashat, D.

    2011-03-01

    Plexiform Neurofibroma (PN) is a major complication of NeuroFibromatosis-1 (NF1), a common genetic disease that involving the nervous system. PNs are peripheral nerve sheath tumors extending along the length of the nerve in various parts of the body. Treatment decision is based on tumor volume assessment using MRI, which is currently time consuming and error prone, with limited semi-automatic segmentation support. We present in this paper a new method for the segmentation and tumor mass quantification of PN from STIR MRI scans. The method starts with a user-based delineation of the tumor area in a single slice and automatically detects the PN lesions in the entire image based on the tumor connectivity. Experimental results on seven datasets yield a mean volume overlap difference of 25% as compared to manual segmentation by expert radiologist with a mean computation and interaction time of 12 minutes vs. over an hour for manual annotation. Since the user interaction in the segmentation process is minimal, our method has the potential to successfully become part of the clinical workflow.

  17. An inflammatory gene signature distinguishes neurofibroma Schwann cells and macrophages from cells in the normal peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwangmin; Komurov, Kakajan; Fletcher, Jonathan S.; Jousma, Edwin; Cancelas, Jose A.; Wu, Jianqiang; Ratner, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Neurofibromas are benign peripheral nerve tumors driven by NF1 loss in Schwann cells (SCs). Macrophages are abundant in neurofibromas, and macrophage targeted interventions may have therapeutic potential in these tumors. We generated gene expression data from fluorescence-activated cell sorted (FACS) SCs and macrophages from wild-type and mutant nerve and neurofibroma to identify candidate pathways involved in SC-macrophage cross-talk. While in 1-month-old Nf1 mutant nerve neither SCs nor macrophages significantly differed from their normal counterparts, both macrophages and SCs showed significantly altered cytokine gene expression in neurofibromas. Computationally reconstructed SC-macrophage molecular networks were enriched for inflammation-associated pathways. We verified that neurofibroma SC conditioned medium contains macrophage chemo-attractants including colony stimulation factor 1 (CSF1). Network analysis confirmed previously implicated pathways and predict novel paracrine and autocrine loops involving cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Network analysis also predicted a central role for decreased type-I interferon signaling. We validated type-I interferon expression in neurofibroma by protein profiling, and show that treatment of neurofibroma-bearing mice with polyethylene glycolyated (PEGylated) type-I interferon-α2b reduces the expression of many cytokines overexpressed in neurofibroma. These studies reveal numerous potential targetable interactions between Nf1 mutant SCs and macrophages for further analyses. PMID:28256556

  18. Characterization of Neurofibromas of the Skin and Spinal Roots in a Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT: Benign neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors ( MPNSTs ) contribute to the majority... MPNSTs ) contribute to the majority of morbidity and mortality associated with NF1. The proposed studies will provide significant insight into one of the...already developed Page 7 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors ( MPNSTs ). These preliminary observations suggest that the NF1 heterozygous environment

  19. Intraparotid Neurofibroma of the Facial Nerve: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nofal, Ahmed-Abdel-Fattah; El-Anwar, Mohammad-Waheed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intraparotid neurofibromas of the facial nerve are extremely rare and mostly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Case Report: This is a case of a healthy 40-year-old man, which underwent surgery for a preoperatively diagnosed benign parotid gland lesion. After identification of the facial nerve main trunk, a single large mass (6 x 3 cm) incorporating the upper nerve division was observed. The nerve portion involved in the mass could not be dissected and was inevitably sacrificed with immediate neuroraphy of the upper division of the facial nerve with 6/0 prolene. The final histopathology revealed the presence of a neurofibroma. Complete left side facial nerve paralysis was observed immediately postoperatively but the function of the lower half was returned within 4 months and the upper half was returned after 1 year. Currently, after 3 years of follow up, there are no signs of recurrence and normal facial nerve function is observed. Conclusion: Neurofibroma should be considered as the diagnosis in a patient demonstrating a parotid mass. In cases where it is diagnosed intraoperatively, excision of part of the nerve with the mass will be inevitable though it can be successfully repaired by end to end anastomosis. PMID:27602341

  20. Case of pigmented neurofibroma with hypertrichosis with no association to neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Na, Chan Ho; Song, In Guk; Chung, Byoung Soo; Shin, Bong Seok

    2009-10-01

    Pigmented neurofibroma (PNF) is a rare cutaneous tumor that has been observed in patients with or without neurofibromatosis (NF). This tumor is histologically characterized by the coexistence of scattered melanin-laden cells and benign spindle cells with neural differentiations. Hypertrichosis is the excessive growth of hair on non-androgen-dependent areas of the body. It has been reported that hypertrichosis may sometimes overlie a neurofibroma. We highlight a case of PNF with hypertrichosis on a 17-year-old woman with no associated NF. We also discuss the possible underlying pathogenic mechanism of a localized hypertrichosis in PNF patients.

  1. Recurrent Diffuse Neurofibroma of Nose Associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Rare Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chander, Vimal; Rao, RVM Surya; Sekhar, Ganthimathy; Raja, Alagar; Sridevi, M

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse neurofibroma is an unusual variant of neurofibroma with the head and neck being the common sites of involvement. It is benign in nature and spreads superficially and has many ectatic blood vessels. Histologically it is similar to conventional neurofibromas except for a few peculiar distinguishing features. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy who presented with a diffuse recurrent painless swelling over the dorsum of the nose with the clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis. Microscopy revealed a diagnosis of diffuse neurofibroma with a few foci showing differentiation towards Meissner's type of tactile corpuscles. It is important to recognize this entity as it has a tendency to recur, yet hardly ever become malignant and is almost always associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. PMID:26677270

  2. Epigenetic mechanisms drive the progression of neurofibromas to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Krish; Kliot, Tamara; Piunti, Andrea; Kliot, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Thinking Outside the Box: The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a histone methyltransferase complex known to repress gene expression. There is a large body of experimental evidence that supports its role in promoting tumorigenicity by suppressing tumor suppressor genes. Here, we discuss the surprising findings that, in neurofibromas, it may have a completely different role as a tumor suppressor; mutations of PRC2 lead to conversion of benign neurofibromas into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) by de-repressing and thereby activating genes driving cell growth and development. These findings have potentially powerful clinical applications in both diagnosing and treating MPNSTs. Hypothesis: PRC2 loss drives malignant transformation of neurofibromas. PMID:27920939

  3. Pleomorphic adenoma of the frontal sinus masquerading as a mucocele.

    PubMed

    Chew, Yok Kuan; Brito-Mutunayagam, Sushil; Chong, Aun Wee; Prepageran, Narayanan; Chandran, Patricia Ann; Khairuzzana, Baharudin; Lingham, Omkara Rubini

    2015-12-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common type of benign salivary gland tumor. It can also be found in the larynx, ear, neck, and nasal septum. It is rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and it has never been reported in the frontal sinus. We report a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the frontal sinus that masqueraded as a mucocele. We discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this patient, and we review the literature.

  4. Solitary Encapsulated Neurofibroma Not Associated with Neurofibromatosis-1 Affecting Tongue in a 73-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Sk. Abdul; Chattaraj, Moumita; Gayen, Swagata

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas are benign tumors of nerve cell origin arising due to proliferation of Schwann cells and fibroblasts. They are usually asymptomatic and hence remain undiagnosed. They are commonly found on the skin and intraorally tongue is the most common site for their occurrence. Here, we present a unique case of solitary encapsulated neurofibroma in the oral cavity without any clinical manifestations or family history of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in a 73-year-old female patient who presented with a painless swelling on the tongue. The histopathologic findings closely mimicked benign fibrous histiocytoma. In our case, definitive diagnosis of neurofibroma was made based on clinical findings, family history, and histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Through this case report we want to emphasize the role of biopsy and immunohistochemistry in arriving at a confirmatory diagnosis. The patient was treated by surgical excision and showed no signs of recurrence over a follow-up period of 12 months. PMID:27525129

  5. Plexiform Neurofibroma Involving the Lacrimal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Hofsli, Mikael; Gampenrieder, Nico; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Background To present a rare case of a 2-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who presented with ptosis of the right upper eyelid along with a tumor in the eyelid. Methods A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the orbit revealed a solid tumor located extraconally at the site of the right lacrimal gland. A transcranial orbitotomy was performed. Results Histopathological examination demonstrated expanded nerve branches/fascicles cut in various planes in between normal lacrimal gland acini. These findings were consistent with a plexiform neurofibroma presumably deriving from the lacrimal nerve and/or a supraorbital nerve branch. Conclusion This is the first case of a plexiform neurofibroma involving the lacrimal gland ever described and the tumor shows similarities with neurofibroma in other salivary glands with a high recurrence rate. Plexiform neurofibromas are frequently seen in patients with NF1 and rarely undergo malignant transformation. PMID:28203199

  6. Hypertrichotic Giant Nevus Spilus Tardivus and Neurofibroma of the Tongue in Sporadic von Recklinghausen's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Prabhath; Sylvester, Vijay; Vengalath, Janisha; Valambath, Smruthi

    2014-01-01

    Solitary neurofibromas are rare, benign tumours of nonodontogenic origin. The presentation of a solitary neurofibroma on the tongue is an uncommon occurrence and we present such a case here which was discovered in concomitance with multiple neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen's disease). Such a rare presentation seen in this case is a diagnostic challenge and often clinched only with the aid of histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. This work also discusses the various differential diagnoses that can be considered in similar cases. The presence of a hypertrichotic “giant” nevus spilus tardivus (Becker's nevus) is also a rare finding in this particular case. We present such a case which will be of interest to the budding dental practitioner. The lesion was excised and the patient followed up without any evidence of malignant transformation. PMID:25478247

  7. Neurofibromas: location by scanning with Tc-99m DTPA. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.M.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-12-01

    The accumulation of technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) in benign soft-tissue neurofibromatosis tumors is reported. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, 28 sites of abnormal soft-tissue localization of the isotope observed scintigraphically were documented to be sites of soft-tissue tumor by clinical and/or radiographic (predominantly computed tomographic) correlations. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-cm subcutaneous neurofibroma. Normal physiologic nonrenal distribution of the Tc-99m DTPA was established by scintigraphic imaging of a control population.

  8. Comparative study of CO2- and Er:YAG laser ablation of multiple cutaneous neurofibromas in von Recklinghausen's disease.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaumer, Lukas K; Susani, Martin; Kircher, Susanne G; Distelmaier, Klaus; Happak, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    With a prevalence of 1 in 3,000 births, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common genetic disorders and is characterized by an uninhibited expansion of neural tissue. Occasionally, severe deformities occur, but frequently considerable cosmetic disfigurement is caused by the development of hundreds of benign cutaneous neurofibromas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser as a therapeutic option for the removal of multiple cutaneous neurofibromas. In this prospective, comparative, in vivo study, 15,580 neurofibromas (44 operations on 21 patients) were removed via electrosurgery, CO2- or Er:YAG laser ablation. In 12 adjacent test areas, we compared the zone of thermal necrosis, the postoperative pain, the time to reepithelialization, the duration of postoperative erythema and the cosmetic outcome of these surgical methods. When compared to electrosurgery and CO2 laser ablation, the Er:YAG laser ablation outperformed the other methods of tumor removal. Rapid healing by second intention as well as the minimal discomfort and scar formation following Er:YAG laser ablation were noted. After 36 months of follow-up, permanent dyspigmentation was rare and hypertrophic scarring was not observed. Er:YAG laser vaporization of multiple cutaneous neurofibromas is a simple and rapid procedure that results in significantly better cosmetic results than CO2 laser treatment or electrosurgery.

  9. Pyoderma gangrenosum masquerading as Donovanosis

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Varadraj V.; Kikkeri, Naveen Narayanshetty; Athanikar, S. B.; Myageri, Anil; Rai, Vijetha

    2014-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by neutrophilic infiltration of the dermis and destruction of tissue. PG is diagnosed after excluding more commonly occurring condition presenting with similar manifestation. Though PG has been reported to occur over the genitalia, it rarely presents with concurrent involvement of the groin. Herein, we present a case of PG masquerading as Donovanosis. PMID:26396454

  10. Unusual solitary neurofibroma on the lower lip of a child

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Correia, Ramon De Medonça; Borba, Alexandre Meirelles; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Estrela, Cynthia Rodrigues De Araújo; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromas (NF) are benign tumors with involvement of the peripheral nerve, which is not frequently located in the oral cavity, and especially, extraordinary rarity on lower lip of a child. This report describes a case of a NF on lower lip in a 12-year-old Brazilian child. NF consists of a wide variety of cell types, including Schwann cells, perineurial cells, and fibroblasts. Due to cellular heterogeneity, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the histogenesis of this lesion. One of them, it support an origin of Schwannian, while others emphasize the participation of both Schwann cells and perineural cells. Excisional biopsy was performed to establish definitive diagnosis. Microscopically, the lesion was composed of interlacing bundles of elongated cells with wavy nuclei and small nerve fibers. Immunohistopathologic assessment showed cells positive for S-100, confirming the diagnosis of NF. No recurrence was observed after 1-year follow-up. Pediatric dentists must have a thorough knowledge of this unusual lesion. PMID:24403799

  11. [Voluminous plexiform neurofibromas of the neck region in neurofibromatosis 1].

    PubMed

    Pascual-Castroviejo, Ignacio; Pascual-Pascual, Samuel I; Velazquez-Fragua, Ramón; Viaño, Juan; Quiñones-Tapia, Diana; López-Barea, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    AIM. To present the clinic, imaging and evolutive characteristics of a series of patients with neurofibromatosis 1 with voluminous plexiform neurofibromas in the neck (VPNFN) during childhood. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Nine patients (five females and four males) who were diagnosed as VPNFN at ages between 3 and 15 years. The VPNFN widespread to the posterior fossa or the upper thoracic region in some cases. The diagnosis was based on the clinical, imaging and histological findings. RESULTS. One of the tumors was intralaryngeal and caused respiratory difficulties. The other eight patients had the origin of the tumor in several spinal roots of one or both sides and could growth to the posterior fossa and to the upper thoracic region in some cases with displacement of the surrounding organs, especially in three patients, all girls, in whom the tumor reached a voluminous size on one side, that was observed only until 10 to 11 years when the growth ceased. CONCLUSIONS. The VPNFN are histologically benign tumors. Those located in the larynx must be removed because of the respiratory problems, but it is not necessary in cases with other locations despite the voluminous size that can reach in some patients with great displacement of the surrounding organs. The analysis of the results of our series may demonstrate that al least the extralaryngeal tumors only grow to 11-12 years of age. This possibility may make recommendable to retard the surgical treatment as much as possible in cases that it is not necessary.

  12. The role of nerve microenvironment for neurofibroma development

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chung-Ping; Pradhan, Sanjay; Chen, Zhiguo; Patel, Amish J.; Booker, Reid C.; Le, Lu Q.

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of RAS signaling in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) results in the development of multiple neurofibromas, complex tumor of the peripheral nerves with no effective medical treatment. There is increasing evidences that neurofibroma initiates through loss of NF1 function in the Schwann cell lineage, followed by a cascade of interactions with other cell types in the surrounding tumor microenvironment. In NF1 patients, neurofibromas always develop along peripheral nerves and do not migrate to distant organs, including the central nervous system. In this study, we sought to identify the contributions of these peripheral nerves in neurofibroma formation. Using in vivo and in vitro three-dimensional (3D) culturing system, we show that peripheral nerves are absolutely required for neurofibroma tumorigenesis and report a novel 3D skin raft culture system for neurofibroma formation in vitro to decipher tumor pathogenesis. This interaction between neoplastic Schwann cells and their surrounding neural microenvironment has important implications for understanding early cellular events that dictate tumorigenesis. It also provides fertile ground for the elucidation of intrinsic and extrinsic factors within the nerve microenvironment that likely play essential roles in neurofibroma development and, therefore, viable therapeutic targets in neurofibroma therapy. PMID:27517146

  13. Arteriovenous Malformation Underlying a Plexiform Neurofibroma: An Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaheer; Khani, Sepideh; Zare, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 are well described in the literature, however, arteriovenous malformation is a very rare finding in neurofibromatosis type 1. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl who presented with a soft mass on the right flank. Provisional diagnosis of plexiform neurofibroma was made on the basis of clinical and histological observations. Because the lesion was warm on palpation, imaging studies were performed to evaluate further and arteriovenous malformation was detected underlying the plexiform neurofibroma. This report emphasizes the importance of careful examination and proper investigations of the plexiform neurofibroma prior to treatment strategies to avoid future complications. The rarity of plexiform neurofibroma in association with arteriovenous malformation at the same site was also highlighted in this report.

  14. Somatic neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) inactivation events in cutaneous neurofibromas of a single NF1 patient.

    PubMed

    Emmerich, Denise; Zemojtel, Tomasz; Hecht, Jochen; Krawitz, Peter; Spielmann, Malte; Kühnisch, Jirko; Kobus, Karolina; Osswald, Monika; Heinrich, Verena; Berlien, Peter; Müller, Ute; Mautner, Victor-F; Wimmer, Katharina; Robinson, Peter N; Vingron, Martin; Tinschert, Sigrid; Mundlos, Stefan; Kolanczyk, Mateusz

    2015-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (MIM#162200) is a relatively frequent genetic condition that predisposes to tumor formation. The main types of tumors occurring in NF1 patients are cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas, optic pathway gliomas, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. To search for somatic mutations in cutaneous (dermal) neurofibromas, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on seven spatially separated tumors and two reference tissues (blood and unaffected skin) from a single NF1 patient. Validation of WES findings was done using routine Sanger sequencing or Sequenom IPlex SNP genotyping. Exome sequencing confirmed the existence of a known familial splice-site mutation NM_000267.3:c.3113+1G>A in exon 23 of NF1 gene (HGMD ID CS951480) in blood, unaffected skin, and all tumor samples. In five out of seven analyzed tumors, we additionally detected second-hit mutations in the NF1 gene. Four of them were novel and one was previously observed. Each mutation was distinct, demonstrating the independent origin of each tumor. Only in two of seven tumors we detected an additional somatic mutation that was not associated with NF1. Our study demonstrated that somatic mutations of NF1 are likely the main drivers of cutaneous tumor formation. The study provides evidence for the rareness of single base pair level alterations in the exomes of benign NF1 cutaneous tumors.

  15. Somatic neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) inactivation events in cutaneous neurofibromas of a single NF1 patient

    PubMed Central

    Emmerich, Denise; Zemojtel, Tomasz; Hecht, Jochen; Krawitz, Peter; Spielmann, Malte; Kühnisch, Jirko; Kobus, Karolina; Osswald, Monika; Heinrich, Verena; Berlien, Peter; Müller, Ute; Mautner, Victor-F; Wimmer, Katharina; Robinson, Peter N; Vingron, Martin; Tinschert, Sigrid; Mundlos, Stefan; Kolanczyk, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (MIM#162200) is a relatively frequent genetic condition that predisposes to tumor formation. The main types of tumors occurring in NF1 patients are cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas, optic pathway gliomas, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. To search for somatic mutations in cutaneous (dermal) neurofibromas, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on seven spatially separated tumors and two reference tissues (blood and unaffected skin) from a single NF1 patient. Validation of WES findings was done using routine Sanger sequencing or Sequenom IPlex SNP genotyping. Exome sequencing confirmed the existence of a known familial splice-site mutation NM_000267.3:c.3113+1G>A in exon 23 of NF1 gene (HGMD ID CS951480) in blood, unaffected skin, and all tumor samples. In five out of seven analyzed tumors, we additionally detected second-hit mutations in the NF1 gene. Four of them were novel and one was previously observed. Each mutation was distinct, demonstrating the independent origin of each tumor. Only in two of seven tumors we detected an additional somatic mutation that was not associated with NF1. Our study demonstrated that somatic mutations of NF1 are likely the main drivers of cutaneous tumor formation. The study provides evidence for the rareness of single base pair level alterations in the exomes of benign NF1 cutaneous tumors. PMID:25293717

  16. Disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Masquerading as Metastasis after Heavy Ion Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Masaru; Mukai, Yutaka; Ushijima, Ryo-ichi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Umeki, Kenji; Okada, Fumito; Nureki, Shin-ichi; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is useful in disease monitoring of malignancies after therapy, while an FDG uptake may also be present in benign diseases. We herein demonstrate a case of disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis mimicking systemic metastasis of prostate cancer. This case highlights that clinicians should consider Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with prostate cancer who demonstrate multifocal FDG uptakes masquerading as metastasis, even when the chest photographs reveal a normal appearance and a sputum examination demonstrates negative results. An invasive surgical biopsy may be required and a pathological analysis would be critical in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:27853089

  17. Identification of Growth Hormone Receptor in Plexiform Neurofibromas of Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves; Barboza, Eliane Porto; da Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of growth hormone receptor in plexiform neurofibromas of neurofibromatosis type 1 patients. INTRODUCTION The development of multiple neurofibromas is one of the major features of neurofibromatosis type 1. Since neurofibromas commonly grow during periods of hormonal change, especially during puberty and pregnancy, it has been suggested that hormones may influence neurofibromatosis type 1 neurofibromas. A recent study showed that the majority of localized neurofibromas from neurofibromatosis type 1 patients have growth hormone receptor. METHODS Growth hormone receptor expression was investigated in 5 plexiform neurofibromas using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Four of the 5 plexiform neurofibromas were immunopositive for growth hormone receptor. CONCLUSION This study suggests that growth hormone may influence the development of plexiform neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. PMID:18297205

  18. Plexiform neurofibroma of the submandibular gland in patient with von Recklinghausen's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bisher, Hassan Al; Kant, Ravi; Aldamati, Ahmed; Badar, Aysha Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Plexiform neurofibroma of the submandibular gland is an extremely rare tumor. Herein, we report a case of plexiform neurofibroma in a patient with a von Recklinghausen's disease (NF-1) who presented with a submandibular mass mimicking a submandibular gland tumor. Complete surgical excision provides the best treatment and final diagnosis. A neurofibroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis for submandibular mass. PMID:21464877

  19. Plexiform neurofibroma of the cheek mucosa. A case report.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Oliveira, Guillermo; Fernández-Alba Luengo, Javier; Martín-Sastre, Roberto; Patiño-Seijas, Beatriz; López-Cedrún-Cembranos, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    The case reported deals with a solitary plexiform neurofibroma affecting the cheek submucosa. Neurofibroma is an uncommon tumor which rarely appears in oral cavity but it represents the most common neurogenic tumor. Furthermore, plexiform variety is less frequent. Clinically, oral neurofibromas usually appears as anodyne and asintomatic lesions. Sometimes, they produce nervous compression. In this case, tumor is big but asintomatic. There is no definitive radiologic image. It has association with polyglandular syndromes and phacomatosis. The treatment of choice is excision. There are doubts of the surgical results so that some authors are looking for new non-surgical treatments. The clinical characteristics, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment are described as soon as a bibliographic revisión.

  20. The Role of [18F]FDG-PET/CT in Predicting Malignant Transformation of Plexiform Neurofibromas in Neurofibromatosis-1

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razak, Muzib; London, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs) are difficult to diagnose and treat and contribute to significant morbidity and mortality for patients with Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1). FDG-PET/CT is being increasingly used as an imaging modality to discriminate between benign and malignant plexiform neurofibromas. Objectives. To assess the value of FDG-PET/CT in differentiating between benign and malignant peripheral nerve lesions for patients with Neurofibromatosis-1. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was performed prior to application of stringent selection criteria. Ultimately 13 articles with 796 tumours were deemed eligible for inclusion into the review. Results. There was a significant difference between mean SUVmax of benign and malignant lesions (1.93 versus 7.48, resp.). Sensitivity ranged from 89 to 100% and specificity from 72 to 94%. ROC analysis was performed to maximise sensitivity and specificity of SUVmax cut-off; however no clear value was identified (range 3.1–6.1). Significant overlap was found between the SUVmax of benign and malignant lesions making differentiation of lesions difficult. Many of the studies suffered from having a small cohort and from not providing histological data on all lesions which underwent FDG-PET/CT. Conclusion. This systematic review is able to demonstrate that FDG-PET/CT is a useful noninvasive test for discriminating between benign and malignant lesions but has limitations and requires further prospective trials. PMID:28058117

  1. Orbital schwannoma and neurofibroma: role of imaging.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Rashmi; Mafee, Mahmood F; Lamba, Reema; Edward, Deepak P

    2005-02-01

    Schwannomas are well-circumscribed ovoid masses that most commonly present in the superior orbit. Although it may be difficult to differentiate these benign masses from other orbital tumors on radiologic imaging, the CT and, in particular, the MR imaging characteristics can sometimes point to the diagnosis of a nerve sheath tumor. A definitive diagnosis can be made through correlation with histopathologic findings, however. In most cases, schwannomas have low malignant potential, and with total excision, recurrence is rare.

  2. Recurrent angio-fibroma of breast masquerading as phyllodes tumor.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Jai K; Alam, Feroz; Shadan, Mariam; Naim, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    A young Indian female presented with a recurring tumor in the right breast masquerading as phyllodes tumor. Patient had history of five times excision and recurrences of the tumor, diagnosed as fibrous phyllodes of the breast. Presently, a well-circumscribed tumor of about 10 cm size, comprising of benign fibrous-angiomatous tissue with evidence of foci of pyogenic vasculitis was observed. Immuno-histochemical markers for the myo-epithelial and epithelial elements excluded the possibility of fibrous phyllodes, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, desmoid fibromatosis, and metaplastic carcinoma. The present findings were diagnostic of an inflammatory angio-fibroma of the right breast, not reported in the earlier literature. The observations indicated that the female breast may be susceptible to spontaneous productive and common-antibiotic-resistant focal septic vascular inflammation giving rise to angio-fibromatous proliferation producing a well-defined tumor mass in the breast, distinguishable from the other breast lesions by the connective tissue stains and immuno-histochemical markers.

  3. Securing iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbally, Javier; Gomez-Barrero, Marta; Ross, Arun; Fierrez, Julian; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A novel two-stage protection scheme for automatic iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks carried out with synthetically reconstructed iris images is presented. The method uses different characteristics of real iris images to differentiate them from the synthetic ones, thereby addressing important security flaws detected in state-of-the-art commercial systems. Experiments are carried out on the publicly available Biosecure Database and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed security enhancing approach.

  4. Whole exome sequencing reveals the order of genetic changes during malignant transformation and metastasis in a single patient with NF1-plexiform neurofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Hirbe, Angela C.; Dahiya, Sonika; Miller, Christopher A.; Li, Tiandao; Fulton, Robert S.; Zhang, Xiaochun; McDonald, Sandra; DeSchryver, Katherine; Duncavage, Eric J.; Walrath, Jessica; Reilly, Karlyne M.; Abel, Haley J.; Pekmezci, Melike; Perry, Arie; Ley, Timothy J.; Gutmann, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) occur at increased frequency in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), where they likely arise from benign plexiform neurofibroma precursors. While previous studies have employed a variety of discovery approaches to discover genes associated with MPNST pathogenesis, it is currently unclear what molecular events are associated with the evolution of MPNST from plexiform neurofibroma. Experimental Design Whole exome sequencing was performed on biopsy materials representing plexiform neurofibroma (n=3), MPNST, and metastasis from a single individual with NF1 over a 14-year period. Additional validation cases were used to assess candidate genes involved in malignant progression, while a murine MPNST model was employed for functional analysis. Results There was an increasing proportion of cells with a somatic NF1 gene mutation as the tumors progressed from benign to malignant, suggesting a clonal process in MPNST development. Copy number variations, including loss of one copy of the TP53 gene, were identified in the primary tumor and the metastatic lesion, but not in benign precursor lesions. A limited number of genes with non-synonymous somatic mutations (βIII-spectrin and ZNF208) were discovered, several of which were validated in additional primary and metastatic MPNST samples. Lastly, increased βIII-spectrin expression was observed in the majority of MPNSTs, and shRNA-mediated knockdown reduced murine MPNST growth in vivo. Conclusion Collectively, the ability to track the molecular evolution of MPNST in a single individual with NF1 offers new insights into the sequence of genetic events important for disease pathogenesis and progression for future mechanistic study. PMID:25925892

  5. Solitary giant neurofibroma of the scalp with calvarial defect in a child.

    PubMed

    Ismail, N J; Shehu, B B; Lasseini, A; Hassan, I; Shilong, D J; Obande, J O; Sahabi, S M

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibroma of the scalp are mostly multiple as part of neurofibromatosis or other phakomatosis. De novo solitary types are less common and rarely erode the skull, unlike the intracranial counterpart. Skull erosion has been reported in adults with longstanding plexiform neurofibromas. We report a giant neurofibroma on the scalp of a five-year-old boy, managed in our center. Although this condition is a rare entity, it should be anticipated and the treatment strategy should include repair of the skull defect.

  6. Density-dependent predation influences the evolution and behavior of masquerading prey.

    PubMed

    Skelhorn, John; Rowland, Hannah M; Delf, Jon; Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2011-04-19

    Predation is a fundamental process in the interaction between species, and exerts strong selection pressure. Hence, anti-predatory traits have been intensively studied. Although it has long been speculated that individuals of some species gain protection from predators by sometimes almost-uncanny resemblances to uninteresting objects in the local environment (such as twigs or stones), demonstration of antipredatory benefits to such "masquerade" have only very recently been demonstrated, and the fundamental workings of this defensive strategy remain unclear. Here we use laboratory experiments with avian predators and twig-mimicking caterpillars as masqueraders to investigate (i) the evolutionary dynamics of masquerade; and (ii) the behavioral adaptations associated with masquerade. We show that the benefit of masquerade declines as the local density of masqueraders relative to their models (twigs, in our system) increases. This occurs through two separate mechanisms: increasing model density both decreased predators' motivation to search for masqueraders, and made masqueraders more difficult to detect. We further demonstrated that masquerading organisms have evolved complex microhabitat selection strategies that allow them to best exploit the density-dependent properties of masquerade. Our results strongly suggest the existence of opportunity costs associated with masquerade. Careful evaluation of such costs will be vital to the development of a fuller understanding of both the distribution of masquerade across taxa and ecosystems, and the evolution of the life history strategies of masquerading prey.

  7. Primary Cutaneous Plasmacytosis: Masquerading as Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Zawar, Vijay; Sharma, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Isolated cutaneous plasmacytosis (CP) is a rare entity with few cases reported in world literature. CP masquerading as hidradenitis suppurativa like presentation is a unique case with some features differentiating it clinically from it which were further confirmed by histopathology and immunostaining. Our case showed hyperplasia of mature plasma cells and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, immunostaining for CD138 positivity and kappa: lambda ratio more than 3:1. Extensive clinical and laboratory investigations failed to reveal any underlying pathology, presence of any underlying disease accompanying the hypergammaglobulinemia and/or plasma cell proliferation. PMID:27057027

  8. Density-dependent predation influences the evolution and behavior of masquerading prey

    PubMed Central

    Skelhorn, John; Rowland, Hannah M.; Delf, Jon; Speed, Michael P.; Ruxton, Graeme D.

    2011-01-01

    Predation is a fundamental process in the interaction between species, and exerts strong selection pressure. Hence, anti-predatory traits have been intensively studied. Although it has long been speculated that individuals of some species gain protection from predators by sometimes almost-uncanny resemblances to uninteresting objects in the local environment (such as twigs or stones), demonstration of antipredatory benefits to such “masquerade” have only very recently been demonstrated, and the fundamental workings of this defensive strategy remain unclear. Here we use laboratory experiments with avian predators and twig-mimicking caterpillars as masqueraders to investigate (i) the evolutionary dynamics of masquerade; and (ii) the behavioral adaptations associated with masquerade. We show that the benefit of masquerade declines as the local density of masqueraders relative to their models (twigs, in our system) increases. This occurs through two separate mechanisms: increasing model density both decreased predators’ motivation to search for masqueraders, and made masqueraders more difficult to detect. We further demonstrated that masquerading organisms have evolved complex microhabitat selection strategies that allow them to best exploit the density-dependent properties of masquerade. Our results strongly suggest the existence of opportunity costs associated with masquerade. Careful evaluation of such costs will be vital to the development of a fuller understanding of both the distribution of masquerade across taxa and ecosystems, and the evolution of the life history strategies of masquerading prey. PMID:21464318

  9. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Condition Family HealthMenWomen Share Benign Paroxysmal Positional ...

  10. Unusual location of a plexiform neurofibroma in the fallopian tube: A case report.

    PubMed

    Czuczwar, Piotr; Stepniak, Anna; Szkodziak, Piotr; Korolczuk, Agnieszka; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Wozniak, Slawomir

    2016-11-01

    It is rare for neurofibromatosis to occur in the female genital tract. We report a case of a plexiform neurofibroma in the left fallopian tube in a 50-year-old postmenopausal woman. The initial diagnosis was a pedunculated leiomyoma or a fallopian tube tumor. Laparotomy was performed and a solid mass approximately 90 x 60 x 40 mm in size was found in the left fallopian tube. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with an appendectomy, lymphadenectomy and omentectomy was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was plexiform neurofibroma. Although neurofibromatosis may involve various gynecological structures, to the best of our knowledge, localized plexiform neurofibroma in the fallopian tube has not previously been reported. The presented case is the first report of clinical, ultrasound and histopathological findings in a fallopian tube neurofibroma. Neurofibroma is a neoplasm that should be taken into consideration when diagnosing pelvic masses.

  11. Neurofibroma and epidermoid cyst: unexpected findings after first foreskin retraction.

    PubMed

    Ballouhey, Quentin; Longis, Bernard; Couvrat-Carcauzon, Véronique; Gardic, Solène; Piguet, Christophe; Berenguer, Daniel; Fourcade, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    We report here 2 unusual cases of tumor of the glans penis in children. Abnormal findings were found on a 12-year-old and a 13-year-old boy soon after their first foreskin retraction. Initial medical examination suggested inclusions of smegma and they were referred to our Department of Pediatric Urology. Complete resection was performed under general anesthesia. Histologic examination revealed an epidermoid cyst in the first patient and a solitary neurofibroma in the second. These patients represent respectively the third and the second cases of such entities described in the pediatric age group. Cautious examination is required for persistent inclusions of smegma.

  12. Eosinophilic Cholangitis—A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G.; Politi, Aikaterini N.; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K.; Mela, Maria K.; Polydorou, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task. We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids. Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  13. Neurofibroma-associated macrophages play roles in tumor growth and response to pharmacological inhibition.

    PubMed

    Prada, Carlos E; Jousma, Edwin; Rizvi, Tilat A; Wu, Jianqiang; Dunn, R Scott; Mayes, Debra A; Cancelas, Jose A; Dombi, Eva; Kim, Mi-Ok; West, Brian L; Bollag, Gideon; Ratner, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disease that predisposes 30-50 % of affected individuals to develop plexiform neurofibromas. We found that macrophage infiltration of both mouse and human neurofibromas correlates with disease progression. Macrophages accounted for almost half of neurofibroma cells, leading us to hypothesize that nerve macrophages are inflammatory effectors in neurofibroma development and/or growth. We tested the effects of PLX3397, a dual kit/fms kinase inhibitor that blocks macrophage infiltration, in the Dhh-Cre; Nf1(flox/flox) mouse model of GEM grade I neurofibroma. In mice aged 1-4 months, prior to development of nerve pathology and neurofibroma formation, PLX3397 did not impair tumor initiation and increased tumor volume compared to controls. However, in mice aged 7-9 months, after tumor establishment, a subset of mice demonstrating the largest reductions in macrophages after PLX3397 exhibited cell death and tumor volume regression. Macrophages are likely to provide an initial line of defense against developing tumors. Once tumors are established, they become tumor permissive. Macrophage depletion may result in impaired tumor maintenance and represent a therapeutic strategy for neurofibroma therapy.

  14. Neurofibroma-associated macrophages play roles in tumor growth and response to pharmacological inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Prada, Carlos E.; Jousma, Edwin; Rizvi, Tilat A.; Wu, Jianqiang; Dunn, R. Scott; Mayes, Debra A.; Cancelas, Jose A.; Dombi, Eva; Kim, Mi-Ok; West, Brian L.; Bollag, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disease that predisposes 30–50 % of affected individuals to develop plexiform neurofibromas. We found that macrophage infiltration of both mouse and human neurofibromas correlates with disease progression. Macrophages accounted for almost half of neurofibroma cells, leading us to hypothesize that nerve macrophages are inflammatory effectors in neurofibroma development and/or growth. We tested the effects of PLX3397, a dual kit/fms kinase inhibitor that blocks macrophage infiltration, in the Dhh-Cre; Nf1flox/flox mouse model of GEM grade I neurofibroma. In mice aged 1–4 months, prior to development of nerve pathology and neurofibroma formation, PLX3397 did not impair tumor initiation and increased tumor volume compared to controls. However, in mice aged 7–9 months, after tumor establishment, a subset of mice demonstrating the largest reductions in macrophages after PLX3397 exhibited cell death and tumor volume regression. Macrophages are likely to provide an initial line of defense against developing tumors. Once tumors are established, they become tumor permissive. Macrophage depletion may result in impaired tumor maintenance and represent a therapeutic strategy for neurofibroma therapy. PMID:23099891

  15. Rathke cleft cyst masquerading as pituitary abscess

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chengxian; Bao, Xinjie; Liu, Xiaohai; Deng, Kan; Feng, Ming; Yao, Yong; Wang, Renzhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) is a rare cystic sellar entity, which is usually small in size and asymptomatic in most patients. RCC presenting panhypopituitarism and a cystic lesion with rim enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging is extremely rare. Therefore, it is easy to be misdiagnosed as pituitary abscess because of the similar clinical manifestations and neuroimaging changes. Case summary: We report a rare case of RCC masquerading as pituitary abscess clinically and radiologically with no evidence of central nervous system infection. The patient was initially suspected to be diagnosed with pituitary abscess, which was denied by the histopathological findings of RCC with no intraoperative drainage of abscess. We present an uncommon case of RCC masquerading as pituitary abscess in a 62-year-old Chinese male patient. The patient was admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital complaining of severe frontal pulsatile headache, visual acuity deficit, polyuria, polydipsia, and slight disturbance of consciousness. The biochemical and endocrinological examinations revealed severe hyponatremia and panhypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a sellar lesion with the apparent cystic change and rim enhancement. Accordingly, pituitary abscess was misdiagnosed at the beginning. The patient received hormone replacement therapy and underwent a trans-sphenoidal surgery. The surgical findings were uneventful. The histopathological examinations showed no infiltration of inflammatory cells or pus, and proved the lesion to be RCC. Conclusion: Through this rare case, we aim to emphasize that the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions requires constant vigilance and that RCC may lead to clinical and radiological changes similar with pituitary abscess. PMID:28272259

  16. Solitary Giant Neurofibroma of the Scalp with Calvarial Defect in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, N. J.; Shehu, B. B.; Lasseini, A.; Hassan, I.; Shilong, D. J.; Obande, J. O.; Sahabi, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibroma of the scalp are mostly multiple as part of neurofibromatosis or other phakomatosis. De novo solitary types are less common and rarely erode the skull, unlike the intracranial counterpart. Skull erosion has been reported in adults with longstanding plexiform neurofibromas. We report a giant neurofibroma on the scalp of a five-year-old boy, managed in our center. Although this condition is a rare entity, it should be anticipated and the treatment strategy should include repair of the skull defect. PMID:22091326

  17. Bilateral Mirror Image Cervical Neurofibroma in an Adult with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sharad; Singh, Kulwant; Sharma, Vivek; Khan, Mohammed Tabish; Ghosh, Amrita; Santhosh, Deepa

    2017-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by various phenotypic features like hyperpigmented spots, neurofibromas, Lisch nodules, skeletal abnormalities and tendency to develop neoplasms. Only few cases of Non-Familial Spinal Neurofibromatosis-1 (Non-FSNF1) have been described in literature with tumors involving the spinal roots at every level being even rarer. We reported an interesting case of bilateral symmetrical cervical neurofibroma with multiple spinal neurofibromas appearing as mirror image on CT, associated with non familial NF-1 as a rare presentation in a 25-year-old adult male.

  18. Pictorial essay of radiological features of benign intrathoracic masses

    PubMed Central

    Suut, Syahminan; Al-Ani, Zeid; Allen, Carolyn; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Durr-e-Sabih; AL-Harbi, Abdullah; AL-Jahdali, Hamdan; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    With increased exposure of patients to routine imaging, incidental benign intrathoracic masses are frequently recognized. Most have classical imaging features, which are pathognomonic for their benignity. The aim of this pictorial review is to educate the reader of radiological features of several types of intrathoracic masses. The masses are categorized based on their location/origin and are grouped into parenchymal, pleural, mediastinal, or bronchial. Thoracic wall masses that invade the thorax such as neurofibromas and lipomas are included as they may mimic intrathoracic masses. All examples are illustrated and include pulmonary hamartoma, pleural fibroma, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoid, and bronchoceles together with a variety of mediastinal cysts on plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sometimes a multimodality approach would be needed to confirm the diagnosis in atypical cases. The study would include the incorporation of radionuclide studies and relevant discussion in a multidisciplinary setting. PMID:26664560

  19. Retroperitoneal pararenal isolated neurofibroma: report of a case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Corbellini, C; Vingiani, A; Maffini, F; Chiappa, A; Bertani, E; Andreoni, B

    2012-01-01

    The neurofibroma is a tumour of neural origin. This kind of neoplasm, though, is generally skin located. Rare cases in deep organs or in the peritoneal cavity are also reported in the literature. There are two types of neurofibromas, localized and diffuse; the latter is associated with von Recklinghausen disease and always occurs together with skin neurofibromas. Here we report the case of a 47-year-old man affected by retroperitoneal neurofibroma, but not associated with von Recklinghausen disease. A computed tomography (CT) scan described a retroperitoneal pararenal lesion with no clear involvement of adjacent viscera. We describe the diagnostic modality, treatment planning and the timing of treatment of this neoplasm, reviewing also the literature. PMID:22654960

  20. Multiple orbital neurofibromas, painful peripheral nerve tumors, distinctive face and marfanoid habitus: a new syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Babovic-Vuksanovic, D; Messiaen, Ludwine; Nagel, Christoph; Brems, Hilde; Scheithauer, Bernd; Denayer, Ellen; Mao, Rong; Sciot, Raf; Janowski, Karen M; Schuhmann, Martin U; Claes, Kathleen; Beert, Eline; Garrity, James A; Spinner, Robert J; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Gavrilova, Ralitza; Van Calenbergh, Frank; Mautner, Victor; Legius, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Four unrelated patients having an unusual clinical phenotype, including multiple peripheral nerve sheath tumors, are reported. Their clinical features were not typical of any known familial tumor syndrome. The patients had multiple painful neurofibromas, including bilateral orbital plexiform neurofibromas, and spinal as well as mucosal neurofibromas. In addition, they exhibited a marfanoid habitus, shared similar facial features, and had enlarged corneal nerves as well as neuronal migration defects. Comprehensive NF1, NF2 and SMARCB1 mutation analyses revealed no mutation in blood lymphocytes and in schwann cells cultured from plexiform neurofibromas. Furthermore, no mutations in RET, PRKAR1A, PTEN and other RAS-pathway genes were found in blood leukocytes. Collectively, the clinical and pathological findings in these four cases fit no known syndrome and likely represent a new disorder. PMID:22258529

  1. Malignant transformation of neurofibromas at multiple sites in a case of neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, M. D.; Cheung, K. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with classical neurofibromatosis is reported in whom malignant transformation of neurofibromas at multiple sites occurred, leading to a fatal outcome. One of these malignant tumours developed within the thyroid gland. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3118347

  2. Mechanical Ptosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Heralding the Diagnosis of Right Sided Cervical Vagus Nerve Neurofibroma: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Sucheta; Panda, Bijnya; Pujahari, Susanta; Jena, Satyaswarup

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder. In NF1, involvement of vagus nerve can occur in the form of neurofibroma. A few cases of neurofibroma of thoracic vagus nerve have been reported while neurofibroma of cervical vagus nerve with NF1 is quite rare. A 19-year-old male came with complaints of decreased vision of both eyes and right sided drooping of eyelid since childhood. He was diagnosed as having NF1 with neurofibroma of right cervical vagus nerve. PMID:27504321

  3. Intraocular Silicone Oil Masquerading as Terson Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Samavat, Bijan; Mehrian, Payam; Hedayatfar, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Terson syndrome is described as intraocular hemorrhage in association with any type of intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with higher mortality rate and vision loss. Intraocular hemorrhage in Terson syndrome may be diagnosed using computed tomography but there are false positive results. Silicone oil which is widely used for internal tamponade of complicated retinal detachments has high attenuation on computed tomography and hyperintensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging that can mimic intraocular hemorrhage. This report shows that silicone oil is another origin of false positive results in interpreting CT findings for detecting Terson syndrome. Case Report. A 71-year-old diabetic woman presented with loss of consciousness. Brain computed tomography revealed right cerebellar hemorrhage and ventricular hemorrhage and hyperdensity in vitreous cavity of the left eye that was initially interpreted as vitreous hemorrhage. Terson syndrome was the initial diagnosis but ophthalmoscopic examination and brain MRI showed that the left eye had silicone oil tamponade. Conclusion. Without knowing the history of previous vitreoretinal surgery, CT scan findings of intraocular silicone oil may be interpreted as vitreous hemorrhage. In patients with concomitant intracranial hemorrhage, it can masquerade as Terson syndrome. PMID:27747119

  4. Tinea corporis masquerading as subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Modi, Gunjan M; Maender, Jennifer L; Coleman, Neil; Hsu, Sylvia

    2008-04-15

    Few papers discuss the potential challenge of differentiating dermatophytosis from subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. This masquerade, most often manifest on the face, is of both clinical and therapeutic importance. We report a patient whose extensive tinea corporis very closely mimicked SCLE. The threshold for biopsy should be low in cases that exhibit atypical features for either of these entities.

  5. Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

  6. Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  7. Massive Soft Tissue Neurofibroma (Elephantiasis Neuromatosa): Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Fernando Santos; Rothner, A David; Moodley, Manikum; Zahka, Kenneth G

    2015-10-01

    The authors review the literature on massive soft tissue neurofibroma. The methods included a review of 71 reports (PubMed search 1929-2012) with a total of 91 massive soft tissue neurofibroma patients and illustration of clinical and radiological progression of massive soft tissue neurofibroma on a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. The mean age at initial examination was 21 years. Tumor onset was mostly in childhood years. The commonest affected body segment was the lower extremity (46%), followed by head/neck (30%). Surgical management was pursued in the majority of cases (79%). Bleeding was a common complication (25%). Recurrence was described in 12%; multiple resections cases were described. Malignant transformation occurred in 5%. Although massive soft tissue neurofibroma may be present early in life, massive tumor overgrowth may take years. Predicting disease progression and/or benefit of surgical intervention early in the disease course is challenging. Recurrence and malignant transformation are possible. Massive soft tissue neurofibroma does not respond to chemotherapy or radiotherapy and is associated with life-threatening surgical complications.

  8. Convection-Enhanced Delivery (CED) in an Animal Model of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors and Plexiform Neurofibromas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    sheath tumors or plexiform neurofibromas. References: Perrin GQ, Fishbein L, Thomson SA, et al., Plexiform-like neurofibromas develop in the...mouse by intraneural xenograft of an NF1 tumor-derived Schwann cell line. J Neurosci Res, 2007. 85(6): p. 1347-1357. 3 Perrin GQ, Li H, Fishbein L

  9. Oral manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 in children with facial plexiform neurofibroma: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Cunha, K S; Rozza-de-Menezes, R E; Andrade, R M; Almeida, Lms; Janini, Mer; Geller, M

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal genetic disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 3,000 births. NF1 is a complex syndrome characterized by many abnormalities and may affect all organ systems. Oral manifestations of NF1 occur frequently, but reports including NF1 children with facial plexiform neurofibromas and oral alterations are scant. Facial plexiform neurofibroma may cause asymmetry, disfigurement and usually arises from the trigeminal nerve. The aim of this paper is to to report three pediatric NF1 cases with facial plexiform neurofibroma presenting with oral manifestations, which were evaluated clinically and radiographically, and also to briefly review the literature. Patients presented with changes in the oral soft tissues, jaws, and teeth ipsilateral to the tumor.

  10. Superficial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from diffuse neurofibroma in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; Kuwashiro, Maki; Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are regarded as sarcomas that arise from peripheral nerves or that display differentiation along the lines of the various elements of the nerve sheath. These tumors occur in deep soft tissues, but superficial primary MPNST with a cutaneous or subcutaneous origin have rarely been reported. A 70-year-old woman presented with a 3-4-year history of a slowly enlarging soft nodule on the left side of her neck. The histopathological diagnosis of the nodule was low-grade MPNST arising from diffuse neurofibroma. There was increased cellularity, but no necrosis or mitotic activity. These histopathological findings pose difficulties in differential diagnosis from a neurofibroma with atypical histological features. We report a rare case of superficial MPNST arising from diffuse neurofibroma associated with underlying occipital bone dysplasia in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient.

  11. In Vivo-Simulated Sonotransfection and the Effect of Gamma Interferon Gene on Neurofibroma Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuki; Feril, Loreto B.; Yoshida, Yuichi; Nakayama, Juichiro; Tachibana, Katsuro

    2007-05-01

    We have previously shown that ultrasound-mediated gene transfection (or sonotransfection) can be optimized on the basis of concepts drawn from previous in vitro experiments demonstrating ultrasound-induced apoptosis. At optimized conditions, we have shown using five cancer cell lines (HeLa, U937, Meth A, T24 and PC3) that sonotransfection is superior to other conventional non-viral methods such as electroporation and liposome-mediated transfection. In the present study, we further investigate the gene transfection of pEGFP-N1 into neurofibroma cell line isolated from human dermal neurofibroma, using an improved experimental set up that simulates in vivo conditions. The ultrasound device used was SonoPore KTAC-4000, which is capable of various settings. Using transducers of centre frequency 1.011 MHz, the optimal conditions include ISATA of 0.15, 0.44 and 0.64 W/cm2, burst frequency of 0.5 Hz, 25% duty factor, and 10-40 sec exposure duration. Cells were assayed at 24, 48 and 72 hr after the sonication. The transfection efficiency was found to be around 10%. Then we further investigated whether sonotransfection of gamma interferon on neurofibroma cell lines in vivo can suppress cell proliferation. Gamma interferon is well known as a pluripotential cytokine. It exerts an anti-tumor activity in some malignant diseases such as malignant lymphoma. Gamma interferon gene transfection by use of lipofectamin has been found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of neurofibroma cell lines in vitro. Our new experimental system was applied in evaluating the effect of sonotransfected gamma interferon gene on neurofibroma proliferation in vitro. It is suggested that ultrasound-mediated gamma interferon gene transfection could potentially become a non-surgical method in treating skin diseases, such as neurofibromas, particularly in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease.

  12. Clinical and radiological repercussions of plexiform neurofibroma in the pelvic region.

    PubMed

    Slaibi, Érica Bertolace; Daher, João Gabriel Lima; da Fonseca, Gustavo Guida Godinho; Daher, Carlos Magno; Geller, Mauro; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the case of a plexiform neurofibroma located in the pelvis, affecting the bladder, prostate and spine (lumbar/sacral), followed-up for three years and six months. Surgical removal was contraindicated and the patient underwent biannual clinical and radiological follow-up that did not demonstrate any tumor increase. The clinical manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 are variable, and the medical team should be attentive to further investigations, considering possible unexpected rare findings. Large pelvic masses may correspond to plexiform neurofibromas, so the diagnostic hypothesis of neurofibromatosis should be taken into consideration.

  13. Clinical and radiological repercussions of plexiform neurofibroma in the pelvic region*

    PubMed Central

    Slaibi, Érica Bertolace; Daher, João Gabriel Lima; da Fonseca, Gustavo Guida Godinho; Daher, Carlos Magno; Geller, Mauro; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the case of a plexiform neurofibroma located in the pelvis, affecting the bladder, prostate and spine (lumbar/sacral), followed-up for three years and six months. Surgical removal was contraindicated and the patient underwent biannual clinical and radiological follow-up that did not demonstrate any tumor increase. The clinical manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 are variable, and the medical team should be attentive to further investigations, considering possible unexpected rare findings. Large pelvic masses may correspond to plexiform neurofibromas, so the diagnostic hypothesis of neurofibromatosis should be taken into consideration. PMID:25741110

  14. Metastatic Prostate Cancer to the Urethra Masquerading as Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zardawi, Ibrahim; Chong, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Tumors of the urethra, whether primary or metastatic, are very rare. The true nature of urethral neoplasm is not always obvious clinically nor in routine histological sections. Immunostains should be performed on such lesions because of management implications. We present a case of multiple metastases to the urethra from a prostatic carcinoma, masquerading as multiple urothelial carcinomas. Pathologists and urologists should be aware of the possibility of metastasis from the prostate.

  15. Metanephric Adenofibroma Masquerading as Wilms’ Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Prince; Khanolkar, Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Metanephric adenofibroma is a rare, biphasic, benign tumor containing both stromal and epithelial components and could be potentially mistaken as Wilms’ tumor (WT). We present a 5-year-old girl who was suspected to have metastatic Wilms’ tumor on radiological investigations/tru-cut biopsy and had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, but postoperatively final histopathology revealed it as metanephric adenofibroma. No postoperative chemotherapy was given PMID:27900278

  16. Clinical characteristics predicting internal neurofibromas in 357 children with neurofibromatosis-1: results from a cross-selectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify clinical characteristics associated with internal neurofibromas in children with NF1, as a means of ensuring the early identification of patients at high risk for malignant peripheral nerve-sheath tumors developed from preexisting internal neurofibromas. Patients and methods We used data from two NF1 populations, in France and North America, respectively. The French database comprised 1083 patients meeting NIH diagnostic criteria for NF1 and the Neurofibromatosis Institute Database of North America comprised 703 patients. Patients younger than 17 years of age were eligible for our study if they had been evaluated for internal neurofibromas using computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical characteristics associated with internal neurofibromas by univariate analysis (P ≤ 0.15) were entered into a multiple logistic regression model after checking for potential interactions and confounding. Multiple imputation was used for missing values. Results Among the 746 children in the two databases, 357 (48%) met our inclusion criteria. Their mean age was 7.7 ± 5.0 years and there were 192 (53.8%) males. Internal neurofibromas were present in 35 (9.8%) patients. Internal neurofibromas developed earlier in females than in males and their prevalence increased during adolescence. Factors independently associated with internal neurofibromas were age (OR = 1.16 [1.07-1.27]), xanthogranulomas (OR = 5.85 [2.18-15.89]) and presence of both subcutaneous and plexiform neurofibromas (OR = 6.80 [1.52-30.44]). Conclusions Several easily recognizable clinical characteristics indicate a high risk of internal neurofibromas in children with NF1 and, therefore, a need for very close monitoring. PMID:22943186

  17. Lateral parascapular extrapleural approach for single-stage excision of dumb-bell neurofibroma.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, G; Jackowski, A; Weiner, G; Thomas, D

    1994-01-01

    An excision of a T1 dumb-bell neurofibroma via a single-stage lateral parascapular extrapleural approach is described. The different surgical approaches that can be used to approach dumb-bell tumours are reviewed, together with the relevant literature.

  18. Whole Exome Sequencing of Growing and Non-Growing Cutaneous Neurofibromas from a Single Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Faden, Daniel L.; Asthana, Saurabh; Tihan, Tarik; DeRisi, Joseph; Kliot, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The growth behaviors of cutaneous neurofibromas in patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 are highly variable. The role of the germline NF1 mutation, somatic NF1 mutation and mutations at modifying loci, are poorly understood. We performed whole exome sequencing of three growing and three non-growing neurofibromas from a single individual to assess the role of acquired somatic mutations in neurofibroma growth behavior. 1–11 mutations were identified in each sample, including two deleterious NF1 mutations. No trends were present between the types of somatic mutations identified and growth behavior. Mutations in the HIPPO signaling pathway appeared to be overrepresented. PMID:28099461

  19. Pilot Study of Gleevec/Imatinib Mesylate (STI-571, NSC 716051) in Neurofibromatosis (NF1) Patients with Plexiform Neurofibromas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Mesylate (STI-571, NSC 716051) In Neurofibromatosis ( NF1 ) Patients with Plexiform Neurofibromas PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kent Robertson, M.D...Imatinib Mesylate (STI-571, NSC 716051) In Neurofibromatosis ( NF1 ) Patients with Plexiform Neurofibromas 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0120 5c. PROGRAM...Section I - Introduction of research The goal of this Pilot Study is to trial multiple techniques for determining the response of NF1 patients with

  20. Pinworm infection masquerading as colorectal liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, KJ; Hubscher, S; Mangat, K; Sutcliffe, R; Marudanayagam, R

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is responsible for a variety of diseases but rarely affects the liver. Accurate characterisation of suspected liver metastases is essential to avoid unnecessary surgery. In the presented case, following a diagnosis of rectal cancer, a solitary liver nodule was diagnosed as a liver metastasis due to typical radiological features and subsequently resected. At pathological assessment, however, a necrotic nodule containing E vermicularis was identified. Solitary necrotic nodules of the liver are usually benign but misdiagnosed frequently as malignant due to radiological features. It is standard practice to diagnose colorectal liver metastases solely on radiological evidence. Without obtaining tissue prior to liver resection, misdiagnosis of solitary necrotic nodules of the liver will continue to occur. PMID:22943320

  1. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma masquerading as odontoma.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Marwaha, Mohita

    2011-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is a rare, benign epithelial mixed odontogenic tumor. It occurs as an intraosseous lesion, generally asymptomatic and more prevalent in children and adolescent. AFO is found on radiographic evaluation of patients with unerupted or impacted teeth in many cases. Histological examination reveals a fibrous soft tissue, islands of odontogenic epithelium and a disordered mixture of dental tissues. The treatment modality in most cases involves conservative surgery with enucleation. We present a case of 13-year-old boy with a missing right central incisor, mimicking-like odontoma on radiograph but proved to be AFO and treated with enucleation with preservation of impacted tooth. There was no recurrence after one year of follow-up. This report discusses the clinical, radiographical, histological features and surgical assessment to preserve the impacted tooth associated with AFO.

  2. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of benign neurogenic tumours of the posterior mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Brzeziński, Daniel; Kozak, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The indications for videothoracoscopy are very broad and include the treatment of mediastinal tumours. Aim To present our experience of using the minimally invasive technique in treating benign neurogenic tumours. Material and methods Twenty-two patients were treated due to tumours of the posterior mediastinum from 2003 to 2012. The size of the tumours ranged from 2 cm to 25 cm. Tumours up to the size of 6 cm were treated using videothoracoscopy (VT), bigger ones through thoracotomy. Results The videothoracoscopy technique was used in 17 patients, thoracotomy in 5. In 2 cases conversion was required due to adhesions in the pleural cavity preventing VT treatment. Complications related to the procedure were not observed. The average time of hospital stay after VT treatment was 4 days, while after thoracotomy it was 6 days. Histologically, tumours of benign nature were found in all cases. Schwannoma was diagnosed in 15 patients, ganglioneuroma in 3 patients, neurofibroma in 3 patients, and chemodectoma in 1 patient. None of the 3 cases of neurofibroma was associated with Recklinghausen's disease. At a mean follow-up of 60 months no recurrence of the tumour was found. Conclusions In the case of tumours up to 6 cm the best surgical technique is videothoracoscopy. In the case of large tumours the best access is the open technique. The minimally invasive technique allows one to shorten the patient's treatment time, reduce postoperative pain and obtain a good cosmetic effect of the treatment. PMID:25337152

  3. Invasive amebiasis and ameboma formation presenting as a rectal mass: An uncommon case of malignant masquerade at a western medical center

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Rosemarie E; Ferzli, George S; Zenilman, Michael E; Gadangi, Pratap K; Bowne, Wilbur B

    2007-01-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with rectal pain and bleeding secondary to ulcerated, necrotic rectal and cecal masses that resembled colorectal carcinoma upon colonoscopy. These masses were later determined to be benign amebomas caused by invasive Entamoeba histolytica, which regressed completely with medical therapy. In Western countries, the occurrence of invasive protozoan infection with formation of amebomas is very rare and can mistakenly masquerade as a neoplasm. Not surprisingly, there have been very few cases reported of this clinical entity within the United States. Moreover, we report a patient that had an extremely rare occurrence of two synchronous lesions, one involving the rectum and the other situated in the cecum. We review the current literature on the pathogenesis of invasive E. histolytica infection and ameboma formation, as well as management of this rare disease entity at a western medical center. PMID:17948943

  4. Invasive Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia Masquerading as Nodular Scleritis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Medha; Sundar, Dheepak; Vanathi, Murugesan; Meel, Rachna; Kashyap, Seema; Chawla, Rohan; Tandon, Radhika

    The authors report a rare case of ocular surface squamous neoplasia with intraocular involvement that had an initial masquerade presentation of recurrent anterior nodular scleritis. A 35-year-old male patient presented with right eye recurrent anterior nodular scleritis for which a lamellar patch graft was done. Two months later, the patient presented with recurrence of symptoms. Histopathology review revealed the presence of well-differentiated squamous cell malignancy. A high index of suspicion for malignancy is required in such cases when they do not respond to conventional therapy.

  5. Predators are less likely to misclassify masquerading prey when their models are present

    PubMed Central

    Skelhorn, John; Ruxton, Graeme D.

    2010-01-01

    Masquerading animals have evolved striking visual resemblances to inanimate objects. These animals gain protection from their predators not simply by avoiding detection, but by causing their predators to misclassify them as the ‘models’ that they appear to resemble. Using domestic chicks as predators and twig-mimicking caterpillars as prey, we demonstrated that masquerading prey were more likely to be misclassified as their models when viewed in isolation from their models than when viewed alongside examples of their model, although they benefitted from masquerade to some extent in both conditions. From this, we predict a selection pressure on masqueraders to use microhabitats that reduce the risk of them being viewed simultaneously with examples of their model, and/or to more closely resemble their model in situations where simultaneous viewing is commonplace. PMID:20410028

  6. Coexistence of neurofibroma and meningioma at exactly the same level of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai-Yuan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Lin, Shih-Cheih; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of the coexistence of different spinal tumors at the same level of the cervical spine, without neurofibromatosis (NF), which was successfully treated with surgery. A 72-year-old female presented with right upper-limb clumsiness and weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural, extramedullary tumor mass at the right C3-4 level with extradural extension into the intervertebral foramen. The extradural tumor was removed, and the pathology showed neurofibroma. After incision of the dura, the intradural tumor was removed, and was identified as meningioma in the pathological report. The patient did not meet the criteria of NF. Coexistence of neurofibroma and meningioma at exactly the same level of the spine without NF is extremely rare. Exploration of the intradural space may be necessary after resection of an extradural tumor if the surgical finding does not correlate well with the preoperative images.

  7. Pilot Phase II Trial of Imatinib Mesylate in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 patients with Plexiform Neurofibromas

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kent A.; Nalepa, Grzegorz; Yang, Feng-Chun; Bowers, Daniel C.; Ho, Chang Y.; Hutchins, Gary D.; Croop, James M.; Vik, Terry A.; Denne, Scott C.; Parada, Luis F.; Hingtgen, Cynthia M.; Walsh, Laurence E.; Yu, Menggang; Pradhan, Kamnesh R.; Edwards-Brown, Mary K.; Cohen, Mervyn D.; Fletcher, James W.; Travers, Jeffrey B.; Staser, Karl W.; Lee, Melissa W.; Sherman, Marcie R.; Davis, Cynthia J.; Miller, Lucy C.; Ingram, David A.; Clapp, D. Wade

    2016-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND Plexiform neurofibromas (PN) are slow growing chemoradiotherapy resistant tumours arising in patients with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1). Currently there are no viable therapeutic options for patients whose life-threatening plexiform neurofibromas cannot be surgically removed due to proximity to vital body structures. Based on identification of molecular targets in genetic mouse models of human NF1 tumours, we hypothesized that the oral kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, may be effective in targeted treatment of these chemoradiotherapy-refractory tumours. METHODS An open-label pilot Phase II clinical trial was designed to test whether treatment with imatinib mesylate can decrease volume burden of clinically significant plexiform neurofibromas in NF1 patients. The entry criteria require patients only to have NF1 and a clinically significant plexiform neurofibroma with the specified age limitations (age 3–65). Patients were treated with daily oral imatinib at 440 mg/m2/day for children and 800 mg/day for adults divided twice daily for 6 months. The primary endpoint measure of significant response was a 20% or more reduction in plexiform size by sequential volumetric MRI imaging. Clinical data was analyzed on an intent to treat basis, however to determine the activity of imatinib on NF1-related plexiform tumours, patients able to take imatinib for 6 months were evaluated for their response. Secondary outcomes included evaluation of safety of imatinib mesylate in this group of patients. The trial is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov/; study number 0512-25. The trial currently is closed to enrollment, however there is a single patient that continues to respond and remains on study. FINDINGS On an intent to treat basis, 6 out of 36 patients or 17% (95% CI: 6 – 33%) experienced objective response to imatinib mesylate. In the evaluable study population of patients (n=23) who received drug for at least six months, six patients (26%; 95% CI

  8. Intravascular embolisation and surgical resection of a giant neurofibroma with intratumoural haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R G; Kiatisevi, P; Morris, D C; Munk, P L; Clarkson, P W; Masri, B A

    2010-01-01

    The use of pre-operative embolisation has been described for small neurofibromas, but not for giant lesions. Advances in embolisation techniques are extending the indications for this procedure, in particular to assist with operative intervention on a range of lesions. This case report describes a 45-year-old male with a giant neurofibroma who underwent embolisation to stabilise intratumoural haemorrhage and to assist with haemostasis during the subsequent surgical resection. Minimal transfusion was required and the patient has made a good recovery. This case demonstrates that pre-operative embolisation of these large and challenging lesions is technically feasible and appears to be beneficial in reducing perioperative blood loss and morbidity. PMID:20965893

  9. Characterization of Neurofibromas of the Skin and Spinal Roots in a Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Overall mortality was low (Figure 5B). We never detected any MPNSTs or neurofibromas in these mice, though we did observe some hematopoietic neoplasms ...observed a significant frequency of hematopoietic neoplasms among Nf1+/Ink4a/ Arf/, Nf1+/Ink4a/Arf+/, and Nf1+/+Ink4a/Arf/ mice (Fig- ure 5E...These included mainly lymphomas and histiocytic neo- plasms, but we observed some acute myeloid leukemias as well as some mice with myeloproliferative

  10. Characterization of Neurofibromas of the Skin and Spinal Roots in a Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    was low (Figure 5B). We never detected any MPNSTs or neurofibromas in these mice, though we did observe some hematopoietic neoplasms , particularly...significant frequency of hematopoietic neoplasms among Nf1+/Ink4a/ Arf/, Nf1+/Ink4a/Arf+/, and Nf1+/+Ink4a/Arf/ mice (Fig- ure 5E). These included...mainly lymphomas and histiocytic neo- plasms, but we observed some acute myeloid leukemias as well as some mice with myeloproliferative disease. NCSCs Did

  11. Masquerading Bundle Branch Block: A Poor Prognostic Sign Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dhanse, Suheil; Kareem, Hashir; Devasia, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Masquerading bundle branch block is a rare but important finding on the Electrocardiogram (ECG). It is an indication of severe and diffuse conduction system disease and usually indicates poor prognosis. The precordial leads show a Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB) pattern while the limb leads resemble a Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB). This finding on an ECG is almost invariably associated with severe underlying heart disease. It is extremely important to be aware of this finding as it is a marker of poor cardiac outcomes. We report the case of a 68-year-old gentleman, who presented with progressive dyspnoea on exertion over three months. ECG showed a broad QRS complex with a RBBB pattern on the precordial leads and a LBBB pattern on the limb leads (suggestive of masquerading bundle branch block). A coronary angiogram revealed severe Triple Vessel Disease (TVD). The patient was scheduled for an early Coronary Artery By-Pass Grafting Surgery. However, his clinical condition deteriorated and he died while awaiting the surgery. PMID:27790494

  12. Hybrid neurofibroma/schwannoma is overrepresented among schwannomatosis and neurofibromatosis patients.

    PubMed

    Harder, Anja; Wesemann, Martin; Hagel, Christian; Schittenhelm, Jens; Fischer, Susan; Tatagiba, Marcos; Nagel, Christoph; Jeibmann, Astrid; Bohring, Axel; Mautner, Victor-Felix; Paulus, Werner

    2012-05-01

    We analyzed the histologic features of peripheral nerve sheath tumors occurring in 14 patients with schwannomatosis. Among a total of 31 tumors, 19 tumors (61%) showed schwannoma-like nodules within a neurofibroma-like tumor, corresponding to hybrid neurofibroma/schwannoma. At least 1 hybrid tumor occurred in 10 of 14 (71%) schwannomatosis patients. We then retrieved cases of hybrid tumors without documented relation to schwannomatosis from our database and identified 41 tumors arising in 23 patients. More than half of these patients (14/23) were reported to suffer from multiple peripheral nerve sheath tumors, favoring a tumor syndrome. Indeed, analysis of clinical records revealed the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) in 26% (6/23), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in 9% (2/23), definite schwannomatosis in 4% (1/23), and possible schwannomatosis in 13% (3/23) of patients with multiple nerve sheath tumors. Our findings suggest that hybrid neurofibroma/schwannoma represents a common tumor type in schwannomatosis and shows a striking association with neurofibromatoses.

  13. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  14. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  15. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  16. The Benign Hamburger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peaslee, Graham; Lantz, Juliette M.; Walczak, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a case study of food poisoning from hamburgers at the fictitious Jill-at-the-Grill to teach the nuclear science behind food irradiation. Includes case teaching notes on the benign hamburger. (ASK)

  17. Aqueduct stenosis-?Benign.

    PubMed

    Allan, Rodney; Chaseling, Raymond; Graf, Nicole; Dexter, Mark

    2005-02-01

    'Benign' aqueduct stenosis is a common cause of hydrocephalus in the paediatric population and is frequently treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Occasionally, aqueduct stenosis can be a prelude to the development of other pathology, as is seen in these two cases of pineal tumours developing in patients whose hydrocephalus was successfully treated with endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The case histories are presented, along with the recommendation for increased radiological screening of patients with this usually 'benign' presentation.

  18. Carcinoma of Maxillary Sinus Masquerading as Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ramachamparambathu, Ashir Kolikkal; Vengal, Manoj; Siyo, Nizaro; Ahmed, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Malignant tumours of maxillary sinus are rare. They are usually diagnosed in the late stages when they perforate the sinus walls. The presence of large air space in the maxillary sinus facilitates asymptomatic growth of the sinus malignancy. The clinical presentation of these tumours depends on the sinus wall involved by the disease. The medial wall is usually the first to become eroded, leading to nasal obstruction, epistaxis or discharge. Rarely, symptoms of maxillary sinus carcinoma can resemble dental infection and the affected patients may visit dental clinic seeking treatment. This report presents a case of carcinoma of maxillary sinus mimicking odontogenic infection. Computed tomographic findings explained the reason for the present lesion to masquerade as an inflammatory condition. The importance of advanced imaging modalities for prompt identification of such lesions is discussed. PMID:27790593

  19. Diagnostic pitfalls in spine surgery: masqueraders of surgical spine disease.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Coumans, Jean-Valery C E; Kahle, Kristopher T

    2011-10-01

    Disorders of the spine are common in clinical medicine, and spine surgery is being performed with increasing frequency in the US. Although many patients with an established diagnosis of a true surgically treatable lesion are referred to a neurosurgeon, the evaluation of patients with spinal disorders can be complex and fraught with diagnostic pitfalls. While "common conditions are common," astute clinical acumen and vigilance are necessary to identify lesions that masquerade as surgically treatable spine disease that can lead to erroneous diagnosis and treatment. In this review, the authors discuss musculoskeletal, peripheral nerve, metabolic, infectious, inflammatory, and vascular conditions that mimic the syndromes produced by surgical lesions. It is possible that nonsurgical and surgical conditions coexist at times, complicating treatment plans and natural histories. Awareness of these diagnoses can help reduce diagnostic error, thereby avoiding the morbidity and expense associated with an unnecessary operation.

  20. Pretibial Myxedema Masquerading as a Venous Leg Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Hughes, Olivia; MacQuhae, Flor; Kirsner, Robert S

    2017-03-01

    The authors report a case of pretibial myxedema (PTM) masquerading as a venous leg ulcer to alert wound care clinicians to this diagnostic possibility. Pretibial myxedema is a localized form of mucin cutaneous deposition characterized by indurated plaques most commonly on anterior legs. It is more likely to present in patients with Graves' disease, but it can be found in euthyroid patients as well. The physiopathology of PTM is complex, and there is an accumulation of highly hydrophilic glycosaminoglycans in the dermis. Minimal morbidity is associated with PTM, but the pruritus related to mucin deposition can be intense. The skin around venous leg ulcers and the skin changes related to PTM can have a similar clinical presentation, which may be a reason PTM is under-recognized.

  1. Identifying and quantifying recurrent novae masquerading as classical novae

    SciTech Connect

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2014-06-20

    Recurrent novae (RNe) are cataclysmic variables with two or more nova eruptions within a century. Classical novae (CNe) are similar systems with only one such eruption. Many of the so-called CNe are actually RNe for which only one eruption has been discovered. Since RNe are candidate Type Ia supernova progenitors, it is important to know whether there are enough in our Galaxy to provide the supernova rate, and therefore to know how many RNe are masquerading as CNe. To quantify this, we collected all available information on the light curves and spectra of a Galactic, time-limited sample of 237 CNe and the 10 known RNe, as well as exhaustive discovery efficiency records. We recognize RNe as having (1) outburst amplitude smaller than 14.5 – 4.5 × log (t {sub 3}), (2) orbital period >0.6 days, (3) infrared colors of J – H > 0.7 mag and H – K > 0.1 mag, (4) FWHM of Hα > 2000 km s{sup –1}, (5) high excitation lines, such as Fe X or He II near peak, (6) eruption light curves with a plateau, and (7) white dwarf mass greater than 1.2 M {sub ☉}. Using these criteria, we identify V1721 Aql, DE Cir, CP Cru, KT Eri, V838 Her, V2672 Oph, V4160 Sgr, V4643 Sgr, V4739 Sgr, and V477 Sct as strong RN candidates. We evaluate the RN fraction among the known CNe using three methods to get 24% ± 4%, 12% ± 3%, and 35% ± 3%. With roughly a quarter of the 394 known Galactic novae actually being RNe, there should be approximately a hundred such systems masquerading as CNe.

  2. Developmental Venous Anomaly: Benign or Not Benign

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Rie; SRIVATANAKUL, Kittipong

    2016-01-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), previously called venous angiomas, are the most frequently encountered cerebral vascular malformations. However, DVA is considered to be rather an extreme developmental anatomical variation of medullary veins than true malformation. DVAs are composed of dilated medullary veins converging centripetally into a large collecting venous system that drains into the superficial or deep venous system. Their etiology and mechanism are generally accepted that DVAs result from the focal arrest of the normal parenchymal vein development or occlusion of the medullary veins as a compensatory venous system. DVAs per se are benign and asymptomatic except for under certain unusual conditions. The pathomechanisms of symptomatic DVAs are divided into mechanical, flow-related causes, and idiopathic. However, in cases of DVAs associated with hemorrhage, cavernous malformations (CMs) are most often the cause rather than DVAs themselves. The coexistence of CM and DVA is common. There are some possibilities that DVA affects the formation and clinical course of CM because CM related to DVA is generally located within the drainage territory of DVA and is more aggressive than isolated CM in the literature. Brain parenchymal abnormalities surrounding DVA and cerebral varix have also been reported. These phenomena are considered to be the result of venous hypertension associated with DVAs. With the advance of diagnostic imagings, perfusion study supports this hypothesis demonstrating that some DVAs have venous congestion pattern. Although DVAs should be considered benign and clinically silent, they can have potential venous hypertension and can be vulnerable to hemodynamic changes. PMID:27250700

  3. Generating a Corpus of Mobile Forensic Images for Masquerading user Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Guido, Mark; Brooks, Marc; Grover, Justin; Katz, Eric; Ondricek, Jared; Rogers, Marcus; Sharpe, Lauren

    2016-11-01

    The Periodic Mobile Forensics (PMF) system investigates user behavior on mobile devices. It applies forensic techniques to an enterprise mobile infrastructure, utilizing an on-device agent named TractorBeam. The agent collects changed storage locations for later acquisition, reconstruction, and analysis. TractorBeam provides its data to an enterprise infrastructure that consists of a cloud-based queuing service, relational database, and analytical framework for running forensic processes. During a 3-month experiment with Purdue University, TractorBeam was utilized in a simulated operational setting across 34 users to evaluate techniques to identify masquerading users (i.e., users other than the intended device user). The research team surmises that all masqueraders are undesirable to an enterprise, even when a masquerader lacks malicious intent. The PMF system reconstructed 821 forensic images, extracted one million audit events, and accurately detected masqueraders. Evaluation revealed that developed methods reduced storage requirements 50-fold. This paper describes the PMF architecture, performance of TractorBeam throughout the protocol, and results of the masquerading user analysis.

  4. Benign cutaneous Degos disease.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, Mozheh; Jarrett, Paul; Snow, John

    2005-08-01

    A 24-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of a recurrent asymptomatic rash characterized by small erythematous papules which evolved to form atrophic porcelain white scars with a telangectatic rim. She had never had gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms. A short trial of aspirin did not alter the behavior of the disease. Histology confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Degos disease. Degos disease is a rare disorder that has been classified into the benign or malignant variety. The malignant type has a poor prognosis. Gastrointestinal involvement is the most frequent cause of death. The existence of patients with a prolonged, purely cutaneous or benign form has been increasingly recognized. It may be impossible to classify a patient at the time of initial presentation. Her progress is consistent with the benign form.

  5. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and pregnancy: The transformation of a nodular to cystic neurofibroma in the cervical region

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Zúñiga, Rodrigo; Saldaña-Koppel, Daniel Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background: The peripheral hallmarks of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are Café au lait and solid nodular neurofibromas. The morphological behavior of these lesions could be susceptible to modification during pregnancy. The present case report describes a case of cystic transformation of a nodular neurofibroma, with progressive growth and mass effect in the anterior cervical region, which was surgically resolved without any complications. Case Description: A 33-year-old female patient with a known personal history of NF1, with annual control of the peripheral neurofibromas and cerebral and spinal magnetic resonance imaging follow-ups. Under genetic counseling, she decides to get pregnant following all the medical advises. Once the pregnancy is confirmed, she starts to notice the growth of one of them adjacent to the left cervical region. Such neurofibroma presented with the progressive gradual increase and in the last month, she presented dysphagia, dysphonia, and postural pain localized by the mass effect. Once the pregnancy concluded, the microsurgical approach was scheduled for resection of the lesion, where a cystic mass was found within the walls of the neurofibroma. The resection was uneventful. Conclusion: The transformation of a nodular to cystic neurofibroma during pregnancy is a very rare presentation, which may exacerbate the clinical symptomatology depending on the topography of the lesion due to the mass effect it may create. This condition may alert to the recommendations and vigilance in patients with NF1, who are pregnant or are planning on a future pregnancy. The neurosurgical resolution in this region is safe and beneficial. PMID:26605110

  6. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) arising in diffuse-type neurofibroma: clinicopathologic characterization in a series of 9 cases.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse-type neurofibroma, an uncommon variant of neurofibroma, is associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 in ∼60% of cases. Typically presenting in young adults as ill-defined plaque-like dermal/subcutaneous thickening, most cases are located on the trunk or the head and neck region. Malignant transformation is extremely rare. Nine cases of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) arising in diffuse-type neurofibroma (identified in consult files) are described, including clinicopathologic features and follow-up. Five patients were male and 4 female, aged 31 to 59 years (median 49 y). All diffuse-type neurofibromas contained Meissner corpuscles, with tumor sizes ranging between 3.6 and 45 cm (median, 7.4 cm). Five patients had a clinical history of neurofibromatosis type 1, and 1 had Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome. Six tumors arose on the trunk and 1 each on the leg, arm, and scalp. Increased cellularity, nuclear atypia, and mitoses (range, 1 to 63/50 high-power fields) indicated transition to MPNST, classified as low grade in 5, intermediate to high grade in 1, and high grade in 3 cases, 1 of which exhibited heterologous angiosarcomatous differentiation. S-100 expression was quite strong and diffuse in the neurofibroma components and less extensive or weaker in MPNST. Follow-up, available for all patients (median, 80.5 mo, except 1 recent case), revealed that 1 patient developed local recurrence after 9 months; 1 with metastases at the time of initial diagnosis died 1 month after tumor resection. All other patients were alive without evidence of disease at 15 to 145 months (median, 83 mo). Diffuse-type neurofibroma may show transformation to MPNST in very rare instances. It is important to be aware of possible malignant change, requiring thorough sampling of resection specimens and long-term clinical follow-up of patients with unexcised lesions.

  7. The primacy of NF1 loss as the driver of tumorigenesis in neurofibromatosis type 1-associated plexiform neurofibromas.

    PubMed

    Pemov, A; Li, H; Patidar, R; Hansen, N F; Sindiri, S; Hartley, S W; Wei, J S; Elkahloun, A; Chandrasekharappa, S C; Boland, J F; Bass, S; Mullikin, J C; Khan, J; Widemann, B C; Wallace, M R; Stewart, D R

    2017-01-09

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common tumor-predisposition disorder due to germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. A virtually pathognomonic finding of NF1 is the plexiform neurofibroma (PN), a benign, likely congenital tumor that arises from bi-allelic inactivation of NF1. PN can undergo transformation to a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, an aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma. To better understand the non-NF1 genetic contributions to PN pathogenesis, we performed whole-exome sequencing, RNASeq profiling and genome-wide copy-number determination for 23 low-passage Schwann cell cultures established from surgical PN material with matching germline DNA. All resected tumors were derived from routine debulking surgeries. None of the tumors were considered at risk for malignant transformation at the time; for example, there was no pain or rapid growth. Deep (~500X) NF1 exon sequencing was also conducted on tumor DNA. Non-NF1 somatic mutation verification was performed using the Ampliseq/IonTorrent platform. We identified 100% of the germline NF1 mutations and found somatic NF1 inactivation in 74% of the PN. One individual with three PNs had different NF1 somatic mutations in each tumor. The median number of somatic mutations per sample, including NF1, was one (range 0-8). NF1 was the only gene that was recurrently somatically inactivated in multiple tumors. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of transcriptome-wide tumor RNA sequencing identified five significant (FDR<0.01) and seven trending (0.01⩽FDR<0.02) gene sets related to DNA replication, telomere maintenance and elongation, cell cycle progression, signal transduction and cell proliferation. We found no recurrent non-NF1 locus copy-number variation in PN. This is the first multi-sample whole-exome and whole-transcriptome sequencing study of NF1-associated PN. Taken together with concurrent copy-number data, our comprehensive genetic analysis reveals the primacy of NF1 loss as the driver of PN

  8. Lacrimal and nasal masquerades of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstructions: etiology, management, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Saurabh; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Gupta, Adit; Naik, Milind N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report various conditions masquerading as congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO). Retrospective review was designed in a tertiary hospital setting. 92 eyes of 65 consecutive patients were included in this study. All patients presenting with CNLDO symptomatology but where the diagnosis of CNLDO was subsequently ruled out were included in the study. The study patients were recruited from a single surgeon's (MJA) tertiary eye care practice over a 3-year period from 2011 to 2013. A detailed clinical evaluation and a further lacrimal system evaluation were performed under general anesthesia. The main outcome measure was other lacrimal and nasal conditions masquerading as CNLDO. Average age at presentation was 43.49 ± 31.78 months. All cases had symptoms of either watering or discharge with an increase tear meniscus or abnormal fluorescein dye disappearance test. The commonest masquerades of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction include incomplete punctal canalisation (27.2 %), functional epiphora (14.1 %), punctal agenesis (14.1 %), monocanalicular obstructions (10.8 %), and presaccal stenosis (8.7 %). Each masquerade was managed specifically and at the last follow-up of 5.85 ± 10.85 months, 63 % eyes (58/92) had no epiphora and 2.2 % (2/92) eyes had occasional epiphora. Parents of patients with punctal agenesis were counseled for option of conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy in future. Incomplete punctal canalisation is the commonest masquerade among many conditions that may mimic CNLDO and mandates a careful evaluation. Specific management of each masquerade results in satisfactory outcomes.

  9. Initial Exploration on Temporal Branch of Facial Nerve Function Preservation in Plexiform Neurofibroma Resection

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaojie; Bogari, Melia; Tan, Andy; Gao, Xiaoyan; Gao, Yang; Chen, Hui; Li, Wei; Jin, Yunbo; Ma, Gang; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Large temporal plexiform neurofibroma (PNF) is an irritating problem that causes facial disfigurement. Surgical resection of PNF is the only effective way to remove the tumor as well as to improve the patient's facial appearance. However, temporal branch of the facial nerve (TBFN) in the tumor is prone to be destroyed during PNF removal. Thus, TBFN palsy is the inevitable complication after surgery and might induce other malformation and dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of this study is to reconstruct a nearly normal face contour while preserving the facial nerve function. Purpose: Selective PNF removal technique was designed to protect TBFN during PNF lesions resection in our patients. Methods: From May 2011 to June 2015, the authors had 10 patients who suffered from PNF in the temporal region with facial disfigurement and underwent selective PNF removal to correct the facial disfigurement while preserving TBFN as well. Result: All patients obtained the improvement of facial appearance after surgery. The temporal PNF was removed and the TBFN function successfully maintained. Plexiform neurofibroma recurrence has not been relapsed during 6 to 49 months’ follow-up. Conclusions: In our initial exploration, TBFN function maintenance and facial appearance improvement can be achieved simultaneously by using PNF-selective removal surgery technique. PMID:27526236

  10. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) BPPV is the most common vestibular disorder. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (or BPPV) is the most common cause of ...

  11. Convection-Enhanced Delivery (CED) in an Animal Model of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath (MPNST) Tumors and Plexiform Neurofibromas (PN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    convection enhanced delivery in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors or plexiform neurofibromas at this time. References Perrin GQ, Fishbein L...2007. 85(6): p. 1347-1357. Perrin GQ, Li H, Fishbein L, et al., An orthotopic xenograft model of intraneural NF1 MPNST suggests a potential

  12. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R J

    1997-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of benign prostatic hyperplasia reflects a complex interplay between benign prostatic enlargement, which will affect almost all men by the age of 80, and the resulting outlet obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms. The disease is now known to adversely affect the quality of life of around one man in three over the age of 50. New medical treatments and new surgical interventions are challenging the previous standard treatment of transurethral resection of prostate, which continues to have a morbidity of 17% and some mortality. Primary care will be increasingly involved in shared care with particular emphasis on monitoring of patients on watchful waiting medical therapy- and following operative intervention. PMID:9196969

  13. Benign cutaneous Degos' disease.

    PubMed

    Ojeda Cuchillero, R M; Sánchez Regaña, M; Umbert Millet, P

    2003-03-01

    Malignant atrophic papulosis is a rare systemic vaso-occlusive disorder characterized by thrombosis of vessels of the dermis, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and, occasionally, other organs. Cutaneous lesions consist of erythematous, dome-shaped papules that develop a central area of necrosis to leave a porcelain-like scar. The most accepted theory of pathogenesis is based on endothelial cell damage. There is no effective treatment of the disease. We describe a 26-year-old man with Degos' disease, a diagnosis based on the clinical and histologic pattern of skin lesions. The good response to antiplatelet therapy and the absence of systemic involvement over 8 years' follow-up is noteworthy. We believe that this case represents the benign form of the disease, typically referred to as benign cutaneous Degos' disease.

  14. Environmentally Benign Pyrotechnic Delays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    jay.poret@us.army.mil † School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA ABSTRACT Pyrotechnic delays are used in...benign formulations are described. The delay time of the new system is easily tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum ...tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum housings which is generally difficult for delay compositions due to extreme thermal

  15. Benign familial hyperphosphatasemia

    SciTech Connect

    Siraganian, P.A.; Mulvihill, J.J.; Mulivor, R.A.; Miller, R.W. )

    1989-03-03

    Elevated alkaline phosphatase activity in serum suggests bone or liver disease or a neoplasm but can also indicate pregnancy or another benign condition. A family with benign hyperphosphatasemia was studied to elucidate the genetics and enzyme defect. Serum total alkaline phosphatase activity was greater than the population mean in all six family members, and more than 7 SDs above the mean in two of four offspring. Monoclonal antibodies to three alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes, intestinal, placental, and tissue nonspecific demonstrated markedly increased intestinal alkaline phosphatase levels in all family members and significantly elevated liver/bone/kidney activity in the two offspring. Guanidine hydrochloride denaturation of the liver/bone/kidney component showed high alkaline phosphatase activity from liver in both siblings and from bone in one. The mode of inheritance in this family is obscure, but a complex regulation of the products of two different alkaline phosphatase genes seems likely. Steps toward diagnosis are suggested. Early recognition of this benign biochemical abnormality should help to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests.

  16. Rare Anterior Segment Retinoblastoma Masquerading as Corneal Endotheliitis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Alla; Kaufman, Stephen C; Ali, Rasha; Grajewski, Alana; Anderson, Jill

    2016-01-01

    We present a unique case involving a 6-year-old female with a unilateral corneal endotheliitis-like finding, who was ultimately found to have a form of anterior diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma with no evidence of retinal involvement. The patient's presumed endotheliitis was initially treated with topical dexamethasone and oral acyclovir without improvement. She then underwent multiple fine-needle aspirations of anterior chamber fluid, which were negative for abnormal findings of viral polymerase chain reaction, viral cultures, and flow cytometry. Months after initial presentation, an anterior chamber angle mass developed and a biopsy identified retinoblastoma cells. The patient underwent plaque radiotherapy of the cornea and systemic chemotherapy. The patient regained good vision and is tumor-free at 13 months. Anterior inflammation is a rare form of masquerade syndrome associated with retinoblastoma; however, it tends to be associated with diffuse posterior segment retinoblastoma when it does occur. Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is a rare form of retinoblastoma with no apparent focus in the retina. Ultimately, our patient developed an anterior chamber angle lesion, which was biopsied and proven to be retinoblastoma. Unusual corneal endotheliitis-like findings in children that are not responsive to conventional treatment should raise the clinician's suspicion of malignancy, even when no retinal lesion is detected.

  17. Crypsis via leg clustering: twig masquerading in a spider.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shichang; Mao, Kuei-Kai; Lin, Po-Ting; Ho, Chiu-Ju; Hung, Wei; Piorkowski, Dakota; Liao, Chen-Pan; Tso, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    The role of background matching in camouflage has been extensively studied. However, contour modification has received far less attention, especially in twig-mimicking species. Here, we studied this deceptive strategy by revealing a special masquerade tactic, in which the animals protract and cluster their legs linearly in the same axis with their bodies when resting, using the spider Ariamnes cylindrogaster as a model. We used cardboard papers to construct dummies resembling spiders in appearance and colour. To differentiate the most important factors in the concealment effect, we manipulated body size (long or short abdomen) and resting postures (leg clustered or spread) of the dummies and recorded the responses of predators to different dummy types in the field. The results showed that dummies with clustered legs received significantly less attention from predators, regardless of the body length. Thus, we conclude that A. cylindrogaster relies on the resting posture rather than body size for predator avoidance. This study provides, to the best of our knowledge, empirical evidence for the first time that twig-mimicking species can achieve effective camouflage by contour modification.

  18. Cross-reactivity and masqueraders in seafood reactions.

    PubMed

    Banks, Taylor A; Gada, Satyen M

    2013-01-01

    Confounding variables play a significant role in many adverse seafood reactions and a clear understanding of these factors is important in properly characterizing reactions associated with potential masqueraders and mimics. Although the medical literature is replete with reviews of seafood hypersensitivity and reports of cross-reactive and newly characterized allergens, there has not been a recent effort to provide an updated overview of the several processes that may lead clinicians to draw incorrect conclusions in evaluating reported reactions to seafood. Ranging from seafood intoxications to other nonallergic or complex seafood reactions, these events can easily be misconstrued as representing a seafood IgE-mediated allergy. Among these are the more familiar topics of cross-reactivity and scombroid intoxication, and those with a still evolving understanding such as ciguatera fish poisoning and Anisakis reactions. This article seeks to provide an accessible but comprehensive summary of the relevant information surrounding these confounders in assessing adverse reactions to seafood. Such knowledge may be instrumental in unraveling complex or otherwise unclear presentations and aid clinicians in accurately evaluating and managing patients with reported seafood reactions.

  19. Crypsis via leg clustering: twig masquerading in a spider

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shichang; Mao, Kuei-Kai; Lin, Po-Ting; Ho, Chiu-Ju; Hung, Wei; Piorkowski, Dakota; Liao, Chen-Pan; Tso, I-Min

    2015-01-01

    The role of background matching in camouflage has been extensively studied. However, contour modification has received far less attention, especially in twig-mimicking species. Here, we studied this deceptive strategy by revealing a special masquerade tactic, in which the animals protract and cluster their legs linearly in the same axis with their bodies when resting, using the spider Ariamnes cylindrogaster as a model. We used cardboard papers to construct dummies resembling spiders in appearance and colour. To differentiate the most important factors in the concealment effect, we manipulated body size (long or short abdomen) and resting postures (leg clustered or spread) of the dummies and recorded the responses of predators to different dummy types in the field. The results showed that dummies with clustered legs received significantly less attention from predators, regardless of the body length. Thus, we conclude that A. cylindrogaster relies on the resting posture rather than body size for predator avoidance. This study provides, to the best of our knowledge, empirical evidence for the first time that twig-mimicking species can achieve effective camouflage by contour modification. PMID:26064622

  20. Infradiaphragmatic Extralobar Pulmonary Sequestration: Masquerading as Suprarenal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Kalenahalli, Kiran V.; Garg, Navneet; Goolahally, Lakshmikantha N.; Reddy, Somasekhara P.; Iyengar, Jayanth

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is a rare malformation, wherein a portion of lung is non-functional and is not in normal continuity with the tracheo-bronchial tree, and may derive its blood supply from systemic vessels. Two types are described: Intralobar and extralobar types. Intralobar sequestration is more common type, which shares visceral pleura of the involved lobe and is localized within the normal pulmonary parenchyma. Whereas extralobar forms are uncommon and are totally separate from the lung and usually have own covering. Infra-diaphragmatic pulmonary sequestration is of extralobar type and is extremely rare, and usually is associated with other congenital malformations. We present an extremely rare case of isolated infra-diaphragmatic pulmonary sequestration which was antenatally detected and followed up with postnatal CT scan, where it masqueraded as suprarenal mass, and was surgically treated. This case emphasises to add a differential diagnosis of malformation in congenital supra-renal masses, which remain stable in size and appearance, and hence avoid immediate surgery. PMID:24251262

  1. AngioVac extraction of intra-atrial hepatoma masquerading as PICC-associated thrombus.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Samir; Raparia, Kirtee; Ubago, Julianne M; Resnick, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus associated with peripherally inserted central catheterization is not uncommon. Treatment is typically conservative; however, more aggressive therapies can be considered in patients with tenuous medical condition. The authors present a patient with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma masquerading as peripherally inserted central catheter-associated intra-atrial thrombus, subsequently removed via vacuum-assisted mechanical thrombectomy.

  2. Burkitt’s lymphoma masquerading as appendicitis – two case reports and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Two cases of Burkitt’s lymphoma masquerading as appendicitis are reported herein. The diagnoses were made post-operatively from the appendix specimen in one case and from an ileocecal resection specimen for cecal fistula complicating an appendicectomy in the second case. These cases highlight the importance of routine histological examination of appendicectomy specimens. PMID:24942062

  3. 27.12 MHz Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Cutaneous Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Hyun, Dong Ju; Piquette, Raymonde; Beaumont, Clément; Germain, Lucie; Larouche, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    As surgical and/or ablative modalities, radiofrequency (RF) has been known to produce good clinical outcomes in dermatology. Recently, 27.12 MHz RF has been introduced and has several advantages over conventional 4 or 6 MHz in terms of the precise ablation and lesser pain perception. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 27.12 MHz RF for the treatment of benign cutaneous lesions. Twenty female patient subjects were enrolled. Digital photography and a USB microscope camera were used to monitor the clinical results before one session of treatment with 27.12 MHz RF and after 1 and 3 weeks. Treated lesions included telangiectasias, cherry and spider angiomas, skin tags, seborrheic keratoses, lentigo, milium, dilated pore, acne, piercing hole, and one case of neurofibroma. For vascular lesions, clinical results were excellent for 33.3%, good for 44.4%, moderate for 11.1%, and poor for 11.1%. For nonvascular lesions (epidermal lesions and other benign cutaneous lesions), clinical results were excellent for 48.3%, good for 45.2%, moderate for 3.2%, and poor for 3.2%. No serious adverse events were observed. Mild adverse events reported were slight erythema, scale, and crust. The 27.12 MHz RF treatment of benign vascular and nonvascular lesions appears safe and effective after 3 weeks of follow-up. PMID:27127789

  4. Interactive segmentation of plexiform neurofibroma tissue: method and preliminary performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Weizman, Lior; Hoch, Lior; Ben Bashat, Dafna; Joskowicz, Leo; Pratt, Li-tal; Constantini, Shlomi; Ben Sira, Liat

    2012-08-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) are a major manifestation of neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1), a common genetic disease involving the nervous system. Treatment decisions are mostly based on a gross assessment of changes in tumor using MRI. Accurate volumetric measurements are rarely performed in this kind of tumors mainly due to its great dispersion, size, and multiple locations. This paper presents a semi-automatic method for segmentation of PN from STIR MRI scans. The method starts with a user-based delineation of the tumor area in a single slice and automatically segments the PN lesions in the entire image based on the tumor connectivity. Experimental results on seven datasets, with lesion volumes in the range of 75-690 ml, yielded a mean absolute volume error of 10 % (after manual adjustment) as compared to manual segmentation by an expert radiologist. The mean computation and interaction time was 13 versus 63 min for manual annotation.

  5. Multiple endocardial neurofibromas in a rosy-billed pochard (Netta peposaca)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew D.; Baitchman, Eric J.; Masek-Hammerman, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Endocardial neoplasms are uncommon in veterinary species with most cases restricted to endocardial schwannomas in aged rats. A 15-year-old, male rosy-billed pochard (Netta peposaca) was diagnosed following necropsy with numerous, proliferative endocardial masses. Histologically, these masses were composed of interlacing streams and bundles of neoplastic spindle cells supported by a fine fibrovascular stroma. Rare areas of cellular and nuclear palisading were present in the nodules. Approximately 60% of the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for S-100, whereas none of the neoplastic cells was positive for desmin, synaptophysin, neurofilament, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The histologic features coupled with the S-100 immunoreactivity led to a diagnosis of endocardial neurofibroma. PMID:22362538

  6. Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour: report of two cases mimicking neurofibroma and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Ashis; Mishra, Sudhansu; Mishra, Sanjib; Deo, Rama

    2012-01-01

    Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) are a rare entity. Most of them occur in children and young adults. To date, 47 cases of primary spinal PNET have been reported in the literature. We present two cases of primary spinal PNET. In both cases, the tumours were thoracic extradural ones with intrathoracic extension through intervertebral foramina resembling neurofibroma. These tumours are highly aggressive with rapid growth as evidenced by the short history in both of our cases. Both cases underwent gross total removal of the intraspinal and thoracic components. Postoperatively, both patients underwent cranio-spinal radiotherapy. A review of the literature shows that the overall prognosis of PNETs of the spinal cord is very poor even with adequate surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. One patient died after 4 months and the other one is still alive 8 months after surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  7. Dual mTORC1/2 inhibition induces anti-proliferative effect in NF1-associated plexiform neurofibroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Hivelin, Mikael; Nusbaum, Patrick; Hubas, Arnaud; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Lantieri, Laurent; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Vidaud, Michel; Pasmant, Eric; Chapuis, Nicolas; Parfait, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30-50% of individuals with Neurofibromatosis type 1 develop benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors, called plexiform neurofibromas (PNFs). PNFs can undergo malignant transformation to highly metastatic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) in 5-10% of NF1 patients, with poor prognosis. No effective systemic therapy is currently available for unresectable tumors. In tumors, the NF1 gene deficiency leads to Ras hyperactivation causing the subsequent activation of the AKT/mTOR and Raf/MEK/ERK pathways and inducing multiple cellular responses including cell proliferation. In this study, three NF1-null MPNST-derived cell lines (90-8, 88-14 and 96-2), STS26T sporadic MPNST cell line and PNF-derived primary Schwann cells were used to test responses to AZD8055, an ATP-competitive “active-site” mTOR inhibitor. In contrast to rapamycin treatment which only partially affected mTORC1 signaling, AZD8055 induced a strong inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling in MPNST-derived cell lines and PNF-derived Schwann cells. AZD8055 induced full blockade of mTORC1 leading to an efficient decrease of global protein synthesis. A higher cytotoxic effect was observed with AZD8055 compared to rapamycin in the NF1-null MPNST-derived cell lines with IC50 ranging from 70 to 140 nM and antiproliferative effect was confirmed in PNF-derived Schwann cells. Cell migration was impaired by AZD8055 treatment and cell cycle analysis showed a G0/G1 arrest. Combined effects of AZD8055 and PD0325901 MEK inhibitor as well as BRD4 (BromoDomain-containing protein 4) inhibitors showed a synergistic antiproliferative effect. These data suggest that NF1-associated peripheral nerve sheath tumors are an ideal target for AZD8055 as a single molecule or in combined therapies. PMID:26840085

  8. Dual mTORC1/2 inhibition induces anti-proliferative effect in NF1-associated plexiform neurofibroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Varin, Jennifer; Poulain, Laury; Hivelin, Mikael; Nusbaum, Patrick; Hubas, Arnaud; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Lantieri, Laurent; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Vidaud, Michel; Pasmant, Eric; Chapuis, Nicolas; Parfait, Béatrice

    2016-06-14

    Approximately 30-50% of individuals with Neurofibromatosis type 1 develop benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors, called plexiform neurofibromas (PNFs). PNFs can undergo malignant transformation to highly metastatic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) in 5-10% of NF1 patients, with poor prognosis. No effective systemic therapy is currently available for unresectable tumors. In tumors, the NF1 gene deficiency leads to Ras hyperactivation causing the subsequent activation of the AKT/mTOR and Raf/MEK/ERK pathways and inducing multiple cellular responses including cell proliferation. In this study, three NF1-null MPNST-derived cell lines (90-8, 88-14 and 96-2), STS26T sporadic MPNST cell line and PNF-derived primary Schwann cells were used to test responses to AZD8055, an ATP-competitive "active-site" mTOR inhibitor. In contrast to rapamycin treatment which only partially affected mTORC1 signaling, AZD8055 induced a strong inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling in MPNST-derived cell lines and PNF-derived Schwann cells. AZD8055 induced full blockade of mTORC1 leading to an efficient decrease of global protein synthesis. A higher cytotoxic effect was observed with AZD8055 compared to rapamycin in the NF1-null MPNST-derived cell lines with IC50 ranging from 70 to 140 nM and antiproliferative effect was confirmed in PNF-derived Schwann cells. Cell migration was impaired by AZD8055 treatment and cell cycle analysis showed a G0/G1 arrest. Combined effects of AZD8055 and PD0325901 MEK inhibitor as well as BRD4 (BromoDomain-containing protein 4) inhibitors showed a synergistic antiproliferative effect. These data suggest that NF1-associated peripheral nerve sheath tumors are an ideal target for AZD8055 as a single molecule or in combined therapies.

  9. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    von Brevern, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common and the most effectively treated vestibular disorder. The prevailing pathomechanism is canalolithiasis, which is otoconia falling in one of the semicircular canals where they move in response to changes of the head position, triggering excitation of the vestibular receptors of the affected canal. In the majority of patients with BPPV, the posterior canal is affected by canalolithiasis and there are two highly effective therapeutic maneuvers for treatment. About 20% of patients present with lithiasis of the horizontal or anterior canal. The author focuses on recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of the more rare variants of BPPV.

  10. Benign follicular tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, José Carlos; Reis, José Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Baptista, António Poiares

    2015-01-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dubé, Rombo and Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients. PMID:26734858

  11. When DLB, PD, and PSP masquerade as MSA

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Shunsuke; Aoki, Naoya; Uitti, Ryan J.; van Gerpen, Jay A.; Cheshire, William P.; Josephs, Keith A.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Langston, J. William

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine ways to improve diagnostic accuracy of multiple system atrophy (MSA), we assessed the diagnostic process in patients who came to autopsy with antemortem diagnosis of MSA by comparing clinical and pathologic features between those who proved to have MSA and those who did not. We focus on likely explanations for misdiagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 134 consecutive patients with an antemortem clinical diagnosis of MSA who came to autopsy with neuropathologic evaluation of the brain. Of the 134 patients, 125 had adequate medical records for review. Clinical and pathologic features were compared between patients with autopsy-confirmed MSA and those with other pathologic diagnoses, including dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson disease (PD), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Results: Of the 134 patients with clinically diagnosed MSA, 83 (62%) had the correct diagnosis at autopsy. Pathologically confirmed DLB was the most common misdiagnosis, followed by PSP and PD. Despite meeting pathologic criteria for intermediate to high likelihood of DLB, several patients with DLB did not have dementia and none had significant Alzheimer-type pathology. Autonomic failure was the leading cause of misdiagnosis in DLB and PD, and cerebellar ataxia was the leading cause of misdiagnosis in PSP. Conclusions: The diagnostic accuracy for MSA was suboptimal in this autopsy study. Pathologically confirmed DLB, PD, and PSP were the most common diseases to masquerade as MSA. This has significant implications not only for patient care, but also for research studies in MSA cases that do not have pathologic confirmation. PMID:26138942

  12. Multifocal Head and Neck Neurofibromas with Osseous Abnormalities and Muscular Hypoplasia in a Child with Neurofibromatosis: Type I.

    PubMed

    Rath, Rachna; Kaur, Sheetal; Baig, Shadab Ali; Pati, Punyashlok; Sahoo, Sonalisa

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a clinically and genetically distinct disease involving both neuroectodermal and mesenchymal derivatives. Orofacial manifestations in NF1 have been documented before but occurrence of multifocal intraosseous (IO) and extraosseous (EO) neurofibromas is rare. The present case highlights the importance of imaging findings in the diagnosis and management of multifocal jaw, infratemporal, and parotid neurofibromas with muscular hypoplasia in an eight-year-old girl with NF1. Apart from orthopantomograms (OPG), three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) and cross-sectional reformations were valuable in delineating the extent of the lytic lesion and identifying additional bony deformities of the mandible. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helped to identify the solid nature of the lesion and true extent of the soft tissue mass.

  13. Multifocal Head and Neck Neurofibromas with Osseous Abnormalities and Muscular Hypoplasia in a Child with Neurofibromatosis: Type I

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sheetal; Baig, Shadab Ali; Pati, Punyashlok; Sahoo, Sonalisa

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a clinically and genetically distinct disease involving both neuroectodermal and mesenchymal derivatives. Orofacial manifestations in NF1 have been documented before but occurrence of multifocal intraosseous (IO) and extraosseous (EO) neurofibromas is rare. The present case highlights the importance of imaging findings in the diagnosis and management of multifocal jaw, infratemporal, and parotid neurofibromas with muscular hypoplasia in an eight-year-old girl with NF1. Apart from orthopantomograms (OPG), three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) and cross-sectional reformations were valuable in delineating the extent of the lytic lesion and identifying additional bony deformities of the mandible. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helped to identify the solid nature of the lesion and true extent of the soft tissue mass. PMID:27382495

  14. A Rare Case of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma of the Lower Extremity, Masquerading as an Ulcerative Lesion that Clinically Favored Benignancy

    PubMed Central

    Vazales, Ryan; Constant, Dustin; Snyder, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A rare case report of Aggressive Digital Adenocarcinoma (ADPCa) is presented complete with a literature review encompassing lesions that pose potential diagnostic challenges. Similarities between basal cell carcinoma (BCC), marjolin’s ulceration/squamous cell carcinoma (MSCC) and ADPCa are discussed. This article discusses potential treatment options for ADPCa and the need for early biopsy when faced with any challenging lesion. An algorithmic approach to ADPCa treatment based on the most current research is recommended. PMID:27429279

  15. Application of the laser diode with central wavelength 975 nm for the therapy of neurofibroma and hemangiomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymańczyk, Jacek; Sawczak, Mirosław; Cenian, Witold; Karpienko, Katarzyna; Jędrzejewska-Szczerska, Małgorzata; Cenian, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a newly developed dermatological laser (with a central wavelength 975 nm) for application in therapies requiring deep penetration of tissue, e.g., cutaneous (dermal) neurofibroma (von Recklinghausen disease) and hemangiomas. This laser can work either in pulses or continues wave mode. Laser radiation is transmitted toward the application region by optical fiber with a diameter of 0.6 mm. The compact design of the laser facilitates its transport and increases the comfort of use.

  16. Pulmonary Embolism Masquerading as High Altitude Pulmonary Edema at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prativa; Lohani, Benu; Murphy, Holly

    2016-12-01

    Pandey, Prativa, Benu Lohani, and Holly Murphy. Pulmonary embolism masquerading as high altitude pulmonary edema at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:353-358, 2016.-Pulmonary embolism (PE) at high altitude is a rare entity that can masquerade as or occur in conjunction with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and can complicate the diagnosis and management. When HAPE cases do not improve rapidly with descent, other diagnoses, including PE, ought to be considered. From 2013 to 2015, we identified eight cases of PE among 303 patients with initial diagnosis of HAPE. Upon further evaluation, five had deep vein thrombosis (DVT). One woman had a contraceptive ring and seven patients had no known thrombotic risks. PE can coexist with or mimic HAPE and should be considered in patients presenting with shortness of breath from high altitude regardless of thrombotic risk.

  17. Pulmonary Embolism Masquerading as High Altitude Pulmonary Edema at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Lohani, Benu; Murphy, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pandey, Prativa, Benu Lohani, and Holly Murphy. Pulmonary embolism masquerading as high altitude pulmonary edema at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:353–358, 2016.—Pulmonary embolism (PE) at high altitude is a rare entity that can masquerade as or occur in conjunction with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and can complicate the diagnosis and management. When HAPE cases do not improve rapidly with descent, other diagnoses, including PE, ought to be considered. From 2013 to 2015, we identified eight cases of PE among 303 patients with initial diagnosis of HAPE. Upon further evaluation, five had deep vein thrombosis (DVT). One woman had a contraceptive ring and seven patients had no known thrombotic risks. PE can coexist with or mimic HAPE and should be considered in patients presenting with shortness of breath from high altitude regardless of thrombotic risk. PMID:27768392

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to Plectranthus amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shyue-Luen; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yang, Chin-Hsun; Hong, Hong-Shang

    2005-12-01

    This report discusses a case of a 69-year-old woman who developed chronic non-healing leg ulcers after long-term topical use of Plectranthus amboinicus. The ulcer was proven to be allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus by a patch test. The ulcer healed after discontinuation of P. amboinicus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

  19. T-cell lymphoma masquerading as extrapulmonary tuberculosis: case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Piyush; Dutta, Sourabh; Kakkar, Aanchal; Goyal, Ankur; Vikram, Naval K.; Sharma, Mehar C.; Sood, Rita

    2015-01-01

    It is often difficult to establish confirmatory diagnosis in cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) because of its paucibacillary nature and difficulty in accessing the involved organs. In several cases, empirical anti-tubercular treatment is started, and the patient is followed-up closely for response. In countries with high prevalence of TB, it is a reasonably good strategy and works most of the times. However, catastrophe may occur when aggressive lymphomas masquerade as TB. PMID:25949984

  20. Benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may affect up to 30% of men in their early 70s, causing urinary symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction. Symptoms can improve without treatment, but the usual course is a slow progression of symptoms, with acute urinary retention occurring in 1-2% of men with BPH per year. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical, surgical, and herbal treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to May 2005 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 43 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, alpha-blockers, beta-sitosterol plant extract, less-invasive surgical techniques, pygeum africanum, rye grass pollen extract, saw palmetto plant extracts, transurethral microwave thermotherapy, transurethral needle ablation, and transurethral resection.

  1. The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Buresch, Kendra C; Mäthger, Lydia M; Allen, Justine J; Bennice, Chelsea; Smith, Neal; Schram, Jonathan; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-12-08

    Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, commonly use their visually-guided, rapid adaptive camouflage for multiple tactics to avoid detection or recognition by predators. Two common tactics are background matching and resembling an object (masquerade) in the immediate area. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three-dimensional (3D) object in the immediate visual field (via the mechanism of masquerade/deceptive resemblance) rather than the 2D benthic substrate surrounding them (via the mechanisms of background matching or disruptive coloration). Cuttlefish were presented with a combination of benthic substrates (natural rocks or artificial checkerboard and grey printouts) and 3D objects (natural rocks or cylinders with artificial checkerboards and grey printouts glued to the outside) with visual features known to elicit each of three camouflage body pattern types (Uniform, Mottle and Disruptive). Animals were tested for a preference to show a body pattern appropriate for the 3D object or the benthic substrate. Cuttlefish responded by masquerading as the 3D object, rather than resembling the benthic substrate, only when presented with a high-contrast object on a substrate of lower contrast. Contrast is, therefore, one important cue in the cuttlefish's preference to resemble 3D objects rather than the benthic substrate.

  2. Evidence of bird dropping masquerading by a spider to avoid predators

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min-Hui; Blamires, Sean J.; Liao, Chen-Pan; -Min Tso, I.

    2014-01-01

    Masquerading comes at various costs and benefits. The principal benefit being the avoidance of predators. The orb-web spider Cyclosa ginnaga has a silver body and adds a white discoid-shaped silk decoration to its web. The size, shape and colour of C. ginnaga's body resemble, when viewed by the human eye against its decoration, a bird dropping. We therefore hypothesized that their body colouration might combine with its web decoration to form a bird dropping masquerade to protect it from predators. We measured the spectral reflectance of: (i) the spider's body, (ii) the web decoration, and (iii) bird droppings, in the field against a natural background and found that the colour of the spider bodies and decorations were indistinguishable from each other and from bird droppings when viewed by hymentopteran predators. We monitored the predatory attacks on C. ginnaga when the spider's body and/or its decorations were blackened and found that predator attack probabilities were greater when only the decorations were blackened. Accordingly, we concluded that C. ginnaga's decoration and body colouration forms a bird dropping masquerade, which reduces its probability of predation. PMID:24875182

  3. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block.

    PubMed

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  4. A retrovirus isolated from cell lines derived from neurofibromas in bicolor damselfish (Pomacentrus partitus).

    PubMed

    Schmale, M C; Aman, M R; Gill, K A

    1996-06-01

    Damselfish neurofibromatosis (DNF) is a naturally occurring, neoplastic disease affecting bicolor damselfish (Pomacentrus partitus) living on coral reefs in southern Florida, USA. The disease consists of multiple neurofibromas, neurofibrosarcomas and chromatophoromas and has been proposed as an animal model for neurofibromatosis type 1 in humans. DNF is transmissible by injection of crude tumour homogenates, cell-free filtrates of homogenates or cells from tumour cell lines. An analysis of tumorigenic cell lines derived from fish with spontaneous or experimentally induced DNF revealed virus particles budding from cells and present in conditioned media. The 90-110 nm particles resembled type C retroviruses. This virus exhibited a buoyant density of 1.14-1.17 g/cm2 in sucrose, at least six virus proteins of 15 to 80 kDa and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. RT activity was maximized with a poly(rC).oligo(dG) template.primer combination and Mn2+ at a concentration of 0.5-1.0 mM. The optimum temperature for RT was determined to be 20 degrees C, a finding consistent with the ambient temperatures encountered by this species. This retrovirus, tentatively named damselfish neurofibromatosis virus (DNFV) may be the aetiological agent of DNF. Whether DNFV or another, as yet unidentified, virus is the cause of DNF, this agent may be unique in virus oncogenesis; neoplastic transformation of the cell types involved in DNF, Schwann cells and chromatophores, has not been documented in any other transmissible tumour.

  5. Benign Breast Problems and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a needle. Another example is a simple fibroadenoma . Simple fibroadenomas usually shrink or go away on their own. ... Cyst: A sac or pouch filled with fluid. Fibroadenoma: A type of solid, benign breast mass. Hormone: ...

  6. Pharmacotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, P; Indudhara, R

    1994-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a benign neoplasm of the prostate seen in men of advancing age. Microscopic evidence of the disorder is seen in about 70% of men by 70 years of age, whereas symptoms requiring some form of surgical intervention occur in 30% of men during their lifetime. Although the exact cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia is not clear, it is well recognized that high levels of intraprostatic androgens are required for the maintenance of prostatic growth. In recent years, extensive surveys of patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate reveal an 18% incidence of morbidity that has essentially not changed in the past 30 years. This procedure is also the second highest reimbursed surgical therapy under Medicare. These findings have resulted in an intensive search for alternative therapies for prostatic hyperplasia. An alternative that has now been well defined is the use of alpha-adrenergic blockers to relax the prostatic urethra. This is based on findings that a major component of benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms is spasm of the prostatic urethra and bladder neck, which is mediated by the alpha-adrenergic nerves. A second approach is to block androgens involved in maintaining prostate growth. Several such drugs are now available for clinical use, and we discuss their side effects and use. We also include the newer recommendations on evaluating benign prostatic hyperplasia that are cost-effective yet comprehensive. Images PMID:7528957

  7. Cholesterol and benign prostate disease.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association between BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept.

  8. Cholesterol and Benign Prostate Disease

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Michael R.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association bet ween BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemi, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept. PMID:21862201

  9. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A E

    2006-07-07

    The coupling of energetic metallic multilayers (a.k.a. flash metal) with energetic sol-gel synthesis and processing is an entirely new approach to forming energetic devices for several DoD and DOE needs. They are also practical and commercially viable manufacturing techniques. Improved occupational safety and health, performance, reliability, reproducibility, and environmentally acceptable processing can be achieved using these methodologies and materials. The development and fielding of this technology will enhance mission readiness and reduce the costs, environmental risks and the necessity of resolving environmental concerns related to maintaining military readiness while simultaneously enhancing safety and health. Without sacrificing current performance, we will formulate new impact initiated device (IID) compositions to replace materials from the current composition that pose significant environmental, health, and safety problems associated with functions such as synthesis, material receipt, storage, handling, processing into the composition, reaction products from testing, and safe disposal. To do this, we will advance the use of nanocomposite preparation via the use of multilayer flash metal and sol-gel technologies and apply it to new small IIDs. This work will also serve to demonstrate that these technologies and resultant materials are relevant and practical to a variety of energetic needs of DoD and DOE. The goal will be to produce an IID whose composition is acceptable by OSHA, EPA, the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Recovery Act, etc. standards, without sacrificing current performance. The development of environmentally benign stab detonators and igniters will result in the removal of hazardous and toxic components associated with their manufacturing, handling, and use. This will lead to improved worker safety during manufacturing as well as reduced exposure of Service personnel during their storage and or use in operations. The

  10. Radiotherapy of unusual benign disease

    SciTech Connect

    Aristizabel, S.A.; Runyon, T.D.

    1981-10-01

    Four different case reports are presented with a review of the literature in which radiation therapy was used for the treatment of four rare benign diseases: pyogenic granuloma of the middle ear, juvenile xanthogranuloma of the iris, a fourth ventricle choroid plexus papilloma, and an ovarian lymphangioma associated with peritoneal lymphangiomatosis. A trial of radiation therapy was given in each case, because of extenuating circumstances. We hope that the information presented here will contribute to current guidelines used in weighting patient benefits versus potential risks of therapy when ionizing radiation is considered as a mode of therapy for benign disorders.

  11. [Benign stenosis of the esophagus].

    PubMed

    Salis, G; Lazaroni, F; Chiocca, J C; Mazure, P A; Sferco, A

    1978-09-01

    In the present study 39 patients with benign esphageal stenosis were studied (average age 59,9 years). The most common etiology was refux esofagitis, and the most common associated pathology was esophageal hiatus hernia. Thirty one patients received medical treatment (diet. antireflux drugs and dilatations.) Twenty four were dilated with the slow continuous method, six with metalic bougies. One patient was not dilated. Seven patients were not treated since the stenosis was due to extrinsec compression. One patient was surgically treated from the onset. Seventy percent of the patients had goods results with esophageal dilatation. We propose that patients with benign esophageal stenosis should be treated by the slow continuous dilatation method.

  12. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Roehrborn, Claus G

    2005-01-01

    Despite the deceptively simple description of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the actual relationship between BPH, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), benign prostatic enlargement, and bladder outlet obstruction is complex and requires a solid understanding of the definitional issues involved. The etiology of BPH and LUTS is still poorly understood, but the hormonal hypothesis has many arguments in its favor. There are many medical and minimally invasive treatment options available for affected patients. In the intermediate and long term, minimally invasive treatment options are superior to medical therapy in terms of symptom and flow rate improvement; tissue ablative surgical treatment options are superior to both minimally invasive and medical therapy. PMID:16985902

  13. Brunner gland hamartoma masquerading as malignancy; a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Sen, Rajeev; Gupta, Veena; Sharma, Nisha; Chawla, Nitika; Kumar, Sanjay; Malik, Shivani

    2014-10-01

    Brunner's gland hamartoma is a rare benign tumour of the duodenum. It was first described by Cruveilhier in 1835. Presently around 200 cases have been reported in literature. No sex predilection is seen. Patients usually present in the fifth to sixth decades of life. They may be clinically silent or may present with variable symptoms and occasionally obstructive symptoms and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic presentation can be nodular, polypoid or diffuse glandular proliferation with thickening of duodenal wall and hence can be misdiagnosed as malignancy. We describe a case of duodenal tumor reported outside (on biopsy) as well differentiated adenocarcinoma which out as Brunner gland hamartoma upon complete resection. Brunner gland hamartoma may sometimes have a very unusual presentation. Extensive pre-operative evaluation is necessity to avoid radical surgical procedure.

  14. Two Cases of Ectopic Hamartomatous Thymoma Masquerading as Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yukiko; Tanaka, Hiroko; Sasaki, Toru; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Yonekawa, Hiroyuki; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Shimbashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma (EHT) is an extremely rare benign tumor. EHTs are difficult to differentiate from sarcomas, especially synovial sarcomas. We encountered two cases of EHT that were referred from other hospitals because sarcoma was suspected. In these cases, fusion gene detection via polymerase chain reaction or fluorescence in situ hybridization was useful for differentiating EHT from synovial sarcoma. EHT requires accurate diagnosis before surgery to avoid excessive treatment. Both tumor location and the presence of fat inside the tumor are important imaging findings for EHT, and confirmation of spindle cells, epithelial cells, and mature adipose cells in the tumor is an important pathological finding. It is important to exclude synovial sarcoma from the differential diagnosis via fusion gene analysis. PMID:28168073

  15. Two Cases of Ectopic Hamartomatous Thymoma Masquerading as Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takahito; Sato, Yukiko; Tanaka, Hiroko; Sasaki, Toru; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Yonekawa, Hiroyuki; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Shimbashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma (EHT) is an extremely rare benign tumor. EHTs are difficult to differentiate from sarcomas, especially synovial sarcomas. We encountered two cases of EHT that were referred from other hospitals because sarcoma was suspected. In these cases, fusion gene detection via polymerase chain reaction or fluorescence in situ hybridization was useful for differentiating EHT from synovial sarcoma. EHT requires accurate diagnosis before surgery to avoid excessive treatment. Both tumor location and the presence of fat inside the tumor are important imaging findings for EHT, and confirmation of spindle cells, epithelial cells, and mature adipose cells in the tumor is an important pathological finding. It is important to exclude synovial sarcoma from the differential diagnosis via fusion gene analysis.

  16. Localization of neurofibromas by scanning with technetium-99m diethylene triamine-pentacetic acid (Tc-99 DTPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m DTPA is commonly utilized to evaluate renal function. Reports of a uterine myoma and a soft tissue sarcoma accumulating this radiopharmaceutical have also appeared in the literature. The authors have observed the affinity for plexiform as well as well circumscribed soft tissue tumors of neurofibromatosis for Tc-99m DTPA. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, twenty-eight sites of abnormal soft tissue localization of the isotope were documented by clinical and radiographic (predominantly CT) correlation. The best visualization of the tumors occurred 1 to 3 hours post-injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Multiple images (150,000 to 500,000 counts) of areas suspected of having neurofibromatous involvement were obtained. Several unsuspected lesions were recognized. Similar images obtained in sixteen control patients showed no similar soft tissue localization. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-centimeter subcutaneous neurofibroma. The mechanism for selectivity of neurofibroma for Tc-99m DTPA does not appear to be related to hypervascularity or necrosis. Time activity curves of several lesions demonstrate gradual increase in their activity pointing to cellular uptake or stasis within the tumor as possible explanations. The significance of this observation relates to easy mapping of lesions with minimal radiation. Important implications of this discovery include sequential evaluation of tumor growth and detection of unsuspected lesions.

  17. Coexistence of Juvenile-Like Polyp with Neurofibroma at the Gastroesophageal Junction in an Adult with Neurofibromatosis Type I

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Atif

    2017-01-01

    A 23-year-old Caucasian male with Neurofibromatosis Type I (NF-I) was found to have a submucosal nodule at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection. Histological examination revealed two different lesions within the nodule. The dominant lesion was inflammatory/hyperplastic (juvenile-like) polyp with obliterative vasculopathy while the smaller lesion was a neurofibroma. Gastric/GEJ lesions in NF-I are very rare with only seven cases reported in the literature. Three cases of juvenile-like gastric polyps (located in the antrum, greater curvature, and fundus) have been reported in adult NF-I patients. An inflammatory polyp associated with a neurofibroma has only been described once in the pediatric literature but never in an adult. Our case is unique from those previously described in the literature due to the age of the patient, the presence of 2 histologically separate lesions in one endoscopically evident lesion, and the presence of obliterative vasculopathy in the juvenile-like polyp. PMID:28168076

  18. Cardiac sarcoid: a chameleon masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anushree; Sulemanjee, Nasir Z; Cheema, Omar; Downey, Francis X; Tajik, A Jamil

    2014-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology often seen in young adults, with cardiac involvement in more than one-quarter of sarcoid patients. The clinical presentation of cardiac sarcoid depends upon the location and extent of myocardium involved. Although cardiac sarcoid may produce asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, it is most commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. The hypertrophic stage of cardiac sarcoid is rarely seen. We describe a case of cardiac sarcoid in a young patient wherein a distinctive appearance of the cardiac sarcoid spectrum from "hypertrophic" stage to thinned/scarred stage, masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy followed by dilated cardiomyopathy, is demonstrated.

  19. Multiple giant angiokeratoma of Fordyce on the shaft of the penis masquerading as keratoacanthoma*

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Ghosh, Shouvik; Agarwal, Megha

    2015-01-01

    The term 'angiokeratoma' includes a wide range of dermatological conditions of hyperkeratotic vascular disorders with a similar histologic combination of hyperkeratosis and superficial dermal vascular ectasia. Angiokeratomas can be classified into localized and systemic forms. Angiokeratoma of Fordyce (AKF) is a localized form of angiokeratoma, clinically characterized by 1- to 6-mm, black, blue, or dark red, dome-shaped papules located on the scrotum, shaft of penis, labia majora, clitoris, inner thigh, and lower abdomen. We describe herein a case of giant angiokeratoma of Fordyce on shaft of the penis in an elderly man, clinically masquerading as keratoacanthoma. PMID:26312700

  20. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bony tumor of the ear canal Images Ear anatomy References Nicolai P, Castelnuovo P. Benign tumors of the sinonasal tract. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  1. Isolated tuberculous epididymitis masquerading as a scrotal tumor.

    PubMed

    Miu, Wei-Chieh; Chung, Hui-Ming; Tsai, Yung-Cheng; Luo, Fu-Jinn

    2008-12-01

    This report is of a patient with isolated tuberculous epididymitis presenting with a scrotal tumor. A 65-year-old man presented with a rapidly growing, painless mass over his right testicle. A non-tender indurated tumor was identified in the right hemi-scrotum. Digital rectal examination detected a moderately enlarged, elastic prostate that was consistent with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urinalysis was normal without pyuria. Complete blood count, biochemistry, prostate specific antigen, alpha-fetoprotein, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin were all within normal levels. Chest X-ray was clear. Scrotal ultrasonography and computed tomography scan showed a tumor in the right testicle involving the epididymis with hydrocele, but the renal images were normal. The diagnosis was right epididymo-testicular tumor. The right testis was removed. Postoperative pathology showed tuberculous epididymitis. Subsequent urine mycobacterial culture was negative. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. The patient was treated with standard 9-month triple anti-tuberculosis medications, and remained stable at follow-up.

  2. Severe bleeding after antithrombotic therapy in urosepsis masquerading as myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuo-Wei; Shih, Hsin-Chin; How, Chorng-Kuang; Lin, Yang-Ying; Hung-Tsang Yen, David; Huang, Mu-Shun

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is common in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. We present a 71-year-old woman with Escherichia coli urosepsis and sepsis-induced myocardial injury masquerading as non-ST elevated myocardial ischemia. Spontaneous psoas hematoma requiring blood transfusion and intracranial hemorrhage developed after antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies, even in therapeutic doses. The patient was managed conservatively and recovered well with minor residual hemiparesis. Bleeding complications are a common risk of antithrombotic therapy. It is therefore crucial to weigh the impact of efficacy against safety. Old age, female gender, renal insufficiency and sepsis character increased the risk of bleeding in this patient. A misinterpretation of elevated cardiac troponin I may give rise to a diagnostic dilemma and cause unnecessary morbidity.

  3. Retained soft contact lens masquerading as a chalazion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Ahmed, Taha Y; Diaper, Charles J M

    2013-02-01

    A misplaced contact lens is a common ocular emergency presenting to the eye casualty. We report a case of lost soft contact lens which migrated in the lid and presented 13 years later with symptomatic eye lid swelling. Authors in the past have reported migration and subsequent retention of lost hard lenses in locations such as the superior fornix and eyelid. To the best of our knowledge, misplaced soft contact lens masquerading as a chalazion has not been reported in the literature. Consideration should be given to the possibility of a retained contact lens in a patient with a history of a lost or misplaced lens, and examination of the ocular surface with double eversion of the upper lid should be performed.

  4. Sphenoid sinus organized hematoma with cranial neuropathies masquerading as a malignancy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIN, YU-HSUAN; WANG, PO-CHIN; LIN, YAOH-SHIANG

    2016-01-01

    Sinonasal organized hematoma (SNOH) is rarely encountered in clinical practice. The disease demonstrates a high tendency for occurrence in East Asian individuals, and in the majority of cases, is located in the maxillary sinus. The current report presents the case of an 81-year-old female who developed a space-occupying lesion, which masqueraded as a skull base malignancy, following surgery for the treatment of isolated sphenoid sinus aspergilloma. Subsequent endoscopic endonasal surgery confirmed the diagnosis of an OH of the sphenoid sinus. The patient recovered from all neurological deficits within two months, with the exception of the loss of visual perception. Although SNOH presents a diagnostic challenge, when physicians possess knowledge of its typical imaging features, this facilitates the achievement of a correct diagnosis and the prescription of optimal treatment. PMID:27284357

  5. Retained soft contact lens masquerading as a chalazion: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Ahmed, Taha Y; Diaper, Charles J M

    2013-01-01

    A misplaced contact lens is a common ocular emergency presenting to the eye casualty. We report a case of lost soft contact lens which migrated in the lid and presented 13 years later with symptomatic eye lid swelling. Authors in the past have reported migration and subsequent retention of lost hard lenses in locations such as the superior fornix and eyelid. To the best of our knowledge, misplaced soft contact lens masquerading as a chalazion has not been reported in the literature. Consideration should be given to the possibility of a retained contact lens in a patient with a history of a lost or misplaced lens, and examination of the ocular surface with double eversion of the upper lid should be performed. PMID:23412528

  6. Sphenoid sinus organized hematoma with cranial neuropathies masquerading as a malignancy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Po-Chin; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang

    2016-06-01

    Sinonasal organized hematoma (SNOH) is rarely encountered in clinical practice. The disease demonstrates a high tendency for occurrence in East Asian individuals, and in the majority of cases, is located in the maxillary sinus. The current report presents the case of an 81-year-old female who developed a space-occupying lesion, which masqueraded as a skull base malignancy, following surgery for the treatment of isolated sphenoid sinus aspergilloma. Subsequent endoscopic endonasal surgery confirmed the diagnosis of an OH of the sphenoid sinus. The patient recovered from all neurological deficits within two months, with the exception of the loss of visual perception. Although SNOH presents a diagnostic challenge, when physicians possess knowledge of its typical imaging features, this facilitates the achievement of a correct diagnosis and the prescription of optimal treatment.

  7. Sebaceous carcinoma: the great masquerader: emgerging concepts in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, William; Joseph, Aaron K

    2008-01-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is a rare tumor with a high rate of local recurrence and metastasis to lymph nodes and organs. The majority of SCs occur in the periocular region frequently presenting as painless, round subcutaneous nodules with a high tendency of diffuse and invasive growth in the eyelid and conjunctiva. It frequently masquerades as inflammatory conditions or as other tumors leading to delay in diagnosis, inappropriate treatment and increased morbidity and mortality. Sebaceous carcinoma is associated with Muir-Torre syndrome, a genetic condition presenting with sebaceous skin tumors associated with internal malignancy. Therefore, SC patients must be carefully evaluated and referred to an internist or gastroenterologist when indicated. Surgery is the definitive therapy for SC. In recent years, less radical surgical strategies are being used with improved outcomes. Current studies demonstrate that Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) provides maximal tissue conservation and lower recurrence rates. Greater awareness and understanding of SC and its behavior has led to earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  8. Benign External Hydrocephalus in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Adele Marino, Maria; Morabito, Rosa; Vinci, Sergio; Germanò, Antonino; Briguglio, Marilena; Alafaci, Concetta; Mormina, Enricomaria; Longo, Marcello; Granata, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Summary External hydrocephalus (EH) is a benign clinical entity in which macrocephaly is associated with an increase in volume of the subarachnoid space, especially overlying both frontal lobes, and a normal or only slight increase in volume of the lateral ventricles. Several pathogenic hypotheses have been proposed but the most accredited theory seems to be delayed maturation of the arachnoid villi. There is a consensus that this is a benign entity, correlated to a familial predisposition and, in some cases, inheritance. CT and MRI are very important to make a diagnosis but also to establish the prognosis in patients who encounter the rare complications such as subdural haematomas. In conclusion, CT and MRI can provide a highly accurate diagnosis in these patients, allowing a preliminary assessment of the prognosis, particularly regarding the enlarged subarachnoid space limits and the “cortical vein" sign which can predict a further complication. These results are obtained with the same examination performed in a standard CT or MRI study of the brain and no injection of contrast medium is needed. PMID:24750715

  9. Hemidiaphragmatic palsy following excision of cervical dumbbell neurofibroma in a patient with neurofibromatosis: Importance of assessing functional status of "non-limb" roots.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Prasad; Kartikueyan, Rajaraman; Kumar, Soumen K

    2016-01-01

    A 27-year-old male patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who was operated on for a dumbbell neurofibroma of the cervical spine developed transient respiratory difficulty due to postoperative unilateral diaphragmatic palsy. This report emphasizes the need for preoperative assessment of residual function in involved non-limb roots, the role of intraoperative monitoring to take a decision on root sacrifice, and the need for optimizing respiratory function preoperatively, and describes a complication rarely reported in literature.

  10. Concussion or benign paroxysmal torticollis?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who presented to the trauma service on 3 occasions over the course of 2 years, each time with symptoms typical of concussion (e.g., crying, change in mentation, and vomiting). On more in-depth evaluation, it was discovered that the child had torticollis, pallor, and brief dizziness or vertigo with each episode. Benign paroxysmal torticollis is a periodic, paroxysmal syndrome that may be mistaken for the more common concussion. In addition to illustrating a uniquely pediatric neurological syndrome, this case demonstrates the importance of taking a careful history and considering a full range of differential diagnoses when evaluating every patient, even those with seemingly routine injuries.

  11. [Phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Bracher, F

    1997-01-01

    Phytopharmaceutical agents have been used for a long time in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, until recently, it has been questioned whether phytotherapy is superior to a placebo treatment. In this article, the most widely used phytopharmaceutical agents, such as saw palmetto berry extracts, Radix urticae extracts, pumpkin seeds, pollen extracts and different phytosterols, are described. In addition, both in vitro and in vivo studies are discussed in an attempt to explain a possible mechanism of action. There are several new clinical studies which demonstrate a significant benefit compared with placebo treatment. Based on these results, the use of phytopharmaceutical agents for the treatment of mild to moderate symptomatic BPH seems to be well justified. So far, no significant inhibition of further prostate growth has been demonstrated. For this, a careful follow-up of the patients is necessary so as not to miss a deterioration and perhaps the need for an operation.

  12. [Radiotherapy of benign intracranial tumors].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Latorzeff, I; Chand, M E; Huchet, A; Dupin, C; Colin, P

    2016-09-01

    Most of the benign intracranial tumors are meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and glomus tumors. Some of them grow very slowly, and can be observed without specific treatment, especially if they are asymptomatic. Symptomatic or growing tumors are treated by surgery, which is the reference treatment. When surgery is not possible, due to the location of the lesion, or general conditions, radiotherapy can be applied, as it is if there is a postoperative growing residual tumor, or a local relapse. Indications have to be discussed in polydisciplinary meetings, with precise evaluation of the benefit and risks of the treatments. The techniques to be used are the most modern ones, as multimodal imaging and image-guided radiation therapy. Stereotactic treatments, using fractionated or single doses depending on the size or the location of the tumors, are commonly realized, to avoid as much a possible the occurrence of late side effects.

  13. Benign lesions of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Tran, L P; Grundfast, K M; Selesnick, S H

    1996-10-01

    Benign mass lesions of the external auditory canal, such as exostoses and osteomas, are common findings on physical examination but most often do not require treatment. The differential diagnosis of lesions in the external auditory canal, however, should not be limited to those benign processes discussed here, but should also include infectious, dermatologic, congenital, and malignant processes.

  14. Malignant Transformation of Pulmonary Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung Sub; Keum, Dong Yoon; Hwang, Il Seon

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML) is defined as metastasis of a leiomyoma to lung tissue. It was first reported in 1937. P BML is known as a benign disease, but can undergo malignant transformation. Only 1 case of the malignant transformation of PBML to leiomyosarcoma has been reported previously. In this report, we present a case of malignant transformation of PBML. PMID:28180107

  15. Benign Hereditary Chorea: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Peall, Kathryn J.; Kurian, Manju A.

    2015-01-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is a childhood-onset, hyperkinetic movement disorder normally with little progression of motor symptoms into adult life. The disorder is caused by mutations to the NKX2.1 (TITF1) gene and also forms part of the “brain–lung–thyroid syndrome”, in which additional developmental abnormalities of lung and thyroid tissue are observed. In this review, we summarize the main clinical findings in “classical” BHC syndrome and discuss more recently reported atypical features, including non-choreiform movement phenotypes. We highlight additional non-motor characteristics such as cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms, while discussing the evidence for BHC as a developmental disorder involving impaired neural migration and other multisystem developmental abnormalities. Finally, we will discuss the efficacy of available therapies in both affected pediatric and adult cohorts. Delineation of the BHC disease spectrum will no doubt expand our understanding of this disorder, facilitating better targeting of genetic testing and establish a framework for future clinical trials. PMID:26196025

  16. Management of Benign Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F.

    2002-12-15

    Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  17. Oxidative stress in benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Zabaiou, N; Mabed, D; Lobaccaro, J M; Lahouel, M

    2016-02-01

    To assess the status of oxidative stress in benign prostate hyperplasia, a very common disease in older men which constitutes a public health problem in Jijel, prostate tissues were obtained by transvesical adenomectomy from 10 men with benign prostate hyperplasia. We measured the cytosolic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) and cytosolic enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase. The development of benign prostate hyperplasia is accompanied by impaired oxidative status by increasing levels of MDA, depletion of GSH concentrations and a decrease in the activity of all the antioxidant enzymes studied. These results have allowed us to understand a part of the aetiology of benign prostate hyperplasia related to oxidative stress.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Close All Description Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) is characterized by episodes of liver dysfunction called ... a lack of appetite. A common feature of BRIC is the reduced absorption of fat in the ...

  19. ENVIRONMENTALLY-BENIGN MULTIPHASE CATALYSIS. (R826034)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental concerns stemming from the use of conventional solvents and from hazardous waste generation have propelled research efforts aimed at developing benign chemical processing techniques that either eliminate or significantly mitigate pollution at the source. This pap...

  20. Percutaneous ablation of benign bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Welch, Brian T; Welch, Timothy J

    2011-09-01

    Percutaneous image-guided ablation has become a standard of practice and one of the primary modalities for treatment of benign bone tumors. Ablation is most commonly used to treat osteoid osteomas but may also be used in the treatment of chondroblastomas, osteoblastomas, and giant cell tumors. Percutaneous image-guided ablation of benign bone tumors carries a high success rate (>90% in case series) and results in decreased morbidity, mortality, and expense compared with traditional surgical methods. The ablation technique most often applied to benign bone lesions is radiofrequency ablation. Because the ablation technique has been extensively applied to osteoid osteomas and because of the uncommon nature of other benign bone tumors, we will primarily focus this discussion on the percutaneous ablation of osteoid osteomas.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Environmentally Benign Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been a growing interest in replacing current non-biodegradable and toxic nanosystems with environmentally benign biopolymer based ones to minimize post-utilization hazards due to uncontrolled accumulation of nanoparticles in the environment. Lignin based nanoparticles (...

  2. Oral benign fibrous histiocytoma: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Fibrous histiocytoma is a benign soft tissue tumour arising as a fibrous mass everywhere in the human body. The involvement of the oral cavity is rare. We report two cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma that localized in the oral cavity. The clinical and histological features of the lesion are reported. Finally, a literature revision of this pathology at the level of the oral cavity is reported. PMID:20066060

  3. Scleroderma renal crisis or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: seeing through the masquerade.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Emily; Fioravanti, Gloria; Samuel, Bensson; Longo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    SCLERODERMA: renal crisis (SRC), a somewhat rare but serious complication of systemic scleroderma, is one of only a few known rheumatologic emergencies; it presents in as many as 10% of patients with scleroderma. Before the use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to treat SRC, the mortality rate for SRC was extremely high-as much as 90% after 1 year. However, the mortality rate has significantly improved with the early and aggressive use of ACE inhibitors. SRC typically includes acute renal failure and accelerated hypertension. Patients may report headache, changes in vision, fever, dyspnea, and encephalopathy. Laboratory study results can show elevated creatinine levels, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) with schistocytes on blood smear. Given this clinical and laboratory presentation, SRC can easily be mistaken for TTP in clinical practice, as we demonstrate in 2 presentations of similar cases of SRC, the first in a 36-year-old Caucasian woman and the second in a 54-year-old Caucasian woman. In both cases, SRC masqueraded as TTP, and both patients were almost mistakenly treated for TTP until the clinical picture changed and certain laboratory test and kidney biopsy results confirmed otherwise.

  4. High-mass twins & resolution of the reconfinement, masquerade and hyperon puzzles of compact star interiors

    SciTech Connect

    Blaschke, David; Alvarez-Castillo, David E.

    2016-01-22

    We aim at contributing to the resolution of three of the fundamental puzzles related to the still unsolved problem of the structure of the dense core of compact stars (CS): (i) the hyperon puzzle: how to reconcile pulsar masses of 2 M{sub ⊙} with the hyperon softening of the equation of state (EoS); (ii) the masquerade problem: modern EoS for cold, high density hadronic and quark matter are almost identical; and (iii) the reconfinement puzzle: what to do when after a deconfinement transition the hadronic EoS becomes favorable again? We show that taking into account the compositeness of baryons (by excluded volume and/or quark Pauli blocking) on the hadronic side and confining and stiffening effects on the quark matter side results in an early phase transition to quark matter with sufficient stiffening at high densities which removes all three present-day puzzles of CS interiors. Moreover, in this new class of EoS for hybrid CS falls the interesting case of a strong first order phase transition which results in the observable high mass twin star phenomenon, an astrophysical observation of a critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram.

  5. The frequency of 'occult' ventricular fibrillation masquerading as a flat line in prehospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Cummins, R O; Austin, D

    1988-08-01

    We investigated the frequency with which a "vector of ventricular fibrillation" may exist in persons in prehospital cardiac arrest. Emergency medical technicians trained in defibrillation were directed to record the rhythm in three different monitor leads whenever they noted an initial flat line. Before these lead switches, the technicians performed a flat line protocol that included inspection of the lead connections to the patient and to the defibrillator, and checks of the calibration and battery status of the devices. They performed this flat line protocol for 127 cardiac arrest patients; 118 were in confirmed asystole after technical problems were corrected. Ventricular fibrillation was detected in only three (2.5%) when the monitor lead was switched. Initial technical problems were more frequent and were identified for ten patients (8%). The frequency of occult ventricular fibrillation (three of 118 asystolic patients) yields a 95% confidence that the true frequency is no greater than 8% to 9%. This suggests that ventricular fibrillation masquerading as asystole is rare. These data do not support protocols for empiric countershocks of patients with an initial flat line on the monitor.

  6. Congenital giant plexiform neurofibroma with occipital calvarial dysplasia in association with meningoencephalocele in neurofibromatosis Type 1 and segmental neurofibromatosis: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Dadlani, Ravi; Sadanand, Venkatraman; Ghosal, Nandita; Hegde, Alangar S

    2013-11-01

    Giant plexiform neurofibroma (GPNF) of the scalp is an extremely rare lesion reported in association with neurofibromatosis. Occipital location of GPNF is even more infrequent, especially in association with occipital dysplasia (OD). The authors report 2 pediatric cases of GPNF associated with OD. The first case had an associated meningoencephalocele, and the second had large vascular channels within the lesion and the dominant ipsilateral transverse sinus lying in the center of the calvarial defect. The authors present these 2 unusual cases with a review of literature and discuss the radiological findings, theories of etiopathogenesis of the OD, and management dilemmas.

  7. A neurofibroma affecting the first right cervical sympathetic ganglion and entering the jugular foramen of the skull base.

    PubMed

    Kumchev, Y; Kalnev, B

    1997-01-01

    The case of a 27 year old male patient is presented. He had been complaining for three months prior to his initial medical examination of severe pulsating headache in the right occipital region, propagating toward the right parietal and temporal regions, occasionally extending along the neck to the right shoulder. The pain subsequently spread over the right tonsil, the voice became hoarse and the patient experienced difficulties in swallowing. On admission to our Department we found: persistent attacks of headache, dysphonia, dysphagia, the palatine arch was slow during phonation. The right pharyngeal reflex was absent, there was pain on palpation over the right occipital bone and the antero-lateral region of the neck, as well as hypotrophy of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle. Selective right carotid arteriogram was performed--the A/P view revealed lateral displacement of the right internal carotid artery 3 cm above the bifurcation, while on lateral view the artery was pushed forward. Computed tomography of the neck with bolus contrast enhancement showed a space-occupying lesion which caused asymmetry of right pharyngeal valleculae. During surgery the tumor was found to have a spindleform shape, to emerge from the jugular foramen and to involve within its capsule the first cervical sympathetic ganglion. After enlarging the jugular foramen we achieved total extirpation of the tumor along with the first right sympathetic ganglion. The histological characteristics of the specimen defined it as neurofibroma and neural ganglion. The headache subsided in the postoperative period, recovery of the voice without dysphonia was also noted. A month later the fibrillar contractions of the tongue disappeared.

  8. A rare case of metastatic germ cell tumor to stomach and duodenum masquerading as signet ring cell adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Sridhar; Patil, Prachi; Mehta, Shaesta; Ramadwar, Mukta

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinomas are the most common cancers affecting stomach. However gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), lymphomas and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can also affect the stomach. But stomach is relatively rare site of involvement by metastasis. In this case report a rare metastasis of germ cell tumor (GCT) into stomach is described which clinically and endoscopically masquerade as primary gastric cancers. But detailed clinical examination and vigilant histopathological reporting proves the origin of tumor distant from stomach and thereby change the whole approach of management. PMID:27668229

  9. Endobronchial ultrasound: morphological predictors of benign disease.

    PubMed

    Gogia, Pratibha; Insaf, Tabassum Z; McNulty, William; Boutou, Afroditi; Nicholson, Andrew G; Zoumot, Zaid; Shah, Pallav L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the utility of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) morphology of lymph nodes in predicting benign cytology of transbronchial needle aspirates in a prospective observational study. Five ultrasonic morphological characteristics of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes were recorded: size, shape, margins, echogenic appearance and the presence of a central blood vessel. These characteristics were correlated with the final diagnosis. A total of 402 consecutive patients (237 males and 165 females) undergoing EBUS were studied. The final diagnosis was malignant disease in 244 (60.6%) and benign disease in 153 (38.05%) subjects. Out of 740 sampled nodes, in 463 (62.6%) malignant cells were identified, whereas in 270 (36.5%) nodes, no malignant cells were identified. On univariate analysis small size, triangular shape and the presence of a central vessel were predictive of a benign aetiology. In the final multivariate model, a predictive probability of 0.811 (95% CI 0.72-0.91) for benign disease was found if lymph node size was <10 mm and a central vessel was present. Sonographic appearances of lymph nodes improve the predictive probability of EBUS for benign aetiologies, and may reduce the number of nodes requiring sampling and the need for further invasive investigations.

  10. An Absence of Cutaneous Neurofibromas Associated with a 3-bp Inframe Deletion in Exon 17 of the NF1 Gene (c.2970-2972 delAAT): Evidence of a Clinically Significant NF1 Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, M.; Huson, S. M.; Davies, M.; Thomas, N.; Chuzhanova, N.; Giovannini, S.; Evans, D. G.; Howard, E.; Kerr, B.; Griffiths, S.; Consoli, C.; Side, L.; Adams, D.; Pierpont, M.; Hachen, R.; Barnicoat, A.; Li, H.; Wallace, P.; Van Biervliet, J. P.; Stevenson, D.; Viskochil, D.; Baralle, D.; Haan, E.; Riccardi, V.; Turnpenny, P.; Lazaro, C.; Messiaen, L.

    2007-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is characterized by café-au-lait spots, skinfold freckling, and cutaneous neurofibromas. No obvious relationships between small mutations (<20 bp) of the NF1 gene and a specific phenotype have previously been demonstrated, which suggests that interaction with either unlinked modifying genes and/or the normal NF1 allele may be involved in the development of the particular clinical features associated with NF1. We identified 21 unrelated probands with NF1 (14 familial and 7 sporadic cases) who were all found to have the same c.2970-2972 delAAT (p.990delM) mutation but no cutaneous neurofibromas or clinically obvious plexiform neurofibromas. Molecular analysis identified the same 3-bp inframe deletion (c.2970-2972 delAAT) in exon 17 of the NF1 gene in all affected subjects. The ΔAAT mutation is predicted to result in the loss of one of two adjacent methionines (codon 991 or 992) (ΔMet991), in conjunction with silent ACA→ACG change of codon 990. These two methionine residues are located in a highly conserved region of neurofibromin and are expected, therefore, to have a functional role in the protein. Our data represent results from the first study to correlate a specific small mutation of the NF1 gene to the expression of a particular clinical phenotype. The biological mechanism that relates this specific mutation to the suppression of cutaneous neurofibroma development is unknown. PMID:17160901

  11. Benign bone tumors--recent developments.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Roberto A; Inwards, Carrie Y; Unni, Krishnan K

    2011-02-01

    Benign bone tumors frequently pose a diagnostic challenge for general surgical pathologists. Accurate pathologic diagnosis requires careful clinical and radiological correlation. The most significant recent advances in some benign bone tumors have occurred at the molecular and cytogenetic level. The detection of clonal chromosomal aberrations, various specific molecular genetic events, and the description of the bone cell signaling pathways in the field of osteoimmunology have provided a better understanding of the pathophysiology of certain tumors and an important aid in the diagnostic workup and differential diagnosis of some bone lesions demonstrating overlapping clinical and pathologic features. Future directions include prognostic and therapeutic applications of these findings. Newer less invasive therapeutic techniques and medical management have been developed for the treatment of certain benign bone tumors.

  12. [Modern pharmacotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław; Szkróbka, Witold; Herman, Zbigniew Stanisław

    2005-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most common medical problem affecting elderly men throughout the world. With increasing awareness of health issues amongst males, the morbidity caused by this disease is not longer being accepted as just part of growing old. Until about 10 years ago, surgery was the only effective treatment for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Now, many men suffering from this disorder may be effectively treated with a medical therapy. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and safety of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists and herbal remedies, putting special emphasis on the current place of these agents in the modem therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Wherever possible, our opinion is based on the detailed analysis of the results of available clinical trials.

  13. Quinone Induced Activation of Keap1/Nrf2 Signaling by Aspirin Prodrugs Masquerading as Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Tareisha; Piyankarage, Sujeewa C.; Wijewickrama, Gihani T.; Abdul-Hay, Samer; Vanni, Michael; Litosh, Vladislav; Luo, Jia; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.

    2013-01-01

    The promising therapeutic potential of the NO-donating hybrid aspirin prodrugs (NO-ASA), includes induction of chemopreventive mechanisms, and has been reported in almost 100 publications. One example, NCX-4040 (pNO-ASA), is bioactivated by esterase to a quinone methide (QM) electrophile. In cell cultures, pNO-ASA and QM-donating X-ASA prodrugs that cannot release NO rapidly depleted intracellular GSH and caused DNA damage; however, induction of Nrf2 signaling elicited cellular defense mechanisms including upregulation of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL). In HepG2 cells, the “NO-specific” 4,5-diaminofluorescein reporter, DAF-DA, responded to NO-ASA and X-ASA, with QM-induced oxidative stress masquerading as NO. LC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated efficient alkylation of Cys residues of proteins including glutathione-S-transferase-P1 (GST-P1) and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). Evidence was obtained for alkylation of Keap1 Cys residues associated with Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus, nuclear translocation of Nrf2, activation of antioxidant response element (ARE), and upregulation of cytoprotective target genes. At least in cell culture, pNO-ASA acts as a QM-donor, bioactivated by cellular esterase activity to release salicylates, NO3−, and an electrophilic QM. Finally, two novel aspirin prodrugs were synthesized, both potent activators of ARE, designed to release only the QM and salicylates on bioactivation. Current interest in electrophilic drugs acting via Nrf2 signaling suggests that QM-donating hybrid drugs can be designed as informative chemical probes in drug discovery. PMID:23035985

  14. Radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Stacul, F; Zecchin, M; Dobrinja, C; Zanconati, F; Fabris, B

    2016-09-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are an extremely common occurrence. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is gaining ground as an effective technique for their treatment, in case they become symptomatic. Here we review what are the current indications to RFA, its outcomes in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and cost, and also how it compares to the other conventional and experimental treatment modalities for benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, we will also address the issue of treating with this technique patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), as it is a rather frequent occurrence that has never been addressed in detail in the literature.

  15. Osteoid osteoma and benign osteoblastoma in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Levick, R K; Sharrard, W J

    1979-01-01

    Three cases of osteoid osteoma and one of benign osteoblastoma in children are described. The main complaint was severe pain which was worse at night; it was relieved by aspirin or other analgesics. The diagnosis was made on clinical and radiological grounds and was confirmed on histological examination of the central nidus removed at operation. The pain was relieved in the patients with osteoid osteoma, and it was very much less after operative removal of the benign osteoblastoma. Both conditions are probably variations of the same disease process, depending on the anatomical site and the type of bone affected. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:475430

  16. Unusual Benign Tumors of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Adrada, Beatriz E; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Carkaci, Selin; Posleman-Monetto, Flavia E; Ewere, Adesuwa; Whitman, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the imaging characteristics of a variety of benign breast tumors that may be encountered in daily practice, in order to formulate an appropriate differential diagnosis and to establish concordance between the imaging and the pathologic findings, and to assist the clinician with appropriate management. PMID:26085959

  17. Imaging features of benign adrenal cysts.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Kocaoglu, Murat; Yildirim, Duzgun; Bulakbasi, Nail; Guvenc, Inanc; Tayfun, Cem; Ucoz, Taner

    2006-12-01

    Benign adrenal gland cysts (BACs) are rare lesions with a variable histological spectrum and may mimic not only each other but also malignant ones. We aimed to review imaging features of BACs which can be helpful in distinguishing each entity and determining the subsequent appropriate management.

  18. Huge benign mesenchymoma in pharynx-esophagus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Omo, Alfred; Liu, Ligang; Liu, Lisi; Tang, Yinxiong; Pan, Tiecheng

    2006-06-01

    Benign mesenchymoma is an uncommon neoplastic disease and its occurrence in pharynx-esophagus is even more rarely reported. A successful case operation is reported. The origin of this tumor was in the pharynx-esophagus, and complete excision was achieved through a laterocervical approach.

  19. Congenital epulis: A rare benign tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, D K C; Ramli, R; Muhaizan, W M; Primuharsa Putra, S H A

    2016-10-01

    Congenital epulis is a rare benign pedunculated tumour of the oral cavity arising from the alveolar ridges. It is usually detected in newborns and can be successfully resected surgically. We report a case of a newborn baby who had a 5x3x3cm pedunculated lobar mass arising from the upper alveolar ridge.

  20. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: from Bench to Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Ju

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease, especially in old men, and often results in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This chronic disease has important care implications and financial risks to the health care system. LUTS are caused not only by mechanical prostatic obstruction but also by the dynamic component of obstruction. The exact etiology of BPH and its consequences, benign prostatic enlargement and benign prostatic obstruction, are not identified. Various theories concerning the causes of benign prostate enlargement and LUTS, such as metabolic syndrome, inflammation, growth factors, androgen receptor, epithelial-stromal interaction, and lifestyle, are discussed. Incomplete overlap of prostatic enlargement with symptoms and obstruction encourages focus on symptoms rather than prostate enlargement and the shifting from surgery to medicine as the treatment of BPH. Several alpha antagonists, including alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, have shown excellent efficacy without severe adverse effects. In addition, new alpha antagonists, silodosin and naftopidil, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are emerging as BPH treatments. In surgical treatment, laser surgery such as photoselective vaporization of the prostate and holmium laser prostatectomy have been introduced to reduce complications and are used as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy. The status of TURP as the gold standard treatment of BPH is still evolving. We review several preclinical and clinical studies about the etiology of BPH and treatment options. PMID:22468207

  1. An Update on Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Not Just Café-au-Lait Spots, Freckling, and Neurofibromas. An Update. Part I. Dermatological Clinical Criteria Diagnostic of the Disease.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martín, A; Duat-Rodríguez, A

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common neurocutaneous syndrome and probably the one best known to dermatologists, who are generally the first physicians to suspect its diagnosis. Although the genetic locus of NF1 was identified on chromosome 17 in 1987, diagnosis of the disease is still mainly based on clinical observations and the diagnostic criteria of the National Institute of Health, dating from 1988. Cutaneous manifestations are particularly important because café-au-lait spots, freckling on flexural areas, and cutaneous neurofibromas comprise 3 of the 7 clinical diagnostic criteria. However, café-au-lait spots and freckling can also be present in other diseases. These manifestations are therefore not pathognomonic and are insufficient for definitive diagnosis in the early years of life. NF1 is a multisystemic disease associated with a predisposition to cancer. A multidisciplinary follow-up is necessary and dermatologists play an important role.

  2. The masquerade game: marine mimicry adaptation between egg-cowries and octocorals

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Pardo, Angela P.; Ní Almhain, Íde; Ardila-Espitia, Néstor E.; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime; Forero-Shelton, Manu

    2016-01-01

    system comprised background-matching mimicry, of the masquerade type, between egg-cowries (Simnia/Simnialena) and octocorals (Pacifigorgia/Eugorgia/Leptogorgia). We observed mimicry mismatches related to fitness trade-offs, such as reproductive aggregations vs. vulnerability against predators. Despite the general assumption that coevolution of mimicry involves speciation, egg-cowries with different hosts and colorations comprise the same lineages. Consequently, we infer that there would be significant tradeoffs between mimicry and the pursuit of reproductive aggregations in egg-cowries. The findings of this study not only contribute to the understanding of the evolution of mimicry in egg-cowries, a poorly studied group of marine gastropods, but also to the development of a new biologically meaningful board game that could be implemented as a learning tool. PMID:27547514

  3. The masquerade game: marine mimicry adaptation between egg-cowries and octocorals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Juan A; Fuentes-Pardo, Angela P; Ní Almhain, Íde; Ardila-Espitia, Néstor E; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime; Forero-Shelton, Manu

    2016-01-01

    system comprised background-matching mimicry, of the masquerade type, between egg-cowries (Simnia/Simnialena) and octocorals (Pacifigorgia/Eugorgia/Leptogorgia). We observed mimicry mismatches related to fitness trade-offs, such as reproductive aggregations vs. vulnerability against predators. Despite the general assumption that coevolution of mimicry involves speciation, egg-cowries with different hosts and colorations comprise the same lineages. Consequently, we infer that there would be significant tradeoffs between mimicry and the pursuit of reproductive aggregations in egg-cowries. The findings of this study not only contribute to the understanding of the evolution of mimicry in egg-cowries, a poorly studied group of marine gastropods, but also to the development of a new biologically meaningful board game that could be implemented as a learning tool.

  4. Locked-in syndrome after basilary artery thrombosis by mucormycosis masquerading as meningoencephalitis in a lymphoma patient.

    PubMed

    Maffini, Fausto; Cocorocchio, Emilia; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Bonomo, Guido; Peccatori, Fedro; Chiapparini, Laura; Vincenzo, Silvia Di; Martinelli, Giovanni; Viale, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Locked-in syndrome is a rare clinical syndrome due to basilary artery thrombosis generally associated with trauma, vascular, or cardiac malformation. It can present as various types of clinical evolution and occasionally masquerades as other pathological conditions, such as infective meningoencephalitis. These complications are the cause of diagnostic delay, if not promptly recognised, followed by patient death. We report the case of a 42-year-old female with a systemic B and cutaneous T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, with a severe neutropenia lasting over a year, who eventually developed a rapid and fatal fungal mucormycosis sepsis following a skin infection on her right arm, associated with locked-in syndrome and meningoencephalitis.

  5. A novel benign solution for collagen processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoult, Olivier

    Collagen is the main protein constituting the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tissues in the body (skin, cartilage, blood vessels...). It exists many types of collagen, this work studies only fibrillar collagen (e.g. collagen type I contained in the skin) that exhibits a triple helical structure composed of 3 alpha-helical collagen chains. This particular and defined hierarchical structure is essential to the biological and mechanical properties of the collagen. Processing collagen into scaffolds to mimic the ECM is crucial for successful tissue engineering. Recently collagen was processed into fibrous and porous scaffold using electrospinning process. However the solvent (HFIP) used for electrospinning is extremely toxic for the user and expensive. This work shows that HFIP can be replaced by a benign mixture composed of water, salt and alcohol. Yet only three alcohols (methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol) enable the dissolution of large quantity of collagen in the benign mixture, with a wide range of alcohol to buffer ratio, and conserve the collagen hierarchical structure at least as well as the HFIP. Collagen can be electrospun from the benign mixture into sub-micron fibers with concentrations as low as 6 wt-% for a wide range of alcohol to buffer ratio, with at least 10wt-% of salt, and any of the three alcohols. Specific conditions yield nano size fibers. After processing from HFIP or a benign mixture, collagen is water soluble and needs to be chemically crosslink for tissue engineering application. Post-crosslinking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) results in the loss of the scaffold fibrous aspect and porosity, hence it is useless for tissue engineering. Such issue could be prevented by incorporating the crosslinker into the mixture prior to electrospinning. When EDC is used alone, collagen forms a gel in the mixture within minutes, preventing electrospinning. The addition of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) in excess to EDC

  6. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Koc, Eltaf Ayca Ozbal; Koc, Bulent; Eryaman, Esra; Ozluoglu, Levent N

    2013-01-01

    We present 2 cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) following septorhinoplasty. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following septorhinoplasty is an unusual entity. Two young women who had difficulty in breathing and nasal deformity underwent septorhinoplasty. On the second and the third postoperative days, the patients experienced vertigo that was induced by position changes. Both patients had neither preexisting ear disease nor vertigo before the surgery. All the examinations were normal. With Dix-Hallpike maneuver, which is the criterion-standard test, the characteristic nystagmus was observed. Right posterior canal BPPV was diagnosed, and they were both treated with Epley canalith repositioning maneuver. Publications related to postsurgical vertigo are available in literature, but it is still an underdiagnosed disorder. We would like to mention about this rare entity and inform the surgeons that they must keep in mind that a patient who is complaining about vertigo or dizziness after the surgery should be observed and investigated for BPPV.

  7. Benign recurrent VI nerve palsy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bixenman, W W; von Noorden, G K

    1981-01-01

    The case of a child with six documented episodes of benign recurrent unilateral VI nerve palsy between the ages of 2 1/2 months and 3 years is presented. Despite the recognized self-limiting course of this disorder, its possible evolution into a comitant esotropia makes close follow-up mandatory. The practical aspects of management including maintenance occlusion therapy are stressed as well as the need for prompt surgical intervention once the acquired stabismus has become stabilized. The etiology of benign VI nerve palsy of childhood may have the same immunological basis as other cases of para-infectious neuropathy. This isolated postinfective cranial mononeuropathy easily blends into the continuum of neurological involvement seen with the Landry-Guillian-Barre syndrome. With recovery from the initial episode, the abducens nerve may have become predisposed to recurrent inflammatory episodes and recurrent loss of function. Most often these recurrences are triggered by febrile illnesses of childhood.

  8. Laser Thermal Ablation of Thyroid Benign Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Shahrzad, Mohammad Karim

    2015-01-01

    Thermal ablation therapies for benign thyroid nodules have been introduced in recent years to avoid the complications of traditional methods such as surgery. Despite the little complications and the reportedly acceptable efficacy of thermal ablation methods, quite few medical centers have sought the potential benefits of employing them. This paper provides an introduction to the literature, principles and advances of Percutaneous Laser Ablation therapy of thyroid benign nodules, as well as a discussion on its efficacy, complications and future. Several clinical research papers evaluating the thermal effect of laser on the alleviation of thyroid nodules have been reviewed to illuminate the important points. The results of this research can help researchers to advance the approach and medical centers to decide on investing in these novel therapies. PMID:26705459

  9. [Surgical treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Y; Grosjean, P; Maire, R

    2012-10-03

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common disorder that presents to the general practitioner. This condition represents one of the most common causes of peripheral vertigo. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds. The treatment relies on repositioning maneuvers with relief of symptoms that occur in a few weeks in the majority of the cases. Rarely, patients are incapacitated by persistent or recurrent BPPV despite multiple repositioning maneuvers. In these cases, surgical therapies are available which provide excellent results.

  10. Management of familial benign chronic pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Harleen; Bray, Fleta N; Cervantes, Jessica; Falto Aizpurua, Leyre A

    2016-01-01

    Benign familial chronic pemphigus or Hailey–Hailey disease is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in the ATP2C1 gene leading to suprabasilar acantholysis. The disease most commonly affects intertriginous areas symmetrically. The chronic nature of the disease and multiple recurrences make the disease bothersome for patients and a treatment challenge for physicians. Treatments include topical and/or systemic agents and surgery including laser. This review summarizes the available treatment options. PMID:27695354

  11. Surgical treatment of benign endobronchial tumours

    PubMed Central

    Halttunen, P; Meurala, H; Standertskjöld-Nordenstam, C-G

    1982-01-01

    Four cases of benign endobronchial tumour are reported which were successfully treated by bronchial resection. In two cases (of fibroma and leiomyoma respectively) a cylinder of bronchus alone was resected; in one case (lipoma) a healthy right upper lobe was preserved by a bronchoplastic procedure and in the other (chondroma) the tumour was removed with the right lower lobe, which was irreversibly damaged. It is important to recognise that such tumours are unsuitable for treatment by endoscopic means alone. Images PMID:7157223

  12. Hemorrhagic, calcified, and ossified benign retroperitoneal schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shao-Yan; Sun, Ke; Xie, Hai-Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shu-Sen; Wang, Wei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Schwannomas are mesenchymal tumors arising from the neural sheaths of peripheral nerves. They can almost develop in any part of the body, while head, neck and extremities are the most common sites. Occurrence in the retroperitoneum is rare. Schwannomas can show secondary degenerative changes including cyst formation, hyalinization, hemorrhage, and calcification, whereas the ossified retroperitoneal schwannoma was only reported in a malignant one. Case summary: We first present a benign ossified retroperitoneal schwannoma in a 61-year-old female. The mass was found by a routine health examination. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-defined mass in the area among duodenum, right liver, and kidney. Definitive preoperative diagnosis of the mass was difficult. By laparotomy, the mass was found in the retroperitoneum. We completely removed the tumor and gross specimen showed a mass with a capsule and 6 × 6 × 4.8 cm in size. Microscopic examination showed the tumor is composed of spindle-shaped cells with degenerative changes of hemorrhage, calcification, and ossification. Immunohistochemically, S-100 protein was strongly positive. Finally, the mass was diagnosed as a hemorrhagic, calcified, and ossified benign schwannoma in the retroperitoneum. The patient was followed up for a period of 21 months, during which she was well with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: We report the first case of a benign retroperitoneal schwannoma with secondary degenerative changes including hemorrhage, calcification, and ossification. Precise preoperative diagnosis of the tumor is challenging even with multiple preoperative imaging modalities. After complete resection, patients with benign retroperitoneal schwanommas generally have good prognosis. PMID:27472709

  13. Laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal benign neurilemmoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Seong; Kang, Chang Moo; Yoon, Dong Sup; Lee, Woo Jung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to verify that laparoscopic resection for treating retroperitoneal benign neurilemmoma (NL) is expected to be favorable for complete resection of tumor with technical feasibility and safety. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 47 operations for retroperitoneal neurogenic tumor at Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital and Gangnam Severance Hospital between January 2005 and September 2015. After excluding 21 patients, the remaining 26 were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent open surgery (OS) and those who underwent laparoscopic surgery (LS). We compared clinicopathological features between the 2 groups. Results There was no significant difference in operation time, estimated blood loss, transfusion, complication, recurrence, or follow-up period between 2 groups. Postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the LS group versus the OS group (OS vs. LS, 7.00 ± 3.43 days vs. 4.50 ± 2.16 days; P = 0.031). Conclusion We suggest that laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal benign NL is feasible and safe by obtaining complete resection of the tumor. LS for treating retroperitoneal benign NL could be useful with appropriate laparoscopic technique and proper patient selection. PMID:28289669

  14. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Gee, J.M.; Menna, P.; Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V.

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  15. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for benign adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, T; Inaba, M; Nishiguchi, Y; Ishibashi, R; Ogisawa, K; Yukimoto, K; Ogawa, Y; Onoda, N; Hirakawa, K; Chung, Y S

    2000-06-01

    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has been rapidly accepted for treatment of benign adrenal tumors. To evaluate the advantages of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, we examined 55 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy. In all patients, adrenal tumors were successfully removed. The mean operating time was 143 minutes, and the estimated mean blood loss was 49 mL in all patients. The postoperative course was uneventful in all cases. The mean frequency of administration of analgesics was only 2.9 times, and the time elapsed to first walking after surgery was 17 hours. The peak white blood cell count and C-reactive protein values after surgery were 8,266 +/- 1,963/mm3 and 2.5 +/- 1.2 mg/dL, respectively. Of the 55 patients, 44 underwent total adrenalectomy and another 11 underwent partial adrenalectomy, which was introduced in the expectation of preserving normal adrenal cortex; it is therefore indicated in solitary and peripherally located benign tumors. The mean operating time was 154 minutes for the total adrenalectomy, which was longer than that of partial adrenalectomy (92 minutes). The estimated blood loss was 50 mL for the total and 46 mL for the partial adrenalectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful and surgical outcome was excellent in each group. In conclusion, our results are encouraging enough to suggest that laparoscopic adrenalectomy should be a preferential therapeutic option for benign adrenal tumors; also, partial adrenalectomy could be a safe, effective, and less invasive procedure in selected cases.

  16. Thallium-201 uptake in a benign thymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, R.J.; Ey, E.H.; Varma, D.G.

    1986-07-01

    A 68-year-old woman was admitted with atypical angina. A chest radiograph showed an anterior mediastinal mass that was confirmed on CT. The mass was relatively avascular and separate from the heart and great vessels. She underwent stress thallium testing that demonstrated no exercise-induced ischemia; however, an abnormal focus of thallium activity was present in the anterior mediastinum on stress and redistribution images. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated a normal left ventriculogram, coronary arteries and thoracic aorta. Subsequent surgery and pathologic examination revealed the mass to be a benign thymoma arising in the right lobe of the thymus gland.

  17. Spatial contrast sensitivity in benign intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Bulens, C; Meerwaldt, J D; Koudstaal, P J; Van der Wildt, G J

    1988-01-01

    Spatial Contrast Sensitivity (CS) was studied in 20 patients with benign intracranial hypertension (BIH). At presentation CS loss was found in 43% of the eyes, and impairment of visual acuity attributed to BIH in only 16%. Nine patients had blurred vision or visual obscurations, all of whom had abnormal CS. The clinical application of CS measurement in BIH for monitoring the progression or regression of the disease is illustrated by serial measurements in 11 patients. Progressive visual loss in longstanding papilloedema and improvement of visual function in subsiding papilloedema can occur without any change in Snellen acuity or visual field charting. PMID:3225588

  18. Developmental and benign movement disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cecilia; Roubertie, Agathe; Doummar, Diane; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Cochen de Cock, Valérie; Roze, Emmanuel

    2010-07-30

    Developmental and benign movement disorders are a group of movement disorders with onset in the neonatal period, infancy, or childhood. They are characterized by the absence of associated neurological manifestations and by their favorable outcome, although developmental abnormalities can be occasionally observed. Knowledge of the clinical, neurophysiological, and pathogenetic aspects of these disorders is poor. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and our practical experience, this article summarizes current knowledge in this area. We pay special attention to the recognition and management of these movement disorders in children.

  19. [Extracapsular lobectomy in benign monolobar thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Prete, F; Di Ciaula, G; Sammarco, D; Parlati, C

    1995-12-01

    On the basis of their experience acquired in the field of thyroid surgery the authors examine the problems related to extracapsular lobectomy from a tactical and technical point of view, starting with its principal indications: benign monolobar thyroid disease in a single or multiple nodular form. The validity of extemporary histological tests is also assessed on the basis of their experience of rare false negatives and the relative successive totalization programme. Lastly, the paper underlines the fundamental identification of the recurrent nerve as the central point of the operation, before which the authors emphasize that nothing should be cut or ligated apart from the superior vascular peduncle and vena media.

  20. Spatial contrast sensitivity in benign intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bulens, C; Meerwaldt, J D; Koudstaal, P J; Van der Wildt, G J

    1988-10-01

    Spatial Contrast Sensitivity (CS) was studied in 20 patients with benign intracranial hypertension (BIH). At presentation CS loss was found in 43% of the eyes, and impairment of visual acuity attributed to BIH in only 16%. Nine patients had blurred vision or visual obscurations, all of whom had abnormal CS. The clinical application of CS measurement in BIH for monitoring the progression or regression of the disease is illustrated by serial measurements in 11 patients. Progressive visual loss in longstanding papilloedema and improvement of visual function in subsiding papilloedema can occur without any change in Snellen acuity or visual field charting.

  1. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Mezzalira, Raquel Mezzalira; Furtado, Paula Lobo; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos; Sampaio, Andre Luis Lopes; Pires de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a common disorder in Neurotology. This vestibular syndrome is characterized by transient attacks of vertigo, caused by change in head position, and associated with paroxysmal characteristic nystagmus. The symptoms result from movement of the free floating otoconia particles in the endolymph or their attachment to the cupulae of the semicircular canal. The diagnosis is essentially clinical and should be confirmed by performing diagnostic maneuvers. Treatment is based on the identification of the affected semicircular canal and performance of liberatory maneuvers or repositioning of free floating particles of otoliths. The effectiveness varies from 70 to 100%.

  2. Benign familial Degos disease worsening during immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Powell, J; Bordea, C; Wojnarowska, F; Farrell, A M; Morris, P J

    1999-09-01

    We describe a 61-year-old woman with skin lesions consistent with those found in Degos disease, both in clinical and in histological appearance. She had had several of these lesions for many years, as had her mother, sister and niece. In 1991, she underwent cadaveric renal transplantation and was treated with immunosuppression: prednisolone, azathioprine and cyclosporin. At that time, she developed many more characteristic skin lesions, and these were slightly larger and more noticeable than those she had had previously. She and the other affected family members appear to fit into the more benign subgroup of Degos disease, and it seems that her immunosuppression aggravated her cutaneous disease.

  3. Benign Pulmonary Metastasizing Leiomyoma of the Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Iscan, Reyyan; Köse, Gültekin; Kaban, Isik

    2016-01-01

    Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease which represents with multiple leiomyomatous lesions in many tissues and organs especially in lungs. These patients have been operated for leiomyoma of the uterus. Here we report a case of a 41-year-old woman who was evaluated in a thoracic surgery hospital for dyspnea and bilateral nodules in chest roentgenogram. She had no history of neoplasm, only myomectomy history of uterine leiomyoma 10 years ago. Biopsy and histopathological examination were consistent with pulmonary leiomyoma. The patient was reffered to our clinic and we performed a total abdominal hysterectomy for her multiple uterine leiomyomas. The final diagnosis was ‘benign pulmonary metastasizing leiomyoma’. After this diagnosis, surgical castration was performed but two years later, repeat imaging showed progression in pulmonary lesions and progesterone therapy was administered to the patient. Patient has continued on this hormonal therapy to date and during the 5-years follow-up, the persisting lesions in both lungs regressed. PMID:27790528

  4. Diagnosis and management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jonathan L

    2008-05-15

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common condition affecting older men. Typical presenting symptoms include urinary hesitancy, weak stream, nocturia, incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Acute urinary retention, which requires urgent bladder catheterization, is relatively uncommon. Irreversible renal damage is rare. The initial evaluation should assess the frequency and severity of symptoms and the impact of symptoms on the patient's quality of life. The American Urological Association Symptom Index is a validated instrument for the objective assessment of symptom severity. The initial evaluation should also include a digital rectal examination and urinalysis. Men with hematuria should be evaluated for bladder cancer. A palpable nodule or induration of the prostate requires referral for assessment to rule out prostate cancer. For men with mild symptoms, watchful waiting with annual reassessment is appropriate. Over the past decade, numerous medical and surgical interventions have been shown to be effective in relieving symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Alpha blockers improve symptoms relatively quickly. Although 5-alpha reductase inhibitors have a slower onset of action, they may decrease prostate size and alter the disease course. Limited evidence shows that the herbal agents saw palmetto extract, rye grass pollen extract, and pygeum relieve symptoms. Transurethral resection of the prostate often provides permanent relief. Newer laser-based surgical techniques have comparable effectiveness to transurethral resection up to two years after surgery with lower perioperative morbidity. Various outpatient surgical techniques are associated with reduced morbidity, but symptom relief may be less durable.

  5. [Benign metastasizing pulmonary leiomyomatosis. A report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Pifarré, R; Izquierdo, J; Calatrava, A; Martínez, C; Ruiz, J; Morera, J

    1999-12-01

    The benign metastasizing leiomyoma is an uncommon variety of leiomyoma, tumor derived from smooth muscular tissue. The benign metastasizing leiomyoma affects a middle age women, with antecedents of uterine leiomyoma, the pulmonary lesions appeared as a multiple nodules, without systemic affectation. We present three cases of benign metastasizing leiomyoma that de diagnosis was made for biopsy by thoracotomy; and in one case the markers from estrogens' receivers were positive.

  6. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Sigmoid Colon Masquerading as an Adnexal Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Bratton, Laura; Salloum, Rabih; Cao, Wenqing

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare, benign spindle cell neoplasm that was first described in the thoracic pleura. This tumor is now known to occur at many extrapleural sites. There are established criteria for the diagnosis of malignant solitary fibrous tumor including ≥4 mitotic figures per 10 high-power fields, increased cellularity, cytologic atypia, infiltrative margins, and/or necrosis. Although all solitary fibrous tumors have the potential to recur or metastasize, those with malignant histologic features tend to behave more aggressively. We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor, with malignant histologic features, in a 21-year-old woman which arose from the serosal surface of the sigmoid colon. PMID:27672467

  7. The debate over robotics in benign gynecology.

    PubMed

    Rardin, Charles R

    2014-05-01

    The debate over the role of the da Vinci surgical robotic platform in benign gynecology is raging with increasing fervor and, as product liability issues arise, greater financial stakes. Although the best currently available science suggests that, in the hands of experts, robotics offers little in surgical advantage over laparoscopy, at increased expense, the observed decrease in laparotomy for hysterectomy is almost certainly, at least in part, attributable to the availability of the robot. In this author's opinion, the issue is not whether the robot has any role but rather to define the role in an institutional environment that also supports the safe use of vaginal and laparoscopic approaches in an integrated minimally invasive surgery program. Programs engaging robotic surgery should have a clear and self-determined regulatory process and should resist pressures in place that may preferentially support robotics over other forms of minimally invasive surgery.

  8. Saw palmetto and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gong, Edward M; Gerber, Glenn S

    2004-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common health issue that affects 8% of all men at the age of 40, 60% of men in their 70s, and 90% of those greater than 80 years of age. One-fourth of these men will develop moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms that greatly affect their quality of life. Recent evidence suggests that the use of saw palmetto leads to improvements in urinary function for those suffering from BPH. The favorable comparison of saw palmetto with tamsulosin, a well-known first line agent in the treatment of urinary tract symptoms, demonstrates promise towards a beneficial effect of this herbal agent, with very few, if any, adverse effects. However, what degree of this beneficial activity is due to placebo effects is yet to be determined. In addition, the precise mechanism of action of saw palmetto in men with BPH remains unclear.

  9. Diagnosing and treating benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Kovar, Mary; Jepson, Terry; Jones, Susan

    2006-12-01

    Gerontological nurses play a critical role in the early recognition of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), a condition that accounts for approximately 50% of vertigo in older adults. BPPV results in vertigo when debris collects in one or more of the semicircular canals, most typically the posterior canal. It may be differentiated from other forms of vertigo because it results in dizziness when recumbent or with head position changes. BPPV may be successfully treated with repositioning therapy, such as the Epley maneuver. Nurses working in medical offices, longterm care facilities, and assisted living may be called on to perform this maneuver. Gerontological nurses play a key role in assessing and treating BPPV, therefore minimizing unnecessary testing and medication and reducing the suffering and expense for patients with this condition.

  10. Risk stratification for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Zattoni, Fabio; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Novara, Giacomo

    2017-03-18

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents an important public health problem in ageing men due to frequently associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which may impair quality of life. BPH is also a progressive disease, mainly characterized by a worsening of LUTS over time, and in some patients by the occurrence of serious outcomes such as acute urinary retention and need for BPH-related surgery. The management of BPH and LUTS in men should move forward its focus on symptom control only. Indeed, the goals of therapy for BPH are not only to improve bothersome LUTS but also to identify those patients at risk of unfavourable outcomes in order to optimize their management and reduce complications. Risk stratification and tailored treatment should improve the reductions in both symptoms and the long-term consequences of BPH and BPH treatments. To do this, clinicians need to know possible factors that may support the develop of PBH and possible risks due to the BPH itself.

  11. [Isotope nephrographic studies in benign gynecologic diseases].

    PubMed

    Lamm, D

    1977-01-01

    1014 patients with benigne gynaecological diseases (functional incontinence of urine with and without displacement, myoma of uterus, ovarian tumors, chronic salpingoophoritis) were examined by means of isotope nephrogram before gynaecological treatment was begun. A group of 156 patients was parallely examined by means of chromocystoscopy and intravenous urography. For judgement of the ING-curves we applicated an extra parameter--the drain value "A"--, through which it was possible to differenciate between emptying disturbances and functional urinary transport disorders. To obtain this value it is necessary to change the position of the patients during examination. Under these conditions approximately 95% of ING-findings conformed with those vaised by intravenous urography. Giving weight to these conditions, we recommend the application of ING in gynaecology as a screening method. Criteria for optimal usage of this method are mentioned.

  12. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical manifestations and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Santos Dias, José

    2012-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a very common condition, related to aging and causing symptoms, called lower urinary tract symptoms. On account of its huge prevalence, it is important for clinicians who are involved in the management of patients with BPH to be aware of the very strict recommendations for BPH evaluation. In this article, we describe the different steps and procedures doctors should follow to evaluate these patients; symptoms and signs of BPH are reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation steps and examinations available. The basic evaluation of the patients with BPH should include, according to the recommendations of the most relevant international guidelines, lower urinary tract symptoms evaluation with appropriate symptom scores, digital rectal examination, voiding charts, prostate-specific antigen and creatinine measurement, urinalysis, and imaging of the urinary tract.

  13. Optimizing the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Elterman, Dean S.; Kaplan, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges facing primary care physicians and specialists as the population ages is the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). While as many as 18% of men in their 40s report bother from an enlarged prostate, that figure rises dramatically, whereby 50% of men in their 50s and 90% of men in their 90s will complain of bothersome symptoms related to an enlarged prostate. Studies have shown that BPH is a progressive disease, which if left untreated can result in worsening of symptoms, acute urinary retention and renal failure. Until about 20 years ago the only management option available to urologists was surgery. In the early 1990s medical therapy emerged as the predominant treatment for BPH. Therapy may be tailored to target symptoms and progression of disease. PMID:22496710

  14. Preclinical Mouse Models of Neurofibromatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    benign neurofibromas, optic nerve gliomas, and to specific malignant neoplasms . Individuals with NF1 typically develop multiple neurofibromas that...benign, these tumors frequently cause visual impairment or blindness because of their anatomic location. The malignant neoplasms seen in NF1 patients...muscle layer. All of these properties are indication of malignant neoplasms that are not found in neurofibromas. Abundant melanin pigmentation

  15. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour masquerading as a cyst in the lesser sac

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Ahmed Mahmoud; Ayyash, Emad Helmi; Alzafiri, Raed; Francis, Issam; Asfar, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are solid tumours of the gastrointestinal tract, mostly found in the stomach and intestine. They rarely present as cystic lesions. A 74-year-old woman referred to the hepatopancreaticobiliary unit, with 3 months history of upper abdominal discomfort. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed a large cystic lesion in the epigastric region suggestive of a pancreatic pseudocyst. The CT-scan showed a 6.6×6×6.3 cm size cyst related to the pancreas and extending to the hepatogastric omentum. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) scan was suggestive of a pancreatic pseudocyst. Aspirated Cyst fluid via EUS showed benign cytology with normal amylase, lipase and tumour markers (CEA, CA-19.9 and CA-125). She was referred as a case of pancreatic pseudocyst. After surgical excision, the histopathology confirmed the presence GIST in the wall of the cystic lesion. The possibility of GIST should be kept in mind in the presence of unusual features of a cyst on abdominal imaging. PMID:27469382

  16. Myxoid Plexiform Fibrohistiocytic Tumor Masquerading as Ganglion Cyst: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Jui; Huang, Hsuan-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background. Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor is a distinctive mesenchymal neoplasm of low-grade malignancy, with the capacity for biphasic differentiation toward a fibroblastic or histiocyte-like morphology. Clinically, these lesions affect different areas of the body and appear as painless, slowly growing, dermal or subcutaneous masses. To date, only three cases of myxoid variant have been reported in the English literature. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old female patient presented with a subcutaneous nodule in the right popliteal fossa. The initial impression was a benign ganglion cyst. The soft tissue tumor has been treated by local excision. The histopathological and the immunohistochemical findings supported the diagnosis of myxoid plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient received regular follow-up examination. She is alive without any recurrence. Conclusions. This case demonstrates how to distinguish this distinctive plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor from other problematic soft tissue tumors. It is also remarkable for its rarely reported extensive myxoid change. Currently, there is no clear-cut correlation between the clinicopathologic findings and the behavior of this unusual variant. PMID:28255491

  17. Tactical decisions for changeable cuttlefish camouflage: visual cues for choosing masquerade are relevant from a greater distance than visual cues used for background matching.

    PubMed

    Buresch, Kendra C; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Cramer, Corinne; McAnulty, Sarah; Davison, William; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-10-01

    Cuttlefish use multiple camouflage tactics to evade their predators. Two common tactics are background matching (resembling the background to hinder detection) and masquerade (resembling an uninteresting or inanimate object to impede detection or recognition). We investigated how the distance and orientation of visual stimuli affected the choice of these two camouflage tactics. In the current experiments, cuttlefish were presented with three visual cues: 2D horizontal floor, 2D vertical wall, and 3D object. Each was placed at several distances: directly beneath (in a circle whose diameter was one body length (BL); at zero BL [(0BL); i.e., directly beside, but not beneath the cuttlefish]; at 1BL; and at 2BL. Cuttlefish continued to respond to 3D visual cues from a greater distance than to a horizontal or vertical stimulus. It appears that background matching is chosen when visual cues are relevant only in the immediate benthic surroundings. However, for masquerade, objects located multiple body lengths away remained relevant for choice of camouflage.

  18. Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy: An underdiagnosed condition.

    PubMed

    Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Efstathiou, Elisavet; Neubauer, David

    2015-07-01

    Benign paroxysmal torticollis is probably an under-diagnosed condition of infancy. It is a self-limiting disorder characterised by periods of unusual, sustained posture of the head and neck, during which the head tilts to one side. Episodes are often accompanied by marked autonomic features, irritability, ataxia, apathy and drowsiness. They last several hours to a few days and are often recurring every few weeks. They subside within the pre-school years; however, during later childhood, there is a tendency to develop migraine. Three cases of benign paroxysmal torticollis are presented and are compared with cases in the literature. A telephone survey has been conducted to determine what is the general awareness of paediatricians of this condition in Cyprus. Eighty-two paediatricians were randomly selected out of 235 paediatricians. All of them agreed to participate. Our cases revealed that benign paroxysmal torticollis may coexist with other problems during infancy. The telephone survey showed that only two out of eighty-two (2.4%) of the paediatricians are aware of the condition, and none of them was confident regarding the management. Our telephone survey clearly shows that Cypriot paediatricians are not familiar with benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy which is a benign, self-limiting disorder. It is essential to recognise the condition and to reassure parents of its benign course and not to be misdiagnosed for other disorders, such as epileptic seizures. We have shown again that benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy may coexist with motor delay and hearing problems.

  19. [Minimally Invasive Treatment of Esophageal Benign Diseases].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Haruhiro

    2016-07-01

    As a minimally invasive treatment of esophageal achalasia per-oral endoscopic myotomy( POEM) was developed in 2008. More than 1,100 cases of achalasia-related diseases received POEM. Success rate of the procedure was more than 95%(Eckerdt score improvement 3 points and more). No serious( Clavian-Dindo classification III b and more) complication was experienced. These results suggest that POEM becomes a standard minimally invasive treatment for achalasia-related diseases. As an off-shoot of POEM submucosal tumor removal through submucosal tunnel (per-oral endoscopic tumor resection:POET) was developed and safely performed. Best indication of POET is less than 5 cm esophageal leiomyoma. A novel endoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was developed. Anti-reflux mucosectomy( ARMS) is nearly circumferential mucosal reduction of gastric cardia mucosa. ARMS is performed in 56 consecutive cases of refractory GERD. No major complications were encountered and excellent clinical results. Best indication of ARMS is a refractory GERD without long sliding hernia. Longest follow-up case is more than 10 years. Minimally invasive treatments for esophageal benign diseases are currently performed by therapeutic endoscopy.

  20. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up. PMID:26689234

  1. Diode Laser Excision of Oral Benign Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ena; Sareen, Mohit; Dhaka, Payal; Baghla, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lasers have made tremendous progress in the field of dentistry and have turned out to be crucial in oral surgery as collateral approach for soft tissue surgery. This rapid progress can be attributed to the fact that lasers allow efficient execution of soft tissue procedures with excellent hemostasis and field visibility. When matched to scalpel, electrocautery or high frequency devices, lasers offer maximum postoperative patient comfort. Methods: Four patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of benign lesions of the oral cavity. 810 nm diode lasers were used in continuous wave mode for excisional biopsy. The specimens were sent for histopathological examination and patients were assessed on intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results: Diode laser surgery was rapid, bloodless and well accepted by patients and led to complete resolution of the lesions. The excised specimen proved adequate for histopathological examination. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after the procedure with minimal postoperative problems, discomfort and scarring. Conclusion: We conclude that diode lasers are rapidly becoming the standard of care in contemporary dental practice and can be employed in procedures requiring excisional biopsy of oral soft tissue lesions with minimal problems in histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26464781

  2. [Benign pleural effusion caused by asbestos exposure].

    PubMed

    Vieira, J R; Alfarroba, E; Viegas, J; Freitas e Costa, M

    1992-05-01

    The Authors present the first case described among us of benign pleural effusion of an asbestotic origin. They stress the importance of thoracoscopy (pleuroscopy) in the diagnosis of this situation. Attention is drawn to the fact that asbestotic lesions and asbestotic bodies have been found in the lung and, in particular, in the parietal pleura as well. They emphasize the fact that exposure to asbestos was not realized by the patient, which made the clarification of the situation more difficult. It was a CT scan that showed the signs suggestive of exposure to asbestos which raised the diagnostic suspicion. They conclude that every patient with a pleural effusion must be thoroughly questioned about exposure to asbestos. Even if the exposure is accepted, they consider that one should proceed to a pleuro-pulmonar biopsy by thoracoscopy. This biopsy allows demonstration of the characteristic histopathological lesions and rule out other etiologies, namely malignancy and tuberculosis. They suggest that these patients must be highly motivated to stop any smoking and kept under periodic surveillance.

  3. Laparoscopy for Benign Diseases of the Colon.

    PubMed

    Smith, Radhika; Maron, David J

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has revolutionized the delivery of care to the surgical patient undergoing colorectal resection. Since the first laparoscopic-assisted colectomy in 1991, significant advances have been made in minimally invasive colorectal surgery. For many benign conditions, laparoscopic colectomy has been proven to be safe and effective, and in some instances superior when compared with open surgery. Complex laparoscopic resections such as those for diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease have also been shown to have equivalent outcomes when compared with open surgery. Short-term benefits of a minimally invasive approach include less pain, decreased rates of wound infection and postoperative morbidity, faster return of bowel function, and shorter length of stay. Improvements in long-term complications have also been noted with lower incidence of incisional hernias and small bowel obstructions secondary to adhesions. As surgeons become more facile with laparoscopic resection, more complex cases such as those for complicated diverticulitis and reoperative surgery for inflammatory bowel disease can be completed with shorter operative times and decreased cost.

  4. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Salvinelli, F; Firrisi, L; Casale, M; Trivelli, M; D'Ascanio, L; Lamanna, F; Greco, F; Costantino, S

    2004-09-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) has been recognized as the most common vestibular disorder; it is a term coined in 1952 by Dix and Hallpike, and it is most commonly used to describe a disease with a characteristic clinical presentation believed to be caused by free-floating particles leaving the macula and entering one of the semicircular canals, usually the posterior one, more rarely the horizontal or superior ones. A lot of studies showed as the prevalence is higher in females than in males with a ratio of 2:1; furthermore, prevalence increases with the age: the mean age at onset is 54 years, with a range of 11 to 84 years. The most important clinical manifestations of BPPV are: vertigo, lightheadedness, dysequilibrium and sometimes nausea, vomiting, pallor and sweating. The diagnosis of BPPV is very simple through the Dix-Hallpike test or the diagnostic Semont's maneuver; the increasing information about the BPPV's pathogenesis has led most authors to consider the rehabilitative therapy, and in particular the so-called Semont's "liberatory" maneuver, as the first choice treatment of BPPV, in relation to its quickness and efficacy. In this treatment the debris are moved from the posterior semicircular canal to another location within the vestibular labyrinth. In our review we consider the possible pathogenesis of this disease and the best therapies, like repositioning maneuvers, in a patient affected by BPPV.

  5. Searching for "environmentally-benign" antifouling biocides.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan Ting; Teo, Serena L M; Leong, Wai; Chai, Christina L L

    2014-05-26

    As the result of the ecological impacts from the use of tributyltins (TBT) in shipping, environmental legislation for the registration of chemicals for use in the environment has grown to a monumental challenge requiring product dossiers to include information on the environmental fate and behavior of any chemicals. Specifically, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, collectively known as PBT, are properties of concern in the assessment of chemicals. However, existing measurements of PBT properties are a cumbersome and expensive process, and thus not applied in the early stages of the product discovery and development. Inexpensive methods for preliminary PBT screening would minimize risks arising with the subsequent registration of products. In this article, we evaluated the PBT properties of compounds reported to possess anti-fouling properties using QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) prediction programs such as BIOWIN™ (a biodegradation probability program), KOWWIN™ (log octanol-water partition coefficient calculation program) and ECOSAR™ (Ecological Structure Activity Relationship Programme). The analyses identified some small (Mr < 400) synthetic and natural products as potential candidates for environmentally benign biocides. We aim to demonstrate that while these methods of estimation have limitations, when applied with discretion, they are powerful tools useful in the early stages of research for compound selection for further development as anti-foulants.

  6. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up.

  7. Emerging drug therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Travis L; Andriole, Gerald L

    2006-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland caused by increases in number of both epithelial and stromal cells. Clinically, BPH leads to voiding dysfunction, which is most often referred to as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Historically, the only treatments for LUTS due to BPH were watchful waiting or surgery (transurethral or open prostatectomy). However, over the last 20 years medical therapy has taken a prominent role in the management of BPH. Current medical treatments for BPH include alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists, inhibitors of the 5-alpha reductase enzyme and various phytotherapies. These agents are generally effective and safe; however, many patients are unable to tolerate the side effects or are refractory to medical management and require surgery. In light of this, many potential new therapies for the treatment of BPH are under development. Some represent a variation of current treatments, whereas others target novel molecular pathways within the prostate. The aim of this review is to examine current pharmacotherapies as well as to highlight emerging drugs that may improve our treatment of patients with LUTS secondary to BPH.

  8. Dutasteride/tamsulosin: in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2012-05-01

    The 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride and the α(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist tamsulosin are available as a fixed-dose combination for use in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and an enlarged prostate. Dutasteride 0.5 mg/day plus tamsulosin 0.4 mg/day improved lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) to a significantly greater extent than dutasteride or tamsulosin alone in men with BPH, moderate to severe LUTS and an increased risk of disease progression, according to the results of the randomized, double-blind, multinational CombAT trial. The mean change from baseline in the total International Prostate Symptom Score was significantly greater with dutasteride plus tamsulosin than with dutasteride or tamsulosin alone after 2 years (primary endpoint) and 4 years of therapy. After 4 years' therapy in the CombAT trial, the time to first acute urinary retention or BPH-related surgery (primary endpoint) significantly favoured men with symptomatic BPH who were receiving dutasteride plus tamsulosin versus those receiving tamsulosin alone, with no significant difference between recipients of dutasteride plus tamsulosin and recipients of dutasteride alone. In the CombAT trial, health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction were improved to a significantly greater extent with dutasteride plus tamsulosin than with dutasteride or tamsulosin alone. Combination therapy with oral dutasteride plus tamsulosin was generally well tolerated in patients with symptomatic BPH in the CombAT trial.

  9. MRI findings of benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

    PubMed

    Hamano, T; Mutoh, T; Hirayama, M; Ito, K; Kimura, M; Aita, T; Kiyosawa, K; Ohtaki, T; Kuriyama, M

    1999-06-01

    We report here magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of two patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb. Both subjects showed unilateral amyotrophy of the lower limb with a benign clinical course, and the affected muscles demonstrated neurogenic changes. On T1- and T2-weighted MRI, marked atrophy and increased signal intensity were found mainly in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Moreover, MRI examination also revealed that thigh muscles including semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and vastus intermedius and lateralis muscles were involved in one of the patients. We concluded that muscle MRI is very useful for detecting affected muscles, especially deep skeletal muscles in patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

  10. Quinone-induced activation of Keap1/Nrf2 signaling by aspirin prodrugs masquerading as nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Tareisha; Piyankarage, Sujeewa C; Wijewickrama, Gihani T; Abdul-Hay, Samer; Vanni, Michael; Litosh, Vladislav; Luo, Jia; Thatcher, Gregory R J

    2012-12-17

    The promising therapeutic potential of the NO-donating hybrid aspirin prodrugs (NO-ASA) includes induction of chemopreventive mechanisms and has been reported in almost 100 publications. One example, NCX-4040 (pNO-ASA), is bioactivated by esterase to a quinone methide (QM) electrophile. In cell cultures, pNO-ASA and QM-donating X-ASA prodrugs that cannot release NO rapidly depleted intracellular GSH and caused DNA damage; however, induction of Nrf2 signaling elicited cellular defense mechanisms including upregulation of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL). In HepG2 cells, the "NO-specific" 4,5-diaminofluorescein reporter, DAF-DA, responded to NO-ASA and X-ASA, with QM-induced oxidative stress masquerading as NO. LC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated efficient alkylation of Cys residues of proteins including glutathione-S-transferase-P1 (GST-P1) and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). Evidence was obtained for alkylation of Keap1 Cys residues associated with Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus, nuclear translocation of Nrf2, activation of antioxidant response element (ARE), and upregulation of cytoprotective target genes. At least in cell culture, pNO-ASA acts as a QM donor, bioactivated by cellular esterase activity to release salicylates, NO(3)(-), and an electrophilic QM. Finally, two novel aspirin prodrugs were synthesized, both potent activators of ARE, designed to release only the QM and salicylates on bioactivation. Current interest in electrophilic drugs acting via Nrf2 signaling suggests that QM-donating hybrid drugs can be designed as informative chemical probes in drug discovery.

  11. Current Laser Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient. PMID:21165192

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of pediatric benign pneumoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shou-Xing; Sun, Zong-Bo; Wang, Guang-Huan; Zhong, Jun; Ou, Wen-Hui; Fu, Ma-Xian; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Ma, Shu-Hua; Li, Jian-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Benign pneumoperitoneum (BPPT) is defined as asymptomatic free intraabdominal air or as pneumoperitoneum without peritonitis. Symptomatic free air requires surgical anagement, but management of asymptomatic pneumoperitoneum is controversial. In this study, we investigate the diagnosis and treatment of BPPT in children. Clinical Findings: The clinical data of 9 pediatric patients with BPPT who were admitted to our hospital from January 2000 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the diagnosis and treatment. Overall, 9 cases were included with 8 males and 1 female, aged from 4 days to 4 years. Among them there were 6 newborns (including 1 premature infant). Patients were all admitted to hospital with the major clinical symptom of abdominal distension, including 2 cases accompanied by tachypnea, 2 cases with vomiting, 1 case with diarrhea, and 2 cases with fever. No previous constipation or obstructive defecation existed. Six newborns had meconium defecation within 24 hours after birth. Physical examination revealed all patients with relaxed abdominal wall except 1 patient with abdominal distension had slight muscle stiffness and hyperactive bowel sounds. Abdominal X-ray suggested free air under the diaphragm in all cases. Interventions/Outcomes: All patients except for one case of laparotomy were conservatively treated and cured with fasting, infection prevention, rehydration, abdominocentesis, and close observation. Nine cases of patients were all discharged with no death occurrence. After discharge follow-up of 7 months to 6 years was conducted. There was no recurrence of similar symptoms, and children were in good growth and development. Conclusion: The diagnosis of BPPT mainly relies on clinical symptoms in patient, careful abdominal examination, abdominal X-ray combined with abdominocentesis, and the exclusion of gastrointestinal perforation for confirmation. Conservative treatment can cure the disease. Attention

  13. Benign Nodular Goiter Causing Upper Airway Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Başoğlu, Mahmut; Öztürk, Gürkan; Aydınlı, Bülent; Yıldırgan, M. İlhan; Atamanalp, S. Selçuk; Celebi, Fehmi

    2009-01-01

    Objective Benign nodular goiter (BNG) can cause narrowing of the upper airway. In some rare cases, obstruction of the upper airway also occurs. The following paper reports our experiences with regard to BNG patients who experienced obstruction of the upper airway. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively investigated the records of 13 patients with acute airway obstruction due to BNG who were admitted to the General Surgery Department of Ataturk University Medical School between January 2000 and December 2007. Results Thirteen patients with airway obstruction secondary to BNG were hospitalized during this period. There were two males and 11 females, and the mean age was 58.5 years (range 37–74 years). For all patients, the primary symptom upon admission was defined as respiratory distress; all patients had varying degrees of respiratory distress upon admission. Three of the patients underwent emergent endotracheal intubation in the emergency room. A preoperative radiological evaluation was performed with thyroid ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). There were retrosternal or substernal components of the BNG in nine patients. Twelve patients underwent operations, while one patient with mild respiratory distress elected not to be operated on. Ten patients underwent total thyroidectomies, while two patients underwent near-total thyroidectomies. One patient with retrosternal goiter also underwent a median sternotomy. Three patients received a tracheostomy after the operation. Suction drains were utilized in all operations. During the post-operative period, two patients suffered from voice impairment, and seven patients experienced hypocalcemia. Two patients died. Pathological examination of the thyroidectomy tissue revealed BNG in all cases. In addition, two patients had micropapillary carcinomas. Conclusion Although BNG causing upper airway obstruction is rare, it is an important clinical entity because of the need for emergent operation, the

  14. Benign Multicystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma: A Rare Tumour of the Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Soundappan; Khajanchi, Monty; Vaja, Tejas; Jajoo, Bhushan; Dey, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma: a rare tumor of the abdomen, is a diagnostic dilemma. This report emphasizes the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy in the diagnosis of the tumour. PMID:25866695

  15. Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

  16. THE DESIGN OF TECHNOLOGICALLY EFFECTIVE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN SOLVENT SUBSTITUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is presently considerable interest in finding environmentally benign replacement solvents that can perform in many different applications as solvents normally do. This requires solvents with desirable properties, e.g., ability to dissolve certain compounds, and without oth...

  17. Gamma images in benign and metabolic bone diseases: volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Volume 1 of ''Gamma images in benign and metabolic bone diseases'' comprises chapters devoted to: general remarks and considerations, radiopharmaceuticals, Paget disease, osteomyelitis, trauma, benign bone tumors, chronic renal dialysis, acute renal failure, osteomalacia and rickets, and osteoporosis. Although published in 1981, the most recent references in the book were 1978 and most are 1977 or earlier. One of the strongest aspects of the volume are tables which categorize diseases, pathophysiology of disease, and image abnormalities. (JMT)

  18. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  19. Efficacy of Sonoelastography in Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Breast Masses

    PubMed Central

    Balçık, Adile; Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bayrak, İlkay Koray; Polat, Ayfer Kamalı

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to evaluate the influence of sonoelastographic strain ratio in distinguishing benign from malignant breast masses. Materials and Methods Patients who were referred for diagnostic biopsy of a breast mass were examined by ultrasound and sonoelastography prior to percutaneous biopsy. Sonoelastography was performed twice by the same observer in the same session. The strain ratios (SR) were calculated for both measurements as well as the mean strain ratio. Results were compared with histopathologic findings. For each strain ratio, a threshold value was determined using a ROC analysis for the differentiation of benign and malignant masses. Results After histopathological examination of 135 mass lesions in 132 female patients (mean age 48±12 years), 65 masses were diagnosed as benign and 70 as malignant. According to the Tsukuba classification with 5 scores; 44 of 65 benign masses had scores of either 1 or 2 while 56 of 70 malignant lesions had scores of either 4 or 5. No benign lesion was classified as score 5, and no malignant lesion as score 1. The mean cut-off in the two ROC measurements in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions was calculated as 4.52. When a threshold value of 4.52 was used for the mean strain ratio: the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy rates were determined as 85.5%, 84.8%, 85.5%, 84.8% and 85.2%, respectively. Conclusion The threshold value for strain ratio in the differentiation of benign and malignant masses was detected as 4.52, and a significant intra-observer difference was not observed in this study. The diagnostic value of sonoelastograghy in distinguishing benign from malignant breast masses was higher in comparison to conventional ultrasound.

  20. [Localized benign pleural mesothelioma observed at the Dakar University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Hane, A A; Ba, M; Ndir, M; Ba, O; Diop-dia, D; Kandji, M; Ndiaye, S; Diatta, A; Toure, N O; Niang, A; Dia, Y; Thiam, A; Dangou, J M; Ndiaye, M

    2001-06-01

    We report two cases of localized benign pleural mesothelioma with different clinical features. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, including coma, hemiplegia, seizures and misbehavior predominated in the first case, associated with hypoglycemia. The symptoms in the second case were essentially respiratory (cough, dyspnea, and chest pain). Treatment consisted in thoracotomy and complete surgical resection. Histopathology revealed fusiform cells and collagen stroma. These two cases illustrate the diversity of clinical expression of benign localized pleural mesothelioma and confirm their complete resolution after surgical treatment.

  1. The clinical characteristics of benign oral mucosal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Ilana; Gal, Gavriel; Chaushu, Gavriel; Allon, Dror M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics and pre-biopsy provisional diagnoses of benign oral mucosal tumors. Material and Methods: A 10- year retrospective analysis of all benign tumors of the oral mucosa, from a university- affiliated oral and maxillofacial surgery department. Results: 146 benign tumors were included. The mean age was 49.6 years, with an approximately equal gender distribution. The most prevalent tumor types were lipomatous tumors (27.4%), vascular (23.3%), and salivary gland tumors (16.5%). Tongue, labial and buccal mucosa were the most frequently involved sites. The vast majority (98.6%) presented as non-ulcerated masses. Only 2 (1.4%) presented as ulcerated masses. The clinical provisional diagnosis correctly classified lesions as non-malignant in 93.3%. In only 9 (6.7%) suspicion of malignancy was included in the provisional diagnosis. However, benign neoplasia was unsuspected in 42.1% of tumors. These cases were clinically classified as reactive. Conclusions: Benign tumors were most likely to be clinically correctly classified as non-malignant, but even in the setting of experienced oral surgeons, neoplasia was unsuspected in more than 40% of cases. This data strongly supports the need to biopsy every oral mucosal mass, since inaccurate clinical evaluation of the lesion’s biological nature was a frequent event. Key words:Malignant, benign, reactive, ulcerated mass, non-ulcerated mass, clinical diagnosis. PMID:24316705

  2. Treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors using laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.

  3. Benign skin disease with pustules in the newborn*

    PubMed Central

    Reginatto, Flávia Pereira; Villa, Damie De; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal period comprises the first four weeks of life. It is a period of adaptation where the skin often presents several changes: transient lesions, resulting from a physiological response, others as a consequence of transient diseases and some as markers of severe disorders. The presence of pustules in the skin of the newborn is always a reason for the family and for the assisting doctor to be worried, since the newborn is especially vulnerable to bacterial, viral or fungal infection. However, the majority of neonatal skin pustules is not infectious, comprising the benign neonatal pustulosis. Benign neonatal pustuloses are a group of clinical disease characterized by pustular eruptions in which a contagious agent is not responsible for its etiology. The most common ones are erythema toxicum neonatorum, the transient neonatal pustular melanosis and the benign cephalic pustulosis. These dermatoses are usually benign, asymptomatic and self-limited. It is important that the dermatologist and the neonatologist can identify benign and transient lesions, those caused by genodermatoses, and especially differentiate between neonates with systemic involvement from those with benign skin lesions, avoiding unnecessary diagnostic tests and worries. PMID:27192509

  4. Smoking habits and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Fu, Shi; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have warned against the promoting effects of cigarette smoking on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In contrast, some have argued that smoking confers a protective effect regarding BPH, while others have observed an aggravated effect. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine whether cigarette use is associated with BPH risk. To identify articles from observational studies of relevance, a search was performed concurrent to March 21, 2016, on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model, according to the heterogeneity, was calculated to reveal the relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eight articles were included in this meta-analysis, representing data for 44,100 subjects, of which 5221 (11.8%) had BPH as defined according to the criteria. Seven reports are concerned with analysis between nonsmokers and ex-smokers, in which no significant difference was observed (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94–1.05). Another meta-analysis of 7 studies indicated an observable trend, but without significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and current smokers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41). Between groups of heavy (6 articles; RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84–1.24) and light smokers (5 articles; RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.71–1.15), again no significant difference appears. Finally, we combined individuals as never-smokers and ever-smokers and still found no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92–1.15). Sensitivity analysis was displayed and confirmed the stability of the present results. Combined evidence from observational studies shows no significant association between cigarette smoking and BPH risk, either for ex-smokers or for current smokers. The trend of elevated BPH risk from smoking was observed only in current smokers compared with nonsmokers, while marginal significance was observed in comparing ever-smokers with

  5. Lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia/benign prostatic enlargement and erectile dysfunction: are these conditions related to vascular dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shogo; Tsounapi, Panagiota; Shimizu, Takahiro; Honda, Masashi; Inoue, Keiji; Dimitriadis, Fotios; Saito, Motoaki

    2014-09-01

    Although the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia/benign prostatic enlargement and erectile dysfunction is poorly understood and thought to be multifactorial, it has been traditionally recognized that these conditions increase with age. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between cardiovascular disease and lower urinary tract symptoms as well as benign prostatic hyperplasia/benign prostatic enlargement and erectile dysfunction in elderly patients. Age might activate systemic vascular risk factors, resulting in disturbed blood flow. Hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis are also linked to the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia/benign prostatic enlargement and erectile dysfunction. In the present review, we discuss the relationship between decreased pelvic blood flow and lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia/benign prostatic enlargement and erectile dysfunction. Furthermore, we suggest possible common mechanisms underlining these urological conditions.

  6. Lack of a Benign Interpretation Bias in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Nader; Prouvost, Caroline; Kuckertz, Jennie M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive models of social anxiety posit that recurrent interpretation of ambiguous information as threatening maintains symptoms (e.g. Clark & Wells, 1995, pp. 69–93, Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997, pp. 741–756, Behavior Research and Therapy, 35). However, biased interpretation may also be represented as a failure to make a benign interpretation of the ambiguous event. Furthermore, interpretation bias can be characterized by both an online (automatic) component and an offline (effortful) component (Hirsch & Clark, 2004, pp. 799–825, Clinical Psychology Review, 24). To measure both benign and threat biases, as well as examine the effect of social anxiety on offline versus online interpretations, Beard and Amir (2009, pp. 1135–1141, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46) developed the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP). In the current study, we administered the WSAP to a group of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) as well as to a group of non-anxious control (NAC) participants. We found that participants with SAD demonstrated a lack of benign online bias, but not an online threat bias when compared to NACs. However, when examining offline biases, SAD patients endorsed social threat interpretations and rejected benign social interpretations to a greater degree than non-anxious individuals. Our results, when taken together, clearly implicate the role of reduced bias toward benign information in SAD. PMID:22545788

  7. Benign paediatric mandibular tumours: experience in reconstruction using vascularised fibula.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Tamimy, Muhammad Sarmad; Ehtesham-Ul-Haq; Sarwar, Saad Ur Rahman; Rizvi, Syed Taokeer Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    The majority of the paediatric oral and maxillofacial tumours are benign and the mandible is involved in one-third of these cases. A review of the literature reveals only a handful of studies pertaining exclusively to benign paediatric mandibular tumours. The basis of this study was to fulfil the need to assess the suitability of major mandibular reconstructions using a vascularised fibular graft in cases of benign tumours in children. From April 1999 to April 2011 we have managed 18 cases of benign paediatric mandibular tumours. All the reconstructions were done using vascularised fibular graft. The age of these patients ranged from 8 to 16 years. The most common pathology seen in our series was Ameloblastoma, followed by Giant Cell Granuloma and vascular malformation. Other cases included fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst and odontogenic myxoma. Five of these were recurrent lesions. The mean length of the fibula harvested was 12 ± 2 cm. All the flaps in this series survived. Bone union occurred in all cases by 6 weeks. All the patients have maintained a satisfactory chin contour of the mandible during the follow-up period with minimal distortion occurring secondary to contralateral native mandibular growth in two cases. We conclude that, for benign paediatric mandibular tumours requiring major bone resection, the vascularised fibula is an excellent reconstructive option with the advantages of having a good bone stock, possibility for osteotomy, long pedicle length and potential for growth along with the possibility of dental rehabilitation.

  8. Hysterectomy—Current Methods and Alternatives for Benign Indications

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Michail S.; Tolikas, Athanasios C.; Miliaras, Dimosthenis E.

    2010-01-01

    Hysterectomy is the commonest gynecologic operation performed not only for malignant disease but also for many benign conditions such as fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia, adenomyosis, uterine prolapse, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. There are many approaches to hysterectomy for benign disease: abdominal hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy, laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) where a vaginal hysterectomy is assisted by laparoscopic procedures that do not include uterine artery ligation, total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) where the laparoscopic procedures include uterine artery ligation, and subtotal laparoscopic hysterectomy (STLH) where there is no vaginal component and the uterine body is removed using a morcelator. In the last decades, many new techniques, alternative to hysterectomy with conservation of the uterus have been developed. They use modern technologies and their results are promising and in many cases comparable with hysterectomy. This paper is a review of all the existing hysterectomy techniques and the alternative methods for benign indications. PMID:20798870

  9. Benign Cystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma Revealed by Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bray Madoué, Kaimba; Boniface, Moifo; Annick Laure, Edzimbi; Pierre, Herve

    2016-01-01

    Benign cystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare tumor which frequently occurs in women of reproductive age. Abdominal pain associated with pelvic or abdominal mass is the common clinical presentation. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman with a pathological proved benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum revealed by a small bowel obstruction and a painful left-sided pelvic mass with signs of psoitis. Contrast enhanced abdominal CT-scan demonstrated a large pelvic cystic mass with mass effect on rectosigmoid and pelvic organs. The patient underwent surgical removal of the tumor. Pathological examination revealed the diagnosis of benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum. The outcome was excellent with a 12-month recoil. PMID:27066288

  10. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo secondary to laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xizheng; Wang, Amy; Wang, Entong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a common vestibular disorder and it may be idiopathic or secondary to some conditions such as surgery, but rare following laparoscopic surgery. Methods: We report two cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo secondary to laparoscopic surgery, one after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a 51-year-old man and another following laparoscopic hysterectomy in a 60-year-old woman. Results: Both patients were treated successfully with manual or device-assisted canalith repositioning maneuvers, with no recurrence on the follow-up of 6 -18 months. Conclusions: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a rare but possible complication of laparoscopic surgery. Both manual and device-assisted repositioning maneuvers are effective treatments for this condition, with good efficacy and prognosis. PMID:28255446

  11. Treatment of benign bone tumours of the hand using osteoscopy.

    PubMed

    Taleb, C; Gouzou, S; Mantovani, G; Liverneaux, P

    2010-04-01

    Curettage and bone grafting are used traditionally to treat benign bone tumours of the hand. Some authors are proposing minimally invasive treatment using endoscopy. Our purpose is to standardise this technique based on a study of the number and locations of entry points. This is a report on three benign metacarpal bone tumours treated with three different endoscopic approaches: multiportal, extended uniportal and oblique uniportal. In theory, the multiportal approach has several drawbacks: weakening of the bone cortex, a limited visual field and seepage of injectable phosphocalcic cement. The extended uniportal approach causes cortical defects, unacceptable in a minimally invasive technique. The oblique uniportal approach seems less troublesome; vision of the bone cavity is good, curettage of the tumour is complete, the bone cortex is undamaged and there is no leakage of injectable phosphocalcic cement. All things considered, the oblique osteoscopic uniportal approach seems to be the best option for the management of benign bone tumours of the hand.

  12. Benign acral lesions showing parallel ridge pattern on dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tanioka, Miki

    2011-01-01

    One of the recent advances in dermoscopy is the significance of parallel ridge pattern (PRP), which has 99% specificity in detecting both melanoma in situ and advanced melanoma on the acral volar skin. This review features exceptionally benign acral lesions showing PRP on dermoscopy. These benign lesions can be distinguished from malignant melanoma, because of the typical clinical history and associated symptoms. However, it is sometimes difficult for dermatologists to exclude malignant melanoma and a subsequent skin biopsy should be strongly recommended. These benign lesions include pigmentation due to a dye such as para-phenylenediamine, acral pigmented macules associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, anti-cancer drug-induced hyperpigmentation on the volar skin, acral subcorneal hemorrhage and pigmented warts.

  13. Acute respiratory failure in a rapidly enlarging benign cervical goitre.

    PubMed

    Garingarao, Carlo Jan; Añonuevo-Cruz, Cecille; Gasacao, Ryan

    2013-07-22

    Benign goitres have the potential to reach massive sizes if neglected, but most have a protracted course that may or may not present with compressive symptoms. We report the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a rapidly enlarging nodular goitre resulting in acute respiratory failure. Endotracheal intubation and emergency total thyroidectomy were performed, revealing massive thyroid nodules with minimal intrathoracic extension and tracheal erosion. Despite a course and clinical findings suggestive of malignant disease, histopathology was consistent with a benign multinodular goitre. Several cases of benign goitres necessitating endotracheal intubation have been reported. Airway compromise was attributed to a significant intrathoracic component, or inciting events such as thyroid haemorrhage, pregnancy, radioiodine uptake or major surgery. Obstructive symptoms may not correlate well with objective measures of upper airway obstruction such as radiographs or flow volume loops.

  14. [Management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in first care centers].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, C; Muñoz-Proto, F; Rama-López, J; Ferrán-de la Cierva, L; Rodríguez-Villalba, R; Sarría-Echegaray, P; Mas-Mercant, S; Tomás-Barberán, M

    2014-01-01

    The benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most common disease in the group of peripheral vertigo. It's characterized by vertiginous sensation triggered by the positional changes of the head and usually lasts less than one minute. It is most frequently seen in middle-aged patients (40-50 years old) and in up 50% of cases we do not know the cause, so we refer to them as idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Because of the high incidence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in general population, it is of utmost importance to be aware of the differential diagnosis and to be able to treat this pathology with efficacy, because in most cases we can achieve excellent results performing specific and simple maneuvers.

  15. Benign cementoblastoma of the anterior mandible: an unusual case report

    PubMed Central

    Karöz, Tuğçe Berre; Sumer, Mahmut; Açıkgöz, Aydan; Süllü, Yurdanur

    2016-01-01

    A benign cementoblastoma, which is another name for a true cementoma, is a rare neoplasm that develops from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. It is characterized by a mineralized mass attached to the apex of the root produced by neoplastic cementoblasts. More than 75% of cases arise in the mandible, with 90% of them manifesting in the molar and premolar regions. This neoplasm occurs most commonly in children and young adults, with males being affected slightly more than females. Radiographically, the tumor is observed as a well-defined radiopaque mass that is fused to a tooth root and is surrounded by a radiolucent rim. The treatment of benign cementoblastoma consists of removal of the lesion and extraction of the affected tooth. This report presents an unusual case of benign cementoblastoma in a 31-year-old female, presenting as a densely mineralized mass seen at the apex of the impacted right mandibular canine tooth on radiographs. PMID:27595092

  16. The Conundrum of Genetic “Drivers” in Benign Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Keith T.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-01-01

    Advances in deep genomic sequencing have identified a spectrum of cancer-specific passenger and driver aberrations. Clones with driver anomalies are believed to be positively selected during carcinogenesis. Accumulating evidence, however, shows that genomic alterations, such as those in BRAF, RAS, EGFR, HER2, FGFR3, PIK3CA, TP53, CDKN2A, and NF1/2, all of which are considered hallmark drivers of specific cancers, can also be identified in benign and premalignant conditions, occasionally at frequencies higher than in their malignant counterparts. Targeting these genomic drivers can produce dramatic responses in advanced cancer, but the effects on their benign counterparts are less clear. This benign-malignant phenomenon is well illustrated in studies of BRAF V600E mutations, which are paradoxically more frequent in benign nevi (∼80%) than in dysplastic nevi (∼60%) or melanoma (∼40%-45%). Similarly, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 is more commonly overexpressed in ductal carcinoma in situ (∼27%-56%) when compared with invasive breast cancer (∼11%-20%). FGFR3 mutations in bladder cancer also decrease with tumor grade (low-grade tumors, ∼61%; high-grade, ∼11%). “Driver” mutations also occur in nonmalignant settings: TP53 mutations in synovial tissue from rheumatoid arthritis and FGFR3 mutations in seborrheic keratosis. The latter observations suggest that the oncogenicity of these alterations may be tissue context–dependent. The conversion of benign conditions to premalignant disease may involve other genetic events and/or epigenetic reprogramming. Putative driver mutations can also be germline and associated with increased cancer risk (eg, germline RAS or TP53 alterations), but germline FGFR3 or NF2 abnormalities do not predispose to malignancy. We discuss the enigma of genetic “drivers” in benign and premalignant conditions and the implications for prevention strategies and theories of tumorigenesis. PMID:27059373

  17. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tacklind, James; MacDonald, Roderick; Rutks, Indy; Wilt, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate, can lead to obstructive and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The pharmacologic use of plants and herbs (phytotherapy) for the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH is common. The extract of the berry of the American saw palmetto, or dwarf palm plant, Serenoa repens (also known by its botanical name of Sabal serrulatum), is one of several phytotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of BPH. Objectives This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of Serenoa repens in the treatment of LUTS consistent with BPH. Search strategy Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library), by checking bibliographies, and by handsearching the relevant literature. Selection criteria Trials were eligible if they (1) randomized men with symptomatic BPH to receive preparations of Serenoa repens (alone or in combination) for at least four weeks in comparison with placebo or other interventions, and (2) included clinical outcomes such as urologic symptom scales, symptoms, and urodynamic measurements. Eligibility was assessed by at least two independent observers. Data collection and analysis Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The main outcome measure for comparing the effectiveness of Serenoa repens with placebo or other interventions was the change in urologic symptom-scale scores. Secondary outcomes included changes in nocturia and urodynamic measures. The main outcome measure for side effects or adverse events was the number of men reporting side effects. Main results In this update 9 new trials involving 2053 additional men (a 64.8% increase) have been included. For the main comparison - Serenoa repens versus placebo - 3 trials were added with 419 subjects and 3 endpoints (IPSS, peak urine flow, prostate size

  18. Role of stenting in gastrointestinal benign and malignant diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Arena, Monica; Miraglia, Stefania; Consolo, Pierluigi; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Virgilio, Clara; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Advances in stents design have led to a substantial increase in the use of stents for a variety of digestive diseases. Initially developed as a non-surgical treatment for palliation of esophageal cancer, the stents now have an emerging role in the management of malignant and benign conditions as well as in all segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In this review, relevant literature search and expert opinions have been used to evaluate the key-role of stenting in gastrointestinal benign and malignant diseases. PMID:25992186

  19. Prostate Artery Embolization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Current Status.

    PubMed

    Mirakhur, Anirudh; McWilliams, Justin P

    2017-02-01

    Prostate artery embolization has garnered much attention as a promising treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. We aim to provide an up-to-date review of this minimally invasive technique, including discussion of potential benefits and technical challenges. Current evidence suggests it is a safe and effective option for patients with medication-refractory urinary obstructive symptoms who are poor surgical candidates or refuse surgical therapy. Larger, randomized studies with long-term follow-up data are needed for this technique to be formally established in the treatment paradigm for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  20. A Benign Cardiac Growth but Not So Indolent

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sahadev T.; Biederman, Robert W. W.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac lipomatous hypertrophy is a rare benign condition that usually involves the interatrial septum. Due to its benign nature it rarely requires intervention. Its presence outside the interatrial septum is reported infrequently. We present a case of lipomatous hypertrophy in the intraventricular septum that was complicated by a severe, symptomatic, and disabling dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The symptoms significantly improved following the excision of the mass. In our case transthoracic echocardiogram was used to visualize the mass and measure the severity of the obstruction; Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to characterize the mass and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27293911

  1. [Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in a patient with Crohn disease].

    PubMed

    Fluxá, Daniela; Kronberg, Udo; Lubascher, Jaime; O'Brien, Andrés; Las Heras, Facundo; Ibáñez, Patricio; Quera, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is an uncommon lesion arising from the peritoneal mesothelium. It is asymptomatic or presents with unspecific symptoms. Imaging techniques may reveal it, however the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathology. Surgery is the only effective treatment considering its high recurrence rate. We report a 19 years old male with Crohn’s disease. Due to persistent abdominal pain, an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was performed, showing a complex cystic mass in the lower abdomen. The patient underwent surgery and the lesion was completely resected. The pathological study reported a benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma.

  2. [Benign tumors of vulva: review and case report of achrocordon].

    PubMed

    Galeana, Cuauhtémoc; Casas, Donovan; Rodríguez, Alejandra; Cantú, Marco Antonio; Aguilar, Fabiola; Moreno, Víctor; Galindo, María Estela; Gutiérrez, Eduardo Ernesto

    2014-01-17

    The vulvovaginal region is a very complex area because of its anatomy and the fact that it can be source of a large number of benign tumors and less frequent malignant tumors. In recent decades, there have been significant gains in the diagnosis and treatment of vulvovaginal tumors, thanks to the contributions of cellular and molecular biology. The purpose of this review article is to serve as a practical reference for clinical and pathological diagnosis as well as in the outpatient treatment and monitoring of these benign tumors.

  3. Benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia (Gullo syndrome), histamine intolerance, and carbohydrate malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Enko, Dietmar; Mangge, Harald; Schenk, Michael; Lackner, Sonja; Holasek, Sandra J.

    2017-01-01

    Benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia (Gullo syndrome) is characterized by a more than threefold increase of the pancreatic enzymes lipase and amylase in the absence of a pancreatic disease over a period of more than 1 year, with elevations and significant undulations of pancreatic enzyme serum concentrations occurring on a day-to-day basis for 5 consecutive days. Nonspecific abdominal complaints may be caused by carbohydrate and/or protein malabsorption. We report a patient with benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia with lactose and histamine malabsorption; the symptoms of gastrointestinal malabsorption were treated successfully with an individually tailored lactose- and histamine-free diet.

  4. Hypomethylation of DNA from Benign and Malignant Human Colon Neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelz, Susan E.; Vogelstein, Bert; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    1985-04-01

    The methylation state of DNA from human colon tissue displaying neoplastic growth was determined by means of restriction endonuclease analysis. When compared to DNA from adjacent normal tissue, DNA from both benign colon polyps and malignant carcinomas was substantially hypomethylated. With the use of probes for growth hormone, γ -globin, α -chorionic gonadotropin, and γ -crystallin, methylation changes were detected in all 23 neoplastic growths examined. Benign polyps were hypomethylated to a degree similar to that in malignant tissue. These results indicate that hypomethylation is a consistent biochemical characteristic of human colonic tumors and is an alteration in the DNA that precedes malignancy.

  5. Upper Gastrointestinal Stent Insertion in Malignant and Benign Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) stents are increasingly being used to manage upper GI obstructions. Initially developed for palliative treatment of esophageal cancer, upper GI stents now play an emerging role in benign strictures of the upper GI tract. Because recurrent obstruction and stent-related complications are common, new modifications of stents have been implemented. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) have replaced older plastic stents. In addition, newly designed SEMS have been developed to prevent complications. This review provides an overview of the various types, indications, methods, complications, and clinical outcomes of upper GI stents in a number of malignant and benign disorders dividing the esophagus and gastroduodenum. PMID:26064817

  6. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the lung: PET findings.

    PubMed

    di Scioscio, Valerio; Feraco, Paola; Miglio, Laura; Toni, Francesco; Malvi, Deborah; Pacilli, Angela M G; Fasano, Luca; Fabbri, Mario; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma in an asymptomatic 64-year-old woman who underwent hysterectomy for a uterine leiomyoma 26 years earlier. Routine chest radiograph revealed bilateral diffuse nodular opacities within the pulmonary lobes. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan showed peripheral lung nodules that do not display contrast enhancement. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET-CT) demonstrated no significant metabolic activity of the nodules. The lesions were diagnosed as benign metastasizing leiomyoma by histopathologic examination. To our best knowledge, this is the first case studied combining CT and FDG PET-CT technique.

  7. Is ″benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes″ Always Benign?

    PubMed Central

    SAEED, Muhammad; AZAM, Muhammad; SHABBIR, Nadeem; QAMAR, Shair Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of associated behavioral problems and prognosis with Benign Childhood Epilepsy with CentroTemporal Spikes (BCECTS). Descriptive, Cross Sectional study that was conducted from October 2009 to April 2013 in the Department of Pediatric Neurology, the Children’s Hospital Taif, KSA. Material & Methods This study was conducted after approval from the Ethics Committee of the Children’s Hospital Taif, Saudi Arabia. Thirty-two patients from the age of 3 to 10 years old were recruited from the pediatric neurology clinic over a period of 4 years. All the patients were selected based on history, EEGs, and neuropsychological and neurological examinations. EEGs were performed for all the patients while in awake and sleep states. Those who had centrotemporal discharges were included in the study. All the patients also underwent a brain MRI. Only two patients had mild cortical atrophy but developmentally they were normal. Results In our study, prevalence of BRE is 32/430 (7.44%). Among the 32 cases, 24 were male and eight were female. Six cases out of 32 indicated a family history of BRE. Twenty-eight cases had unilateral right sided centrotemporal discharges and four had bilateral discharges. Conclusion It is possible that for BECTS, a high number of seizures might play an important role in the development of mild cognitive impairment and/or behavior disturbances. PMID:25143772

  8. Driving Neurofibroma Formation in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    agents in the treatment of cancer including antisense oligonucleotides (Mendelsohn and Baselga., 2000; Ciardiello and Tortora , 2001; Hirao et al., 1999...cells causes progressive sensory loss. Nat Neurosci 6, 1186-1193 12. Ciardiello, F., and Tortora , G. 2001. A novel approach in the treatment of

  9. Revised criteria for suspicion of non-benign positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Soto-Varela, A; Rossi-Izquierdo, M; Sánchez-Sellero, I; Santos-Pérez, S

    2013-04-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most commonly diagnosed vestibular vertigo. BPPV can be diagnosed by clinical examination and its treatment is based on particle repositioning manoeuvres, and specialized equipment is not required. Therefore, most patients could be diagnosed and treated by their general practitioner. Unfortunately, not all positional vertigos are benign. Symptoms similar to those of BPPV can be caused by diseases that affect the central nervous system. It must be possible to define criteria that allow us to suspect, in a patient with symptoms of positional vertigo, the possibility of a cerebral origin ('non-benign PV'). Requests for magnetic resonance imaging must be justified by the fulfillment of these criteria. That is especially relevant in primary care, because these criteria should make possible to distinguish between patients with positional vertigo that could be treated by general practitioner and patients that need to be directed to especialized units. We propose the following revised criteria for suspected non-benign PV: (i) association with signs or symptoms of neurological disorder, (ii) nystagmus without dizziness in positional diagnostic tests, (iii) atypical nystagmus direction, (iv) poor response to therapeutic manoeuvres and (v) recurrence (confirmed by positional tests) on at least three occasions.

  10. Multiple cavitating pulmonary nodules: rare manifestation of benign metastatic leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn-I; Lee, Seok Jeong; Shim, Sung Shine; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Sung, Soon Hee

    2017-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease of pathologically benign, but the tumor metastasizes to other organs. The most common organ involved in BML is lung. Pulmonary involvement usually manifested as multiple nodules on chest X-ray, however we experienced an interesting case of a 52-year-old premenopausal woman who presented with multiple bilateral lung cavitations and nodules on a chest X-ray without any respiratory symptoms. Chest computed-tomography identified multiple cavitary lesions of 5–12 mm in diameter and well-defined nodules of 5–10 mm in diameter in both lung fields. Transthoracic needle biopsy was performed and the resected lesion consisted of benign spindle cells was positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and was diffuse positive for actin and desmin by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, suggesting leiomyoma. The final diagnosis was benign pulmonary metastasizing leiomyoma (BPML) and the patient underwent subcutaneous injection of a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist for 12 months, follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) scan at 15 months revealed decreased cavitations and nodular lesions. We should take into consideration the possibility of BPML when we encounter multiple cystic or cavitary lesions on chest X-ray, although the common form of BPML is nodulary lesions on imaging studies. PMID:28203428

  11. A Benign, Mature, Parapharyngeal Teratoma Presenting in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Punch, Gregory E; Sniezek, Joseph C; Berkey, Bryan D; Petermann, Gregory W

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of an adult female who presented mildly symptomatic and with a history of having a mass removed from her neck as an infant. Radiographic imaging detected the presence of a heterogeneous, encapsulated mass in the parapharyngeal space that was surgically resected, and subsequently pathologically confirmed to be a benign, mature cystic teratoma.

  12. Outcome after a liver resection of benign lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Katrin; Unsinn, Michael; Hinz, Ulf; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Waldburger, Nina; Longerich, Thomas; Radeleff, Boris; Schirmacher, Peter; Büchler, Markus W; Schemmer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Benign liver tumours represent a challenge in clinical management. There is considerable controversy with respect to the indications for surgery as the evidence for surgical treatment is variable. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the indication and outcome after resection of benign, solid liver lesions. Methods Data of 79 patients, who underwent liver resection between 2001 and 2012, were analysed for demographic and outcome parameters. Results Thirty-eight patients with focal nodular hyperplasia (48%), 23 patients with haemangioma (29%) and 18 patients with hepatocellular adenoma (23%) underwent a hepatic resection. A major hepatic resection was performed in 23 patients (29%) and a minor resection in 56 patients (71%). The post-operative mortality rate was zero and the 30-day morbidity rate 13.9%. After a median follow-up of 64 months, 75 patients (95%) were alive, and no patient had developed recurrent disease. Fifty-four patients (68%) were pre-operatively symptomatic, of which, 87% had complete or partial relief of symptoms after a liver resection. The incidence of symptoms increased with the lesions' size. Discussion The management of benign liver lesions necessitates an individualized therapy within a multidisciplinary, evidence-based, treatment algorithm. Resection of benign liver lesions can be performed safely in well-selected patients without mortality and low post-operative morbidity. PMID:26456947

  13. Optical discrimination between malignant and benign breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Taroni, Paola

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 82 subjects with breast lesions (45 malignant and 38 benign lesions). A perturbative approach based on the high-order calculation of the pathlength of photons inside the lesion was applied to estimate differences between lesion and average healthy tissue of the same breast in terms of: i) absorption properties, and ii) concentration of the major tissue constituents (oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen). The absorption difference Δμa between lesion and healthy tissue is significantly different for malignant vs. benign lesions at all wavelengths. Logistic regression fitted to the absorption data identifies 975 nm as the key wavelength to discriminate malignant from benign lesions. When the difference in tissue composition between lesion and healthy tissue is considered, malignant lesions are characterized by significantly higher collagen content than benign lesions. Also the best model for the discrimination of malignant lesions obtained applying regression logistic to tissue composition is based only on collagen. Including demographic information into the model improves its specificity.

  14. Benign Occipital Epilepsies of Childhood: Clinical Features and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Isabella; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Kivity, Sara; Scheffer, Ingrid E.

    2008-01-01

    The early and late benign occipital epilepsies of childhood (BOEC) are described as two discrete electro-clinical syndromes, eponymously known as Panayiotopoulos and Gastaut syndromes. Our aim was to explore the clinical features, classification and clinical genetics of these syndromes using twin and multiplex family studies to determine whether…

  15. [The conservative treatment of early-stage benign prostatic hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Kumanov, Kh; Stoianova, V; Lilov, A; Kaloianov, D

    1993-01-01

    After outlining the methods currently used in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) treatment, data defining some etiological aspects of the disease are briefly analyzed. Initial experience had with the treatment of early stage BPH using Permixon--a drug exerting effect on alpha-2 reductase--is described. The results in a series of twenty-seven patients presenting BPH are encouraging.

  16. Elastography in Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Colakoglu, Bulent; Yildirim, Duzgun; Alis, Deniz; Ucar, Gokhan; Samanci, Cesur; Ustabasioglu, Fethi Emre; Bakir, Alev; Ulusoy, Onur Levent

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to test the diagnostic success of strain elastography in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods: The size, echogenicity, and halo integrity of 293 thyroid nodules and the presence of microcalcification in these nodules were evaluated on gray-scale examination. Doppler characteristics and elastography patterns were also evaluated and recorded. Nodules were classified in four categories (patterns 1–4) based on elastographic examination. Results: According to the cytopathological findings, 222 nodules were benign, and 71 nodules were malignant. The risk of a nodule to be malignant was 3.8 times increased by hypoechogenicity, 7.7 times increased by the presence of microcalcification, and 11.5 times increased by the absence of halo. On Doppler patterns, the presence of central vascularity increased the malignancy risk of a nodule by 5.8 times. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, patterns 3 and 4 were malignant, and patterns 1 and 2 were benign. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of elastography were 100%, 80.2%, 61.7%, 100%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Strain elastography can be used as a noninvasive method in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules and in identifying the patients who would undergo surgery. PMID:28123841

  17. Metformin inhibits the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Rongbin; Li, Jijun; Johnson, Cameron W.; Rassoulian, Cyrus; Olumi, Aria F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common proliferative abnormality of the prostate affecting elderly men throughout the world. Epidemiologic studies have shown that diabetes significantly increases the risk of developing BPH, although whether anti-diabetic medications preventing the development of BPH remains to be defined. We have previously found that stromally expressed insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) promotes benign prostatic epithelial cell proliferation through paracrine mechanisms. Here, we seek to understand if metformin, a first line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, inhibits the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells through reducing the expression of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and regulating cell cycle. Methods BPE cell lines BPH-1 and P69, murine fibroblasts3T3 and primary human prostatic fibroblasts were cultured and tested in this study. Cell proliferation and the cell cycle were analyzed by MTS assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of IGF-1R was determined by western-blot and immunocytochemistry. The level of IGF-1 secretion in culture medium was measured by ELISA. Results Metformin (0.5-10mM, 6-48h) significantly inhibited the proliferation of BPH-1 and P69 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Treatment with metformin for 24 hours lowered the G2/M cell population by 43.24% in P69 cells and 24.22% in BPH-1 cells. On the other hand, IGF-1 (100ng/mL, 24h) stimulated the cell proliferation (increased by 28.81% in P69 cells and 20.95% in BPH-1 cells) and significantly enhanced the expression of IGF-1R in benign prostatic epithelial cells. Metformin (5mM) abrogated the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells induced by IGF-1. In 3T3 cells, the secretion of IGF-1 was significantly inhibited by metformin from 574.31pg/ml to 197.61pg/ml. The conditioned media of 3T3 cells and human prostatic fibroblasts promoted the proliferation of epithelial cells and the

  18. Fluorescence lifetime of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissues.

    PubMed

    Brandao, Mariana; Iwakura, Ricardo; Basilio, Fagne; Haleplian, Kaique; Ito, Amando; de Freitas, Luiz Carlos Conti; Bachmann, Luciano

    2015-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method results in a high percentage of inconclusive and false negatives. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist during surgical procedures. This study aimed to use fluorescence lifetimes to differentiate healthy and benign tissues from malignant thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue was excited at 298-300 nm and the fluorescence decay registered at 340 and 450 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission of 0.80 ± 0.26 and 3.94 ± 0.47 ns for healthy tissue; 0.90 ± 0.24 and 4.05 ± 0.46 ns for benign lesions; and 1.21 ± 0.14 and 4.63 ± 0.25 ns for malignant lesions. For 450 nm emissions, we obtain lifetimes of 0.25 ± 0.18 and 3.99 ± 0.39 ns and for healthy tissue, 0.24 ± 0.17 and 4.20 ± 0.48 ns for benign lesions, 0.33 ± 0.32 and 4.55 ± 0.55 ns for malignant lesions. Employing analysis of variance, we differentiate malignant lesions from benign and healthy tissues. In addition, we use quadratic discriminant analysis to distinguish malignant from benign and healthy tissues with an accuracy of 76.1%, sensitivity of 74.7%, and specificity of 83.3%. These results indicate that time-resolved fluorescence can assist medical evaluation of thyroid pathologies during surgeries.

  19. Fluorescence lifetime of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Mariana; Iwakura, Ricardo; Basilio, Fagne; Haleplian, Kaique; Ito, Amando; de Freitas, Luiz Carlos Conti; Bachmann, Luciano

    2015-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method results in a high percentage of inconclusive and false negatives. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist during surgical procedures. This study aimed to use fluorescence lifetimes to differentiate healthy and benign tissues from malignant thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue was excited at 298-300 nm and the fluorescence decay registered at 340 and 450 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission of 0.80±0.26 and 3.94±0.47 ns for healthy tissue; 0.90±0.24 and 4.05±0.46 ns for benign lesions; and 1.21±0.14 and 4.63±0.25 ns for malignant lesions. For 450 nm emissions, we obtain lifetimes of 0.25±0.18 and 3.99±0.39 ns for healthy tissue, 0.24±0.17 and 4.20±0.48 ns for benign lesions, 0.33±0.32 and 4.55±0.55 ns for malignant lesions. Employing analysis of variance, we differentiate malignant lesions from benign and healthy tissues. In addition, we use quadratic discriminant analysis to distinguish malignant from benign and healthy tissues with an accuracy of 76.1%, sensitivity of 74.7%, and specificity of 83.3%. These results indicate that time-resolved fluorescence can assist medical evaluation of thyroid pathologies during surgeries.

  20. Multidetector CT and histological features of benign mesenchymoma of the infratemporal space: a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Kelkar, CA; Desai, RS; Kambadakone, A; Shetty, SJ

    2013-01-01

    Benign mesenchymoma is a soft tissue neoplasm composed of an admixture of two or more benign mesenchymal components in addition to fibrous tissue. A rare case of benign mesenchymoma of the infratemporal space in a 14-year-old boy is presented. In this case report we discuss the salient imaging and histopathological features of this rare entity. PMID:22282510

  1. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma presenting as cavitating lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Loukeri, Angeliki A; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis N; Tringidou, Rodoula; Giampoudakis, Pantelis; Valaskatzi, Argyro; Loukeri, Pinelopi A; Kampolis, Christos F

    2014-07-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) was initially used to describe single or multiple pulmonary nodules composed of proliferating smooth muscle cells (lacking cellular atypia) in premenopausal females 3 months to 20 y after hysterectomy for uterine leiomyoma. The lung is the most commonly involved site, thus including many malignant and benign entities in the differential diagnosis. The present case refers to a 47-y-old premenopausal woman with a history of subtotal hysterectomy for a uterine leiomyoma presenting with bilateral cavitating pulmonary nodules. A number of nodules were resected by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The histological findings in correlation with the immunohistochemical results were consistent with the diagnosis of BML. A bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, combined with complete removal of the remaining cervix. One year later, the subject remains asymptomatic, and the pulmonary nodules are stable with regard to number, size, location, and morphology.

  2. Multicystic benign cystic mesothelioma presenting as a pelvic mass.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Mazdak; Pereira, Elena; Grigoryan, Gennadiy; Zakashansky, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Background. Benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM) is a rare tumor that arises from the abdominal peritoneum with a predilection to the pelvic peritoneum. For this reason, it can often mimic gynecologic malignancies. Case. A 47-year-old perimenopausal female presented reporting several weeks of abdominal distention associated with abdominal tenderness and constipation. Computed tomography revealed a 24 cm multiloculated pelvic mass, and tumor markers were notable for an elevated CA-125. The patient was taken to the operating room for an exploratory laparotomy, total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy, and removal of pelvic mass. Final pathologic evaluation revealed a benign cystic mesothelioma. Conclusion. Classically these tumors present as large multicystic masses with thin-walled septations and on preoperative evaluation BCM can mimic many different disease entities including ovarian malignancies and cystic lymphangioma. Often diagnosis can only be made at time of surgery.

  3. Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations of wolffian origin.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; González-Peramato, Pilar; Serrano, Alvaro; Vega-Perez, Maria; De Miguel, Maria P; Regadera, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations (BEPs) are rare. Only 10 cases were found in a series of 431 paratesticular cysts and were classified as follows: cystadenoma, 5; papilloma, 2; and hamartoma, 3. Four cystadenomas showed multiple papillae lined by CD10+ epithelial cells with hyperchromatic nuclei. The remaining lesion showed areas with a microcystic, glandular, cribriform pattern, with small, benign glands without atypia. Urothelial papilloma presented BEPs with cytokeratin (CK) 7+ and CD10+ and CK20- umbrella-like cells. The mural papilloma was lined by proliferative cylindrical cells exhibiting strong CK7 and CD10 expression. The 3 Wolffian hamartomas were characterized by strongly CD10+ epithelium surrounded by smooth muscle cells. The consistent CD10 expression in BEPs of paratesticular cysts suggests a Wolffian origin. The differential diagnosis of paratesticular cysts with BEP vs metastatic prostatic and primary borderline or malignant tumors is discussed.

  4. Benign metastasizing leiomyomas in the lungs: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Bruliński, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease that occurs in middle-aged women with a history of uterine myomas. The most common location of BML is the lungs. We report the case of a 44-year-old obese woman (BMI 45.5) who underwent surgery to remove uterine leiomyomata and then continued to take a drug containing the hormone estradiol for a period of 15 years. Computed tomography chest examinations revealed multiple size nodules of varying size in both lungs. Videothoracoscopy and right thoracotomy was performed, and a few nodules were enucleated from each lobe of the right lung. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed benign metastasizing leiomyoma staining positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER+, PR+). Because of the hormonally dependent cell proliferation, the previously used hormonal drug was discontinued. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog was included, yielding radiological stabilization of the lung lesions. PMID:27212984

  5. True Cervicothoracic Meningocele: A Rare and Benign Condition

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Bruno L.; Lima, Yara

    2015-01-01

    Cervical meningoceles are rare spinal dysraphism, accounting for approximately 7% of all cystic spinal dysraphism. In spite of the rarity, the clinical course is most of the times benign. The surgical treatment includes resection of the lesion and untethering, when presented. We present a 14-day-old female child with true meningoceles who underwent to surgical excision and dura-mater repair. Retrospect analysis of the literature concerning true cervical meningocele is performed. By reporting this illustrative case, we focus on its classification and its differentiation from other types of cervical spinal dysraphism, such as myelocystocele and myelomeningocele. Although its course is benign, it is mandatory a continuum follow up with periodic magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord, since late neurological deterioration has been described. PMID:26788266

  6. [Radiofrequency ablation of a symptomatic benign thyroid nodule].

    PubMed

    van Ginhoven, T M; Massolt, E T; Bijdevaate, D C; Peeters, R P; Burgers, J W A; Moelker, A

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) enables the ablation of selected tissue by means of heat. For the first time in the Netherlands, RFA is being used to treat patients with benign thyroid nodules. RFA is able to reduce the volume of a nodule that may be causing cosmetic complaints or problems due to mass effect. This avoids the need for surgery or treatment with radioactive iodine in this benign condition. The average reduction in size is 80% in the first year, leading to a considerable decrease in both symptomatic and cosmetic complaints. At Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, this technique has been introduced in accordance with current guidelines, and it is expected that other centres of excellence will follow in implementing it. It is important that the initial experiences with this technique in the Netherlands in terms of effectiveness, risks and patient satisfaction should be monitored before RFA becomes routine treatment.

  7. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Due to Achalasia: An Unusual but Benign Cause

    PubMed Central

    Javan, Ramin; Duszak, Richard; Tonkin, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is usually first identified radiographically in the emergency department. Distinguishing benign from more ominous causes, such as esophageal rupture, is imperative, particularly in the setting of associated esophageal disease. We describe a case, with correlative imaging, of spontaneous pneumomediastinum as the initial presentation of achalasia. A general discussion of spontaneous pneumomediastinum is also provided, including the pathophysiology, precipitating and predisposing factors, clinical manifestations, role of radiology in the diagnosis as well as the radiographic signs. PMID:22470701

  8. Therapeutic options in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S

    2009-01-01

    Current theraputic options for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are reviewed. Therapeutic options for mild lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as defined by the American Urological Association, are generally treated medically. Moderate to severe LUTS can be treated medically or with surgical therapy. Current medical and surgical treatments for LUTS secondary to BPH are reviewed and evolving treatments are explored. PMID:19936164

  9. Environmentally benign synthesis and antimicrobial study of novel chalcogenophosphates.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shubhanjan; Mukherjee, Sayani; Sen, Sukanta K; Hajra, Alakananda

    2014-05-01

    We report in this work an environmentally benign zinc mediated synthesis of aryl and benzyl phosphorochalcogenoates in ethanol within a short reaction time. In vitro antimicrobial study along with statistical analysis and seed germination assay were performed. These chalcogenophosphates possess strong antimicrobial activity against the reference strains. The antibacterial activity was determined against four standard strains (Bacilus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The antifungal activity was evaluated against one fungal strain Candida albicans.

  10. Andreas Rett and benign familial neonatal convulsions revisited.

    PubMed

    Zimprich, F; Ronen, G M; Stögmann, W; Baumgartner, C; Stögmann, E; Rett, B; Pappas, C; Leppert, M; Singh, N; Anderson, V E

    2006-09-12

    In 1964 Andreas Rett published the first account of a family with benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC). The authors retraced Rett's family and report that the clinical and genetic features of this original family fit the currently accepted definitions of BFNC. They also consider the career of Dr. Rett, a researcher and social reformer as well as an advocate for the rights of children with developmental disabilities.

  11. Rupture of benign thyroid tumors after radio-frequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Shin, J H; Jung, S L; Baek, J H; Kim, J-H

    2011-12-01

    Rupture of benign thyroid tumors after RFA is very rare. We experienced 6 cases in 4 institutions. All patients presented with abrupt neck swelling and pain between 9 and 60 days after RFA. Imaging and clinical findings of the ruptured tumors were anterior subcapsular location, mixed composition, large size, and repeated ablations. Conservative treatment was sufficient in 3 cases, whereas surgical management was required in 3.

  12. Benign recurrent abducens (6th) nerve palsy in two children.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Christopher M; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-03-01

    Benign recurrent abducens (6th) nerve palsy is rare. We found 23 cases in children reported in the literature; however, many of these cases followed immunization or were associated with viral illness. Here we report two cases of recurrent abducens nerve palsy with no obvious etiology. The diagnosis should be considered in any child who experiences abducens nerve palsy in the absence of any underlying pathology or precipitating factors.

  13. [Occult cancer in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Duarte, C; Aguillón, J; Rodríguez, H

    1991-05-01

    The results of a prospective study undertaken in 29 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are presented. Transrectal ultrasound, ultrasound-guided biopsy and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were utilized in the search for hidden cancer of the prostate. However, no cancer was detected in any patient. Very high values of PSA were found, particularly in patients with an indwelling catheter. Transrectal ultrasound yielded no false negatives and no complications were observed.

  14. [Alphafetoprotein in hepatic tumours and benign liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Forones, N M; Queiroz, L A; Ferraz, M L; Parise, E R

    1995-01-01

    AFP is an oncofetal protein found in increased levels in hepatocellular carcinoma, liver metastasis and other benign liver diseases. PURPOSE--To know the behaviour of this protein in each of these clinical situations would undoubtedly help us to discriminate between hepatocellular carcinoma and benign diseases. PATIENTS--A hundred forty nine patients were divided into 4 groups: 1. acute hepatitis (AH) n = 24, 2. chronic liver disease, viral or alcoholic (CLD) n = 81, 3. hepatic metastasis (HM) n = 29, 4. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) n = 15. AFP assays were done by ELISA (Abbott Diagnostica, ref. value: 15ng/mL). RESULTS--The results observed were as follows: AFP < 15ng/mL: AH 75%, CLD 86.4%, HM 79.3%, HCC 6.6%, AFP > 15 e < 100ng/mL: AH 25%, CLD 8.6%, HM 20.6%, HCC 20%, AFP > 100ng/mL: AH zero, CLD 4.9%, HM zero, HCC 49%. It is clear that depending on the cut off level, there is a decrease of sensibility which is paralleled by an increase in specificity. CONCLUSIONS--AFP levels are increased in benign liver diseases (AH, CLD) and HM, how ever levels above 100ng/mL occur much more frequently in HCC. In our sample, 93.3% of the HCC showed high levels of AFP, probably because most of the patients had advanced clinical stages of the disease.

  15. Benign triton tumor: multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Thakrar, Raj; Robson, Caroline D; Vargas, Sara O; Meara, John G; Rahbar, Reza; Smith, Edward R

    2014-01-01

    Benign Triton tumor (neuromuscular choristoma) is a rare mass that most commonly occurs as a multinodular expansion of tissue in or around large nerves. Intracranial occurrence is uncommon. We report on a 4-year-old girl presenting with a right-sided facial mass and trismus. Imaging revealed a large, complex mass extending from the ventral aspect of the pons, along the trigeminal nerve, through the foramen ovale, and into the right infratemporal fossa. The lesion was partially enhancing, invaded adjacent infratemporal musculature, was associated with marked overgrowth of the right coronoid process, and induced bony erosion of the middle cranial fossa. After needle biopsy, a multidisciplinary team, including plastic surgery, otolaryngology, and neurosurgery, performed a combined, multistep, single-day surgical approach for resection. Unique to this case was the resection of the coronoid process, a modified middle fossa intradural and extradural approach, coupled with a transfacial infratemporal approach. Microscopically, the resected tissue showed skeletal muscle, fibrous tissue, and nerve in a disorganized arrangement characteristic of a benign Triton tumor. We present this case to illustrate diagnostic clues and pitfalls in the preoperative evaluation of a benign Triton tumor. We also highlight the pathologist's role as a partner in a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment of this rare pediatric mass, potentially the largest Triton tumor in the head reported to date.

  16. Efficacy of Surgical Airway Plasty for Benign Airway Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term patency is required during treatment for benign airway stenosis. This study investigated the effectiveness of surgical airway plasty for benign airway stenosis. Methods: Clinical courses of 20 patients, who were treated with surgical plasty for their benign airway stenosis, were retrospectively investigated. Results: Causes of stenosis were tracheobronchial tuberculosis in 12 patients, post-intubation stenosis in five patients, malacia in two patients, and others in one patient. 28 interventional pulmonology procedures and 20 surgical plasty were performed. Five patients with post-intubation stenosis and four patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with tracheoplasty. Eight patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with bronchoplasty, and two patients with malacia were treated with stabilization of the membranous portion. Anastomotic stenosis was observed in four patients, and one to four additional treatments were required. Performance status, Hugh–Jones classification, and ventilatory functions were improved after surgical plasty. Outcomes were fair in patients with tuberculous stenosis and malacia. However, efficacy of surgical plasty for post-intubation stenosis was not observed. Conclusion: Surgical airway plasty may be an acceptable treatment for tuberculous stenosis. Patients with malacia recover well after surgical plasty. There may be untreated patients with malacia who have the potential to benefit from surgical plasty. PMID:26567879

  17. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of benign breast tumor tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, H.; Lasch, P.; Boese, M.; Haensch, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have applied infrared microspectroscopic imaging for the examination of benign breast tumor tissue sections. The IR spectra of the sections were obtained by classical point microscopy with a movable stage and via a microscope equipped with a focal plane array detector. The infrared microscopic data were analysed using functional group mapping techniques and cluster analysis. The output values of the two procedures were reassembled into infrared images of the tissues, and were compared with standard staining images of the corresponding tissue region. The comparative examination of identical tissue sections by the two IR approaches enabled us to assess potential problems associated with tissue microheterogeneity. It was found that in case of fibroadenoma, a benign lesion located in breast ducts, point microscopy with a spot size of ˜30 μm is a useful practical approach which minimizes the possibility of 'contamination' of the spectra because of spectral averaging of all tissue components present in the corresponding microareas. A comparison of the spectra of the benign breast tumor with those of a malignant ductal carcinoma in situ revealed that IR microspectroscopy has the potential to differentiate between these two breast tumor types.

  18. Phytotherapeutic Agents for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Passi, Neelima Dhingra

    2016-06-20

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) the most common condition in aging men is the non malignant enlargement of the prostate gland with increase in numbers of both epithelial and stromal cells within the periurethal transition zone of the prostate. Sources of symptoms in patient with BPH appear to be both static and dynamic component. Management of BPH has undergone a rapid evolution over the past decade to aid men with lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to bladder outlet obstruction. Treatment of clinical BPH aims to improve symptoms, prevent urinary tract infections, avoid renal insult, relief obstruction and improve bladder emptying.Prostate cancer patients and those with benign prostatic hyperplasia are increasingly exploring the use of plant derived non-nutritive compounds with protective or disease preventive properties, especially due to long term side effects of pharmacological treatment and risk of mortality associated with surgical procedures. Phytotherapeutic preparations are plant extracts with different components obtained by different extraction procedures. Numerous mechanisms of action have been postulated for mono and combination plant extracts. This article give a brief account of rationale and efficacy of various existing phytotherapeutic agents in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia, including the herbs which hold the potential promise are also mentioned , although much research is still required.

  19. Surgical Treatment for Recurrent Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Corvera Behar, Gonzalo; García de la Cruz, Miguel Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a generally benign condition that responds to repositioning maneuvers and frequently resolves spontaneously. However, for some patients it can become a disabling condition in which surgery must be considered. Two different surgical techniques exist, singular neurectomy and posterior semicircular canal occlusion. Objective The objective of this study is to review the current status of singular nerve section and posterior semicircular canal occlusion as treatments for intractable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and to determine if there are published data available that favors one over the other. Data Sources MEDLINE and OLDMEDLINE databases of the National Library of Medicine. Data Synthesis Four studies regarding singular neurectomy and 14 reports on semicircular canal occlusion were analyzed. Both techniques are reported to provide similar symptomatic benefit, with low risk of hearing loss and balance impairment. However, anatomical and clinical studies of singular neurectomy show it to be a more challenging technique, and considering that it is indicated in a very small number of cases, it may be difficult to master. Conclusions Both singular neurectomy and semicircular canal occlusion can be safe and effective in those few patients that require surgery for intractable positional vertigo. Although semicircular canal occlusion requires a postauricular transmastoid approach, it is ultimately easier to learn and perform adequately, and thus may be considered the best alternative. PMID:28382130

  20. Pattern of benign ovarian cysts in Qatari women

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Fatimah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the age distribution, histopathological types, lateral distribution and surgical interventions performed for benign ovarian cysts in Qatari women undergoing surgical intervention for an ovarian cyst. Design: A retrospective descriptive study. Setting: Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Al-Ahli Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Patients and methods: Data were collected retrospectively from clinical records of Qatari women who underwent surgical intervention from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015 at Al-Ahli Hospital for an ovarian or paraovarian cyst. The age distribution, frequencies and percentages were calculated for each type of ovarian cyst and the side of the ovary involved was recorded. Results were statistically analysed by IBM SPSS, version 23. Results: A total of 81 women had an ovarian or paraovarian cyst. Age ranged from 16 to 58 years. The maximum number of women were in the 21–30-year-old age group. Benign epithelial cysts were found to be most common (32; 39.5%), of which the majority were for endometriotic cysts (15; 18.5%), serous cystadenoma (13; 16%) and mucinous cystadenoma (4; 4.9%). This was followed by physiological cysts (26; 32.1%), which included corpus luteal cysts (15; 18.5%) and simple follicular cysts (11; 13.6%). The other categories of ovarian tumours were for mature cystic teratoma (14; 17.3%), benign sex cord–stromal tumours (1; 1.2%) which included stromal cell tumours (1; 1.2%), borderline ovarian tumour (1; 1.2%) and paraovarian cysts (7; 8.6%). There was bilateral ovarian involvement in 9 cases (11.1%) and unilateral involvement in 72 (88.9%). The right ovary was involved in more cases (39; 48.1%), than for the left ovary (33; 40.7%). Conclusion: Benign epithelial tumours were found to be the most common type of ovarian tumour in Qatari women. Endometriotic cysts followed by serous cystadenomas were the most common types of benign epithelial tumours. The right ovary was found to be involved in more cases than the

  1. A Clinicopathological Study of Benign Phyllodes Tumour of Breast with Emphasis on Unusual Features

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Benign Phyllodes Tumours (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that resemble fibroadenoma. But unlike fibroadenoma, benign PT can recur and both stromal & epithelial components can progress to malignancy. Contrary to earlier belief that benign PT is a stromal neoplasm and possibly arises from fibroadenoma, more recent molecular studies have suggested that both stroma and epithelium can become neoplastic. Sometimes, benign PT can occur synchronously with fibroadenoma. Here histomorphologic analysis of eleven cases of benign PT are presented including some unusual features. Materials and Methods Eleven cases of benign PT diagnosed between Dec 2014 and Jan 2016 in the Department of Pathology were studied. The demographic and clinicopathological features were analysed. Results The most common age group affected was 20-30 years (range: 13-45). Clinical features included pain, lump and bleeding from nipple. The tumour size varied from 2.5-18 cm in diameter. H&E stained sections showed secondary changes (haemorrhage, myxoid, change, cystic degeneration), epithelial hyperplasia (8), squamous & columnar metaplasia (1), benign tubular adenoma like areas (1), Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) (1), Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) (1), Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia (PASH) (1), histologic infarction (2), tumour necrosis (1) and synchronous fibroadenoma (1). Unusual histologic features included atypical ductal hyperplasia, DCIS, IDC, synchronous fibroadenoma and tubular adenoma like areas arising within benign PT. Conclusion This study shows a spectrum of hyperplastic, metaplastic, dysplastic, benign, in-situ-malignancy and even invasive ductal malignancy occurring in benign PT. Therefore adequate and extensive sampling is recommended for accurate diagnosis. PMID:27630851

  2. Disentangling of Malignancy from Benign Pheochromocytomas/Paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyong Young; Hong, A. Ram; Seong, Moon-Woo; Lee, Kyu Eun; Kim, Su-Jin; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many malignant tumors initially appear benign but subsequently exhibit extensive metastases. Early identification of malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) before metastasis is important for improved prognosis. However, there are no robust prognostic indices of recurrence and malignancy. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and histopathological factors that predict malignant PPGLs. Design Retrospective follow-up study. Methods In this study, we included 223 patients with pathologically confirmed PPGLs who were treated between 2000 and 2015 at the Seoul National University Hospital in South Korea. Results Of these patients, 29 were diagnosed with malignancy, 12 of whom presented with metastatic lesions at the initial diagnosis while 17 developed metastases during follow-up. Nineteen patients with recurrent PPGLs consisted of ones with malignant PPGLs (n = 17) and multifocal PPGLs (n = 2) who had VHL and RET mutations. The mean age at presentation for malignant PPGLs was significantly younger than that for benign PPGLs (43.0 vs. 49.0 years, respectively; p = 0.023). Tumor size was not a distinguishing factor between malignant and benign PPGLs (5.0 vs. 4.5 cm, respectively; p = 0.316) nor did it predict recurrence. Of 119 patients with available pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland scaled score (PASS) data, those with malignant PPGLs presented PASS values ≥4. Of 12 parameters of PASS, necrosis, capsular invasion, vascular invasion, cellular monotony, high mitosis, atypical mitotic figures, and nuclear hyperchromasia were significant predictors of malignancy. Conclusions Tumor size did not predict malignancy or recurrence of PPGLs. PPGL patients with characteristic pathologic findings and PASS ≥4 or germline mutations require close follow-up. PMID:27992508

  3. Benign fasciculations and corticosteroid use: possible association? An update

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Marco; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Araújo Leite, Marco Antonio; Júnior, Salem Peter; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; Sholer, Marzia Puccioni; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Pereira, Alessandra Cardoso; de Menezes, Sara Lúcia Silveira; da Silva Catharino, Antonio Marcos; Bino, Fabrício

    2011-01-01

    Fasciculations are characterized by visible subtle and fast contractions of muscle, even wormlike in movement, by the contraction of a fascicle of muscle fibers. The authors present the case study of a 28-year-old patient with the appearance of migratory and diffuse fasciculations with an onset after partial tapering off of oral corticosteroides (60 mg total dose) indicated for treatment of Minimal change Glomerulopathy. Clinical Neurological physical exam allied with an ENMG, besides other complementary laboratory exams were used for screening the above-mentioned patient. Afterwards, current research relating to the topic at hand was made in order to update the data available in the Bireme, Scielo and PubMed Data Banks using the following key words: Fasciculation's, motor neuron disease, and benign fasciculations in the Portuguese, English as well as Spanish language. Although fasciculation's are most commonly associated with Motor neuron disease as well as with certain metabolic disorders, they may also be present in individuals with absolutely no underlying pathological disorders. In our case, fasciculation potentials that have been present for six months, with no other signs of a neurogenic disorder as well as absence of laboratory findings, the patient received a diagnosis of Benign Fasciculation Syndrome (BFS).We believe that the use of corticosteroides in high doses with subsequent tapering contributed to the fasciculation's, especially due to the changes that this causes on the ionic channels. Fasciculation's are symptoms seen in a large range of conditions, and also being the main symptom of the so-called Benign Fasciculation Syndrome. We have presented an example of this clinical syndrome in a patient whose complaint was fasciculation's, with complete clinical remission of symptoms following complete tapering off of corticosteroid six months previously. PMID:22053258

  4. Role of metallic stents in benign esophageal stricture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Chan Sup

    2012-10-01

    Simple esophageal strictures, which are focal, straight, and large in diameter, usually require 1 - 3 dilation sessions to relieve symptoms. However, complex strictures, which are long, tortuous, or associated with a severely compromised luminal diameter, are usually more difficult to treat with conventional bougie or balloon dilation techniques, and often have high recurrence rates. Although the permanent placement of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) has been used to manage refractory benign esophageal strictures, this procedure is associated with additional problems, such as stricture from tissue hyperplasia, stent migration, and fistula formation. Thus, several new types of stents have been developed, including temporary SEMS, self-expandable plastic stents (SEPS), and biodegradable stents. The use of these new products has produced varied results. Temporary SEMS that have been used to relieve benign esophageal conditions have caused granulation tissue at both ends of the stent because of contact between the mucosa and the exposed metal components of the stent, thus hindering stent removal. We examined the tissue response to two new types of SEMS, a flange-type and a straighttype, each coated with a silicone membrane on the outside of the metal mesh. These two SEMS were evaluated individually and compared with a conventional control stent in animal experiments. Although the newly designed stents resulted in reduced tissue hyperplasia, and were thus more easily separated from the esophageal tissue, some degree of tissue hyperplasia did occur. We suggest that newly designed DES (drug-eluting stents) may provide an alternative tool to manage refractory benign esophageal stricture.

  5. Bone Transport for Reconstruction in Benign Bone Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Seon; Cho, Yong Jin; Ahn, Yeong Seub; Na, Bo Ram

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the results of using the Ilizarov apparatus to transport bones in the treatment of benign bone tumors. Methods Seven patients (six males and one female) with benign bone tumors were treated by bone transport with an Ilizarov apparatus at our institution. Their mean age at surgery was 14.4 years (range, 4.8 to 36.9 years). The histological diagnoses were osteofibrous dysplasia (4), giant-cell tumor (1), intraosseous cavernous hemangioma (1), and aneurysmal bone cyst (1). Three radiological indices were used for evaluating the results: an external fixation index, a distraction index, and a maturation index. The bone and functional results were evaluated according to the Association for the Study and Application of the Method of Ilizarov classification. Results Five patients had bone union at the reconstructed site, one patient had a local recurrence, and the other had a nonunion at the docking site. The mean length of distraction was 7.3 cm (range, 5.1 to 12.1 cm). The mean external fixation index was 26.0 day/cm (range, 19.8 to 32.5 day/cm), the distraction index was 9.6 day/cm (range, 6.8 to 12.0 day/cm), and the maturation index was 14.9 day/cm (range, 8.0 to 22.5 day/cm). Ultimately, the bone and the functional results were rated excellent in six cases and good in one case. Conclusions Bone transport using the Ilizarov apparatus is a good treatment option in patients with bone defects after the resection of an active or aggressive benign bone tumor. PMID:26217473

  6. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo in the Acute Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Fife, Terry D; von Brevern, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common cause of vertigo characterized by brief episodes provoked by head movements. The first attack of BPPV usually occurs in bed or upon getting up. Because it often begins abruptly, it can be alarming and lead to emergency department evaluation. The episodes of spinning often last 10 to 20 seconds, but may occasionally last as long as 1 minute. There are several forms of BPPV. In nearly all cases, highly effective treatment can be offered to patients. This article reviews the current state of our understanding of this condition and its management.

  7. Benign symmetrical lipomatosis and pellagra associated with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Fernanda de Marca; Stolarczuk, Dionne de Almeida; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Succi, Isabel Cristina Brasil

    2011-01-01

    A 42-year-old male patient, alcoholic, presented showing signs of tumors in the neck and around the shoulders, scaly, erythematous-violaceous lesions and some bullous lesions in sun-exposed areas of upper and lower limbs. Based on clinical features, laboratory tests and imaging studies we have established the diagnosis of pellagra associated with benign symmetrical lipomatosis, both justified by chronic alcoholism. Treated with intravenous B-complex and oriented about the importance of alcohol withdrawal, the patient showed complete remission of skin lesions, but with no change in the lipomatosis.

  8. Lipomatous meningioma: A rare subtype of benign metaplastic meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Mehmet Onur; Gürbüz, Mehmet Sabri; Tanrıverdi, Osman; Özmen, Sevilay Akalp

    2017-01-01

    Lipomatous meningiomas are extremely rare subtypes of benign meningiomas and are classified as metaplastic meningioma in the World Health Organization classification. We present a 77-year-old man presented with the history of a gradually intensifying headache for the last 3 months. A right frontoparietal mass was detected on his cranial magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was operated on via a right frontoparietal craniotomy, and histopathological diagnosis was lipomatous meningioma. Distinctive characteristics of lipomatous meningiomas were discussed with special emphasis to importance of immunohistochemical examinations, particularly for its differentiation from the tumors showing similar histology though having more aggressive character. PMID:28149104

  9. A huge benign prostatic hyperplasia presenting with renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Basatac, Cem; Cicek, Mehmet Cagatay

    2015-01-01

    Although transurethral resection of the prostate is still standard of care in many patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia, traditional open prostatectomy (OP) seems as a widely applied method in larger glands. In spite of the fact that holmium laser enucleation can be performed in large glands, upper limits of prostate size in this method are not clearly identified in the current literature. In this case, we aim to report feasibility and efficacy of OP in huge prostate size measured as 680 ml by transrectal ultrasound and review the current literature. PMID:26034239

  10. Transformation of benign fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumor

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Megan E; Tortora, Matthew; Panasiti, Ryane

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of a benign fibroadenoma into a phyllodes tumor is uncommon and unpredictable. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with a core biopsy proven fibroadenoma that underwent transformation into a malignant phyllodes tumor after 3 years of size stability. We present ultrasound and magnetic resonance images, as well as pathology slides from core biopsy and surgical excision, to illustrate this transformation. It has been suggested that phyllodes tumors may be misdiagnosed as fibroadenomas by core biopsy. However, in this case, pathology supports correct initial diagnosis of fibroadenoma and demonstrates a portion of the original fibroadenoma along the periphery of the malignant phyllodes tumor. PMID:26331090

  11. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for benign and malignant disease

    PubMed Central

    Visioni, Anthony; Kim, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Functional imaging using radiolabeled probes which specifically bind and accumulate in target tissues has improved the sensitivity and specificity of conventional imaging. Positron Emission Tomography using modified glucose probes (FDG-PET) has demonstrated improved diagnostic accuracy in differentiating benign from malignant lesions in the setting of solitary pulmonary nodules. In addition, FDG-PET has become a useful modality in pre-operative staging of patients with lung cancer and is being tested with many other malignancies for its ability to change patient management. This article provides an overview of the current status of FDG-PET and presents the challenges of moving towards routine use. PMID:21184913

  12. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Su-Jiang; Wang, Jiang-Chang; Ding, Li; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed. PMID:21716841

  13. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot.

    PubMed

    Xie, Su-Jiang; Wang, Jiang-Chang; Ding, Li; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed.

  14. [Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in children after head trauma].

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Maria Schøler; Rokkjær, Malene Sine; Berg, Jette; Lüscher, Michael

    2015-06-15

    We present an eight-year-old boy with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) after a head trauma, successfully treated with Epley's manoeuvre. BPPV is a common cause of vestibular vertigo in adults, but it is rarely seen in children. Diagnostic work-up is challenging as children often lack the ability to describe their symptoms accurately and to cooperate in clinical examination. The diagnosis should be suspected in children with a relevant medical history and verified by positional testing. BPPV of childhood is treated with otolith repositioning manoeuvres, and the prognosis is good.

  15. Benign fibrous histiocytoma: A rare case involving jaw bone.

    PubMed

    Shoor, Hitesh; Pai, Keerthilatha M; Shergill, Ankur Kaur; Kamath, Abhay Taranath

    2015-09-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a soft tissue neoplasm which occurs mostly on the skin of extremities. BFH rarely occurs in bone and may affect femur, tibia, and pelvic bone. Jaw bone involvement is very unusual with only 11 cases reported till date. This report describes a case of BFH occurring in a 30-year-old female patient affecting left mandibular posterior region. Computed tomography revealed a well-defined expansile lytic lesion in the posterior mandible. Gross examination of the tumor revealed an admixture of fibroblasts and histiocytes in a fascicular and storiform pattern. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD68.

  16. Benign fibrous histiocytoma: A rare case involving jaw bone

    PubMed Central

    Shoor, Hitesh; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Shergill, Ankur Kaur; Kamath, Abhay Taranath

    2015-01-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a soft tissue neoplasm which occurs mostly on the skin of extremities. BFH rarely occurs in bone and may affect femur, tibia, and pelvic bone. Jaw bone involvement is very unusual with only 11 cases reported till date. This report describes a case of BFH occurring in a 30-year-old female patient affecting left mandibular posterior region. Computed tomography revealed a well-defined expansile lytic lesion in the posterior mandible. Gross examination of the tumor revealed an admixture of fibroblasts and histiocytes in a fascicular and storiform pattern. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD68. PMID:26604585

  17. Asbestos-related pleuropulmonary diseases: benign and malignant.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Angeline; Massoumi, Ali; Hostler, Jordanna; Hostler, David C

    2012-05-01

    Asbestos is known for its desirable properties of thermal and heat resistance along with excellent strength and durability. It was widely used in many industries since the late 19th century, until its adverse effects on health were recognized. The occurrence of pleuropulmonary changes from exposure to asbestos often has a latency period of 20 to 30 years. The use of asbestos has been banned, regulated, and minimized in many countries, but in several developing countries, the use of asbestos in industries is still a common practice. In this article, the benign and malignant clinical manifestations of asbestos exposure are discussed.

  18. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma with Cystic Cervical Metastasis Masquerading as Branchial Cleft Cyst: A Potential Pitfall in Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Sai-Guan, Lum; Min-Han, Kong; Kah-Wai, Ngan; Mohamad-Yunus, Mohd-Razif

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Most metastatic lymph nodes from head and neck malignancy are solid. Cystic nodes are found in 33% - 61% of carcinomas arise from Waldeyer’s ring, of which only 1.8% - 8% originate are from the nasopharynx. Some cystic cervical metastases were initially presumed to be branchial cleft cyst. This case report aims to highlight the unusual presentation of cystic cervical metastasis secondary to nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a young adult. The histopathology, radiological features and management strategy were discussed. Case Report: A 36-year-old man presented with a solitary cystic cervical swelling, initially diagnosed as branchial cleft cyst. Fine needle aspiration yielded 18 ml of straw-coloured fluid. During cytological examination no atypical cells were observed. Computed tomography of the neck showed a heterogeneous mass with multiseptation medial to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Histopathological examination of the mass, post excision, revealed a metastatic lymph node. A suspicious mucosal lesion at the nasopharynx was detected after repeated thorough head and neck examinations and the biopsy result confirmed undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Conclusion: Cystic cervical metastasis may occur in young patients under 40 years. The primary tumour may not be obvious during initial presentation because it mimicks benign branchial cleft cyst clinically. Retrospective review of the computed tomography images revealed features that were not characteristic of simple branchial cleft cyst. The inadequacy of assessment and interpretation had lead to the error in diagnosis and subsequent management. Metastatic head and neck lesion must be considered in a young adult with a cystic neck mass.

  19. Localized Langerhans cell histiocytosis masquerading as Brodie's abscess in a 2-year-old child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Fang; Hsu, Yi-Chih; Wu, Yi-Der; Kuo, Chun-Lang; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), formerly known as histiocytosis X, refers to a spectrum of diseases characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes that produce either focal (localized LCH) or systemic manifestations (Hand-Schüller-Christian disease and Letterer-Siwe disease). Localized LCH accounts for approximately 60-70 % of all LCH cases. Osseous involvement is the most common manifestation and typically involves the flat bones, along with lesions of the skull, pelvis, and ribs. Localized LCH in bone shows a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and radiologic features that may mimic those of infections as well as benign and malignant tumors. The diagnostic imaging findings of localized LCH are also diverse and challenging. The penumbra sign is a common and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feature of Brodie's abscess, but is rarely seen in localized LCH. In this report, we describe a case of localized LCH misdiagnosed as Brodie's abscess in a 2-year-old child based on clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and pre-diagnostic MRI findings (penumbra sign). Therefore, the penumbra sign is not sufficient to clearly establish the diagnosis of Brodie's abscess, and the differential diagnosis of localized LCH should be considered when a child with an osteolytic lesion presents with a penumbra sign. PMID:27065773

  20. Hysterectomy through minilaparotomy for benign gynaecological conditions: a valid option

    PubMed Central

    Mahendru, Rajiv; Malik, Savita; Rana, Ss; Gupta, Seema

    2009-01-01

    Objective Efforts are continuously being made for surgery to be less invasive with a minimal access approach. This article reports our experience with minilaparotomy hysterectomy in patients with benign gynecological disease or preinvasive pathology. Material and Methods A prospective study to analyse the outcome and per-operative and post-operative complications was conducted in 69 patients undergoing hysterectomy by the minilaparotomy approach through 4–5cm Pfannenstiel incision. Results The mean operating time and postoperative hospital stay were 41.3 min and 3.1 days, respectively. Composite morbidity was encountered in 12 women (17.4%) with no major complications or mortality. None of the patients had an estimated blood loss over 500ml. Conclusion Minilaparotomy hysterectomy in benign gynecological disease provides an appealing, effective, expeditious, minimal access and cost-effective option/alternative to the traditional abdominal hysterectomy. It obviates the need for any additional expensive equipment and above all improves upon the per-operative and post-operative outcomes without compromising, whatsoever, the quality of surgery. PMID:24591874

  1. Benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions in men.

    PubMed Central

    Karhunen, P J

    1986-01-01

    In a consecutive medicolegal necropsy series benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions occurred in 52% of the 95 men aged 35-69 years. The incidence increased with age, mainly due to small bile duct tumours (n = 26; mean age 56.7 years; p less than 0.01; mean size 1.3 mm). The next most common tumours were cavernous hemangiomas (n = 19; mean age 53.9 years; mean size 5.2 mm) that were not related to age. Focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 3; mean size 8.0 mm) tended to occur in a younger age group (mean age 40.3 years; p less than 0.001). Multiple bile duct tumours were present in 46% and hemangiomas in 50% of the men studied. Liver cell adenoma, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and peliosis hepatis were incidental findings (one case of each). Nodular regenerative hyperplasia was associated with the consumption of alcohol and a total dose of 21.5 g of testosterone. These results indicate that benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions are not rare in men but may remain undetected because of their small size. Images PMID:3950039

  2. Effect of Phellius linteus water extract on benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Sun; Chun, Sung-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases among elderly men. As the old-age population is increasing recently, it is to our interest to observe the growing BPH within them. In BPH, the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) acts as promotes prostate growth. It inhibits enzyme 5α-reductase that is involved in the conversion of testosterone to the DHT activity which reduces the excessive prostate growth. Through experiments, the effects of Phellius linteus water extract performed on the BPH rats were induced by testosterone treatments. For 12 weeks, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with testosterone for the induction of BPH. Rats were divided into four experimental groups: the not treated group (N), the testosterone injection and D.W treatment group (TN), the testosterone injection and Phellinus linteus treatment group (TP) and testosterone injection and finasteride treatment group (TF). Prostate weight, volume and weight ratio in the TP group and the TF group were significantly lower than the TN group. Testosterone and DHT levels in the TN group were significantly higher than that of the N group. And the TP group was significantly decreased than that of the TN group. While prostates of control rats revealed severe acinar gland atrophy and stromal proliferation; the TP and TF groups showed trophic symptoms and were lined by flattened epithelial cells, thus, the stromal proliferation is relatively low as compared to the TN group. These suggest that Phellinus linteus water extracts may be an useful remedy for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23766877

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; G. Husmillo; V. Trbovic

    2003-01-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter were isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples, optimizing parameters in the laboratory-scale corrosion test loop system and testing the effective concentrations of Capsicum sp. extracts to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons by batch culture method. A total of 22 strains from the group of heterotrophic, acid producing, denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the gas pipeline samples obtained from Northern Indiana Public Service Company in Trenton, Indiana. They were purified and will be sent out for identification. Bacterial strains of interest were used in antimicrobial screenings and test loop experiments. Parameters for the laboratory-scale test loop system such as gas and culture medium flow rate; temperature; inoculation period; and length of incubation were established. Batch culture corrosion study against Desulfovibrio vulgaris showed that one (S{sub 1}M) out of the four Capsicum sp. extracts tested was effective in controlling the corrosion rate in metal coupons by 33.33% when compared to the untreated group.

  4. Periareolar incision for the management of benign breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangnan; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Liyu; Ma, Tingting; Han, Baosan; Yang, Qifeng

    2016-11-01

    Benign breast tumors (BBTs) are common in women. The traditional surgical resection method for the various types of BBT leaves obvious scars and affects the appearance of the breast. The present study introduces the experience of a single institution in the treatment of BBT by periareolar incision. The clinical data of 153 patients (182 breasts) with BBT who had undergone a resection via a periareolar incision between January 2010 and December 2012 in Qilu Hospital, Shandong University (Jinan, Shandong, China), was retrospectively analyzed. All incisions were primary healing. Of the 153 patients, 1 (0.7%) developed a hematoma and 2 (1.3%) developed slight nipple ischemia. No infections or other complications were observed. During 1 month to 3 years of follow-up, the cosmetic effects were assessed. Periareolar incision is not only suitable for all types of breast surgery for benign tumor resection, but also has the advantage of a hidden incision, a small scar, no ischemic necrosis of the nipple areola, high patient satisfaction and good post-operative cosmetic effect. The technique is therefore a good surgical incision choice that is worthy of note.

  5. Periareolar incision for the management of benign breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangnan; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Liyu; Ma, Tingting; Han, Baosan; Yang, Qifeng

    2016-01-01

    Benign breast tumors (BBTs) are common in women. The traditional surgical resection method for the various types of BBT leaves obvious scars and affects the appearance of the breast. The present study introduces the experience of a single institution in the treatment of BBT by periareolar incision. The clinical data of 153 patients (182 breasts) with BBT who had undergone a resection via a periareolar incision between January 2010 and December 2012 in Qilu Hospital, Shandong University (Jinan, Shandong, China), was retrospectively analyzed. All incisions were primary healing. Of the 153 patients, 1 (0.7%) developed a hematoma and 2 (1.3%) developed slight nipple ischemia. No infections or other complications were observed. During 1 month to 3 years of follow-up, the cosmetic effects were assessed. Periareolar incision is not only suitable for all types of breast surgery for benign tumor resection, but also has the advantage of a hidden incision, a small scar, no ischemic necrosis of the nipple areola, high patient satisfaction and good post-operative cosmetic effect. The technique is therefore a good surgical incision choice that is worthy of note. PMID:27899991

  6. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; G. Husmillo

    2002-11-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter were monitoring the development of Desulfovibrio species biofilm using the continuous flow cell system, evaluation of pepper compounds by microtiter plate assay for mitigating and inhibiting biofilm formation, and testing the effective concentrations to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons. Biofilm formation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and D. desulfuricans was monitored and documented over a 7-day period. The use of a continuous flow cell system proved to be efficient and non-destructive in studying biofilm growth. Live/Dead BacLight was an efficient stain to determine cell viability. The extracts showed 9-25% biofilm formation inhibition against the two organisms, and 18-19% activity in detaching the already formed biofilm. Preliminary data were obtained on the extent of corrosion of metal coupons when treated with pepper extracts as against the untreated ones. Confirmatory tests are underway. A presentation was prepared and give at the US DOE NETL meeting on gas and petroleum infrastructure. The presentation is include as an addition to this report.

  8. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo

    2002-07-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Capsicum sp. extracts and pure compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against MIC causing bacteria. Studies on the ability of these compounds to dissociate biofilm from the substratum were conducted using microtiter plate assays. Tests using laboratory scale pipeline simulators continued. Preliminary results showed that the natural extracts possess strong antimicrobial activity being comparable to or even better than the pure compounds tested against strains of sulfate reducers. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations had been determined. It was also found that they possess bactericidal properties at minimal concentrations. Biofilm dissociation activity as assessed by microtiter plate assays demonstrated varying degrees of differences between the treated and untreated group with the superior performance of the extracts over pure compounds. Such is an indication of the possible benefits that could be obtained from these natural products. Confirmatory experiments are underway.

  9. Environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Hara, Michikazu

    2009-01-01

    Fuelling the future: The production of esters of higher fatty acids from plant materials is of great interest for the manufacture of biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalysts can provide new routes for the environmentally benign production of biodiesel. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction allowing the catalyst to be reused, generating less waste, and consuming less energy. Diesel engines are simple and powerful, and exhibit many advantages in energy efficiency and cost. Therefore, the production of higher fatty acid esters from plant materials has become of interest in recent years for the manufacture of biodiesel, a clean-burning alternative fuel. The industrial production of biodiesel mostly proceeds in the presence of "soluble" catalysts such as alkali hydroxides and liquid acids. A considerable amount of energy is required for the purification of products and catalyst separation, and furthermore these catalysts are not reusable. This process results in substantial energy wastage and the production of large amounts of chemical waste. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction, allowing the catalyst to be reused and consuming less energy. This Minireview describes the environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts such as solid bases, acid catalysts, and immobilized enzymes.

  10. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II; William Bogan

    2004-01-31

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter included the fractionation of extracts prepared from several varieties of pepper plants, and using several solvents, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A preliminary determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts ability to inhibit biofilm formation was also performed. The analysis of multiple extracts of pepper plants and fractions of extracts of pepper plants obtained by HPLC illustrated that these extracts and fractions are extremely complex mixtures of chemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the chemical constituents of these extracts and fractions to the greatest degree possible. Analysis of the chemical composition of various extracts of pepper plants has illustrated the complexity of the chemical mixtures present, and while additional work will be performed to further characterize the extracts to identify bioactive compounds the focus of efforts should now shift to an evaluation of the ability of extracts to inhibit corrosion in mixed culture biofilms, and in pure cultures of bacterial types which are known or believed to be important in corrosion.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek

    2002-03-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter has been to evaluate a number of real world pipeline sources for microbial communities or consortia that form biofilms under laboratory simulations of pipelines. The microorganisms will be identified using classical and molecular microbiological tools and there activities under pipeline simulating conditions will be studied. The quarter saw the collection of the first samples from the industry for isolation of the microorganisms, as well as the design and construction of the laboratory-scale pipeline simulators. Methods development for MIC and biofilm microbial isolations and identification, and laboratory design and construction of pipeline simulators were the only activities. At this stage of the study (first quarter), only preliminary results are available.

  12. Low power, biologically benign NIR light triggers polymer disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Fomina, Nadezda; McFearin, Cathryn L.; Sermsakdi, Marleen; Morachis, José M.; Almutairi, Adah

    2011-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) irradiation can penetrate up to 10 cm deep into tissues and be remotely applied with high spatial and temporal precision. Despite its potential for various medical and biological applications, there is a dearth of biomaterials that are responsive at this wavelength region. Herein we report a polymeric material that is able to disassemble in response to biologically benign levels of NIR irradiation upon two-photon absorption. The design relies on the photolysis of the multiple pendant 4-bromo7-hydroxycoumarin protecting groups to trigger a cascade of cyclization and rearrangement reactions leading to the degradation of the polymer backbone. The new material undergoes a 50% Mw loss after 25 sec of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by single photon absorption and 21 min of NIR irradiation via two-photon absorption. Most importantly, even NIR irradiation at biologically benign laser power is sufficient to cause significant polymer disassembly. Furthermore, this material is well tolerated by cells both before and after degradation. These results demonstrate for the first time a NIR sensitive material with potential to be used for in vivo applications. PMID:22096258

  13. [Update in the endoscopic management of benign esophageal stenoses].

    PubMed

    De la Garza González, Salvador Javier; García, Rafael Guevara

    2005-07-01

    Correction of dysphagia in benign esophageal stenosis without the need for surgery is a task that has been tried to be resolved for more than three centuries; in the last three decades this management has evolved with the development of pneumatic dilators and, more recently, alternative and adjuvant treatments like local steroid injection, electrocoagulation, use of argon plasma and the use of expandable stents have been added. The most common causes of benign esophageal stenosis are peptic esophagitis in first place followed by the ingestion of caustic substances; other less frequent etiologies are medication ingestion, stenosis secondary to a surgical anastomosis of the esophagus and stenosis related to mediastinal radiotherapy; the rarest causes include esophageal rings and membranes, sclerotherapy for esophageal varices, the prolonged use of a nasogastric tube, Crohn's disease, among others. A complete clinical, radiological and endoscopic evaluation of the patient is required to make the diagnosis, with the respective complimentary histopathologic study. At present, traditional esophageal dilatations, as well as pneumatic dilatations are the most common and effective treatments, the previously mentioned alternative and adjuvant treatments are used in exceptional cases, some with advantages over the others depending on each patient in particular and on the characteristics and etiology of the stenosis. The future seems to be aimed at the use of temporary expandable stents.

  14. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in an airline pilot.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ahmet; Al-Deleamy, Louai S; Kendirli, Tansel M

    2007-11-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common types of peripheral vertigo, characterized by violent whirling vertigo after a positional change. Although the condition is termed "benign," the clinical presentation can be incapacitating for pilots in certain maneuvers. We present a case of an airline transport pilot with the complaint of vertigo for 5 d. The vertigo was aggravated by head movements when looking up or rolling over, lasting for a few seconds. The patient was diagnosed with BPPV, and he was treated with physical therapy with the use of Epley maneuver. The airman applied for his First-Class medical examination after the treatment was successfully completed. The aviation medical examiner (AME) issued the airman medical certificate after contacting and receiving verbal approval from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Aerospace Medical Certification Division (AMCD). While evaluating aviators who have had BPPV, AMEs should not issue medical certificates for any class until the condition is fully resolved. Although the AME Guide states that certification of pilots with other types of vertigo requires an FAA decision, once the patient is successfully treated and free of symptoms, approval for issuing the medical certificate can be obtained through contacting AMCD and by submitting all information and documentation pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Argon laser-assisted treatment of benign eyelid lesions.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Şafak; Ekici, Feyzahan; Sül, Sabahattin

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the treatment of benign eyelid lesions with argon laser as an alternative therapy to surgical excision. The charts of 73 patients with 95 lesions treated with argon laser photocoagulation were reviewed retrospectively. In all patients, the procedure was performed for cosmetic reasons. The laser spot size ranged from 50 to 200 μm, the power varied from 300 to 700 mW, and the exposure time ranged between 0.1 and 0.2 s. The lesions were mostly located on the upper eyelid (66%); the lid margin was involved in 30 cases. The mean follow-up time was 7.2 ± 3.5 months (range 3-15 months). A histopathological diagnosis was confirmed for 81 lesions (85.3%). All patients were satisfied with the cosmetic result. No intraoperative complications occurred, and none of the patients complained of pain during laser application. All wounds epithelialized in 3-4 weeks with skin that appeared normal. Hypopigmentation of the treated areas were observed in three cases. No recurrence occurred during the follow-up period. Argon laser-assisted benign eyelid tumor excision is a useful, cheap, accessible, and well-tolerated alternative to traditional surgery.

  16. Debridement in chronic osteomyelitis with benign osteopetrosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Ping; Lin, Xiang-Hua; Yan, Man-Yun; Lin, Bao-Quan; Zhuo, Ming-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare bone disease caused by metabolic imbalances as a result of genetic mutations. For instance, autosomal dominant osteopetrosis is caused by a missense mutation of the C1CN7 gene. This was first reported in 1904 and is thought to be caused by osteoclastic dysfunction and an impaired bone resorption ability. An accumulation of cortical bone mass during the remodeling of the medullary bone may increase the bone density and give rise to a hard marble consistency. Osteopetrosis can be divided into benign and malignant forms; however, no curative treatment exists for benign osteopetrosis. The management of complications, such as chronic osteomyelitis and fractures, serves a key role in influencing the patient survival rates. Previous studies have demonstrated that a combined treatment of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) lavage for debridement of the necrotic region and high-dose systemic antibiotics may be effective in the management of osteopetrosis. The present study reported a case of chronic mandible osteomyelitis and fistula occurring in association with maxillary sinusitis, who was successfully treated by through nasal endoscopy, using repeated flushing and cleaning every 2 weeks as a form of debridement, in the absence of high-dose antibiotics and HBO. PMID:27882078

  17. Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi; Liu, Rui-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare condition that occurs in all age groups and that is particularly prevalent among women of late childbearing age. All patients have a history of uterine leiomyoma and/or myomectomy, often associated with distant metastases from the uterus, which commonly occurs in the lung. We report the case of a 32-year-old young woman suffering from chest stuffiness, labored respiration and weakness after a myomectomy performed one month earlier. The chest CT showed a diffuse miliary shadow in both sides of her lungs, but serum tumor markers such as CA125, CA199, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and CYFRA21-1 were normal. The patient underwent a lung biopsy by thoracoscopic surgery after four weeks of anti-TB treatment; there were no significant changes in the chest CT. H&E staining showed that the tumor cells had characteristics of smooth muscle cell differentiation. Immunohistochemical staining showed a low tumor cell proliferation index, which indicated that the likelihood of a malignancy was not high. There was no expression of CD10, indicating a diagnosis of pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML). Smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin as specific markers of smooth muscle and the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were all strongly positive, which is characteristic of PBML. The patient was given the anti-estrogen tamoxifen for 3 months. With no radiological evidence of disease development and further distant metastasis, the patient will continue to be followed. PMID:24977035

  18. A giant benign clear cell hidradenoma on the anterior trunk.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Gulsen Tukenmez; Atis, Guldehan; Altunay, Ilknur Kivanç; Sakiz, Damlanur

    2011-10-05

    Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is an uncommon variant of benign cutaneous adnexal tumors. These tumors are clinically asymptomatic, solitary dermal nodules. They occur most frequently on the scalp, face abdomen and extremities. Growth is slow and malignant change is rare. 45-year-old woman presented with a nodule which had begun 4 years ago as a small nodular asymptomatic lesion and had a central ulceration and a minimal hemorrhagic discharge on her anterior abdomen wall. On dermatologic examination there was a 6.5×5×4 cm non-tender, soft reddish purple nodule, with lobular appearance and ulceration. In the laboratory investigations, all hematologic and biochemical tests were normal. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a cystic tumor with lobulated contour with contrast enhancement. The lesion was excised totally. In histopathological examination, the tumor was composed of biphasic smaller dark polygonal cells and larger clear cells and coarse nuclear chromatine. There were duct like structures. Immunohistochemical investigation was done for the suspicion of malignancy. Cytoplasm of clear cells and of duct like structures showed PAS-positive and d-PAS resistant staining. There was a positive reaction to epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen. The mitotic index in Ki 67 examination was low. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of benign CCH.

  19. Cough, exertional, and sexual headaches: an analysis of 72 benign and symptomatic cases.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; Iglesias, F; Oterino, A; Vázquez-Barquero, A; Berciano, J

    1996-06-01

    We analyzed our experience with cough, exertional, and vascular sexual headaches, evaluated the interrelationships among them, and examined the possible symptomatic cases. Seventy-two patients consulted us because of headaches precipitated by coughing (n = 30), physical exercise (n = 28), or sexual excitement (n = 14). Thirty (42%) were symptomatic. The 17 cases of symptomatic cough headache were secondary to Chiari type I malformation, while the majority of cases of symptomatic exertional headaches and the only case of symptomatic sexual headache were secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Although the precipitant was the same, benign and symptomatic headaches differed in several clinical aspects, such as age at onset, associated clinical manifestations, or response to pharmacologic treatment. Although sharing some properties, such as male predominance, benign cough headache and benign exertional headache are clinically separate conditions. Benign cough headache began significantly later, 43 years on average, than benign exertional headache. By contrast, our findings suggest that there is a close relationship between benign exertional headache and benign vascular sexual headache. We conclude that benign and symptomatic cough headaches are different from both benign and symptomatic exertional and sexual headaches.

  20. A Case of Primary Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the Thyroid Masquerading as Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Potentially More than a One Off.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S; Shaheen, M; Olson, G; Barry, M; Wu, J; Bocklage, T

    2016-09-01

    We present the second reported mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) apparently arising in the thyroid and propose a potential close relationship to ETV6-NTRK3 fusion papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient, a 36 year old woman, presented with a neck mass of 1 year's duration. Imaging studies showed a tumor involving most of the thyroid with enlarged regional lymph nodes. FNA biopsy yielded a diagnosis of "papillary thyroid carcinoma". Resection revealed a 4.5 cm infiltrative tumor. Final diagnosis was "papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) consistent with diffuse sclerosing variant" with positive lymph nodes (2+/4) and margins. Histologic features included mixed microcystic, solid, follicular and papillary architecture, prominent nucleoli, abundant nuclear grooves and rare nuclear pseudo-inclusions. Despite radioactive iodine, radiotherapy and multiagent chemotherapy, the patient progressed over 6 years with local recurrence and additional lymph node involvement finally developing widespread distant metastases. Prompted by the breast carcinoma-like histopathology of a metastasis, immunohistochemical staining was performed and revealed strong expression of GATA3 and mammaglobin with no reactivity for thyroglobulin or TTF-1. The original tumor was then tested and showed the same immunoprofile. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion consistent with a diagnosis of MASC. Our patient's clinical, imaging and morphologic features remarkably mimicked papillary thyroid carcinoma. At the molecular level, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in this patient involved exons reported in the rare "papillary thyroid carcinoma" with this translocation. Given the immunophenotype of this case, it is possible that at least some ETV6-NTRK3 fusion positive PTC are actually MASC masquerading as papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  1. Diagnosis and management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).

    PubMed

    Parnes, Lorne S; Agrawal, Sumit K; Atlas, Jason

    2003-09-30

    There is compelling evidence that free-floating endolymph particles in the posterior semicircular canal underlie most cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Recent pathological findings suggest that these particles are otoconia, probably displaced from the otolithic membrane in the utricle. They typically settle in the dependent posterior canal and render it sensitive to gravity. Well over 90% of patients can be successfully treated with a simple outpatient manoeuvre that moves the particles back into the utricle. We describe the various techniques for this manoeuvre, plus treatments for uncommon variants of BPPV such as that of the lateral canal. For the rare patient whose BPPV is not responsive to these manoeuvres and has severe symptoms, posterior canal occlusion surgery is a safe and highly effective procedure.

  2. Gallium-67 uptake by a benign adrenocortical adenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; Naul, L.G.; Montgomery, J.L.; Carpentier, W.R.; Roberts, J.W.

    1988-08-01

    A 55-yr-old man presented with an atypical relapsing meningitis and was found to have intense unilateral adrenal uptake by /sup 67/Ga imaging. Computed tomography showed a 4-cm right adrenal mass which was hypointense on the T1-weighted images and mildly hyperintense on the T2-weighted images of a magnetic resonance (MR) scan. At surgery, a coincidental benign adrenocortical adenoma was found. Because /sup 67/Ga uptake is usually associated with inflammatory or malignant lesions and malignant adrenal lesions are hyperintense on T2-weighted MR images, these findings contributed to diagnostic uncertainty in this patient. Thus, a nonhyperfunctional adrenocortical adenoma may be associated with abnormal /sup 67/Ga uptake and atypical MR findings.

  3. Benign familial leukopenia and neutropenia in different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Shoenfeld, Y; Alkan, M L; Asaly, A; Carmeli, Y; Katz, M

    1988-09-01

    Benign hereditary leukopenia-neutropenia has been reported in several ethnic groups, including Yemenite Jews, Blacks of South African extraction, West Indians and Arab Jordanians. The subjects with BFL were shown not to have an increased incidence of infections, and their response to infection did not differ from subjects having normal white blood cell counts. This study entails the report of two additional unrelated ethnic groups with familial neutropenia - Black Beduin and Falashah Jews. The familial nature of the phenomenon was confirmed. The suggested mechanism of this type of neutropenia is a defect in release of mature WBC from the bone marrow to the peripheral circulation. All ethnic groups thus far reported have tanned or dark skin. The significance of this common feature has still to be elucidated.

  4. Breast cancer. Part 1: Awareness and common benign diseases.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women in the United Kingdom and topic on which there is much information. This article discusses the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases that cause disproportionate anxiety. The NHS Breast Screening Programme is celebrating 20 years of screening this year, and in all randomized controlled trials of women aged 50 and over, mortality from breast cancer is reduced in those offered screening compared with unscreened controls (although the reduction is not statistically significant in all trials). Once a breast cancer is diagnosed, the different characteristics and stage of the disease can be identified through histopathology and scans. These factors will be discussed later in this article, including illustrating if a cancer is hormone sensitive or HER-2 positive, for example. These factors enable clinicians to recommend a treatment pathway suitable for each individual.

  5. Novel therapies in benign and malignant bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Rachner, Tilman D; Hadji, Peyman; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2012-06-01

    With an ageing population and improving cancer therapies, the two most common benign and malignant bone diseases, osteoporosis and bone metastases, will continue to affect an increasing number of patients. Our expanding knowledge of the molecular processes underlying these conditions has resulted in novel bone targets that are currently being explored in clinical trials. Clearly, the approval of denosumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against RANKL, has just marked the beginning of a new era for bone therapy with several additional new therapies lining up for clinical approval in the coming years. Potential agents targeting the osteoclast include cathepsin K, currently in phase 3 trials, and src inhibitors. Amongst anabolic agents, inhibitors of the Wnt-inhibitor sclerostin and dickkopf-1 are promising in clinical trials. Here, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the most promising agents currently explored for the treatment of bone diseases.

  6. [Spontaneous Non Ischaemic Blue Finger: A Rare and Benign Phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniela; Alves, Daniela; Almeida, Ana Cristina; Almeida, Carlos Costa; Moreno, Cecília; Freixo, Joâo

    2015-01-01

    The spontaneous non-ischaemic blue finger is a rare and benign disorder, characterized by purple discoloration of a finger, with complete resolution. This article reports the case of a woman of 88 years, which after a few hours of stay in the emergency department developed without associated trauma, a purplish color of the 3rd finger of the right hand, with a palpable pulse and without temperature changes or pain. The etiological investigation was negative. The patient was assessed one week after the event and showed completeresolution. There are several diseases that share the same signs and symptoms, as such the diagnosis is based on the spontaneous violaceous color sparing the finger tip, and fast resolution without treatment. Though being a harmless phenomenon, it requires early assessment for timely differential diagnosis with severe pathologies.

  7. [Sexual readaptation after the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Goriunov, V G; Davidov, M I

    1997-01-01

    Sexual function was studied in 818 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after surgical treatment of this disease. Before surgery, sexual activity was absent in 276 examinees. After surgery 4.3% of them retained erection, 95.7% remained impotent. 542 patients before operations were sexually active. Surgical treatment of BPH (transurethral resection, transvesical adenomectomy) creates grounds for deterioration of sexual function and risk of erection loss. Thus, 77 operated patients had no erection, 176 had weak libido, 159--insufficient erection, 244 retrograde ejaculation, 188 painful orgasm. Transurethral resection led to a complete loss of copulative function in 5.3% of patients, transvesical adenomectomy--in 9.9%. Sexual readaptation after transurethral resection and transvesical adenomectomy has been improved due to a special complex developed by the authors. This complex consists of 14 therapeutic and prophylactic procedures.

  8. Cerebral metabolism of glucose in benign hereditary chorea

    SciTech Connect

    Suchowersky, O.; Hayden, M.R.; Martin, W.R.; Stoessl, A.J.; Hildebrand, A.M.; Pate, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by chorea of early onset with little or no progression. There is marked clinical variability in this disease with some subjects having onset in infancy and others with onset in early adulthood. In contrast to Huntington's disease (HD), there is no dementia. Computed tomography is normal in all subjects with no evidence of caudate nucleus atrophy. We present the results of positron emission tomography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose on three patients with this disorder from two families. Cerebral glucose metabolism in one patient was decreased in the caudate nucleus, as previously reported in HD. The other two persons from a second family showed a relative decrease in metabolic rates of glucose in the caudate when compared with the thalamus. It appears that caudate hypometabolism is not specific for HD. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some persons with BHC.

  9. [Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: provocation and freeing manoeuvres].

    PubMed

    Herreros Fernández, M L; Beato Martínez, A; Barja Tur, J; Moreno Juara, A; González Laguillo, A

    2008-08-01

    The benign paroxystic positional vertigo (BPPV) is defined by brief episodic vertigo attacks and accompanied by a rotary-linear nystagmus, triggered by head position changes and is always produced in that position. The theory that better explains the BPPV is canalithiasis: free-floating particles leave the utricular macula and enter one of the semicircular canals, producing an endolymphatic movement that stimulates the cupula and produces vertigo and nystagmus. The diagnosis is based on a typical clinical history, normal ear and neurological examination and provocation maneuvers, such as the Dix-Hallpike test, reproduce the vertigo attacks. The treatments are the liberatory maneuvers, such as the Epley maneuver which makes the vertigo disappear. We present two cases of vertigo with a compatible clinic history of BPPV, where the Dix-Hallpike maneuver confirmed the diagnosis. The treatment in both cases was the Epley maneuver.

  10. Benign gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three snow leopards (Panthera uncia).

    PubMed

    Dobson, Elizabeth C; Naydan, Dianne K; Raphael, Bonnie L; McAloose, Denise

    2013-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are relatively rare neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells that are distributed throughout the body and are predominant in the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes benign, well-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia). All tumors were well circumscribed, were within the gastric mucosa or submucosa, and had histologic and immunohistochemical features of neuroendocrine tumors. Histologic features included packeted cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells that were arranged in palisades or pseudorosettes and contained finely granular cellular cytoplasm with centrally placed, round nuclei. Cytoplasmic granules of neoplastic cells strongly expressed chromogranin A, variably expressed neuron-specific enolase, and did not express synaptophysin or gastrin. Each leopard died or was euthanatized for reasons unrelated to its tumor.

  11. Benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Uncini, A; Servidei, S; Delli Pizzi, C; Cutarella, R; Di Muzio, A; Gambi, D; Tonali, P

    1992-06-01

    Three patients with wasting confined to a single lower limb are reported. The characteristic features were: sporadic occurrence, insidious onset with slow progression and in 2 cases arrested course for at least 4 years, wasting out of proportion with disability, absence of sensory, pyramidal tract or bulbar signs. CK, motor and sensory conductions, and lumbar MRI were normal. Muscle CT showed selective loss of muscle tissue and fat replacement in posterior leg muscles. Quantitative electromyography and histologic findings revealed neurogenic features not only in the affected legs, but also in clinically uninvolved limbs. Monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb is a variant of spinal muscular atrophy with a benign course. However, as in the early stages of the disease there are no distinctive clinical or laboratory findings with other motor neuron diseases, the diagnosis of monomelic amyotrophy may be made only retrospectively after a prolonged observation.

  12. New therapeutic maneuver for anterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Yacovino, Dario A; Hain, Timothy C; Gualtieri, Francisco

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the clinical features of anterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (AC-BPPV) and a new therapeutic maneuver for its management. Our study was a retrospective review of cases from an ambulatory tertiary referral center. Thirteen patients afflicted with positional paroxysmal vertigo exhibiting brief positional down-beating nystagmus in positional tests (Dix-Hallpike and head-hanging position) were treated with a maneuver comprised of the following movements: Sequential head positioning beginning supine with head hanging 30 degrees dependent with respect to the body, then supine with head inclined 30 degrees forward, and ending sitting with head 30 degrees forward. All cases showed excellent therapeutic response to our repositioning procedure, i.e. relief of vertigo and elimination of nystagmus. The maneuver described is an option for AC-BPPV treatment.

  13. Dermoscopy of benign and malignant neoplasms in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Haliasos, Helen C; Zalaudek, Iris; Malvehy, Josep; Lanschuetzer, Christoph; Hinter, Helmut; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Braun, Ralph; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2010-12-01

    Dermoscopy is a noninvasive technique that enables visualization of subsurface colors and structures within the skin that are imperceptible to the naked eye. The dermatoscope allows the physician to examine both the macroscopic and microscopic primary morphology of skin lesions, identify subtle clinical clues, confirm naked-eye clinical diagnoses, and monitor treatment progress while posing little threat to the young patient. Dermoscopic findings have been formulated into diagnostic criteria that assist experienced clinicians in differentiating benign and malignant neoplasms. In this review, clinical morphology of melanocytic nevi and melanoma in the pediatric population is examined and the relevant dermoscopic findings and histopathologic correlates that aid in the diagnosis and management of these lesions are described.

  14. [Practical approach to recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    PubMed

    López-Escámez, José A

    2008-10-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most common vestibular disorder and it has a significant impact on health-related quality of life. The disease is probably caused by the accumulation of lithiasis material from the otolithic membrane of the utricle. Patients experience multiple short vertigo crises lasting seconds when they go to bed or turn over. There are several clinical variants affecting posterior, horizontal or anterior canals and in some cases vestibular lithiasis can occur in two canals simultaneously. Diagnosis is by video-oculographic recording of positional nystagmus during positional tests to identify the canal affected. There are specific treatment manoeuvres for each clinical variant, which a high degree of short-term effectiveness.

  15. [Status of phytotherapeutic drugs in treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Dreikorn, K; Schönhöfer, P S

    1995-03-01

    Phytotherapeutic preparations are still commonly used for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in Germany; in recent years there has even been an increase in their use, so that sales now amount to more than DM 220 millions per year. The preparations most frequently used are extracts of Hypoxis rooperi, the roots of the stinging nettle, the fruits of the saw palmetto, pumpkin seeds and rye pollen. The suggested mechanisms of action have not been documented by scientific observation. This applies especially to the blocking effect on 5 alpha-reductase postulated with the doses used. Moreover, a critical analysis of the data available suggests that the effects of phytotherapy are no better than those of placebo treatment. Further studies are urgently needed, to compare the effects of phytotherapy with those of chemically defined drugs (alpha 1-receptor antagonists, 5 alpha-reductase blocker) that seem to have a beneficial influence on the pathomechanism underlying symptomatic BPH.

  16. ENVIROMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo; Amrutha Daram; Vesna Trbovic

    2003-10-31

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of the method of fractionation of the extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts' ability to inhibit biofilm formation. We initiated the delivery system for these new biocides in the test cell and in mixtures of foam components and biocides/anti-biofilms. A total of 51 fractions collected by HPLC from crude extracts that were obtained from three varieties of Capsicum sp. (Serrano, Habanero, Chile de Arbol) were subjected to growth inhibition tests against two SRB strains, D. vulgaris and D. desulfuricans. Five fractions showed growth inhibition against both strains while seven inhibited D. desulfuricans only. The crude extracts did not show growth inhibition on both strains but were proven to be potent in preventing the formation of biofilm. Growth inhibition tests of the same set of crude extracts against Comamonas denitrificans did not show positive results. The fractions will be subjected to biofilm inhibition and dissociation assay as well. The delivery system to be evaluated first was foam. The ''foam pig'' components of surfactants and water were tested with the biocide addition. The first chemical and physical parameters to be tested were pH and surfactants. Tests using the fractionated pepper extracts are progressing rapidly. Gas chromatographic analysis on a number of fractions is underway

  17. Central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy for benign pancreatic pathology.

    PubMed

    Efron, David T; Lillemoe, Keith D; Cameron, John L; Yeo, Charles J

    2004-01-01

    Benign lesions of the neck and proximal body of the pancreas pose an interesting surgical challenge. If the lesions are not amenable to simple enucleation, surgeons may be faced with the choice of performing a right-sided resection (pancreaticoduodenectomy) or a left-sided resection (distal pancreatectomy) to include the lesion, resulting in resection of a substantial amount of normal pancreatic parenchyma. Central pancreatic resection has been reported with Roux-en-Y pancreaticojejunostomy reconstruction; however, this interrupts small bowel continuity and obligates an additional anastomosis. We have reviewed our experience with central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) for benign central pancreatic pathology. Between January 1999 and December 2002, 14 central pancreatectomies were performed with PG reconstruction. There were 7 women and 7 men with a mean age of 60.9 years. Five resections were performed for islet cell tumors, three were performed for noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, two were performed for serous cystadenoma, and one each was performed for a simple cyst, pseudocyst, mucinous metaplasia, and focal chronic pancreatitis. Seven out of 14 patients experienced a total of 10 complications. Pancreatic fistulae manifested by drainage of amylase-rich fluid from the operatively placed drains developed in 5 patients (36%). Reoperation or interventional radiologic procedures were not required in any patient with a fistula. Postoperative follow-up demonstrated 13 out of 14 patients to be alive and well without evidence of pancreatic insufficiency. One patient died at home on postoperative day 57 of cardiac pathology. Central pancreatectomy with PG is a safe and effective procedure that allows for preservation of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function without disruption of enteric continuity. The complication of pancreatic fistula was managed conservatively via maintenance of operatively placed drains.

  18. Pineal cysts-A benign association with familial retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya Kumar; Jones, Michael; Prelog, Kristina; Bui, John; Zhu, Jacqui; Ng, Anthea; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano

    2016-09-01

    Patients with familial/heritable retinoblastoma (RB) are at increased risk of developing second malignancies throughout life, including a pineoblastoma (trilateral RB [TRB]) in early childhood. Current guidelines recommend regular surveillance brain imaging for those with heritable RB until 5 years of age. The presence of pineal cysts has been reported in patients with RB. Pineal cysts are thought to arise due to focal degeneration of the pineal gland and can be found incidentally. The finding of pineal abnormalities including cysts in children with RB on imaging is disconcerting, as it raises the possibility of an underlying malignancy, specifically a pinealoblastoma. The authors reviewed the imaging findings and clinical significance of pineal cysts in 69 patients diagnosed with RB at our center between December 1999 and November 2015. Twenty-six patients had pineal cysts found on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans performed either at diagnosis or follow-up. Thirty-eight of 69 patients had underlying heritable RB. Nineteen of 38 familial RB patients had a pineal cyst compared with 3 out of 26 with sporadic RB (P = .004). In the majority, the imaging characteristics and size of the cysts remained stable or resolved. In this cohort, pineal cysts were detected at significantly increased frequency in heritable RB. This may be a benign association or may reflect abnormal underlying biology of pineal tissue in individuals highly susceptible to malignancy. Imaging characteristics can be helpful in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions. The presence of a pineal cyst in patients with unilateral disease may be a useful indicator of underlying heritable RB.

  19. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo; Amrutha Daram; Vesna Trbovic; Teri Storino

    2003-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of new methods of Capsicum sp. (pepper) extraction by soxhlet method and analysis of a new set of extracts by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples; and evaluation of antimicrobial activities of the old set of pepper extracts in comparison with major components of known biocides and corrosion inhibitors. Twelve new extracts from three varieties of Capsicum sp. (Serrano, Habanero, and Chile de Arbol) were obtained by soxhlet extraction using 4 different solvents. Results of TLC done on these extracts showed the presence of capsaicin and some phenolic compounds, while that of HPLC detected capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin peaks. More tests will be done to determine specific components. Additional isolates from the group of heterotrophic, acid-producing, denitrifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria were obtained from the pipeline samples submitted by gas companies. Isolates of interest will be used in subsequent antimicrobial testing and test-loop simulation system experiments. Results of antimicrobial screening of Capsicum sp. extracts and components of known commercial biocides showed comparable activities when tested against two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  20. Benign, Premalignant, and Malignant Lesions Encountered in Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kini

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with several comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea. It is also well established that obese patients have an increased risk of several types of cancer like kidney, pancreas, endometrial, breast, and others. The bariatric surgeon needs to be aware of the problem of benign tumors and cancer in obese patients as well as the optimal management of these conditions that may be present at the time of evaluation for bariatric surgery, during the surgical procedure, and in the postoperative period. Database: A PubMed search for the words “cancer” and “bariatric surgery” and subsequent review of the abstracts identified 40 articles concerning cancerous, benign, and premalignant conditions in bariatric surgery patients. Data were then extracted from full-text articles. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery decreases cancer risk especially in women. RYGB can be an effective treatment for Barrett's esophagus. Patients having esophageal cancer should not undergo bariatric surgery, while those who develop the same postoperatively are usually managed by a combined abdominal and thoracic approach (Ivor Lewis technique). Gastric cancer of the remnant stomach is usually managed by a remnant gastrectomy. A remnant gastrectomy during RYGB would be necessary in conditions that require endoscopic surveillance of the stomach like gastric polyps, intestinal metaplasia, and carcinoid tumors. Sleeve gastrectomy is an excellent option in a patient with GIST or a carcinoid who needs a bariatric operation. Preoperative endoscopy usually does not detect malignant conditions. Postoperative evaluation of the bypassed stomach is possible using various percutaneous and novel endoscopic techniques. PMID:23318060

  1. Serenoa repens extract in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Geavlete, Petrisor; Multescu, Razvan; Geavlete, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    We are experiencing a revival of interest in phytotherapeutic agents, both in Europe and North America, especially as a consequence of patients’ dissatisfaction with the adverse effects of the medical alternatives. One of the most frequently prescribed and studied such agents is Serenoa repens extract, derived from the berry of the dwarf palm tree. We aimed to review the most important published data regarding this type of treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. A review of the existing articles regarding the use of Serenoa repens extracts for benign prostatic hyperplasia was performed. The articles were analysed with regard to their relevance, scientific value and the size of the evaluated series. Multiple mechanisms of action have been attributed to this extract, including antiandrogenic action, an anti-inflammatory/anti-oedematous effect, prolactin signal modulation, and an antiproliferative effect exerted through the inhibition of growth factors. Regarding efficacy, European Association of Urology guidelines state that Serenoa repens extracts significantly reduce nocturia in comparison with placebo. However, the guideline committee is unable to make specific recommendations about phytotherapy of male lower urinary tract symptoms owing to the heterogeneity of the products and the methodological problems associated with meta-analyses. Most of the published trials regarding Serenoa repens phytotherapy demonstrate a significant improvement of urinary status and a favourable safety profile. Also, some authors have credited it with giving a significant improvement in erectile function and decreasing complications following transurethral resection of the prostate, especially bleeding. The results of phytotherapy with Serenoa repens extracts are very promising. More high-quality, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required in order to demonstrate without doubt the true therapeutic value of these products. Particular attention must be focused on

  2. Decreased Network Efficiency in Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Gong-Jun; Yu, Yang; Miao, Huan-Huan; Wang, Zhong-Jin; Tang, Ye-Lei; Liao, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To investigate the functional connectome alterations in benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes with respect to the occurrence of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) during functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was HIPAA compliant. All participants were consecutively enrolled with written informed consent. Forty-three right-handed patients were classified into IED (n = 20, 13 girls and seven boys; mean age ± standard deviation, 9.00 years ± 1.95) and non-IED (n = 23, 11 girls and 12 boys; mean age, 10.22 years ± 2.13) groups on the basis of electroencephalographic data simultaneously recorded during resting-state functional MR imaging at 3.0 T. The functional connectome features (estimated with graph theoretical analysis) in patient groups and control subjects who were matched for sex, age, and education level (n = 28, all right-handed, 13 girls and 15 boys; mean age, 10.00 years ± 2.31) were compared by using one-way analysis of variance. Results Patients with IEDs and those without IEDs showed consistently abnormal global topology in their functional networks (ie, decreased global efficiency; P < .05) relative to that of control subjects, with no differences between the two patient groups (P > .05). Decreased regional efficiency and connectivity strength were observed in the patients with IEDs and those without (mainly in the perirolandic and frontal areas) relative to control subjects (P < .05). Moreover, the altered functional features significantly correlated with clinical characteristics (ie, disease duration and age at symptom onset, P < .05). Conclusion These findings suggest that decreased global and regional efficiency are prominent functional deficits in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes and can be readily identified with resting-state functional MR imaging, irrespective of IEDs. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online

  3. Benign Brenner tumor of the ovary detected on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.B.; McCartney, W.H.

    1984-11-01

    Many disease states, including neoplasia, have been detected by bone scanning. Among the neoplastic processes detected by bone imaging agents are ovarian tumors, both benign and malignant. This report is concerned with the visualization of a benign Brenner tumor during routine Tc-99m MDP bone scanning.

  4. Malignant nerve-sheath neoplasms in neurofibromatosis: distinction from benign tumors by using imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Huntrakoon, M.; Wetzel, L.H.

    1987-11-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve-sheath neoplasms frequently complicate neurofibromatosis causing pain, enlarging masses, or neurologic deficits. However, similar findings sometimes also occur with benign nerve neoplasms. Our study was done retrospectively to determine if imaging techniques can differentiate malignant from benign nerve tumors in neurofibromatosis. Eight patients with symptomatic neoplasms (three benign, five malignant) were studied by CT in eight, MR in six, and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy in seven. Uptake of /sup 67/Ga occurred in all five malignant lesions but not in two benign neoplasms studied. On CT or MR, all eight lesions, including three benign neoplasms, showed inhomogeneities. Of five lesions with irregular, infiltrative margins on CT or MR, four were malignant and one was benign. Of three lesions with smooth margins, one was malignant and two were benign. One malignant neoplasm caused irregular bone destruction. Accordingly, CT and MR could not generally distinguish malignant from benign lesions with certainty. However, both CT and MR provided structural delineation to help surgical planning for both types of lesion. /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy appears promising as a screening technique to identify lesions with malignant degeneration in patients with neurofibromatosis. Any area of abnormal radiogallium uptake suggests malignancy warranting further evaluation by CT or MR. Biopsy of any questionable lesion is essential.

  5. [Higher brain dysfunction in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spike and atypical benign partial epilepsy of childhood].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Junri

    2002-11-01

    Although some recent studies have reported various cognitive impairments and behavioral disorders in children having benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spike (BCECT), it is still commonly believed that BCECT does not cause any definite neuropsychological impairment. In addition, reported impairments range over various cognitive functions, and there is no general agreement on this issue. We performed detailed neuropsychological tests in 17 children with BCECT and analyzed the profiles of their subtests. Atypical benign partial epilepsy of childhood (ABPE) is a type of BCECT in which patients have minor generalized seizures and their EEGs show continuous spike-waves during sleep. We also performed the same tests in five patients with ABPE, and compared the results in the two groups. Neuropsychological tests performed are as follows: Kaufman assessment battery for children (K-ABC), Wechsler intelligence scales for children-revised (WISC-R), Illinois test of psycholinguistic abilities (ITPA), Benton visual retention test (BVRT), Token test, calculation, figure copying task, letter copying task, line bisection task, and line cancellation task. Mental processing composite of the K-ABC and FIQ of the WISC-R were within normal limits in all children with BCECT and ABPE, but were generally lower in ABPE than in BCECT. On the other hand, the profiles of subtests of ITPA in children with BCECT revealed the significant feature of the lower scores on verbal expression (p = 0.013) and auditory sequential memory (p = 0.035). Considering the normal scores in the elementary cognitive functions, such as visual and verbal functions and long-term memory, disturbance in the process of executive functions such as flexibility, fluency, and working memory could cause this characteristic profile. ABPE also showed the similar profile in the subtests of ITPA to that of BCECT. It is likely that both groups of children share the common cognitive dysfunction.

  6. Ectomesenchymoma with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and ganglioneuroma, arising in association with benign triton tumor of the tongue.

    PubMed

    VandenHeuvel, Katherine A; Carpentieri, David F; Chen, Jie; Fung, Kar-Ming; Parham, David M

    2014-01-01

    Soft-tissue tumors known as "triton" tumors are rare lesions containing neural tissue and skeletal muscle at varying levels of maturity and malignant potential. Benign triton tumors, also called "neuromuscular choristomas" or "neuromuscular hamartomas," consist of neural tissue containing mature skeletal muscle in intimate relationship with peripheral nerve. These tumors are rare in the head and neck in children. Ectomesenchymomas are similar tumors consisting of a malignant mesenchymal component, usually embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and a neuroectodermal component represented by mature ganglion cells or primitive neuroblastic/neuroectodermal foci (primitive ectomesenchymoma). Benign triton tumors have been regarded as benign, whereas ectomesenchymomas have been operationally considered to be variants of rhabdomyosarcoma. We present here a unique case that combines features of these 2 entities in a recurrent lesion on the tongue of a 35-month-old girl. This lesion raises questions about the "benign" nature of benign triton tumor and its possible relationship to ectomesenchymoma.

  7. Comparison between children and adolescents with and without chronic benign pain: consultation rate and pain characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    van Eekelen, Francijna C A; Perquin, Christel W; Hunfeld, Joke A M; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether children with chronic benign pain are in contact with their general practitioner (GP) more frequently than those without chronic benign pain. A random sample of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years of age was drawn from the records of ten general practices. According to their responses to a pain questionnaire, subjects were assigned to the chronic benign pain group (n = 95) if they had pain of more than three months' duration, or to the control group (n = 105) if they had pain of less than three months' duration or no pain at all. All the subjects had an average GP consultation rate of 2.6 contacts per year. No significant age and sex differences were found. Chronic benign pain in childhood and adolescence is not related to increased use of healthcare services, suggesting that somatisation does not play a major role in children with chronic benign pain. PMID:12030664

  8. Incidental benign metastasizing leiomyoma in a patient with bone sarcoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Del Real-Romo, Zanndor Jacob; Montero-Cantú, Carlos; Villegas-Cabello, Oscar; Díaz-Elizondo, José Antonio; Reyes-Salas, Danae; Palomo-Hoil, Rene; Peralta-Castillo, Guillermo; Martínez-Sánchez, David; Flores-Villalba, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. The benign metastasizing leiomyoma is an exceptionally rare entity; it presents with ectopic leiomyoma nodules with a benign pattern. Symptoms vary according to the anatomic location. The diagnosis is histopathological, usually in patients with history of hysterectomy. Case Presentation. A 36-year-old female with 2-month history of left knee pain was diagnosed with bone fibrosarcoma. A CT scan showed pulmonary nodules. The patient started neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Conservative surgery of pelvic limb was achieved. A new CT scan reported pulmonary nodules that remained in relation to the previous CT. A nodule resection by thoracotomy and TOB (transoperative biopsy) was performed. The final pathology report described benign proliferative lesions consistent with benign metastatic leiomyoma. Conclusions. Benign metastatic leiomyoma is a rare condition presenting with uterine and extrauterine nodules most commonly in the lung. The diagnosis is histopathological. The surgical procedure must be reserved for selected patients.

  9. FTIR and Raman microspectroscopy of normal, benign, and malignant formalin-fixed ovarian tissues.

    PubMed

    Krishna, C Murali; Sockalingum, G D; Bhat, Rani A; Venteo, L; Kushtagi, Pralhad; Pluot, M; Manfait, M

    2007-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common cancer among women worldwide, and mortality rates from this cancer are higher than for other gynecological cancers. This is attributed to a lack of reliable screening methods and the inadequacy of treatment modalities for the advanced stages of the disease. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic studies of formalin-fixed normal, benign, and malignant ovarian tissues have been undertaken in order to investigate and attempt to understand the underlying biochemical changes associated with the disease, and to explore the feasibility of discriminating between these different tissue types. Raman spectra of normal tissues indicate the dominance of proteins and lower contents of DNA and lipids compared to malignant tissues. Among the pathological tissues studied, spectra from benign tissues seem to contain more proteins and less DNA and lipids compared to malignant tissue spectra. FTIR studies corroborate these findings. FTIR and Raman spectra of both normal and benign tissues showed more similarities than those of malignant tissues. Cluster analysis of first-derivative Raman spectra in the 700-1700 cm(-1) range gave two clear groups, one corresponding to malignant and the other to normal+benign tissues. At a lower heterogeneity level, the normal+benign cluster gave three nonoverlapping subclusters, one corresponding to normal and two for benign tissues. Cluster analysis of second-derivative FTIR spectra in the combined spectral regions of 1540-1680 and 1720-1780 cm(-1) resulted into two clear clusters corresponding to malignant and normal+benign tissues. The cluster corresponding to normal+benign tissues produced nonoverlapping subclusters for normal and benign tissues at a lower heterogeneity level. The findings of this study demonstrate the feasibility of Raman and FTIR microspectroscopic discrimination of formalin-fixed normal, benign, and malignant ovarian tissues.

  10. Detection of helicobacter pylori in benign laryngeal lesions by polymerase chain reaction: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although Helicobacter Pylori (HP) was detected in some cases of chronic laryngitis, the results were not confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By this time, it has not been found in laryngeal lesions by in house PCR, the most sensitive method for detecting the genome tracks. Regarding the previous results and also few numbers of studies about the presence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions, specifically by PCR, we aimed to investigate the presence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions by in-house PCR. Methods The samples were taken from 55 patients with benign laryngeal lesions and frozen in −20°C. One milliliter (ml) of lysis buffer was added to 100 mg (mg) of each sample and the tube was placed in 56°C overnight. Then DNA extraction was carried out. Results To find HP DNA, in-house PCR was performed that revealed 5 positive results among 55 patients with benign laryngeal lesions. Of them, 3 were polyp, 1 was nodule and 1 was papilloma. Conclusion Although the number of positive results was not a lot in this study, it was in contrast with previous studies which could not find any HP tracks in benign laryngeal lesions by other methods. More studies about the prevalence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions improve judging about the effect of this infection on benign laryngeal lesions. PMID:22515206

  11. Androgen receptor roles in the development of benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kouji; Mizokami, Atsushi; Lin, Wen-Jye; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Chang, Chawnshang

    2013-06-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a major cause of lower urinary tract symptoms, with an increased volume of transitional zone and associated with increased stromal cells. It is known that androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a key role in development of BPH, and that blockade of this signaling decreases BPH volume and can relieve lower urinary tract symptoms, but the mechanisms of androgen/AR signaling in BPH development remain unclear, and the effectiveness of current drugs for treating BPH is still limited. The detailed mechanisms of androgen/AR signaling need to be clarified, and new therapies are needed for better treatment of BPH patients. This review focuses on roles of AR in epithelial and stromal cells in BPH development. In epithelial cells, AR may contribute to BPH development via epithelial cell-stromal cell interaction with alterations of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, leading to proliferation of stromal cells. Data from several mouse models with selective knockout of AR in stromal smooth-muscle cells and/or fibroblasts indicate that the AR in stromal cells can also promote BPH development. In prostatic inflammation, AR roles in infiltrating macrophages and epithelial and stromal cells have been linked to BPH development, which has led to discovery of new therapeutic targets. For example, targeting AR with the novel AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9 offers a potential therapeutic approach against BPH development.

  12. A Geriatric Perspective on Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Parham, Kourosh; Kuchel, George A

    2016-02-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of vertigo in older adults. Beyond the unpleasant sensation of vertigo, BPPV also negatively affects older adults' gait and balance and increases their risk of falling. As such it has a profound effect on function, independence, and quality of life. Otoconia are the inner ear structures that help detect horizontal and vertical movements. Aging contributes to the fragmentation of otoconia, whose displacement into the semicircular, most commonly posterior canals, can produce rotatory movement sensations with head movement. BPPV is more commonly idiopathic in older adults than in younger individuals, can present atypically, and has a more-protracted course and higher risk of recurrence. Medications such as meclizine that are commonly prescribed for BPPV can be associated with significant side effects. Dix-Hallpike and Head Roll tests can generally identify the involved canal. Symptoms resolve as otoconia fragments dissolve into the endolymph, but appropriate canalith repositioning (e.g., Epley maneuver) can expedite recovery and reduce the burden of this disorder. Observations suggesting an association between idiopathic BPPV and vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis indicate that BPPV may share risk factors with other common geriatric conditions, which highlights the importance of moving beyond purely otological considerations and addressing the needs of older adults with vertigo through a systems-based multidisciplinary approach.

  13. Classification, diagnostic criteria and management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takao; Takeda, Noriaki; Ikezono, Tetsuo; Shigeno, Kohichiro; Asai, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Yukio; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2017-02-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common peripheral vertigo and the posterior and/or lateral semicircular canals are usually affected. BPPV is characterized by brief attacks of rotatory vertigo associated with positional and/or positioning nystagmus, which are elicited by specific head positions or changes in head position relative to gravity. In patients with the posterior-canal-type of BPPV, torsional nystagmus is induced by the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. In patients with the lateral-canal-type of BPPV, horizontal geotropic or apogeotropic nystagmus is induced by the supine roll test. The pathophysiology of BPPV is canalolithiasis comprising free-floating otoconial debris within the endolymph of a semicircular canal, or cupulolithiasis comprising otoconial debris adherent to the cupula. The observation of positional and/or positioning nystagmus is essential for the diagnosis of BPPV. BPPV is treated with the canalith repositioning procedure (CRP). Through a series of head position changes, the CRP moves otoconial debris from the affected semicircular canal to the utricle. In this review, we provide the classification, diagnostic criteria, and examinations for the diagnosis, and specific and non-specific treatments of BPPV in accordance with the Japanese practical guidelines on BPPV published by the Japan Society for Equilibrium Research.

  14. The Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype Promotes Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Paz; Castro, Patricia; Tsang, Susan; Ittmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by increased tissue mass in the transition zone of the prostate, which leads to obstruction of urine outflow and considerable morbidity in a majority of older men. Senescent cells accumulate in human tissues, including the prostate, with increasing age. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines is increased in these senescent cells, a manifestation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Multiplex analysis revealed that multiple cytokines are increased in BPH, including GM-CSF, IL-1α, and IL-4, and that these are also increased in senescent prostatic epithelial cells in vitro. Tissue levels of these cytokines were correlated with a marker of senescence (cathepsin D), which was also strongly correlated with prostate weight. IHC analysis revealed the multifocal epithelial expression of cathepsin D and coexpression with IL-1α in BPH tissues. In tissue recombination studies in nude mice with immortalized prostatic epithelial cells expressing IL-1α and prostatic stromal cells, both epithelial and stromal cells exhibited increased growth. Expression of IL-1α in prostatic epithelial cells in a transgenic mouse model resulted in increased prostate size and bladder obstruction. In summary, both correlative and functional evidence support the hypothesis that the senescence-associated secretory phenotype can promote the development of BPH, which is the single most common age-related pathology in older men. PMID:24434012

  15. Water-induced thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Cioanta, I; Muschter, R

    2000-12-01

    Water-induced thermotherapy (WIT), administered by the Thermoflex System, represents a novel minimally invasive technique for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The Thermoflex System consists of an extracorporeal heat source and a proprietary closed-loop catheter system. Water, heated to 60 degrees C, is continuously circulated through the catheter to a treatment balloon, which conducts thermal energy to targeted prostatic tissue. The combination of heat and compression reduces the heat sink effect of the circulating blood, thus enhancing the thermal energy transfer to the compressed tissue. WIT treatment is performed using only topical urethral anesthetic, in a single 45-minute session. The 2-year follow-up data from a European multicenter study consisting of 125 patients showed an improvement in peak urine flow of 87.4% (from baseline 8.7 +/- 1.9 to 16.3 +/- 9.1 mL/s) and in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of -54.2% (from baseline 24 +/- 5 to 11 +/- 5). Patient tolerance of WIT was rated as "excellent" or "good" in 91.8% of the procedures. WIT is efficacious, simple, and inexpensive, has few side effects, and does not need special probes to monitor prostate or rectum temperature; thus, it can be used in hospitals, outpatient clinics, and doctors' offices.

  16. A signaling network in phenylephrine-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Yanagihara, Yutaka; Kikugawa, Tadahiko; Ji, Mihee; Tanji, Nozomu; Masayoshi, Yokoyama; Freeman, Michael R

    2009-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease of unknown etiology characterized by prostatic enlargement and coinciding with distinctive alterations in tissue histomorphology. To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of BPH, we conducted a DNA microarray study using a previously described animal model in which chronic alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation by repeated administration of phenylephrine evokes histomorphological changes in the rat prostate that resemble human BPH. Bioinformatic tools were applied to microarray data obtained from prostate tissue to construct a network model of potentially relevant signal transduction pathways. Significant involvement of inflammatory pathways was demonstrable, including evidence for activation of a TGF-beta signaling cascade. The heterodimeric protein clusterin (apolipoprotein J) was also identified as a prominent node in the network. Responsiveness of TGF-beta signaling and clusterin gene and protein expression were confirmed independently of the microarray data, verifying some components of the model. This is the first attempt to develop a comprehensive molecular network for histological BPH induced by adrenergic activation. The study also implicated clusterin as a novel biochemical target for therapy.

  17. Prevalence of unrecognized benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in older patients.

    PubMed

    van der Zaag-Loonen, H J; van Leeuwen, R B; Bruintjes, Tj D; van Munster, B C

    2015-06-01

    Dizziness is a relatively common complaint which occurs more often with increasing age. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is an important cause which can easily be treated but is frequently not recognized by professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of unrecognized BPPV in older patients. Patients ≥70 years of age (n = 989) indicated whether they experienced dizziness, and if so whether the symptoms were typical for BPPV. If affirmed, a diagnostic maneuver was performed. Positive patients were treated at once. All suspected patients completed quality of life questionnaires and were followed for 3 and 6 months. Positive BPPV patients were compared with negative (but suspected) patients. Almost one quarter of the patients (226 patients, 23 %) suffered from dizziness, among whom 101 were suspected of BPPV. Less than half (n = 45) underwent the diagnostic maneuver, of whom 13 (29 %) were positive for BPPV. At follow-up, one patient developed BPPV, leading to a total of 14 positive patients (overall prevalence 1.4 %). BPPV positive patients did not differ from BPPV negative patients. Among a large group of older patients, one quarter experiences dizziness, and 1.4 % has definite BPPV.

  18. Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a dog with benign renal angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Gajanayake, Isuru; Priestnall, Simon L; Benigni, Livia; English, Kate; Summers, Brian A; Garden, Oliver A

    2010-09-01

    An 11-year-old, male, neutered crossbred Collie dog was presented for a history of polydipsia and polyuria. Diagnostic investigations revealed total and ionized hypercalcemia and an increased concentration of parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Abdominal ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a right-sided, cystic-appearing renal mass. Cytological examination of ultrasound-guided aspirates of the mass revealed high numbers of spindle cells. The mass was removed en bloc via an ureteronephrectomy. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed neoplastic spindle cells in loosely packed and interlacing streams within a myxomatous stroma. Immunohistochemical examination with vimentin, von Willebrand Factor, and alpha-smooth muscle actin confirmed the mass to be a renal angiomyxoma. A minority of the neoplastic spindle cells showed positive cytoplasmic parathyroid hormone-related peptide immunostaining. The hypercalcemia resolved following surgery, and the parathyroid hormone-related peptide concentration returned to within the reference interval. The dog was no longer polydipsic or polyuric 1 year following surgery. The present report describes a previously unreported renal neoplasm causing paraneoplastic hypercalcemia and highlights the possibility of paraneoplastic hypercalcemia being caused by a benign neoplasm.

  19. Increased Infiltrated Macrophages in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohai; Lin, Wen-Jye; Izumi, Kouji; Jiang, Qi; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Xu, Defeng; Fang, Lei-Ya; Lu, Tianjing; Li, Lei; Xia, Shujie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2012-01-01

    Infiltrated macrophages may play important roles in the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We found increased macrophages infiltration in human and mouse BPH tissues. By establishing a co-culture transwell system, we found increased migration of macrophages and proliferation of prostate stromal cells during co-culture. Importantly, stromal androgen receptor (AR) could enhance the migration of macrophages and macrophage-mediated stromal cell proliferation. We identified CCL3 as an AR downstream player, and found CCL3 levels were notably increased in human and mouse BPH prostates. Ablation of prostate stromal AR in a mouse BPH model significantly reduced CCL3 expression levels in prostates. Consistently, targeting AR via an AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9§, or neutralization of CCL3 with an antibody, resulted in suppression of macrophage migration and prostate stromal cell growth. Our study provides mechanistic insights on the regulation of prostate stromal cells by macrophages via stromal AR/CCL3 signaling pathways, which could potentially allow the development of therapeutic approaches for battling BPH with persistent inflammation. PMID:22474290

  20. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo secondary to vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Balatsouras, Dimitrios G; Koukoutsis, George; Ganelis, Panayotis; Economou, Nicolas C; Moukos, Antonis; Aspris, Andreas; Katotomichelakis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the demographic, pathogenetic and clinical features of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) secondary to vestibular neuritis (VN). The medical records of 22 patients, who presented with BPPV within 12 weeks after the onset of VN, were reviewed. Data of a complete otolaryngological, audiological, neurotologic and imaging evaluation were available for all patients. Two hundred and eighty-four patients with idiopathic BPPV were used as a control group. The patients with BPPV secondary to VN presented the following features, in which they differed from the patients with idiopathic BPPV: (1) a lower mean age; (2) involvement of the posterior semicircular canal; (3) presence of canal weakness; (4) more therapeutic sessions needed for cure and a higher rate of recurrence. It may be, thus, concluded that BPPV associated with VN differs from idiopathic BPPV in regard to several epidemiological and clinical features, it responds less effectively to treatment and may follow a protracted course, having a tendency for recurrence.

  1. Environmentally-benign conversion of biomass residues to electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Andrew

    As petroleum resources are finite, it is imperative to use them wisely in energy conversion applications and, at the same time, develop alternative energy sources. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources that can be used to partially replace fossil fuels. Biomass-based fuels can be produced domestically and can reduce dependency on fuel imports. Due to their abundant supply, and given that to an appreciable extent they can be considered carbon-neutral, their use for power generation is of technological interest. However, whereas biomasses can be directly burned in furnaces, such a conventional direct combustion technique is ill-controlled and typically produces considerable amounts of health-hazardous airborne compounds [1,2]. Thus, an alternative technology for biomass utilization is described herein to address increasing energy needs in an environmentally-benign manner. More specifically, a multi-step process/device is presented to accept granulated or pelletized biomass, and generate an easily-identifiable form of energy as a final product. To achieve low emissions of products of incomplete combustion, the biomass is gasified pyrolytically, mixed with air, ignited and, finally, burned in nominally premixed low-emission flames. Combustion is thus indirect, since the biomass is not directly burned, instead its gaseous pyrolyzates are burned upon mixing with air. Thereby, combustion is well-controlled and can be complete. A demonstration device has been constructed to convert the internal energy of plastics into "clean" thermal energy and, eventually to electricity.

  2. Successful treatment with cyclosporin administration for persistent benign migratory glossitis.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masatoshi; Sogabe, Yoko; Syuto, Tomoko; Ishibuchi, Hirohisa; Yokoyama, Yoko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2007-05-01

    We herein describe a 54 year-old female patient with a 5-year history of persistent and painful benign migratory glossitis (BMG), which was remarkably improved by systemic administration of cyclosporin. She had noted some white patches leaving smooth denuded red areas with whitish elevated borders on the dorsum of her tongue, and finally felt strong pain. The lesion was refractory to the previous treatment with topical corticosteroid treatment for the last 2 years. Because clinicopathological findings were compatible with BMG, systemic administration of 20 mg/day prednisolone and topical 0.1% dexamethasone application were started, however, she suffered a severe relapse after tapering the dosage of prednisolone to 10 mg/day. Because some investigations have suggested that BMG is an oral manifestation of psoriasis, we introduced cyclosporin administration. The systemic treatment of cyclosporin microemulsion pre-concentrate, 3 mg/kg/day, resulted in a satisfactory improvement. Two months later, we could reduce cyclosporin microemulsion pre-concentrate dosage to 1.5 mg/kg/day for maintenance therapy, and the disease has been well controlled so far.

  3. [Cytogenetic aberrations in histologically benign infiltratively growing sphenoid wing meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Korshunov, A G; Cherekaev, V A; Bekiashev, A Kh; Sycheva, R V

    2007-01-01

    Meningiomas of the sphenoid wing (SW) frequently show an invasive pattern of growth and cause destruction of the adjacent structures. As a result, the rate of recurrent SW meningiomas is as high as 30%. Cytogenetic investigations showed no aberrations specific to invasively growing meningiomas. During this study, the authors evaluated 10 invasive and 5 non-invasive SW meningiomas via comparative genome hybridization (CGH) (matrix CGH), by using the gene chips of GenoSensor Array micromatrixes. The mean number of aberrations in the tumor cells was much greater in case of invasive meningiomas (67.4 versus 40.5 in case of non-invasive SW meningiomas. Furthermore, in invasive SW meningiomas, there were frequently losses in loci 1p, 6q, and 14q and gains in loci 15q and 10, which had been predetermined as molecular markers of stepwise progression of meningioma. Thus, the presence of a complex cytogenetic profile and progression-associated chromosome aberrations in benign SW meningiomas is linked with the increase of their invasive potential. Due to the fact that there are no well-defined adjuvant therapy regimens for recurring meningiomas at present, the revealed genomic aberrations may become potential targets for searching for drugs and a therapeutic intervention in future.

  4. Prostate development and growth in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Timms, Barry G; Hofkamp, Luke E

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia [BPH] in elderly men has intrigued anatomists, pathologists and scientists for centuries. Studies of morbid anatomy, clinical observations and contemporary cellular biology have contributed to an evolving interpretation of the causality of the disease. Insights into the detailed microanatomy and ductal architecture of the prostate during stages of fetal and early postnatal development suggest that mechanisms involved in the early growth period become aberrantly expressed in elderly men. Age, hormones and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are all contributing factors to the pathogenesis of BPH. Control of the microenvironment in normal and abnormal growth is a multifactorial process. Susceptibility to the disease may include clinical comorbid diseases, region-specific changes in cell-cell interactions and a variety of signaling pathways including a novel hypothesis regarding the role of the primary cilium as a regulator of signal transduction mechanisms. Recent work in animal models has shown that there are region-specific differences within the prostate that may be significant because of the dynamic and intricate interplay between the epithelium and mesenchyme. Because of the focal nature of BPH a closer examination of normal morphogenesis patterns, which defines the gland's architecture, may facilitate a detailed understanding of the atypical growth patterns.

  5. Role of laser therapy in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Werner T.; Sharpe, Brent A.; Aronoff, David B.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.

    2001-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in males older than 50 years of age. 75-80% of this population is considered to have some degree of BPH causing clinical symptoms and requiring urological treatment. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) is currently the standard surgical treatment modality for BPH. In an attempt to minimize the need for hospitalization and the associated perioperative and postoperative morbidity, alternatives have been sought. Various types of laser techniques such as interstitial laser coagulation and side-firing technology have been proposed. Numerous studies have shown that laser procedures safely and effectively reduce the volume of the prostate. Intra- and postoperative bleeding are nearly unknown complications for laser procedures, whereas this is the most relevant complication for the TUR-P. Due to significant tissue edema after laser treatment, patients commonly show delayed time to void adequately and, therefore, catheter drainage is often necessary for 3 to 21 days. Retrograde ejaculation is reported to occur less (0- 10%) compared to TUR-P (greater than 60%). Urinary tract infections are very common after interstitial laser coagulation. Although not many long-term clinical data are available, various studies have shown that BPH patients improve in symptom score, flow rate and post-void residual up to 3 years after laser treatment. This paper presents a concise review of efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of the most frequently used laser techniques as well as the long-term clinical data compared to TUR-P.

  6. Role of benign ovarian cysts in the development of adenomyosis

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Sadaf; Ahmad, Sajjad; Khan, Muhammad M.; Nasir, Sabeen; Sharif, Naveed; Ziaullah, Sara; Khalid, Ahmareen; Rauf, Fozia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association of adenomyotic foci with co-existing benign ovarian cysts. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study consisted of 100 consecutive hysterectomy specimens referred to Histopathology Section of Pathology Department, Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan by its attached teaching hospitals from January 2011 to December 2012. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections were examined for adenomyotic foci and the presence of co-existent ovarian cysts. For evaluation of estrogen receptor (ER) status immunohistochemical stains were applied and H-scoring system was used with a score >50 as positive. Results: Out of the 100 hysterectomy specimens, 25 cases had both adenomyosis and ovarian cysts. The ER status of adenomyotic foci was positive in 20% cases and negative in 80% cases. The commonest type of ovarian cyst was hemorrhagic luteal cyst (28%), followed by serous and mucinous cystadenoma (20%) each. Out of the 28% cases of functional cysts, 71.5% were ER positive and 28.5% were ER negative. The p-value for association of ER status of adenomyotic foci with functional cysts was 0.0004; however, p-value was not significant in comparing cases with controls. All 72% cases of nonfunctional cysts were ER negative. However, 44% of functional cysts were not associated with adenomyotic foci. Conclusion: This study concludes that besides functional ovarian cysts, other local factors may be responsible for the development of adenomyosis. PMID:27570851

  7. Suppression of benign prostate hyperplasia by Kaempferia parviflora rhizome

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Kazuya; Hayashi, Hirotaka; Matsumura, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Kaempferia parviflora rhizome is used as a folk medicine in Thailand for the treatment of various symptoms. In the present study, the inhibitory activities of extract from K. parviflora rhizome against 5α-reductase (5αR) were subjected. Furthermore, the effects of the extract from K. parviflorar hizome in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were studied using the model mice. Materials and Methods: Preparations of extracts from the rhizomes of K. parviflora, Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber officinale, and methoxyflavones isolated from K. parviflora was used for 5αR inhibition assay. The effects of K. parviflora extract on growth suppression for the prostates and seminal vesicles were performed based on the Hershberger's method. The K. parviflora extract was administered to castrated mice for 14 days. Results: K. parviflora extract showed more potent inhibitory activity on 5αR than C. zedoaria and Z. officinale extracts. The active principles were identified as 3,5,7,3’,4’-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,7,3’,4’-tetramethoxyflavone by activity guided fractionation. Furthermore, K. parviflora extract suppressed the weights of prostates and seminal vesicles in BPH model rats by daily administration for 14 days. Conclusion: These results indicate that K. parviflora extract can be a promising agent for the treatment of BPH. PMID:24174827

  8. Recent advancement of therapeutic endoscopy in the esophageal benign diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bechara, Robert; Inoue, Haruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the field of endoscopy has witnessed several advances. With the advent of endoscopic mucosal resection, removal of large mucosal lesions have become possible. Thereafter, endoscopic submucosal resection was refined, permitting en bloc removal of large superficial neoplasms. Such techniques have facilitated the development of antireflux mucosectomy, a promising novel treatment for gastroesophageal reflux. The introduction and use of over the scope clips has allowed for endoscopic closure of defects in the gastrointestinal tract, which were traditionally treated with surgical intervention. With the development of per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), the treatment of achalasia and spastic disorders of the esophagus have been revolutionized. From the submucosal tunnelling technique developed for POEM, Per oral endoscopic tumor resection of subepithelial tumors was made possible. Simultaneously, advances in biotechnology have expanded esophageal stenting capabilities with the introduction of fully covered metal and plastic stents, as well as biodegradable stents. Once deemed a primarily diagnostic tool, endoscopy has quickly transcended to a minimally invasive intervention and therapeutic tool. These techniques are reviewed with regards to their application to benign disease of the esophagus. PMID:25992187

  9. The role of radioiodine therapy in benign nodular goitre.

    PubMed

    Bonnema, Steen Joop; Fast, Søren; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-08-01

    For treatment of benign nodular goitre the choice usually stands between surgery and (131)I therapy. (131)I therapy, used for 30 years for this condition, leads to a goitre volume reduction of 35-50% within 1-2 years. However, this treatment has limited efficacy if the thyroid (131)I uptake is low or if the goitre is large. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)-stimulated (131)I therapy significantly improves goitre reduction, as compared with conventional (131)I therapy without pre-stimulation, and adverse effects are few with rhTSH doses of 0.1 mg or lower. RhTSH-stimulated (131)I therapy reduces the need for additional therapy due to insufficient goitre reduction, but the price is a higher rate of hypothyroidism. Another approach with rhTSH-stimulation is to reduce the administered (131)I activity by a factor that equals the increase in the thyroid (131)I uptake. Using this approach, radiation exposure is considerably reduced while the goitre reduction is similar to that obtained with conventional (131)I therapy.

  10. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting. PMID:24930640

  11. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo Part I: Background and clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    van der Velde, Gabrielle M

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To review recent theories regarding the aetiology and pathophysiology of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), including its epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis. Data sources: Relevant studies were identified by searching MEDLINE from 1966 - March, 1997. Study selection: A total of 35 studies were selected on the basis of their relevance to Part I of this review. Data extraction: The findings and results of relevant studies and their subsequent theories and conclusions are discussed and compiled into a general overview of BPPV. Results of data synthesis: BPPV is considered the most common cause of vertigo of peripheral origin. A potential causal association has been observed with numerous apparent aetiological factors, all of which may lead to peripheral vestibular trauma. Findings of densities within the posterior semi-circular canal have given rise to the most recent theories regarding the pathophysiology for BPPV, canalithiasis and cupulolithiasis. Conclusions: BPPV is a multiaetiological peripheral vestibular disease whose underlying cause remains an enigma. The existing evidence supports two recent pathophysiological theories, cupulolithiasis and canalithiasis. Two conditions of special concern to the chiropractor, vertebrobasilar insufficiency and cervicogenic vertigo, closely ressemble BPPV, and can be differentiated by certain identifying features. BPPV may be diagnosed clinically, after ruling out conditions in which vertigo is a central feature. A review of the treatment for BPPV, focusing on recent physical treatments will be discussed in Part II of this paper.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Bao; Dai, Wei-Gang; Liu, Da-Wei; Shi, Han-Ping; Dong, Wen-Guang

    2013-10-21

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM) is a rare cystic mesothelial lesion that occurs predominantly in reproductive aged women. A 56-year-old Caucasian male was admitted to our surgical department with a chief complaint of a painful mass in his right lower abdomen for almost 2 years. The physical examination revealed a palpable painful mass. Computed tomography demonstrated an irregular, cystic tumor in his right lower abdomen. There was no obvious capsule or internal septations. No enhancement after intravenous administration of contrast was noted. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a multicystic tumor and adherent to the caecum was noted. The walls of the cysts were thin and smooth, filled with clear fluid, and very friable. An en bloc resection of the tumor, including appendix and caecum, was performed. Histological examination revealed multiple cysts lined with flattened simple epithelial cells, and the capsule walls of the cysts were composed of fibrous tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis documented positive expression of mesothelial cells and calretinin. The final diagnosis was BMPM. The patient was well at 6-mo follow-up. BMPM is exceedingly rare lesion. A complete resection of the tumor is required. The diagnosis of BMPM is based on pathological analysis.

  13. Fractionated Proton Radiotherapy for Benign Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Jerry D.; Loredo, Lilia N.; Chung, Arthur; Bush, David A.; Patyal, Baldev; Johnson, Walter D.; Hsu, Frank P.K.; Slater, James M.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of fractionated proton radiotherapy for a population of patients with benign cavernous sinus meningiomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2002, 72 patients were treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center with proton therapy for cavernous sinus meningiomas. Fifty-one patients had biopsy or subtotal resection; 47 had World Health Organization grade 1 pathology. Twenty-one patients had no histologic verification. Twenty-two patients received primary proton therapy; 30 had 1 previous surgery; 20 had more than 1 surgery. The mean gross tumor volume was 27.6 cm{sup 3}; mean clinical target volume was 52.9 cm{sup 3}. Median total doses for patients with and without histologic verification were 59 and 57 Gy, respectively. Mean and median follow-up periods were 74 months. Results: The overall 5-year actuarial control rate was 96%; the control rate was 99% in patients with grade 1 or absent histologic findings and 50% for those with atypical histology. All 21 patients who did not have histologic verification and 46 of 47 patients with histologic confirmation of grade 1 tumor demonstrated disease control at 5 years. Control rates for patients without previous surgery, 1 surgery, and 2 or more surgeries were 95%, 96%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusions: Fractionated proton radiotherapy for grade 1 cavernous sinus meningiomas achieves excellent control rates with minimal toxicities, regardless of surgical intervention or use of histologic diagnosis. Disease control for large lesions can be achieved by primary fractionated proton therapy.

  14. Potentially prothrombotic abnormalities of coagulation in benign intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, J; Leach, M; Greaves, M; Malia, R; Davies-Jones, G A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) may be caused by intracranial venous sinus thrombosis. Cerebral angiograms may, however, be normal in patients with BIH that are associated with conditions with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. This raises the possibility that unrecognised non-occlusive venous thrombus might impede CSF drainage. This study therefore examined the strength of the association between risk factors for thrombosis and BIH. METHODS: The incidence of prothrombotic abnormalities among a mixed prospectively and retrospectively investigated cohort of 38 patients with BIH, was compared with healthy obese subjects, and patients with other neurological diseases. Prothrombotic abnormalities investigated included anticardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, antithrombin III, proteins C and S, plasma fibrinogen, kaolin cephalin clotting time, prothrombin time, and full blood counts. RESULTS: Evidence for the presence of an antiphospholipid antibody was found in 32% of cases. Cases of familial deficiency of antithrombin III, thrombocytosis, and polycythaemia were also noted. Additionally, an increased concentration of plasma fibrinogen was found in 26%. A coagulation abnormality was more often detectable in those subjects with normal or low body mass index and in those tested within six months of onset. CONCLUSION: There is a thrombotic pathogenesis in some cases of BIH. Images PMID:9069476

  15. Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn(2+) doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting.

  16. Metal-Support Cooperative Catalysts for Environmentally Benign Molecular Transformations.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Kiyotomi; Mitsudome, Takato

    2017-01-01

    Metal-support cooperative catalysts have been developed for sustainable and environmentally benign molecular transformations. The active metal centers and supports in these catalysts could cooperatively activate substrates, resulting in high catalytic performance for liquid-phase reactions under mild conditions. These catalysts involved hydrotalcite-supported gold and silver nanoparticles with high catalytic activity for organic reactions such as aerobic oxidation, oxidative carbonylation, and chemoselective reduction of epoxides to alkenes and nitrostyrenes to aminostyrenes using alcohols and CO/H2 O as reducing reagents. This high catalytic performance was due to cooperative catalysis between the metal nanoparticles and basic sites of the hydrotalcite support. To increase the metal-support cooperative effect, core-shell nanostructured catalysts consisting of gold or silver nanoparticles in the core and ceria supports in the shell were designed. These core-shell nanocomposite catalysts were effective for the chemoselective hydrogenation of nitrostyrenes to aminostyrenes, unsaturated aldehydes to allyl alcohols, and alkynes to alkenes using H2 as a clean reductant. In addition, these solid catalysts could be recovered easily from the reaction mixture by simple filtration, and were reusable with high catalytic activity.

  17. Urological disorders in men: urinary incontinence and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan W; Miller, Mindi S

    2011-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are 2 common urogenital problems in men. UI is associated with involuntary leakage of urine and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) of urgency, frequency, and nocturia. Types of UI include functional, urge, stress, and overflow. Treatment for UI is based on the type of incontinence, patient-specific factors, and treatment preferences of both patients and health care providers. Options for the management of UI include environmental modifications, disposable incontinence products, pelvic floor exercises, pharmacotherapy, surgically implanted devices, and intermittent catheterization. BPH may be also associated with LUTS. Patient symptoms, assessed with a measurement tool such as the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI), serve as the basis for determining treatment. Management approaches for BPH include pharmacotherapy, surgery, and minimally invasive procedures. Anticholinergic drugs as well as α-receptor antagonists and 5-α reductase inhibitors, either alone or in combination, are effective and useful for LUTS unresponsive to traditional pharmacotherapy. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) can eliminate symptoms of BPH but is associated with relatively more complications than other available surgical and minimally invasive procedures.

  18. Serum prolidase activity in benign joint hypermobility syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Moderate joint laxity is widespread in many joints of the body, and this condition is considered to be caused by an abnormality in the collagen structure. This study was carried out to determine the serum prolidase activity in female patients with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS), and to evaluate its correlation with their clinical features. Methods A total of 45 patients with BJHS and 40 healthy controls were included in the study. All of the patients with BJHS met the Beighton diagnostic criteria. All the patients and the control group underwent a comprehensive examination of the locomotor system and took the New York Posture Rating Test. The examination and test results were recorded. Serum prolidase activity was measured in both the groups. Results Prolidase activity was significantly lower in patients with BJHS (479.52 ± 126.50) compared to the healthy controls (555.97 ± 128.77) (p = 0.007). We found no correlation between serum prolidase activity and Beighton scores or New York rating test scores. On the other hand, mean prolidase activity was significantly lower in patients with pes planus or hyperlordosis compared to those without (p = 0.05, p = 0.03, respectively). We did not find such a correlation with the other clinical features. Conclusions Significantly lower prolidase activity in patients with BJHS suggests that prolidase may affect the collagen metabolism and cause hyperlaxity. PMID:24612543

  19. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: An overview of existing treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Neelima; Bhagwat, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common condition in aging men, associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A better understanding of the prostate physiology, function, and pathogenesis has led to the development of promising agents, useful in the management of LUTS in men. The specific approach used to treat BPH depends upon number of factors like age, prostrate size, weight, prostate-specific antigen level, and severity of the symptoms. 5α-reductase inhibitors decrease the production of dihydrotestosterone within the prostate, which results in decreased prostate volume, increased peak urinary flow rate, improvement of symptoms, decreased risk of acute urinary retention, and need for surgical intervention. α1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) antagonists decrease LUTS and increase urinary flow rates in men with symptomatic BPH, but do not reduce the long-term risk of urinary retention or need for surgical intervention. Clinical efficacy of either 5α-reductase inhibitor or α1-AR antagonist has been further improved by using combination therapy; however, long-term outcomes are still awaited. Many more potential new therapies are under development that may improve the treatment of BPH. This article gives a brief account of rationale and efficacy of different treatment options presently available in the management of BPH. PMID:21455413

  20. Diagnosis and management of benign prostatic hyperplasia in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Tanguay, Simon; Awde, Murray; Brock, Gerald; Casey, Richard; Kozak, Joseph; Lee, Jay; Nickel, J. Curtis; Saad, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and its clinical manifestation as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), is a major health concern for aging men. There have been significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in recent years. There has been a renewed interest in medical therapies and less invasive surgical techniques. As a consequence, the treatment needs of men with mild to moderate LUTS without evidence of prostate cancer can now be accomplished in a primary care setting. There are differences in the way urologists and primary care physicians approach the evaluation and management of LUTS due to BPH, which is not reflected in Canadian Urological Association (CUA) and American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines. A “shared care” approach involving urologists and primary care physicians represents a reasonable and viable model for the care of men suffering from LUTS. The essence of the model centres around educating and communicating effectively with the patient on BPH. This article provides primary care physicians with an overview of the diagnostic and management strategies outlined in recent CUA and AUA guidelines so that they may be better positioned to effectively deal with this patient population. It is now apparent that we must move away from the urologist as the first-line physician, and allow primary care physicians to accept a new role in the diagnosis and management of BPH. PMID:19543429

  1. [Drugs for the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Caprino, L

    2000-06-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) usually occurs in males 45-50 old and progressively involves 75% of the male population over 75 years of age. The clinical manifestations of BPH are related primarily to bladder outlet obstructions resulting from enlargement (mechanical component) of the prostate gland, and from extrinsic and intrinsic sympathetic activation of alpha-adrenoceptors (dynamic component) present in the prostatic muscle tissue, prostatic urethra, bladder base and neck. Several drugs have been employed in the last decades: LHRH analogs (Leuprorelin and Goserelin) which can reduce the testicular production of androgens with reduction in prostate size; Serenoa repens for its anti-androgenic and anti-estrogenic activities; Finasteride (5-alpha-reductase inhibitor) which blocks the conversion of testosterone into the more active dihydrotestosterone. Finally, the alpha 1 blocking agents (Terazosin, Doxazosin, Tamsulosin) that improve urinary symptoms by acting on dynamic component. Clinical improvements derive from their antagonist action on alpha 1 adrenergic receptors which mediate contraction of the prostate gland, proximal urethra, bladder base and neck, with the consequent reduction of urethral pressure, bladder outlet resistance, and increase of urinary flow. Due to its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, as well as the clinical results obtained, Terazosin, alpha 1 blocker, appears to be particularly useful in the treatment of patients with mild- to moderate symptomatic BPH.

  2. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and bladder outlet obstruction may affect up to 30% of men in their early 70s. Symptoms can improve without treatment, but the usual course is a slow progression of symptoms, with acute urinary retention occurring in 1% to 2% of men with BPH per year. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical, herbal, and surgical treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 63 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, alpha-blockers, beta-sitosterol plant extract, Pygeum africanum, rye grass pollen extract, saw palmetto plant extracts, transurethral electrovaporisation, transurethral Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate, transurethral microwave thermotherapy, transurethral needle ablation, and transurethral resection (including transurethral resection versus transurethral incision, and transurethral resection versus visual laser ablation/laser vaporisation). PMID:21871136

  3. Ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy for benign non-thyroid cystic mass in the neck

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Surgical excision has traditionally been the treatment of choice for benign non-thyroid cystic neck masses, including lymphatic malformation, ranula, branchial cleft cyst, thyroglossal duct cyst, and parathyroid cyst. However, there is a tendency toward recurrence after surgery, and surgery may be accompanied by complications, including nerve injuries, vascular injuries, and scar formation. Ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy using various agents has been challenged and successfully applied as an alternative treatment for benign non-thyroid cystic neck masses. This report reviews the available sclerosing agents and describes the applications of sclerotherapy to the treatment of benign cystic masses in the neck. PMID:24936500

  4. A New Variant of Posterior Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Nonampullary or Common Crus Canalolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Yetiser, Sertac

    2015-01-01

    Clockwise or counterclockwise, rotational, upbeating nystagmus is seen in patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo during left or right head-hanging test, respectively. Rotating of nystagmus in opposite direction to the ear tested or even reversal of initial positioning rotational nystagmus is not usual and has never been reported before. We propose a new variant of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo due to unusual behavior and location of the otoliths inside the membranous labyrinth. Unexpected rotational direction may lead to confusion about the site. The examiner should be aware of this abnormal or atypical variant of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. PMID:26114003

  5. Irreversible Horner’s syndrome diagnosed by aproclonidine test due to benign thyroid nodule

    PubMed Central

    M, Coskun; A, Aydogan; C, Gokce; O, Ilhan; OV, Ozkan; H, Gokce; H, Oksuz

    2013-01-01

    We are reporting an irreversible Horner Syndrome (HS) in a patient with benign thyroid gland nodule in which thyroidectomy was performed for treatment. A 37-year-old female was admitted to our clinic with a swelling in the left lobe of the thyroid gland and ptosis at the left eyelid. The clinical diagnosis of HS was confirmed pharmacologically by aproclonidine. Histopathologic examination of thyroidectomy specimen was reported as benign nodule. To the best of our knowledge, this is a very rare report in terms of thyroid benign nodule associated with irreversible HS due to cervical sympathetic chain compression. PMID:24353546

  6. Benign monomelic amyotrophy of the lower extremity: report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Dimachkie, M M; Justiz, W; Vriesendorp, F J

    2000-06-01

    Benign monomelic amyotrophy is an uncommon cause of progressive mildly disabling atrophy and weakness of a limb. It predominantly affects the distal upper limb of young men. We present two women with benign monomelic of amyotrophy of the lower extremity. Although thedisorder seemed clinically confined to a leg, we confirmed by electromyography chronic denervgation of the contralaterral extremity of both patients and in the arm of one patient.We review the literature and discuss the differential diagnosis. Benign monomelic amyotrophy is a diagnosis of exclusion that requires consideration in young women with unilateral leg atrophy.

  7. Metastasizing "benign" pleomorphic salivary adenoma: a dramatic case-report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Achille; Foschini, Maria Pia; Farneti, Paolo; Pasquini, Ernesto; Marchetti, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    Pleomorphic salivary adenomas are the most common benign neoplasms affecting the salivary glands. Very occasionally however, metastatic lesions are identified in patients with a history of PSA, which, on detailed pathological evaluation, are found to exhibit all the histological hallmarks of the preceding benign lesions. Diagnosis of benign metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland is extremely rare and still under debate. We present the first case-report in literature of multiple metachronous nasal cavity, scalp and encephalic metastases of a pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland in a young girl.

  8. A thorough assessment of benign genetic variability in GRN and MAPT.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Rita J; Washecka, Nicole; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Mutations in APP, PSEN1, MAPTand GRNare the most common genetic causes of dementia. The previous miss-assignment of pathogenicity to benign variants in these genes stresses the importance of discerning between disease causing mutations and benign variants with no pathogenic effect on the function of the respective protein. In this study we sequenced GRNand MAPTin 282 samples from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain - Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, in order to identify benign variants that could otherwise be mistaken for pathogenic mutations. We found sixteen different non-synonymous changes, eleven of which are novel variants.

  9. Robotic lung segmentectomy for malignant and benign lesions

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Alper; Ayalp, Kemal; Uyumaz, Elena; Kaba, Erkan; Demirhan, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Surgical use of robots has evolved over the last 10 years. However, the academic experience with robotic lung segmentectomy remains limited. We aimed to analyze our lung segmentectomy experience with robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Prospectively recorded clinical data of 21 patients who underwent robotic lung anatomic segmentectomy with robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were done using the da Vinci System. A three incision portal technique with a 3 cm utility incision in the posterior 10th to 11th intercostal space was performed. Individual dissection, ligation and division of the hilar structures were performed. Systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling was performed in 15 patients either with primary or secondary metastatic cancers. Results Fifteen patients (75%) were operated on for malignant lung diseases. Conversion to open surgery was not necessary. Postoperative complications occurred in four patients. Mean console robotic operating time was 84±26 (range, 40-150) minutes. Mean duration of chest tube drainage and mean postoperative hospital stay were 3±2.1 (range, 1-10) and 4±1.4 (range, 2-7) days respectively. The mean number of mediastinal stations and number of dissected lymph nodes were 4.2 and 14.3 (range, 2-21) from mediastinal and 8.1 (range, 2-19) nodes from hilar and interlobar stations respectively. Conclusions Robot-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomy for malignant and benign lesions appears to be practical, safe, and associated with few complications and short postoperative hospitalization. Lymph node removal also appears oncologically acceptable for early lung cancer patients. Benefits in terms of postoperative pain, respiratory function, and quality of life needs a comparative, prospective series particularly with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. PMID:25093090

  10. The Functional Role of Reactive Stroma in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Isaiah G.; Rowley, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The human prostate gland is one of the only internal organs that continue to enlarge throughout adulthood. The specific mechanisms that regulate this growth, as well as the pathological changes leading to the phenotype observed in the disease benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are essentially unknown. Recent studies and their associated findings have made clear that many complex alterations occur, involving persistent and chronic inflammation, circulating hormonal level deregulation, and aberrant wound repair processes. BPH has been etiologically characterized as a progressive, albeit discontinuous, hyperplasia of both the glandular epithelial and stromal cell compartments coordinately yielding an expansion of the prostate gland and clinical symptoms. Interestingly, the inflammatory and repair responses observed in BPH are also key components of general wound repair in post-natal tissues. These responses include altered expression of chemokines, cytokines, matrix remodeling factors, chronic inflammatory processes, altered immune surveillance and recognition, as well as the formation of a prototypical ‘reactive’ stroma which is similar to that observed across various fibroplasias and malignancies of a variety of tissue sites. Stromal tissue, both embryonic mesenchyme, and adult reactive stroma myofibroblasts, has been shown to exert potent and functional regulatory control over epithelial proliferation and differentiation as well as immunoresponsive modulation. Thus, the functional biology of a reactive stroma, within the context of an adult disease typified by epithelial and stromal aberrant hyperplasia, is critical to understand within the context of prostate disease and beyond. The mechanisms that regulate reactive stroma biology in BPH represent targets of opportunity for new therapeutic approaches that may extend to other tissue contexts. Accordingly, this review seeks to address the dissection of important factors, signaling pathways, genes, and other

  11. Immunohistochemistry of lymphocytes in benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Li, S-X; Li, Q; Yang, Y-Q; Jin, L-J; Sun, Z; Yu, S-F

    2015-06-29

    Benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa (BLOM) is a common oral mucosa disease and may be regarded as a precancerous lesion. However, the association between its biological behavior and lymphocyte distribution remains unclear. Therefore, to investigate the characteristics of BLOM, we studied the infiltration of lymphocytes associated with it. The expression levels of CD74, CD20, CD3, and CD45RO were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining in 14 sam-ples from BLOM, 9 samples from BLOM with atypia hyperplasia, 11 samples from BLOM with canceration, and 10 samples from normal oral mucosa tissues. The results were analyzed by two-sample t-test using SPSS 10.0 for Windows, and P < 0.05 was considered to be sig-nificant. In normal oral mucosa, positive expression levels of CD3 and CD45RO were presented in the extra-lymphoid follicle, and the expres-sion levels of CD74 and CD20 were negative. In all BLOM groups, the expression level of CD20 was positive except for one case of BLOM with canceration; the expression levels of CD74 were all positive. Posi-tive expression levels of CD3 and CD45RO could be found not only in extra-lymphoid follicles but also in inner-lymphoid follicles in the BLOM groups. The expression levels of CD74 and CD20 in extra-lym-phoid follicles, and CD3 and CD45RO in inner-lymphoid follicles in BLOM were significantly higher than in BLOM with canceration. The infiltrated lymphocytes in BLOM comprise T- and B-cells. This indi-cates that the lymphoid tissue in BLOM is mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and BLOM is a proliferative lesion.

  12. Laser Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Dosimetric and Thermodynamic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, Bahman

    1993-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most commonly occurring neoplastic disease in the aging human male. Currently, surgical treatment of BPH is the primary therapeutic method. However, due to surgical complications, less invasive methods of treatment are desirable. In recent years, thermal coagulation of the hyperplastic prostate by a laser has received a considerable amount of attention. Nevertheless, the optimum laser irradiation parameters that lead to a successful and safe treatment of BPH have not been determined. This dissertation studies the physics of laser coagulation of prostate from both basic science and practical perspectives. Optical properties of prostatic tissue are determined over a spectrum of wavelengths. Knowledge of these properties allows for selection of appropriate laser wavelengths and provides a basis for performing dose equivalency studies among various types of lasers. Furthermore, knowledge of optical properties are needed for development of computer simulation models that predict the extent of thermal injury during laser irradiation of prostate. A computer model of transurethral heating of prostate that can be used to guide the clinical studies in determining an optimum dosimetry is then presented. Studies of the effects of non-laser heating devices, optical properties, blood perfusion, surface irrigation, and beam geometry are performed to examine the extent of heat propagation within the prostate. An in vitro model for transurethral laser irradiation of prostate is also presented to examine the effects of an 810 nm diode laser, thermal boundary conditions, and energy deposition rate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Results of these studies suggest that in the presence of laminar irrigation, the convective boundary condition is dominated by thermal diffusion as opposed to the bulk motion of the irrigation fluid. Distinct phases of thermal events are also identified during the laser irradiation. The in vivo studies of

  13. Tamsulosin versus terazosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dong, ZhiLong; Wang, ZhiPing; Yang, KeHu; Liu, YaLi; Gao, WenHui; Chen, WenYuan

    2009-08-01

    The effectiveness and safety of tamsulosin and terazosin for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was evaluated by literature review. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese biomedicine literature database (CBM), reference lists of reports, and reviews were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), or quasi-RCTs of tamsulosin versus terazosin in BPH. Twelve studies involving 2,816 men were included. Outcomes included international prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL), maximum urinary flow rate (Q(max)), average urinary flow rate (Q(ave)), residual volume, prostate volume, and adverse effect (dizziness, severe hypotension, dry mouth). Relative risk was calculated for dichotomous data. Sensitivity analyses assessed the influence of baseline symptom severity. We found that tamsulosin is better than terazosin when assessed by IPSS (weighted mean difference (WMD)=-1.24 95% CI [- 1.98, -0.51], there was no significant difference between the two groups in QOL (WMD=0.04 95% CI [-0.16, 0.24]), Qmax (WMD=-0.38 95% CI [-1.18, 0.41]), Q(ave) (WMD=-0.39 95% CI [- 0.84, 0.06]), residual volume (WMD=-4.32 95% CI [-10.96, 2.33]), and prostate volume (WMD=-0.28 95% CI [- 3.37, 2.81]). Fewer patients receiving tamsulosin experienced dizziness (relative risk (RR) -0.38 95% CI [0.30, 0.48]), severe hypotension (RR=0.16 95% CI [0.04, 0.68]), and dry mouth (RR=0.14 95% CI [0.03, 0.77]), compared with patients receiving terazosin. Many of the high quality RCTs showed beneficial effects of tamsulosin in terms of improving IPSS. However, whether tamsulosin proves more efficacious than terazosin in long term therapy requires confirmation by additional large sample, high quality trials.

  14. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B.

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  15. Making Stargates: The Physics of Traversable Absurdly Benign Wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, J. F.

    Extremely short throat "absurdly benign" wormholes enabling near instantaneous travel to arbitrarily remote locations in both space and time - stargates - have long been a staple of science fiction. The physical requirements for the production of such devices were worked out by Morris and Thorne in 1988. They approached the issue of rapid spacetime transport by asking the question: what constraints do the laws of physics as we know them place on an "arbitrarily advanced culture" (AAC)? Their answer - a Jupiter mass of negative restmass matter in a structure a few tens of meters in size - seems to have rendered such things beyond the realm of the believably achievable. This might be taken as justification for abandoning further serious exploration of the physics of stargates. If such an investigation is pursued, however, one way to do so is to invert Morris and Thorne's question and ask: if "arbitrarily advanced aliens" (AAAs) have actually made stargates, what must be true of the laws of physics for them to have done so? Elementary arithmetic reveals that stargates would have an "exotic" density of on the order of 1022 gm/cm3, that is, orders of magnitude higher than nuclear density. Not only does one have to achieve this stupendous density of negative mass matter, it must be done, presumably, only with the application of "low" energy electromagnetic fields. We examine this problem, finding that a plausible solution does not depend on the laws of quantum gravity, as some have proposed. Rather, the solution depends on understanding the nature of electrons in terms of a semi-classical extension of the exact, general relativistic electron model of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner (ADM), and Mach's Principle.

  16. Immunocytochemical study of transforming growth factor expression in benign and malignant gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, V.; Barrett, J. M.; Bockman, S.; Pantazis, C. G.; Allen, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    Immunocytochemical studies using polyclonal antibodies to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha and beta were performed on 20 cases of human gliomas. EGF immunoreactive material was detected in both benign and malignant glial tumors. In addition, EGF immunoreactive material was detected in normal brain. TGF-beta was detected in both benign and malignant tumors, but was not detected in normal brain. In contrast, TGF-alpha was highly conserved in its expression, occurring predominantly in malignant compared with benign or normal brain tissue (P less than 0.0001). In malignant gliomas, glioblastomas contained 76% TGF-alpha reactivity (immunoreactive product), and anaplastic types contained 85% reactivity. Benign gliomas contained only 13% TGF-alpha reactivity. These findings support the role of TGF-alpha as an oncoprotein marker in brain neoplasms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2705509

  17. The Clinical Implications of Todd Paralysis in Children With Benign Rolandic Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Alper I; Demiryürek, Seniz

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings of postictal Todd paralysis in benign rolandic epilepsy of childhood and find out the possible correlation with migraine. Based on International Headache Society pediatric migraine criteria, patients were investigated for migraine, and 12 of the 108 patients with benign rolandic epilepsy (6 girls and 6 boys, 11.1%) were found to have postictal Todd paralysis. Ten of these 12 patients (83.3%) had pediatric migraine based on the diagnostic criteria. We showed comorbidity of migraine and benign rolandic epilepsy with postictal Todd paralysis in children. Increased incidence of migraine in the present study suggest that children who have benign rolandic epilepsy and postictal Todd paralysis are more likely to have migraines.

  18. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED GREENER SYNTHESIS OF PHARMACEUTICALLY ACTIVE HETEROCYCLES UNDER BENIGN CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry is a rapidly developing new field that provides us a proactive avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. Environmentally benign protocols have been developed for the synthesis of various pharmaceutically active heterocycles namely ...

  19. Solvent-free and catalyst-free chemistry: A benign pathway to sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, alternative benign organic methodologies have become an imperative part of organic syntheses and novel chemical reactions. The various new and innovative sustainable organic reactions and methodologies using no solvents or catalysts and employing alternative ...

  20. Benign Spine Lesions: Advances in Techniques for Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tomasian, A; Wallace, A N; Jennings, J W

    2017-02-09

    Minimally invasive percutaneous imaging-guided techniques have been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of benign tumors of the spine. Techniques available include a variety of tumor ablation technologies, including radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation, alcohol ablation, and laser photocoagulation. Vertebral augmentation may be performed after ablation as part of the same procedure for fracture stabilization or prevention. Typically, the treatment goal in benign spine lesions is definitive cure. Painful benign spine lesions commonly encountered in daily practice include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, vertebral hemangioma, aneurysmal bone cyst, Paget disease, and subacute/chronic Schmorl node. This review discusses the most recent advancement and use of minimally invasive percutaneous therapeutic options for the management of benign spine lesions.

  1. Dispositional envy revisited: unraveling the motivational dynamics of benign and malicious envy.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jens; Crusius, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has conceptualized dispositional envy as a unitary construct. Recently however, episodic envy has been shown to emerge in two qualitatively different forms. Benign envy is related to the motivation to move upward, whereas malicious envy is related to pulling superior others down. In four studies (N = 1,094)--using the newly developed Benign and Malicious Envy Scale (BeMaS)--we show that dispositional envy is also characterized by two independent dimensions related to distinct motivational dynamics and behavioral consequences. Dispositional benign and malicious envy uniquely predict envious responding following upward social comparisons. Furthermore, they are differentially connected to hope for success and fear of failure. Corresponding to these links, dispositional benign envy predicted faster race performance of marathon runners mediated via higher goal setting. In contrast, dispositional malicious envy predicted race goal disengagement. The findings highlight that disentangling the two sides of envy opens up numerous research avenues.

  2. Benign pneumoperitoneum after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding tube placement: do not be afraid!

    PubMed

    Zippi, M; Pica, R; Marzano, C; Cassieri, C; Avallone, E V; Traversa, G

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure enteral feeding, placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is considered a standard care for patients with oropharyngeal malignancies. Benign pneumoperitoneum is a complication of PEG feeding tube placement and it is usually an incidental finding that arises, generally, immediately following the procedure. We report a case of a benign pneumoperitoneum, developed 48 hours after the procedure, which was treated conservatively.

  3. Expression of steroid hormone receptors in benign hepatic tumors. An immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Masood, S; West, A B; Barwick, K W

    1992-12-01

    Many hepatic adenomas have been demonstrated to have a clear relationship with oral contraceptive use, and it is presumed that there may be hormone receptors within the cytoplasm or nucleus of adenoma cells that mediate tumor growth in response to hormonal stimulation. Only a small number of examples of benign hepatic tumors have been analyzed for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors, and there has been a lack of consensus with regard to the findings. All previous studies have determined receptor levels by biochemical methods. In a retrospective study, we employed specific monoclonal antibodies against estrogen and progesterone receptors in 10 benign paraffin-embedded hepatic lesions: five examples of hepatic adenoma and five examples of focal nodular hyperplasia. All patients were female, except for one male with adenoma and one male with focal nodular hyperplasia. No patient had received tamoxifen citrate or any other form of hormonal therapy for their hepatic lesion. Positive controls included benign and malignant breast tissue. No positive staining was seen in hepatic adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, or normal adjacent liver parenchyma. Intense positive staining was seen in all positive control tissues. This negative result with the use of specific monoclonal antibodies in an established immunohistochemical method for analysis of estrogen and progesterone receptors does not exclude the presence of these receptors in benign hepatic lesions, but does suggest that, if present, they occur in much smaller amounts than in benign and malignant breast tissue. The presence of hormone receptors in benign hepatic tumors deserves further study.

  4. Multidetector computed tomography analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Caisong; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jun; Yang, Jing; Shao, Kangwei; Yuan, Lixin; Chen, Hairong; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). MDCT findings, including the size, solid percentage, calcification, margin, capsule, anteroposterior-transverse diameter ratio as well as the mode and the degree of enhancement of 137 thyroid nodules in 127 CLT cases were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between MDCT findings and pathological results combined with the CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for the differences between benign and malignant nodules. A total of 77.5% (31/40) of malignant nodules were completely solid, and 33% (32/97) of benign nodules were predominantly cystic. Compared with the benign nodules, micro-calcification and internal calcification were more frequently observed in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). MDCT features such as ill-defined margin, absence of capsule or incomplete capsule or homogeneous enhancement were more likely to be present in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the enhancement degree at arterial or venous phase between benign and malignant nodules (P>0.05). MDCT features are useful in differentiating the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients, and it may be essential for a radiologist to review the MDCT characteristics of nodules in the clinical practice.

  5. Scalable and Environmentally Benign Process for Smart Textile Nanofinishing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jicheng; Hontañón, Esther; Blanes, Maria; Meyer, Jörg; Guo, Xiaoai; Santos, Laura; Paltrinieri, Laura; Ramlawi, Nabil; Smet, Louis C P M de; Nirschl, Hermann; Kruis, Frank Einar; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas; Biskos, George

    2016-06-15

    A major challenge in nanotechnology is that of determining how to introduce green and sustainable principles when assembling individual nanoscale elements to create working devices. For instance, textile nanofinishing is restricted by the many constraints of traditional pad-dry-cure processes, such as the use of costly chemical precursors to produce nanoparticles (NPs), the high liquid and energy consumption, the production of harmful liquid wastes, and multistep batch operations. By integrating low-cost, scalable, and environmentally benign aerosol processes of the type proposed here into textile nanofinishing, these constraints can be circumvented while leading to a new class of fabrics. The proposed one-step textile nanofinishing process relies on the diffusional deposition of aerosol NPs onto textile fibers. As proof of this concept, we deposit Ag NPs onto a range of textiles and assess their antimicrobial properties for two strains of bacteria (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae). The measurements show that the logarithmic reduction in bacterial count can get as high as ca. 5.5 (corresponding to a reduction efficiency of 99.96%) when the Ag loading is 1 order of magnitude less (10 ppm; i.e., 10 mg Ag NPs per kg of textile) than that of textiles treated by traditional wet-routes. The antimicrobial activity does not increase in proportion to the Ag content above 10 ppm as a consequence of a "saturation" effect. Such low NP loadings on antimicrobial textiles minimizes the risk to human health (during textile use) and to the ecosystem (after textile disposal), as well as it reduces potential changes in color and texture of the resulting textile products. After three washes, the release of Ag is in the order of 1 wt %, which is comparable to textiles nanofinished with wet routes using binders. Interestingly, the washed textiles exhibit almost no reduction in antimicrobial activity, much as those of as-deposited samples. Considering that a realm

  6. Frontal horn thin walled cysts in preterm neonates are benign

    PubMed Central

    Pal, B; Preston, P; Morgan, M; Rushton, D; Durbin, G

    2001-01-01

    .7%) subjects scanned. They are present in the first week of life, enlarge, and resolve spontaneously. Survivors with isolated frontal horn cysts appear to have normal neurodevelopmental outcome. The prognosis of these distinct frontal horn cysts therefore appears to be benign.

 PMID:11668161

  7. Decreased serum vitamin D in idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Ji-Soo; Shin, Jong Wook; Kim, Sungbo; Lee, Hajeong; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon; Jo, Hyunjin; Song, Junghan; Ghim, Yuna

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association of osteopenia/osteoporosis with idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Since vitamin D takes part in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus found in the body and plays an important role in maintaining proper bone structure, decreased bone mineral density in patients with BPPV may be related to decreased serum vitamin D. We measured the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 100 patients (63 women and 37 men, mean age ± SD = 61.8 ± 11.6) with idiopathic BPPV and compared the data with those of 192 controls (101 women and 91 men, mean age ± SD = 60.3 ± 11.3) who had lived in the same community without dizziness or imbalance during the preceding year. The selection of the controls and acquisition of clinical information were done using the data from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008. The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was lower in the patients with BPPV than in the controls (mean ± SD = 14.4 ± 8.4 versus 19.1 ± 6.8 ng/ml, p = 0.001). Furthermore, patients with BPPV showed a higher prevalence of decreased serum vitamin D (<20 ng/ml, 80.0 vs. 60.1 %, p < 0.001) than the controls. Multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, proteinuria, regular exercise and the existence of decreased bone mineral density demonstrated that vitamin D insufficiency (10-20 ng/ml) and deficiency (<10 ng/ml) were associated with BPPV with the odds ratios of 3.8 (95 % confidence interval = 1.51-9.38, p = 0.004) and 23.0 (95 % confidence interval = 6.88-77.05, p < 0.001). Our study demonstrated an association between idiopathic BPPV and decreased serum vitamin D. Decreased serum vitamin D may be a risk factor of BPPV.

  8. Imaging of the thyroid in benign and malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Intenzo, Charles M; Dam, Hung Q; Manzone, Timothy A; Kim, Sung M

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland was one of the first organs imaged in nuclear medicine, beginning in the 1940s. Thyroid scintigraphy is based on a specific phase or prelude to thyroid hormone synthesis, namely trapping of iodide or iodide analogues (ie, Tc99m pertechnetate), and in the case of radioactive iodine, eventual incorporation into thyroid hormone synthesis within the thyroid follicle. Moreover, thyroid scintigraphy is a reflection of the functional state of the gland, as well as the physiological state of any structure (ie, nodule) within the gland. Scintigraphy, therefore, provides information that anatomical imaging (ie, ultrasound, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging) lacks. Thyroid scintigraphy plays an essential role in the management of patients with benign or malignant thyroid disease. In the former, the structure or architecture of the gland is best demonstrated by anatomical or cross-sectional imaging, such as ultrasound, CT, or even magnetic resonance imaging. The role of scintigraphy, however, is to display the functional state of the thyroid gland or that of a clinically palpable nodule within the gland. Such information is most useful in (1) patients with thyrotoxicosis, and (2) those patients whose thyroid nodules would not require tissue sampling if their nodules are hyperfunctioning. In neoplastic thyroid disease, thyroid scintigraphy is often standard of care for postthyroidectomy remnant evaluation and in subsequent thyroid cancer surveillance. Planar radioiodine imaging, in the form of the whole-body scan (WBS) and posttherapy scan (PTS), is a fundamental tool in differentiated thyroid cancer management. Continued controversy remains over the utility of WBS in a variety of patient risk groups and clinical scenarios. Proponents on both sides of the arguments compare WBS with PTS, thyroglobulin, and other imaging modalities with differing results. The paucity of large, randomized, prospective studies results in dependence on consensus

  9. Diagnostic imaging of benign and malignant neck masses in children—a pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Harave, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Neck masses are frequently encountered in pediatric medicine, and can present a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians involved. There are several means by which neck masses in children can be subdivided, for example by age at presentation, anatomical location including compartments and fascia of the neck, their classical appearance when imaged, or by etiology. When imaging children the clinicians must be mindful of radiation exposure and as such ultrasound (US) is often attempted first. Cross sectional imaging can be helpful for problem solving with CT being particularly useful for assessing the patient in more acute scenarios, for example when there is airway compromise. Nuclear medicine scintigraphy has a role in specific circumstances and can aid in staging in the presence of malignancy. If required, additional acquisition by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) can be considered. This pictorial review describe the diagnostic imaging of (I) congenital and Developmental Pathologies, including thyroglossal duct cyst, branchial cleft cyst, cystic hygroma, dermoid cyst, thymic cyst and ectopic thymus; (II) neoplastic lesions, including hemangiomas and vascular malformations, pilomatrixoma, neurofibroma, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, papillary thyroid cancer, lymphoma & leukemia; (III) neck masses of Infective causes, including lymphadenitis, retropharyngeal and peritonsilar abscess, salivary gland inflammation; and (IV) other miscellaneous lesions, including ranula, sternocleidomastoid fibromatosis coli, and goiter. Neck masses are common in the pediatric population with a broad and varied differential; malignant etiologies are less frequently encountered when compared with adults but an awareness of its potential is important when reviewing imaging. PMID:27942480

  10. Incidence and potential causative factors associated with chronic benign neutropenia in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Benign neutropenia often presents in certain populations without any genotype nor phenotype. Middle East countries are among the regions where endemic cases of chronic benign neutropenia are reported in the general population with an incidence of approximately between 10-15%. Not many studies have been performed to ascertain the cause or burden associated with this condition. The objective of the current study was to identify the frequency and characterize the consequences of chronic benign neutropenia in the country of Saudi Arabia. Results Benign neutropenia was found to be high in the Saudi Arabia general population (up to 20%), with an average neutrophil count of 1.48 (range 0.99 – 1.95 × 109cells/L), with Saudis having a higher incidence of chronic benign neutropenia compared to non-Saudis (p = <0.05). Complete blood count analyses showed significant difference in the total white cell count of neutrophils (p < 0.0001), WBC (p < 0.0001), lymphocytes (p < 0.001), monocytes (p < 0.001), eosinophils (p = 0.013) as well as the CD19 B cells (p = 0.008). Conclusions Our study is the first to carefully quantitate benign neutropenia in Saudi Arabia. We identified that this condition is prevalent in the middle aged population (18 years to 55 years). These individuals not only had lower neutrophil counts, but also reduced peripheral blood cells types, especially the B-lymphocyte population (CD19 subset). As B-lymphocytes are involved in antibody production and antigen recognition, a decrease might easily predispose the individuals to infectious agents. As such more mechanistic studies need to be undertaken to understand the cause and potential long-term consequences of benign neutropenia. PMID:25810761

  11. Bone Windows for Distinguishing Malignant from Benign Primary Bone Tumors on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Costelloe, Colleen M; Chuang, Hubert H; Chasen, Beth A; Pan, Tinsu; Fox, Patricia S; Bassett, Roland L; Madewell, John E

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The default window setting on PET/CT workstations is soft tissue. This study investigates whether bone windowing and hybrid FDG PET/CT can help differentiate between malignant and benign primary bone tumors. Materials and methods. A database review included 98 patients with malignant (n=64) or benign primary bone (n=34) tumors. The reference standard was biopsy for malignancies and biopsy or >1 year imaging follow-up of benign tumors. Three radiologists and/or nuclear medicine physicians blinded to diagnosis and other imaging viewed the lesions on CT with bone windows (CT-BW) without and then with PET (PET/CT-BW), and separate PET-only images for malignancy or benignity. Three weeks later the tumors were viewed on CT with soft tissue windows (CT-STW) without and then with PET (PET/CT-STW). Results. Mean sensitivity and specificity for identifying malignancies included: CT-BW: 96%, 90%; CT-STW: 90%, 90%; PET/CT-BW: 95%, 85%, PET/CT-STW: 95%, 86% and PET-only: 96%, 75%, respectively. CT-BW demonstrated higher specificity than PET-only and PET/CT-BW (p=0.0005 and p=0.0103, respectively) and trended toward higher sensitivity than CT-STW (p=0.0759). Malignant primary bone tumors were more avid than benign lesions overall (p<0.0001) but the avidity of benign aggressive lesions (giant cell tumors and Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis) trended higher than the malignancies (p=0.08). Conclusion. Bone windows provided high specificity for distinguishing between malignant and benign primary bone tumors and are recommended when viewing FDG PET/CT.

  12. Gene expression profiles of metabolic aggressiveness and tumor recurrence in benign meningioma.

    PubMed

    Serna, Eva; Morales, José Manuel; Mata, Manuel; Gonzalez-Darder, José; San Miguel, Teresa; Gil-Benso, Rosario; Lopez-Gines, Concha; Cerda-Nicolas, Miguel; Monleon, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Around 20% of meningiomas histologically benign may be clinically aggressive and recur. This strongly affects management of meningioma patients. There is a need to evaluate the potential aggressiveness of an individual meningioma. Additional criteria for better classification of meningiomas will improve clinical decisions as well as patient follow up strategy after surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gene expression profiles and new metabolic subgroups of benign meningioma with potential clinical relevance. Forty benign and fourteen atypical meningioma tissue samples were included in the study. We obtained metabolic profiles by NMR and recurrence after surgery information for all of them. We measured gene expression by oligonucleotide microarray measurements on 19 of them. To our knowledge, this is the first time that distinct gene expression profiles are reported for benign meningioma molecular subgroups with clinical correlation. Our results show that metabolic aggressiveness in otherwise histological benign meningioma proceeds mostly through alterations in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of transcription, mainly the LMO3 gene. Genes involved in tumor metabolism, like IGF1R, are also differentially expressed in those meningioma subgroups with higher rates of membrane turnover, higher energy demand and increased resistance to apoptosis. These new subgroups of benign meningiomas exhibit different rates of recurrence. This work shows that benign meningioma with metabolic aggressiveness constitute a subgroup of potentially recurrent tumors in which alterations in genes regulating critical features of aggressiveness, like increased angiogenesis or cell invasion, are still no predominant. The determination of these gene expression biosignatures may allow the early detection of clinically aggressive tumors.

  13. Benign infantile convulsion as a diagnostic clue of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is characterized by sudden attacks of involuntary movements. It is often misdiagnosed clinically as psychogenic illness, which distresses the patients to a great extent. A correct diagnosis will improve the quality of life in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia because treatment with low doses of anticonvulsants is effective for eliminating the clinical manifestations. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia can occur independently of or concurrently with benign infantile convulsion. Identification of PRRT2 as the causative gene of benign infantile convulsion and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia allows genetic confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Case presentation We describe the clinical features of a Japanese family with either paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or benign infantile convulsion. A PRRT2 missense mutation (c.981C > G, p.Ile327Met) was identified in two patients with benign infantile convulsion and three patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia as well as in two unaffected individuals. Allowing incomplete penetrance in the mutation carriers, this mutation co-segregated completely with the phenotype. The patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia had been misdiagnosed with psychogenic illness for many years. They were correctly diagnosed with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia when their children visited a pediatrician for benign infantile convulsion. Treatment with carbamazepine controlled their involuntary movements completely. Conclusions Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a treatable movement disorder that is often misdiagnosed clinically as psychogenic illness. It is important to note that two clinically distinct disorders, benign infantile convulsion and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, are allelic conditions caused by PRRT2 mutations. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia should be suspected in families with a child with benign infantile convulsion. PMID:24886244

  14. DNA Cytometry and Nuclear Morphometry in Ovarian Benign, Borderline and Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    el Din, Amina A. Gamal; Badawi, Manal A.; Aal, Shereen E. Abdel; Ibrahim, Nihad A.; Morsy, Fatma A.; Shaffie, Nermeen M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKDROUND: Ovarian carcinoma is a leading cause of death in gynecological malignancy. Ovarian surface epithelial serous and mucinous tumours are classified as benign, borderline, and malignant. The identification of borderline tumours most likely to act aggressively remains an important clinical issue. AIM: This work aimed to study DNA ploidy and nuclear area in ovarian serous and mucinous; benign, borderline and malignant tumours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included forty ovarian (23 serous and 17 mucinous) tumours. Paraffin blocks were sectioned; stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic and morphometric studies and with blue feulgen for DNA analysis. RESULTS: All four serous and six out of nine mucinous benign tumours were diploid. All eight serous and five mucinous malignant tumours were aneuploid. Nine of eleven (81.8%) serous and all three mucinous borderline tumours were aneuploid. There were highly significant differences in mean aneuploid cells percentage between serous benign (1.5%), borderline (45.6%) and malignant (74.5%) (p = 0.0001) and between mucinous benign (13.2%) and both borderline (63.7%) and malignant (68.4%) groups (p = 0.0001). There were significant differences in nuclear area between serous benign (26.191%), borderline (45.619%) and malignant (67.634 %) and a significant positive correlation between mean percentage aneuploid value and mean nuclear area in all serous and mucinous groups. CONCLUSION: We suggest that DNA ploidy and nuclear area combined, may be adjuncts to histopathology; in ovarian serous and mucinous benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms; identifying the aggressive borderline tumours. PMID:27275284

  15. Steroid Hormones in NF1 Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    NFl is characterized by benign Schwann cell tumors called neurofibromas; complex forms can become malignant ( MPNST ). Little is known about...neurofibroma (and/or MPNST ) Schwann cells have increased growth or decreased apoptosis related to steroid hormones. Specific Aim 1 is examining steroid...hormone receptor expression in human normal, NFl neurofibroma and MPNST Schwann cells. Real-time PCR shows very low levels of these receptor

  16. An independent validation of a gene expression signature to differentiate malignant melanoma from benign melanocytic nevi

    PubMed Central

    Flake, Darl D.; Busam, Klaus; Cockerell, Clay; Helm, Klaus; McNiff, Jennifer; Reed, Jon; Tschen, Jaime; Kim, Jinah; Barnhill, Raymond; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Prieto, Victor G.; Nelson, Jonathan; Kimbrell, Hillary; Kolquist, Kathryn A.; Brown, Krystal L.; Warf, M. Bryan; Roa, Benjamin B.; Wenstrup, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, a 23‐gene signature was developed to produce a melanoma diagnostic score capable of differentiating malignant and benign melanocytic lesions. The primary objective of this study was to independently assess the ability of the gene signature to differentiate melanoma from benign nevi in clinically relevant lesions. METHODS A set of 1400 melanocytic lesions was selected from samples prospectively submitted for gene expression testing at a clinical laboratory. Each sample was tested and subjected to an independent histopathologic evaluation by 3 experienced dermatopathologists. A primary diagnosis (benign or malignant) was assigned to each sample, and diagnostic concordance among the 3 dermatopathologists was required for inclusion in analyses. The sensitivity and specificity of the score in differentiating benign and malignant melanocytic lesions were calculated to assess the association between the score and the pathologic diagnosis. RESULTS The gene expression signature differentiated benign nevi from malignant melanoma with a sensitivity of 91.5% and a specificity of 92.5%. CONCLUSIONS These results reflect the performance of the gene signature in a diverse array of samples encountered in routine clinical practice. Cancer 2017;123:617–628. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27768230

  17. Does Intracerebral Hemorrhage Mimic Benign Dizziness Presentations? A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Burke, James F.; Brown, Devin L.; Meurer, William J.; Smith, Melinda A.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Zahuranec, Darin B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A principal reason to order a head computerized tomography (CT) scan for dizziness patients is to exclude stroke. Since CT imaging is substantially limited in assessing for any acute lesions other than hemorrhage, the most important stroke syndrome adequately evaluated by CT is intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We used a population-based stroke database to assess the frequency with which ICH might mimic a benign dizziness presentation. Methods The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project was used to identify cases of ICH from January 1, 2000, to December 26, 2007. The hospital records of ICH cases with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of < 2 were abstracted for more detailed information. Cases were classified as benign dizziness presentations when isolated dizziness and a normal general neurological examination were documented. Results Of 595 ICH cases, only 2.2% (13 of 595) had dizziness as the primary presenting symptom and an NIHSS < 2. No case mimicked a benign dizziness presentation. Only one case had isolated dizziness symptoms but this patient had dysmetria documented on the exam. All other cases had either focal or global neurological symptoms or exam abnormalities. Conclusions This study provides further support for the notion that ICH is highly unlikely to mimic a benign dizziness presentation. Coupled with the limitations of CT to show acute ischemia in the posterior fossa, these results suggest that screening for ICH may not be necessary in benign appearing dizziness presentations, though more research is needed. PMID:21245473

  18. Benign colonic metaplasia at a previous stoma site in a patient without adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Prouty, Megan; Patrawala, Samit; Vogt, Adam; Kelleher, Michael; Lee, Michael; Parker, Douglas C

    2016-03-01

    There are few reported cases of cutaneous intestinal metaplasia or primary adenocarcinoma arising at the ileostomy site following panproctocolectomy. These complications have been seen almost exclusively in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, benign intraepidermal colonic mucosa at a reversed ileostomy site in a patient without familial adenomatous polyposis or IBD has not been documented. We report a case of a 51-year-old female with a history of colonic adenocarcinoma who presented with pruritic, erythematous, scaly plaques on the right lower abdomen, present since reversal of her ileostomy in 2007. Skin biopsy revealed benign foci of colonic epithelium with no evidence of adenomatous change. Benign intraepidermal colonic mucosa was diagnosed based on histopathologic findings and immunohistochemistry. To our knowledge, this is the first case of intraepidermal benign colonic metaplasia forming in a patient following ostomy reversal. The case emphasizes the importance of patient education and physical examination of the stoma or stoma remnants for detection of unusual or changing lesions due to the risk for malignant transformation. It also demonstrates that benign colonic mucosa should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating lesions near ileostomy sites, regardless of whether the patient has a history of familial adenomatous polyposis or IBD.

  19. Modelling Neurofibroma Formation in the Culture Dish.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    cells resulted in inhibition of DNA synthesis and growth arrest, unless accompanied by a second (nuclear) oncogene, in which case the ras gene transformed...adherent to the culture dish, and cell death was not evident over the course of the experiment. In a related experiment, the synthesis of DNA in...proliferative response to rhGGF2 and forskolin, with the forskolin potentiating the stimulatory activity of rhGGF2 on DNA synthesis about 8-fold

  20. [Anogenital mammary-like glands and related lesions. Part 1. Benign tumors and tumor-like disorders].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, A M; Belousova, I E; Kacerovska, D; Michal, M; Shelekhova, K V; Kazakov, D V

    2017-01-01

    Anogenital mammary-like glands represent a normal anatomic constituent of the anogenital area and may give rise to many benign and malignant tumors that morphologically mimic similar breast diseases. The literature review is complemented by a description of 286 cases of benign tumors and tumor-like processes in the mammary-like glands. The paper presents the clinical and morphological characteristics of papillary hidradenoma, fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes tumor, lactating adenoma, sclerosing adenosis, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, etc.

  1. Solvent-free and catalysts-free chemistry: a benign pathway to sustainability.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Manoj B; Bonifácio, Vasco D B; Luque, Rafael; Branco, Paula S; Varma, Rajender S

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, alternative benign organic methodologies have become an imperative part of organic syntheses and chemical reactions. The various new and innovative sustainable organic reactions and methodologies using no solvents or catalysts and employing alternative energy inputs such as microwaves, sonication, conventional and room temperature heating conditions, mechanochemical mixing, and high-speed ball milling are discussed in detail. Environmentally benign and pharmaceutically important reactions such as multicomponent, condensation, and Michael addition reactions; ring opening of epoxides; and oxidation and other significant organic reactions are discussed. An overview of benign reactions through solvent- and catalyst-free (SF-CF) chemistry and a critical perspective on emerging synergies between SF-CF organic reactions are discussed.

  2. Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia of childhood: two cases with positive evolution.

    PubMed

    Villéga, Frédéric; Picard, Fabienne; Espil-Taris, Caroline; Husson, Marie; Michel, Véronique; Pedespan, Jean-Michel

    2011-06-01

    Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia (BNAH) of childhood is distinct from the classic form of malignant alternating hemiplegia of childhood [1]. It is characterized by hemiplegic attacks occurring exclusively during sleep [2]. It can be misdiagnosed as migraine, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, benign rolandic epilepsy, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, or sleep-related movement disorder [1-4]. Only nine patients have been described to date, with typically, a normal development [1,5-7]. In order to insist about the benignity of the affection, we report two cases: a new three-year-old boy suffering from BNAH and a patient already published to show positive evolution at fourteen years of age. BNAH is a rare disorder but may be underdiagnosed. Making an early diagnosis can help to describe to the parents the good prognosis without treatment.

  3. Anomaly metrics to differentiate threat sources from benign sources in primary vehicle screening.

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Israel Dov; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2011-09-01

    Discrimination of benign sources from threat sources at Port of Entries (POE) is of a great importance in efficient screening of cargo and vehicles using Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM). Currently RPM's ability to distinguish these radiological sources is seriously hampered by the energy resolution of the deployed RPMs. As naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are ubiquitous in commerce, false alarms are problematic as they require additional resources in secondary inspection in addition to impacts on commerce. To increase the sensitivity of such detection systems without increasing false alarm rates, alarm metrics need to incorporate the ability to distinguish benign and threat sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering technique were implemented in the present study. Such techniques were investigated for their potential to lower false alarm rates and/or increase sensitivity to weaker threat sources without loss of specificity. Results of the investigation demonstrated improved sensitivity and specificity in discriminating benign sources from threat sources.

  4. Treating benign optic nerve tumors with a 3-D conformal plan

    SciTech Connect

    Millunchick, Cheryl Hope

    2013-07-01

    A 68 year old male patient presented for radiation therapy for treatment of a benign tumor, a glioma of his left optic nerve. The radiation oncologist intended to prescribe 52.2 Gy to the planning target volume, while maintaining a maximum of 54 Gy to the optic nerves and the optic chiasm and a maximum of 40–45 Gy to the globes in order to minimize the possibility of damaging the optic system, which is especially important as this is a benign tumor. The dosimetrist devised a conformal non-coplanar three-dimensional plan with a slightly weighted forward planning component. This plan was created in approximately 15 minutes after the critical organs and the targets were delineated and resulted in an extremely conformal and homogenous plan, treating the target while sparing the nearby critical structures. This approach can also be extended to other tumors in the brain - benign or malignant.

  5. Benign exostoses and exostotic chondrosarcomas: evaluation of cartilage thickness by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, T.M.; Springfield, D.S.; Spanier, S.S.; Enneking, W.F.; Hamlin, D.J.

    1984-09-01

    Computed tomograms of 16 benign exostoses and 15 exostotic chondrosarcomas were generally accurate in delineating anatomy for purposes of planning surgery, but they were inaccurate in the detection and measurement of the cartilage caps of the lesions. CT studies of 14 of the benign exostoses failed to show any cartilage cap, although the maximum cartilage thickness of these 14 lesions ranged from 0.1 to 2.5 cm pathologically. CT did demonstrate thick cartilage in 14 of the 15 chondrosarcomas, but the CT measurements of maximum thickness often were imprecise. For this reason, CT did not solve the difficult problem of distinguishing between benign exostoses with relatively thick cartilage caps and exostotic chondrosarcomas with relatively thin cartilage.

  6. [Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma of the Lung;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Sawada, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sugihara, Hajime; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2017-02-01

    A 71-year-old woman, in whom computed tomography revealed a solitary mass shadow at the base of the left lung, underwent resection of the mass. Histopathological examination showed estrogen receptor-positive leiomyoma cells growing in cords and mixed with glandular structures composed of alveolar cells. These findings led to a diagnosis of benign metastatic leiomyoma. Benign metastatic leiomyoma is a rare disease in which histologically benign uterine leiomyoma cells metastasize to different sites of the body. However, in this patient, the presence of uterine myoma was not confirmed in the past or at present. She had a history of cervical conization, which suggests that a small amount of the leiomyoma component contained in cervical tissue may have been forced into blood vessels during surgical manipulation, causing lung metastasis.

  7. Self-Expanding Metal Stenting in the Management of a Benign Colonic Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Jessamy, Kegan; Ozden, Nuri; Simon, Howard M.; Kobrossi, Semaan; Ubagharaji, Ezinnaya

    2016-01-01

    Colonic postanastomotic strictures occur in 1.5–8% of patients following colorectal surgery. Traditionally, colonic strictures were treated by multiple modalities including endoscopic dilatation. Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) have been indicated in the management of benign colonic strictures; however, there are limited available data with regard to their efficacy. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who had perforated sigmoid diverticulitis followed by Hartmann's procedure with eventual reanastomosis 6 months later. He subsequently developed benign colonic stricture, which was treated with a metal stent. SEMS are associated with a low mortality rate and are appropriate in treating acute colonic obstruction as a result of benign stricture in the setting of postanastomosis. PMID:27403114

  8. Iatrogenic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: review and personal experience in dental and maxillo-facial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chiarella, G; Leopardi, G; De Fazio, L; Chiarella, R; Cassandro, C; Cassandro, E

    2007-01-01

    Summary The post-traumatic origin of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo remains the most likely, from a patho-physiologic point of view. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo due to surgical “traumas” has been described in the medical literature. According to personal experience, these iatrogenic cases represent a rare possibility and may be the consequence of surgical interventions differing according to the anatomical district involved and surgical technique performed. The temporal relationship with the surgical action and clinical features may be involved in some of these cases, even if it is not possible to define any real cause-effect link. Herewith some cases of paroxysmal positional vertigo are described, strongly held to be of iatrogenic origin, focusing on dental and maxillo-facial surgery as risk factors for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. PMID:17883189

  9. Estimate of tissue composition in malignant and benign breast lesions by time-domain optical mammography

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Giovanna; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Pifferi, Antonio; Torricelli, Alessandro; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Taroni, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The optical characterization of malignant and benign breast lesions is presented. Time-resolved transmittance measurements were performed in the 630-1060 nm range by means of a 7-wavelength optical mammograph, providing both imaging and spectroscopy information. A total of 62 lesions were analyzed, including 33 malignant and 29 benign lesions. The characterization of breast lesions was performed applying a perturbation model based on the high-order calculation of the pathlength of photons inside the lesion, which led to the assessment of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, lipids, water and collagen concentrations. Significant variations between tumor and healthy tissue were observed in terms of both absorption properties and constituents concentration. In particular, benign lesions and tumors show a statistically significant discrimination in terms of absorption at several wavelengths and also in terms of oxy-hemoglobin and collagen content. PMID:25360382

  10. [Do envious people show better performance?: Focusing on the function of benign envy as personality trait].

    PubMed

    Sawada, Masato; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on the differences between two, subtypes of envy known as "benign envy" and "malicious envy" as personality traits, and examined the effects of these traits on academic achievement. Two hundred fifty-one university students participated in the study. Both benign envy and malicious envy were found to be independent as also found in a previous study by Lange & Crusius (2015), and a high criterion-related validity was revealed by an association with characteristic variables such as dispositional envy and self-esteem. The students with higher levels of benign envy were found to set goals higher, and as a result achieved higher levels of academic performance. In contrast, no such effect was found for malicious envy. The importance of focusing more attention on the positive aspects of the emotion of envy is discussed.

  11. Clinical and histopathologic study of benign lichenoid keratosis on the face.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Su; Park, Eun Joo; Kwon, In Ho; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2013-10-01

    Benign lichenoid keratosis is a cutaneous entity that consists of a nonpruritic papule or slightly indurated plaque that is histologically characterized by a band-like inflammatory infiltrate with interface involvement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and histopathologic features of benign lichenoid keratosis localized on the face. Fourteen benign lichenoid keratosis patients diagnosed clinically and histopathologically in our clinic during the 10-year period from 2002 to 2012 were studied. Thirteen female and 1 male patients were included. The mean age at diagnosis was 46.5 years. The color of most of the lesions was brown (10 cases, 71%). The cheek was the most commonly involved area (10 cases, 71%). All of the lesions were single. There were 9 (64%) flat lesion cases and 5 (36%) raised lesion cases. Most patients denied having any symptoms; 3 had mild pruritus. The histopathological findings indicated that all the cases exhibited lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate obscuring the dermal-epidermal junction and vacuolar alteration of basal cell layer. The lesions showed focal parakeratosis (79%), melanophages (79%), hyperkeratosis (71%), and necrotic keratinocytes (71%). Solar elastosis (50%) and acanthosis (43%) were also seen frequently. Diagnosis of benign lichenoid keratosis should be made by a combination of clinical manifestations and histopathological findings. In particular, benign lichenoid keratosis should be considered if a middle-aged patient presents a solitary asymptomatic brown lesion on the face. We think benign lichenoid keratosis may be a specific disorder rather than the inflammatory stage of regressing solar lentigines, large cell acanthoma or reticulated seborrheic keratosis.

  12. Value of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in Differentiating Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt Bostan, Tuğba; Koç, Gonca; Sezgin, Gülten; Altay, Canan; Fazıl Gelal, M.; Oyar, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a diagnostic and problem solving method for the breast examinations in addition to conventional breast examination methods. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) adds valuable information to conventional MRI. Aims: Our aim was to show the impact of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values acquired with DWI to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: Forty-six women with 58 breast masses (35 malignant, 23 benign) were examined on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. The morphologic characteristics of the lesions on conventional MRI sequences and contrast uptake pattern were assessed. ADC values of both lesions and normal breast parenchyma were measured. The ADC values obtained were statistically compared with the histopathologic results using Paired Samples t-Test. Results: Multiple lesions were detected in 12 (26%) of the patients, while only one lesion was detected in 34 (74%). Overall, 35 lesions out of 58 were histopathologically proven to be malignant. In the dynamic contrast-enhanced series, 5 of the malignant lesions were type 1, while 8 benign lesions revealed either type 2 or 3 time signal intensity curves (85% sensitivity, 56% spesifity). Mean ADC values were significantly different in malignant vs. benign lesions. (1.04±0.29×10−3 cm2/sec vs. 1.61±0.50×10−3 cm2/sec for the malignant and benign lesions, respectively, p=0.03). A cut-off value of 1.30×10−3 mm2/sec for ADC detected with receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded 89.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. Conclusion: ADC values improve the diagnostic accuracy of solid breast lesions when evaluated with the conventional MRI sequences. Therefore, DWI should be incorporated to routine breast MRI protocol. PMID:27308073

  13. Distinguishing benign mediastinal masses from malignancy in a histoplasmosis-endemic region

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Fouzia; Metzger, Monika L.; Arnold, Sandra R.; Adderson, Elisabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of benign and malignant mediastinal masses, which may predict their etiology and facilitate the safe and timely management of patients, especially those residing in histoplasmosis-endemic regions. Study design We conducted a retrospective review of the health records of 131 patients aged <19 years who were referred to two tertiary care children's hospitals from 2005-2010 for the evaluation of mediastinal masses. Results Most patients (79%) had benign masses, including 98 with confirmed or suspected histoplasmosis. Overall, patients with benign etiologies were younger, more likely to be African American, more likely to complain of cough and to have pulmonary nodules by chest computed tomographs than patients with cancer. Patients with malignant disease were more likely to complain of malaise and to have neck swelling, abnormal extrathoracic lymphadenopathy, lymphopenia, anterior mediastinal involvement and/or pleural effusion. Positive histoplasmosis serologic tests were specific but insensitive for a benign etiology. No single clinical, laboratory or radiologic feature was sufficiently sensitive and specific to distinguish between benign and malignant masses. For cancer, however, the presence of lymphopenia, anterior mediastinal involvement or enlarged cervical lymph nodes on computerized tomography had a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 86%, and negative predictive value of 97% for cancer. Sixty-four patients (49%) underwent invasive testing, including 37 (36%) of patients with benign masses. Conclusions Patients in this series who had involvement of the anterior mediastinum, lymphopenia or enlarged cervical lymph nodes had a high likelihood of cancer. Expectant management of patients lacking these characteristics may be safe and reduce unnecessary invasive testing. PMID:26009018

  14. Ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a strategy to visualize the scatterer properties of benign and malignant breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liao, Yin-Yin; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chang, King-Jen; Chen, Chiung-Nien

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the Nakagami parameter in characterizing breast tumors by ultrasound. However, physicians or radiologists may need imaging tools in a clinical setting to visually identify the properties of breast tumors. This study proposed the ultrasonic Nakagami image to visualize the scatterer properties of breast tumors and then explored its clinical performance in classifying benign and malignant tumors. Raw data of ultrasonic backscattered signals were collected from 100 patients (50 benign and 50 malignant cases) using a commercial ultrasound scanner with a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer. The backscattered signals were used to form the B-scan and the Nakagami images of breast tumors. For each tumor, the average Nakagami parameter was calculated from the pixel values in the region-of-interest in the Nakagami image. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the clinical performance of the Nakagami image. The results showed that the Nakagami image shadings in benign tumors were different from those in malignant cases. The average Nakagami parameters for benign and malignant tumors were 0.69 +/- 0.12 and 0.55 +/- 0.12, respectively. This means that the backscattered signals received from malignant tumors tend to be more pre-Rayleigh distributed than those from benign tumors, corresponding to a more complex scatterer arrangement or composition. The ROC analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve was 0.81 +/- 0.04 and the diagnostic accuracy was 82%, sensitivity was 92% and specificity was 72%. The results showed that the Nakagami image is useful to distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tumors.

  15. Vocal improvement after voice therapy in the treatment of benign vocal fold lesions.

    PubMed

    Schindler, A; Mozzanica, F; Ginocchio, D; Maruzzi, P; Atac, M; Ottaviani, F

    2012-10-01

    Benign vocal fold lesions are common in the general population, and have important public health implications and impact on patient quality of life. Nowadays, phonomicrosurgery is the most common treatment of these lesions. Voice therapy is generally associated in order to minimize detrimental vocal behaviours that increase the stress at the mid-membranous vocal folds. Nonetheless, the most appropriate standard of care for treating benign vocal fold lesion has not been established. The aim of this study was to analyze voice changes in a group of dysphonic patients affected by benign vocal fold lesions, evaluated with a multidimensional protocol before and after voice therapy. Sixteen consecutive patients, 12 females and 4 males, with a mean age of 49.7 years were enrolled. Each subject had 10 voice therapy sessions with an experienced speech/language pathologist for a period of 1-2 months, and was evaluated before and at the end of voice therapy with a multidimensional protocol that included self-assessment measures and videostroboscopic, perceptual, aerodynamic and acoustic ratings. Videostroboscopic examination did not reveal resolution of the initial pathology in any case. No improvement was observed in aerodynamic and perceptual ratings. A clear and significant improvement was visible on Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the mean values of Jitt%, Noise to Harmonic Ratio (NHR) and Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores. Even if it is possible that, for benign vocal fold lesions, only a minor improvement of voice quality can be achieved after voice therapy, rehabilitation treatment still seems useful as demonstrated by improvement in self-assessment measures. If voice therapy is provided as an initial treatment to the patients with benign vocal fold lesions, this may lead to an improvement in the perceived voice quality, making surgical intervention unnecessary. This is one of the first reports on the efficacy of voice therapy in the management of benign vocal fold

  16. Evaluation of the results of surgery treatment in patients with benign lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Reza; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Dalouee, Marziyeh Nouri; Nasiri, Zakiyeh; Rajabnejad, Ata’ollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung tumors are among the common tumors and can be benign or malignant. Benign lung tumors are less common compared to the malignant types. Recognition of the clinical symptoms, types of tumors, paraclinical findings, and treatment approaches can bring better therapeutic results. The present study aims to evaluate the characteristics, diagnosis methods, and therapeutic approaches of different benign lung tumors. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 32 patients with a diagnosis of benign lung tumor, who had been referred to the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between 1981 and 2009, were studied. Some of the studied variables were symptoms, the pulmonary location involved, surgery technique, pathology findings, recurrence, and surgery complications. Data were analyzed by SPSS package version 16. Results: The average age of the patients was 51.69 ± 20.5 years. Prevalence of benign lung tumors was equal in both genders. The most common symptom was cough (31.2%); right lung involvement was more common (71.9%), and the most common sampling technique was transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) (62.5%); 53.1% of the patients were operated on by thoracotomy and the wedge resection technique. In 78.1% of the patients, no complications occurred after surgery. There was no recurrence. Most operations were performed in one month after the start of the symptoms (68.8%). Conclusions: Benign lung tumors are commonly diagnosed by routine radiography because most of them are asymptomatic. The most common finding in radiography is the presence of mass in the lungs. Transbronchial lung biopsy is a valuable technique to be used for diagnosis. We chose thoracotomy and wedge resection for the treatment of patients. We recommend this approach as a useful method. PMID:25624593

  17. Supine to prolonged lateral position: a novel therapeutic maneuver for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Shih, Cheng-Ping; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2013-05-01

    The treatment of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo often involves repositioning maneuvers and exercises; however, these procedures may not be suitable for patients with limb disabilities or back disorders, or for elder patients. We sought to develop a simple therapeutic maneuver as an alternative procedure, suitable for patients with a wide range of physical ability. A simple therapeutic maneuver, supine to prolonged lateral position, was developed based on the mechanism of canalolithiasis. Its efficacy in treating posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo was evaluated in a prospective study consisting of 81 objective and 13 subjective posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo patients. A successful outcome was defined as a negative Dix-Hallpike test within 2 weeks followed by the continued absence of symptoms of vertigo or dizziness for the next 4 weeks. Seventy-two patients with objective posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and all 13 patients with subjective posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo were successfully treated: resolution rates were 88.9 and 100 %, respectively. In the objective group, negative Dix-Hallpike tests were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks in 66.7 and 88.9 % of patients, respectively. In the subjective group, the percentages of patients free of side-dependent vertigo illusions at 1 and 2 weeks were 84.6 and 100 %, respectively. These results suggest that the supine to prolonged lateral position maneuver, which is easy to perform and generally well tolerated, could be recommended as an alternative treatment modality for patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

  18. Clinical Practice Guideline: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (Update).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Neil; Gubbels, Samuel P; Schwartz, Seth R; Edlow, Jonathan A; El-Kashlan, Hussam; Fife, Terry; Holmberg, Janene M; Mahoney, Kathryn; Hollingsworth, Deena B; Roberts, Richard; Seidman, Michael D; Steiner, Robert W Prasaad; Do, Betty Tsai; Voelker, Courtney C J; Waguespack, Richard W; Corrigan, Maureen D

    2017-03-01

    Objective This update of a 2008 guideline from the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation provides evidence-based recommendations to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), defined as a disorder of the inner ear characterized by repeated episodes of positional vertigo. Changes from the prior guideline include a consumer advocate added to the update group; new evidence from 2 clinical practice guidelines, 20 systematic reviews, and 27 randomized controlled trials; enhanced emphasis on patient education and shared decision making; a new algorithm to clarify action statement relationships; and new and expanded recommendations for the diagnosis and management of BPPV. Purpose The primary purposes of this guideline are to improve the quality of care and outcomes for BPPV by improving the accurate and efficient diagnosis of BPPV, reducing the inappropriate use of vestibular suppressant medications, decreasing the inappropriate use of ancillary testing such as radiographic imaging, and increasing the use of appropriate therapeutic repositioning maneuvers. The guideline is intended for all clinicians who are likely to diagnose and manage patients with BPPV, and it applies to any setting in which BPPV would be identified, monitored, or managed. The target patient for the guideline is aged ≥18 years with a suspected or potential diagnosis of BPPV. The primary outcome considered in this guideline is the resolution of the symptoms associated with BPPV. Secondary outcomes considered include an increased rate of accurate diagnoses of BPPV, a more efficient return to regular activities and work, decreased use of inappropriate medications and unnecessary diagnostic tests, reduction in recurrence of BPPV, and reduction in adverse events associated with undiagnosed or untreated BPPV. Other outcomes considered include minimizing costs in the diagnosis and treatment of BPPV, minimizing potentially unnecessary return physician visits, and maximizing

  19. Review of Prostate Anatomy and Embryology and the Etiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Aaron, LaTayia; Franco, Omar E; Hayward, Simon W

    2016-08-01

    Prostate development follows a common pattern between species and depends on the actions of androgens to induce and support ductal branching morphogenesis of buds emerging from the urogenital sinus. The human prostate has a compact zonal anatomy immediately surrounding the urethra and below the urinary bladder. Rodents have a lobular prostate with lobes radiating away from the urethra. The human prostate is the site of benign hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The rodent prostate has little naturally occurring disease. Rodents can be used to model aspects of human benign hyperplasia, but care should be taken in data interpretation and extrapolation to the human condition.

  20. Benign Schwannoma Mimicking Metastatic Lesion on F-18 FDG PET/CT in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungmin

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of benign schwannoma mimicking metastatic carcinoma. A 55-year-old female with papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent total thyroidectomy. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) demonstrated a focal hypermetabolic lesion with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) 5.3 at the right chest wall. Conventional chest CT demonstrated a 5.4 cm ovoid mass lesion between the intercostal muscles and liver. Pathology revealed a schwannoma by tumor excision. This case demonstrates that benign schwannoma may demonstrate FDG uptake mimicking metastatic carcinoma.

  1. A novel approach to malignant-benign classification of pulmonary nodules by using ensemble learning classifiers.

    PubMed

    Tartar, A; Akan, A; Kilic, N

    2014-01-01

    Computer-aided detection systems can help radiologists to detect pulmonary nodules at an early stage. In this paper, a novel Computer-Aided Diagnosis system (CAD) is proposed for the classification of pulmonary nodules as malignant and benign. The proposed CAD system using ensemble learning classifiers, provides an important support to radiologists at the diagnosis process of the disease, achieves high classification performance. The proposed approach with bagging classifier results in 94.7 %, 90.0 % and 77.8 % classification sensitivities for benign, malignant and undetermined classes (89.5 % accuracy), respectively.

  2. A Rare Case of a Benign Primary Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Saladi, Swetha; Patolia, Setu; Mahmoud Assaf, Sara; Stoeckel, David

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) constitute a small proportion of primary respiratory system neoplasms. Benign SGT comprises pleomorphic adenoma and is exceedingly rare in the lungs. We hereby present a rare case of a benign primary pleomorphic adenoma of the lung. The histological pattern of the tumor was indistinguishable from the head and neck SGT counterparts and showed biphasic morphology. Malignant features were not observed and a metastatic SGT was ruled out. Although little is known about the clinical progression of these rare tumors, surgical resection and interval surveillance remains the treatment of choice.

  3. Benign lymphoepithelial cysts of parotid and submandibular glands in a HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Peeyush; Shankarnarayan, Lata; Jambunath, Usha; Basavaraju, Sowbhagya Malligere

    2015-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been reported to have parotid swellings of various types such as diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome, parotitis, intraparotid lymphadenopathy, benign lymphoepithelial cyst (BLEC), as well as salivary gland neoplasms such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. LECs in the parotid gland are uncommon benign entities with increased incidence associated with HIV infection. We are presenting a case of 28-year-old HIV-positive patient with BLECs in the parotid and submandibular glands. PMID:26097320

  4. Which Is the Ideal Treatment for Benign Diffuse and Multinodular Non-Toxic Goiters?

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Patients with large benign goiters often present local compressive symptoms that require surgical treatment, including dysphagia, neck tightness, and airway obstruction. In contrast, patients with such goiters who remain asymptomatic may be observed after exclusion of malignancy. The use of levothyroxine (LT4) to reduce the volume of the goiter is still a controversial treatment for large goiters, and the optimal surgical procedure for multinodular goiter is still debatable. Radioiodine is a safe and effective treatment option when used alone or in combination with recombinant human TSH. This review discusses current therapeutic options to treat diffuse and multinodular non-toxic benign goiters. PMID:27242669

  5. [A paraneoplastic Sharp syndrome reversible after resection of a benign schwannoma: a paraneoplastic syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Slimani, S; Sahraoui, M; Bennadji, A; Ladjouze-Rezig, A

    2014-08-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes commonly occur in malignancies and often precede the first symptoms of the tumor. By definition, paraneoplastic syndromes are only associated with malignancies although some exceptions have been reported, occurring with benign tumors. We report a patient presenting with a clinical and serological Sharp syndrome, followed a few months later by a cervical schwannoma. Curative surgical resection of the mass resulted in a clinical and serological healing from the Sharp syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a benign schwannoma complicated by a possible paraneoplastic Sharp syndrome.

  6. Contact method to allow benign failure in ceramic capacitor having self-clearing feature

    DOEpatents

    Myers, John D; Taylor, Ralph S

    2012-06-26

    A capacitor exhibiting a benign failure mode has a first electrode layer, a first ceramic dielectric layer deposited on a surface of the first electrode, and a second electrode layer disposed on the ceramic dielectric layer, wherein selected areas of the ceramic dielectric layer have additional dielectric material of sufficient thickness to exhibit a higher dielectric breakdown voltage than the remaining majority of the dielectric layer. The added thickness of the dielectric layer in selected areas allows lead connections to be made at the selected areas of greater dielectric thickness while substantially eliminating a risk of dielectric breakdown and failure at the lead connections, whereby the benign failure mode is preserved.

  7. Insights into horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo from a human case report.

    PubMed

    Aron, Margaret; Bance, Manohar

    2013-12-01

    For horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, determination of the pathologic side is difficult and based on many physiological assumptions. This article reports findings on a patient who had one dysfunctional inner ear and who presented with horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, giving us a relatively pure model for observing nystagmus arising in a subject in whom the affected side is known a priori. It is an interesting human model corroborating theories of nystagmus generation in this pathology and also serves to validate Ewald's second law in a living human subject.

  8. Total Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Diseases: What is the Price to be Paid?

    PubMed Central

    Gangappa, Rajashekara Babu; Chowdary, Prashanth Basappa; Patanki, Adithya Malolan; Ishwar, Mahalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Total thyroidectomy has been used to treat patients with malignant thyroid disease. But for patients with benign thyroid disease, the safety and efficacy of total thyroidectomy is a matter of debate. Subtotal thyroidectomy that was previously the treatment of choice for benign thyroid disease has been associated with high recurrence rates. The risk of permanent complications is greatly increased in patients who undergo surgery for recurrence of benign thyroid disease. Total thyroidectomy is an operation that can be safely performed, with low incidence of permanent complications, which allows one to broaden its indications in various benign thyroid diseases, thus avoiding future recurrences and reoperations. Aim To assess the benefits of total thyroidectomy for benign thyroid diseases. Materials and Methods This randomized prospective study was conducted between Feb 2013 and Nov 2014 in the Department of General Surgery at Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute. It included 116 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy procedure for benign thyroid disease. All cases were followed-up for a period of 6 months for incidence of RLN palsy, hypoparathyroidism, disease recurrence and number of incidental malignancies detected on postoperative histological analyses of the thyroid specimens. Results Most of the patients were in the third decade of their lives. The female to male ratio was 6.7:1. Total thyroidectomy was done for 116 benign thyroid diseases with multinodular goiter as the most common diagnosis. The incidence of postoperative hypocalcaemia was 16.37% (however, only 1 patient developed permanent hypocalcaemia) and that of wound infection was 2.58% and seroma formation was 2.58%. None of the patients included in this study had haematoma formation or RLN paralysis. An incidental malignancy was identified in 11.20% patients. Conclusion Total thyroidectomy shows benefits in eradicating multinodular goiter, alleviating Grave’s opthalmopathy

  9. Integrated imaging of hepatic tumors in childhood. Part II. Benign lesions (congenital, reparative, and inflammatory)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Greenspan, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have encountered benign liver masses as frequently as malignant lesions in children with hepatomegaly. Lesions studied included abscesses, cavernous hemangioma/hemangioendothelioma, adenoma of glycogen storage disease, choledochal cysts, focal nodular hyperplasia, cystic hepatoblastoma, and hamartoma. An intergrated imaging protocol involving ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy proved to be more helpful than any one modality in establishing the benign or malignant nature of a hepatic neoplasm and the type of tumor, which is of particular importance when surgical exploration and/or biopsy is contraindicated.

  10. Convective Water Vapor Energy for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Kenneth Jackson; McVary, Kevin T

    2016-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) refers to proliferation of smooth muscle and epithelial cells within the transition zone of the prostate. Half of men over 40 develop histologic BPH. About half of men with BPH develop an enlarged prostate gland, called benign prostatic enlargement; among these, about half develop some degree of bladder outlet obstruction. Bladder outlet obstruction and changes in smooth muscle tone and resistance may result in lower urinary tract symptoms, including storage disturbances (such as daytime urinary urgency, frequency, and nocturia) and voiding disturbances (such as urinary hesitancy, weak urinary stream, straining to void, and prolonged voiding).

  11. Hypocalcemia Masquerading as Schizophreniform Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shivangi; Mehta, Sahil

    2016-01-01

    Among the symptoms of hypocalcemia, tetany, papilledema, and seizures may occur in patients who develop hypocalcemia acutely. We describe a rare case of hypocalcemia presenting as schizophreniform disorder. Among other presentations of hypocalcemia, one should also look for the relation between psychotic symptoms and calcium levels in a patient presenting with psychotic symptoms. PMID:27833232

  12. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma masquerading as pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William H

    2004-11-01

    Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a relatively rare adenocarcinoma that typically arises in the lung periphery and grows along alveolar walls, without destroying the lung parenchyma. It is often multicentric and may arise from a previously stable scar. Because the parenchyma is preserved and because BAC may arise simultaneously in multiple lobes, the chest radiograph and symptoms (cough, chest pain, and sputum production) may be indistinguishable from pneumonia or other noninfectious inflammatory processes (eg, hypersensitivity pneumonitis or bronchiolitis obliterans). The clinician should suspect BAC if what otherwise appears to be pneumonia lacks fever or leukocytosis or does not respond to antibiotics. BAC accounts for 2.6-4.3 % of all lung cancers. On a radiograph, BAC often appears as a solitary nodule, but may also appear as a patchy, lobar or multilobar infiltrates, often with air bronchograms indistinguishable from pneumonia. Positron-emission tomography does not help distinguish BAC from pneumonia. Among BAC patients, 62% present without symptoms and with only an abnormal radiograph, whereas 38% present with symptoms of cough, chest pain, and sputum production. Bronchoscopy is usually normal. Preoperative diagnosis with transbronchial biopsy, bronchoscopic cytology examination, or expectorated sputum cytology is more common with the diffuse or multicentric forms. Cure depends on complete resection. A trial of antibiotics and reassessment of clinical findings is a reasonable approach, but biopsy or cytology is the only means of ruling in malignancy and ruling out other etiologies, so biopsy should always be considered when a presumed pneumonia does not respond to antibiotics. I saw a 61-year-old man whose initial diagnosis was pneumonia. He took a 10-day course of oral azithromycin, but his symptoms and chest radiograph were unchanged. A tomogram showed interstitial prominence and peripheral air-space disease in the right upper and lower lobes. Transbronchial biopsy of the right upper lobe showed Clara cells, with substantial atypia and various nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios. The underlying pulmonary architecture was preserved and no invasive component was seen. The diagnosis was changed to nonmucinous BAC. Pneumonectomy was successful and he was cancer-free for about 10 months, after which the cancer returned and from which he eventually died.

  13. Iliopsoas abscess masquerading as 'sciatica'.

    PubMed

    Shields, D W; Robinson, Patrick G

    2012-12-20

    A 35-year-old woman of Indian origin presented with a 5-month history of lower back pain, radiating down the back of her right leg in distribution of the sciatic nerve. Referral was made to the spinal clinic querying sciatica, but a deterioration in her symptoms developed, and the patient presented to the Accident and Emergency department. She was significantly tender at right sacroiliac joint and had positive psoas sign. The MRI scan showed a large iliopsoas abscess causing bony destruction, and extended culture was positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patient was initially diagnosed with sciatica yet had a positive psoas sign and a painful sacrum. It is important that primary physicians are aware of the relations the iliopsoas muscle and the potential effect an abscess can have here. A sinister underlying cause of a patient's sciatic distribution of pain should be excluded before accepting a diagnosis of mechanical back pain.

  14. Sporotrichosis masquerading as pyoderma gangrenosum.

    PubMed

    Spiers, E M; Hendrick, S J; Jorizzo, J L; Solomon, A R

    1986-06-01

    A 46-year-old man was diagnosed as having pyoderma gangrenosum after special stains and cultures from a skin biopsy specimen were reported as negative. Cutaneous sporotrichosis is usually diagnosed with relative ease on the basis of clinicopathologic features and prompt growth of the fungus in culture, although organisms are difficult to detect in tissue even with special stains. Identification of Sporothrix schenckii was delayed for three months in this patient because of unusual growth characteristics noted in the culture. The report of this patient's clinical course illustrates both the need to frequently reassess the diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum in treatment-resistant patients and the fact that S schenckii may be difficult to diagnose clinically and mycologically if the growth characteristics of the fungus are unusual.

  15. Severe Hypokalemia Masquerading Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Daniel Bogdanov; Sardovski, Svetlozar Ivanov; Milanova, Maria Hristova

    2012-01-01

    An advanced degree of body potassium deficit may produce striking changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG). These changes can result in incidental findings on the 12-lead ECG or precipitate potentially life-threatening dysrhythmias. Although usually readily recognized, at times these abnormalities may be confused with myocardial ischemia. The object was to report a case of severe hypokalemia mimicking myocardial ischemia. A 33-year-old, previously healthy man, presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with a progressive weakness and chest discomfort. The electrocardiogram showed a marked ST-segment depression in leads II, III, aVF, V1-V6. The initial diagnosis was non ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Echocardiography was normal and troponin levels were within normal limits. A more detailed history revealed that the patient had an episode of acute gastroenteritis with diarrhea and vomiting. Serum chemistries were notable for a potassium concentration of 1,8 mmol per liter. With aggressive electrolyte correction, the ECG abnormalities reverted as potassium levels normalized. Hypokalemia induced ST-segment depression may simulate myocardial ischemia. The differential diagnosis might be difficult, especially in the cases when ST changes are accompanied with chest discomfort.

  16. Plague Masquerading as Gastrointestinal Illness

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Harry F.; Montes, Jean M.; Mann, Jonathan M.

    1986-01-01

    In clinical descriptions of human plague, fever and tender lymphadenitis are emphasized and gastrointestinal manifestations are rarely mentioned. A review of 71 human plague cases showed that gastrointestinal symptoms occurred commonly (57%). Vomiting (39%) was the most frequent symptom, with nausea (34%), diarrhea (28%) and abdominal pain (17%) occurring less often. Physicians treating patients who reside in or have recently visited plague-endemic areas should include plague in the differential diagnosis in the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and fever. PMID:3788132

  17. Novel Use of a Uniquely Designed, Lumen-Apposing, Metal Stent in Benign Gastric Outlet Obstruction in Two Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pathirana, Induruwa; Magulick, John; Domanski, Jeremy; Okoh, Emuejevoke; Womeldorph, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend management of benign gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) with serial dilations. Self-expanding metal stents are effective, but their use is complicated by high rates of migration. We present two cases from our institution where a uniquely designed, lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) was successfully used to alleviate benign GOO without stent migration. PMID:28184377

  18. [The variety of symptoms in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo--revision].

    PubMed

    Pollak, Lea

    2013-02-01

    Despite its frequent occurrence and effective treatment options, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) still remains underestimated in the community. Acquaintance of the physician with the various presentation symptoms assists in recognition of the entity. We report the complaints and subjective outcome in our cohort of BPPV patients and discuss the possible origin of the atypical, but common, symptoms.

  19. Further Evidence That the CFTR Variant c.2620-6T>C Is Benign.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Violet I; Wallerstein, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The c.2620-6T>C variant in the CFTR gene is a rare variant about which little is known. We present an asymptomatic adult who has this variant as well as the well described delta F508 pathogenic variant in transpresentation. This patient provides additional evidence that this is a benign polymorphism.

  20. Further Evidence That the CFTR Variant c.2620-6T>C Is Benign

    PubMed Central

    Wallerstein, Violet I.

    2017-01-01

    The c.2620-6T>C variant in the CFTR gene is a rare variant about which little is known. We present an asymptomatic adult who has this variant as well as the well described delta F508 pathogenic variant in transpresentation. This patient provides additional evidence that this is a benign polymorphism. PMID:28163942