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Sample records for benign prostatahyperplasi gennemgang

  1. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Condition Family HealthMenWomen Share Benign Paroxysmal Positional ...

  2. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  3. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  4. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  5. The Benign Hamburger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peaslee, Graham; Lantz, Juliette M.; Walczak, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a case study of food poisoning from hamburgers at the fictitious Jill-at-the-Grill to teach the nuclear science behind food irradiation. Includes case teaching notes on the benign hamburger. (ASK)

  6. Aqueduct stenosis-?Benign.

    PubMed

    Allan, Rodney; Chaseling, Raymond; Graf, Nicole; Dexter, Mark

    2005-02-01

    'Benign' aqueduct stenosis is a common cause of hydrocephalus in the paediatric population and is frequently treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Occasionally, aqueduct stenosis can be a prelude to the development of other pathology, as is seen in these two cases of pineal tumours developing in patients whose hydrocephalus was successfully treated with endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The case histories are presented, along with the recommendation for increased radiological screening of patients with this usually 'benign' presentation.

  7. Developmental Venous Anomaly: Benign or Not Benign

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Rie; SRIVATANAKUL, Kittipong

    2016-01-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), previously called venous angiomas, are the most frequently encountered cerebral vascular malformations. However, DVA is considered to be rather an extreme developmental anatomical variation of medullary veins than true malformation. DVAs are composed of dilated medullary veins converging centripetally into a large collecting venous system that drains into the superficial or deep venous system. Their etiology and mechanism are generally accepted that DVAs result from the focal arrest of the normal parenchymal vein development or occlusion of the medullary veins as a compensatory venous system. DVAs per se are benign and asymptomatic except for under certain unusual conditions. The pathomechanisms of symptomatic DVAs are divided into mechanical, flow-related causes, and idiopathic. However, in cases of DVAs associated with hemorrhage, cavernous malformations (CMs) are most often the cause rather than DVAs themselves. The coexistence of CM and DVA is common. There are some possibilities that DVA affects the formation and clinical course of CM because CM related to DVA is generally located within the drainage territory of DVA and is more aggressive than isolated CM in the literature. Brain parenchymal abnormalities surrounding DVA and cerebral varix have also been reported. These phenomena are considered to be the result of venous hypertension associated with DVAs. With the advance of diagnostic imagings, perfusion study supports this hypothesis demonstrating that some DVAs have venous congestion pattern. Although DVAs should be considered benign and clinically silent, they can have potential venous hypertension and can be vulnerable to hemodynamic changes. PMID:27250700

  8. Benign cutaneous Degos disease.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, Mozheh; Jarrett, Paul; Snow, John

    2005-08-01

    A 24-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of a recurrent asymptomatic rash characterized by small erythematous papules which evolved to form atrophic porcelain white scars with a telangectatic rim. She had never had gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms. A short trial of aspirin did not alter the behavior of the disease. Histology confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Degos disease. Degos disease is a rare disorder that has been classified into the benign or malignant variety. The malignant type has a poor prognosis. Gastrointestinal involvement is the most frequent cause of death. The existence of patients with a prolonged, purely cutaneous or benign form has been increasingly recognized. It may be impossible to classify a patient at the time of initial presentation. Her progress is consistent with the benign form.

  9. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) BPPV is the most common vestibular disorder. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (or BPPV) is the most common cause of ...

  10. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R J

    1997-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of benign prostatic hyperplasia reflects a complex interplay between benign prostatic enlargement, which will affect almost all men by the age of 80, and the resulting outlet obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms. The disease is now known to adversely affect the quality of life of around one man in three over the age of 50. New medical treatments and new surgical interventions are challenging the previous standard treatment of transurethral resection of prostate, which continues to have a morbidity of 17% and some mortality. Primary care will be increasingly involved in shared care with particular emphasis on monitoring of patients on watchful waiting medical therapy- and following operative intervention. PMID:9196969

  11. Benign cutaneous Degos' disease.

    PubMed

    Ojeda Cuchillero, R M; Sánchez Regaña, M; Umbert Millet, P

    2003-03-01

    Malignant atrophic papulosis is a rare systemic vaso-occlusive disorder characterized by thrombosis of vessels of the dermis, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and, occasionally, other organs. Cutaneous lesions consist of erythematous, dome-shaped papules that develop a central area of necrosis to leave a porcelain-like scar. The most accepted theory of pathogenesis is based on endothelial cell damage. There is no effective treatment of the disease. We describe a 26-year-old man with Degos' disease, a diagnosis based on the clinical and histologic pattern of skin lesions. The good response to antiplatelet therapy and the absence of systemic involvement over 8 years' follow-up is noteworthy. We believe that this case represents the benign form of the disease, typically referred to as benign cutaneous Degos' disease.

  12. Environmentally Benign Pyrotechnic Delays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    jay.poret@us.army.mil † School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA ABSTRACT Pyrotechnic delays are used in...benign formulations are described. The delay time of the new system is easily tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum ...tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum housings which is generally difficult for delay compositions due to extreme thermal

  13. Benign familial hyperphosphatasemia

    SciTech Connect

    Siraganian, P.A.; Mulvihill, J.J.; Mulivor, R.A.; Miller, R.W. )

    1989-03-03

    Elevated alkaline phosphatase activity in serum suggests bone or liver disease or a neoplasm but can also indicate pregnancy or another benign condition. A family with benign hyperphosphatasemia was studied to elucidate the genetics and enzyme defect. Serum total alkaline phosphatase activity was greater than the population mean in all six family members, and more than 7 SDs above the mean in two of four offspring. Monoclonal antibodies to three alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes, intestinal, placental, and tissue nonspecific demonstrated markedly increased intestinal alkaline phosphatase levels in all family members and significantly elevated liver/bone/kidney activity in the two offspring. Guanidine hydrochloride denaturation of the liver/bone/kidney component showed high alkaline phosphatase activity from liver in both siblings and from bone in one. The mode of inheritance in this family is obscure, but a complex regulation of the products of two different alkaline phosphatase genes seems likely. Steps toward diagnosis are suggested. Early recognition of this benign biochemical abnormality should help to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests.

  14. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    von Brevern, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common and the most effectively treated vestibular disorder. The prevailing pathomechanism is canalolithiasis, which is otoconia falling in one of the semicircular canals where they move in response to changes of the head position, triggering excitation of the vestibular receptors of the affected canal. In the majority of patients with BPPV, the posterior canal is affected by canalolithiasis and there are two highly effective therapeutic maneuvers for treatment. About 20% of patients present with lithiasis of the horizontal or anterior canal. The author focuses on recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of the more rare variants of BPPV.

  15. Benign follicular tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, José Carlos; Reis, José Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Baptista, António Poiares

    2015-01-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dubé, Rombo and Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients. PMID:26734858

  16. Benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may affect up to 30% of men in their early 70s, causing urinary symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction. Symptoms can improve without treatment, but the usual course is a slow progression of symptoms, with acute urinary retention occurring in 1-2% of men with BPH per year. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical, surgical, and herbal treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to May 2005 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 43 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, alpha-blockers, beta-sitosterol plant extract, less-invasive surgical techniques, pygeum africanum, rye grass pollen extract, saw palmetto plant extracts, transurethral microwave thermotherapy, transurethral needle ablation, and transurethral resection.

  17. Benign Breast Problems and Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a needle. Another example is a simple fibroadenoma . Simple fibroadenomas usually shrink or go away on their own. ... Cyst: A sac or pouch filled with fluid. Fibroadenoma: A type of solid, benign breast mass. Hormone: ...

  18. Pharmacotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, P; Indudhara, R

    1994-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a benign neoplasm of the prostate seen in men of advancing age. Microscopic evidence of the disorder is seen in about 70% of men by 70 years of age, whereas symptoms requiring some form of surgical intervention occur in 30% of men during their lifetime. Although the exact cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia is not clear, it is well recognized that high levels of intraprostatic androgens are required for the maintenance of prostatic growth. In recent years, extensive surveys of patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate reveal an 18% incidence of morbidity that has essentially not changed in the past 30 years. This procedure is also the second highest reimbursed surgical therapy under Medicare. These findings have resulted in an intensive search for alternative therapies for prostatic hyperplasia. An alternative that has now been well defined is the use of alpha-adrenergic blockers to relax the prostatic urethra. This is based on findings that a major component of benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms is spasm of the prostatic urethra and bladder neck, which is mediated by the alpha-adrenergic nerves. A second approach is to block androgens involved in maintaining prostate growth. Several such drugs are now available for clinical use, and we discuss their side effects and use. We also include the newer recommendations on evaluating benign prostatic hyperplasia that are cost-effective yet comprehensive. Images PMID:7528957

  19. Cholesterol and benign prostate disease.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association between BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept.

  20. Cholesterol and Benign Prostate Disease

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Michael R.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association bet ween BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemi, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept. PMID:21862201

  1. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A E

    2006-07-07

    The coupling of energetic metallic multilayers (a.k.a. flash metal) with energetic sol-gel synthesis and processing is an entirely new approach to forming energetic devices for several DoD and DOE needs. They are also practical and commercially viable manufacturing techniques. Improved occupational safety and health, performance, reliability, reproducibility, and environmentally acceptable processing can be achieved using these methodologies and materials. The development and fielding of this technology will enhance mission readiness and reduce the costs, environmental risks and the necessity of resolving environmental concerns related to maintaining military readiness while simultaneously enhancing safety and health. Without sacrificing current performance, we will formulate new impact initiated device (IID) compositions to replace materials from the current composition that pose significant environmental, health, and safety problems associated with functions such as synthesis, material receipt, storage, handling, processing into the composition, reaction products from testing, and safe disposal. To do this, we will advance the use of nanocomposite preparation via the use of multilayer flash metal and sol-gel technologies and apply it to new small IIDs. This work will also serve to demonstrate that these technologies and resultant materials are relevant and practical to a variety of energetic needs of DoD and DOE. The goal will be to produce an IID whose composition is acceptable by OSHA, EPA, the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Recovery Act, etc. standards, without sacrificing current performance. The development of environmentally benign stab detonators and igniters will result in the removal of hazardous and toxic components associated with their manufacturing, handling, and use. This will lead to improved worker safety during manufacturing as well as reduced exposure of Service personnel during their storage and or use in operations. The

  2. Radiotherapy of unusual benign disease

    SciTech Connect

    Aristizabel, S.A.; Runyon, T.D.

    1981-10-01

    Four different case reports are presented with a review of the literature in which radiation therapy was used for the treatment of four rare benign diseases: pyogenic granuloma of the middle ear, juvenile xanthogranuloma of the iris, a fourth ventricle choroid plexus papilloma, and an ovarian lymphangioma associated with peritoneal lymphangiomatosis. A trial of radiation therapy was given in each case, because of extenuating circumstances. We hope that the information presented here will contribute to current guidelines used in weighting patient benefits versus potential risks of therapy when ionizing radiation is considered as a mode of therapy for benign disorders.

  3. [Benign stenosis of the esophagus].

    PubMed

    Salis, G; Lazaroni, F; Chiocca, J C; Mazure, P A; Sferco, A

    1978-09-01

    In the present study 39 patients with benign esphageal stenosis were studied (average age 59,9 years). The most common etiology was refux esofagitis, and the most common associated pathology was esophageal hiatus hernia. Thirty one patients received medical treatment (diet. antireflux drugs and dilatations.) Twenty four were dilated with the slow continuous method, six with metalic bougies. One patient was not dilated. Seven patients were not treated since the stenosis was due to extrinsec compression. One patient was surgically treated from the onset. Seventy percent of the patients had goods results with esophageal dilatation. We propose that patients with benign esophageal stenosis should be treated by the slow continuous dilatation method.

  4. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Roehrborn, Claus G

    2005-01-01

    Despite the deceptively simple description of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the actual relationship between BPH, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), benign prostatic enlargement, and bladder outlet obstruction is complex and requires a solid understanding of the definitional issues involved. The etiology of BPH and LUTS is still poorly understood, but the hormonal hypothesis has many arguments in its favor. There are many medical and minimally invasive treatment options available for affected patients. In the intermediate and long term, minimally invasive treatment options are superior to medical therapy in terms of symptom and flow rate improvement; tissue ablative surgical treatment options are superior to both minimally invasive and medical therapy. PMID:16985902

  5. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bony tumor of the ear canal Images Ear anatomy References Nicolai P, Castelnuovo P. Benign tumors of the sinonasal tract. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  6. Benign External Hydrocephalus in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Adele Marino, Maria; Morabito, Rosa; Vinci, Sergio; Germanò, Antonino; Briguglio, Marilena; Alafaci, Concetta; Mormina, Enricomaria; Longo, Marcello; Granata, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Summary External hydrocephalus (EH) is a benign clinical entity in which macrocephaly is associated with an increase in volume of the subarachnoid space, especially overlying both frontal lobes, and a normal or only slight increase in volume of the lateral ventricles. Several pathogenic hypotheses have been proposed but the most accredited theory seems to be delayed maturation of the arachnoid villi. There is a consensus that this is a benign entity, correlated to a familial predisposition and, in some cases, inheritance. CT and MRI are very important to make a diagnosis but also to establish the prognosis in patients who encounter the rare complications such as subdural haematomas. In conclusion, CT and MRI can provide a highly accurate diagnosis in these patients, allowing a preliminary assessment of the prognosis, particularly regarding the enlarged subarachnoid space limits and the “cortical vein" sign which can predict a further complication. These results are obtained with the same examination performed in a standard CT or MRI study of the brain and no injection of contrast medium is needed. PMID:24750715

  7. Concussion or benign paroxysmal torticollis?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who presented to the trauma service on 3 occasions over the course of 2 years, each time with symptoms typical of concussion (e.g., crying, change in mentation, and vomiting). On more in-depth evaluation, it was discovered that the child had torticollis, pallor, and brief dizziness or vertigo with each episode. Benign paroxysmal torticollis is a periodic, paroxysmal syndrome that may be mistaken for the more common concussion. In addition to illustrating a uniquely pediatric neurological syndrome, this case demonstrates the importance of taking a careful history and considering a full range of differential diagnoses when evaluating every patient, even those with seemingly routine injuries.

  8. [Phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Bracher, F

    1997-01-01

    Phytopharmaceutical agents have been used for a long time in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, until recently, it has been questioned whether phytotherapy is superior to a placebo treatment. In this article, the most widely used phytopharmaceutical agents, such as saw palmetto berry extracts, Radix urticae extracts, pumpkin seeds, pollen extracts and different phytosterols, are described. In addition, both in vitro and in vivo studies are discussed in an attempt to explain a possible mechanism of action. There are several new clinical studies which demonstrate a significant benefit compared with placebo treatment. Based on these results, the use of phytopharmaceutical agents for the treatment of mild to moderate symptomatic BPH seems to be well justified. So far, no significant inhibition of further prostate growth has been demonstrated. For this, a careful follow-up of the patients is necessary so as not to miss a deterioration and perhaps the need for an operation.

  9. [Radiotherapy of benign intracranial tumors].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Latorzeff, I; Chand, M E; Huchet, A; Dupin, C; Colin, P

    2016-09-01

    Most of the benign intracranial tumors are meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and glomus tumors. Some of them grow very slowly, and can be observed without specific treatment, especially if they are asymptomatic. Symptomatic or growing tumors are treated by surgery, which is the reference treatment. When surgery is not possible, due to the location of the lesion, or general conditions, radiotherapy can be applied, as it is if there is a postoperative growing residual tumor, or a local relapse. Indications have to be discussed in polydisciplinary meetings, with precise evaluation of the benefit and risks of the treatments. The techniques to be used are the most modern ones, as multimodal imaging and image-guided radiation therapy. Stereotactic treatments, using fractionated or single doses depending on the size or the location of the tumors, are commonly realized, to avoid as much a possible the occurrence of late side effects.

  10. Benign lesions of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Tran, L P; Grundfast, K M; Selesnick, S H

    1996-10-01

    Benign mass lesions of the external auditory canal, such as exostoses and osteomas, are common findings on physical examination but most often do not require treatment. The differential diagnosis of lesions in the external auditory canal, however, should not be limited to those benign processes discussed here, but should also include infectious, dermatologic, congenital, and malignant processes.

  11. Malignant Transformation of Pulmonary Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung Sub; Keum, Dong Yoon; Hwang, Il Seon

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML) is defined as metastasis of a leiomyoma to lung tissue. It was first reported in 1937. P BML is known as a benign disease, but can undergo malignant transformation. Only 1 case of the malignant transformation of PBML to leiomyosarcoma has been reported previously. In this report, we present a case of malignant transformation of PBML. PMID:28180107

  12. Benign Hereditary Chorea: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Peall, Kathryn J.; Kurian, Manju A.

    2015-01-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is a childhood-onset, hyperkinetic movement disorder normally with little progression of motor symptoms into adult life. The disorder is caused by mutations to the NKX2.1 (TITF1) gene and also forms part of the “brain–lung–thyroid syndrome”, in which additional developmental abnormalities of lung and thyroid tissue are observed. In this review, we summarize the main clinical findings in “classical” BHC syndrome and discuss more recently reported atypical features, including non-choreiform movement phenotypes. We highlight additional non-motor characteristics such as cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms, while discussing the evidence for BHC as a developmental disorder involving impaired neural migration and other multisystem developmental abnormalities. Finally, we will discuss the efficacy of available therapies in both affected pediatric and adult cohorts. Delineation of the BHC disease spectrum will no doubt expand our understanding of this disorder, facilitating better targeting of genetic testing and establish a framework for future clinical trials. PMID:26196025

  13. Management of Benign Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F.

    2002-12-15

    Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  14. Oxidative stress in benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Zabaiou, N; Mabed, D; Lobaccaro, J M; Lahouel, M

    2016-02-01

    To assess the status of oxidative stress in benign prostate hyperplasia, a very common disease in older men which constitutes a public health problem in Jijel, prostate tissues were obtained by transvesical adenomectomy from 10 men with benign prostate hyperplasia. We measured the cytosolic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) and cytosolic enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase. The development of benign prostate hyperplasia is accompanied by impaired oxidative status by increasing levels of MDA, depletion of GSH concentrations and a decrease in the activity of all the antioxidant enzymes studied. These results have allowed us to understand a part of the aetiology of benign prostate hyperplasia related to oxidative stress.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Close All Description Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) is characterized by episodes of liver dysfunction called ... a lack of appetite. A common feature of BRIC is the reduced absorption of fat in the ...

  16. ENVIRONMENTALLY-BENIGN MULTIPHASE CATALYSIS. (R826034)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental concerns stemming from the use of conventional solvents and from hazardous waste generation have propelled research efforts aimed at developing benign chemical processing techniques that either eliminate or significantly mitigate pollution at the source. This pap...

  17. Percutaneous ablation of benign bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Welch, Brian T; Welch, Timothy J

    2011-09-01

    Percutaneous image-guided ablation has become a standard of practice and one of the primary modalities for treatment of benign bone tumors. Ablation is most commonly used to treat osteoid osteomas but may also be used in the treatment of chondroblastomas, osteoblastomas, and giant cell tumors. Percutaneous image-guided ablation of benign bone tumors carries a high success rate (>90% in case series) and results in decreased morbidity, mortality, and expense compared with traditional surgical methods. The ablation technique most often applied to benign bone lesions is radiofrequency ablation. Because the ablation technique has been extensively applied to osteoid osteomas and because of the uncommon nature of other benign bone tumors, we will primarily focus this discussion on the percutaneous ablation of osteoid osteomas.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Environmentally Benign Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been a growing interest in replacing current non-biodegradable and toxic nanosystems with environmentally benign biopolymer based ones to minimize post-utilization hazards due to uncontrolled accumulation of nanoparticles in the environment. Lignin based nanoparticles (...

  19. Oral benign fibrous histiocytoma: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Fibrous histiocytoma is a benign soft tissue tumour arising as a fibrous mass everywhere in the human body. The involvement of the oral cavity is rare. We report two cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma that localized in the oral cavity. The clinical and histological features of the lesion are reported. Finally, a literature revision of this pathology at the level of the oral cavity is reported. PMID:20066060

  20. Endobronchial ultrasound: morphological predictors of benign disease.

    PubMed

    Gogia, Pratibha; Insaf, Tabassum Z; McNulty, William; Boutou, Afroditi; Nicholson, Andrew G; Zoumot, Zaid; Shah, Pallav L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the utility of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) morphology of lymph nodes in predicting benign cytology of transbronchial needle aspirates in a prospective observational study. Five ultrasonic morphological characteristics of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes were recorded: size, shape, margins, echogenic appearance and the presence of a central blood vessel. These characteristics were correlated with the final diagnosis. A total of 402 consecutive patients (237 males and 165 females) undergoing EBUS were studied. The final diagnosis was malignant disease in 244 (60.6%) and benign disease in 153 (38.05%) subjects. Out of 740 sampled nodes, in 463 (62.6%) malignant cells were identified, whereas in 270 (36.5%) nodes, no malignant cells were identified. On univariate analysis small size, triangular shape and the presence of a central vessel were predictive of a benign aetiology. In the final multivariate model, a predictive probability of 0.811 (95% CI 0.72-0.91) for benign disease was found if lymph node size was <10 mm and a central vessel was present. Sonographic appearances of lymph nodes improve the predictive probability of EBUS for benign aetiologies, and may reduce the number of nodes requiring sampling and the need for further invasive investigations.

  1. Benign bone tumors--recent developments.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Roberto A; Inwards, Carrie Y; Unni, Krishnan K

    2011-02-01

    Benign bone tumors frequently pose a diagnostic challenge for general surgical pathologists. Accurate pathologic diagnosis requires careful clinical and radiological correlation. The most significant recent advances in some benign bone tumors have occurred at the molecular and cytogenetic level. The detection of clonal chromosomal aberrations, various specific molecular genetic events, and the description of the bone cell signaling pathways in the field of osteoimmunology have provided a better understanding of the pathophysiology of certain tumors and an important aid in the diagnostic workup and differential diagnosis of some bone lesions demonstrating overlapping clinical and pathologic features. Future directions include prognostic and therapeutic applications of these findings. Newer less invasive therapeutic techniques and medical management have been developed for the treatment of certain benign bone tumors.

  2. [Modern pharmacotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław; Szkróbka, Witold; Herman, Zbigniew Stanisław

    2005-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most common medical problem affecting elderly men throughout the world. With increasing awareness of health issues amongst males, the morbidity caused by this disease is not longer being accepted as just part of growing old. Until about 10 years ago, surgery was the only effective treatment for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Now, many men suffering from this disorder may be effectively treated with a medical therapy. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and safety of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists and herbal remedies, putting special emphasis on the current place of these agents in the modem therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Wherever possible, our opinion is based on the detailed analysis of the results of available clinical trials.

  3. Radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Stacul, F; Zecchin, M; Dobrinja, C; Zanconati, F; Fabris, B

    2016-09-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are an extremely common occurrence. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is gaining ground as an effective technique for their treatment, in case they become symptomatic. Here we review what are the current indications to RFA, its outcomes in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and cost, and also how it compares to the other conventional and experimental treatment modalities for benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, we will also address the issue of treating with this technique patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), as it is a rather frequent occurrence that has never been addressed in detail in the literature.

  4. Osteoid osteoma and benign osteoblastoma in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Levick, R K; Sharrard, W J

    1979-01-01

    Three cases of osteoid osteoma and one of benign osteoblastoma in children are described. The main complaint was severe pain which was worse at night; it was relieved by aspirin or other analgesics. The diagnosis was made on clinical and radiological grounds and was confirmed on histological examination of the central nidus removed at operation. The pain was relieved in the patients with osteoid osteoma, and it was very much less after operative removal of the benign osteoblastoma. Both conditions are probably variations of the same disease process, depending on the anatomical site and the type of bone affected. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:475430

  5. Unusual Benign Tumors of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Adrada, Beatriz E; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Carkaci, Selin; Posleman-Monetto, Flavia E; Ewere, Adesuwa; Whitman, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the imaging characteristics of a variety of benign breast tumors that may be encountered in daily practice, in order to formulate an appropriate differential diagnosis and to establish concordance between the imaging and the pathologic findings, and to assist the clinician with appropriate management. PMID:26085959

  6. Imaging features of benign adrenal cysts.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Kocaoglu, Murat; Yildirim, Duzgun; Bulakbasi, Nail; Guvenc, Inanc; Tayfun, Cem; Ucoz, Taner

    2006-12-01

    Benign adrenal gland cysts (BACs) are rare lesions with a variable histological spectrum and may mimic not only each other but also malignant ones. We aimed to review imaging features of BACs which can be helpful in distinguishing each entity and determining the subsequent appropriate management.

  7. Huge benign mesenchymoma in pharynx-esophagus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Omo, Alfred; Liu, Ligang; Liu, Lisi; Tang, Yinxiong; Pan, Tiecheng

    2006-06-01

    Benign mesenchymoma is an uncommon neoplastic disease and its occurrence in pharynx-esophagus is even more rarely reported. A successful case operation is reported. The origin of this tumor was in the pharynx-esophagus, and complete excision was achieved through a laterocervical approach.

  8. Congenital epulis: A rare benign tumour.

    PubMed

    Wong, D K C; Ramli, R; Muhaizan, W M; Primuharsa Putra, S H A

    2016-10-01

    Congenital epulis is a rare benign pedunculated tumour of the oral cavity arising from the alveolar ridges. It is usually detected in newborns and can be successfully resected surgically. We report a case of a newborn baby who had a 5x3x3cm pedunculated lobar mass arising from the upper alveolar ridge.

  9. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: from Bench to Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Ju

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease, especially in old men, and often results in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This chronic disease has important care implications and financial risks to the health care system. LUTS are caused not only by mechanical prostatic obstruction but also by the dynamic component of obstruction. The exact etiology of BPH and its consequences, benign prostatic enlargement and benign prostatic obstruction, are not identified. Various theories concerning the causes of benign prostate enlargement and LUTS, such as metabolic syndrome, inflammation, growth factors, androgen receptor, epithelial-stromal interaction, and lifestyle, are discussed. Incomplete overlap of prostatic enlargement with symptoms and obstruction encourages focus on symptoms rather than prostate enlargement and the shifting from surgery to medicine as the treatment of BPH. Several alpha antagonists, including alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, have shown excellent efficacy without severe adverse effects. In addition, new alpha antagonists, silodosin and naftopidil, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are emerging as BPH treatments. In surgical treatment, laser surgery such as photoselective vaporization of the prostate and holmium laser prostatectomy have been introduced to reduce complications and are used as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy. The status of TURP as the gold standard treatment of BPH is still evolving. We review several preclinical and clinical studies about the etiology of BPH and treatment options. PMID:22468207

  10. A novel benign solution for collagen processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoult, Olivier

    Collagen is the main protein constituting the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tissues in the body (skin, cartilage, blood vessels...). It exists many types of collagen, this work studies only fibrillar collagen (e.g. collagen type I contained in the skin) that exhibits a triple helical structure composed of 3 alpha-helical collagen chains. This particular and defined hierarchical structure is essential to the biological and mechanical properties of the collagen. Processing collagen into scaffolds to mimic the ECM is crucial for successful tissue engineering. Recently collagen was processed into fibrous and porous scaffold using electrospinning process. However the solvent (HFIP) used for electrospinning is extremely toxic for the user and expensive. This work shows that HFIP can be replaced by a benign mixture composed of water, salt and alcohol. Yet only three alcohols (methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol) enable the dissolution of large quantity of collagen in the benign mixture, with a wide range of alcohol to buffer ratio, and conserve the collagen hierarchical structure at least as well as the HFIP. Collagen can be electrospun from the benign mixture into sub-micron fibers with concentrations as low as 6 wt-% for a wide range of alcohol to buffer ratio, with at least 10wt-% of salt, and any of the three alcohols. Specific conditions yield nano size fibers. After processing from HFIP or a benign mixture, collagen is water soluble and needs to be chemically crosslink for tissue engineering application. Post-crosslinking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) results in the loss of the scaffold fibrous aspect and porosity, hence it is useless for tissue engineering. Such issue could be prevented by incorporating the crosslinker into the mixture prior to electrospinning. When EDC is used alone, collagen forms a gel in the mixture within minutes, preventing electrospinning. The addition of N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) in excess to EDC

  11. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Koc, Eltaf Ayca Ozbal; Koc, Bulent; Eryaman, Esra; Ozluoglu, Levent N

    2013-01-01

    We present 2 cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) following septorhinoplasty. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following septorhinoplasty is an unusual entity. Two young women who had difficulty in breathing and nasal deformity underwent septorhinoplasty. On the second and the third postoperative days, the patients experienced vertigo that was induced by position changes. Both patients had neither preexisting ear disease nor vertigo before the surgery. All the examinations were normal. With Dix-Hallpike maneuver, which is the criterion-standard test, the characteristic nystagmus was observed. Right posterior canal BPPV was diagnosed, and they were both treated with Epley canalith repositioning maneuver. Publications related to postsurgical vertigo are available in literature, but it is still an underdiagnosed disorder. We would like to mention about this rare entity and inform the surgeons that they must keep in mind that a patient who is complaining about vertigo or dizziness after the surgery should be observed and investigated for BPPV.

  12. Benign recurrent VI nerve palsy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bixenman, W W; von Noorden, G K

    1981-01-01

    The case of a child with six documented episodes of benign recurrent unilateral VI nerve palsy between the ages of 2 1/2 months and 3 years is presented. Despite the recognized self-limiting course of this disorder, its possible evolution into a comitant esotropia makes close follow-up mandatory. The practical aspects of management including maintenance occlusion therapy are stressed as well as the need for prompt surgical intervention once the acquired stabismus has become stabilized. The etiology of benign VI nerve palsy of childhood may have the same immunological basis as other cases of para-infectious neuropathy. This isolated postinfective cranial mononeuropathy easily blends into the continuum of neurological involvement seen with the Landry-Guillian-Barre syndrome. With recovery from the initial episode, the abducens nerve may have become predisposed to recurrent inflammatory episodes and recurrent loss of function. Most often these recurrences are triggered by febrile illnesses of childhood.

  13. Laser Thermal Ablation of Thyroid Benign Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Shahrzad, Mohammad Karim

    2015-01-01

    Thermal ablation therapies for benign thyroid nodules have been introduced in recent years to avoid the complications of traditional methods such as surgery. Despite the little complications and the reportedly acceptable efficacy of thermal ablation methods, quite few medical centers have sought the potential benefits of employing them. This paper provides an introduction to the literature, principles and advances of Percutaneous Laser Ablation therapy of thyroid benign nodules, as well as a discussion on its efficacy, complications and future. Several clinical research papers evaluating the thermal effect of laser on the alleviation of thyroid nodules have been reviewed to illuminate the important points. The results of this research can help researchers to advance the approach and medical centers to decide on investing in these novel therapies. PMID:26705459

  14. [Surgical treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Y; Grosjean, P; Maire, R

    2012-10-03

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common disorder that presents to the general practitioner. This condition represents one of the most common causes of peripheral vertigo. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds. The treatment relies on repositioning maneuvers with relief of symptoms that occur in a few weeks in the majority of the cases. Rarely, patients are incapacitated by persistent or recurrent BPPV despite multiple repositioning maneuvers. In these cases, surgical therapies are available which provide excellent results.

  15. Management of familial benign chronic pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Harleen; Bray, Fleta N; Cervantes, Jessica; Falto Aizpurua, Leyre A

    2016-01-01

    Benign familial chronic pemphigus or Hailey–Hailey disease is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in the ATP2C1 gene leading to suprabasilar acantholysis. The disease most commonly affects intertriginous areas symmetrically. The chronic nature of the disease and multiple recurrences make the disease bothersome for patients and a treatment challenge for physicians. Treatments include topical and/or systemic agents and surgery including laser. This review summarizes the available treatment options. PMID:27695354

  16. Surgical treatment of benign endobronchial tumours

    PubMed Central

    Halttunen, P; Meurala, H; Standertskjöld-Nordenstam, C-G

    1982-01-01

    Four cases of benign endobronchial tumour are reported which were successfully treated by bronchial resection. In two cases (of fibroma and leiomyoma respectively) a cylinder of bronchus alone was resected; in one case (lipoma) a healthy right upper lobe was preserved by a bronchoplastic procedure and in the other (chondroma) the tumour was removed with the right lower lobe, which was irreversibly damaged. It is important to recognise that such tumours are unsuitable for treatment by endoscopic means alone. Images PMID:7157223

  17. Hemorrhagic, calcified, and ossified benign retroperitoneal schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shao-Yan; Sun, Ke; Xie, Hai-Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shu-Sen; Wang, Wei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Schwannomas are mesenchymal tumors arising from the neural sheaths of peripheral nerves. They can almost develop in any part of the body, while head, neck and extremities are the most common sites. Occurrence in the retroperitoneum is rare. Schwannomas can show secondary degenerative changes including cyst formation, hyalinization, hemorrhage, and calcification, whereas the ossified retroperitoneal schwannoma was only reported in a malignant one. Case summary: We first present a benign ossified retroperitoneal schwannoma in a 61-year-old female. The mass was found by a routine health examination. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-defined mass in the area among duodenum, right liver, and kidney. Definitive preoperative diagnosis of the mass was difficult. By laparotomy, the mass was found in the retroperitoneum. We completely removed the tumor and gross specimen showed a mass with a capsule and 6 × 6 × 4.8 cm in size. Microscopic examination showed the tumor is composed of spindle-shaped cells with degenerative changes of hemorrhage, calcification, and ossification. Immunohistochemically, S-100 protein was strongly positive. Finally, the mass was diagnosed as a hemorrhagic, calcified, and ossified benign schwannoma in the retroperitoneum. The patient was followed up for a period of 21 months, during which she was well with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: We report the first case of a benign retroperitoneal schwannoma with secondary degenerative changes including hemorrhage, calcification, and ossification. Precise preoperative diagnosis of the tumor is challenging even with multiple preoperative imaging modalities. After complete resection, patients with benign retroperitoneal schwanommas generally have good prognosis. PMID:27472709

  18. Laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal benign neurilemmoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Seong; Kang, Chang Moo; Yoon, Dong Sup; Lee, Woo Jung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to verify that laparoscopic resection for treating retroperitoneal benign neurilemmoma (NL) is expected to be favorable for complete resection of tumor with technical feasibility and safety. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 47 operations for retroperitoneal neurogenic tumor at Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital and Gangnam Severance Hospital between January 2005 and September 2015. After excluding 21 patients, the remaining 26 were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent open surgery (OS) and those who underwent laparoscopic surgery (LS). We compared clinicopathological features between the 2 groups. Results There was no significant difference in operation time, estimated blood loss, transfusion, complication, recurrence, or follow-up period between 2 groups. Postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the LS group versus the OS group (OS vs. LS, 7.00 ± 3.43 days vs. 4.50 ± 2.16 days; P = 0.031). Conclusion We suggest that laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal benign NL is feasible and safe by obtaining complete resection of the tumor. LS for treating retroperitoneal benign NL could be useful with appropriate laparoscopic technique and proper patient selection. PMID:28289669

  19. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Gee, J.M.; Menna, P.; Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V.

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  20. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for benign adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, T; Inaba, M; Nishiguchi, Y; Ishibashi, R; Ogisawa, K; Yukimoto, K; Ogawa, Y; Onoda, N; Hirakawa, K; Chung, Y S

    2000-06-01

    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has been rapidly accepted for treatment of benign adrenal tumors. To evaluate the advantages of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, we examined 55 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy. In all patients, adrenal tumors were successfully removed. The mean operating time was 143 minutes, and the estimated mean blood loss was 49 mL in all patients. The postoperative course was uneventful in all cases. The mean frequency of administration of analgesics was only 2.9 times, and the time elapsed to first walking after surgery was 17 hours. The peak white blood cell count and C-reactive protein values after surgery were 8,266 +/- 1,963/mm3 and 2.5 +/- 1.2 mg/dL, respectively. Of the 55 patients, 44 underwent total adrenalectomy and another 11 underwent partial adrenalectomy, which was introduced in the expectation of preserving normal adrenal cortex; it is therefore indicated in solitary and peripherally located benign tumors. The mean operating time was 154 minutes for the total adrenalectomy, which was longer than that of partial adrenalectomy (92 minutes). The estimated blood loss was 50 mL for the total and 46 mL for the partial adrenalectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful and surgical outcome was excellent in each group. In conclusion, our results are encouraging enough to suggest that laparoscopic adrenalectomy should be a preferential therapeutic option for benign adrenal tumors; also, partial adrenalectomy could be a safe, effective, and less invasive procedure in selected cases.

  1. Thallium-201 uptake in a benign thymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, R.J.; Ey, E.H.; Varma, D.G.

    1986-07-01

    A 68-year-old woman was admitted with atypical angina. A chest radiograph showed an anterior mediastinal mass that was confirmed on CT. The mass was relatively avascular and separate from the heart and great vessels. She underwent stress thallium testing that demonstrated no exercise-induced ischemia; however, an abnormal focus of thallium activity was present in the anterior mediastinum on stress and redistribution images. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated a normal left ventriculogram, coronary arteries and thoracic aorta. Subsequent surgery and pathologic examination revealed the mass to be a benign thymoma arising in the right lobe of the thymus gland.

  2. Spatial contrast sensitivity in benign intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Bulens, C; Meerwaldt, J D; Koudstaal, P J; Van der Wildt, G J

    1988-01-01

    Spatial Contrast Sensitivity (CS) was studied in 20 patients with benign intracranial hypertension (BIH). At presentation CS loss was found in 43% of the eyes, and impairment of visual acuity attributed to BIH in only 16%. Nine patients had blurred vision or visual obscurations, all of whom had abnormal CS. The clinical application of CS measurement in BIH for monitoring the progression or regression of the disease is illustrated by serial measurements in 11 patients. Progressive visual loss in longstanding papilloedema and improvement of visual function in subsiding papilloedema can occur without any change in Snellen acuity or visual field charting. PMID:3225588

  3. Developmental and benign movement disorders in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cecilia; Roubertie, Agathe; Doummar, Diane; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Cochen de Cock, Valérie; Roze, Emmanuel

    2010-07-30

    Developmental and benign movement disorders are a group of movement disorders with onset in the neonatal period, infancy, or childhood. They are characterized by the absence of associated neurological manifestations and by their favorable outcome, although developmental abnormalities can be occasionally observed. Knowledge of the clinical, neurophysiological, and pathogenetic aspects of these disorders is poor. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and our practical experience, this article summarizes current knowledge in this area. We pay special attention to the recognition and management of these movement disorders in children.

  4. [Extracapsular lobectomy in benign monolobar thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Prete, F; Di Ciaula, G; Sammarco, D; Parlati, C

    1995-12-01

    On the basis of their experience acquired in the field of thyroid surgery the authors examine the problems related to extracapsular lobectomy from a tactical and technical point of view, starting with its principal indications: benign monolobar thyroid disease in a single or multiple nodular form. The validity of extemporary histological tests is also assessed on the basis of their experience of rare false negatives and the relative successive totalization programme. Lastly, the paper underlines the fundamental identification of the recurrent nerve as the central point of the operation, before which the authors emphasize that nothing should be cut or ligated apart from the superior vascular peduncle and vena media.

  5. Spatial contrast sensitivity in benign intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bulens, C; Meerwaldt, J D; Koudstaal, P J; Van der Wildt, G J

    1988-10-01

    Spatial Contrast Sensitivity (CS) was studied in 20 patients with benign intracranial hypertension (BIH). At presentation CS loss was found in 43% of the eyes, and impairment of visual acuity attributed to BIH in only 16%. Nine patients had blurred vision or visual obscurations, all of whom had abnormal CS. The clinical application of CS measurement in BIH for monitoring the progression or regression of the disease is illustrated by serial measurements in 11 patients. Progressive visual loss in longstanding papilloedema and improvement of visual function in subsiding papilloedema can occur without any change in Snellen acuity or visual field charting.

  6. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Mezzalira, Raquel Mezzalira; Furtado, Paula Lobo; Venosa, Alessandra Ramos; Sampaio, Andre Luis Lopes; Pires de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a common disorder in Neurotology. This vestibular syndrome is characterized by transient attacks of vertigo, caused by change in head position, and associated with paroxysmal characteristic nystagmus. The symptoms result from movement of the free floating otoconia particles in the endolymph or their attachment to the cupulae of the semicircular canal. The diagnosis is essentially clinical and should be confirmed by performing diagnostic maneuvers. Treatment is based on the identification of the affected semicircular canal and performance of liberatory maneuvers or repositioning of free floating particles of otoliths. The effectiveness varies from 70 to 100%.

  7. Benign familial Degos disease worsening during immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Powell, J; Bordea, C; Wojnarowska, F; Farrell, A M; Morris, P J

    1999-09-01

    We describe a 61-year-old woman with skin lesions consistent with those found in Degos disease, both in clinical and in histological appearance. She had had several of these lesions for many years, as had her mother, sister and niece. In 1991, she underwent cadaveric renal transplantation and was treated with immunosuppression: prednisolone, azathioprine and cyclosporin. At that time, she developed many more characteristic skin lesions, and these were slightly larger and more noticeable than those she had had previously. She and the other affected family members appear to fit into the more benign subgroup of Degos disease, and it seems that her immunosuppression aggravated her cutaneous disease.

  8. Benign Pulmonary Metastasizing Leiomyoma of the Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Iscan, Reyyan; Köse, Gültekin; Kaban, Isik

    2016-01-01

    Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease which represents with multiple leiomyomatous lesions in many tissues and organs especially in lungs. These patients have been operated for leiomyoma of the uterus. Here we report a case of a 41-year-old woman who was evaluated in a thoracic surgery hospital for dyspnea and bilateral nodules in chest roentgenogram. She had no history of neoplasm, only myomectomy history of uterine leiomyoma 10 years ago. Biopsy and histopathological examination were consistent with pulmonary leiomyoma. The patient was reffered to our clinic and we performed a total abdominal hysterectomy for her multiple uterine leiomyomas. The final diagnosis was ‘benign pulmonary metastasizing leiomyoma’. After this diagnosis, surgical castration was performed but two years later, repeat imaging showed progression in pulmonary lesions and progesterone therapy was administered to the patient. Patient has continued on this hormonal therapy to date and during the 5-years follow-up, the persisting lesions in both lungs regressed. PMID:27790528

  9. Diagnosis and management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jonathan L

    2008-05-15

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common condition affecting older men. Typical presenting symptoms include urinary hesitancy, weak stream, nocturia, incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Acute urinary retention, which requires urgent bladder catheterization, is relatively uncommon. Irreversible renal damage is rare. The initial evaluation should assess the frequency and severity of symptoms and the impact of symptoms on the patient's quality of life. The American Urological Association Symptom Index is a validated instrument for the objective assessment of symptom severity. The initial evaluation should also include a digital rectal examination and urinalysis. Men with hematuria should be evaluated for bladder cancer. A palpable nodule or induration of the prostate requires referral for assessment to rule out prostate cancer. For men with mild symptoms, watchful waiting with annual reassessment is appropriate. Over the past decade, numerous medical and surgical interventions have been shown to be effective in relieving symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Alpha blockers improve symptoms relatively quickly. Although 5-alpha reductase inhibitors have a slower onset of action, they may decrease prostate size and alter the disease course. Limited evidence shows that the herbal agents saw palmetto extract, rye grass pollen extract, and pygeum relieve symptoms. Transurethral resection of the prostate often provides permanent relief. Newer laser-based surgical techniques have comparable effectiveness to transurethral resection up to two years after surgery with lower perioperative morbidity. Various outpatient surgical techniques are associated with reduced morbidity, but symptom relief may be less durable.

  10. [Benign metastasizing pulmonary leiomyomatosis. A report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Pifarré, R; Izquierdo, J; Calatrava, A; Martínez, C; Ruiz, J; Morera, J

    1999-12-01

    The benign metastasizing leiomyoma is an uncommon variety of leiomyoma, tumor derived from smooth muscular tissue. The benign metastasizing leiomyoma affects a middle age women, with antecedents of uterine leiomyoma, the pulmonary lesions appeared as a multiple nodules, without systemic affectation. We present three cases of benign metastasizing leiomyoma that de diagnosis was made for biopsy by thoracotomy; and in one case the markers from estrogens' receivers were positive.

  11. The appendix: a spectrum of benign and malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Lord, Christopher; Broadhurst, Jack; Sleight, Simon; McGee, Shaun; Wills, Mark

    2017-02-02

    This article discusses the radiological appearances and subsequent management of a diverse spectrum of benign and malignant appendiceal pathologies, including those masquerading as acute appendicitis.

  12. The debate over robotics in benign gynecology.

    PubMed

    Rardin, Charles R

    2014-05-01

    The debate over the role of the da Vinci surgical robotic platform in benign gynecology is raging with increasing fervor and, as product liability issues arise, greater financial stakes. Although the best currently available science suggests that, in the hands of experts, robotics offers little in surgical advantage over laparoscopy, at increased expense, the observed decrease in laparotomy for hysterectomy is almost certainly, at least in part, attributable to the availability of the robot. In this author's opinion, the issue is not whether the robot has any role but rather to define the role in an institutional environment that also supports the safe use of vaginal and laparoscopic approaches in an integrated minimally invasive surgery program. Programs engaging robotic surgery should have a clear and self-determined regulatory process and should resist pressures in place that may preferentially support robotics over other forms of minimally invasive surgery.

  13. Saw palmetto and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gong, Edward M; Gerber, Glenn S

    2004-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common health issue that affects 8% of all men at the age of 40, 60% of men in their 70s, and 90% of those greater than 80 years of age. One-fourth of these men will develop moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms that greatly affect their quality of life. Recent evidence suggests that the use of saw palmetto leads to improvements in urinary function for those suffering from BPH. The favorable comparison of saw palmetto with tamsulosin, a well-known first line agent in the treatment of urinary tract symptoms, demonstrates promise towards a beneficial effect of this herbal agent, with very few, if any, adverse effects. However, what degree of this beneficial activity is due to placebo effects is yet to be determined. In addition, the precise mechanism of action of saw palmetto in men with BPH remains unclear.

  14. Diagnosing and treating benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Kovar, Mary; Jepson, Terry; Jones, Susan

    2006-12-01

    Gerontological nurses play a critical role in the early recognition of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), a condition that accounts for approximately 50% of vertigo in older adults. BPPV results in vertigo when debris collects in one or more of the semicircular canals, most typically the posterior canal. It may be differentiated from other forms of vertigo because it results in dizziness when recumbent or with head position changes. BPPV may be successfully treated with repositioning therapy, such as the Epley maneuver. Nurses working in medical offices, longterm care facilities, and assisted living may be called on to perform this maneuver. Gerontological nurses play a key role in assessing and treating BPPV, therefore minimizing unnecessary testing and medication and reducing the suffering and expense for patients with this condition.

  15. Risk stratification for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Zattoni, Fabio; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Novara, Giacomo

    2017-03-18

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents an important public health problem in ageing men due to frequently associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which may impair quality of life. BPH is also a progressive disease, mainly characterized by a worsening of LUTS over time, and in some patients by the occurrence of serious outcomes such as acute urinary retention and need for BPH-related surgery. The management of BPH and LUTS in men should move forward its focus on symptom control only. Indeed, the goals of therapy for BPH are not only to improve bothersome LUTS but also to identify those patients at risk of unfavourable outcomes in order to optimize their management and reduce complications. Risk stratification and tailored treatment should improve the reductions in both symptoms and the long-term consequences of BPH and BPH treatments. To do this, clinicians need to know possible factors that may support the develop of PBH and possible risks due to the BPH itself.

  16. [Isotope nephrographic studies in benign gynecologic diseases].

    PubMed

    Lamm, D

    1977-01-01

    1014 patients with benigne gynaecological diseases (functional incontinence of urine with and without displacement, myoma of uterus, ovarian tumors, chronic salpingoophoritis) were examined by means of isotope nephrogram before gynaecological treatment was begun. A group of 156 patients was parallely examined by means of chromocystoscopy and intravenous urography. For judgement of the ING-curves we applicated an extra parameter--the drain value "A"--, through which it was possible to differenciate between emptying disturbances and functional urinary transport disorders. To obtain this value it is necessary to change the position of the patients during examination. Under these conditions approximately 95% of ING-findings conformed with those vaised by intravenous urography. Giving weight to these conditions, we recommend the application of ING in gynaecology as a screening method. Criteria for optimal usage of this method are mentioned.

  17. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical manifestations and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Santos Dias, José

    2012-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a very common condition, related to aging and causing symptoms, called lower urinary tract symptoms. On account of its huge prevalence, it is important for clinicians who are involved in the management of patients with BPH to be aware of the very strict recommendations for BPH evaluation. In this article, we describe the different steps and procedures doctors should follow to evaluate these patients; symptoms and signs of BPH are reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation steps and examinations available. The basic evaluation of the patients with BPH should include, according to the recommendations of the most relevant international guidelines, lower urinary tract symptoms evaluation with appropriate symptom scores, digital rectal examination, voiding charts, prostate-specific antigen and creatinine measurement, urinalysis, and imaging of the urinary tract.

  18. Optimizing the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Elterman, Dean S.; Kaplan, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges facing primary care physicians and specialists as the population ages is the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). While as many as 18% of men in their 40s report bother from an enlarged prostate, that figure rises dramatically, whereby 50% of men in their 50s and 90% of men in their 90s will complain of bothersome symptoms related to an enlarged prostate. Studies have shown that BPH is a progressive disease, which if left untreated can result in worsening of symptoms, acute urinary retention and renal failure. Until about 20 years ago the only management option available to urologists was surgery. In the early 1990s medical therapy emerged as the predominant treatment for BPH. Therapy may be tailored to target symptoms and progression of disease. PMID:22496710

  19. Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy: An underdiagnosed condition.

    PubMed

    Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Efstathiou, Elisavet; Neubauer, David

    2015-07-01

    Benign paroxysmal torticollis is probably an under-diagnosed condition of infancy. It is a self-limiting disorder characterised by periods of unusual, sustained posture of the head and neck, during which the head tilts to one side. Episodes are often accompanied by marked autonomic features, irritability, ataxia, apathy and drowsiness. They last several hours to a few days and are often recurring every few weeks. They subside within the pre-school years; however, during later childhood, there is a tendency to develop migraine. Three cases of benign paroxysmal torticollis are presented and are compared with cases in the literature. A telephone survey has been conducted to determine what is the general awareness of paediatricians of this condition in Cyprus. Eighty-two paediatricians were randomly selected out of 235 paediatricians. All of them agreed to participate. Our cases revealed that benign paroxysmal torticollis may coexist with other problems during infancy. The telephone survey showed that only two out of eighty-two (2.4%) of the paediatricians are aware of the condition, and none of them was confident regarding the management. Our telephone survey clearly shows that Cypriot paediatricians are not familiar with benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy which is a benign, self-limiting disorder. It is essential to recognise the condition and to reassure parents of its benign course and not to be misdiagnosed for other disorders, such as epileptic seizures. We have shown again that benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy may coexist with motor delay and hearing problems.

  20. [Minimally Invasive Treatment of Esophageal Benign Diseases].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Haruhiro

    2016-07-01

    As a minimally invasive treatment of esophageal achalasia per-oral endoscopic myotomy( POEM) was developed in 2008. More than 1,100 cases of achalasia-related diseases received POEM. Success rate of the procedure was more than 95%(Eckerdt score improvement 3 points and more). No serious( Clavian-Dindo classification III b and more) complication was experienced. These results suggest that POEM becomes a standard minimally invasive treatment for achalasia-related diseases. As an off-shoot of POEM submucosal tumor removal through submucosal tunnel (per-oral endoscopic tumor resection:POET) was developed and safely performed. Best indication of POET is less than 5 cm esophageal leiomyoma. A novel endoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was developed. Anti-reflux mucosectomy( ARMS) is nearly circumferential mucosal reduction of gastric cardia mucosa. ARMS is performed in 56 consecutive cases of refractory GERD. No major complications were encountered and excellent clinical results. Best indication of ARMS is a refractory GERD without long sliding hernia. Longest follow-up case is more than 10 years. Minimally invasive treatments for esophageal benign diseases are currently performed by therapeutic endoscopy.

  1. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up. PMID:26689234

  2. Diode Laser Excision of Oral Benign Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ena; Sareen, Mohit; Dhaka, Payal; Baghla, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lasers have made tremendous progress in the field of dentistry and have turned out to be crucial in oral surgery as collateral approach for soft tissue surgery. This rapid progress can be attributed to the fact that lasers allow efficient execution of soft tissue procedures with excellent hemostasis and field visibility. When matched to scalpel, electrocautery or high frequency devices, lasers offer maximum postoperative patient comfort. Methods: Four patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of benign lesions of the oral cavity. 810 nm diode lasers were used in continuous wave mode for excisional biopsy. The specimens were sent for histopathological examination and patients were assessed on intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results: Diode laser surgery was rapid, bloodless and well accepted by patients and led to complete resolution of the lesions. The excised specimen proved adequate for histopathological examination. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after the procedure with minimal postoperative problems, discomfort and scarring. Conclusion: We conclude that diode lasers are rapidly becoming the standard of care in contemporary dental practice and can be employed in procedures requiring excisional biopsy of oral soft tissue lesions with minimal problems in histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26464781

  3. [Benign pleural effusion caused by asbestos exposure].

    PubMed

    Vieira, J R; Alfarroba, E; Viegas, J; Freitas e Costa, M

    1992-05-01

    The Authors present the first case described among us of benign pleural effusion of an asbestotic origin. They stress the importance of thoracoscopy (pleuroscopy) in the diagnosis of this situation. Attention is drawn to the fact that asbestotic lesions and asbestotic bodies have been found in the lung and, in particular, in the parietal pleura as well. They emphasize the fact that exposure to asbestos was not realized by the patient, which made the clarification of the situation more difficult. It was a CT scan that showed the signs suggestive of exposure to asbestos which raised the diagnostic suspicion. They conclude that every patient with a pleural effusion must be thoroughly questioned about exposure to asbestos. Even if the exposure is accepted, they consider that one should proceed to a pleuro-pulmonar biopsy by thoracoscopy. This biopsy allows demonstration of the characteristic histopathological lesions and rule out other etiologies, namely malignancy and tuberculosis. They suggest that these patients must be highly motivated to stop any smoking and kept under periodic surveillance.

  4. Laparoscopy for Benign Diseases of the Colon.

    PubMed

    Smith, Radhika; Maron, David J

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has revolutionized the delivery of care to the surgical patient undergoing colorectal resection. Since the first laparoscopic-assisted colectomy in 1991, significant advances have been made in minimally invasive colorectal surgery. For many benign conditions, laparoscopic colectomy has been proven to be safe and effective, and in some instances superior when compared with open surgery. Complex laparoscopic resections such as those for diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease have also been shown to have equivalent outcomes when compared with open surgery. Short-term benefits of a minimally invasive approach include less pain, decreased rates of wound infection and postoperative morbidity, faster return of bowel function, and shorter length of stay. Improvements in long-term complications have also been noted with lower incidence of incisional hernias and small bowel obstructions secondary to adhesions. As surgeons become more facile with laparoscopic resection, more complex cases such as those for complicated diverticulitis and reoperative surgery for inflammatory bowel disease can be completed with shorter operative times and decreased cost.

  5. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Salvinelli, F; Firrisi, L; Casale, M; Trivelli, M; D'Ascanio, L; Lamanna, F; Greco, F; Costantino, S

    2004-09-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) has been recognized as the most common vestibular disorder; it is a term coined in 1952 by Dix and Hallpike, and it is most commonly used to describe a disease with a characteristic clinical presentation believed to be caused by free-floating particles leaving the macula and entering one of the semicircular canals, usually the posterior one, more rarely the horizontal or superior ones. A lot of studies showed as the prevalence is higher in females than in males with a ratio of 2:1; furthermore, prevalence increases with the age: the mean age at onset is 54 years, with a range of 11 to 84 years. The most important clinical manifestations of BPPV are: vertigo, lightheadedness, dysequilibrium and sometimes nausea, vomiting, pallor and sweating. The diagnosis of BPPV is very simple through the Dix-Hallpike test or the diagnostic Semont's maneuver; the increasing information about the BPPV's pathogenesis has led most authors to consider the rehabilitative therapy, and in particular the so-called Semont's "liberatory" maneuver, as the first choice treatment of BPPV, in relation to its quickness and efficacy. In this treatment the debris are moved from the posterior semicircular canal to another location within the vestibular labyrinth. In our review we consider the possible pathogenesis of this disease and the best therapies, like repositioning maneuvers, in a patient affected by BPPV.

  6. Searching for "environmentally-benign" antifouling biocides.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan Ting; Teo, Serena L M; Leong, Wai; Chai, Christina L L

    2014-05-26

    As the result of the ecological impacts from the use of tributyltins (TBT) in shipping, environmental legislation for the registration of chemicals for use in the environment has grown to a monumental challenge requiring product dossiers to include information on the environmental fate and behavior of any chemicals. Specifically, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, collectively known as PBT, are properties of concern in the assessment of chemicals. However, existing measurements of PBT properties are a cumbersome and expensive process, and thus not applied in the early stages of the product discovery and development. Inexpensive methods for preliminary PBT screening would minimize risks arising with the subsequent registration of products. In this article, we evaluated the PBT properties of compounds reported to possess anti-fouling properties using QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) prediction programs such as BIOWIN™ (a biodegradation probability program), KOWWIN™ (log octanol-water partition coefficient calculation program) and ECOSAR™ (Ecological Structure Activity Relationship Programme). The analyses identified some small (Mr < 400) synthetic and natural products as potential candidates for environmentally benign biocides. We aim to demonstrate that while these methods of estimation have limitations, when applied with discretion, they are powerful tools useful in the early stages of research for compound selection for further development as anti-foulants.

  7. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up.

  8. Emerging drug therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Travis L; Andriole, Gerald L

    2006-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland caused by increases in number of both epithelial and stromal cells. Clinically, BPH leads to voiding dysfunction, which is most often referred to as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Historically, the only treatments for LUTS due to BPH were watchful waiting or surgery (transurethral or open prostatectomy). However, over the last 20 years medical therapy has taken a prominent role in the management of BPH. Current medical treatments for BPH include alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists, inhibitors of the 5-alpha reductase enzyme and various phytotherapies. These agents are generally effective and safe; however, many patients are unable to tolerate the side effects or are refractory to medical management and require surgery. In light of this, many potential new therapies for the treatment of BPH are under development. Some represent a variation of current treatments, whereas others target novel molecular pathways within the prostate. The aim of this review is to examine current pharmacotherapies as well as to highlight emerging drugs that may improve our treatment of patients with LUTS secondary to BPH.

  9. Dutasteride/tamsulosin: in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2012-05-01

    The 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride and the α(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist tamsulosin are available as a fixed-dose combination for use in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and an enlarged prostate. Dutasteride 0.5 mg/day plus tamsulosin 0.4 mg/day improved lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) to a significantly greater extent than dutasteride or tamsulosin alone in men with BPH, moderate to severe LUTS and an increased risk of disease progression, according to the results of the randomized, double-blind, multinational CombAT trial. The mean change from baseline in the total International Prostate Symptom Score was significantly greater with dutasteride plus tamsulosin than with dutasteride or tamsulosin alone after 2 years (primary endpoint) and 4 years of therapy. After 4 years' therapy in the CombAT trial, the time to first acute urinary retention or BPH-related surgery (primary endpoint) significantly favoured men with symptomatic BPH who were receiving dutasteride plus tamsulosin versus those receiving tamsulosin alone, with no significant difference between recipients of dutasteride plus tamsulosin and recipients of dutasteride alone. In the CombAT trial, health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction were improved to a significantly greater extent with dutasteride plus tamsulosin than with dutasteride or tamsulosin alone. Combination therapy with oral dutasteride plus tamsulosin was generally well tolerated in patients with symptomatic BPH in the CombAT trial.

  10. MRI findings of benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

    PubMed

    Hamano, T; Mutoh, T; Hirayama, M; Ito, K; Kimura, M; Aita, T; Kiyosawa, K; Ohtaki, T; Kuriyama, M

    1999-06-01

    We report here magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of two patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb. Both subjects showed unilateral amyotrophy of the lower limb with a benign clinical course, and the affected muscles demonstrated neurogenic changes. On T1- and T2-weighted MRI, marked atrophy and increased signal intensity were found mainly in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Moreover, MRI examination also revealed that thigh muscles including semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and vastus intermedius and lateralis muscles were involved in one of the patients. We concluded that muscle MRI is very useful for detecting affected muscles, especially deep skeletal muscles in patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

  11. Current Laser Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient. PMID:21165192

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of pediatric benign pneumoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shou-Xing; Sun, Zong-Bo; Wang, Guang-Huan; Zhong, Jun; Ou, Wen-Hui; Fu, Ma-Xian; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Ma, Shu-Hua; Li, Jian-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Benign pneumoperitoneum (BPPT) is defined as asymptomatic free intraabdominal air or as pneumoperitoneum without peritonitis. Symptomatic free air requires surgical anagement, but management of asymptomatic pneumoperitoneum is controversial. In this study, we investigate the diagnosis and treatment of BPPT in children. Clinical Findings: The clinical data of 9 pediatric patients with BPPT who were admitted to our hospital from January 2000 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the diagnosis and treatment. Overall, 9 cases were included with 8 males and 1 female, aged from 4 days to 4 years. Among them there were 6 newborns (including 1 premature infant). Patients were all admitted to hospital with the major clinical symptom of abdominal distension, including 2 cases accompanied by tachypnea, 2 cases with vomiting, 1 case with diarrhea, and 2 cases with fever. No previous constipation or obstructive defecation existed. Six newborns had meconium defecation within 24 hours after birth. Physical examination revealed all patients with relaxed abdominal wall except 1 patient with abdominal distension had slight muscle stiffness and hyperactive bowel sounds. Abdominal X-ray suggested free air under the diaphragm in all cases. Interventions/Outcomes: All patients except for one case of laparotomy were conservatively treated and cured with fasting, infection prevention, rehydration, abdominocentesis, and close observation. Nine cases of patients were all discharged with no death occurrence. After discharge follow-up of 7 months to 6 years was conducted. There was no recurrence of similar symptoms, and children were in good growth and development. Conclusion: The diagnosis of BPPT mainly relies on clinical symptoms in patient, careful abdominal examination, abdominal X-ray combined with abdominocentesis, and the exclusion of gastrointestinal perforation for confirmation. Conservative treatment can cure the disease. Attention

  13. Benign Nodular Goiter Causing Upper Airway Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Başoğlu, Mahmut; Öztürk, Gürkan; Aydınlı, Bülent; Yıldırgan, M. İlhan; Atamanalp, S. Selçuk; Celebi, Fehmi

    2009-01-01

    Objective Benign nodular goiter (BNG) can cause narrowing of the upper airway. In some rare cases, obstruction of the upper airway also occurs. The following paper reports our experiences with regard to BNG patients who experienced obstruction of the upper airway. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively investigated the records of 13 patients with acute airway obstruction due to BNG who were admitted to the General Surgery Department of Ataturk University Medical School between January 2000 and December 2007. Results Thirteen patients with airway obstruction secondary to BNG were hospitalized during this period. There were two males and 11 females, and the mean age was 58.5 years (range 37–74 years). For all patients, the primary symptom upon admission was defined as respiratory distress; all patients had varying degrees of respiratory distress upon admission. Three of the patients underwent emergent endotracheal intubation in the emergency room. A preoperative radiological evaluation was performed with thyroid ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). There were retrosternal or substernal components of the BNG in nine patients. Twelve patients underwent operations, while one patient with mild respiratory distress elected not to be operated on. Ten patients underwent total thyroidectomies, while two patients underwent near-total thyroidectomies. One patient with retrosternal goiter also underwent a median sternotomy. Three patients received a tracheostomy after the operation. Suction drains were utilized in all operations. During the post-operative period, two patients suffered from voice impairment, and seven patients experienced hypocalcemia. Two patients died. Pathological examination of the thyroidectomy tissue revealed BNG in all cases. In addition, two patients had micropapillary carcinomas. Conclusion Although BNG causing upper airway obstruction is rare, it is an important clinical entity because of the need for emergent operation, the

  14. Benign Multicystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma: A Rare Tumour of the Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Soundappan; Khajanchi, Monty; Vaja, Tejas; Jajoo, Bhushan; Dey, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma: a rare tumor of the abdomen, is a diagnostic dilemma. This report emphasizes the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy in the diagnosis of the tumour. PMID:25866695

  15. Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

  16. THE DESIGN OF TECHNOLOGICALLY EFFECTIVE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN SOLVENT SUBSTITUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is presently considerable interest in finding environmentally benign replacement solvents that can perform in many different applications as solvents normally do. This requires solvents with desirable properties, e.g., ability to dissolve certain compounds, and without oth...

  17. Gamma images in benign and metabolic bone diseases: volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Volume 1 of ''Gamma images in benign and metabolic bone diseases'' comprises chapters devoted to: general remarks and considerations, radiopharmaceuticals, Paget disease, osteomyelitis, trauma, benign bone tumors, chronic renal dialysis, acute renal failure, osteomalacia and rickets, and osteoporosis. Although published in 1981, the most recent references in the book were 1978 and most are 1977 or earlier. One of the strongest aspects of the volume are tables which categorize diseases, pathophysiology of disease, and image abnormalities. (JMT)

  18. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  19. Efficacy of Sonoelastography in Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Breast Masses

    PubMed Central

    Balçık, Adile; Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bayrak, İlkay Koray; Polat, Ayfer Kamalı

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to evaluate the influence of sonoelastographic strain ratio in distinguishing benign from malignant breast masses. Materials and Methods Patients who were referred for diagnostic biopsy of a breast mass were examined by ultrasound and sonoelastography prior to percutaneous biopsy. Sonoelastography was performed twice by the same observer in the same session. The strain ratios (SR) were calculated for both measurements as well as the mean strain ratio. Results were compared with histopathologic findings. For each strain ratio, a threshold value was determined using a ROC analysis for the differentiation of benign and malignant masses. Results After histopathological examination of 135 mass lesions in 132 female patients (mean age 48±12 years), 65 masses were diagnosed as benign and 70 as malignant. According to the Tsukuba classification with 5 scores; 44 of 65 benign masses had scores of either 1 or 2 while 56 of 70 malignant lesions had scores of either 4 or 5. No benign lesion was classified as score 5, and no malignant lesion as score 1. The mean cut-off in the two ROC measurements in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions was calculated as 4.52. When a threshold value of 4.52 was used for the mean strain ratio: the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy rates were determined as 85.5%, 84.8%, 85.5%, 84.8% and 85.2%, respectively. Conclusion The threshold value for strain ratio in the differentiation of benign and malignant masses was detected as 4.52, and a significant intra-observer difference was not observed in this study. The diagnostic value of sonoelastograghy in distinguishing benign from malignant breast masses was higher in comparison to conventional ultrasound.

  20. [Localized benign pleural mesothelioma observed at the Dakar University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Hane, A A; Ba, M; Ndir, M; Ba, O; Diop-dia, D; Kandji, M; Ndiaye, S; Diatta, A; Toure, N O; Niang, A; Dia, Y; Thiam, A; Dangou, J M; Ndiaye, M

    2001-06-01

    We report two cases of localized benign pleural mesothelioma with different clinical features. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, including coma, hemiplegia, seizures and misbehavior predominated in the first case, associated with hypoglycemia. The symptoms in the second case were essentially respiratory (cough, dyspnea, and chest pain). Treatment consisted in thoracotomy and complete surgical resection. Histopathology revealed fusiform cells and collagen stroma. These two cases illustrate the diversity of clinical expression of benign localized pleural mesothelioma and confirm their complete resolution after surgical treatment.

  1. The clinical characteristics of benign oral mucosal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Ilana; Gal, Gavriel; Chaushu, Gavriel; Allon, Dror M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics and pre-biopsy provisional diagnoses of benign oral mucosal tumors. Material and Methods: A 10- year retrospective analysis of all benign tumors of the oral mucosa, from a university- affiliated oral and maxillofacial surgery department. Results: 146 benign tumors were included. The mean age was 49.6 years, with an approximately equal gender distribution. The most prevalent tumor types were lipomatous tumors (27.4%), vascular (23.3%), and salivary gland tumors (16.5%). Tongue, labial and buccal mucosa were the most frequently involved sites. The vast majority (98.6%) presented as non-ulcerated masses. Only 2 (1.4%) presented as ulcerated masses. The clinical provisional diagnosis correctly classified lesions as non-malignant in 93.3%. In only 9 (6.7%) suspicion of malignancy was included in the provisional diagnosis. However, benign neoplasia was unsuspected in 42.1% of tumors. These cases were clinically classified as reactive. Conclusions: Benign tumors were most likely to be clinically correctly classified as non-malignant, but even in the setting of experienced oral surgeons, neoplasia was unsuspected in more than 40% of cases. This data strongly supports the need to biopsy every oral mucosal mass, since inaccurate clinical evaluation of the lesion’s biological nature was a frequent event. Key words:Malignant, benign, reactive, ulcerated mass, non-ulcerated mass, clinical diagnosis. PMID:24316705

  2. Eosinophilic Cholangitis—A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G.; Politi, Aikaterini N.; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K.; Mela, Maria K.; Polydorou, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task. We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids. Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  3. Treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors using laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.

  4. Benign skin disease with pustules in the newborn*

    PubMed Central

    Reginatto, Flávia Pereira; Villa, Damie De; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal period comprises the first four weeks of life. It is a period of adaptation where the skin often presents several changes: transient lesions, resulting from a physiological response, others as a consequence of transient diseases and some as markers of severe disorders. The presence of pustules in the skin of the newborn is always a reason for the family and for the assisting doctor to be worried, since the newborn is especially vulnerable to bacterial, viral or fungal infection. However, the majority of neonatal skin pustules is not infectious, comprising the benign neonatal pustulosis. Benign neonatal pustuloses are a group of clinical disease characterized by pustular eruptions in which a contagious agent is not responsible for its etiology. The most common ones are erythema toxicum neonatorum, the transient neonatal pustular melanosis and the benign cephalic pustulosis. These dermatoses are usually benign, asymptomatic and self-limited. It is important that the dermatologist and the neonatologist can identify benign and transient lesions, those caused by genodermatoses, and especially differentiate between neonates with systemic involvement from those with benign skin lesions, avoiding unnecessary diagnostic tests and worries. PMID:27192509

  5. Smoking habits and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Fu, Shi; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have warned against the promoting effects of cigarette smoking on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In contrast, some have argued that smoking confers a protective effect regarding BPH, while others have observed an aggravated effect. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine whether cigarette use is associated with BPH risk. To identify articles from observational studies of relevance, a search was performed concurrent to March 21, 2016, on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model, according to the heterogeneity, was calculated to reveal the relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eight articles were included in this meta-analysis, representing data for 44,100 subjects, of which 5221 (11.8%) had BPH as defined according to the criteria. Seven reports are concerned with analysis between nonsmokers and ex-smokers, in which no significant difference was observed (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94–1.05). Another meta-analysis of 7 studies indicated an observable trend, but without significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and current smokers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41). Between groups of heavy (6 articles; RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84–1.24) and light smokers (5 articles; RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.71–1.15), again no significant difference appears. Finally, we combined individuals as never-smokers and ever-smokers and still found no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92–1.15). Sensitivity analysis was displayed and confirmed the stability of the present results. Combined evidence from observational studies shows no significant association between cigarette smoking and BPH risk, either for ex-smokers or for current smokers. The trend of elevated BPH risk from smoking was observed only in current smokers compared with nonsmokers, while marginal significance was observed in comparing ever-smokers with

  6. Lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia/benign prostatic enlargement and erectile dysfunction: are these conditions related to vascular dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shogo; Tsounapi, Panagiota; Shimizu, Takahiro; Honda, Masashi; Inoue, Keiji; Dimitriadis, Fotios; Saito, Motoaki

    2014-09-01

    Although the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia/benign prostatic enlargement and erectile dysfunction is poorly understood and thought to be multifactorial, it has been traditionally recognized that these conditions increase with age. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between cardiovascular disease and lower urinary tract symptoms as well as benign prostatic hyperplasia/benign prostatic enlargement and erectile dysfunction in elderly patients. Age might activate systemic vascular risk factors, resulting in disturbed blood flow. Hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis are also linked to the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia/benign prostatic enlargement and erectile dysfunction. In the present review, we discuss the relationship between decreased pelvic blood flow and lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia/benign prostatic enlargement and erectile dysfunction. Furthermore, we suggest possible common mechanisms underlining these urological conditions.

  7. Lack of a Benign Interpretation Bias in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Nader; Prouvost, Caroline; Kuckertz, Jennie M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive models of social anxiety posit that recurrent interpretation of ambiguous information as threatening maintains symptoms (e.g. Clark & Wells, 1995, pp. 69–93, Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997, pp. 741–756, Behavior Research and Therapy, 35). However, biased interpretation may also be represented as a failure to make a benign interpretation of the ambiguous event. Furthermore, interpretation bias can be characterized by both an online (automatic) component and an offline (effortful) component (Hirsch & Clark, 2004, pp. 799–825, Clinical Psychology Review, 24). To measure both benign and threat biases, as well as examine the effect of social anxiety on offline versus online interpretations, Beard and Amir (2009, pp. 1135–1141, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46) developed the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP). In the current study, we administered the WSAP to a group of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) as well as to a group of non-anxious control (NAC) participants. We found that participants with SAD demonstrated a lack of benign online bias, but not an online threat bias when compared to NACs. However, when examining offline biases, SAD patients endorsed social threat interpretations and rejected benign social interpretations to a greater degree than non-anxious individuals. Our results, when taken together, clearly implicate the role of reduced bias toward benign information in SAD. PMID:22545788

  8. Benign paediatric mandibular tumours: experience in reconstruction using vascularised fibula.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Tamimy, Muhammad Sarmad; Ehtesham-Ul-Haq; Sarwar, Saad Ur Rahman; Rizvi, Syed Taokeer Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    The majority of the paediatric oral and maxillofacial tumours are benign and the mandible is involved in one-third of these cases. A review of the literature reveals only a handful of studies pertaining exclusively to benign paediatric mandibular tumours. The basis of this study was to fulfil the need to assess the suitability of major mandibular reconstructions using a vascularised fibular graft in cases of benign tumours in children. From April 1999 to April 2011 we have managed 18 cases of benign paediatric mandibular tumours. All the reconstructions were done using vascularised fibular graft. The age of these patients ranged from 8 to 16 years. The most common pathology seen in our series was Ameloblastoma, followed by Giant Cell Granuloma and vascular malformation. Other cases included fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst and odontogenic myxoma. Five of these were recurrent lesions. The mean length of the fibula harvested was 12 ± 2 cm. All the flaps in this series survived. Bone union occurred in all cases by 6 weeks. All the patients have maintained a satisfactory chin contour of the mandible during the follow-up period with minimal distortion occurring secondary to contralateral native mandibular growth in two cases. We conclude that, for benign paediatric mandibular tumours requiring major bone resection, the vascularised fibula is an excellent reconstructive option with the advantages of having a good bone stock, possibility for osteotomy, long pedicle length and potential for growth along with the possibility of dental rehabilitation.

  9. Hysterectomy—Current Methods and Alternatives for Benign Indications

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Michail S.; Tolikas, Athanasios C.; Miliaras, Dimosthenis E.

    2010-01-01

    Hysterectomy is the commonest gynecologic operation performed not only for malignant disease but also for many benign conditions such as fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia, adenomyosis, uterine prolapse, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. There are many approaches to hysterectomy for benign disease: abdominal hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy, laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) where a vaginal hysterectomy is assisted by laparoscopic procedures that do not include uterine artery ligation, total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) where the laparoscopic procedures include uterine artery ligation, and subtotal laparoscopic hysterectomy (STLH) where there is no vaginal component and the uterine body is removed using a morcelator. In the last decades, many new techniques, alternative to hysterectomy with conservation of the uterus have been developed. They use modern technologies and their results are promising and in many cases comparable with hysterectomy. This paper is a review of all the existing hysterectomy techniques and the alternative methods for benign indications. PMID:20798870

  10. Benign Cystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma Revealed by Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bray Madoué, Kaimba; Boniface, Moifo; Annick Laure, Edzimbi; Pierre, Herve

    2016-01-01

    Benign cystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare tumor which frequently occurs in women of reproductive age. Abdominal pain associated with pelvic or abdominal mass is the common clinical presentation. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman with a pathological proved benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum revealed by a small bowel obstruction and a painful left-sided pelvic mass with signs of psoitis. Contrast enhanced abdominal CT-scan demonstrated a large pelvic cystic mass with mass effect on rectosigmoid and pelvic organs. The patient underwent surgical removal of the tumor. Pathological examination revealed the diagnosis of benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum. The outcome was excellent with a 12-month recoil. PMID:27066288

  11. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo secondary to laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xizheng; Wang, Amy; Wang, Entong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a common vestibular disorder and it may be idiopathic or secondary to some conditions such as surgery, but rare following laparoscopic surgery. Methods: We report two cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo secondary to laparoscopic surgery, one after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a 51-year-old man and another following laparoscopic hysterectomy in a 60-year-old woman. Results: Both patients were treated successfully with manual or device-assisted canalith repositioning maneuvers, with no recurrence on the follow-up of 6 -18 months. Conclusions: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a rare but possible complication of laparoscopic surgery. Both manual and device-assisted repositioning maneuvers are effective treatments for this condition, with good efficacy and prognosis. PMID:28255446

  12. Treatment of benign bone tumours of the hand using osteoscopy.

    PubMed

    Taleb, C; Gouzou, S; Mantovani, G; Liverneaux, P

    2010-04-01

    Curettage and bone grafting are used traditionally to treat benign bone tumours of the hand. Some authors are proposing minimally invasive treatment using endoscopy. Our purpose is to standardise this technique based on a study of the number and locations of entry points. This is a report on three benign metacarpal bone tumours treated with three different endoscopic approaches: multiportal, extended uniportal and oblique uniportal. In theory, the multiportal approach has several drawbacks: weakening of the bone cortex, a limited visual field and seepage of injectable phosphocalcic cement. The extended uniportal approach causes cortical defects, unacceptable in a minimally invasive technique. The oblique uniportal approach seems less troublesome; vision of the bone cavity is good, curettage of the tumour is complete, the bone cortex is undamaged and there is no leakage of injectable phosphocalcic cement. All things considered, the oblique osteoscopic uniportal approach seems to be the best option for the management of benign bone tumours of the hand.

  13. Benign acral lesions showing parallel ridge pattern on dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tanioka, Miki

    2011-01-01

    One of the recent advances in dermoscopy is the significance of parallel ridge pattern (PRP), which has 99% specificity in detecting both melanoma in situ and advanced melanoma on the acral volar skin. This review features exceptionally benign acral lesions showing PRP on dermoscopy. These benign lesions can be distinguished from malignant melanoma, because of the typical clinical history and associated symptoms. However, it is sometimes difficult for dermatologists to exclude malignant melanoma and a subsequent skin biopsy should be strongly recommended. These benign lesions include pigmentation due to a dye such as para-phenylenediamine, acral pigmented macules associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, anti-cancer drug-induced hyperpigmentation on the volar skin, acral subcorneal hemorrhage and pigmented warts.

  14. Acute respiratory failure in a rapidly enlarging benign cervical goitre.

    PubMed

    Garingarao, Carlo Jan; Añonuevo-Cruz, Cecille; Gasacao, Ryan

    2013-07-22

    Benign goitres have the potential to reach massive sizes if neglected, but most have a protracted course that may or may not present with compressive symptoms. We report the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a rapidly enlarging nodular goitre resulting in acute respiratory failure. Endotracheal intubation and emergency total thyroidectomy were performed, revealing massive thyroid nodules with minimal intrathoracic extension and tracheal erosion. Despite a course and clinical findings suggestive of malignant disease, histopathology was consistent with a benign multinodular goitre. Several cases of benign goitres necessitating endotracheal intubation have been reported. Airway compromise was attributed to a significant intrathoracic component, or inciting events such as thyroid haemorrhage, pregnancy, radioiodine uptake or major surgery. Obstructive symptoms may not correlate well with objective measures of upper airway obstruction such as radiographs or flow volume loops.

  15. [Management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in first care centers].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, C; Muñoz-Proto, F; Rama-López, J; Ferrán-de la Cierva, L; Rodríguez-Villalba, R; Sarría-Echegaray, P; Mas-Mercant, S; Tomás-Barberán, M

    2014-01-01

    The benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most common disease in the group of peripheral vertigo. It's characterized by vertiginous sensation triggered by the positional changes of the head and usually lasts less than one minute. It is most frequently seen in middle-aged patients (40-50 years old) and in up 50% of cases we do not know the cause, so we refer to them as idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Because of the high incidence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in general population, it is of utmost importance to be aware of the differential diagnosis and to be able to treat this pathology with efficacy, because in most cases we can achieve excellent results performing specific and simple maneuvers.

  16. Benign cementoblastoma of the anterior mandible: an unusual case report

    PubMed Central

    Karöz, Tuğçe Berre; Sumer, Mahmut; Açıkgöz, Aydan; Süllü, Yurdanur

    2016-01-01

    A benign cementoblastoma, which is another name for a true cementoma, is a rare neoplasm that develops from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. It is characterized by a mineralized mass attached to the apex of the root produced by neoplastic cementoblasts. More than 75% of cases arise in the mandible, with 90% of them manifesting in the molar and premolar regions. This neoplasm occurs most commonly in children and young adults, with males being affected slightly more than females. Radiographically, the tumor is observed as a well-defined radiopaque mass that is fused to a tooth root and is surrounded by a radiolucent rim. The treatment of benign cementoblastoma consists of removal of the lesion and extraction of the affected tooth. This report presents an unusual case of benign cementoblastoma in a 31-year-old female, presenting as a densely mineralized mass seen at the apex of the impacted right mandibular canine tooth on radiographs. PMID:27595092

  17. The Conundrum of Genetic “Drivers” in Benign Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Keith T.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-01-01

    Advances in deep genomic sequencing have identified a spectrum of cancer-specific passenger and driver aberrations. Clones with driver anomalies are believed to be positively selected during carcinogenesis. Accumulating evidence, however, shows that genomic alterations, such as those in BRAF, RAS, EGFR, HER2, FGFR3, PIK3CA, TP53, CDKN2A, and NF1/2, all of which are considered hallmark drivers of specific cancers, can also be identified in benign and premalignant conditions, occasionally at frequencies higher than in their malignant counterparts. Targeting these genomic drivers can produce dramatic responses in advanced cancer, but the effects on their benign counterparts are less clear. This benign-malignant phenomenon is well illustrated in studies of BRAF V600E mutations, which are paradoxically more frequent in benign nevi (∼80%) than in dysplastic nevi (∼60%) or melanoma (∼40%-45%). Similarly, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 is more commonly overexpressed in ductal carcinoma in situ (∼27%-56%) when compared with invasive breast cancer (∼11%-20%). FGFR3 mutations in bladder cancer also decrease with tumor grade (low-grade tumors, ∼61%; high-grade, ∼11%). “Driver” mutations also occur in nonmalignant settings: TP53 mutations in synovial tissue from rheumatoid arthritis and FGFR3 mutations in seborrheic keratosis. The latter observations suggest that the oncogenicity of these alterations may be tissue context–dependent. The conversion of benign conditions to premalignant disease may involve other genetic events and/or epigenetic reprogramming. Putative driver mutations can also be germline and associated with increased cancer risk (eg, germline RAS or TP53 alterations), but germline FGFR3 or NF2 abnormalities do not predispose to malignancy. We discuss the enigma of genetic “drivers” in benign and premalignant conditions and the implications for prevention strategies and theories of tumorigenesis. PMID:27059373

  18. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tacklind, James; MacDonald, Roderick; Rutks, Indy; Wilt, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate, can lead to obstructive and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The pharmacologic use of plants and herbs (phytotherapy) for the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH is common. The extract of the berry of the American saw palmetto, or dwarf palm plant, Serenoa repens (also known by its botanical name of Sabal serrulatum), is one of several phytotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of BPH. Objectives This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of Serenoa repens in the treatment of LUTS consistent with BPH. Search strategy Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library), by checking bibliographies, and by handsearching the relevant literature. Selection criteria Trials were eligible if they (1) randomized men with symptomatic BPH to receive preparations of Serenoa repens (alone or in combination) for at least four weeks in comparison with placebo or other interventions, and (2) included clinical outcomes such as urologic symptom scales, symptoms, and urodynamic measurements. Eligibility was assessed by at least two independent observers. Data collection and analysis Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The main outcome measure for comparing the effectiveness of Serenoa repens with placebo or other interventions was the change in urologic symptom-scale scores. Secondary outcomes included changes in nocturia and urodynamic measures. The main outcome measure for side effects or adverse events was the number of men reporting side effects. Main results In this update 9 new trials involving 2053 additional men (a 64.8% increase) have been included. For the main comparison - Serenoa repens versus placebo - 3 trials were added with 419 subjects and 3 endpoints (IPSS, peak urine flow, prostate size

  19. Role of stenting in gastrointestinal benign and malignant diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Arena, Monica; Miraglia, Stefania; Consolo, Pierluigi; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Virgilio, Clara; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Advances in stents design have led to a substantial increase in the use of stents for a variety of digestive diseases. Initially developed as a non-surgical treatment for palliation of esophageal cancer, the stents now have an emerging role in the management of malignant and benign conditions as well as in all segments of the gastrointestinal tract. In this review, relevant literature search and expert opinions have been used to evaluate the key-role of stenting in gastrointestinal benign and malignant diseases. PMID:25992186

  20. Prostate Artery Embolization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Current Status.

    PubMed

    Mirakhur, Anirudh; McWilliams, Justin P

    2017-02-01

    Prostate artery embolization has garnered much attention as a promising treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. We aim to provide an up-to-date review of this minimally invasive technique, including discussion of potential benefits and technical challenges. Current evidence suggests it is a safe and effective option for patients with medication-refractory urinary obstructive symptoms who are poor surgical candidates or refuse surgical therapy. Larger, randomized studies with long-term follow-up data are needed for this technique to be formally established in the treatment paradigm for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  1. A Benign Cardiac Growth but Not So Indolent

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sahadev T.; Biederman, Robert W. W.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac lipomatous hypertrophy is a rare benign condition that usually involves the interatrial septum. Due to its benign nature it rarely requires intervention. Its presence outside the interatrial septum is reported infrequently. We present a case of lipomatous hypertrophy in the intraventricular septum that was complicated by a severe, symptomatic, and disabling dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The symptoms significantly improved following the excision of the mass. In our case transthoracic echocardiogram was used to visualize the mass and measure the severity of the obstruction; Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to characterize the mass and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27293911

  2. [Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in a patient with Crohn disease].

    PubMed

    Fluxá, Daniela; Kronberg, Udo; Lubascher, Jaime; O'Brien, Andrés; Las Heras, Facundo; Ibáñez, Patricio; Quera, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is an uncommon lesion arising from the peritoneal mesothelium. It is asymptomatic or presents with unspecific symptoms. Imaging techniques may reveal it, however the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathology. Surgery is the only effective treatment considering its high recurrence rate. We report a 19 years old male with Crohn’s disease. Due to persistent abdominal pain, an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was performed, showing a complex cystic mass in the lower abdomen. The patient underwent surgery and the lesion was completely resected. The pathological study reported a benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma.

  3. [Benign tumors of vulva: review and case report of achrocordon].

    PubMed

    Galeana, Cuauhtémoc; Casas, Donovan; Rodríguez, Alejandra; Cantú, Marco Antonio; Aguilar, Fabiola; Moreno, Víctor; Galindo, María Estela; Gutiérrez, Eduardo Ernesto

    2014-01-17

    The vulvovaginal region is a very complex area because of its anatomy and the fact that it can be source of a large number of benign tumors and less frequent malignant tumors. In recent decades, there have been significant gains in the diagnosis and treatment of vulvovaginal tumors, thanks to the contributions of cellular and molecular biology. The purpose of this review article is to serve as a practical reference for clinical and pathological diagnosis as well as in the outpatient treatment and monitoring of these benign tumors.

  4. Benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia (Gullo syndrome), histamine intolerance, and carbohydrate malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Enko, Dietmar; Mangge, Harald; Schenk, Michael; Lackner, Sonja; Holasek, Sandra J.

    2017-01-01

    Benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia (Gullo syndrome) is characterized by a more than threefold increase of the pancreatic enzymes lipase and amylase in the absence of a pancreatic disease over a period of more than 1 year, with elevations and significant undulations of pancreatic enzyme serum concentrations occurring on a day-to-day basis for 5 consecutive days. Nonspecific abdominal complaints may be caused by carbohydrate and/or protein malabsorption. We report a patient with benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia with lactose and histamine malabsorption; the symptoms of gastrointestinal malabsorption were treated successfully with an individually tailored lactose- and histamine-free diet.

  5. Hypomethylation of DNA from Benign and Malignant Human Colon Neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelz, Susan E.; Vogelstein, Bert; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    1985-04-01

    The methylation state of DNA from human colon tissue displaying neoplastic growth was determined by means of restriction endonuclease analysis. When compared to DNA from adjacent normal tissue, DNA from both benign colon polyps and malignant carcinomas was substantially hypomethylated. With the use of probes for growth hormone, γ -globin, α -chorionic gonadotropin, and γ -crystallin, methylation changes were detected in all 23 neoplastic growths examined. Benign polyps were hypomethylated to a degree similar to that in malignant tissue. These results indicate that hypomethylation is a consistent biochemical characteristic of human colonic tumors and is an alteration in the DNA that precedes malignancy.

  6. Upper Gastrointestinal Stent Insertion in Malignant and Benign Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) stents are increasingly being used to manage upper GI obstructions. Initially developed for palliative treatment of esophageal cancer, upper GI stents now play an emerging role in benign strictures of the upper GI tract. Because recurrent obstruction and stent-related complications are common, new modifications of stents have been implemented. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) have replaced older plastic stents. In addition, newly designed SEMS have been developed to prevent complications. This review provides an overview of the various types, indications, methods, complications, and clinical outcomes of upper GI stents in a number of malignant and benign disorders dividing the esophagus and gastroduodenum. PMID:26064817

  7. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the lung: PET findings.

    PubMed

    di Scioscio, Valerio; Feraco, Paola; Miglio, Laura; Toni, Francesco; Malvi, Deborah; Pacilli, Angela M G; Fasano, Luca; Fabbri, Mario; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma in an asymptomatic 64-year-old woman who underwent hysterectomy for a uterine leiomyoma 26 years earlier. Routine chest radiograph revealed bilateral diffuse nodular opacities within the pulmonary lobes. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan showed peripheral lung nodules that do not display contrast enhancement. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET-CT) demonstrated no significant metabolic activity of the nodules. The lesions were diagnosed as benign metastasizing leiomyoma by histopathologic examination. To our best knowledge, this is the first case studied combining CT and FDG PET-CT technique.

  8. Is ″benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes″ Always Benign?

    PubMed Central

    SAEED, Muhammad; AZAM, Muhammad; SHABBIR, Nadeem; QAMAR, Shair Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of associated behavioral problems and prognosis with Benign Childhood Epilepsy with CentroTemporal Spikes (BCECTS). Descriptive, Cross Sectional study that was conducted from October 2009 to April 2013 in the Department of Pediatric Neurology, the Children’s Hospital Taif, KSA. Material & Methods This study was conducted after approval from the Ethics Committee of the Children’s Hospital Taif, Saudi Arabia. Thirty-two patients from the age of 3 to 10 years old were recruited from the pediatric neurology clinic over a period of 4 years. All the patients were selected based on history, EEGs, and neuropsychological and neurological examinations. EEGs were performed for all the patients while in awake and sleep states. Those who had centrotemporal discharges were included in the study. All the patients also underwent a brain MRI. Only two patients had mild cortical atrophy but developmentally they were normal. Results In our study, prevalence of BRE is 32/430 (7.44%). Among the 32 cases, 24 were male and eight were female. Six cases out of 32 indicated a family history of BRE. Twenty-eight cases had unilateral right sided centrotemporal discharges and four had bilateral discharges. Conclusion It is possible that for BECTS, a high number of seizures might play an important role in the development of mild cognitive impairment and/or behavior disturbances. PMID:25143772

  9. Revised criteria for suspicion of non-benign positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Soto-Varela, A; Rossi-Izquierdo, M; Sánchez-Sellero, I; Santos-Pérez, S

    2013-04-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most commonly diagnosed vestibular vertigo. BPPV can be diagnosed by clinical examination and its treatment is based on particle repositioning manoeuvres, and specialized equipment is not required. Therefore, most patients could be diagnosed and treated by their general practitioner. Unfortunately, not all positional vertigos are benign. Symptoms similar to those of BPPV can be caused by diseases that affect the central nervous system. It must be possible to define criteria that allow us to suspect, in a patient with symptoms of positional vertigo, the possibility of a cerebral origin ('non-benign PV'). Requests for magnetic resonance imaging must be justified by the fulfillment of these criteria. That is especially relevant in primary care, because these criteria should make possible to distinguish between patients with positional vertigo that could be treated by general practitioner and patients that need to be directed to especialized units. We propose the following revised criteria for suspected non-benign PV: (i) association with signs or symptoms of neurological disorder, (ii) nystagmus without dizziness in positional diagnostic tests, (iii) atypical nystagmus direction, (iv) poor response to therapeutic manoeuvres and (v) recurrence (confirmed by positional tests) on at least three occasions.

  10. Multiple cavitating pulmonary nodules: rare manifestation of benign metastatic leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn-I; Lee, Seok Jeong; Shim, Sung Shine; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Sung, Soon Hee

    2017-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease of pathologically benign, but the tumor metastasizes to other organs. The most common organ involved in BML is lung. Pulmonary involvement usually manifested as multiple nodules on chest X-ray, however we experienced an interesting case of a 52-year-old premenopausal woman who presented with multiple bilateral lung cavitations and nodules on a chest X-ray without any respiratory symptoms. Chest computed-tomography identified multiple cavitary lesions of 5–12 mm in diameter and well-defined nodules of 5–10 mm in diameter in both lung fields. Transthoracic needle biopsy was performed and the resected lesion consisted of benign spindle cells was positive for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and was diffuse positive for actin and desmin by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, suggesting leiomyoma. The final diagnosis was benign pulmonary metastasizing leiomyoma (BPML) and the patient underwent subcutaneous injection of a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist for 12 months, follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) scan at 15 months revealed decreased cavitations and nodular lesions. We should take into consideration the possibility of BPML when we encounter multiple cystic or cavitary lesions on chest X-ray, although the common form of BPML is nodulary lesions on imaging studies. PMID:28203428

  11. A Benign, Mature, Parapharyngeal Teratoma Presenting in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Punch, Gregory E; Sniezek, Joseph C; Berkey, Bryan D; Petermann, Gregory W

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of an adult female who presented mildly symptomatic and with a history of having a mass removed from her neck as an infant. Radiographic imaging detected the presence of a heterogeneous, encapsulated mass in the parapharyngeal space that was surgically resected, and subsequently pathologically confirmed to be a benign, mature cystic teratoma.

  12. Outcome after a liver resection of benign lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Katrin; Unsinn, Michael; Hinz, Ulf; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Waldburger, Nina; Longerich, Thomas; Radeleff, Boris; Schirmacher, Peter; Büchler, Markus W; Schemmer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Benign liver tumours represent a challenge in clinical management. There is considerable controversy with respect to the indications for surgery as the evidence for surgical treatment is variable. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the indication and outcome after resection of benign, solid liver lesions. Methods Data of 79 patients, who underwent liver resection between 2001 and 2012, were analysed for demographic and outcome parameters. Results Thirty-eight patients with focal nodular hyperplasia (48%), 23 patients with haemangioma (29%) and 18 patients with hepatocellular adenoma (23%) underwent a hepatic resection. A major hepatic resection was performed in 23 patients (29%) and a minor resection in 56 patients (71%). The post-operative mortality rate was zero and the 30-day morbidity rate 13.9%. After a median follow-up of 64 months, 75 patients (95%) were alive, and no patient had developed recurrent disease. Fifty-four patients (68%) were pre-operatively symptomatic, of which, 87% had complete or partial relief of symptoms after a liver resection. The incidence of symptoms increased with the lesions' size. Discussion The management of benign liver lesions necessitates an individualized therapy within a multidisciplinary, evidence-based, treatment algorithm. Resection of benign liver lesions can be performed safely in well-selected patients without mortality and low post-operative morbidity. PMID:26456947

  13. Optical discrimination between malignant and benign breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Taroni, Paola

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 82 subjects with breast lesions (45 malignant and 38 benign lesions). A perturbative approach based on the high-order calculation of the pathlength of photons inside the lesion was applied to estimate differences between lesion and average healthy tissue of the same breast in terms of: i) absorption properties, and ii) concentration of the major tissue constituents (oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen). The absorption difference Δμa between lesion and healthy tissue is significantly different for malignant vs. benign lesions at all wavelengths. Logistic regression fitted to the absorption data identifies 975 nm as the key wavelength to discriminate malignant from benign lesions. When the difference in tissue composition between lesion and healthy tissue is considered, malignant lesions are characterized by significantly higher collagen content than benign lesions. Also the best model for the discrimination of malignant lesions obtained applying regression logistic to tissue composition is based only on collagen. Including demographic information into the model improves its specificity.

  14. Benign Occipital Epilepsies of Childhood: Clinical Features and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Isabella; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Kivity, Sara; Scheffer, Ingrid E.

    2008-01-01

    The early and late benign occipital epilepsies of childhood (BOEC) are described as two discrete electro-clinical syndromes, eponymously known as Panayiotopoulos and Gastaut syndromes. Our aim was to explore the clinical features, classification and clinical genetics of these syndromes using twin and multiplex family studies to determine whether…

  15. [The conservative treatment of early-stage benign prostatic hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Kumanov, Kh; Stoianova, V; Lilov, A; Kaloianov, D

    1993-01-01

    After outlining the methods currently used in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) treatment, data defining some etiological aspects of the disease are briefly analyzed. Initial experience had with the treatment of early stage BPH using Permixon--a drug exerting effect on alpha-2 reductase--is described. The results in a series of twenty-seven patients presenting BPH are encouraging.

  16. Elastography in Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Colakoglu, Bulent; Yildirim, Duzgun; Alis, Deniz; Ucar, Gokhan; Samanci, Cesur; Ustabasioglu, Fethi Emre; Bakir, Alev; Ulusoy, Onur Levent

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to test the diagnostic success of strain elastography in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods: The size, echogenicity, and halo integrity of 293 thyroid nodules and the presence of microcalcification in these nodules were evaluated on gray-scale examination. Doppler characteristics and elastography patterns were also evaluated and recorded. Nodules were classified in four categories (patterns 1–4) based on elastographic examination. Results: According to the cytopathological findings, 222 nodules were benign, and 71 nodules were malignant. The risk of a nodule to be malignant was 3.8 times increased by hypoechogenicity, 7.7 times increased by the presence of microcalcification, and 11.5 times increased by the absence of halo. On Doppler patterns, the presence of central vascularity increased the malignancy risk of a nodule by 5.8 times. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, patterns 3 and 4 were malignant, and patterns 1 and 2 were benign. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of elastography were 100%, 80.2%, 61.7%, 100%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Strain elastography can be used as a noninvasive method in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules and in identifying the patients who would undergo surgery. PMID:28123841

  17. Metformin inhibits the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Rongbin; Li, Jijun; Johnson, Cameron W.; Rassoulian, Cyrus; Olumi, Aria F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common proliferative abnormality of the prostate affecting elderly men throughout the world. Epidemiologic studies have shown that diabetes significantly increases the risk of developing BPH, although whether anti-diabetic medications preventing the development of BPH remains to be defined. We have previously found that stromally expressed insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) promotes benign prostatic epithelial cell proliferation through paracrine mechanisms. Here, we seek to understand if metformin, a first line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, inhibits the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells through reducing the expression of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and regulating cell cycle. Methods BPE cell lines BPH-1 and P69, murine fibroblasts3T3 and primary human prostatic fibroblasts were cultured and tested in this study. Cell proliferation and the cell cycle were analyzed by MTS assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of IGF-1R was determined by western-blot and immunocytochemistry. The level of IGF-1 secretion in culture medium was measured by ELISA. Results Metformin (0.5-10mM, 6-48h) significantly inhibited the proliferation of BPH-1 and P69 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Treatment with metformin for 24 hours lowered the G2/M cell population by 43.24% in P69 cells and 24.22% in BPH-1 cells. On the other hand, IGF-1 (100ng/mL, 24h) stimulated the cell proliferation (increased by 28.81% in P69 cells and 20.95% in BPH-1 cells) and significantly enhanced the expression of IGF-1R in benign prostatic epithelial cells. Metformin (5mM) abrogated the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells induced by IGF-1. In 3T3 cells, the secretion of IGF-1 was significantly inhibited by metformin from 574.31pg/ml to 197.61pg/ml. The conditioned media of 3T3 cells and human prostatic fibroblasts promoted the proliferation of epithelial cells and the

  18. Fluorescence lifetime of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissues.

    PubMed

    Brandao, Mariana; Iwakura, Ricardo; Basilio, Fagne; Haleplian, Kaique; Ito, Amando; de Freitas, Luiz Carlos Conti; Bachmann, Luciano

    2015-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method results in a high percentage of inconclusive and false negatives. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist during surgical procedures. This study aimed to use fluorescence lifetimes to differentiate healthy and benign tissues from malignant thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue was excited at 298-300 nm and the fluorescence decay registered at 340 and 450 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission of 0.80 ± 0.26 and 3.94 ± 0.47 ns for healthy tissue; 0.90 ± 0.24 and 4.05 ± 0.46 ns for benign lesions; and 1.21 ± 0.14 and 4.63 ± 0.25 ns for malignant lesions. For 450 nm emissions, we obtain lifetimes of 0.25 ± 0.18 and 3.99 ± 0.39 ns and for healthy tissue, 0.24 ± 0.17 and 4.20 ± 0.48 ns for benign lesions, 0.33 ± 0.32 and 4.55 ± 0.55 ns for malignant lesions. Employing analysis of variance, we differentiate malignant lesions from benign and healthy tissues. In addition, we use quadratic discriminant analysis to distinguish malignant from benign and healthy tissues with an accuracy of 76.1%, sensitivity of 74.7%, and specificity of 83.3%. These results indicate that time-resolved fluorescence can assist medical evaluation of thyroid pathologies during surgeries.

  19. Fluorescence lifetime of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Mariana; Iwakura, Ricardo; Basilio, Fagne; Haleplian, Kaique; Ito, Amando; de Freitas, Luiz Carlos Conti; Bachmann, Luciano

    2015-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method results in a high percentage of inconclusive and false negatives. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist during surgical procedures. This study aimed to use fluorescence lifetimes to differentiate healthy and benign tissues from malignant thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue was excited at 298-300 nm and the fluorescence decay registered at 340 and 450 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission of 0.80±0.26 and 3.94±0.47 ns for healthy tissue; 0.90±0.24 and 4.05±0.46 ns for benign lesions; and 1.21±0.14 and 4.63±0.25 ns for malignant lesions. For 450 nm emissions, we obtain lifetimes of 0.25±0.18 and 3.99±0.39 ns for healthy tissue, 0.24±0.17 and 4.20±0.48 ns for benign lesions, 0.33±0.32 and 4.55±0.55 ns for malignant lesions. Employing analysis of variance, we differentiate malignant lesions from benign and healthy tissues. In addition, we use quadratic discriminant analysis to distinguish malignant from benign and healthy tissues with an accuracy of 76.1%, sensitivity of 74.7%, and specificity of 83.3%. These results indicate that time-resolved fluorescence can assist medical evaluation of thyroid pathologies during surgeries.

  20. Multidetector CT and histological features of benign mesenchymoma of the infratemporal space: a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Kelkar, CA; Desai, RS; Kambadakone, A; Shetty, SJ

    2013-01-01

    Benign mesenchymoma is a soft tissue neoplasm composed of an admixture of two or more benign mesenchymal components in addition to fibrous tissue. A rare case of benign mesenchymoma of the infratemporal space in a 14-year-old boy is presented. In this case report we discuss the salient imaging and histopathological features of this rare entity. PMID:22282510

  1. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma presenting as cavitating lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Loukeri, Angeliki A; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis N; Tringidou, Rodoula; Giampoudakis, Pantelis; Valaskatzi, Argyro; Loukeri, Pinelopi A; Kampolis, Christos F

    2014-07-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) was initially used to describe single or multiple pulmonary nodules composed of proliferating smooth muscle cells (lacking cellular atypia) in premenopausal females 3 months to 20 y after hysterectomy for uterine leiomyoma. The lung is the most commonly involved site, thus including many malignant and benign entities in the differential diagnosis. The present case refers to a 47-y-old premenopausal woman with a history of subtotal hysterectomy for a uterine leiomyoma presenting with bilateral cavitating pulmonary nodules. A number of nodules were resected by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The histological findings in correlation with the immunohistochemical results were consistent with the diagnosis of BML. A bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, combined with complete removal of the remaining cervix. One year later, the subject remains asymptomatic, and the pulmonary nodules are stable with regard to number, size, location, and morphology.

  2. Multicystic benign cystic mesothelioma presenting as a pelvic mass.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Mazdak; Pereira, Elena; Grigoryan, Gennadiy; Zakashansky, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Background. Benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM) is a rare tumor that arises from the abdominal peritoneum with a predilection to the pelvic peritoneum. For this reason, it can often mimic gynecologic malignancies. Case. A 47-year-old perimenopausal female presented reporting several weeks of abdominal distention associated with abdominal tenderness and constipation. Computed tomography revealed a 24 cm multiloculated pelvic mass, and tumor markers were notable for an elevated CA-125. The patient was taken to the operating room for an exploratory laparotomy, total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy, and removal of pelvic mass. Final pathologic evaluation revealed a benign cystic mesothelioma. Conclusion. Classically these tumors present as large multicystic masses with thin-walled septations and on preoperative evaluation BCM can mimic many different disease entities including ovarian malignancies and cystic lymphangioma. Often diagnosis can only be made at time of surgery.

  3. Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations of wolffian origin.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; González-Peramato, Pilar; Serrano, Alvaro; Vega-Perez, Maria; De Miguel, Maria P; Regadera, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations (BEPs) are rare. Only 10 cases were found in a series of 431 paratesticular cysts and were classified as follows: cystadenoma, 5; papilloma, 2; and hamartoma, 3. Four cystadenomas showed multiple papillae lined by CD10+ epithelial cells with hyperchromatic nuclei. The remaining lesion showed areas with a microcystic, glandular, cribriform pattern, with small, benign glands without atypia. Urothelial papilloma presented BEPs with cytokeratin (CK) 7+ and CD10+ and CK20- umbrella-like cells. The mural papilloma was lined by proliferative cylindrical cells exhibiting strong CK7 and CD10 expression. The 3 Wolffian hamartomas were characterized by strongly CD10+ epithelium surrounded by smooth muscle cells. The consistent CD10 expression in BEPs of paratesticular cysts suggests a Wolffian origin. The differential diagnosis of paratesticular cysts with BEP vs metastatic prostatic and primary borderline or malignant tumors is discussed.

  4. Benign metastasizing leiomyomas in the lungs: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Bruliński, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease that occurs in middle-aged women with a history of uterine myomas. The most common location of BML is the lungs. We report the case of a 44-year-old obese woman (BMI 45.5) who underwent surgery to remove uterine leiomyomata and then continued to take a drug containing the hormone estradiol for a period of 15 years. Computed tomography chest examinations revealed multiple size nodules of varying size in both lungs. Videothoracoscopy and right thoracotomy was performed, and a few nodules were enucleated from each lobe of the right lung. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed benign metastasizing leiomyoma staining positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER+, PR+). Because of the hormonally dependent cell proliferation, the previously used hormonal drug was discontinued. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog was included, yielding radiological stabilization of the lung lesions. PMID:27212984

  5. Pictorial essay of radiological features of benign intrathoracic masses

    PubMed Central

    Suut, Syahminan; Al-Ani, Zeid; Allen, Carolyn; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Durr-e-Sabih; AL-Harbi, Abdullah; AL-Jahdali, Hamdan; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    With increased exposure of patients to routine imaging, incidental benign intrathoracic masses are frequently recognized. Most have classical imaging features, which are pathognomonic for their benignity. The aim of this pictorial review is to educate the reader of radiological features of several types of intrathoracic masses. The masses are categorized based on their location/origin and are grouped into parenchymal, pleural, mediastinal, or bronchial. Thoracic wall masses that invade the thorax such as neurofibromas and lipomas are included as they may mimic intrathoracic masses. All examples are illustrated and include pulmonary hamartoma, pleural fibroma, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoid, and bronchoceles together with a variety of mediastinal cysts on plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sometimes a multimodality approach would be needed to confirm the diagnosis in atypical cases. The study would include the incorporation of radionuclide studies and relevant discussion in a multidisciplinary setting. PMID:26664560

  6. True Cervicothoracic Meningocele: A Rare and Benign Condition

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Bruno L.; Lima, Yara

    2015-01-01

    Cervical meningoceles are rare spinal dysraphism, accounting for approximately 7% of all cystic spinal dysraphism. In spite of the rarity, the clinical course is most of the times benign. The surgical treatment includes resection of the lesion and untethering, when presented. We present a 14-day-old female child with true meningoceles who underwent to surgical excision and dura-mater repair. Retrospect analysis of the literature concerning true cervical meningocele is performed. By reporting this illustrative case, we focus on its classification and its differentiation from other types of cervical spinal dysraphism, such as myelocystocele and myelomeningocele. Although its course is benign, it is mandatory a continuum follow up with periodic magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord, since late neurological deterioration has been described. PMID:26788266

  7. [Radiofrequency ablation of a symptomatic benign thyroid nodule].

    PubMed

    van Ginhoven, T M; Massolt, E T; Bijdevaate, D C; Peeters, R P; Burgers, J W A; Moelker, A

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) enables the ablation of selected tissue by means of heat. For the first time in the Netherlands, RFA is being used to treat patients with benign thyroid nodules. RFA is able to reduce the volume of a nodule that may be causing cosmetic complaints or problems due to mass effect. This avoids the need for surgery or treatment with radioactive iodine in this benign condition. The average reduction in size is 80% in the first year, leading to a considerable decrease in both symptomatic and cosmetic complaints. At Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, this technique has been introduced in accordance with current guidelines, and it is expected that other centres of excellence will follow in implementing it. It is important that the initial experiences with this technique in the Netherlands in terms of effectiveness, risks and patient satisfaction should be monitored before RFA becomes routine treatment.

  8. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Due to Achalasia: An Unusual but Benign Cause

    PubMed Central

    Javan, Ramin; Duszak, Richard; Tonkin, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is usually first identified radiographically in the emergency department. Distinguishing benign from more ominous causes, such as esophageal rupture, is imperative, particularly in the setting of associated esophageal disease. We describe a case, with correlative imaging, of spontaneous pneumomediastinum as the initial presentation of achalasia. A general discussion of spontaneous pneumomediastinum is also provided, including the pathophysiology, precipitating and predisposing factors, clinical manifestations, role of radiology in the diagnosis as well as the radiographic signs. PMID:22470701

  9. Therapeutic options in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S

    2009-01-01

    Current theraputic options for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are reviewed. Therapeutic options for mild lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as defined by the American Urological Association, are generally treated medically. Moderate to severe LUTS can be treated medically or with surgical therapy. Current medical and surgical treatments for LUTS secondary to BPH are reviewed and evolving treatments are explored. PMID:19936164

  10. Environmentally benign synthesis and antimicrobial study of novel chalcogenophosphates.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shubhanjan; Mukherjee, Sayani; Sen, Sukanta K; Hajra, Alakananda

    2014-05-01

    We report in this work an environmentally benign zinc mediated synthesis of aryl and benzyl phosphorochalcogenoates in ethanol within a short reaction time. In vitro antimicrobial study along with statistical analysis and seed germination assay were performed. These chalcogenophosphates possess strong antimicrobial activity against the reference strains. The antibacterial activity was determined against four standard strains (Bacilus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The antifungal activity was evaluated against one fungal strain Candida albicans.

  11. Andreas Rett and benign familial neonatal convulsions revisited.

    PubMed

    Zimprich, F; Ronen, G M; Stögmann, W; Baumgartner, C; Stögmann, E; Rett, B; Pappas, C; Leppert, M; Singh, N; Anderson, V E

    2006-09-12

    In 1964 Andreas Rett published the first account of a family with benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC). The authors retraced Rett's family and report that the clinical and genetic features of this original family fit the currently accepted definitions of BFNC. They also consider the career of Dr. Rett, a researcher and social reformer as well as an advocate for the rights of children with developmental disabilities.

  12. Rupture of benign thyroid tumors after radio-frequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Shin, J H; Jung, S L; Baek, J H; Kim, J-H

    2011-12-01

    Rupture of benign thyroid tumors after RFA is very rare. We experienced 6 cases in 4 institutions. All patients presented with abrupt neck swelling and pain between 9 and 60 days after RFA. Imaging and clinical findings of the ruptured tumors were anterior subcapsular location, mixed composition, large size, and repeated ablations. Conservative treatment was sufficient in 3 cases, whereas surgical management was required in 3.

  13. Spontaneous Coronary Dissection Masquerading as Benign Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sara Wei-Fen; Lin, Weiqin; Chan, Koo Hui; Seow, Swee-Chong

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome. Diagnosis of coronary artery dissection is made on coronary angiogram and prompt revascularisation is the key in management. We present a case of coronary artery dissection with an atypical presentation of cardiac arrhythmia mimicking benign fascicular ventricular tachycardia. A high index of suspicion and early coronary angiogram allowed us to diagnose and treat this potentially life-threatening disease.

  14. Benign recurrent abducens (6th) nerve palsy in two children.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Christopher M; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-03-01

    Benign recurrent abducens (6th) nerve palsy is rare. We found 23 cases in children reported in the literature; however, many of these cases followed immunization or were associated with viral illness. Here we report two cases of recurrent abducens nerve palsy with no obvious etiology. The diagnosis should be considered in any child who experiences abducens nerve palsy in the absence of any underlying pathology or precipitating factors.

  15. [Occult cancer in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Duarte, C; Aguillón, J; Rodríguez, H

    1991-05-01

    The results of a prospective study undertaken in 29 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are presented. Transrectal ultrasound, ultrasound-guided biopsy and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were utilized in the search for hidden cancer of the prostate. However, no cancer was detected in any patient. Very high values of PSA were found, particularly in patients with an indwelling catheter. Transrectal ultrasound yielded no false negatives and no complications were observed.

  16. [Alphafetoprotein in hepatic tumours and benign liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Forones, N M; Queiroz, L A; Ferraz, M L; Parise, E R

    1995-01-01

    AFP is an oncofetal protein found in increased levels in hepatocellular carcinoma, liver metastasis and other benign liver diseases. PURPOSE--To know the behaviour of this protein in each of these clinical situations would undoubtedly help us to discriminate between hepatocellular carcinoma and benign diseases. PATIENTS--A hundred forty nine patients were divided into 4 groups: 1. acute hepatitis (AH) n = 24, 2. chronic liver disease, viral or alcoholic (CLD) n = 81, 3. hepatic metastasis (HM) n = 29, 4. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) n = 15. AFP assays were done by ELISA (Abbott Diagnostica, ref. value: 15ng/mL). RESULTS--The results observed were as follows: AFP < 15ng/mL: AH 75%, CLD 86.4%, HM 79.3%, HCC 6.6%, AFP > 15 e < 100ng/mL: AH 25%, CLD 8.6%, HM 20.6%, HCC 20%, AFP > 100ng/mL: AH zero, CLD 4.9%, HM zero, HCC 49%. It is clear that depending on the cut off level, there is a decrease of sensibility which is paralleled by an increase in specificity. CONCLUSIONS--AFP levels are increased in benign liver diseases (AH, CLD) and HM, how ever levels above 100ng/mL occur much more frequently in HCC. In our sample, 93.3% of the HCC showed high levels of AFP, probably because most of the patients had advanced clinical stages of the disease.

  17. Benign triton tumor: multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Thakrar, Raj; Robson, Caroline D; Vargas, Sara O; Meara, John G; Rahbar, Reza; Smith, Edward R

    2014-01-01

    Benign Triton tumor (neuromuscular choristoma) is a rare mass that most commonly occurs as a multinodular expansion of tissue in or around large nerves. Intracranial occurrence is uncommon. We report on a 4-year-old girl presenting with a right-sided facial mass and trismus. Imaging revealed a large, complex mass extending from the ventral aspect of the pons, along the trigeminal nerve, through the foramen ovale, and into the right infratemporal fossa. The lesion was partially enhancing, invaded adjacent infratemporal musculature, was associated with marked overgrowth of the right coronoid process, and induced bony erosion of the middle cranial fossa. After needle biopsy, a multidisciplinary team, including plastic surgery, otolaryngology, and neurosurgery, performed a combined, multistep, single-day surgical approach for resection. Unique to this case was the resection of the coronoid process, a modified middle fossa intradural and extradural approach, coupled with a transfacial infratemporal approach. Microscopically, the resected tissue showed skeletal muscle, fibrous tissue, and nerve in a disorganized arrangement characteristic of a benign Triton tumor. We present this case to illustrate diagnostic clues and pitfalls in the preoperative evaluation of a benign Triton tumor. We also highlight the pathologist's role as a partner in a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment of this rare pediatric mass, potentially the largest Triton tumor in the head reported to date.

  18. Efficacy of Surgical Airway Plasty for Benign Airway Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term patency is required during treatment for benign airway stenosis. This study investigated the effectiveness of surgical airway plasty for benign airway stenosis. Methods: Clinical courses of 20 patients, who were treated with surgical plasty for their benign airway stenosis, were retrospectively investigated. Results: Causes of stenosis were tracheobronchial tuberculosis in 12 patients, post-intubation stenosis in five patients, malacia in two patients, and others in one patient. 28 interventional pulmonology procedures and 20 surgical plasty were performed. Five patients with post-intubation stenosis and four patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with tracheoplasty. Eight patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with bronchoplasty, and two patients with malacia were treated with stabilization of the membranous portion. Anastomotic stenosis was observed in four patients, and one to four additional treatments were required. Performance status, Hugh–Jones classification, and ventilatory functions were improved after surgical plasty. Outcomes were fair in patients with tuberculous stenosis and malacia. However, efficacy of surgical plasty for post-intubation stenosis was not observed. Conclusion: Surgical airway plasty may be an acceptable treatment for tuberculous stenosis. Patients with malacia recover well after surgical plasty. There may be untreated patients with malacia who have the potential to benefit from surgical plasty. PMID:26567879

  19. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of benign breast tumor tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, H.; Lasch, P.; Boese, M.; Haensch, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have applied infrared microspectroscopic imaging for the examination of benign breast tumor tissue sections. The IR spectra of the sections were obtained by classical point microscopy with a movable stage and via a microscope equipped with a focal plane array detector. The infrared microscopic data were analysed using functional group mapping techniques and cluster analysis. The output values of the two procedures were reassembled into infrared images of the tissues, and were compared with standard staining images of the corresponding tissue region. The comparative examination of identical tissue sections by the two IR approaches enabled us to assess potential problems associated with tissue microheterogeneity. It was found that in case of fibroadenoma, a benign lesion located in breast ducts, point microscopy with a spot size of ˜30 μm is a useful practical approach which minimizes the possibility of 'contamination' of the spectra because of spectral averaging of all tissue components present in the corresponding microareas. A comparison of the spectra of the benign breast tumor with those of a malignant ductal carcinoma in situ revealed that IR microspectroscopy has the potential to differentiate between these two breast tumor types.

  20. Phytotherapeutic Agents for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Passi, Neelima Dhingra

    2016-06-20

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) the most common condition in aging men is the non malignant enlargement of the prostate gland with increase in numbers of both epithelial and stromal cells within the periurethal transition zone of the prostate. Sources of symptoms in patient with BPH appear to be both static and dynamic component. Management of BPH has undergone a rapid evolution over the past decade to aid men with lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to bladder outlet obstruction. Treatment of clinical BPH aims to improve symptoms, prevent urinary tract infections, avoid renal insult, relief obstruction and improve bladder emptying.Prostate cancer patients and those with benign prostatic hyperplasia are increasingly exploring the use of plant derived non-nutritive compounds with protective or disease preventive properties, especially due to long term side effects of pharmacological treatment and risk of mortality associated with surgical procedures. Phytotherapeutic preparations are plant extracts with different components obtained by different extraction procedures. Numerous mechanisms of action have been postulated for mono and combination plant extracts. This article give a brief account of rationale and efficacy of various existing phytotherapeutic agents in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia, including the herbs which hold the potential promise are also mentioned , although much research is still required.

  1. Surgical Treatment for Recurrent Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Corvera Behar, Gonzalo; García de la Cruz, Miguel Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a generally benign condition that responds to repositioning maneuvers and frequently resolves spontaneously. However, for some patients it can become a disabling condition in which surgery must be considered. Two different surgical techniques exist, singular neurectomy and posterior semicircular canal occlusion. Objective The objective of this study is to review the current status of singular nerve section and posterior semicircular canal occlusion as treatments for intractable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and to determine if there are published data available that favors one over the other. Data Sources MEDLINE and OLDMEDLINE databases of the National Library of Medicine. Data Synthesis Four studies regarding singular neurectomy and 14 reports on semicircular canal occlusion were analyzed. Both techniques are reported to provide similar symptomatic benefit, with low risk of hearing loss and balance impairment. However, anatomical and clinical studies of singular neurectomy show it to be a more challenging technique, and considering that it is indicated in a very small number of cases, it may be difficult to master. Conclusions Both singular neurectomy and semicircular canal occlusion can be safe and effective in those few patients that require surgery for intractable positional vertigo. Although semicircular canal occlusion requires a postauricular transmastoid approach, it is ultimately easier to learn and perform adequately, and thus may be considered the best alternative. PMID:28382130

  2. Pattern of benign ovarian cysts in Qatari women

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Fatimah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the age distribution, histopathological types, lateral distribution and surgical interventions performed for benign ovarian cysts in Qatari women undergoing surgical intervention for an ovarian cyst. Design: A retrospective descriptive study. Setting: Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Al-Ahli Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Patients and methods: Data were collected retrospectively from clinical records of Qatari women who underwent surgical intervention from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015 at Al-Ahli Hospital for an ovarian or paraovarian cyst. The age distribution, frequencies and percentages were calculated for each type of ovarian cyst and the side of the ovary involved was recorded. Results were statistically analysed by IBM SPSS, version 23. Results: A total of 81 women had an ovarian or paraovarian cyst. Age ranged from 16 to 58 years. The maximum number of women were in the 21–30-year-old age group. Benign epithelial cysts were found to be most common (32; 39.5%), of which the majority were for endometriotic cysts (15; 18.5%), serous cystadenoma (13; 16%) and mucinous cystadenoma (4; 4.9%). This was followed by physiological cysts (26; 32.1%), which included corpus luteal cysts (15; 18.5%) and simple follicular cysts (11; 13.6%). The other categories of ovarian tumours were for mature cystic teratoma (14; 17.3%), benign sex cord–stromal tumours (1; 1.2%) which included stromal cell tumours (1; 1.2%), borderline ovarian tumour (1; 1.2%) and paraovarian cysts (7; 8.6%). There was bilateral ovarian involvement in 9 cases (11.1%) and unilateral involvement in 72 (88.9%). The right ovary was involved in more cases (39; 48.1%), than for the left ovary (33; 40.7%). Conclusion: Benign epithelial tumours were found to be the most common type of ovarian tumour in Qatari women. Endometriotic cysts followed by serous cystadenomas were the most common types of benign epithelial tumours. The right ovary was found to be involved in more cases than the

  3. A Clinicopathological Study of Benign Phyllodes Tumour of Breast with Emphasis on Unusual Features

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Benign Phyllodes Tumours (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that resemble fibroadenoma. But unlike fibroadenoma, benign PT can recur and both stromal & epithelial components can progress to malignancy. Contrary to earlier belief that benign PT is a stromal neoplasm and possibly arises from fibroadenoma, more recent molecular studies have suggested that both stroma and epithelium can become neoplastic. Sometimes, benign PT can occur synchronously with fibroadenoma. Here histomorphologic analysis of eleven cases of benign PT are presented including some unusual features. Materials and Methods Eleven cases of benign PT diagnosed between Dec 2014 and Jan 2016 in the Department of Pathology were studied. The demographic and clinicopathological features were analysed. Results The most common age group affected was 20-30 years (range: 13-45). Clinical features included pain, lump and bleeding from nipple. The tumour size varied from 2.5-18 cm in diameter. H&E stained sections showed secondary changes (haemorrhage, myxoid, change, cystic degeneration), epithelial hyperplasia (8), squamous & columnar metaplasia (1), benign tubular adenoma like areas (1), Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) (1), Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) (1), Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia (PASH) (1), histologic infarction (2), tumour necrosis (1) and synchronous fibroadenoma (1). Unusual histologic features included atypical ductal hyperplasia, DCIS, IDC, synchronous fibroadenoma and tubular adenoma like areas arising within benign PT. Conclusion This study shows a spectrum of hyperplastic, metaplastic, dysplastic, benign, in-situ-malignancy and even invasive ductal malignancy occurring in benign PT. Therefore adequate and extensive sampling is recommended for accurate diagnosis. PMID:27630851

  4. Disentangling of Malignancy from Benign Pheochromocytomas/Paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyong Young; Hong, A. Ram; Seong, Moon-Woo; Lee, Kyu Eun; Kim, Su-Jin; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many malignant tumors initially appear benign but subsequently exhibit extensive metastases. Early identification of malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) before metastasis is important for improved prognosis. However, there are no robust prognostic indices of recurrence and malignancy. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and histopathological factors that predict malignant PPGLs. Design Retrospective follow-up study. Methods In this study, we included 223 patients with pathologically confirmed PPGLs who were treated between 2000 and 2015 at the Seoul National University Hospital in South Korea. Results Of these patients, 29 were diagnosed with malignancy, 12 of whom presented with metastatic lesions at the initial diagnosis while 17 developed metastases during follow-up. Nineteen patients with recurrent PPGLs consisted of ones with malignant PPGLs (n = 17) and multifocal PPGLs (n = 2) who had VHL and RET mutations. The mean age at presentation for malignant PPGLs was significantly younger than that for benign PPGLs (43.0 vs. 49.0 years, respectively; p = 0.023). Tumor size was not a distinguishing factor between malignant and benign PPGLs (5.0 vs. 4.5 cm, respectively; p = 0.316) nor did it predict recurrence. Of 119 patients with available pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland scaled score (PASS) data, those with malignant PPGLs presented PASS values ≥4. Of 12 parameters of PASS, necrosis, capsular invasion, vascular invasion, cellular monotony, high mitosis, atypical mitotic figures, and nuclear hyperchromasia were significant predictors of malignancy. Conclusions Tumor size did not predict malignancy or recurrence of PPGLs. PPGL patients with characteristic pathologic findings and PASS ≥4 or germline mutations require close follow-up. PMID:27992508

  5. Benign fasciculations and corticosteroid use: possible association? An update

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Marco; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Araújo Leite, Marco Antonio; Júnior, Salem Peter; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; Sholer, Marzia Puccioni; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Pereira, Alessandra Cardoso; de Menezes, Sara Lúcia Silveira; da Silva Catharino, Antonio Marcos; Bino, Fabrício

    2011-01-01

    Fasciculations are characterized by visible subtle and fast contractions of muscle, even wormlike in movement, by the contraction of a fascicle of muscle fibers. The authors present the case study of a 28-year-old patient with the appearance of migratory and diffuse fasciculations with an onset after partial tapering off of oral corticosteroides (60 mg total dose) indicated for treatment of Minimal change Glomerulopathy. Clinical Neurological physical exam allied with an ENMG, besides other complementary laboratory exams were used for screening the above-mentioned patient. Afterwards, current research relating to the topic at hand was made in order to update the data available in the Bireme, Scielo and PubMed Data Banks using the following key words: Fasciculation's, motor neuron disease, and benign fasciculations in the Portuguese, English as well as Spanish language. Although fasciculation's are most commonly associated with Motor neuron disease as well as with certain metabolic disorders, they may also be present in individuals with absolutely no underlying pathological disorders. In our case, fasciculation potentials that have been present for six months, with no other signs of a neurogenic disorder as well as absence of laboratory findings, the patient received a diagnosis of Benign Fasciculation Syndrome (BFS).We believe that the use of corticosteroides in high doses with subsequent tapering contributed to the fasciculation's, especially due to the changes that this causes on the ionic channels. Fasciculation's are symptoms seen in a large range of conditions, and also being the main symptom of the so-called Benign Fasciculation Syndrome. We have presented an example of this clinical syndrome in a patient whose complaint was fasciculation's, with complete clinical remission of symptoms following complete tapering off of corticosteroid six months previously. PMID:22053258

  6. Role of metallic stents in benign esophageal stricture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Chan Sup

    2012-10-01

    Simple esophageal strictures, which are focal, straight, and large in diameter, usually require 1 - 3 dilation sessions to relieve symptoms. However, complex strictures, which are long, tortuous, or associated with a severely compromised luminal diameter, are usually more difficult to treat with conventional bougie or balloon dilation techniques, and often have high recurrence rates. Although the permanent placement of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) has been used to manage refractory benign esophageal strictures, this procedure is associated with additional problems, such as stricture from tissue hyperplasia, stent migration, and fistula formation. Thus, several new types of stents have been developed, including temporary SEMS, self-expandable plastic stents (SEPS), and biodegradable stents. The use of these new products has produced varied results. Temporary SEMS that have been used to relieve benign esophageal conditions have caused granulation tissue at both ends of the stent because of contact between the mucosa and the exposed metal components of the stent, thus hindering stent removal. We examined the tissue response to two new types of SEMS, a flange-type and a straighttype, each coated with a silicone membrane on the outside of the metal mesh. These two SEMS were evaluated individually and compared with a conventional control stent in animal experiments. Although the newly designed stents resulted in reduced tissue hyperplasia, and were thus more easily separated from the esophageal tissue, some degree of tissue hyperplasia did occur. We suggest that newly designed DES (drug-eluting stents) may provide an alternative tool to manage refractory benign esophageal stricture.

  7. Bone Transport for Reconstruction in Benign Bone Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Seon; Cho, Yong Jin; Ahn, Yeong Seub; Na, Bo Ram

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the results of using the Ilizarov apparatus to transport bones in the treatment of benign bone tumors. Methods Seven patients (six males and one female) with benign bone tumors were treated by bone transport with an Ilizarov apparatus at our institution. Their mean age at surgery was 14.4 years (range, 4.8 to 36.9 years). The histological diagnoses were osteofibrous dysplasia (4), giant-cell tumor (1), intraosseous cavernous hemangioma (1), and aneurysmal bone cyst (1). Three radiological indices were used for evaluating the results: an external fixation index, a distraction index, and a maturation index. The bone and functional results were evaluated according to the Association for the Study and Application of the Method of Ilizarov classification. Results Five patients had bone union at the reconstructed site, one patient had a local recurrence, and the other had a nonunion at the docking site. The mean length of distraction was 7.3 cm (range, 5.1 to 12.1 cm). The mean external fixation index was 26.0 day/cm (range, 19.8 to 32.5 day/cm), the distraction index was 9.6 day/cm (range, 6.8 to 12.0 day/cm), and the maturation index was 14.9 day/cm (range, 8.0 to 22.5 day/cm). Ultimately, the bone and the functional results were rated excellent in six cases and good in one case. Conclusions Bone transport using the Ilizarov apparatus is a good treatment option in patients with bone defects after the resection of an active or aggressive benign bone tumor. PMID:26217473

  8. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo in the Acute Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Fife, Terry D; von Brevern, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common cause of vertigo characterized by brief episodes provoked by head movements. The first attack of BPPV usually occurs in bed or upon getting up. Because it often begins abruptly, it can be alarming and lead to emergency department evaluation. The episodes of spinning often last 10 to 20 seconds, but may occasionally last as long as 1 minute. There are several forms of BPPV. In nearly all cases, highly effective treatment can be offered to patients. This article reviews the current state of our understanding of this condition and its management.

  9. Benign symmetrical lipomatosis and pellagra associated with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Fernanda de Marca; Stolarczuk, Dionne de Almeida; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Succi, Isabel Cristina Brasil

    2011-01-01

    A 42-year-old male patient, alcoholic, presented showing signs of tumors in the neck and around the shoulders, scaly, erythematous-violaceous lesions and some bullous lesions in sun-exposed areas of upper and lower limbs. Based on clinical features, laboratory tests and imaging studies we have established the diagnosis of pellagra associated with benign symmetrical lipomatosis, both justified by chronic alcoholism. Treated with intravenous B-complex and oriented about the importance of alcohol withdrawal, the patient showed complete remission of skin lesions, but with no change in the lipomatosis.

  10. Lipomatous meningioma: A rare subtype of benign metaplastic meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Mehmet Onur; Gürbüz, Mehmet Sabri; Tanrıverdi, Osman; Özmen, Sevilay Akalp

    2017-01-01

    Lipomatous meningiomas are extremely rare subtypes of benign meningiomas and are classified as metaplastic meningioma in the World Health Organization classification. We present a 77-year-old man presented with the history of a gradually intensifying headache for the last 3 months. A right frontoparietal mass was detected on his cranial magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was operated on via a right frontoparietal craniotomy, and histopathological diagnosis was lipomatous meningioma. Distinctive characteristics of lipomatous meningiomas were discussed with special emphasis to importance of immunohistochemical examinations, particularly for its differentiation from the tumors showing similar histology though having more aggressive character. PMID:28149104

  11. A huge benign prostatic hyperplasia presenting with renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Basatac, Cem; Cicek, Mehmet Cagatay

    2015-01-01

    Although transurethral resection of the prostate is still standard of care in many patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia, traditional open prostatectomy (OP) seems as a widely applied method in larger glands. In spite of the fact that holmium laser enucleation can be performed in large glands, upper limits of prostate size in this method are not clearly identified in the current literature. In this case, we aim to report feasibility and efficacy of OP in huge prostate size measured as 680 ml by transrectal ultrasound and review the current literature. PMID:26034239

  12. Transformation of benign fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumor

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Megan E; Tortora, Matthew; Panasiti, Ryane

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of a benign fibroadenoma into a phyllodes tumor is uncommon and unpredictable. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with a core biopsy proven fibroadenoma that underwent transformation into a malignant phyllodes tumor after 3 years of size stability. We present ultrasound and magnetic resonance images, as well as pathology slides from core biopsy and surgical excision, to illustrate this transformation. It has been suggested that phyllodes tumors may be misdiagnosed as fibroadenomas by core biopsy. However, in this case, pathology supports correct initial diagnosis of fibroadenoma and demonstrates a portion of the original fibroadenoma along the periphery of the malignant phyllodes tumor. PMID:26331090

  13. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for benign and malignant disease

    PubMed Central

    Visioni, Anthony; Kim, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Functional imaging using radiolabeled probes which specifically bind and accumulate in target tissues has improved the sensitivity and specificity of conventional imaging. Positron Emission Tomography using modified glucose probes (FDG-PET) has demonstrated improved diagnostic accuracy in differentiating benign from malignant lesions in the setting of solitary pulmonary nodules. In addition, FDG-PET has become a useful modality in pre-operative staging of patients with lung cancer and is being tested with many other malignancies for its ability to change patient management. This article provides an overview of the current status of FDG-PET and presents the challenges of moving towards routine use. PMID:21184913

  14. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Su-Jiang; Wang, Jiang-Chang; Ding, Li; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed. PMID:21716841

  15. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot.

    PubMed

    Xie, Su-Jiang; Wang, Jiang-Chang; Ding, Li; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed.

  16. [Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in children after head trauma].

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Maria Schøler; Rokkjær, Malene Sine; Berg, Jette; Lüscher, Michael

    2015-06-15

    We present an eight-year-old boy with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) after a head trauma, successfully treated with Epley's manoeuvre. BPPV is a common cause of vestibular vertigo in adults, but it is rarely seen in children. Diagnostic work-up is challenging as children often lack the ability to describe their symptoms accurately and to cooperate in clinical examination. The diagnosis should be suspected in children with a relevant medical history and verified by positional testing. BPPV of childhood is treated with otolith repositioning manoeuvres, and the prognosis is good.

  17. Benign fibrous histiocytoma: A rare case involving jaw bone.

    PubMed

    Shoor, Hitesh; Pai, Keerthilatha M; Shergill, Ankur Kaur; Kamath, Abhay Taranath

    2015-09-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a soft tissue neoplasm which occurs mostly on the skin of extremities. BFH rarely occurs in bone and may affect femur, tibia, and pelvic bone. Jaw bone involvement is very unusual with only 11 cases reported till date. This report describes a case of BFH occurring in a 30-year-old female patient affecting left mandibular posterior region. Computed tomography revealed a well-defined expansile lytic lesion in the posterior mandible. Gross examination of the tumor revealed an admixture of fibroblasts and histiocytes in a fascicular and storiform pattern. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD68.

  18. Benign fibrous histiocytoma: A rare case involving jaw bone

    PubMed Central

    Shoor, Hitesh; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Shergill, Ankur Kaur; Kamath, Abhay Taranath

    2015-01-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a soft tissue neoplasm which occurs mostly on the skin of extremities. BFH rarely occurs in bone and may affect femur, tibia, and pelvic bone. Jaw bone involvement is very unusual with only 11 cases reported till date. This report describes a case of BFH occurring in a 30-year-old female patient affecting left mandibular posterior region. Computed tomography revealed a well-defined expansile lytic lesion in the posterior mandible. Gross examination of the tumor revealed an admixture of fibroblasts and histiocytes in a fascicular and storiform pattern. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD68. PMID:26604585

  19. Asbestos-related pleuropulmonary diseases: benign and malignant.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Angeline; Massoumi, Ali; Hostler, Jordanna; Hostler, David C

    2012-05-01

    Asbestos is known for its desirable properties of thermal and heat resistance along with excellent strength and durability. It was widely used in many industries since the late 19th century, until its adverse effects on health were recognized. The occurrence of pleuropulmonary changes from exposure to asbestos often has a latency period of 20 to 30 years. The use of asbestos has been banned, regulated, and minimized in many countries, but in several developing countries, the use of asbestos in industries is still a common practice. In this article, the benign and malignant clinical manifestations of asbestos exposure are discussed.

  20. Hysterectomy through minilaparotomy for benign gynaecological conditions: a valid option

    PubMed Central

    Mahendru, Rajiv; Malik, Savita; Rana, Ss; Gupta, Seema

    2009-01-01

    Objective Efforts are continuously being made for surgery to be less invasive with a minimal access approach. This article reports our experience with minilaparotomy hysterectomy in patients with benign gynecological disease or preinvasive pathology. Material and Methods A prospective study to analyse the outcome and per-operative and post-operative complications was conducted in 69 patients undergoing hysterectomy by the minilaparotomy approach through 4–5cm Pfannenstiel incision. Results The mean operating time and postoperative hospital stay were 41.3 min and 3.1 days, respectively. Composite morbidity was encountered in 12 women (17.4%) with no major complications or mortality. None of the patients had an estimated blood loss over 500ml. Conclusion Minilaparotomy hysterectomy in benign gynecological disease provides an appealing, effective, expeditious, minimal access and cost-effective option/alternative to the traditional abdominal hysterectomy. It obviates the need for any additional expensive equipment and above all improves upon the per-operative and post-operative outcomes without compromising, whatsoever, the quality of surgery. PMID:24591874

  1. Benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions in men.

    PubMed Central

    Karhunen, P J

    1986-01-01

    In a consecutive medicolegal necropsy series benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions occurred in 52% of the 95 men aged 35-69 years. The incidence increased with age, mainly due to small bile duct tumours (n = 26; mean age 56.7 years; p less than 0.01; mean size 1.3 mm). The next most common tumours were cavernous hemangiomas (n = 19; mean age 53.9 years; mean size 5.2 mm) that were not related to age. Focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 3; mean size 8.0 mm) tended to occur in a younger age group (mean age 40.3 years; p less than 0.001). Multiple bile duct tumours were present in 46% and hemangiomas in 50% of the men studied. Liver cell adenoma, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and peliosis hepatis were incidental findings (one case of each). Nodular regenerative hyperplasia was associated with the consumption of alcohol and a total dose of 21.5 g of testosterone. These results indicate that benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions are not rare in men but may remain undetected because of their small size. Images PMID:3950039

  2. Effect of Phellius linteus water extract on benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Sun; Chun, Sung-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases among elderly men. As the old-age population is increasing recently, it is to our interest to observe the growing BPH within them. In BPH, the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) acts as promotes prostate growth. It inhibits enzyme 5α-reductase that is involved in the conversion of testosterone to the DHT activity which reduces the excessive prostate growth. Through experiments, the effects of Phellius linteus water extract performed on the BPH rats were induced by testosterone treatments. For 12 weeks, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with testosterone for the induction of BPH. Rats were divided into four experimental groups: the not treated group (N), the testosterone injection and D.W treatment group (TN), the testosterone injection and Phellinus linteus treatment group (TP) and testosterone injection and finasteride treatment group (TF). Prostate weight, volume and weight ratio in the TP group and the TF group were significantly lower than the TN group. Testosterone and DHT levels in the TN group were significantly higher than that of the N group. And the TP group was significantly decreased than that of the TN group. While prostates of control rats revealed severe acinar gland atrophy and stromal proliferation; the TP and TF groups showed trophic symptoms and were lined by flattened epithelial cells, thus, the stromal proliferation is relatively low as compared to the TN group. These suggest that Phellinus linteus water extracts may be an useful remedy for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23766877

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; G. Husmillo; V. Trbovic

    2003-01-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter were isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples, optimizing parameters in the laboratory-scale corrosion test loop system and testing the effective concentrations of Capsicum sp. extracts to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons by batch culture method. A total of 22 strains from the group of heterotrophic, acid producing, denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the gas pipeline samples obtained from Northern Indiana Public Service Company in Trenton, Indiana. They were purified and will be sent out for identification. Bacterial strains of interest were used in antimicrobial screenings and test loop experiments. Parameters for the laboratory-scale test loop system such as gas and culture medium flow rate; temperature; inoculation period; and length of incubation were established. Batch culture corrosion study against Desulfovibrio vulgaris showed that one (S{sub 1}M) out of the four Capsicum sp. extracts tested was effective in controlling the corrosion rate in metal coupons by 33.33% when compared to the untreated group.

  4. Periareolar incision for the management of benign breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangnan; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Liyu; Ma, Tingting; Han, Baosan; Yang, Qifeng

    2016-11-01

    Benign breast tumors (BBTs) are common in women. The traditional surgical resection method for the various types of BBT leaves obvious scars and affects the appearance of the breast. The present study introduces the experience of a single institution in the treatment of BBT by periareolar incision. The clinical data of 153 patients (182 breasts) with BBT who had undergone a resection via a periareolar incision between January 2010 and December 2012 in Qilu Hospital, Shandong University (Jinan, Shandong, China), was retrospectively analyzed. All incisions were primary healing. Of the 153 patients, 1 (0.7%) developed a hematoma and 2 (1.3%) developed slight nipple ischemia. No infections or other complications were observed. During 1 month to 3 years of follow-up, the cosmetic effects were assessed. Periareolar incision is not only suitable for all types of breast surgery for benign tumor resection, but also has the advantage of a hidden incision, a small scar, no ischemic necrosis of the nipple areola, high patient satisfaction and good post-operative cosmetic effect. The technique is therefore a good surgical incision choice that is worthy of note.

  5. Periareolar incision for the management of benign breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangnan; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Liyu; Ma, Tingting; Han, Baosan; Yang, Qifeng

    2016-01-01

    Benign breast tumors (BBTs) are common in women. The traditional surgical resection method for the various types of BBT leaves obvious scars and affects the appearance of the breast. The present study introduces the experience of a single institution in the treatment of BBT by periareolar incision. The clinical data of 153 patients (182 breasts) with BBT who had undergone a resection via a periareolar incision between January 2010 and December 2012 in Qilu Hospital, Shandong University (Jinan, Shandong, China), was retrospectively analyzed. All incisions were primary healing. Of the 153 patients, 1 (0.7%) developed a hematoma and 2 (1.3%) developed slight nipple ischemia. No infections or other complications were observed. During 1 month to 3 years of follow-up, the cosmetic effects were assessed. Periareolar incision is not only suitable for all types of breast surgery for benign tumor resection, but also has the advantage of a hidden incision, a small scar, no ischemic necrosis of the nipple areola, high patient satisfaction and good post-operative cosmetic effect. The technique is therefore a good surgical incision choice that is worthy of note. PMID:27899991

  6. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; G. Husmillo

    2002-11-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter were monitoring the development of Desulfovibrio species biofilm using the continuous flow cell system, evaluation of pepper compounds by microtiter plate assay for mitigating and inhibiting biofilm formation, and testing the effective concentrations to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons. Biofilm formation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and D. desulfuricans was monitored and documented over a 7-day period. The use of a continuous flow cell system proved to be efficient and non-destructive in studying biofilm growth. Live/Dead BacLight was an efficient stain to determine cell viability. The extracts showed 9-25% biofilm formation inhibition against the two organisms, and 18-19% activity in detaching the already formed biofilm. Preliminary data were obtained on the extent of corrosion of metal coupons when treated with pepper extracts as against the untreated ones. Confirmatory tests are underway. A presentation was prepared and give at the US DOE NETL meeting on gas and petroleum infrastructure. The presentation is include as an addition to this report.

  8. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo

    2002-07-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Capsicum sp. extracts and pure compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against MIC causing bacteria. Studies on the ability of these compounds to dissociate biofilm from the substratum were conducted using microtiter plate assays. Tests using laboratory scale pipeline simulators continued. Preliminary results showed that the natural extracts possess strong antimicrobial activity being comparable to or even better than the pure compounds tested against strains of sulfate reducers. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations had been determined. It was also found that they possess bactericidal properties at minimal concentrations. Biofilm dissociation activity as assessed by microtiter plate assays demonstrated varying degrees of differences between the treated and untreated group with the superior performance of the extracts over pure compounds. Such is an indication of the possible benefits that could be obtained from these natural products. Confirmatory experiments are underway.

  9. Environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Hara, Michikazu

    2009-01-01

    Fuelling the future: The production of esters of higher fatty acids from plant materials is of great interest for the manufacture of biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalysts can provide new routes for the environmentally benign production of biodiesel. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction allowing the catalyst to be reused, generating less waste, and consuming less energy. Diesel engines are simple and powerful, and exhibit many advantages in energy efficiency and cost. Therefore, the production of higher fatty acid esters from plant materials has become of interest in recent years for the manufacture of biodiesel, a clean-burning alternative fuel. The industrial production of biodiesel mostly proceeds in the presence of "soluble" catalysts such as alkali hydroxides and liquid acids. A considerable amount of energy is required for the purification of products and catalyst separation, and furthermore these catalysts are not reusable. This process results in substantial energy wastage and the production of large amounts of chemical waste. Particulate heterogeneous catalysts can be readily separated from products following reaction, allowing the catalyst to be reused and consuming less energy. This Minireview describes the environmentally benign production of biodiesel using heterogeneous catalysts such as solid bases, acid catalysts, and immobilized enzymes.

  10. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II; William Bogan

    2004-01-31

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter included the fractionation of extracts prepared from several varieties of pepper plants, and using several solvents, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A preliminary determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts ability to inhibit biofilm formation was also performed. The analysis of multiple extracts of pepper plants and fractions of extracts of pepper plants obtained by HPLC illustrated that these extracts and fractions are extremely complex mixtures of chemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the chemical constituents of these extracts and fractions to the greatest degree possible. Analysis of the chemical composition of various extracts of pepper plants has illustrated the complexity of the chemical mixtures present, and while additional work will be performed to further characterize the extracts to identify bioactive compounds the focus of efforts should now shift to an evaluation of the ability of extracts to inhibit corrosion in mixed culture biofilms, and in pure cultures of bacterial types which are known or believed to be important in corrosion.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek

    2002-03-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter has been to evaluate a number of real world pipeline sources for microbial communities or consortia that form biofilms under laboratory simulations of pipelines. The microorganisms will be identified using classical and molecular microbiological tools and there activities under pipeline simulating conditions will be studied. The quarter saw the collection of the first samples from the industry for isolation of the microorganisms, as well as the design and construction of the laboratory-scale pipeline simulators. Methods development for MIC and biofilm microbial isolations and identification, and laboratory design and construction of pipeline simulators were the only activities. At this stage of the study (first quarter), only preliminary results are available.

  12. Low power, biologically benign NIR light triggers polymer disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Fomina, Nadezda; McFearin, Cathryn L.; Sermsakdi, Marleen; Morachis, José M.; Almutairi, Adah

    2011-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) irradiation can penetrate up to 10 cm deep into tissues and be remotely applied with high spatial and temporal precision. Despite its potential for various medical and biological applications, there is a dearth of biomaterials that are responsive at this wavelength region. Herein we report a polymeric material that is able to disassemble in response to biologically benign levels of NIR irradiation upon two-photon absorption. The design relies on the photolysis of the multiple pendant 4-bromo7-hydroxycoumarin protecting groups to trigger a cascade of cyclization and rearrangement reactions leading to the degradation of the polymer backbone. The new material undergoes a 50% Mw loss after 25 sec of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by single photon absorption and 21 min of NIR irradiation via two-photon absorption. Most importantly, even NIR irradiation at biologically benign laser power is sufficient to cause significant polymer disassembly. Furthermore, this material is well tolerated by cells both before and after degradation. These results demonstrate for the first time a NIR sensitive material with potential to be used for in vivo applications. PMID:22096258

  13. [Update in the endoscopic management of benign esophageal stenoses].

    PubMed

    De la Garza González, Salvador Javier; García, Rafael Guevara

    2005-07-01

    Correction of dysphagia in benign esophageal stenosis without the need for surgery is a task that has been tried to be resolved for more than three centuries; in the last three decades this management has evolved with the development of pneumatic dilators and, more recently, alternative and adjuvant treatments like local steroid injection, electrocoagulation, use of argon plasma and the use of expandable stents have been added. The most common causes of benign esophageal stenosis are peptic esophagitis in first place followed by the ingestion of caustic substances; other less frequent etiologies are medication ingestion, stenosis secondary to a surgical anastomosis of the esophagus and stenosis related to mediastinal radiotherapy; the rarest causes include esophageal rings and membranes, sclerotherapy for esophageal varices, the prolonged use of a nasogastric tube, Crohn's disease, among others. A complete clinical, radiological and endoscopic evaluation of the patient is required to make the diagnosis, with the respective complimentary histopathologic study. At present, traditional esophageal dilatations, as well as pneumatic dilatations are the most common and effective treatments, the previously mentioned alternative and adjuvant treatments are used in exceptional cases, some with advantages over the others depending on each patient in particular and on the characteristics and etiology of the stenosis. The future seems to be aimed at the use of temporary expandable stents.

  14. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in an airline pilot.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ahmet; Al-Deleamy, Louai S; Kendirli, Tansel M

    2007-11-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common types of peripheral vertigo, characterized by violent whirling vertigo after a positional change. Although the condition is termed "benign," the clinical presentation can be incapacitating for pilots in certain maneuvers. We present a case of an airline transport pilot with the complaint of vertigo for 5 d. The vertigo was aggravated by head movements when looking up or rolling over, lasting for a few seconds. The patient was diagnosed with BPPV, and he was treated with physical therapy with the use of Epley maneuver. The airman applied for his First-Class medical examination after the treatment was successfully completed. The aviation medical examiner (AME) issued the airman medical certificate after contacting and receiving verbal approval from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Aerospace Medical Certification Division (AMCD). While evaluating aviators who have had BPPV, AMEs should not issue medical certificates for any class until the condition is fully resolved. Although the AME Guide states that certification of pilots with other types of vertigo requires an FAA decision, once the patient is successfully treated and free of symptoms, approval for issuing the medical certificate can be obtained through contacting AMCD and by submitting all information and documentation pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Argon laser-assisted treatment of benign eyelid lesions.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Şafak; Ekici, Feyzahan; Sül, Sabahattin

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the treatment of benign eyelid lesions with argon laser as an alternative therapy to surgical excision. The charts of 73 patients with 95 lesions treated with argon laser photocoagulation were reviewed retrospectively. In all patients, the procedure was performed for cosmetic reasons. The laser spot size ranged from 50 to 200 μm, the power varied from 300 to 700 mW, and the exposure time ranged between 0.1 and 0.2 s. The lesions were mostly located on the upper eyelid (66%); the lid margin was involved in 30 cases. The mean follow-up time was 7.2 ± 3.5 months (range 3-15 months). A histopathological diagnosis was confirmed for 81 lesions (85.3%). All patients were satisfied with the cosmetic result. No intraoperative complications occurred, and none of the patients complained of pain during laser application. All wounds epithelialized in 3-4 weeks with skin that appeared normal. Hypopigmentation of the treated areas were observed in three cases. No recurrence occurred during the follow-up period. Argon laser-assisted benign eyelid tumor excision is a useful, cheap, accessible, and well-tolerated alternative to traditional surgery.

  16. Debridement in chronic osteomyelitis with benign osteopetrosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Ping; Lin, Xiang-Hua; Yan, Man-Yun; Lin, Bao-Quan; Zhuo, Ming-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare bone disease caused by metabolic imbalances as a result of genetic mutations. For instance, autosomal dominant osteopetrosis is caused by a missense mutation of the C1CN7 gene. This was first reported in 1904 and is thought to be caused by osteoclastic dysfunction and an impaired bone resorption ability. An accumulation of cortical bone mass during the remodeling of the medullary bone may increase the bone density and give rise to a hard marble consistency. Osteopetrosis can be divided into benign and malignant forms; however, no curative treatment exists for benign osteopetrosis. The management of complications, such as chronic osteomyelitis and fractures, serves a key role in influencing the patient survival rates. Previous studies have demonstrated that a combined treatment of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) lavage for debridement of the necrotic region and high-dose systemic antibiotics may be effective in the management of osteopetrosis. The present study reported a case of chronic mandible osteomyelitis and fistula occurring in association with maxillary sinusitis, who was successfully treated by through nasal endoscopy, using repeated flushing and cleaning every 2 weeks as a form of debridement, in the absence of high-dose antibiotics and HBO. PMID:27882078

  17. Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi; Liu, Rui-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare condition that occurs in all age groups and that is particularly prevalent among women of late childbearing age. All patients have a history of uterine leiomyoma and/or myomectomy, often associated with distant metastases from the uterus, which commonly occurs in the lung. We report the case of a 32-year-old young woman suffering from chest stuffiness, labored respiration and weakness after a myomectomy performed one month earlier. The chest CT showed a diffuse miliary shadow in both sides of her lungs, but serum tumor markers such as CA125, CA199, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and CYFRA21-1 were normal. The patient underwent a lung biopsy by thoracoscopic surgery after four weeks of anti-TB treatment; there were no significant changes in the chest CT. H&E staining showed that the tumor cells had characteristics of smooth muscle cell differentiation. Immunohistochemical staining showed a low tumor cell proliferation index, which indicated that the likelihood of a malignancy was not high. There was no expression of CD10, indicating a diagnosis of pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML). Smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin as specific markers of smooth muscle and the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were all strongly positive, which is characteristic of PBML. The patient was given the anti-estrogen tamoxifen for 3 months. With no radiological evidence of disease development and further distant metastasis, the patient will continue to be followed. PMID:24977035

  18. A giant benign clear cell hidradenoma on the anterior trunk.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Gulsen Tukenmez; Atis, Guldehan; Altunay, Ilknur Kivanç; Sakiz, Damlanur

    2011-10-05

    Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is an uncommon variant of benign cutaneous adnexal tumors. These tumors are clinically asymptomatic, solitary dermal nodules. They occur most frequently on the scalp, face abdomen and extremities. Growth is slow and malignant change is rare. 45-year-old woman presented with a nodule which had begun 4 years ago as a small nodular asymptomatic lesion and had a central ulceration and a minimal hemorrhagic discharge on her anterior abdomen wall. On dermatologic examination there was a 6.5×5×4 cm non-tender, soft reddish purple nodule, with lobular appearance and ulceration. In the laboratory investigations, all hematologic and biochemical tests were normal. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a cystic tumor with lobulated contour with contrast enhancement. The lesion was excised totally. In histopathological examination, the tumor was composed of biphasic smaller dark polygonal cells and larger clear cells and coarse nuclear chromatine. There were duct like structures. Immunohistochemical investigation was done for the suspicion of malignancy. Cytoplasm of clear cells and of duct like structures showed PAS-positive and d-PAS resistant staining. There was a positive reaction to epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen. The mitotic index in Ki 67 examination was low. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of benign CCH.

  19. Cough, exertional, and sexual headaches: an analysis of 72 benign and symptomatic cases.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; Iglesias, F; Oterino, A; Vázquez-Barquero, A; Berciano, J

    1996-06-01

    We analyzed our experience with cough, exertional, and vascular sexual headaches, evaluated the interrelationships among them, and examined the possible symptomatic cases. Seventy-two patients consulted us because of headaches precipitated by coughing (n = 30), physical exercise (n = 28), or sexual excitement (n = 14). Thirty (42%) were symptomatic. The 17 cases of symptomatic cough headache were secondary to Chiari type I malformation, while the majority of cases of symptomatic exertional headaches and the only case of symptomatic sexual headache were secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Although the precipitant was the same, benign and symptomatic headaches differed in several clinical aspects, such as age at onset, associated clinical manifestations, or response to pharmacologic treatment. Although sharing some properties, such as male predominance, benign cough headache and benign exertional headache are clinically separate conditions. Benign cough headache began significantly later, 43 years on average, than benign exertional headache. By contrast, our findings suggest that there is a close relationship between benign exertional headache and benign vascular sexual headache. We conclude that benign and symptomatic cough headaches are different from both benign and symptomatic exertional and sexual headaches.

  20. Diagnosis and management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).

    PubMed

    Parnes, Lorne S; Agrawal, Sumit K; Atlas, Jason

    2003-09-30

    There is compelling evidence that free-floating endolymph particles in the posterior semicircular canal underlie most cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Recent pathological findings suggest that these particles are otoconia, probably displaced from the otolithic membrane in the utricle. They typically settle in the dependent posterior canal and render it sensitive to gravity. Well over 90% of patients can be successfully treated with a simple outpatient manoeuvre that moves the particles back into the utricle. We describe the various techniques for this manoeuvre, plus treatments for uncommon variants of BPPV such as that of the lateral canal. For the rare patient whose BPPV is not responsive to these manoeuvres and has severe symptoms, posterior canal occlusion surgery is a safe and highly effective procedure.

  1. Gallium-67 uptake by a benign adrenocortical adenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; Naul, L.G.; Montgomery, J.L.; Carpentier, W.R.; Roberts, J.W.

    1988-08-01

    A 55-yr-old man presented with an atypical relapsing meningitis and was found to have intense unilateral adrenal uptake by /sup 67/Ga imaging. Computed tomography showed a 4-cm right adrenal mass which was hypointense on the T1-weighted images and mildly hyperintense on the T2-weighted images of a magnetic resonance (MR) scan. At surgery, a coincidental benign adrenocortical adenoma was found. Because /sup 67/Ga uptake is usually associated with inflammatory or malignant lesions and malignant adrenal lesions are hyperintense on T2-weighted MR images, these findings contributed to diagnostic uncertainty in this patient. Thus, a nonhyperfunctional adrenocortical adenoma may be associated with abnormal /sup 67/Ga uptake and atypical MR findings.

  2. Benign familial leukopenia and neutropenia in different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Shoenfeld, Y; Alkan, M L; Asaly, A; Carmeli, Y; Katz, M

    1988-09-01

    Benign hereditary leukopenia-neutropenia has been reported in several ethnic groups, including Yemenite Jews, Blacks of South African extraction, West Indians and Arab Jordanians. The subjects with BFL were shown not to have an increased incidence of infections, and their response to infection did not differ from subjects having normal white blood cell counts. This study entails the report of two additional unrelated ethnic groups with familial neutropenia - Black Beduin and Falashah Jews. The familial nature of the phenomenon was confirmed. The suggested mechanism of this type of neutropenia is a defect in release of mature WBC from the bone marrow to the peripheral circulation. All ethnic groups thus far reported have tanned or dark skin. The significance of this common feature has still to be elucidated.

  3. Breast cancer. Part 1: Awareness and common benign diseases.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women in the United Kingdom and topic on which there is much information. This article discusses the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases that cause disproportionate anxiety. The NHS Breast Screening Programme is celebrating 20 years of screening this year, and in all randomized controlled trials of women aged 50 and over, mortality from breast cancer is reduced in those offered screening compared with unscreened controls (although the reduction is not statistically significant in all trials). Once a breast cancer is diagnosed, the different characteristics and stage of the disease can be identified through histopathology and scans. These factors will be discussed later in this article, including illustrating if a cancer is hormone sensitive or HER-2 positive, for example. These factors enable clinicians to recommend a treatment pathway suitable for each individual.

  4. Novel therapies in benign and malignant bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Rachner, Tilman D; Hadji, Peyman; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2012-06-01

    With an ageing population and improving cancer therapies, the two most common benign and malignant bone diseases, osteoporosis and bone metastases, will continue to affect an increasing number of patients. Our expanding knowledge of the molecular processes underlying these conditions has resulted in novel bone targets that are currently being explored in clinical trials. Clearly, the approval of denosumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against RANKL, has just marked the beginning of a new era for bone therapy with several additional new therapies lining up for clinical approval in the coming years. Potential agents targeting the osteoclast include cathepsin K, currently in phase 3 trials, and src inhibitors. Amongst anabolic agents, inhibitors of the Wnt-inhibitor sclerostin and dickkopf-1 are promising in clinical trials. Here, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the most promising agents currently explored for the treatment of bone diseases.

  5. [Spontaneous Non Ischaemic Blue Finger: A Rare and Benign Phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniela; Alves, Daniela; Almeida, Ana Cristina; Almeida, Carlos Costa; Moreno, Cecília; Freixo, Joâo

    2015-01-01

    The spontaneous non-ischaemic blue finger is a rare and benign disorder, characterized by purple discoloration of a finger, with complete resolution. This article reports the case of a woman of 88 years, which after a few hours of stay in the emergency department developed without associated trauma, a purplish color of the 3rd finger of the right hand, with a palpable pulse and without temperature changes or pain. The etiological investigation was negative. The patient was assessed one week after the event and showed completeresolution. There are several diseases that share the same signs and symptoms, as such the diagnosis is based on the spontaneous violaceous color sparing the finger tip, and fast resolution without treatment. Though being a harmless phenomenon, it requires early assessment for timely differential diagnosis with severe pathologies.

  6. [Sexual readaptation after the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Goriunov, V G; Davidov, M I

    1997-01-01

    Sexual function was studied in 818 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after surgical treatment of this disease. Before surgery, sexual activity was absent in 276 examinees. After surgery 4.3% of them retained erection, 95.7% remained impotent. 542 patients before operations were sexually active. Surgical treatment of BPH (transurethral resection, transvesical adenomectomy) creates grounds for deterioration of sexual function and risk of erection loss. Thus, 77 operated patients had no erection, 176 had weak libido, 159--insufficient erection, 244 retrograde ejaculation, 188 painful orgasm. Transurethral resection led to a complete loss of copulative function in 5.3% of patients, transvesical adenomectomy--in 9.9%. Sexual readaptation after transurethral resection and transvesical adenomectomy has been improved due to a special complex developed by the authors. This complex consists of 14 therapeutic and prophylactic procedures.

  7. Cerebral metabolism of glucose in benign hereditary chorea

    SciTech Connect

    Suchowersky, O.; Hayden, M.R.; Martin, W.R.; Stoessl, A.J.; Hildebrand, A.M.; Pate, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by chorea of early onset with little or no progression. There is marked clinical variability in this disease with some subjects having onset in infancy and others with onset in early adulthood. In contrast to Huntington's disease (HD), there is no dementia. Computed tomography is normal in all subjects with no evidence of caudate nucleus atrophy. We present the results of positron emission tomography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose on three patients with this disorder from two families. Cerebral glucose metabolism in one patient was decreased in the caudate nucleus, as previously reported in HD. The other two persons from a second family showed a relative decrease in metabolic rates of glucose in the caudate when compared with the thalamus. It appears that caudate hypometabolism is not specific for HD. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some persons with BHC.

  8. [Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: provocation and freeing manoeuvres].

    PubMed

    Herreros Fernández, M L; Beato Martínez, A; Barja Tur, J; Moreno Juara, A; González Laguillo, A

    2008-08-01

    The benign paroxystic positional vertigo (BPPV) is defined by brief episodic vertigo attacks and accompanied by a rotary-linear nystagmus, triggered by head position changes and is always produced in that position. The theory that better explains the BPPV is canalithiasis: free-floating particles leave the utricular macula and enter one of the semicircular canals, producing an endolymphatic movement that stimulates the cupula and produces vertigo and nystagmus. The diagnosis is based on a typical clinical history, normal ear and neurological examination and provocation maneuvers, such as the Dix-Hallpike test, reproduce the vertigo attacks. The treatments are the liberatory maneuvers, such as the Epley maneuver which makes the vertigo disappear. We present two cases of vertigo with a compatible clinic history of BPPV, where the Dix-Hallpike maneuver confirmed the diagnosis. The treatment in both cases was the Epley maneuver.

  9. Benign gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three snow leopards (Panthera uncia).

    PubMed

    Dobson, Elizabeth C; Naydan, Dianne K; Raphael, Bonnie L; McAloose, Denise

    2013-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are relatively rare neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells that are distributed throughout the body and are predominant in the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes benign, well-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumors in three captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia). All tumors were well circumscribed, were within the gastric mucosa or submucosa, and had histologic and immunohistochemical features of neuroendocrine tumors. Histologic features included packeted cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells that were arranged in palisades or pseudorosettes and contained finely granular cellular cytoplasm with centrally placed, round nuclei. Cytoplasmic granules of neoplastic cells strongly expressed chromogranin A, variably expressed neuron-specific enolase, and did not express synaptophysin or gastrin. Each leopard died or was euthanatized for reasons unrelated to its tumor.

  10. Benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Uncini, A; Servidei, S; Delli Pizzi, C; Cutarella, R; Di Muzio, A; Gambi, D; Tonali, P

    1992-06-01

    Three patients with wasting confined to a single lower limb are reported. The characteristic features were: sporadic occurrence, insidious onset with slow progression and in 2 cases arrested course for at least 4 years, wasting out of proportion with disability, absence of sensory, pyramidal tract or bulbar signs. CK, motor and sensory conductions, and lumbar MRI were normal. Muscle CT showed selective loss of muscle tissue and fat replacement in posterior leg muscles. Quantitative electromyography and histologic findings revealed neurogenic features not only in the affected legs, but also in clinically uninvolved limbs. Monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb is a variant of spinal muscular atrophy with a benign course. However, as in the early stages of the disease there are no distinctive clinical or laboratory findings with other motor neuron diseases, the diagnosis of monomelic amyotrophy may be made only retrospectively after a prolonged observation.

  11. New therapeutic maneuver for anterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Yacovino, Dario A; Hain, Timothy C; Gualtieri, Francisco

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the clinical features of anterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (AC-BPPV) and a new therapeutic maneuver for its management. Our study was a retrospective review of cases from an ambulatory tertiary referral center. Thirteen patients afflicted with positional paroxysmal vertigo exhibiting brief positional down-beating nystagmus in positional tests (Dix-Hallpike and head-hanging position) were treated with a maneuver comprised of the following movements: Sequential head positioning beginning supine with head hanging 30 degrees dependent with respect to the body, then supine with head inclined 30 degrees forward, and ending sitting with head 30 degrees forward. All cases showed excellent therapeutic response to our repositioning procedure, i.e. relief of vertigo and elimination of nystagmus. The maneuver described is an option for AC-BPPV treatment.

  12. Dermoscopy of benign and malignant neoplasms in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Haliasos, Helen C; Zalaudek, Iris; Malvehy, Josep; Lanschuetzer, Christoph; Hinter, Helmut; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Braun, Ralph; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2010-12-01

    Dermoscopy is a noninvasive technique that enables visualization of subsurface colors and structures within the skin that are imperceptible to the naked eye. The dermatoscope allows the physician to examine both the macroscopic and microscopic primary morphology of skin lesions, identify subtle clinical clues, confirm naked-eye clinical diagnoses, and monitor treatment progress while posing little threat to the young patient. Dermoscopic findings have been formulated into diagnostic criteria that assist experienced clinicians in differentiating benign and malignant neoplasms. In this review, clinical morphology of melanocytic nevi and melanoma in the pediatric population is examined and the relevant dermoscopic findings and histopathologic correlates that aid in the diagnosis and management of these lesions are described.

  13. [Practical approach to recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    PubMed

    López-Escámez, José A

    2008-10-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most common vestibular disorder and it has a significant impact on health-related quality of life. The disease is probably caused by the accumulation of lithiasis material from the otolithic membrane of the utricle. Patients experience multiple short vertigo crises lasting seconds when they go to bed or turn over. There are several clinical variants affecting posterior, horizontal or anterior canals and in some cases vestibular lithiasis can occur in two canals simultaneously. Diagnosis is by video-oculographic recording of positional nystagmus during positional tests to identify the canal affected. There are specific treatment manoeuvres for each clinical variant, which a high degree of short-term effectiveness.

  14. [Status of phytotherapeutic drugs in treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Dreikorn, K; Schönhöfer, P S

    1995-03-01

    Phytotherapeutic preparations are still commonly used for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in Germany; in recent years there has even been an increase in their use, so that sales now amount to more than DM 220 millions per year. The preparations most frequently used are extracts of Hypoxis rooperi, the roots of the stinging nettle, the fruits of the saw palmetto, pumpkin seeds and rye pollen. The suggested mechanisms of action have not been documented by scientific observation. This applies especially to the blocking effect on 5 alpha-reductase postulated with the doses used. Moreover, a critical analysis of the data available suggests that the effects of phytotherapy are no better than those of placebo treatment. Further studies are urgently needed, to compare the effects of phytotherapy with those of chemically defined drugs (alpha 1-receptor antagonists, 5 alpha-reductase blocker) that seem to have a beneficial influence on the pathomechanism underlying symptomatic BPH.

  15. ENVIROMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo; Amrutha Daram; Vesna Trbovic

    2003-10-31

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of the method of fractionation of the extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); determination of antimicrobial activities of the new extracts and fractions using a growth inhibition assay, and evaluation of the extracts' ability to inhibit biofilm formation. We initiated the delivery system for these new biocides in the test cell and in mixtures of foam components and biocides/anti-biofilms. A total of 51 fractions collected by HPLC from crude extracts that were obtained from three varieties of Capsicum sp. (Serrano, Habanero, Chile de Arbol) were subjected to growth inhibition tests against two SRB strains, D. vulgaris and D. desulfuricans. Five fractions showed growth inhibition against both strains while seven inhibited D. desulfuricans only. The crude extracts did not show growth inhibition on both strains but were proven to be potent in preventing the formation of biofilm. Growth inhibition tests of the same set of crude extracts against Comamonas denitrificans did not show positive results. The fractions will be subjected to biofilm inhibition and dissociation assay as well. The delivery system to be evaluated first was foam. The ''foam pig'' components of surfactants and water were tested with the biocide addition. The first chemical and physical parameters to be tested were pH and surfactants. Tests using the fractionated pepper extracts are progressing rapidly. Gas chromatographic analysis on a number of fractions is underway

  16. Central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy for benign pancreatic pathology.

    PubMed

    Efron, David T; Lillemoe, Keith D; Cameron, John L; Yeo, Charles J

    2004-01-01

    Benign lesions of the neck and proximal body of the pancreas pose an interesting surgical challenge. If the lesions are not amenable to simple enucleation, surgeons may be faced with the choice of performing a right-sided resection (pancreaticoduodenectomy) or a left-sided resection (distal pancreatectomy) to include the lesion, resulting in resection of a substantial amount of normal pancreatic parenchyma. Central pancreatic resection has been reported with Roux-en-Y pancreaticojejunostomy reconstruction; however, this interrupts small bowel continuity and obligates an additional anastomosis. We have reviewed our experience with central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) for benign central pancreatic pathology. Between January 1999 and December 2002, 14 central pancreatectomies were performed with PG reconstruction. There were 7 women and 7 men with a mean age of 60.9 years. Five resections were performed for islet cell tumors, three were performed for noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, two were performed for serous cystadenoma, and one each was performed for a simple cyst, pseudocyst, mucinous metaplasia, and focal chronic pancreatitis. Seven out of 14 patients experienced a total of 10 complications. Pancreatic fistulae manifested by drainage of amylase-rich fluid from the operatively placed drains developed in 5 patients (36%). Reoperation or interventional radiologic procedures were not required in any patient with a fistula. Postoperative follow-up demonstrated 13 out of 14 patients to be alive and well without evidence of pancreatic insufficiency. One patient died at home on postoperative day 57 of cardiac pathology. Central pancreatectomy with PG is a safe and effective procedure that allows for preservation of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function without disruption of enteric continuity. The complication of pancreatic fistula was managed conservatively via maintenance of operatively placed drains.

  17. Pineal cysts-A benign association with familial retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya Kumar; Jones, Michael; Prelog, Kristina; Bui, John; Zhu, Jacqui; Ng, Anthea; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano

    2016-09-01

    Patients with familial/heritable retinoblastoma (RB) are at increased risk of developing second malignancies throughout life, including a pineoblastoma (trilateral RB [TRB]) in early childhood. Current guidelines recommend regular surveillance brain imaging for those with heritable RB until 5 years of age. The presence of pineal cysts has been reported in patients with RB. Pineal cysts are thought to arise due to focal degeneration of the pineal gland and can be found incidentally. The finding of pineal abnormalities including cysts in children with RB on imaging is disconcerting, as it raises the possibility of an underlying malignancy, specifically a pinealoblastoma. The authors reviewed the imaging findings and clinical significance of pineal cysts in 69 patients diagnosed with RB at our center between December 1999 and November 2015. Twenty-six patients had pineal cysts found on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans performed either at diagnosis or follow-up. Thirty-eight of 69 patients had underlying heritable RB. Nineteen of 38 familial RB patients had a pineal cyst compared with 3 out of 26 with sporadic RB (P = .004). In the majority, the imaging characteristics and size of the cysts remained stable or resolved. In this cohort, pineal cysts were detected at significantly increased frequency in heritable RB. This may be a benign association or may reflect abnormal underlying biology of pineal tissue in individuals highly susceptible to malignancy. Imaging characteristics can be helpful in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions. The presence of a pineal cyst in patients with unilateral disease may be a useful indicator of underlying heritable RB.

  18. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo; Amrutha Daram; Vesna Trbovic; Teri Storino

    2003-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of new methods of Capsicum sp. (pepper) extraction by soxhlet method and analysis of a new set of extracts by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples; and evaluation of antimicrobial activities of the old set of pepper extracts in comparison with major components of known biocides and corrosion inhibitors. Twelve new extracts from three varieties of Capsicum sp. (Serrano, Habanero, and Chile de Arbol) were obtained by soxhlet extraction using 4 different solvents. Results of TLC done on these extracts showed the presence of capsaicin and some phenolic compounds, while that of HPLC detected capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin peaks. More tests will be done to determine specific components. Additional isolates from the group of heterotrophic, acid-producing, denitrifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria were obtained from the pipeline samples submitted by gas companies. Isolates of interest will be used in subsequent antimicrobial testing and test-loop simulation system experiments. Results of antimicrobial screening of Capsicum sp. extracts and components of known commercial biocides showed comparable activities when tested against two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  19. Benign, Premalignant, and Malignant Lesions Encountered in Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kini

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with several comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea. It is also well established that obese patients have an increased risk of several types of cancer like kidney, pancreas, endometrial, breast, and others. The bariatric surgeon needs to be aware of the problem of benign tumors and cancer in obese patients as well as the optimal management of these conditions that may be present at the time of evaluation for bariatric surgery, during the surgical procedure, and in the postoperative period. Database: A PubMed search for the words “cancer” and “bariatric surgery” and subsequent review of the abstracts identified 40 articles concerning cancerous, benign, and premalignant conditions in bariatric surgery patients. Data were then extracted from full-text articles. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery decreases cancer risk especially in women. RYGB can be an effective treatment for Barrett's esophagus. Patients having esophageal cancer should not undergo bariatric surgery, while those who develop the same postoperatively are usually managed by a combined abdominal and thoracic approach (Ivor Lewis technique). Gastric cancer of the remnant stomach is usually managed by a remnant gastrectomy. A remnant gastrectomy during RYGB would be necessary in conditions that require endoscopic surveillance of the stomach like gastric polyps, intestinal metaplasia, and carcinoid tumors. Sleeve gastrectomy is an excellent option in a patient with GIST or a carcinoid who needs a bariatric operation. Preoperative endoscopy usually does not detect malignant conditions. Postoperative evaluation of the bypassed stomach is possible using various percutaneous and novel endoscopic techniques. PMID:23318060

  20. Serenoa repens extract in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Geavlete, Petrisor; Multescu, Razvan; Geavlete, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    We are experiencing a revival of interest in phytotherapeutic agents, both in Europe and North America, especially as a consequence of patients’ dissatisfaction with the adverse effects of the medical alternatives. One of the most frequently prescribed and studied such agents is Serenoa repens extract, derived from the berry of the dwarf palm tree. We aimed to review the most important published data regarding this type of treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. A review of the existing articles regarding the use of Serenoa repens extracts for benign prostatic hyperplasia was performed. The articles were analysed with regard to their relevance, scientific value and the size of the evaluated series. Multiple mechanisms of action have been attributed to this extract, including antiandrogenic action, an anti-inflammatory/anti-oedematous effect, prolactin signal modulation, and an antiproliferative effect exerted through the inhibition of growth factors. Regarding efficacy, European Association of Urology guidelines state that Serenoa repens extracts significantly reduce nocturia in comparison with placebo. However, the guideline committee is unable to make specific recommendations about phytotherapy of male lower urinary tract symptoms owing to the heterogeneity of the products and the methodological problems associated with meta-analyses. Most of the published trials regarding Serenoa repens phytotherapy demonstrate a significant improvement of urinary status and a favourable safety profile. Also, some authors have credited it with giving a significant improvement in erectile function and decreasing complications following transurethral resection of the prostate, especially bleeding. The results of phytotherapy with Serenoa repens extracts are very promising. More high-quality, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required in order to demonstrate without doubt the true therapeutic value of these products. Particular attention must be focused on

  1. Decreased Network Efficiency in Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Gong-Jun; Yu, Yang; Miao, Huan-Huan; Wang, Zhong-Jin; Tang, Ye-Lei; Liao, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To investigate the functional connectome alterations in benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes with respect to the occurrence of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) during functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was HIPAA compliant. All participants were consecutively enrolled with written informed consent. Forty-three right-handed patients were classified into IED (n = 20, 13 girls and seven boys; mean age ± standard deviation, 9.00 years ± 1.95) and non-IED (n = 23, 11 girls and 12 boys; mean age, 10.22 years ± 2.13) groups on the basis of electroencephalographic data simultaneously recorded during resting-state functional MR imaging at 3.0 T. The functional connectome features (estimated with graph theoretical analysis) in patient groups and control subjects who were matched for sex, age, and education level (n = 28, all right-handed, 13 girls and 15 boys; mean age, 10.00 years ± 2.31) were compared by using one-way analysis of variance. Results Patients with IEDs and those without IEDs showed consistently abnormal global topology in their functional networks (ie, decreased global efficiency; P < .05) relative to that of control subjects, with no differences between the two patient groups (P > .05). Decreased regional efficiency and connectivity strength were observed in the patients with IEDs and those without (mainly in the perirolandic and frontal areas) relative to control subjects (P < .05). Moreover, the altered functional features significantly correlated with clinical characteristics (ie, disease duration and age at symptom onset, P < .05). Conclusion These findings suggest that decreased global and regional efficiency are prominent functional deficits in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes and can be readily identified with resting-state functional MR imaging, irrespective of IEDs. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online

  2. Benign Brenner tumor of the ovary detected on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.B.; McCartney, W.H.

    1984-11-01

    Many disease states, including neoplasia, have been detected by bone scanning. Among the neoplastic processes detected by bone imaging agents are ovarian tumors, both benign and malignant. This report is concerned with the visualization of a benign Brenner tumor during routine Tc-99m MDP bone scanning.

  3. Malignant nerve-sheath neoplasms in neurofibromatosis: distinction from benign tumors by using imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Huntrakoon, M.; Wetzel, L.H.

    1987-11-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve-sheath neoplasms frequently complicate neurofibromatosis causing pain, enlarging masses, or neurologic deficits. However, similar findings sometimes also occur with benign nerve neoplasms. Our study was done retrospectively to determine if imaging techniques can differentiate malignant from benign nerve tumors in neurofibromatosis. Eight patients with symptomatic neoplasms (three benign, five malignant) were studied by CT in eight, MR in six, and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy in seven. Uptake of /sup 67/Ga occurred in all five malignant lesions but not in two benign neoplasms studied. On CT or MR, all eight lesions, including three benign neoplasms, showed inhomogeneities. Of five lesions with irregular, infiltrative margins on CT or MR, four were malignant and one was benign. Of three lesions with smooth margins, one was malignant and two were benign. One malignant neoplasm caused irregular bone destruction. Accordingly, CT and MR could not generally distinguish malignant from benign lesions with certainty. However, both CT and MR provided structural delineation to help surgical planning for both types of lesion. /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy appears promising as a screening technique to identify lesions with malignant degeneration in patients with neurofibromatosis. Any area of abnormal radiogallium uptake suggests malignancy warranting further evaluation by CT or MR. Biopsy of any questionable lesion is essential.

  4. [Higher brain dysfunction in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spike and atypical benign partial epilepsy of childhood].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Junri

    2002-11-01

    Although some recent studies have reported various cognitive impairments and behavioral disorders in children having benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spike (BCECT), it is still commonly believed that BCECT does not cause any definite neuropsychological impairment. In addition, reported impairments range over various cognitive functions, and there is no general agreement on this issue. We performed detailed neuropsychological tests in 17 children with BCECT and analyzed the profiles of their subtests. Atypical benign partial epilepsy of childhood (ABPE) is a type of BCECT in which patients have minor generalized seizures and their EEGs show continuous spike-waves during sleep. We also performed the same tests in five patients with ABPE, and compared the results in the two groups. Neuropsychological tests performed are as follows: Kaufman assessment battery for children (K-ABC), Wechsler intelligence scales for children-revised (WISC-R), Illinois test of psycholinguistic abilities (ITPA), Benton visual retention test (BVRT), Token test, calculation, figure copying task, letter copying task, line bisection task, and line cancellation task. Mental processing composite of the K-ABC and FIQ of the WISC-R were within normal limits in all children with BCECT and ABPE, but were generally lower in ABPE than in BCECT. On the other hand, the profiles of subtests of ITPA in children with BCECT revealed the significant feature of the lower scores on verbal expression (p = 0.013) and auditory sequential memory (p = 0.035). Considering the normal scores in the elementary cognitive functions, such as visual and verbal functions and long-term memory, disturbance in the process of executive functions such as flexibility, fluency, and working memory could cause this characteristic profile. ABPE also showed the similar profile in the subtests of ITPA to that of BCECT. It is likely that both groups of children share the common cognitive dysfunction.

  5. Ectomesenchymoma with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and ganglioneuroma, arising in association with benign triton tumor of the tongue.

    PubMed

    VandenHeuvel, Katherine A; Carpentieri, David F; Chen, Jie; Fung, Kar-Ming; Parham, David M

    2014-01-01

    Soft-tissue tumors known as "triton" tumors are rare lesions containing neural tissue and skeletal muscle at varying levels of maturity and malignant potential. Benign triton tumors, also called "neuromuscular choristomas" or "neuromuscular hamartomas," consist of neural tissue containing mature skeletal muscle in intimate relationship with peripheral nerve. These tumors are rare in the head and neck in children. Ectomesenchymomas are similar tumors consisting of a malignant mesenchymal component, usually embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and a neuroectodermal component represented by mature ganglion cells or primitive neuroblastic/neuroectodermal foci (primitive ectomesenchymoma). Benign triton tumors have been regarded as benign, whereas ectomesenchymomas have been operationally considered to be variants of rhabdomyosarcoma. We present here a unique case that combines features of these 2 entities in a recurrent lesion on the tongue of a 35-month-old girl. This lesion raises questions about the "benign" nature of benign triton tumor and its possible relationship to ectomesenchymoma.

  6. Comparison between children and adolescents with and without chronic benign pain: consultation rate and pain characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    van Eekelen, Francijna C A; Perquin, Christel W; Hunfeld, Joke A M; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether children with chronic benign pain are in contact with their general practitioner (GP) more frequently than those without chronic benign pain. A random sample of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years of age was drawn from the records of ten general practices. According to their responses to a pain questionnaire, subjects were assigned to the chronic benign pain group (n = 95) if they had pain of more than three months' duration, or to the control group (n = 105) if they had pain of less than three months' duration or no pain at all. All the subjects had an average GP consultation rate of 2.6 contacts per year. No significant age and sex differences were found. Chronic benign pain in childhood and adolescence is not related to increased use of healthcare services, suggesting that somatisation does not play a major role in children with chronic benign pain. PMID:12030664

  7. Incidental benign metastasizing leiomyoma in a patient with bone sarcoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Del Real-Romo, Zanndor Jacob; Montero-Cantú, Carlos; Villegas-Cabello, Oscar; Díaz-Elizondo, José Antonio; Reyes-Salas, Danae; Palomo-Hoil, Rene; Peralta-Castillo, Guillermo; Martínez-Sánchez, David; Flores-Villalba, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. The benign metastasizing leiomyoma is an exceptionally rare entity; it presents with ectopic leiomyoma nodules with a benign pattern. Symptoms vary according to the anatomic location. The diagnosis is histopathological, usually in patients with history of hysterectomy. Case Presentation. A 36-year-old female with 2-month history of left knee pain was diagnosed with bone fibrosarcoma. A CT scan showed pulmonary nodules. The patient started neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Conservative surgery of pelvic limb was achieved. A new CT scan reported pulmonary nodules that remained in relation to the previous CT. A nodule resection by thoracotomy and TOB (transoperative biopsy) was performed. The final pathology report described benign proliferative lesions consistent with benign metastatic leiomyoma. Conclusions. Benign metastatic leiomyoma is a rare condition presenting with uterine and extrauterine nodules most commonly in the lung. The diagnosis is histopathological. The surgical procedure must be reserved for selected patients.

  8. FTIR and Raman microspectroscopy of normal, benign, and malignant formalin-fixed ovarian tissues.

    PubMed

    Krishna, C Murali; Sockalingum, G D; Bhat, Rani A; Venteo, L; Kushtagi, Pralhad; Pluot, M; Manfait, M

    2007-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common cancer among women worldwide, and mortality rates from this cancer are higher than for other gynecological cancers. This is attributed to a lack of reliable screening methods and the inadequacy of treatment modalities for the advanced stages of the disease. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic studies of formalin-fixed normal, benign, and malignant ovarian tissues have been undertaken in order to investigate and attempt to understand the underlying biochemical changes associated with the disease, and to explore the feasibility of discriminating between these different tissue types. Raman spectra of normal tissues indicate the dominance of proteins and lower contents of DNA and lipids compared to malignant tissues. Among the pathological tissues studied, spectra from benign tissues seem to contain more proteins and less DNA and lipids compared to malignant tissue spectra. FTIR studies corroborate these findings. FTIR and Raman spectra of both normal and benign tissues showed more similarities than those of malignant tissues. Cluster analysis of first-derivative Raman spectra in the 700-1700 cm(-1) range gave two clear groups, one corresponding to malignant and the other to normal+benign tissues. At a lower heterogeneity level, the normal+benign cluster gave three nonoverlapping subclusters, one corresponding to normal and two for benign tissues. Cluster analysis of second-derivative FTIR spectra in the combined spectral regions of 1540-1680 and 1720-1780 cm(-1) resulted into two clear clusters corresponding to malignant and normal+benign tissues. The cluster corresponding to normal+benign tissues produced nonoverlapping subclusters for normal and benign tissues at a lower heterogeneity level. The findings of this study demonstrate the feasibility of Raman and FTIR microspectroscopic discrimination of formalin-fixed normal, benign, and malignant ovarian tissues.

  9. Detection of helicobacter pylori in benign laryngeal lesions by polymerase chain reaction: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although Helicobacter Pylori (HP) was detected in some cases of chronic laryngitis, the results were not confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By this time, it has not been found in laryngeal lesions by in house PCR, the most sensitive method for detecting the genome tracks. Regarding the previous results and also few numbers of studies about the presence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions, specifically by PCR, we aimed to investigate the presence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions by in-house PCR. Methods The samples were taken from 55 patients with benign laryngeal lesions and frozen in −20°C. One milliliter (ml) of lysis buffer was added to 100 mg (mg) of each sample and the tube was placed in 56°C overnight. Then DNA extraction was carried out. Results To find HP DNA, in-house PCR was performed that revealed 5 positive results among 55 patients with benign laryngeal lesions. Of them, 3 were polyp, 1 was nodule and 1 was papilloma. Conclusion Although the number of positive results was not a lot in this study, it was in contrast with previous studies which could not find any HP tracks in benign laryngeal lesions by other methods. More studies about the prevalence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions improve judging about the effect of this infection on benign laryngeal lesions. PMID:22515206

  10. Androgen receptor roles in the development of benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kouji; Mizokami, Atsushi; Lin, Wen-Jye; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Chang, Chawnshang

    2013-06-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a major cause of lower urinary tract symptoms, with an increased volume of transitional zone and associated with increased stromal cells. It is known that androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a key role in development of BPH, and that blockade of this signaling decreases BPH volume and can relieve lower urinary tract symptoms, but the mechanisms of androgen/AR signaling in BPH development remain unclear, and the effectiveness of current drugs for treating BPH is still limited. The detailed mechanisms of androgen/AR signaling need to be clarified, and new therapies are needed for better treatment of BPH patients. This review focuses on roles of AR in epithelial and stromal cells in BPH development. In epithelial cells, AR may contribute to BPH development via epithelial cell-stromal cell interaction with alterations of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, leading to proliferation of stromal cells. Data from several mouse models with selective knockout of AR in stromal smooth-muscle cells and/or fibroblasts indicate that the AR in stromal cells can also promote BPH development. In prostatic inflammation, AR roles in infiltrating macrophages and epithelial and stromal cells have been linked to BPH development, which has led to discovery of new therapeutic targets. For example, targeting AR with the novel AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9 offers a potential therapeutic approach against BPH development.

  11. A Geriatric Perspective on Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Parham, Kourosh; Kuchel, George A

    2016-02-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of vertigo in older adults. Beyond the unpleasant sensation of vertigo, BPPV also negatively affects older adults' gait and balance and increases their risk of falling. As such it has a profound effect on function, independence, and quality of life. Otoconia are the inner ear structures that help detect horizontal and vertical movements. Aging contributes to the fragmentation of otoconia, whose displacement into the semicircular, most commonly posterior canals, can produce rotatory movement sensations with head movement. BPPV is more commonly idiopathic in older adults than in younger individuals, can present atypically, and has a more-protracted course and higher risk of recurrence. Medications such as meclizine that are commonly prescribed for BPPV can be associated with significant side effects. Dix-Hallpike and Head Roll tests can generally identify the involved canal. Symptoms resolve as otoconia fragments dissolve into the endolymph, but appropriate canalith repositioning (e.g., Epley maneuver) can expedite recovery and reduce the burden of this disorder. Observations suggesting an association between idiopathic BPPV and vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis indicate that BPPV may share risk factors with other common geriatric conditions, which highlights the importance of moving beyond purely otological considerations and addressing the needs of older adults with vertigo through a systems-based multidisciplinary approach.

  12. Classification, diagnostic criteria and management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takao; Takeda, Noriaki; Ikezono, Tetsuo; Shigeno, Kohichiro; Asai, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Yukio; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2017-02-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common peripheral vertigo and the posterior and/or lateral semicircular canals are usually affected. BPPV is characterized by brief attacks of rotatory vertigo associated with positional and/or positioning nystagmus, which are elicited by specific head positions or changes in head position relative to gravity. In patients with the posterior-canal-type of BPPV, torsional nystagmus is induced by the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. In patients with the lateral-canal-type of BPPV, horizontal geotropic or apogeotropic nystagmus is induced by the supine roll test. The pathophysiology of BPPV is canalolithiasis comprising free-floating otoconial debris within the endolymph of a semicircular canal, or cupulolithiasis comprising otoconial debris adherent to the cupula. The observation of positional and/or positioning nystagmus is essential for the diagnosis of BPPV. BPPV is treated with the canalith repositioning procedure (CRP). Through a series of head position changes, the CRP moves otoconial debris from the affected semicircular canal to the utricle. In this review, we provide the classification, diagnostic criteria, and examinations for the diagnosis, and specific and non-specific treatments of BPPV in accordance with the Japanese practical guidelines on BPPV published by the Japan Society for Equilibrium Research.

  13. The Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype Promotes Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Paz; Castro, Patricia; Tsang, Susan; Ittmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by increased tissue mass in the transition zone of the prostate, which leads to obstruction of urine outflow and considerable morbidity in a majority of older men. Senescent cells accumulate in human tissues, including the prostate, with increasing age. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines is increased in these senescent cells, a manifestation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Multiplex analysis revealed that multiple cytokines are increased in BPH, including GM-CSF, IL-1α, and IL-4, and that these are also increased in senescent prostatic epithelial cells in vitro. Tissue levels of these cytokines were correlated with a marker of senescence (cathepsin D), which was also strongly correlated with prostate weight. IHC analysis revealed the multifocal epithelial expression of cathepsin D and coexpression with IL-1α in BPH tissues. In tissue recombination studies in nude mice with immortalized prostatic epithelial cells expressing IL-1α and prostatic stromal cells, both epithelial and stromal cells exhibited increased growth. Expression of IL-1α in prostatic epithelial cells in a transgenic mouse model resulted in increased prostate size and bladder obstruction. In summary, both correlative and functional evidence support the hypothesis that the senescence-associated secretory phenotype can promote the development of BPH, which is the single most common age-related pathology in older men. PMID:24434012

  14. Water-induced thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Cioanta, I; Muschter, R

    2000-12-01

    Water-induced thermotherapy (WIT), administered by the Thermoflex System, represents a novel minimally invasive technique for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The Thermoflex System consists of an extracorporeal heat source and a proprietary closed-loop catheter system. Water, heated to 60 degrees C, is continuously circulated through the catheter to a treatment balloon, which conducts thermal energy to targeted prostatic tissue. The combination of heat and compression reduces the heat sink effect of the circulating blood, thus enhancing the thermal energy transfer to the compressed tissue. WIT treatment is performed using only topical urethral anesthetic, in a single 45-minute session. The 2-year follow-up data from a European multicenter study consisting of 125 patients showed an improvement in peak urine flow of 87.4% (from baseline 8.7 +/- 1.9 to 16.3 +/- 9.1 mL/s) and in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of -54.2% (from baseline 24 +/- 5 to 11 +/- 5). Patient tolerance of WIT was rated as "excellent" or "good" in 91.8% of the procedures. WIT is efficacious, simple, and inexpensive, has few side effects, and does not need special probes to monitor prostate or rectum temperature; thus, it can be used in hospitals, outpatient clinics, and doctors' offices.

  15. A signaling network in phenylephrine-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayoung; Yanagihara, Yutaka; Kikugawa, Tadahiko; Ji, Mihee; Tanji, Nozomu; Masayoshi, Yokoyama; Freeman, Michael R

    2009-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease of unknown etiology characterized by prostatic enlargement and coinciding with distinctive alterations in tissue histomorphology. To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of BPH, we conducted a DNA microarray study using a previously described animal model in which chronic alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation by repeated administration of phenylephrine evokes histomorphological changes in the rat prostate that resemble human BPH. Bioinformatic tools were applied to microarray data obtained from prostate tissue to construct a network model of potentially relevant signal transduction pathways. Significant involvement of inflammatory pathways was demonstrable, including evidence for activation of a TGF-beta signaling cascade. The heterodimeric protein clusterin (apolipoprotein J) was also identified as a prominent node in the network. Responsiveness of TGF-beta signaling and clusterin gene and protein expression were confirmed independently of the microarray data, verifying some components of the model. This is the first attempt to develop a comprehensive molecular network for histological BPH induced by adrenergic activation. The study also implicated clusterin as a novel biochemical target for therapy.

  16. Prevalence of unrecognized benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in older patients.

    PubMed

    van der Zaag-Loonen, H J; van Leeuwen, R B; Bruintjes, Tj D; van Munster, B C

    2015-06-01

    Dizziness is a relatively common complaint which occurs more often with increasing age. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is an important cause which can easily be treated but is frequently not recognized by professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of unrecognized BPPV in older patients. Patients ≥70 years of age (n = 989) indicated whether they experienced dizziness, and if so whether the symptoms were typical for BPPV. If affirmed, a diagnostic maneuver was performed. Positive patients were treated at once. All suspected patients completed quality of life questionnaires and were followed for 3 and 6 months. Positive BPPV patients were compared with negative (but suspected) patients. Almost one quarter of the patients (226 patients, 23 %) suffered from dizziness, among whom 101 were suspected of BPPV. Less than half (n = 45) underwent the diagnostic maneuver, of whom 13 (29 %) were positive for BPPV. At follow-up, one patient developed BPPV, leading to a total of 14 positive patients (overall prevalence 1.4 %). BPPV positive patients did not differ from BPPV negative patients. Among a large group of older patients, one quarter experiences dizziness, and 1.4 % has definite BPPV.

  17. Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a dog with benign renal angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Gajanayake, Isuru; Priestnall, Simon L; Benigni, Livia; English, Kate; Summers, Brian A; Garden, Oliver A

    2010-09-01

    An 11-year-old, male, neutered crossbred Collie dog was presented for a history of polydipsia and polyuria. Diagnostic investigations revealed total and ionized hypercalcemia and an increased concentration of parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Abdominal ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a right-sided, cystic-appearing renal mass. Cytological examination of ultrasound-guided aspirates of the mass revealed high numbers of spindle cells. The mass was removed en bloc via an ureteronephrectomy. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed neoplastic spindle cells in loosely packed and interlacing streams within a myxomatous stroma. Immunohistochemical examination with vimentin, von Willebrand Factor, and alpha-smooth muscle actin confirmed the mass to be a renal angiomyxoma. A minority of the neoplastic spindle cells showed positive cytoplasmic parathyroid hormone-related peptide immunostaining. The hypercalcemia resolved following surgery, and the parathyroid hormone-related peptide concentration returned to within the reference interval. The dog was no longer polydipsic or polyuric 1 year following surgery. The present report describes a previously unreported renal neoplasm causing paraneoplastic hypercalcemia and highlights the possibility of paraneoplastic hypercalcemia being caused by a benign neoplasm.

  18. Increased Infiltrated Macrophages in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohai; Lin, Wen-Jye; Izumi, Kouji; Jiang, Qi; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Xu, Defeng; Fang, Lei-Ya; Lu, Tianjing; Li, Lei; Xia, Shujie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2012-01-01

    Infiltrated macrophages may play important roles in the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We found increased macrophages infiltration in human and mouse BPH tissues. By establishing a co-culture transwell system, we found increased migration of macrophages and proliferation of prostate stromal cells during co-culture. Importantly, stromal androgen receptor (AR) could enhance the migration of macrophages and macrophage-mediated stromal cell proliferation. We identified CCL3 as an AR downstream player, and found CCL3 levels were notably increased in human and mouse BPH prostates. Ablation of prostate stromal AR in a mouse BPH model significantly reduced CCL3 expression levels in prostates. Consistently, targeting AR via an AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9§, or neutralization of CCL3 with an antibody, resulted in suppression of macrophage migration and prostate stromal cell growth. Our study provides mechanistic insights on the regulation of prostate stromal cells by macrophages via stromal AR/CCL3 signaling pathways, which could potentially allow the development of therapeutic approaches for battling BPH with persistent inflammation. PMID:22474290

  19. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo secondary to vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Balatsouras, Dimitrios G; Koukoutsis, George; Ganelis, Panayotis; Economou, Nicolas C; Moukos, Antonis; Aspris, Andreas; Katotomichelakis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the demographic, pathogenetic and clinical features of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) secondary to vestibular neuritis (VN). The medical records of 22 patients, who presented with BPPV within 12 weeks after the onset of VN, were reviewed. Data of a complete otolaryngological, audiological, neurotologic and imaging evaluation were available for all patients. Two hundred and eighty-four patients with idiopathic BPPV were used as a control group. The patients with BPPV secondary to VN presented the following features, in which they differed from the patients with idiopathic BPPV: (1) a lower mean age; (2) involvement of the posterior semicircular canal; (3) presence of canal weakness; (4) more therapeutic sessions needed for cure and a higher rate of recurrence. It may be, thus, concluded that BPPV associated with VN differs from idiopathic BPPV in regard to several epidemiological and clinical features, it responds less effectively to treatment and may follow a protracted course, having a tendency for recurrence.

  20. Environmentally-benign conversion of biomass residues to electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Andrew

    As petroleum resources are finite, it is imperative to use them wisely in energy conversion applications and, at the same time, develop alternative energy sources. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources that can be used to partially replace fossil fuels. Biomass-based fuels can be produced domestically and can reduce dependency on fuel imports. Due to their abundant supply, and given that to an appreciable extent they can be considered carbon-neutral, their use for power generation is of technological interest. However, whereas biomasses can be directly burned in furnaces, such a conventional direct combustion technique is ill-controlled and typically produces considerable amounts of health-hazardous airborne compounds [1,2]. Thus, an alternative technology for biomass utilization is described herein to address increasing energy needs in an environmentally-benign manner. More specifically, a multi-step process/device is presented to accept granulated or pelletized biomass, and generate an easily-identifiable form of energy as a final product. To achieve low emissions of products of incomplete combustion, the biomass is gasified pyrolytically, mixed with air, ignited and, finally, burned in nominally premixed low-emission flames. Combustion is thus indirect, since the biomass is not directly burned, instead its gaseous pyrolyzates are burned upon mixing with air. Thereby, combustion is well-controlled and can be complete. A demonstration device has been constructed to convert the internal energy of plastics into "clean" thermal energy and, eventually to electricity.

  1. Successful treatment with cyclosporin administration for persistent benign migratory glossitis.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masatoshi; Sogabe, Yoko; Syuto, Tomoko; Ishibuchi, Hirohisa; Yokoyama, Yoko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2007-05-01

    We herein describe a 54 year-old female patient with a 5-year history of persistent and painful benign migratory glossitis (BMG), which was remarkably improved by systemic administration of cyclosporin. She had noted some white patches leaving smooth denuded red areas with whitish elevated borders on the dorsum of her tongue, and finally felt strong pain. The lesion was refractory to the previous treatment with topical corticosteroid treatment for the last 2 years. Because clinicopathological findings were compatible with BMG, systemic administration of 20 mg/day prednisolone and topical 0.1% dexamethasone application were started, however, she suffered a severe relapse after tapering the dosage of prednisolone to 10 mg/day. Because some investigations have suggested that BMG is an oral manifestation of psoriasis, we introduced cyclosporin administration. The systemic treatment of cyclosporin microemulsion pre-concentrate, 3 mg/kg/day, resulted in a satisfactory improvement. Two months later, we could reduce cyclosporin microemulsion pre-concentrate dosage to 1.5 mg/kg/day for maintenance therapy, and the disease has been well controlled so far.

  2. [Cytogenetic aberrations in histologically benign infiltratively growing sphenoid wing meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Korshunov, A G; Cherekaev, V A; Bekiashev, A Kh; Sycheva, R V

    2007-01-01

    Meningiomas of the sphenoid wing (SW) frequently show an invasive pattern of growth and cause destruction of the adjacent structures. As a result, the rate of recurrent SW meningiomas is as high as 30%. Cytogenetic investigations showed no aberrations specific to invasively growing meningiomas. During this study, the authors evaluated 10 invasive and 5 non-invasive SW meningiomas via comparative genome hybridization (CGH) (matrix CGH), by using the gene chips of GenoSensor Array micromatrixes. The mean number of aberrations in the tumor cells was much greater in case of invasive meningiomas (67.4 versus 40.5 in case of non-invasive SW meningiomas. Furthermore, in invasive SW meningiomas, there were frequently losses in loci 1p, 6q, and 14q and gains in loci 15q and 10, which had been predetermined as molecular markers of stepwise progression of meningioma. Thus, the presence of a complex cytogenetic profile and progression-associated chromosome aberrations in benign SW meningiomas is linked with the increase of their invasive potential. Due to the fact that there are no well-defined adjuvant therapy regimens for recurring meningiomas at present, the revealed genomic aberrations may become potential targets for searching for drugs and a therapeutic intervention in future.

  3. Prostate development and growth in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Timms, Barry G; Hofkamp, Luke E

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia [BPH] in elderly men has intrigued anatomists, pathologists and scientists for centuries. Studies of morbid anatomy, clinical observations and contemporary cellular biology have contributed to an evolving interpretation of the causality of the disease. Insights into the detailed microanatomy and ductal architecture of the prostate during stages of fetal and early postnatal development suggest that mechanisms involved in the early growth period become aberrantly expressed in elderly men. Age, hormones and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are all contributing factors to the pathogenesis of BPH. Control of the microenvironment in normal and abnormal growth is a multifactorial process. Susceptibility to the disease may include clinical comorbid diseases, region-specific changes in cell-cell interactions and a variety of signaling pathways including a novel hypothesis regarding the role of the primary cilium as a regulator of signal transduction mechanisms. Recent work in animal models has shown that there are region-specific differences within the prostate that may be significant because of the dynamic and intricate interplay between the epithelium and mesenchyme. Because of the focal nature of BPH a closer examination of normal morphogenesis patterns, which defines the gland's architecture, may facilitate a detailed understanding of the atypical growth patterns.

  4. Role of laser therapy in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Werner T.; Sharpe, Brent A.; Aronoff, David B.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.

    2001-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in males older than 50 years of age. 75-80% of this population is considered to have some degree of BPH causing clinical symptoms and requiring urological treatment. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) is currently the standard surgical treatment modality for BPH. In an attempt to minimize the need for hospitalization and the associated perioperative and postoperative morbidity, alternatives have been sought. Various types of laser techniques such as interstitial laser coagulation and side-firing technology have been proposed. Numerous studies have shown that laser procedures safely and effectively reduce the volume of the prostate. Intra- and postoperative bleeding are nearly unknown complications for laser procedures, whereas this is the most relevant complication for the TUR-P. Due to significant tissue edema after laser treatment, patients commonly show delayed time to void adequately and, therefore, catheter drainage is often necessary for 3 to 21 days. Retrograde ejaculation is reported to occur less (0- 10%) compared to TUR-P (greater than 60%). Urinary tract infections are very common after interstitial laser coagulation. Although not many long-term clinical data are available, various studies have shown that BPH patients improve in symptom score, flow rate and post-void residual up to 3 years after laser treatment. This paper presents a concise review of efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of the most frequently used laser techniques as well as the long-term clinical data compared to TUR-P.

  5. Role of benign ovarian cysts in the development of adenomyosis

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Sadaf; Ahmad, Sajjad; Khan, Muhammad M.; Nasir, Sabeen; Sharif, Naveed; Ziaullah, Sara; Khalid, Ahmareen; Rauf, Fozia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association of adenomyotic foci with co-existing benign ovarian cysts. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study consisted of 100 consecutive hysterectomy specimens referred to Histopathology Section of Pathology Department, Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan by its attached teaching hospitals from January 2011 to December 2012. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections were examined for adenomyotic foci and the presence of co-existent ovarian cysts. For evaluation of estrogen receptor (ER) status immunohistochemical stains were applied and H-scoring system was used with a score >50 as positive. Results: Out of the 100 hysterectomy specimens, 25 cases had both adenomyosis and ovarian cysts. The ER status of adenomyotic foci was positive in 20% cases and negative in 80% cases. The commonest type of ovarian cyst was hemorrhagic luteal cyst (28%), followed by serous and mucinous cystadenoma (20%) each. Out of the 28% cases of functional cysts, 71.5% were ER positive and 28.5% were ER negative. The p-value for association of ER status of adenomyotic foci with functional cysts was 0.0004; however, p-value was not significant in comparing cases with controls. All 72% cases of nonfunctional cysts were ER negative. However, 44% of functional cysts were not associated with adenomyotic foci. Conclusion: This study concludes that besides functional ovarian cysts, other local factors may be responsible for the development of adenomyosis. PMID:27570851

  6. Suppression of benign prostate hyperplasia by Kaempferia parviflora rhizome

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Kazuya; Hayashi, Hirotaka; Matsumura, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Kaempferia parviflora rhizome is used as a folk medicine in Thailand for the treatment of various symptoms. In the present study, the inhibitory activities of extract from K. parviflora rhizome against 5α-reductase (5αR) were subjected. Furthermore, the effects of the extract from K. parviflorar hizome in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were studied using the model mice. Materials and Methods: Preparations of extracts from the rhizomes of K. parviflora, Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber officinale, and methoxyflavones isolated from K. parviflora was used for 5αR inhibition assay. The effects of K. parviflora extract on growth suppression for the prostates and seminal vesicles were performed based on the Hershberger's method. The K. parviflora extract was administered to castrated mice for 14 days. Results: K. parviflora extract showed more potent inhibitory activity on 5αR than C. zedoaria and Z. officinale extracts. The active principles were identified as 3,5,7,3’,4’-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,7,3’,4’-tetramethoxyflavone by activity guided fractionation. Furthermore, K. parviflora extract suppressed the weights of prostates and seminal vesicles in BPH model rats by daily administration for 14 days. Conclusion: These results indicate that K. parviflora extract can be a promising agent for the treatment of BPH. PMID:24174827

  7. Recent advancement of therapeutic endoscopy in the esophageal benign diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bechara, Robert; Inoue, Haruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the field of endoscopy has witnessed several advances. With the advent of endoscopic mucosal resection, removal of large mucosal lesions have become possible. Thereafter, endoscopic submucosal resection was refined, permitting en bloc removal of large superficial neoplasms. Such techniques have facilitated the development of antireflux mucosectomy, a promising novel treatment for gastroesophageal reflux. The introduction and use of over the scope clips has allowed for endoscopic closure of defects in the gastrointestinal tract, which were traditionally treated with surgical intervention. With the development of per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), the treatment of achalasia and spastic disorders of the esophagus have been revolutionized. From the submucosal tunnelling technique developed for POEM, Per oral endoscopic tumor resection of subepithelial tumors was made possible. Simultaneously, advances in biotechnology have expanded esophageal stenting capabilities with the introduction of fully covered metal and plastic stents, as well as biodegradable stents. Once deemed a primarily diagnostic tool, endoscopy has quickly transcended to a minimally invasive intervention and therapeutic tool. These techniques are reviewed with regards to their application to benign disease of the esophagus. PMID:25992187

  8. The role of radioiodine therapy in benign nodular goitre.

    PubMed

    Bonnema, Steen Joop; Fast, Søren; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-08-01

    For treatment of benign nodular goitre the choice usually stands between surgery and (131)I therapy. (131)I therapy, used for 30 years for this condition, leads to a goitre volume reduction of 35-50% within 1-2 years. However, this treatment has limited efficacy if the thyroid (131)I uptake is low or if the goitre is large. Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)-stimulated (131)I therapy significantly improves goitre reduction, as compared with conventional (131)I therapy without pre-stimulation, and adverse effects are few with rhTSH doses of 0.1 mg or lower. RhTSH-stimulated (131)I therapy reduces the need for additional therapy due to insufficient goitre reduction, but the price is a higher rate of hypothyroidism. Another approach with rhTSH-stimulation is to reduce the administered (131)I activity by a factor that equals the increase in the thyroid (131)I uptake. Using this approach, radiation exposure is considerably reduced while the goitre reduction is similar to that obtained with conventional (131)I therapy.

  9. Regressing basal-cell carcinoma masquerading as benign lichenoid keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Kulberg, Aleksandra; Weyers, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background Benign lichenoid keratosis (BLK, LPLK) is often misdiagnosed clinically as superficial basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), especially when occurring on the trunk. However, BCCs undergoing regression may be associated with a lichenoid interface dermatitis that may be misinterpreted as BLK in histopathologic sections. Methods In order to assess the frequency of remnants of BCC in lesions interpreted as BLK, we performed step sections on 100 lesions from the trunk of male patients that had been diagnosed as BLK. Results Deeper sections revealed remnants of superficial BCC in five and remnants of a melanocytic nevus in two specimens. In the original sections of cases in which a BCC showed up, crusts tended to be more common, whereas vacuolar changes at the dermo-epidermal junction and melanophages in the papillary dermis tended to be less common and less pronounced. Conclusions Lesions from the trunk submitted as BCC and presenting histopathologically as a lichenoid interface dermatitis are not always BLKs. Although no confident recommendations can be given on the basis of this limited study, deeper sections may be warranted if lesions are crusted and/or associated with only minimal vacuolar changes at the dermo-epidermal junction and no or few melanophages in the papillary dermis. PMID:27867740

  10. Environmentally Benign Technology for Efficient Warm-White Light Emission

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting. PMID:24930640

  11. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo Part I: Background and clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    van der Velde, Gabrielle M

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To review recent theories regarding the aetiology and pathophysiology of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), including its epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis. Data sources: Relevant studies were identified by searching MEDLINE from 1966 - March, 1997. Study selection: A total of 35 studies were selected on the basis of their relevance to Part I of this review. Data extraction: The findings and results of relevant studies and their subsequent theories and conclusions are discussed and compiled into a general overview of BPPV. Results of data synthesis: BPPV is considered the most common cause of vertigo of peripheral origin. A potential causal association has been observed with numerous apparent aetiological factors, all of which may lead to peripheral vestibular trauma. Findings of densities within the posterior semi-circular canal have given rise to the most recent theories regarding the pathophysiology for BPPV, canalithiasis and cupulolithiasis. Conclusions: BPPV is a multiaetiological peripheral vestibular disease whose underlying cause remains an enigma. The existing evidence supports two recent pathophysiological theories, cupulolithiasis and canalithiasis. Two conditions of special concern to the chiropractor, vertebrobasilar insufficiency and cervicogenic vertigo, closely ressemble BPPV, and can be differentiated by certain identifying features. BPPV may be diagnosed clinically, after ruling out conditions in which vertigo is a central feature. A review of the treatment for BPPV, focusing on recent physical treatments will be discussed in Part II of this paper.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Bao; Dai, Wei-Gang; Liu, Da-Wei; Shi, Han-Ping; Dong, Wen-Guang

    2013-10-21

    Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM) is a rare cystic mesothelial lesion that occurs predominantly in reproductive aged women. A 56-year-old Caucasian male was admitted to our surgical department with a chief complaint of a painful mass in his right lower abdomen for almost 2 years. The physical examination revealed a palpable painful mass. Computed tomography demonstrated an irregular, cystic tumor in his right lower abdomen. There was no obvious capsule or internal septations. No enhancement after intravenous administration of contrast was noted. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a multicystic tumor and adherent to the caecum was noted. The walls of the cysts were thin and smooth, filled with clear fluid, and very friable. An en bloc resection of the tumor, including appendix and caecum, was performed. Histological examination revealed multiple cysts lined with flattened simple epithelial cells, and the capsule walls of the cysts were composed of fibrous tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis documented positive expression of mesothelial cells and calretinin. The final diagnosis was BMPM. The patient was well at 6-mo follow-up. BMPM is exceedingly rare lesion. A complete resection of the tumor is required. The diagnosis of BMPM is based on pathological analysis.

  13. Fractionated Proton Radiotherapy for Benign Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Jerry D.; Loredo, Lilia N.; Chung, Arthur; Bush, David A.; Patyal, Baldev; Johnson, Walter D.; Hsu, Frank P.K.; Slater, James M.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of fractionated proton radiotherapy for a population of patients with benign cavernous sinus meningiomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2002, 72 patients were treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center with proton therapy for cavernous sinus meningiomas. Fifty-one patients had biopsy or subtotal resection; 47 had World Health Organization grade 1 pathology. Twenty-one patients had no histologic verification. Twenty-two patients received primary proton therapy; 30 had 1 previous surgery; 20 had more than 1 surgery. The mean gross tumor volume was 27.6 cm{sup 3}; mean clinical target volume was 52.9 cm{sup 3}. Median total doses for patients with and without histologic verification were 59 and 57 Gy, respectively. Mean and median follow-up periods were 74 months. Results: The overall 5-year actuarial control rate was 96%; the control rate was 99% in patients with grade 1 or absent histologic findings and 50% for those with atypical histology. All 21 patients who did not have histologic verification and 46 of 47 patients with histologic confirmation of grade 1 tumor demonstrated disease control at 5 years. Control rates for patients without previous surgery, 1 surgery, and 2 or more surgeries were 95%, 96%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusions: Fractionated proton radiotherapy for grade 1 cavernous sinus meningiomas achieves excellent control rates with minimal toxicities, regardless of surgical intervention or use of histologic diagnosis. Disease control for large lesions can be achieved by primary fractionated proton therapy.

  14. Potentially prothrombotic abnormalities of coagulation in benign intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, J; Leach, M; Greaves, M; Malia, R; Davies-Jones, G A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) may be caused by intracranial venous sinus thrombosis. Cerebral angiograms may, however, be normal in patients with BIH that are associated with conditions with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. This raises the possibility that unrecognised non-occlusive venous thrombus might impede CSF drainage. This study therefore examined the strength of the association between risk factors for thrombosis and BIH. METHODS: The incidence of prothrombotic abnormalities among a mixed prospectively and retrospectively investigated cohort of 38 patients with BIH, was compared with healthy obese subjects, and patients with other neurological diseases. Prothrombotic abnormalities investigated included anticardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, antithrombin III, proteins C and S, plasma fibrinogen, kaolin cephalin clotting time, prothrombin time, and full blood counts. RESULTS: Evidence for the presence of an antiphospholipid antibody was found in 32% of cases. Cases of familial deficiency of antithrombin III, thrombocytosis, and polycythaemia were also noted. Additionally, an increased concentration of plasma fibrinogen was found in 26%. A coagulation abnormality was more often detectable in those subjects with normal or low body mass index and in those tested within six months of onset. CONCLUSION: There is a thrombotic pathogenesis in some cases of BIH. Images PMID:9069476

  15. Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pin-Chun; Lin, Ming-Shiun; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays efficient down conversion for white light emission is mainly based on rare-earth doped phosphors or cadmium-containing quantum dots. Although they exhibit high luminescence efficiency, the rare-earth mining and cadmium pollution have so far led to extremely high environmental cost, which conflicts the original purpose of pursuing efficient lighting. Here, we explore a new strategy to achieve efficient luminescence conversion based on polymer-decorated nanoparticles. The ZnO and Mn(2+) doped ZnS nanoparticles are encapsulated by poly(9,9-di-n- hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The resultant core-shell nanocomposites then encompass three UV-to-visible luminescence conversion routes for photon emissions at blue, green, and orange colors, respectively. As a result, the color temperature is widely tunable (2100 K ~ 6000 K), so candle light or pure white light can be generated. The quantum yield up to 91% could also be achieved. Such rare-earth-element free nanocomposites give the bright perspectives for energy-saving, healthy, and environmentally benign lighting.

  16. Metal-Support Cooperative Catalysts for Environmentally Benign Molecular Transformations.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Kiyotomi; Mitsudome, Takato

    2017-01-01

    Metal-support cooperative catalysts have been developed for sustainable and environmentally benign molecular transformations. The active metal centers and supports in these catalysts could cooperatively activate substrates, resulting in high catalytic performance for liquid-phase reactions under mild conditions. These catalysts involved hydrotalcite-supported gold and silver nanoparticles with high catalytic activity for organic reactions such as aerobic oxidation, oxidative carbonylation, and chemoselective reduction of epoxides to alkenes and nitrostyrenes to aminostyrenes using alcohols and CO/H2 O as reducing reagents. This high catalytic performance was due to cooperative catalysis between the metal nanoparticles and basic sites of the hydrotalcite support. To increase the metal-support cooperative effect, core-shell nanostructured catalysts consisting of gold or silver nanoparticles in the core and ceria supports in the shell were designed. These core-shell nanocomposite catalysts were effective for the chemoselective hydrogenation of nitrostyrenes to aminostyrenes, unsaturated aldehydes to allyl alcohols, and alkynes to alkenes using H2 as a clean reductant. In addition, these solid catalysts could be recovered easily from the reaction mixture by simple filtration, and were reusable with high catalytic activity.

  17. Urological disorders in men: urinary incontinence and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan W; Miller, Mindi S

    2011-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are 2 common urogenital problems in men. UI is associated with involuntary leakage of urine and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) of urgency, frequency, and nocturia. Types of UI include functional, urge, stress, and overflow. Treatment for UI is based on the type of incontinence, patient-specific factors, and treatment preferences of both patients and health care providers. Options for the management of UI include environmental modifications, disposable incontinence products, pelvic floor exercises, pharmacotherapy, surgically implanted devices, and intermittent catheterization. BPH may be also associated with LUTS. Patient symptoms, assessed with a measurement tool such as the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI), serve as the basis for determining treatment. Management approaches for BPH include pharmacotherapy, surgery, and minimally invasive procedures. Anticholinergic drugs as well as α-receptor antagonists and 5-α reductase inhibitors, either alone or in combination, are effective and useful for LUTS unresponsive to traditional pharmacotherapy. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) can eliminate symptoms of BPH but is associated with relatively more complications than other available surgical and minimally invasive procedures.

  18. Serum prolidase activity in benign joint hypermobility syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Moderate joint laxity is widespread in many joints of the body, and this condition is considered to be caused by an abnormality in the collagen structure. This study was carried out to determine the serum prolidase activity in female patients with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS), and to evaluate its correlation with their clinical features. Methods A total of 45 patients with BJHS and 40 healthy controls were included in the study. All of the patients with BJHS met the Beighton diagnostic criteria. All the patients and the control group underwent a comprehensive examination of the locomotor system and took the New York Posture Rating Test. The examination and test results were recorded. Serum prolidase activity was measured in both the groups. Results Prolidase activity was significantly lower in patients with BJHS (479.52 ± 126.50) compared to the healthy controls (555.97 ± 128.77) (p = 0.007). We found no correlation between serum prolidase activity and Beighton scores or New York rating test scores. On the other hand, mean prolidase activity was significantly lower in patients with pes planus or hyperlordosis compared to those without (p = 0.05, p = 0.03, respectively). We did not find such a correlation with the other clinical features. Conclusions Significantly lower prolidase activity in patients with BJHS suggests that prolidase may affect the collagen metabolism and cause hyperlaxity. PMID:24612543

  19. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: An overview of existing treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Neelima; Bhagwat, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common condition in aging men, associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A better understanding of the prostate physiology, function, and pathogenesis has led to the development of promising agents, useful in the management of LUTS in men. The specific approach used to treat BPH depends upon number of factors like age, prostrate size, weight, prostate-specific antigen level, and severity of the symptoms. 5α-reductase inhibitors decrease the production of dihydrotestosterone within the prostate, which results in decreased prostate volume, increased peak urinary flow rate, improvement of symptoms, decreased risk of acute urinary retention, and need for surgical intervention. α1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) antagonists decrease LUTS and increase urinary flow rates in men with symptomatic BPH, but do not reduce the long-term risk of urinary retention or need for surgical intervention. Clinical efficacy of either 5α-reductase inhibitor or α1-AR antagonist has been further improved by using combination therapy; however, long-term outcomes are still awaited. Many more potential new therapies are under development that may improve the treatment of BPH. This article gives a brief account of rationale and efficacy of different treatment options presently available in the management of BPH. PMID:21455413

  20. Diagnosis and management of benign prostatic hyperplasia in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Tanguay, Simon; Awde, Murray; Brock, Gerald; Casey, Richard; Kozak, Joseph; Lee, Jay; Nickel, J. Curtis; Saad, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and its clinical manifestation as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), is a major health concern for aging men. There have been significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in recent years. There has been a renewed interest in medical therapies and less invasive surgical techniques. As a consequence, the treatment needs of men with mild to moderate LUTS without evidence of prostate cancer can now be accomplished in a primary care setting. There are differences in the way urologists and primary care physicians approach the evaluation and management of LUTS due to BPH, which is not reflected in Canadian Urological Association (CUA) and American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines. A “shared care” approach involving urologists and primary care physicians represents a reasonable and viable model for the care of men suffering from LUTS. The essence of the model centres around educating and communicating effectively with the patient on BPH. This article provides primary care physicians with an overview of the diagnostic and management strategies outlined in recent CUA and AUA guidelines so that they may be better positioned to effectively deal with this patient population. It is now apparent that we must move away from the urologist as the first-line physician, and allow primary care physicians to accept a new role in the diagnosis and management of BPH. PMID:19543429

  1. [Drugs for the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Caprino, L

    2000-06-01

    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) usually occurs in males 45-50 old and progressively involves 75% of the male population over 75 years of age. The clinical manifestations of BPH are related primarily to bladder outlet obstructions resulting from enlargement (mechanical component) of the prostate gland, and from extrinsic and intrinsic sympathetic activation of alpha-adrenoceptors (dynamic component) present in the prostatic muscle tissue, prostatic urethra, bladder base and neck. Several drugs have been employed in the last decades: LHRH analogs (Leuprorelin and Goserelin) which can reduce the testicular production of androgens with reduction in prostate size; Serenoa repens for its anti-androgenic and anti-estrogenic activities; Finasteride (5-alpha-reductase inhibitor) which blocks the conversion of testosterone into the more active dihydrotestosterone. Finally, the alpha 1 blocking agents (Terazosin, Doxazosin, Tamsulosin) that improve urinary symptoms by acting on dynamic component. Clinical improvements derive from their antagonist action on alpha 1 adrenergic receptors which mediate contraction of the prostate gland, proximal urethra, bladder base and neck, with the consequent reduction of urethral pressure, bladder outlet resistance, and increase of urinary flow. Due to its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, as well as the clinical results obtained, Terazosin, alpha 1 blocker, appears to be particularly useful in the treatment of patients with mild- to moderate symptomatic BPH.

  2. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and bladder outlet obstruction may affect up to 30% of men in their early 70s. Symptoms can improve without treatment, but the usual course is a slow progression of symptoms, with acute urinary retention occurring in 1% to 2% of men with BPH per year. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical, herbal, and surgical treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 63 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, alpha-blockers, beta-sitosterol plant extract, Pygeum africanum, rye grass pollen extract, saw palmetto plant extracts, transurethral electrovaporisation, transurethral Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate, transurethral microwave thermotherapy, transurethral needle ablation, and transurethral resection (including transurethral resection versus transurethral incision, and transurethral resection versus visual laser ablation/laser vaporisation). PMID:21871136

  3. Ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy for benign non-thyroid cystic mass in the neck

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Surgical excision has traditionally been the treatment of choice for benign non-thyroid cystic neck masses, including lymphatic malformation, ranula, branchial cleft cyst, thyroglossal duct cyst, and parathyroid cyst. However, there is a tendency toward recurrence after surgery, and surgery may be accompanied by complications, including nerve injuries, vascular injuries, and scar formation. Ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy using various agents has been challenged and successfully applied as an alternative treatment for benign non-thyroid cystic neck masses. This report reviews the available sclerosing agents and describes the applications of sclerotherapy to the treatment of benign cystic masses in the neck. PMID:24936500

  4. A New Variant of Posterior Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Nonampullary or Common Crus Canalolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Yetiser, Sertac

    2015-01-01

    Clockwise or counterclockwise, rotational, upbeating nystagmus is seen in patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo during left or right head-hanging test, respectively. Rotating of nystagmus in opposite direction to the ear tested or even reversal of initial positioning rotational nystagmus is not usual and has never been reported before. We propose a new variant of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo due to unusual behavior and location of the otoliths inside the membranous labyrinth. Unexpected rotational direction may lead to confusion about the site. The examiner should be aware of this abnormal or atypical variant of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. PMID:26114003

  5. Irreversible Horner’s syndrome diagnosed by aproclonidine test due to benign thyroid nodule

    PubMed Central

    M, Coskun; A, Aydogan; C, Gokce; O, Ilhan; OV, Ozkan; H, Gokce; H, Oksuz

    2013-01-01

    We are reporting an irreversible Horner Syndrome (HS) in a patient with benign thyroid gland nodule in which thyroidectomy was performed for treatment. A 37-year-old female was admitted to our clinic with a swelling in the left lobe of the thyroid gland and ptosis at the left eyelid. The clinical diagnosis of HS was confirmed pharmacologically by aproclonidine. Histopathologic examination of thyroidectomy specimen was reported as benign nodule. To the best of our knowledge, this is a very rare report in terms of thyroid benign nodule associated with irreversible HS due to cervical sympathetic chain compression. PMID:24353546

  6. Benign monomelic amyotrophy of the lower extremity: report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Dimachkie, M M; Justiz, W; Vriesendorp, F J

    2000-06-01

    Benign monomelic amyotrophy is an uncommon cause of progressive mildly disabling atrophy and weakness of a limb. It predominantly affects the distal upper limb of young men. We present two women with benign monomelic of amyotrophy of the lower extremity. Although thedisorder seemed clinically confined to a leg, we confirmed by electromyography chronic denervgation of the contralaterral extremity of both patients and in the arm of one patient.We review the literature and discuss the differential diagnosis. Benign monomelic amyotrophy is a diagnosis of exclusion that requires consideration in young women with unilateral leg atrophy.

  7. Metastasizing "benign" pleomorphic salivary adenoma: a dramatic case-report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Achille; Foschini, Maria Pia; Farneti, Paolo; Pasquini, Ernesto; Marchetti, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    Pleomorphic salivary adenomas are the most common benign neoplasms affecting the salivary glands. Very occasionally however, metastatic lesions are identified in patients with a history of PSA, which, on detailed pathological evaluation, are found to exhibit all the histological hallmarks of the preceding benign lesions. Diagnosis of benign metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland is extremely rare and still under debate. We present the first case-report in literature of multiple metachronous nasal cavity, scalp and encephalic metastases of a pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland in a young girl.

  8. A thorough assessment of benign genetic variability in GRN and MAPT.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Rita J; Washecka, Nicole; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Mutations in APP, PSEN1, MAPTand GRNare the most common genetic causes of dementia. The previous miss-assignment of pathogenicity to benign variants in these genes stresses the importance of discerning between disease causing mutations and benign variants with no pathogenic effect on the function of the respective protein. In this study we sequenced GRNand MAPTin 282 samples from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain - Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, in order to identify benign variants that could otherwise be mistaken for pathogenic mutations. We found sixteen different non-synonymous changes, eleven of which are novel variants.

  9. Robotic lung segmentectomy for malignant and benign lesions

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Alper; Ayalp, Kemal; Uyumaz, Elena; Kaba, Erkan; Demirhan, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Surgical use of robots has evolved over the last 10 years. However, the academic experience with robotic lung segmentectomy remains limited. We aimed to analyze our lung segmentectomy experience with robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Prospectively recorded clinical data of 21 patients who underwent robotic lung anatomic segmentectomy with robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were done using the da Vinci System. A three incision portal technique with a 3 cm utility incision in the posterior 10th to 11th intercostal space was performed. Individual dissection, ligation and division of the hilar structures were performed. Systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling was performed in 15 patients either with primary or secondary metastatic cancers. Results Fifteen patients (75%) were operated on for malignant lung diseases. Conversion to open surgery was not necessary. Postoperative complications occurred in four patients. Mean console robotic operating time was 84±26 (range, 40-150) minutes. Mean duration of chest tube drainage and mean postoperative hospital stay were 3±2.1 (range, 1-10) and 4±1.4 (range, 2-7) days respectively. The mean number of mediastinal stations and number of dissected lymph nodes were 4.2 and 14.3 (range, 2-21) from mediastinal and 8.1 (range, 2-19) nodes from hilar and interlobar stations respectively. Conclusions Robot-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomy for malignant and benign lesions appears to be practical, safe, and associated with few complications and short postoperative hospitalization. Lymph node removal also appears oncologically acceptable for early lung cancer patients. Benefits in terms of postoperative pain, respiratory function, and quality of life needs a comparative, prospective series particularly with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. PMID:25093090

  10. The Functional Role of Reactive Stroma in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Isaiah G.; Rowley, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The human prostate gland is one of the only internal organs that continue to enlarge throughout adulthood. The specific mechanisms that regulate this growth, as well as the pathological changes leading to the phenotype observed in the disease benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are essentially unknown. Recent studies and their associated findings have made clear that many complex alterations occur, involving persistent and chronic inflammation, circulating hormonal level deregulation, and aberrant wound repair processes. BPH has been etiologically characterized as a progressive, albeit discontinuous, hyperplasia of both the glandular epithelial and stromal cell compartments coordinately yielding an expansion of the prostate gland and clinical symptoms. Interestingly, the inflammatory and repair responses observed in BPH are also key components of general wound repair in post-natal tissues. These responses include altered expression of chemokines, cytokines, matrix remodeling factors, chronic inflammatory processes, altered immune surveillance and recognition, as well as the formation of a prototypical ‘reactive’ stroma which is similar to that observed across various fibroplasias and malignancies of a variety of tissue sites. Stromal tissue, both embryonic mesenchyme, and adult reactive stroma myofibroblasts, has been shown to exert potent and functional regulatory control over epithelial proliferation and differentiation as well as immunoresponsive modulation. Thus, the functional biology of a reactive stroma, within the context of an adult disease typified by epithelial and stromal aberrant hyperplasia, is critical to understand within the context of prostate disease and beyond. The mechanisms that regulate reactive stroma biology in BPH represent targets of opportunity for new therapeutic approaches that may extend to other tissue contexts. Accordingly, this review seeks to address the dissection of important factors, signaling pathways, genes, and other

  11. Immunohistochemistry of lymphocytes in benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Li, S-X; Li, Q; Yang, Y-Q; Jin, L-J; Sun, Z; Yu, S-F

    2015-06-29

    Benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa (BLOM) is a common oral mucosa disease and may be regarded as a precancerous lesion. However, the association between its biological behavior and lymphocyte distribution remains unclear. Therefore, to investigate the characteristics of BLOM, we studied the infiltration of lymphocytes associated with it. The expression levels of CD74, CD20, CD3, and CD45RO were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining in 14 sam-ples from BLOM, 9 samples from BLOM with atypia hyperplasia, 11 samples from BLOM with canceration, and 10 samples from normal oral mucosa tissues. The results were analyzed by two-sample t-test using SPSS 10.0 for Windows, and P < 0.05 was considered to be sig-nificant. In normal oral mucosa, positive expression levels of CD3 and CD45RO were presented in the extra-lymphoid follicle, and the expres-sion levels of CD74 and CD20 were negative. In all BLOM groups, the expression level of CD20 was positive except for one case of BLOM with canceration; the expression levels of CD74 were all positive. Posi-tive expression levels of CD3 and CD45RO could be found not only in extra-lymphoid follicles but also in inner-lymphoid follicles in the BLOM groups. The expression levels of CD74 and CD20 in extra-lym-phoid follicles, and CD3 and CD45RO in inner-lymphoid follicles in BLOM were significantly higher than in BLOM with canceration. The infiltrated lymphocytes in BLOM comprise T- and B-cells. This indi-cates that the lymphoid tissue in BLOM is mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and BLOM is a proliferative lesion.

  12. Laser Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Dosimetric and Thermodynamic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, Bahman

    1993-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most commonly occurring neoplastic disease in the aging human male. Currently, surgical treatment of BPH is the primary therapeutic method. However, due to surgical complications, less invasive methods of treatment are desirable. In recent years, thermal coagulation of the hyperplastic prostate by a laser has received a considerable amount of attention. Nevertheless, the optimum laser irradiation parameters that lead to a successful and safe treatment of BPH have not been determined. This dissertation studies the physics of laser coagulation of prostate from both basic science and practical perspectives. Optical properties of prostatic tissue are determined over a spectrum of wavelengths. Knowledge of these properties allows for selection of appropriate laser wavelengths and provides a basis for performing dose equivalency studies among various types of lasers. Furthermore, knowledge of optical properties are needed for development of computer simulation models that predict the extent of thermal injury during laser irradiation of prostate. A computer model of transurethral heating of prostate that can be used to guide the clinical studies in determining an optimum dosimetry is then presented. Studies of the effects of non-laser heating devices, optical properties, blood perfusion, surface irrigation, and beam geometry are performed to examine the extent of heat propagation within the prostate. An in vitro model for transurethral laser irradiation of prostate is also presented to examine the effects of an 810 nm diode laser, thermal boundary conditions, and energy deposition rate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Results of these studies suggest that in the presence of laminar irrigation, the convective boundary condition is dominated by thermal diffusion as opposed to the bulk motion of the irrigation fluid. Distinct phases of thermal events are also identified during the laser irradiation. The in vivo studies of

  13. Tamsulosin versus terazosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dong, ZhiLong; Wang, ZhiPing; Yang, KeHu; Liu, YaLi; Gao, WenHui; Chen, WenYuan

    2009-08-01

    The effectiveness and safety of tamsulosin and terazosin for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was evaluated by literature review. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese biomedicine literature database (CBM), reference lists of reports, and reviews were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), or quasi-RCTs of tamsulosin versus terazosin in BPH. Twelve studies involving 2,816 men were included. Outcomes included international prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL), maximum urinary flow rate (Q(max)), average urinary flow rate (Q(ave)), residual volume, prostate volume, and adverse effect (dizziness, severe hypotension, dry mouth). Relative risk was calculated for dichotomous data. Sensitivity analyses assessed the influence of baseline symptom severity. We found that tamsulosin is better than terazosin when assessed by IPSS (weighted mean difference (WMD)=-1.24 95% CI [- 1.98, -0.51], there was no significant difference between the two groups in QOL (WMD=0.04 95% CI [-0.16, 0.24]), Qmax (WMD=-0.38 95% CI [-1.18, 0.41]), Q(ave) (WMD=-0.39 95% CI [- 0.84, 0.06]), residual volume (WMD=-4.32 95% CI [-10.96, 2.33]), and prostate volume (WMD=-0.28 95% CI [- 3.37, 2.81]). Fewer patients receiving tamsulosin experienced dizziness (relative risk (RR) -0.38 95% CI [0.30, 0.48]), severe hypotension (RR=0.16 95% CI [0.04, 0.68]), and dry mouth (RR=0.14 95% CI [0.03, 0.77]), compared with patients receiving terazosin. Many of the high quality RCTs showed beneficial effects of tamsulosin in terms of improving IPSS. However, whether tamsulosin proves more efficacious than terazosin in long term therapy requires confirmation by additional large sample, high quality trials.

  14. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B.

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  15. Making Stargates: The Physics of Traversable Absurdly Benign Wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, J. F.

    Extremely short throat "absurdly benign" wormholes enabling near instantaneous travel to arbitrarily remote locations in both space and time - stargates - have long been a staple of science fiction. The physical requirements for the production of such devices were worked out by Morris and Thorne in 1988. They approached the issue of rapid spacetime transport by asking the question: what constraints do the laws of physics as we know them place on an "arbitrarily advanced culture" (AAC)? Their answer - a Jupiter mass of negative restmass matter in a structure a few tens of meters in size - seems to have rendered such things beyond the realm of the believably achievable. This might be taken as justification for abandoning further serious exploration of the physics of stargates. If such an investigation is pursued, however, one way to do so is to invert Morris and Thorne's question and ask: if "arbitrarily advanced aliens" (AAAs) have actually made stargates, what must be true of the laws of physics for them to have done so? Elementary arithmetic reveals that stargates would have an "exotic" density of on the order of 1022 gm/cm3, that is, orders of magnitude higher than nuclear density. Not only does one have to achieve this stupendous density of negative mass matter, it must be done, presumably, only with the application of "low" energy electromagnetic fields. We examine this problem, finding that a plausible solution does not depend on the laws of quantum gravity, as some have proposed. Rather, the solution depends on understanding the nature of electrons in terms of a semi-classical extension of the exact, general relativistic electron model of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner (ADM), and Mach's Principle.

  16. Immunocytochemical study of transforming growth factor expression in benign and malignant gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, V.; Barrett, J. M.; Bockman, S.; Pantazis, C. G.; Allen, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    Immunocytochemical studies using polyclonal antibodies to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha and beta were performed on 20 cases of human gliomas. EGF immunoreactive material was detected in both benign and malignant glial tumors. In addition, EGF immunoreactive material was detected in normal brain. TGF-beta was detected in both benign and malignant tumors, but was not detected in normal brain. In contrast, TGF-alpha was highly conserved in its expression, occurring predominantly in malignant compared with benign or normal brain tissue (P less than 0.0001). In malignant gliomas, glioblastomas contained 76% TGF-alpha reactivity (immunoreactive product), and anaplastic types contained 85% reactivity. Benign gliomas contained only 13% TGF-alpha reactivity. These findings support the role of TGF-alpha as an oncoprotein marker in brain neoplasms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2705509

  17. The Clinical Implications of Todd Paralysis in Children With Benign Rolandic Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Alper I; Demiryürek, Seniz

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings of postictal Todd paralysis in benign rolandic epilepsy of childhood and find out the possible correlation with migraine. Based on International Headache Society pediatric migraine criteria, patients were investigated for migraine, and 12 of the 108 patients with benign rolandic epilepsy (6 girls and 6 boys, 11.1%) were found to have postictal Todd paralysis. Ten of these 12 patients (83.3%) had pediatric migraine based on the diagnostic criteria. We showed comorbidity of migraine and benign rolandic epilepsy with postictal Todd paralysis in children. Increased incidence of migraine in the present study suggest that children who have benign rolandic epilepsy and postictal Todd paralysis are more likely to have migraines.

  18. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED GREENER SYNTHESIS OF PHARMACEUTICALLY ACTIVE HETEROCYCLES UNDER BENIGN CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry is a rapidly developing new field that provides us a proactive avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. Environmentally benign protocols have been developed for the synthesis of various pharmaceutically active heterocycles namely ...

  19. Solvent-free and catalyst-free chemistry: A benign pathway to sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, alternative benign organic methodologies have become an imperative part of organic syntheses and novel chemical reactions. The various new and innovative sustainable organic reactions and methodologies using no solvents or catalysts and employing alternative ...

  20. Benign Spine Lesions: Advances in Techniques for Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tomasian, A; Wallace, A N; Jennings, J W

    2017-02-09

    Minimally invasive percutaneous imaging-guided techniques have been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of benign tumors of the spine. Techniques available include a variety of tumor ablation technologies, including radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation, alcohol ablation, and laser photocoagulation. Vertebral augmentation may be performed after ablation as part of the same procedure for fracture stabilization or prevention. Typically, the treatment goal in benign spine lesions is definitive cure. Painful benign spine lesions commonly encountered in daily practice include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, vertebral hemangioma, aneurysmal bone cyst, Paget disease, and subacute/chronic Schmorl node. This review discusses the most recent advancement and use of minimally invasive percutaneous therapeutic options for the management of benign spine lesions.

  1. Dispositional envy revisited: unraveling the motivational dynamics of benign and malicious envy.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jens; Crusius, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has conceptualized dispositional envy as a unitary construct. Recently however, episodic envy has been shown to emerge in two qualitatively different forms. Benign envy is related to the motivation to move upward, whereas malicious envy is related to pulling superior others down. In four studies (N = 1,094)--using the newly developed Benign and Malicious Envy Scale (BeMaS)--we show that dispositional envy is also characterized by two independent dimensions related to distinct motivational dynamics and behavioral consequences. Dispositional benign and malicious envy uniquely predict envious responding following upward social comparisons. Furthermore, they are differentially connected to hope for success and fear of failure. Corresponding to these links, dispositional benign envy predicted faster race performance of marathon runners mediated via higher goal setting. In contrast, dispositional malicious envy predicted race goal disengagement. The findings highlight that disentangling the two sides of envy opens up numerous research avenues.

  2. Benign pneumoperitoneum after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding tube placement: do not be afraid!

    PubMed

    Zippi, M; Pica, R; Marzano, C; Cassieri, C; Avallone, E V; Traversa, G

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure enteral feeding, placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is considered a standard care for patients with oropharyngeal malignancies. Benign pneumoperitoneum is a complication of PEG feeding tube placement and it is usually an incidental finding that arises, generally, immediately following the procedure. We report a case of a benign pneumoperitoneum, developed 48 hours after the procedure, which was treated conservatively.

  3. Expression of steroid hormone receptors in benign hepatic tumors. An immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Masood, S; West, A B; Barwick, K W

    1992-12-01

    Many hepatic adenomas have been demonstrated to have a clear relationship with oral contraceptive use, and it is presumed that there may be hormone receptors within the cytoplasm or nucleus of adenoma cells that mediate tumor growth in response to hormonal stimulation. Only a small number of examples of benign hepatic tumors have been analyzed for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors, and there has been a lack of consensus with regard to the findings. All previous studies have determined receptor levels by biochemical methods. In a retrospective study, we employed specific monoclonal antibodies against estrogen and progesterone receptors in 10 benign paraffin-embedded hepatic lesions: five examples of hepatic adenoma and five examples of focal nodular hyperplasia. All patients were female, except for one male with adenoma and one male with focal nodular hyperplasia. No patient had received tamoxifen citrate or any other form of hormonal therapy for their hepatic lesion. Positive controls included benign and malignant breast tissue. No positive staining was seen in hepatic adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, or normal adjacent liver parenchyma. Intense positive staining was seen in all positive control tissues. This negative result with the use of specific monoclonal antibodies in an established immunohistochemical method for analysis of estrogen and progesterone receptors does not exclude the presence of these receptors in benign hepatic lesions, but does suggest that, if present, they occur in much smaller amounts than in benign and malignant breast tissue. The presence of hormone receptors in benign hepatic tumors deserves further study.

  4. Multidetector computed tomography analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Caisong; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jun; Yang, Jing; Shao, Kangwei; Yuan, Lixin; Chen, Hairong; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). MDCT findings, including the size, solid percentage, calcification, margin, capsule, anteroposterior-transverse diameter ratio as well as the mode and the degree of enhancement of 137 thyroid nodules in 127 CLT cases were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between MDCT findings and pathological results combined with the CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for the differences between benign and malignant nodules. A total of 77.5% (31/40) of malignant nodules were completely solid, and 33% (32/97) of benign nodules were predominantly cystic. Compared with the benign nodules, micro-calcification and internal calcification were more frequently observed in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). MDCT features such as ill-defined margin, absence of capsule or incomplete capsule or homogeneous enhancement were more likely to be present in the malignant nodules (P<0.05). Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the enhancement degree at arterial or venous phase between benign and malignant nodules (P>0.05). MDCT features are useful in differentiating the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients, and it may be essential for a radiologist to review the MDCT characteristics of nodules in the clinical practice.

  5. Scalable and Environmentally Benign Process for Smart Textile Nanofinishing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jicheng; Hontañón, Esther; Blanes, Maria; Meyer, Jörg; Guo, Xiaoai; Santos, Laura; Paltrinieri, Laura; Ramlawi, Nabil; Smet, Louis C P M de; Nirschl, Hermann; Kruis, Frank Einar; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas; Biskos, George

    2016-06-15

    A major challenge in nanotechnology is that of determining how to introduce green and sustainable principles when assembling individual nanoscale elements to create working devices. For instance, textile nanofinishing is restricted by the many constraints of traditional pad-dry-cure processes, such as the use of costly chemical precursors to produce nanoparticles (NPs), the high liquid and energy consumption, the production of harmful liquid wastes, and multistep batch operations. By integrating low-cost, scalable, and environmentally benign aerosol processes of the type proposed here into textile nanofinishing, these constraints can be circumvented while leading to a new class of fabrics. The proposed one-step textile nanofinishing process relies on the diffusional deposition of aerosol NPs onto textile fibers. As proof of this concept, we deposit Ag NPs onto a range of textiles and assess their antimicrobial properties for two strains of bacteria (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae). The measurements show that the logarithmic reduction in bacterial count can get as high as ca. 5.5 (corresponding to a reduction efficiency of 99.96%) when the Ag loading is 1 order of magnitude less (10 ppm; i.e., 10 mg Ag NPs per kg of textile) than that of textiles treated by traditional wet-routes. The antimicrobial activity does not increase in proportion to the Ag content above 10 ppm as a consequence of a "saturation" effect. Such low NP loadings on antimicrobial textiles minimizes the risk to human health (during textile use) and to the ecosystem (after textile disposal), as well as it reduces potential changes in color and texture of the resulting textile products. After three washes, the release of Ag is in the order of 1 wt %, which is comparable to textiles nanofinished with wet routes using binders. Interestingly, the washed textiles exhibit almost no reduction in antimicrobial activity, much as those of as-deposited samples. Considering that a realm

  6. Frontal horn thin walled cysts in preterm neonates are benign

    PubMed Central

    Pal, B; Preston, P; Morgan, M; Rushton, D; Durbin, G

    2001-01-01

    .7%) subjects scanned. They are present in the first week of life, enlarge, and resolve spontaneously. Survivors with isolated frontal horn cysts appear to have normal neurodevelopmental outcome. The prognosis of these distinct frontal horn cysts therefore appears to be benign.

 PMID:11668161

  7. Decreased serum vitamin D in idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Ji-Soo; Shin, Jong Wook; Kim, Sungbo; Lee, Hajeong; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon; Jo, Hyunjin; Song, Junghan; Ghim, Yuna

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association of osteopenia/osteoporosis with idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Since vitamin D takes part in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus found in the body and plays an important role in maintaining proper bone structure, decreased bone mineral density in patients with BPPV may be related to decreased serum vitamin D. We measured the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 100 patients (63 women and 37 men, mean age ± SD = 61.8 ± 11.6) with idiopathic BPPV and compared the data with those of 192 controls (101 women and 91 men, mean age ± SD = 60.3 ± 11.3) who had lived in the same community without dizziness or imbalance during the preceding year. The selection of the controls and acquisition of clinical information were done using the data from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008. The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was lower in the patients with BPPV than in the controls (mean ± SD = 14.4 ± 8.4 versus 19.1 ± 6.8 ng/ml, p = 0.001). Furthermore, patients with BPPV showed a higher prevalence of decreased serum vitamin D (<20 ng/ml, 80.0 vs. 60.1 %, p < 0.001) than the controls. Multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, proteinuria, regular exercise and the existence of decreased bone mineral density demonstrated that vitamin D insufficiency (10-20 ng/ml) and deficiency (<10 ng/ml) were associated with BPPV with the odds ratios of 3.8 (95 % confidence interval = 1.51-9.38, p = 0.004) and 23.0 (95 % confidence interval = 6.88-77.05, p < 0.001). Our study demonstrated an association between idiopathic BPPV and decreased serum vitamin D. Decreased serum vitamin D may be a risk factor of BPPV.

  8. Imaging of the thyroid in benign and malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Intenzo, Charles M; Dam, Hung Q; Manzone, Timothy A; Kim, Sung M

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland was one of the first organs imaged in nuclear medicine, beginning in the 1940s. Thyroid scintigraphy is based on a specific phase or prelude to thyroid hormone synthesis, namely trapping of iodide or iodide analogues (ie, Tc99m pertechnetate), and in the case of radioactive iodine, eventual incorporation into thyroid hormone synthesis within the thyroid follicle. Moreover, thyroid scintigraphy is a reflection of the functional state of the gland, as well as the physiological state of any structure (ie, nodule) within the gland. Scintigraphy, therefore, provides information that anatomical imaging (ie, ultrasound, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging) lacks. Thyroid scintigraphy plays an essential role in the management of patients with benign or malignant thyroid disease. In the former, the structure or architecture of the gland is best demonstrated by anatomical or cross-sectional imaging, such as ultrasound, CT, or even magnetic resonance imaging. The role of scintigraphy, however, is to display the functional state of the thyroid gland or that of a clinically palpable nodule within the gland. Such information is most useful in (1) patients with thyrotoxicosis, and (2) those patients whose thyroid nodules would not require tissue sampling if their nodules are hyperfunctioning. In neoplastic thyroid disease, thyroid scintigraphy is often standard of care for postthyroidectomy remnant evaluation and in subsequent thyroid cancer surveillance. Planar radioiodine imaging, in the form of the whole-body scan (WBS) and posttherapy scan (PTS), is a fundamental tool in differentiated thyroid cancer management. Continued controversy remains over the utility of WBS in a variety of patient risk groups and clinical scenarios. Proponents on both sides of the arguments compare WBS with PTS, thyroglobulin, and other imaging modalities with differing results. The paucity of large, randomized, prospective studies results in dependence on consensus

  9. Incidence and potential causative factors associated with chronic benign neutropenia in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Benign neutropenia often presents in certain populations without any genotype nor phenotype. Middle East countries are among the regions where endemic cases of chronic benign neutropenia are reported in the general population with an incidence of approximately between 10-15%. Not many studies have been performed to ascertain the cause or burden associated with this condition. The objective of the current study was to identify the frequency and characterize the consequences of chronic benign neutropenia in the country of Saudi Arabia. Results Benign neutropenia was found to be high in the Saudi Arabia general population (up to 20%), with an average neutrophil count of 1.48 (range 0.99 – 1.95 × 109cells/L), with Saudis having a higher incidence of chronic benign neutropenia compared to non-Saudis (p = <0.05). Complete blood count analyses showed significant difference in the total white cell count of neutrophils (p < 0.0001), WBC (p < 0.0001), lymphocytes (p < 0.001), monocytes (p < 0.001), eosinophils (p = 0.013) as well as the CD19 B cells (p = 0.008). Conclusions Our study is the first to carefully quantitate benign neutropenia in Saudi Arabia. We identified that this condition is prevalent in the middle aged population (18 years to 55 years). These individuals not only had lower neutrophil counts, but also reduced peripheral blood cells types, especially the B-lymphocyte population (CD19 subset). As B-lymphocytes are involved in antibody production and antigen recognition, a decrease might easily predispose the individuals to infectious agents. As such more mechanistic studies need to be undertaken to understand the cause and potential long-term consequences of benign neutropenia. PMID:25810761

  10. Bone Windows for Distinguishing Malignant from Benign Primary Bone Tumors on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Costelloe, Colleen M; Chuang, Hubert H; Chasen, Beth A; Pan, Tinsu; Fox, Patricia S; Bassett, Roland L; Madewell, John E

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The default window setting on PET/CT workstations is soft tissue. This study investigates whether bone windowing and hybrid FDG PET/CT can help differentiate between malignant and benign primary bone tumors. Materials and methods. A database review included 98 patients with malignant (n=64) or benign primary bone (n=34) tumors. The reference standard was biopsy for malignancies and biopsy or >1 year imaging follow-up of benign tumors. Three radiologists and/or nuclear medicine physicians blinded to diagnosis and other imaging viewed the lesions on CT with bone windows (CT-BW) without and then with PET (PET/CT-BW), and separate PET-only images for malignancy or benignity. Three weeks later the tumors were viewed on CT with soft tissue windows (CT-STW) without and then with PET (PET/CT-STW). Results. Mean sensitivity and specificity for identifying malignancies included: CT-BW: 96%, 90%; CT-STW: 90%, 90%; PET/CT-BW: 95%, 85%, PET/CT-STW: 95%, 86% and PET-only: 96%, 75%, respectively. CT-BW demonstrated higher specificity than PET-only and PET/CT-BW (p=0.0005 and p=0.0103, respectively) and trended toward higher sensitivity than CT-STW (p=0.0759). Malignant primary bone tumors were more avid than benign lesions overall (p<0.0001) but the avidity of benign aggressive lesions (giant cell tumors and Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis) trended higher than the malignancies (p=0.08). Conclusion. Bone windows provided high specificity for distinguishing between malignant and benign primary bone tumors and are recommended when viewing FDG PET/CT.

  11. Gene expression profiles of metabolic aggressiveness and tumor recurrence in benign meningioma.

    PubMed

    Serna, Eva; Morales, José Manuel; Mata, Manuel; Gonzalez-Darder, José; San Miguel, Teresa; Gil-Benso, Rosario; Lopez-Gines, Concha; Cerda-Nicolas, Miguel; Monleon, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Around 20% of meningiomas histologically benign may be clinically aggressive and recur. This strongly affects management of meningioma patients. There is a need to evaluate the potential aggressiveness of an individual meningioma. Additional criteria for better classification of meningiomas will improve clinical decisions as well as patient follow up strategy after surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gene expression profiles and new metabolic subgroups of benign meningioma with potential clinical relevance. Forty benign and fourteen atypical meningioma tissue samples were included in the study. We obtained metabolic profiles by NMR and recurrence after surgery information for all of them. We measured gene expression by oligonucleotide microarray measurements on 19 of them. To our knowledge, this is the first time that distinct gene expression profiles are reported for benign meningioma molecular subgroups with clinical correlation. Our results show that metabolic aggressiveness in otherwise histological benign meningioma proceeds mostly through alterations in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of transcription, mainly the LMO3 gene. Genes involved in tumor metabolism, like IGF1R, are also differentially expressed in those meningioma subgroups with higher rates of membrane turnover, higher energy demand and increased resistance to apoptosis. These new subgroups of benign meningiomas exhibit different rates of recurrence. This work shows that benign meningioma with metabolic aggressiveness constitute a subgroup of potentially recurrent tumors in which alterations in genes regulating critical features of aggressiveness, like increased angiogenesis or cell invasion, are still no predominant. The determination of these gene expression biosignatures may allow the early detection of clinically aggressive tumors.

  12. Benign infantile convulsion as a diagnostic clue of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is characterized by sudden attacks of involuntary movements. It is often misdiagnosed clinically as psychogenic illness, which distresses the patients to a great extent. A correct diagnosis will improve the quality of life in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia because treatment with low doses of anticonvulsants is effective for eliminating the clinical manifestations. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia can occur independently of or concurrently with benign infantile convulsion. Identification of PRRT2 as the causative gene of benign infantile convulsion and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia allows genetic confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Case presentation We describe the clinical features of a Japanese family with either paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or benign infantile convulsion. A PRRT2 missense mutation (c.981C > G, p.Ile327Met) was identified in two patients with benign infantile convulsion and three patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia as well as in two unaffected individuals. Allowing incomplete penetrance in the mutation carriers, this mutation co-segregated completely with the phenotype. The patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia had been misdiagnosed with psychogenic illness for many years. They were correctly diagnosed with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia when their children visited a pediatrician for benign infantile convulsion. Treatment with carbamazepine controlled their involuntary movements completely. Conclusions Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a treatable movement disorder that is often misdiagnosed clinically as psychogenic illness. It is important to note that two clinically distinct disorders, benign infantile convulsion and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, are allelic conditions caused by PRRT2 mutations. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia should be suspected in families with a child with benign infantile convulsion. PMID:24886244

  13. DNA Cytometry and Nuclear Morphometry in Ovarian Benign, Borderline and Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    el Din, Amina A. Gamal; Badawi, Manal A.; Aal, Shereen E. Abdel; Ibrahim, Nihad A.; Morsy, Fatma A.; Shaffie, Nermeen M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKDROUND: Ovarian carcinoma is a leading cause of death in gynecological malignancy. Ovarian surface epithelial serous and mucinous tumours are classified as benign, borderline, and malignant. The identification of borderline tumours most likely to act aggressively remains an important clinical issue. AIM: This work aimed to study DNA ploidy and nuclear area in ovarian serous and mucinous; benign, borderline and malignant tumours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included forty ovarian (23 serous and 17 mucinous) tumours. Paraffin blocks were sectioned; stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic and morphometric studies and with blue feulgen for DNA analysis. RESULTS: All four serous and six out of nine mucinous benign tumours were diploid. All eight serous and five mucinous malignant tumours were aneuploid. Nine of eleven (81.8%) serous and all three mucinous borderline tumours were aneuploid. There were highly significant differences in mean aneuploid cells percentage between serous benign (1.5%), borderline (45.6%) and malignant (74.5%) (p = 0.0001) and between mucinous benign (13.2%) and both borderline (63.7%) and malignant (68.4%) groups (p = 0.0001). There were significant differences in nuclear area between serous benign (26.191%), borderline (45.619%) and malignant (67.634 %) and a significant positive correlation between mean percentage aneuploid value and mean nuclear area in all serous and mucinous groups. CONCLUSION: We suggest that DNA ploidy and nuclear area combined, may be adjuncts to histopathology; in ovarian serous and mucinous benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms; identifying the aggressive borderline tumours. PMID:27275284

  14. An independent validation of a gene expression signature to differentiate malignant melanoma from benign melanocytic nevi

    PubMed Central

    Flake, Darl D.; Busam, Klaus; Cockerell, Clay; Helm, Klaus; McNiff, Jennifer; Reed, Jon; Tschen, Jaime; Kim, Jinah; Barnhill, Raymond; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Prieto, Victor G.; Nelson, Jonathan; Kimbrell, Hillary; Kolquist, Kathryn A.; Brown, Krystal L.; Warf, M. Bryan; Roa, Benjamin B.; Wenstrup, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, a 23‐gene signature was developed to produce a melanoma diagnostic score capable of differentiating malignant and benign melanocytic lesions. The primary objective of this study was to independently assess the ability of the gene signature to differentiate melanoma from benign nevi in clinically relevant lesions. METHODS A set of 1400 melanocytic lesions was selected from samples prospectively submitted for gene expression testing at a clinical laboratory. Each sample was tested and subjected to an independent histopathologic evaluation by 3 experienced dermatopathologists. A primary diagnosis (benign or malignant) was assigned to each sample, and diagnostic concordance among the 3 dermatopathologists was required for inclusion in analyses. The sensitivity and specificity of the score in differentiating benign and malignant melanocytic lesions were calculated to assess the association between the score and the pathologic diagnosis. RESULTS The gene expression signature differentiated benign nevi from malignant melanoma with a sensitivity of 91.5% and a specificity of 92.5%. CONCLUSIONS These results reflect the performance of the gene signature in a diverse array of samples encountered in routine clinical practice. Cancer 2017;123:617–628. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27768230

  15. Does Intracerebral Hemorrhage Mimic Benign Dizziness Presentations? A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Burke, James F.; Brown, Devin L.; Meurer, William J.; Smith, Melinda A.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Zahuranec, Darin B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A principal reason to order a head computerized tomography (CT) scan for dizziness patients is to exclude stroke. Since CT imaging is substantially limited in assessing for any acute lesions other than hemorrhage, the most important stroke syndrome adequately evaluated by CT is intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We used a population-based stroke database to assess the frequency with which ICH might mimic a benign dizziness presentation. Methods The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project was used to identify cases of ICH from January 1, 2000, to December 26, 2007. The hospital records of ICH cases with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of < 2 were abstracted for more detailed information. Cases were classified as benign dizziness presentations when isolated dizziness and a normal general neurological examination were documented. Results Of 595 ICH cases, only 2.2% (13 of 595) had dizziness as the primary presenting symptom and an NIHSS < 2. No case mimicked a benign dizziness presentation. Only one case had isolated dizziness symptoms but this patient had dysmetria documented on the exam. All other cases had either focal or global neurological symptoms or exam abnormalities. Conclusions This study provides further support for the notion that ICH is highly unlikely to mimic a benign dizziness presentation. Coupled with the limitations of CT to show acute ischemia in the posterior fossa, these results suggest that screening for ICH may not be necessary in benign appearing dizziness presentations, though more research is needed. PMID:21245473

  16. Benign colonic metaplasia at a previous stoma site in a patient without adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Prouty, Megan; Patrawala, Samit; Vogt, Adam; Kelleher, Michael; Lee, Michael; Parker, Douglas C

    2016-03-01

    There are few reported cases of cutaneous intestinal metaplasia or primary adenocarcinoma arising at the ileostomy site following panproctocolectomy. These complications have been seen almost exclusively in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, benign intraepidermal colonic mucosa at a reversed ileostomy site in a patient without familial adenomatous polyposis or IBD has not been documented. We report a case of a 51-year-old female with a history of colonic adenocarcinoma who presented with pruritic, erythematous, scaly plaques on the right lower abdomen, present since reversal of her ileostomy in 2007. Skin biopsy revealed benign foci of colonic epithelium with no evidence of adenomatous change. Benign intraepidermal colonic mucosa was diagnosed based on histopathologic findings and immunohistochemistry. To our knowledge, this is the first case of intraepidermal benign colonic metaplasia forming in a patient following ostomy reversal. The case emphasizes the importance of patient education and physical examination of the stoma or stoma remnants for detection of unusual or changing lesions due to the risk for malignant transformation. It also demonstrates that benign colonic mucosa should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating lesions near ileostomy sites, regardless of whether the patient has a history of familial adenomatous polyposis or IBD.

  17. [Anogenital mammary-like glands and related lesions. Part 1. Benign tumors and tumor-like disorders].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, A M; Belousova, I E; Kacerovska, D; Michal, M; Shelekhova, K V; Kazakov, D V

    2017-01-01

    Anogenital mammary-like glands represent a normal anatomic constituent of the anogenital area and may give rise to many benign and malignant tumors that morphologically mimic similar breast diseases. The literature review is complemented by a description of 286 cases of benign tumors and tumor-like processes in the mammary-like glands. The paper presents the clinical and morphological characteristics of papillary hidradenoma, fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes tumor, lactating adenoma, sclerosing adenosis, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, etc.

  18. Solvent-free and catalysts-free chemistry: a benign pathway to sustainability.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Manoj B; Bonifácio, Vasco D B; Luque, Rafael; Branco, Paula S; Varma, Rajender S

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, alternative benign organic methodologies have become an imperative part of organic syntheses and chemical reactions. The various new and innovative sustainable organic reactions and methodologies using no solvents or catalysts and employing alternative energy inputs such as microwaves, sonication, conventional and room temperature heating conditions, mechanochemical mixing, and high-speed ball milling are discussed in detail. Environmentally benign and pharmaceutically important reactions such as multicomponent, condensation, and Michael addition reactions; ring opening of epoxides; and oxidation and other significant organic reactions are discussed. An overview of benign reactions through solvent- and catalyst-free (SF-CF) chemistry and a critical perspective on emerging synergies between SF-CF organic reactions are discussed.

  19. Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia of childhood: two cases with positive evolution.

    PubMed

    Villéga, Frédéric; Picard, Fabienne; Espil-Taris, Caroline; Husson, Marie; Michel, Véronique; Pedespan, Jean-Michel

    2011-06-01

    Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia (BNAH) of childhood is distinct from the classic form of malignant alternating hemiplegia of childhood [1]. It is characterized by hemiplegic attacks occurring exclusively during sleep [2]. It can be misdiagnosed as migraine, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, benign rolandic epilepsy, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, or sleep-related movement disorder [1-4]. Only nine patients have been described to date, with typically, a normal development [1,5-7]. In order to insist about the benignity of the affection, we report two cases: a new three-year-old boy suffering from BNAH and a patient already published to show positive evolution at fourteen years of age. BNAH is a rare disorder but may be underdiagnosed. Making an early diagnosis can help to describe to the parents the good prognosis without treatment.

  20. Anomaly metrics to differentiate threat sources from benign sources in primary vehicle screening.

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Israel Dov; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2011-09-01

    Discrimination of benign sources from threat sources at Port of Entries (POE) is of a great importance in efficient screening of cargo and vehicles using Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM). Currently RPM's ability to distinguish these radiological sources is seriously hampered by the energy resolution of the deployed RPMs. As naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are ubiquitous in commerce, false alarms are problematic as they require additional resources in secondary inspection in addition to impacts on commerce. To increase the sensitivity of such detection systems without increasing false alarm rates, alarm metrics need to incorporate the ability to distinguish benign and threat sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering technique were implemented in the present study. Such techniques were investigated for their potential to lower false alarm rates and/or increase sensitivity to weaker threat sources without loss of specificity. Results of the investigation demonstrated improved sensitivity and specificity in discriminating benign sources from threat sources.

  1. Treating benign optic nerve tumors with a 3-D conformal plan

    SciTech Connect

    Millunchick, Cheryl Hope

    2013-07-01

    A 68 year old male patient presented for radiation therapy for treatment of a benign tumor, a glioma of his left optic nerve. The radiation oncologist intended to prescribe 52.2 Gy to the planning target volume, while maintaining a maximum of 54 Gy to the optic nerves and the optic chiasm and a maximum of 40–45 Gy to the globes in order to minimize the possibility of damaging the optic system, which is especially important as this is a benign tumor. The dosimetrist devised a conformal non-coplanar three-dimensional plan with a slightly weighted forward planning component. This plan was created in approximately 15 minutes after the critical organs and the targets were delineated and resulted in an extremely conformal and homogenous plan, treating the target while sparing the nearby critical structures. This approach can also be extended to other tumors in the brain - benign or malignant.

  2. Benign exostoses and exostotic chondrosarcomas: evaluation of cartilage thickness by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, T.M.; Springfield, D.S.; Spanier, S.S.; Enneking, W.F.; Hamlin, D.J.

    1984-09-01

    Computed tomograms of 16 benign exostoses and 15 exostotic chondrosarcomas were generally accurate in delineating anatomy for purposes of planning surgery, but they were inaccurate in the detection and measurement of the cartilage caps of the lesions. CT studies of 14 of the benign exostoses failed to show any cartilage cap, although the maximum cartilage thickness of these 14 lesions ranged from 0.1 to 2.5 cm pathologically. CT did demonstrate thick cartilage in 14 of the 15 chondrosarcomas, but the CT measurements of maximum thickness often were imprecise. For this reason, CT did not solve the difficult problem of distinguishing between benign exostoses with relatively thick cartilage caps and exostotic chondrosarcomas with relatively thin cartilage.

  3. [Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma of the Lung;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Sawada, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sugihara, Hajime; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2017-02-01

    A 71-year-old woman, in whom computed tomography revealed a solitary mass shadow at the base of the left lung, underwent resection of the mass. Histopathological examination showed estrogen receptor-positive leiomyoma cells growing in cords and mixed with glandular structures composed of alveolar cells. These findings led to a diagnosis of benign metastatic leiomyoma. Benign metastatic leiomyoma is a rare disease in which histologically benign uterine leiomyoma cells metastasize to different sites of the body. However, in this patient, the presence of uterine myoma was not confirmed in the past or at present. She had a history of cervical conization, which suggests that a small amount of the leiomyoma component contained in cervical tissue may have been forced into blood vessels during surgical manipulation, causing lung metastasis.

  4. Self-Expanding Metal Stenting in the Management of a Benign Colonic Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Jessamy, Kegan; Ozden, Nuri; Simon, Howard M.; Kobrossi, Semaan; Ubagharaji, Ezinnaya

    2016-01-01

    Colonic postanastomotic strictures occur in 1.5–8% of patients following colorectal surgery. Traditionally, colonic strictures were treated by multiple modalities including endoscopic dilatation. Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) have been indicated in the management of benign colonic strictures; however, there are limited available data with regard to their efficacy. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who had perforated sigmoid diverticulitis followed by Hartmann's procedure with eventual reanastomosis 6 months later. He subsequently developed benign colonic stricture, which was treated with a metal stent. SEMS are associated with a low mortality rate and are appropriate in treating acute colonic obstruction as a result of benign stricture in the setting of postanastomosis. PMID:27403114

  5. Iatrogenic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: review and personal experience in dental and maxillo-facial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chiarella, G; Leopardi, G; De Fazio, L; Chiarella, R; Cassandro, C; Cassandro, E

    2007-01-01

    Summary The post-traumatic origin of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo remains the most likely, from a patho-physiologic point of view. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo due to surgical “traumas” has been described in the medical literature. According to personal experience, these iatrogenic cases represent a rare possibility and may be the consequence of surgical interventions differing according to the anatomical district involved and surgical technique performed. The temporal relationship with the surgical action and clinical features may be involved in some of these cases, even if it is not possible to define any real cause-effect link. Herewith some cases of paroxysmal positional vertigo are described, strongly held to be of iatrogenic origin, focusing on dental and maxillo-facial surgery as risk factors for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. PMID:17883189

  6. Estimate of tissue composition in malignant and benign breast lesions by time-domain optical mammography

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Giovanna; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Pifferi, Antonio; Torricelli, Alessandro; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Taroni, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The optical characterization of malignant and benign breast lesions is presented. Time-resolved transmittance measurements were performed in the 630-1060 nm range by means of a 7-wavelength optical mammograph, providing both imaging and spectroscopy information. A total of 62 lesions were analyzed, including 33 malignant and 29 benign lesions. The characterization of breast lesions was performed applying a perturbation model based on the high-order calculation of the pathlength of photons inside the lesion, which led to the assessment of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, lipids, water and collagen concentrations. Significant variations between tumor and healthy tissue were observed in terms of both absorption properties and constituents concentration. In particular, benign lesions and tumors show a statistically significant discrimination in terms of absorption at several wavelengths and also in terms of oxy-hemoglobin and collagen content. PMID:25360382

  7. [Do envious people show better performance?: Focusing on the function of benign envy as personality trait].

    PubMed

    Sawada, Masato; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2016-06-01

    This study focused on the differences between two, subtypes of envy known as "benign envy" and "malicious envy" as personality traits, and examined the effects of these traits on academic achievement. Two hundred fifty-one university students participated in the study. Both benign envy and malicious envy were found to be independent as also found in a previous study by Lange & Crusius (2015), and a high criterion-related validity was revealed by an association with characteristic variables such as dispositional envy and self-esteem. The students with higher levels of benign envy were found to set goals higher, and as a result achieved higher levels of academic performance. In contrast, no such effect was found for malicious envy. The importance of focusing more attention on the positive aspects of the emotion of envy is discussed.

  8. Clinical and histopathologic study of benign lichenoid keratosis on the face.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Su; Park, Eun Joo; Kwon, In Ho; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2013-10-01

    Benign lichenoid keratosis is a cutaneous entity that consists of a nonpruritic papule or slightly indurated plaque that is histologically characterized by a band-like inflammatory infiltrate with interface involvement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and histopathologic features of benign lichenoid keratosis localized on the face. Fourteen benign lichenoid keratosis patients diagnosed clinically and histopathologically in our clinic during the 10-year period from 2002 to 2012 were studied. Thirteen female and 1 male patients were included. The mean age at diagnosis was 46.5 years. The color of most of the lesions was brown (10 cases, 71%). The cheek was the most commonly involved area (10 cases, 71%). All of the lesions were single. There were 9 (64%) flat lesion cases and 5 (36%) raised lesion cases. Most patients denied having any symptoms; 3 had mild pruritus. The histopathological findings indicated that all the cases exhibited lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate obscuring the dermal-epidermal junction and vacuolar alteration of basal cell layer. The lesions showed focal parakeratosis (79%), melanophages (79%), hyperkeratosis (71%), and necrotic keratinocytes (71%). Solar elastosis (50%) and acanthosis (43%) were also seen frequently. Diagnosis of benign lichenoid keratosis should be made by a combination of clinical manifestations and histopathological findings. In particular, benign lichenoid keratosis should be considered if a middle-aged patient presents a solitary asymptomatic brown lesion on the face. We think benign lichenoid keratosis may be a specific disorder rather than the inflammatory stage of regressing solar lentigines, large cell acanthoma or reticulated seborrheic keratosis.

  9. Value of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in Differentiating Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt Bostan, Tuğba; Koç, Gonca; Sezgin, Gülten; Altay, Canan; Fazıl Gelal, M.; Oyar, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a diagnostic and problem solving method for the breast examinations in addition to conventional breast examination methods. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) adds valuable information to conventional MRI. Aims: Our aim was to show the impact of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values acquired with DWI to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: Forty-six women with 58 breast masses (35 malignant, 23 benign) were examined on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. The morphologic characteristics of the lesions on conventional MRI sequences and contrast uptake pattern were assessed. ADC values of both lesions and normal breast parenchyma were measured. The ADC values obtained were statistically compared with the histopathologic results using Paired Samples t-Test. Results: Multiple lesions were detected in 12 (26%) of the patients, while only one lesion was detected in 34 (74%). Overall, 35 lesions out of 58 were histopathologically proven to be malignant. In the dynamic contrast-enhanced series, 5 of the malignant lesions were type 1, while 8 benign lesions revealed either type 2 or 3 time signal intensity curves (85% sensitivity, 56% spesifity). Mean ADC values were significantly different in malignant vs. benign lesions. (1.04±0.29×10−3 cm2/sec vs. 1.61±0.50×10−3 cm2/sec for the malignant and benign lesions, respectively, p=0.03). A cut-off value of 1.30×10−3 mm2/sec for ADC detected with receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded 89.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. Conclusion: ADC values improve the diagnostic accuracy of solid breast lesions when evaluated with the conventional MRI sequences. Therefore, DWI should be incorporated to routine breast MRI protocol. PMID:27308073

  10. Distinguishing benign mediastinal masses from malignancy in a histoplasmosis-endemic region

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Fouzia; Metzger, Monika L.; Arnold, Sandra R.; Adderson, Elisabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of benign and malignant mediastinal masses, which may predict their etiology and facilitate the safe and timely management of patients, especially those residing in histoplasmosis-endemic regions. Study design We conducted a retrospective review of the health records of 131 patients aged <19 years who were referred to two tertiary care children's hospitals from 2005-2010 for the evaluation of mediastinal masses. Results Most patients (79%) had benign masses, including 98 with confirmed or suspected histoplasmosis. Overall, patients with benign etiologies were younger, more likely to be African American, more likely to complain of cough and to have pulmonary nodules by chest computed tomographs than patients with cancer. Patients with malignant disease were more likely to complain of malaise and to have neck swelling, abnormal extrathoracic lymphadenopathy, lymphopenia, anterior mediastinal involvement and/or pleural effusion. Positive histoplasmosis serologic tests were specific but insensitive for a benign etiology. No single clinical, laboratory or radiologic feature was sufficiently sensitive and specific to distinguish between benign and malignant masses. For cancer, however, the presence of lymphopenia, anterior mediastinal involvement or enlarged cervical lymph nodes on computerized tomography had a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 86%, and negative predictive value of 97% for cancer. Sixty-four patients (49%) underwent invasive testing, including 37 (36%) of patients with benign masses. Conclusions Patients in this series who had involvement of the anterior mediastinum, lymphopenia or enlarged cervical lymph nodes had a high likelihood of cancer. Expectant management of patients lacking these characteristics may be safe and reduce unnecessary invasive testing. PMID:26009018

  11. Ultrasonic Nakagami imaging: a strategy to visualize the scatterer properties of benign and malignant breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liao, Yin-Yin; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chang, King-Jen; Chen, Chiung-Nien

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the Nakagami parameter in characterizing breast tumors by ultrasound. However, physicians or radiologists may need imaging tools in a clinical setting to visually identify the properties of breast tumors. This study proposed the ultrasonic Nakagami image to visualize the scatterer properties of breast tumors and then explored its clinical performance in classifying benign and malignant tumors. Raw data of ultrasonic backscattered signals were collected from 100 patients (50 benign and 50 malignant cases) using a commercial ultrasound scanner with a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer. The backscattered signals were used to form the B-scan and the Nakagami images of breast tumors. For each tumor, the average Nakagami parameter was calculated from the pixel values in the region-of-interest in the Nakagami image. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the clinical performance of the Nakagami image. The results showed that the Nakagami image shadings in benign tumors were different from those in malignant cases. The average Nakagami parameters for benign and malignant tumors were 0.69 +/- 0.12 and 0.55 +/- 0.12, respectively. This means that the backscattered signals received from malignant tumors tend to be more pre-Rayleigh distributed than those from benign tumors, corresponding to a more complex scatterer arrangement or composition. The ROC analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve was 0.81 +/- 0.04 and the diagnostic accuracy was 82%, sensitivity was 92% and specificity was 72%. The results showed that the Nakagami image is useful to distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tumors.

  12. Vocal improvement after voice therapy in the treatment of benign vocal fold lesions.

    PubMed

    Schindler, A; Mozzanica, F; Ginocchio, D; Maruzzi, P; Atac, M; Ottaviani, F

    2012-10-01

    Benign vocal fold lesions are common in the general population, and have important public health implications and impact on patient quality of life. Nowadays, phonomicrosurgery is the most common treatment of these lesions. Voice therapy is generally associated in order to minimize detrimental vocal behaviours that increase the stress at the mid-membranous vocal folds. Nonetheless, the most appropriate standard of care for treating benign vocal fold lesion has not been established. The aim of this study was to analyze voice changes in a group of dysphonic patients affected by benign vocal fold lesions, evaluated with a multidimensional protocol before and after voice therapy. Sixteen consecutive patients, 12 females and 4 males, with a mean age of 49.7 years were enrolled. Each subject had 10 voice therapy sessions with an experienced speech/language pathologist for a period of 1-2 months, and was evaluated before and at the end of voice therapy with a multidimensional protocol that included self-assessment measures and videostroboscopic, perceptual, aerodynamic and acoustic ratings. Videostroboscopic examination did not reveal resolution of the initial pathology in any case. No improvement was observed in aerodynamic and perceptual ratings. A clear and significant improvement was visible on Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the mean values of Jitt%, Noise to Harmonic Ratio (NHR) and Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores. Even if it is possible that, for benign vocal fold lesions, only a minor improvement of voice quality can be achieved after voice therapy, rehabilitation treatment still seems useful as demonstrated by improvement in self-assessment measures. If voice therapy is provided as an initial treatment to the patients with benign vocal fold lesions, this may lead to an improvement in the perceived voice quality, making surgical intervention unnecessary. This is one of the first reports on the efficacy of voice therapy in the management of benign vocal fold

  13. Evaluation of the results of surgery treatment in patients with benign lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Reza; Haghi, Seyed Ziaollah; Dalouee, Marziyeh Nouri; Nasiri, Zakiyeh; Rajabnejad, Ata’ollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung tumors are among the common tumors and can be benign or malignant. Benign lung tumors are less common compared to the malignant types. Recognition of the clinical symptoms, types of tumors, paraclinical findings, and treatment approaches can bring better therapeutic results. The present study aims to evaluate the characteristics, diagnosis methods, and therapeutic approaches of different benign lung tumors. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 32 patients with a diagnosis of benign lung tumor, who had been referred to the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between 1981 and 2009, were studied. Some of the studied variables were symptoms, the pulmonary location involved, surgery technique, pathology findings, recurrence, and surgery complications. Data were analyzed by SPSS package version 16. Results: The average age of the patients was 51.69 ± 20.5 years. Prevalence of benign lung tumors was equal in both genders. The most common symptom was cough (31.2%); right lung involvement was more common (71.9%), and the most common sampling technique was transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) (62.5%); 53.1% of the patients were operated on by thoracotomy and the wedge resection technique. In 78.1% of the patients, no complications occurred after surgery. There was no recurrence. Most operations were performed in one month after the start of the symptoms (68.8%). Conclusions: Benign lung tumors are commonly diagnosed by routine radiography because most of them are asymptomatic. The most common finding in radiography is the presence of mass in the lungs. Transbronchial lung biopsy is a valuable technique to be used for diagnosis. We chose thoracotomy and wedge resection for the treatment of patients. We recommend this approach as a useful method. PMID:25624593

  14. Supine to prolonged lateral position: a novel therapeutic maneuver for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Shih, Cheng-Ping; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2013-05-01

    The treatment of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo often involves repositioning maneuvers and exercises; however, these procedures may not be suitable for patients with limb disabilities or back disorders, or for elder patients. We sought to develop a simple therapeutic maneuver as an alternative procedure, suitable for patients with a wide range of physical ability. A simple therapeutic maneuver, supine to prolonged lateral position, was developed based on the mechanism of canalolithiasis. Its efficacy in treating posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo was evaluated in a prospective study consisting of 81 objective and 13 subjective posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo patients. A successful outcome was defined as a negative Dix-Hallpike test within 2 weeks followed by the continued absence of symptoms of vertigo or dizziness for the next 4 weeks. Seventy-two patients with objective posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and all 13 patients with subjective posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo were successfully treated: resolution rates were 88.9 and 100 %, respectively. In the objective group, negative Dix-Hallpike tests were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks in 66.7 and 88.9 % of patients, respectively. In the subjective group, the percentages of patients free of side-dependent vertigo illusions at 1 and 2 weeks were 84.6 and 100 %, respectively. These results suggest that the supine to prolonged lateral position maneuver, which is easy to perform and generally well tolerated, could be recommended as an alternative treatment modality for patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

  15. Clinical Practice Guideline: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (Update).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Neil; Gubbels, Samuel P; Schwartz, Seth R; Edlow, Jonathan A; El-Kashlan, Hussam; Fife, Terry; Holmberg, Janene M; Mahoney, Kathryn; Hollingsworth, Deena B; Roberts, Richard; Seidman, Michael D; Steiner, Robert W Prasaad; Do, Betty Tsai; Voelker, Courtney C J; Waguespack, Richard W; Corrigan, Maureen D

    2017-03-01

    Objective This update of a 2008 guideline from the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation provides evidence-based recommendations to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), defined as a disorder of the inner ear characterized by repeated episodes of positional vertigo. Changes from the prior guideline include a consumer advocate added to the update group; new evidence from 2 clinical practice guidelines, 20 systematic reviews, and 27 randomized controlled trials; enhanced emphasis on patient education and shared decision making; a new algorithm to clarify action statement relationships; and new and expanded recommendations for the diagnosis and management of BPPV. Purpose The primary purposes of this guideline are to improve the quality of care and outcomes for BPPV by improving the accurate and efficient diagnosis of BPPV, reducing the inappropriate use of vestibular suppressant medications, decreasing the inappropriate use of ancillary testing such as radiographic imaging, and increasing the use of appropriate therapeutic repositioning maneuvers. The guideline is intended for all clinicians who are likely to diagnose and manage patients with BPPV, and it applies to any setting in which BPPV would be identified, monitored, or managed. The target patient for the guideline is aged ≥18 years with a suspected or potential diagnosis of BPPV. The primary outcome considered in this guideline is the resolution of the symptoms associated with BPPV. Secondary outcomes considered include an increased rate of accurate diagnoses of BPPV, a more efficient return to regular activities and work, decreased use of inappropriate medications and unnecessary diagnostic tests, reduction in recurrence of BPPV, and reduction in adverse events associated with undiagnosed or untreated BPPV. Other outcomes considered include minimizing costs in the diagnosis and treatment of BPPV, minimizing potentially unnecessary return physician visits, and maximizing

  16. Review of Prostate Anatomy and Embryology and the Etiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Aaron, LaTayia; Franco, Omar E; Hayward, Simon W

    2016-08-01

    Prostate development follows a common pattern between species and depends on the actions of androgens to induce and support ductal branching morphogenesis of buds emerging from the urogenital sinus. The human prostate has a compact zonal anatomy immediately surrounding the urethra and below the urinary bladder. Rodents have a lobular prostate with lobes radiating away from the urethra. The human prostate is the site of benign hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The rodent prostate has little naturally occurring disease. Rodents can be used to model aspects of human benign hyperplasia, but care should be taken in data interpretation and extrapolation to the human condition.

  17. Benign Schwannoma Mimicking Metastatic Lesion on F-18 FDG PET/CT in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungmin

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of benign schwannoma mimicking metastatic carcinoma. A 55-year-old female with papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent total thyroidectomy. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) demonstrated a focal hypermetabolic lesion with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) 5.3 at the right chest wall. Conventional chest CT demonstrated a 5.4 cm ovoid mass lesion between the intercostal muscles and liver. Pathology revealed a schwannoma by tumor excision. This case demonstrates that benign schwannoma may demonstrate FDG uptake mimicking metastatic carcinoma.

  18. A novel approach to malignant-benign classification of pulmonary nodules by using ensemble learning classifiers.

    PubMed

    Tartar, A; Akan, A; Kilic, N

    2014-01-01

    Computer-aided detection systems can help radiologists to detect pulmonary nodules at an early stage. In this paper, a novel Computer-Aided Diagnosis system (CAD) is proposed for the classification of pulmonary nodules as malignant and benign. The proposed CAD system using ensemble learning classifiers, provides an important support to radiologists at the diagnosis process of the disease, achieves high classification performance. The proposed approach with bagging classifier results in 94.7 %, 90.0 % and 77.8 % classification sensitivities for benign, malignant and undetermined classes (89.5 % accuracy), respectively.

  19. A Rare Case of a Benign Primary Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Saladi, Swetha; Patolia, Setu; Mahmoud Assaf, Sara; Stoeckel, David

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) constitute a small proportion of primary respiratory system neoplasms. Benign SGT comprises pleomorphic adenoma and is exceedingly rare in the lungs. We hereby present a rare case of a benign primary pleomorphic adenoma of the lung. The histological pattern of the tumor was indistinguishable from the head and neck SGT counterparts and showed biphasic morphology. Malignant features were not observed and a metastatic SGT was ruled out. Although little is known about the clinical progression of these rare tumors, surgical resection and interval surveillance remains the treatment of choice.

  20. Benign lymphoepithelial cysts of parotid and submandibular glands in a HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Peeyush; Shankarnarayan, Lata; Jambunath, Usha; Basavaraju, Sowbhagya Malligere

    2015-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been reported to have parotid swellings of various types such as diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome, parotitis, intraparotid lymphadenopathy, benign lymphoepithelial cyst (BLEC), as well as salivary gland neoplasms such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. LECs in the parotid gland are uncommon benign entities with increased incidence associated with HIV infection. We are presenting a case of 28-year-old HIV-positive patient with BLECs in the parotid and submandibular glands. PMID:26097320

  1. Which Is the Ideal Treatment for Benign Diffuse and Multinodular Non-Toxic Goiters?

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Patients with large benign goiters often present local compressive symptoms that require surgical treatment, including dysphagia, neck tightness, and airway obstruction. In contrast, patients with such goiters who remain asymptomatic may be observed after exclusion of malignancy. The use of levothyroxine (LT4) to reduce the volume of the goiter is still a controversial treatment for large goiters, and the optimal surgical procedure for multinodular goiter is still debatable. Radioiodine is a safe and effective treatment option when used alone or in combination with recombinant human TSH. This review discusses current therapeutic options to treat diffuse and multinodular non-toxic benign goiters. PMID:27242669

  2. [A paraneoplastic Sharp syndrome reversible after resection of a benign schwannoma: a paraneoplastic syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Slimani, S; Sahraoui, M; Bennadji, A; Ladjouze-Rezig, A

    2014-08-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes commonly occur in malignancies and often precede the first symptoms of the tumor. By definition, paraneoplastic syndromes are only associated with malignancies although some exceptions have been reported, occurring with benign tumors. We report a patient presenting with a clinical and serological Sharp syndrome, followed a few months later by a cervical schwannoma. Curative surgical resection of the mass resulted in a clinical and serological healing from the Sharp syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a benign schwannoma complicated by a possible paraneoplastic Sharp syndrome.

  3. Contact method to allow benign failure in ceramic capacitor having self-clearing feature

    DOEpatents

    Myers, John D; Taylor, Ralph S

    2012-06-26

    A capacitor exhibiting a benign failure mode has a first electrode layer, a first ceramic dielectric layer deposited on a surface of the first electrode, and a second electrode layer disposed on the ceramic dielectric layer, wherein selected areas of the ceramic dielectric layer have additional dielectric material of sufficient thickness to exhibit a higher dielectric breakdown voltage than the remaining majority of the dielectric layer. The added thickness of the dielectric layer in selected areas allows lead connections to be made at the selected areas of greater dielectric thickness while substantially eliminating a risk of dielectric breakdown and failure at the lead connections, whereby the benign failure mode is preserved.

  4. Insights into horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo from a human case report.

    PubMed

    Aron, Margaret; Bance, Manohar

    2013-12-01

    For horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, determination of the pathologic side is difficult and based on many physiological assumptions. This article reports findings on a patient who had one dysfunctional inner ear and who presented with horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, giving us a relatively pure model for observing nystagmus arising in a subject in whom the affected side is known a priori. It is an interesting human model corroborating theories of nystagmus generation in this pathology and also serves to validate Ewald's second law in a living human subject.

  5. Total Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Diseases: What is the Price to be Paid?

    PubMed Central

    Gangappa, Rajashekara Babu; Chowdary, Prashanth Basappa; Patanki, Adithya Malolan; Ishwar, Mahalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Total thyroidectomy has been used to treat patients with malignant thyroid disease. But for patients with benign thyroid disease, the safety and efficacy of total thyroidectomy is a matter of debate. Subtotal thyroidectomy that was previously the treatment of choice for benign thyroid disease has been associated with high recurrence rates. The risk of permanent complications is greatly increased in patients who undergo surgery for recurrence of benign thyroid disease. Total thyroidectomy is an operation that can be safely performed, with low incidence of permanent complications, which allows one to broaden its indications in various benign thyroid diseases, thus avoiding future recurrences and reoperations. Aim To assess the benefits of total thyroidectomy for benign thyroid diseases. Materials and Methods This randomized prospective study was conducted between Feb 2013 and Nov 2014 in the Department of General Surgery at Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute. It included 116 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy procedure for benign thyroid disease. All cases were followed-up for a period of 6 months for incidence of RLN palsy, hypoparathyroidism, disease recurrence and number of incidental malignancies detected on postoperative histological analyses of the thyroid specimens. Results Most of the patients were in the third decade of their lives. The female to male ratio was 6.7:1. Total thyroidectomy was done for 116 benign thyroid diseases with multinodular goiter as the most common diagnosis. The incidence of postoperative hypocalcaemia was 16.37% (however, only 1 patient developed permanent hypocalcaemia) and that of wound infection was 2.58% and seroma formation was 2.58%. None of the patients included in this study had haematoma formation or RLN paralysis. An incidental malignancy was identified in 11.20% patients. Conclusion Total thyroidectomy shows benefits in eradicating multinodular goiter, alleviating Grave’s opthalmopathy

  6. Integrated imaging of hepatic tumors in childhood. Part II. Benign lesions (congenital, reparative, and inflammatory)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Greenspan, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have encountered benign liver masses as frequently as malignant lesions in children with hepatomegaly. Lesions studied included abscesses, cavernous hemangioma/hemangioendothelioma, adenoma of glycogen storage disease, choledochal cysts, focal nodular hyperplasia, cystic hepatoblastoma, and hamartoma. An intergrated imaging protocol involving ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy proved to be more helpful than any one modality in establishing the benign or malignant nature of a hepatic neoplasm and the type of tumor, which is of particular importance when surgical exploration and/or biopsy is contraindicated.

  7. Convective Water Vapor Energy for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Kenneth Jackson; McVary, Kevin T

    2016-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) refers to proliferation of smooth muscle and epithelial cells within the transition zone of the prostate. Half of men over 40 develop histologic BPH. About half of men with BPH develop an enlarged prostate gland, called benign prostatic enlargement; among these, about half develop some degree of bladder outlet obstruction. Bladder outlet obstruction and changes in smooth muscle tone and resistance may result in lower urinary tract symptoms, including storage disturbances (such as daytime urinary urgency, frequency, and nocturia) and voiding disturbances (such as urinary hesitancy, weak urinary stream, straining to void, and prolonged voiding).

  8. Novel Use of a Uniquely Designed, Lumen-Apposing, Metal Stent in Benign Gastric Outlet Obstruction in Two Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pathirana, Induruwa; Magulick, John; Domanski, Jeremy; Okoh, Emuejevoke; Womeldorph, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend management of benign gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) with serial dilations. Self-expanding metal stents are effective, but their use is complicated by high rates of migration. We present two cases from our institution where a uniquely designed, lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) was successfully used to alleviate benign GOO without stent migration. PMID:28184377

  9. [The variety of symptoms in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo--revision].

    PubMed

    Pollak, Lea

    2013-02-01

    Despite its frequent occurrence and effective treatment options, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) still remains underestimated in the community. Acquaintance of the physician with the various presentation symptoms assists in recognition of the entity. We report the complaints and subjective outcome in our cohort of BPPV patients and discuss the possible origin of the atypical, but common, symptoms.

  10. Further Evidence That the CFTR Variant c.2620-6T>C Is Benign.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Violet I; Wallerstein, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The c.2620-6T>C variant in the CFTR gene is a rare variant about which little is known. We present an asymptomatic adult who has this variant as well as the well described delta F508 pathogenic variant in transpresentation. This patient provides additional evidence that this is a benign polymorphism.

  11. Further Evidence That the CFTR Variant c.2620-6T>C Is Benign

    PubMed Central

    Wallerstein, Violet I.

    2017-01-01

    The c.2620-6T>C variant in the CFTR gene is a rare variant about which little is known. We present an asymptomatic adult who has this variant as well as the well described delta F508 pathogenic variant in transpresentation. This patient provides additional evidence that this is a benign polymorphism. PMID:28163942

  12. Glutathione: A Benign Alternative for the Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Magnetically Separable Organocatalyst in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glutathione, a completely benign ubiquitous tripeptide, has been used as a reducing agent for the expeditious synthesis of various metal nanoparticles including Ag, Au, Pd and Pt under microwave irradiation conditions in less than one minute. The particles sizes were found to be ...

  13. Incidental (Prophylactic) Salpingectomy at Benign Gynecologic Surgery and Cesarean Section: a Survey of Practice in Austria.

    PubMed

    Potz, F L; Tomasch, G; Polterauer, S; Laky, R; Marth, C; Tamussino, K

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: Most serous ovarian cancers are now thought to originate in the fallopian tubes. This has raised the issue of performing incidental salpingectomy (also called elective, opportunistic, prophylactic or risk-reducing salpingectomy) at the time of benign gynecologic surgery or cesarean section. We conducted an online survey to ascertain the policies regarding incidental salpingectomy in Austria in late 2014. Material and Methods: All 75 departments of obstetrics and gynecology in public hospitals in Austria were surveyed for their policies regarding incidental salpingectomy at benign gynecologic surgery or cesarean section. Results: Sixty-six of 75 surveyed departments completed the questionnaire, resulting in a response rate of 88 %. Overall, 46 of 66 (70 %) units reported offering or recommending incidental salpingectomy at benign gynecologic surgery, 12 units (18 %) did not, and eight units (12 %) did not have a consistent policy. Salpingectomy was the preferred method for surgical sterilization, including sterilization at the time of cesarean section (71 % and 64 % of units, respectively). Conclusions: Incidental (elective, opportunistic, prophylactic, risk-reducing) salpingectomy is now widely offered at benign gynecologic surgery and cesarean section in Austria. Evidence for the role of the fallopian tubes in the origin of serous pelvic cancer has led to changes in clinical practice.

  14. Multiple head and neck neoplasia following radiation for benign disease during childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Sirota, D.K.; Eden, A.R.; Biller, H.F.

    1988-06-01

    A woman received radiation therapy to the adenoids for benign disease at the age of 10 years and subsequently developed an adenocarcinoma of the middle ear, a parathyroid adenoma, and a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in adulthood. This appears to be the first such case on record. The literature of neoplasia after head and neck irradiation is briefly reviewed.

  15. 77 FR 42504 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of a Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... limited to the use of Licensed Patent Rights for the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer. DATES... common forms of thyroid cancer such as follicular carcinoma. These results provide a molecular... Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosing Benign Versus Malignant Thyroid Lesions AGENCY: National Institutes of...

  16. Role of morphometry in the cytological differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Pallavi; Choudhury, Monisha; Jain, Manjula; Thomas, Shaji

    2017-01-01

    Context: Thyroid nodules represent a common problem, with an estimated prevalence of 4–7%. Although fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been accepted as a first line diagnostic test, the rate of false negative reports of malignancy is still high. Nuclear morphometry is the measurement of nuclear parameters by image analysis. Image analysis can merge the advantages of morphologic interpretation with those of quantitative data. Aims: To evaluate the nuclear morphometric parameters in fine needle aspirates of thyroid lesions and to study its role in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions. Material and Methods: The study included 19 benign and 16 malignant thyroid lesions. Image analysis was performed on Giemsa-stained FNAC slides by Nikon NIS-Elements Advanced Research software (Version 4.00). Nuclear morphometric parameters analyzed included nuclear size, shape, texture, and density parameters. Statistical Analysis: Normally distributed continuous variables were compared using the unpaired t-test for two groups and analysis of variance was used for three or more groups. Tukey or Tamhane's T2 multiple comparison test was used to assess the differences between the individual groups. Categorical variables were analyzed using the chi square test. Results and Conclusion: Five out of the six nuclear size parameters as well as all the texture and density parameters studied were significant in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid lesions (P < 0.05). Cut-off values were derived to differentiate between benign and malignant cases. PMID:28182069

  17. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurement in Mediastinal Lymphadenopathies: Differentiation between Benign and Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ustabasioglu, Fethi Emre; Samanci, Cesur; Alis, Deniz; Samanci, Nilay Sengul; Kula, Osman; Olgun, Deniz Cebi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to prospectively assess the diagnostic value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in the differentiation of benign and malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathies. Materials and Methods: The study included 63 consecutive patients (28 women, 35 men; mean age 59.3 years) with 125 mediastinal lymphadenopathies. Echoplanar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the mediastinum was performed with b-factors of 0 and 600 mm2/s before mediastinoscopy and mediastinotomy, and ADC values were measured. The ADC values were compared with the histological results, and statistical analysis was done. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean ADC value of malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy (1.030 ± 0.245 × 10−3 mm2/s) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) when compared to benign lymphadenopathies (1.571 ± 0.559 × 10−3 mm2/s). For differentiating malignant from benign mediastinal lymphadenopathy, the best result was obtained when an ADC value of 1.334 × 10−3 mm2/s was used as a threshold value; area under the curve 0.848, accuracy 78.4%, sensitivity 66%, specificity of 86%, positive predictive value 76.7%, and negative predictive value of 79.2%. Interobserver agreement was excellent for ADC measurements. Conclusions: ADC measurements could be considered an important supportive method in differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathies.

  18. Evolution of the use of the holmium laser for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilling, Peter J.; Cass, Carol B.; Cresswell, Michael D.; Kennett, Katie M.; Mackey, Michael; Fraundorfer, Mark R.; Kabalin, John N.

    1997-05-01

    The holmium laser is becoming an important tool in the urologists' armamentarium. In this manuscript the evolution of laser resection of the prostate using the holmium wavelength is described. This technique represents a significant advance in the surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia and allows even very large prostates to be safely and efficiently managed transurethrally.

  19. POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYL EXPOSURE AND BENIGN BREAST DISEASE IN A COHORT OF US WOMEN. (R825300)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PURPOSE: We examined the relation between serum polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) levels and the risk of benign breast disease in a cohort of Michigan women unintentionally exposed to PBBs in 1973 and interviewed in 1997.

    METHODS: We used extend...

  20. Dermatology of the head and neck: skin cancer and benign skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Halem, Monica; Karimkhani, Chanté

    2012-10-01

    Skin lesions are extremely common, and early detection of dangerous lesions makes skin cancer one of the most highly curable malignancies. By simply becoming aware of common lesions and their phenotypic presentation, dental professionals are empowered to detect suspicious dermatologic lesions in unaware patients. This article serves as an introduction to skin cancer and benign skin lesions for dental professionals.

  1. Incidental (Prophylactic) Salpingectomy at Benign Gynecologic Surgery and Cesarean Section: a Survey of Practice in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Potz, F. L.; Tomasch, G.; Polterauer, S.; Laky, R.; Marth, C.; Tamussino, K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Most serous ovarian cancers are now thought to originate in the fallopian tubes. This has raised the issue of performing incidental salpingectomy (also called elective, opportunistic, prophylactic or risk-reducing salpingectomy) at the time of benign gynecologic surgery or cesarean section. We conducted an online survey to ascertain the policies regarding incidental salpingectomy in Austria in late 2014. Material and Methods: All 75 departments of obstetrics and gynecology in public hospitals in Austria were surveyed for their policies regarding incidental salpingectomy at benign gynecologic surgery or cesarean section. Results: Sixty-six of 75 surveyed departments completed the questionnaire, resulting in a response rate of 88 %. Overall, 46 of 66 (70 %) units reported offering or recommending incidental salpingectomy at benign gynecologic surgery, 12 units (18 %) did not, and eight units (12 %) did not have a consistent policy. Salpingectomy was the preferred method for surgical sterilization, including sterilization at the time of cesarean section (71 % and 64 % of units, respectively). Conclusions: Incidental (elective, opportunistic, prophylactic, risk-reducing) salpingectomy is now widely offered at benign gynecologic surgery and cesarean section in Austria. Evidence for the role of the fallopian tubes in the origin of serous pelvic cancer has led to changes in clinical practice. PMID:28017973

  2. UroLift: a new minimally-invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Patrick; Rai, Bhavan P.; Aboumarzouk, Omar; Somani, Bhaskar K.

    2016-01-01

    ‘UroLift’ has emerged as a new minimally-invasive nonablative surgical technique for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We discuss the procedure, cost, evidence, advantages and disadvantages of this procedure. It is a novel technology suitable for a selected group of patients that allows for a bespoke treatment for men with BPH. PMID:27904652

  3. Leveling up and down: the experiences of benign and malicious envy.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Pieters, Rik

    2009-06-01

    Envy is the painful emotion caused by the good fortune of others. This research empirically supports the distinction between two qualitatively different types of envy, namely benign and malicious envy. It reveals that the experience of benign envy leads to a moving-up motivation aimed at improving one's own position, whereas the experience of malicious envy leads to a pulling-down motivation aimed at damaging the position of the superior other. Study 1 used guided recall of the two envy types in a culture (the Netherlands) that has separate words for benign and malicious envy. Analyses of the experiential content of these emotions found the predicted differences. Study 2 and 3 used one sample from the United States and one from Spain, respectively, where a single word exists for both envy types. A latent class analysis based on the experiential content of envy confirmed the existence of separate experiences of benign and malicious envy in both these cultures as well. The authors discuss the implications of distinguishing the two envy types for theories of cooperation, group performance, and Schadenfreude.

  4. Accurate Characterization of Benign and Cancerous Breast Tissues: Aspecific Patient Studies using Piezoresistive Microcantilevers

    PubMed Central

    PANDYA, HARDIK J.; ROY, RAJARSHI; CHEN, WENJIN; CHEKMAREVA, MARINA A.; FORAN, DAVID J.; DESAI, JAYDEV P.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the largest detected cancer amongst women in the US. In this work, our team reports on the development of piezoresistive microcantilevers (PMCs) to investigate their potential use in the accurate detection and characterization of benign and diseased breast tissues by performing indentations on the micro-scale tissue specimens. The PMCs used in these experiments have been fabricated using laboratory-made silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate, which significantly reduces the fabrication costs. The PMCs are 260 μm long, 35 μm wide and 2 μm thick with resistivity of order 1.316 X 10−3 Ω-cm obtained by using boron diffusion technique. For indenting the tissue, we utilized 8 μm thick cylindrical SU-8 tip. The PMC was calibrated against a known AFM probe. Breast tissue cores from seven different specimens were indented using PMC to identify benign and cancerous tissue cores. Furthermore, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) of benign and cancerous specimens showed marked differences in the tissue morphology, which further validates our observed experimental data with the PMCs. While these patient aspecific feasibility studies clearly demonstrate the ability to discriminate between benign and cancerous breast tissues, further investigation is necessary to perform automated mechano-phenotyping (classification) of breast cancer: from onset to disease progression. PMID:25128621

  5. Benign liver tumors in pediatric patients - Review with emphasis on imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Chiorean, Liliana; Cui, Xin-Wu; Tannapfel, Andrea; Franke, Doris; Stenzel, Martin; Kosiak, Wojciech; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jüngert, Jörg; Chang, Jian-Min; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-01-01

    Benign hepatic tumors are commonly observed in adults, but rarely reported in children. The reasons for this remain speculative and the exact data concerning the incidence of these lesions are lacking. Benign hepatic tumors represent a diverse group of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. In pediatric patients, most benign focal liver lesions are inborn and may grow like the rest of the body. Knowledge of pediatric liver diseases and their imaging appearances is essential in order to make an appropriate differential diagnosis. Selection of the appropriate imaging test is challenging, since it depends on a number of age-related factors. This paper will discuss the most frequently encountered benign liver tumors in children (infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma, mesenchymal hamartoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and hepatocellular adenoma), as well as a comparison to the current knowledge regarding such tumors in adult patients. The current emphasis is on imaging features, which are helpful not only for the initial diagnosis, but also for pre- and post-treatment evaluation and follow-up. In addition, future perspectives of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in pediatric patients are highlighted, with descriptions of enhancement patterns for each lesion being discussed. The role of advanced imaging tests such as CEUS and magnetic resonance imaging, which allow for non-invasive assessment of liver tumors, is of utmost importance in pediatric patients, especially when repeated imaging tests are needed and radiation exposure should be avoided. PMID:26229397

  6. [Dutasteride (Avodart): a novel 5-alpha reductase inhibitor for treatment of benign prostate hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Vanden Bossche, M; Sternon, J

    2005-01-01

    Dutasteride (Avodart), a novel dual 5-alpha reductase inhibitor is effective for the treatment of benign prostate hypertrophy, of more than 30 cc because the reduction of the level of dihydrotestosterone. By reducing prostatic volume, dutasteride improves moderate to severe symptoms and flow rate. It allows a reduction of disease progression by reducing the rate of acute urinary retention and need for surgery.

  7. Clinical significance of interval changes in breast lesions initially categorized as probably benign on breast ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja Yoon; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Jin Hwan; Jang, Mijung; La Yun, Bo; Lee, Jong Yoon; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Bohyoung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were to determine the malignancy rate of probably benign lesions that show an interval change on follow-up ultrasound and to evaluate the differences seen on imaging between benign and malignant lesions initially categorized as probably benign but with interval change on follow-up breast ultrasound. We retrospectively reviewed 11,323 lesions from ultrasound-guided core-biopsies performed between June 2004 and December 2014 and identified 289 lesions (266 patients) with an interval change from probably benign (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] category 3) in the previous 2 years. Malignancy rates were compared according to the ultrasound findings and the characteristics of the interval changes, including changes in morphology and/or diameter. The malignancy rate for probably benign lesions that showed an interval change on follow-up ultrasound was 6.9% (20/289). The malignancy rate was higher for clustered cysts (33.3%) and irregular or noncircumscribed masses (12.7%) than for circumscribed oval masses (5%) or complicated cysts (5%) seen on initial ultrasound (P = 0.043). Fifty-five percent of the malignancies were found to be ductal carcinoma in situ and there was 1 case of lymph node metastasis among the patients with invasive disease in whom biopsy was delayed by 6 to 15 months. The extent of invasiveness was greater in missed cases. There was a significant difference in the maximal diameter change between the 20 malignant lesions and the 269 benign lesions (4.0 mm vs 2.7 mm, P = 0.002). The cutoff value for maximal diameter change per initial diameter was 39.0% for predicting malignancy (sensitivity 95%, specificity 53.5%). The malignancy rate for morphologically changed lesions was significantly higher than for morphologically stable lesions (13.6% vs 4.9%; P = 0.024) Our 6.9% of probably benign lesions that showed an interval change finally turned out to be malignancy was mostly DCIS. The

  8. Computerized classification of malignant and benign microcalcifications on mammograms: texture analysis using an artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas; Helvie, Mark A.; Lam, Kwok Leung; Adler, Dorit D.; Goodsitt, Mitchell M.

    1997-03-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using texture features extracted from mammograms to predict whether the presence of microcalcifications is associated with malignant or benign pathology. Eighty-six mammograms from 54 cases (26 benign and 28 malignant) were used as case samples. All lesions had been recommended for surgical biopsy by specialists in breast imaging. A region of interest (ROI) containing the microcalcifications was first corrected for the low-frequency background density variation. Spatial grey level dependence (SGLD) matrices at ten different pixel distances in both the axial and diagonal directions were constructed from the background-corrected ROI. Thirteen texture measures were extracted from each SGLD matrix. Using a stepwise feature selection technique, which maximized the separation of the two class distributions, subsets of texture features were selected from the multi-dimensional feature space. A backpropagation artificial neural network (ANN) classifier was trained and tested with a leave-one-case-out method to recognize the malignant or benign microcalcification clusters. The performance of the ANN was analysed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology. It was found that a subset of six texture features provided the highest classification accuracy among the feature sets studied. The ANN classifier achieved an area under the ROC curve of 0.88. By setting an appropriate decision threshold, 11 of the 28 benign cases were correctly identified (39% specificity) without missing any malignant cases (100% sensitivity) for patients who had undergone biopsy. This preliminary result indicates that computerized texture analysis can extract mammographic information that is not apparent by visual inspection. The computer-extracted texture information may be used to assist in mammographic interpretation, with the potential to reduce biopsies of benign cases and improve the positive predictive value of mammography.

  9. The Role of MR Mammography in Differentiating Benign from Malignant in Suspicious Breast Masses

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Padhmini; Murugesan, Vijaya Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Magnetic Resonance (MR) Mammography is being increasingly used now-a-days for the evaluation of breast lesions. Aim To find out the effectiveness and the exact role of MR mammography in differentiating benign lesions from malignant lesions in patients with palpable, suspicious breast masses found on routine conventional imaging techniques. Materials and Methods It was a prospective study wherein patients with suspicious breast lesions were subjected to MR mammography. The morphological feature (smooth vs irregular margin) and the enhancement patterns (Type Ia/Ib vs Type II vs Type III) of the lesions were assessed and finally the effectiveness of MR mammography in differentiating benign and malignant lesions was judged by taking the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. Results A total of 33 patients with 35 breast lesions were finally analysed. The sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and the Negative Predictive Value (NPV) in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesion for the type of margin on MR mammography was 95.45%, 84.6%, 91.3% and 91.7%, while for the type of enhancement curve it was 76.2%, 90.9%, 94.1% and 66.7% respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value for the type of margins was statistically better when compared to the type of enhancement curve in differentiating benign from malignant lesions but the specificity and PPV though better for the type of enhancement curve was not found to be statistically significant. Conclusion MR mammography was found to be an effective tool in differentiating benign from malignant suspicious breast lesions. The type of margin and the enhancement patterns both individually and in combination provide the clinicians with ample information so as to decide on further management. PMID:27790545

  10. Cellular distribution of Glut-1 and Glut-5 in benign and malignant human prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Reinicke, Karin; Sotomayor, Paula; Cisterna, Pedro; Delgado, Carolina; Nualart, Francisco; Godoy, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    Over-expression of hexose transporters (Gluts), specifically Glut-1, is a common event in human malignancies. In prostate cancer (CaP), however, expression of Gluts has been characterized poorly. In this study, expression and distribution of Glut-1 and Glut-5 proteins were characterized using immunohistochemistry in 76 specimens of benign prostate, 10 specimens of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and 28 specimens of CaP. In addition, mRNA expression of Glut-2, Glut-7, Glut-9, and Glut-11 was analyzed in a set of five specimens of benign prostate and CaP. In benign prostate, Glut-1 localized to the basal cells and to the basolateral membrane of secretory/luminal epithelial cells. Glut-5, however, localized to the apical membrane of secretory/luminal epithelial cells. In HGPIN, Glut-1 was immunohistochemically undetectable. Glut-5, however, localized to the apical membrane of the neoplastic epithelial cells. In CaP, Glut-1 and Glut-5, were immunohistochemically undetectable. However, over-expression of GLUT1 was observed in some specimens of highly proliferative intraductal CaP. Glut-7, Glut-9, and Glut-11 mRNAs were detected in benign prostate and CaP, however, only Glut-11 mRNA was consistently up-regulated in CaP compared to benign prostate. Low levels of expression of Glut-1 protein in the majority of CaP could explain, at least in part, the limited clinical applicability of positron emission tomography using 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose for imaging CaP. Moreover, expression of Glut-5 in HGPIN suggested that fructose could be utilized as potential metabolic substrate in HGPIN. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation/dysregulation of Gluts in CaP could provide insight in the understanding of hexose metabolism in CaP.

  11. Application of Sonoelastography in Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Esfahanian, Fatemeh; Aryan, Arvin; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Yazdi, Meisam Hosein; Nobakht, Nasir; Burchi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sonoelastography is a new ultrasound method which could be helpful to determine which thyroid nodule is malignant. We designed this study to evaluate the accuracy of sonoelastography in differentiating of benign and malignant thyroid nodules in Iranian patients. Methods: Forty thyroid nodules in forty consecutive patients who had been referred for sonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy were evaluated. Gray scale ultrasound and elastosonography by real-time, freehand technique applied for all patients. Elastography findings were classified into four groups. Nodules which were classified as patterns 1 or 2 in elastogram evaluation were classified as benign and probably malignant if elastogram scans were patterns 3 and 4 of elastogram scan. Results: Mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 42.2 ± 12.6 years, and mean ± SD thyroid-stimulating hormone level was 1.4 ± 1.9 IU/ml. Thirty-five cases (87.5%) were female and 5 (12.5%) were male. Histological examination indicated 27 (67.5%) benign and 13 (32.5%) malignant nodules. The most elastogram score was 2 (50%) followed by score 3. The cut-off point of 2 considered as the best value to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid nodules with sensitivity and specificity of 61% and 78% (area under the curve = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.6–0.92, P = 0.007). Conclusions: Sonoelastography could help to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid nodules. As our sample size was limited, larger studies are recommended. PMID:27076893

  12. Expression of Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue, phospho-Akt, and p53 in Acral Benign and Malignant Melanocytic Neoplasms (Benign Nevi, Dysplastic Nevi, and Acral Melanomas)

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, So Min; Wu, Ju Yeon; Byun, Ji Yeon; Choi, Hae Young; Park, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling pathway in the development of acral melanoma has recently gained evidence. Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), one of the key molecules in the pathway, acts as a tumor suppressor through either an Akt-dependent or Akt-independent pathway. Akt accelerates degradation of p53. Objective We assessed the expression of PTEN, phospho-Akt (p-Akt), and p53 by immunohistochemistry in benign acral nevi, acral dysplastic nevi, and acral melanomas in the radial growth phase and with a vertical growth component. Methods Ten specimens in each group were included. Paraffin-embedded specimens were immunostained with antibodies for PTEN, p-Akt, and p53. We scored both the staining intensity and the proportion of positive cells. The final score was calculated by multiplying the intensity score by the proportion score. Results All specimens of benign acral nevi except one showed some degree of PTEN-negative cells. The numbers of p-Akt and p53-positive cells were higher in acral dysplastic nevi and melanoma than in benign nevi. P-Akt scores were 1.7, 1.8, 2.6, and 4.4, and p53 scores were 2.0, 2.1, 3.8, and 4.1 in each group. PTEN and p-Akt scores in advanced acral melanoma were higher than in the other neoplasms. Conclusion The expression of PTEN was decreased and the expression of p-Akt was increased in acral melanoma, especially in advanced cases. The PTEN-induced pathway appears to affect the late stage of melanomagenesis. Altered expression of p-Akt is thought to be due to secondary changes following the loss of PTEN. PMID:27746632

  13. Treatment efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-long; Lu, Feng; Yue, Wen-wen; Sun, Li-ping; Bo, Xiao-wan; Guo, Le-hang; Xu, Jun-mei; Liu, Bo-ji; Li, Dan-dan; Qu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency ablation (BRFA) of benign thyroid nodules by comparison with a matched untreated control group. Methods: The therapeutic efficacy and safety in 35 patients who were subjected to a single session of ultrasound-guided percutaneous BRFA (Group A) for benign thyroid nodules were compared with those in 35 untreated patients (Group B) with benign nodules. The benign nature of all the nodules was confirmed by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), and all the patients had normal thyroid functions. BRFA was performed with a bipolar electrode (CelonProSurge 150–T20) with an output power of 20 W. Nodule volume, thyroid function and clinical symptoms of all the patients were compared before treatment and during follow-up. Results: In Group A, the BRFA procedures were completed with a mean time of 10.02 ± 3.30 min (range, 5.47–16.03 min) and with a mean total energy deposition of 10.747 ± 3704 J (range, 5510–17.770 J). The procedures were tolerated well in all the patients without causing any major complications. At the 6-month follow-up, all of the nodule volume decreased significantly (from 8.81 ± 8.66 to 1.59 ± 1.55 ml, p < 0.001) in Group A, whereas the nodule volume increased from 6.90 ± 3.77 to 7.87 ± 3.95 ml in Group B (p < 0.001). All (100%) the 35 nodules in Group A had volume reduction ratios (VRRs) of >50%, among which 3 (8.57%) had VRRs >90%. In Group A, the clinical symptoms of the patients who had symptoms before BRFA disappeared, whereas in Group B, the patients had no resolution of clinical symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous BRFA seems to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. It may gain a wide use in clinical practice. Advances in knowledge: Based on the comparable efficacy and clinical

  14. Distinguishing prostate cancer from benign confounders via a cascaded classifier on multi-parametric MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litjens, G. J. S.; Elliott, R.; Shih, N.; Feldman, M.; Barentsz, J. O.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C. A.; Kovacs, I.; Huisman, H. J.; Madabhushi, A.

    2014-03-01

    Learning how to separate benign confounders from prostate cancer is important because the imaging characteristics of these confounders are poorly understood. Furthermore, the typical representations of the MRI parameters might not be enough to allow discrimination. The diagnostic uncertainty this causes leads to a lower diagnostic accuracy. In this paper a new cascaded classifier is introduced to separate prostate cancer and benign confounders on MRI in conjunction with specific computer-extracted features to distinguish each of the benign classes (benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), inflammation, atrophy or prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). In this study we tried to (1) calculate different mathematical representations of the MRI parameters which more clearly express subtle differences between different classes, (2) learn which of the MRI image features will allow to distinguish specific benign confounders from prostate cancer, and (2) find the combination of computer-extracted MRI features to best discriminate cancer from the confounding classes using a cascaded classifier. One of the most important requirements for identifying MRI signatures for adenocarcinoma, BPH, atrophy, inflammation, and PIN is accurate mapping of the location and spatial extent of the confounder and cancer categories from ex vivo histopathology to MRI. Towards this end we employed an annotated prostatectomy data set of 31 patients, all of whom underwent a multi-parametric 3 Tesla MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. The prostatectomy slides were carefully co-registered to the corresponding MRI slices using an elastic registration technique. We extracted texture features from the T2-weighted imaging, pharmacokinetic features from the dynamic contrast enhanced imaging and diffusion features from the diffusion-weighted imaging for each of the confounder classes and prostate cancer. These features were selected because they form the mainstay of clinical diagnosis. Relevant features for

  15. Effects of silodosin and tamsulosin on the urethra and cardiovascular system in young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinya; Tomiyama, Yoshitaka; Tatemichi, Satoshi; Hoyano, Yuji; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Yamazaki, Yoshinobu

    2009-06-24

    We examined whether the effects (efficacy on the urethra and hypotension) of silodosin (alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor antagonist) and tamsulosin (alpha(1A+1D)-adrenoceptor antagonist) in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia altered with age. We used young and old dogs, diagnosed as having benign prostatic hyperplasia by veterinarian's palpation. Under anesthesia, the increase in intraurethral pressure evoked by hypogastric nerve stimulation was measured, together with the level of systemic mean blood pressure. Each drug was administered intravenously in progressively increasing doses. At the end of the experiment, the prostate was isolated from each dog, then weighed and investigated pathologically to confirm benign prostatic hyperplasia. The wet weight of the prostate was greater in old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia than in young dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia. By light microscopy, hyperplasia in the prostatic epithelium was confirmed in both groups. Silodosin (0.3-300 microg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the hypogastric nerve stimulation-induced increase in intraurethral pressure (without significant hypotensive effects) in both young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tamsulosin (0.3-300 microg/kg) also dose-dependently inhibited the intraurethral pressure increase in both groups, but it had a hypotensive effect that was significantly greater in old than in young dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In conclusion, as regards the effect of silodosin on intraurethral pressure, potency was similar between young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and it was without significant hypotensive effects. We therefore suggest that silodosin might be a good medication for lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in all age groups.

  16. An unusual presentation of a rare benign tumor in the head and neck: A review of hibernomas.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Oscar; Cui, Isabelle H; Malone, Melanie; Suurna, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Hibernomas are rare benign tumors that may present in the head and neck in an unusual manner similar to more common malignant tumors such as lymphoma. Our case report describes several characteristics of a patient and benign tumor presentation that is atypical for the usual presentation of hibernomas as reviewed in the literature. Although hibernomas are rare, our report and review of the literature highlights a particular patient population and important key findings that should make one consider these benign tumors in the differential diagnosis of a young patient presenting with a neck mass.

  17. Versatile Production of Poly(Epsilon-Caprolactone) Fibers by Electrospinning Using Benign Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Liverani, Liliana; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2016-01-01

    The electrospinning technique is widely used for the fabrication of micro- and nanofibrous structures. Recent studies have focused on the use of less toxic and harmful solvents (benign solvents) for electrospinning, even if those solvents usually require an accurate and longer process of optimization. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the use of benign solvents, like acetic acid and formic acid, for the fabrication of microfibrous and nanofibrous electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) mats. The solvent systems were also shown to be suitable for the fabrication of electrospun structures with macroporosity, as well as for the fabrication of composite electrospun mats, fabricated by the addition of bioactive glass (45S5 composition) particles in the polymeric solution. PMID:28335202

  18. An Extremely Rare Case of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Floating Benign Mesenchymal Mass in Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Yigit; Yilmaz, Mehmet Ogur

    2017-01-01

    A 48-year-old man admitted to the urology outpatient clinic with major symptoms of right-side pain and intermittent lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) such as low urine flow rate, dysuria, and frequency. Uroflowmetry showed low urine flow, and laboratory tests revealed no pathology. Ultrasound (US) showed a 7 cm calcific mass above the bladder and a kidney cyst with a diameter of 5.3 cm in the upper pole of the right kidney. Enhanced computed tomography confirmed the US findings. Laparoscopic transperitoneal renal cyst decortication was performed. There was no sign of additional tumors. An independent mass in the abdomen was diagnosed, and the mass was removed. Based on the pathology, the diagnosis was a benign mesenchymal calcific mass. This is the first report of LUTSs due to a free benign mesenchymal mass in the published literature. PMID:28326221

  19. Versatile Production of Poly(Epsilon-Caprolactone) Fibers by Electrospinning Using Benign Solvents.

    PubMed

    Liverani, Liliana; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2016-04-15

    The electrospinning technique is widely used for the fabrication of micro- and nanofibrous structures. Recent studies have focused on the use of less toxic and harmful solvents (benign solvents) for electrospinning, even if those solvents usually require an accurate and longer process of optimization. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the use of benign solvents, like acetic acid and formic acid, for the fabrication of microfibrous and nanofibrous electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) mats. The solvent systems were also shown to be suitable for the fabrication of electrospun structures with macroporosity, as well as for the fabrication of composite electrospun mats, fabricated by the addition of bioactive glass (45S5 composition) particles in the polymeric solution.

  20. Thoracic exophytic ependymoma masquerading as a benign extra-axial tumor.

    PubMed

    Chung, Charlotte Y; Koffie, Robert M; Dewitt, John C; Aronson, Joshua P

    2016-11-01

    Spinal tumors are conventionally differentiated based on location in relation to the spinal cord. Benign spinal tumors such as schwannomas and meningiomas are typically extra-axial (intradural extramedullary) lesions, whereas more aggressive primary spinal tumors such as ependymomas are typically intramedullary masses. Rarely, ependymomas can have both intramedullary and extramedullary components (typically referred to as exophytic ependymomas). We report a case of a spinal exophytic ependymoma that radiographically masqueraded as a benign intradural extramedullary lesion causing cord compression and neurologic deficit in a 47-year-old man. The diagnosis of exophytic ependymoma was made intra-operatively, with resultant gross total resection of the extramedullary portion and subtotal resection of the intramedullary portion. Histopathological examination confirmed ependymoma with World Health Organization grade II/IV. Pre-operative suspicion of an exophytic ependymoma influences operative planning and clinical management. We review the literature and discuss clinical management strategies for these interesting spinal tumors.

  1. Benign tracheal stenosis a case report and up to date management

    PubMed Central

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysa; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Charalampidis, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    Benign tracheal stenosis is situation that occurs usually after stress is applied to a certain area in the trachea during the intubation of a patient or inflammation caused during an infection. In the current case report we will present a 65-year-old man with a benign tracheal stenosis due to a 15-day intubation with a high pressure and low volume intubation tube. Current methodology was applied in his case with an excellent result with a 1-year follow up. Cryotherapy, electrocautery-knife, balloon dilation and semi-rigid bronchoscopic technique were applied. Currently there are several techniques that can be used by pulmonary physicians or ear, nose and throat experts. It remains for the treating physician to choose its method based on his training, equipment and tissue damage. PMID:27999785

  2. Benign Sphenoid Wing Meningioma Presenting with an Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Frič, Radek; Hald, John K.; Antal, Ellen-Ann

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY OBJECT We report an unusual case of a benign lateral sphenoid wing meningioma that presented with, and was masked by, an acute intracerebral hemorrhage. CASE REPORT A 68-year-old woman was admitted after sudden onset of coma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage, without any underlying vascular pathology on CT angiography. During the surgery, we found a lateral sphenoid wing meningioma with intratumoral bleeding that extended into the surrounding brain parenchyma. RESULTS We removed the hematoma and resected the tumor completely in the same session. The histopathological classification of the tumor was a WHO grade I meningothelial meningioma. The patient recovered very well after surgery, without significant neurological sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Having reviewed the relevant references from the medical literature, we consider this event as an extremely rare presentation of a benign sphenoid wing meningioma in a patient without any predisposing medical factors. The possible mechanisms of bleeding from this tumor type are discussed. PMID:27127413

  3. Prostatic urethral lift: A minimally invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cindy; Chin, Peter; Rashid, Prem; Woo, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The procedure may be performed under local, spinal, or general anesthesia. The PUL procedure involves the delivery of implants that retract obstructing prostate lobes. Unlike other benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment options including pharmacological therapy, and the current invasive gold-standard transurethral resection of the prostate, the PUL procedure achieves quantifiable improvements in functional outcomes and quality of life, in the absence of major adverse events. Furthermore, improvement in LUTS may be attained while preserving erectile and ejaculatory function. Adverse effects associated with the PUL procedure are mild to moderate, and are transient in nature. The PUL procedure provides an alternative for men seeking treatment for bothersome LUTS, with fewer side-effects. PMID:26157759

  4. Solubility and thermodynamic function of vanillin in ten different environmentally benign solvents.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Siddiqui, Nasir A

    2015-08-01

    The solubility of vanillin in ten different environmentally benign solvents namely water, ethanol, ethylene glycol (EG), ethyl acetate (EA), isopropanol (IPA), propylene glycol (PG), polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400), Transcutol, butanol-1 and butanol-2 was measured and correlated at T=(298-318)K. The resulting experimental data were correlated with the modified Apelblat and Van't Hoff models. Both the models showed good correlation of experimental solubility data with calculated ones with root mean square deviations in the range of (0.08-1.55)%. The mole fraction solubility of vanillin was observed highest in PEG-400 (4.29 × 10(-1) at 298 K) followed by Transcutol, EA, butanol-2, ethanol, EG, PG, IPA, butanol-1 and water from T=(298-318)K. The results of thermodynamic function in terms of dissolution enthalpy, Gibbs energy and dissolution entropy showed endothermic, spontaneous and entropy-driven dissolution of vanillin in all environmentally benign solvents.

  5. Symptomatic benign pleural effusions among asbestos insulation workers: residual radiographic abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Lilis, R; Lerman, Y; Selikoff, I J

    1988-01-01

    During a cross sectional medical survey of 2815 insulation workers with 30 years or more from onset of asbestos exposure conducted from 1981 to 1983, a positive history of benign pleural effusion was found in 20 (0.71%). Two or three such episodes had occurred in four of these 20 subjects. The chest x ray abnormalities in these cases were characterised by pleural fibrosis in 19 and diffuse pleural fibrosis with blunting of the corresponding costophrenic angle in 16. In the total group of 2815 insulation workers diffuse pleural fibrosis was found in 142 (5.0%). Thus diffuse pleural fibrosis with blunting of the corresponding costophrenic angle is a frequent residual abnormality after benign pleural effusion. Its impact on pulmonary function can be pronounced. Images PMID:3260799

  6. Image-detected 'probably benign' breast lesions: a significant reason for referral from primary care.

    PubMed

    Brennan, M E; Houssami, N

    2006-10-01

    In Australia, and many health care provider systems, primary care physicians are the first to see women with breast symptoms and are responsible for making decisions on whether to investigate and when to refer to specialist teams. We present an audit of new patient referrals from primary care triaged to a 'low-risk' (low likelihood of cancer) clinic on the basis of benign findings. The most common reason for referral was 'breast lump' (38%) followed by 'image-detected' abnormality (26%.) We have identified that (outside of population screening services) many women are being referred from primary care to specialist clinics for management of screen-detected lesions considered benign on imaging. Further research is needed to identify the reasons for such referrals and to develop appropriate educational strategies and clinical policy, both for the primary care and the specialist breast practitioner.

  7. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region counts in malignant melanoma associated with benign intradermal nevus.

    PubMed

    Pich, A; Aloi, F; Margaria, E; Tomasini, C

    1991-01-01

    A silver colloidal technique to demonstrate argyrophilic proteins of the nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) was performed on sections of 20 cases of malignant melanoma (MM) associated with underlying benign nevus (BN). In these cases, significant different AgNOR counts were found for MM and BN. In addition, this technique permitted the identification of melanocytic cells located between malignant and benign cells showing AgNOR scores intermediate (5.51) between BN (2.6) and MM (7.71) with a more complex and bizarre morphology than that observed in BN. The AgNOR technique can be suitable in the identification of residual nevus cells in MM, especially when their number is minimal and the common histologic criteria are unsatisfactory; it can also increase the understanding of the natural history of MM.

  8. Benign neck masses showing restricted diffusion: Is there a histological basis for discordant behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abanti; Bhalla, Ashu S; Sharma, Raju; Kumar, Atin; Sharma, Meher; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Thakar, Alok; Sharma, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) evolved as a complementary tool to morphologic imaging by offering additional functional information about lesions. Although the technique utilizes movement of water molecules to characterize biological tissues in terms of their cellularity, there are other factors related to the histological constitution of lesions which can have a significant bearing on DWI. Benign lesions with atypical histology including presence of lymphoid stroma, inherently increased cellularity or abundant extracellular collagen can impede movement of water molecules similar to malignant tissues and thereby, show restricted diffusion. Knowledge of these atypical entities while interpreting DWI in clinical practice can avoid potential misdiagnosis. This review aims to present an imaging spectrum of such benign neck masses which, owing to their distinct histology, can show discordant behavior on DWI. PMID:26981226

  9. Prostatic urethral lift: A minimally invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Cindy; Chin, Peter; Rashid, Prem; Woo, Henry H

    2015-03-01

    Prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The procedure may be performed under local, spinal, or general anesthesia. The PUL procedure involves the delivery of implants that retract obstructing prostate lobes. Unlike other benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment options including pharmacological therapy, and the current invasive gold-standard transurethral resection of the prostate, the PUL procedure achieves quantifiable improvements in functional outcomes and quality of life, in the absence of major adverse events. Furthermore, improvement in LUTS may be attained while preserving erectile and ejaculatory function. Adverse effects associated with the PUL procedure are mild to moderate, and are transient in nature. The PUL procedure provides an alternative for men seeking treatment for bothersome LUTS, with fewer side-effects.

  10. Benign tracheal stenosis a case report and up to date management.

    PubMed

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysa; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Charalampidis, Charalampos

    2016-11-01

    Benign tracheal stenosis is situation that occurs usually after stress is applied to a certain area in the trachea during the intubation of a patient or inflammation caused during an infection. In the current case report we will present a 65-year-old man with a benign tracheal stenosis due to a 15-day intubation with a high pressure and low volume intubation tube. Current methodology was applied in his case with an excellent result with a 1-year follow up. Cryotherapy, electrocautery-knife, balloon dilation and semi-rigid bronchoscopic technique were applied. Currently there are several techniques that can be used by pulmonary physicians or ear, nose and throat experts. It remains for the treating physician to choose its method based on his training, equipment and tissue damage.

  11. PPARγ: A Molecular Link between systemic metabolic disease and benign prostate hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Strand, Douglas W.; Franco, Omar E.; Clark, Peter E.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2011-01-01

    The emergent epidemic of metabolic syndrome and its complex list of sequelae mandate a more thorough understanding of benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) in the context of systemic metabolic disease. Here we discuss the nature and origins of BPH, examine its role as a component of LUTS and review retrospective clinical studies that have drawn associations between BPH/LUTS and type II diabetes, inflammation and dyslipidemia. PPARγ signaling, which sits at the nexus of systemic metabolic disease and BPH/LUTS through its regulation of inflammation and insulin resistance is proposed as a candidate for molecular manipulation in regard to BPH/LUTS. Finally, we introduce new cell and animal models that are being used to study the consequences of obesity, diabetes and inflammation on benign prostatic growth. PMID:21645960

  12. [The late results of short-term chemotherapy in benign forms of tuberculosis in children].

    PubMed

    Anastasatu, C; Anastasatu, O; Murgoci, G; Dobre, M; Bîscă, N; Calciu, M; Popescu, E; Tifescu, R; Didilescu, C; Burdujan, M

    1991-01-01

    The study included 359 cases of primary tuberculosis (benign forms) in children aged 0-14 years, out of which 181 non-complicated and 178 complicated forms. The therapeutical regimens were: 3HEZ2/3HE2 (study subgroup) and 6HE2/3H2 (control) for non-complicated forms, and 3HRZ2/3HR2 (study subgroup) and 3HES2/3HE2/3H2 (control) for complicated ones. Late results (5 years after treatment end) were very good (from clinical, radiological, bacteriological points of view) in 100% of cases. Thus, short-course regimens are preferable to longer ones (over 6 months) in the chemotherapy of the benign forms of pulmonary tuberculosis in children.

  13. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo after use of noise-canceling headphones.

    PubMed

    Dan-Goor, Eric; Samra, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common cause of vertigo. We describe a case of a woman presenting acutely with a severe episode of disabling positional vertigo. Although she had no known etiologic risk factors, this attack followed 12 hours of continuously wearing digital noise-canceling headphones. This is the first such reported association between BPPV and the use of this gadget. We also provide a short review of BPPV and speculate on the possible pathogenic mechanisms involved.

  14. A systematic review and cost analysis of robot-assisted hysterectomy in malignant and benign conditions.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Anna-Maija; Hannola, Mikko; Zeitlin, Rainer; Isojärvi, Jaana; Sintonen, Harri; Ikonen, Tuija S

    2014-06-01

    In order to assess the effectiveness and costs of robot-assisted hysterectomy compared with conventional techniques we reviewed the literature separately for benign and malignant conditions, and conducted a cost analysis for different techniques of hysterectomy from a hospital economic database. Unlimited systematic literature search of Medline, Cochrane and CRD databases produced only two randomized trials, both for benign conditions. For the outcome assessment, data from two HTA reports, one systematic review, and 16 original articles were extracted and analyzed. Furthermore, one cost modelling and 13 original cost studies were analyzed. In malignant conditions, less blood loss, fewer complications and a shorter hospital stay were considered as the main advantages of robot-assisted surgery, like any mini-invasive technique when compared to open surgery. There were no significant differences between the techniques regarding oncological outcomes. When compared to laparoscopic hysterectomy, the main benefit of robot-assistance was a shorter learning curve associated with fewer conversions but the length of robotic operation was often longer. In benign conditions, no clinically significant differences were reported and vaginal hysterectomy was considered the optimal choice when feasible. According to Finnish data, the costs of robot-assisted hysterectomies were 1.5-3 times higher than the costs of conventional techniques. In benign conditions the difference in cost was highest. Because of expensive disposable supplies, unit costs were high regardless of the annual number of robotic operations. Hence, in the current distribution of cost pattern, economical effectiveness cannot be markedly improved by increasing the volume of robotic surgery.

  15. Demonstration of an Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    formic acid Proprietary Adsorbent Final Cost &Performance Report: Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion...Certification Program FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester FFA Free fatty acids FPD Freezing point depressant Gpy...proprietary process (covered by U.S. Patent 7,048,871) is based on altering the tail-end of the process for making fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by

  16. Diffusion-Weighted MRI of Malignant versus Benign Portal Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jhii-Hyun; Cho, Eun-Suk; Chung, Jae-Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To validate the diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) for differentiation of benign from malignant portal vein thrombosis. Materials and Methods The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. A total of 59 consecutive patients (52 men and 7 women, aged 40–85 years) with grossly defined portal vein thrombus (PVT) on hepatic MRI were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, liver cirrhosis was found in 45 patients, and hepatocellular carcinoma in 47 patients. DWI was performed using b values of 50 and 800 sec/mm2 at 1.5-T unit. A thrombus was considered malignant if it enhanced on dynamic CT or MRI; otherwise, it was considered bland. There were 18 bland thrombi and 49 malignant thrombi in 59 patients, including 8 patients with simultaneous benign and malignant PVT. Mean apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of benign and malignant PVTs were compared by using Mann-Whitney U test. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results The mean ADC ± standard deviation of bland and malignant PVT were 1.00 ± 0.39 × 10-3 mm2/sec and 0.92 ± 0.25 × 10-3 mm2/sec, respectively; without significant difference (p = 0.799). The area under ROC curve for ADC was 0.520. An ADC value of > 1.35 × 10-3 mm2/sec predicted bland PVT with a specificity of 94.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 84.9–98.9%) and a sensitivity of 22.2% (95% CI: 6.4–47.6%), respectively. Conclusion Due to the wide range and considerable overlap of the ADCs, DWI cannot differentiate the benign from malignant thrombi efficiently. PMID:27390544

  17. Two Case Reports of Benign Testicular Mesothelioma and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Admella Salvador, Carme; Feliu Canaleta, Josep; Llopis Manzanera, Juan; Barranco Sanz, Miguel Angel; Romero Martin, Juan Antoni; Bernal Salguero, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Mesothelioma is usually diagnosed in people over the age of 50 with large history of asbestos-related exposure. It is frequently located in pleural cavity, peritoneum, and pericardium. At the testicles the mesothelioma had been reported first in 1957 like a malignant non-germ-cells tumor. The objective is to present two case reports of benign testicular mesothelioma and review of the literature. PMID:28168071

  18. Arnold-Chiari type I malformation presenting as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Unal, M; Bagdatoglu, C

    2007-03-01

    Arnold-Chiari malformations are a group of congenital hindbrain and spinal cord abnormalities characterized by herniation of the contents of the posterior cranial fossa caudally through the foramen magnum into the upper cervical spine. It is important to recognize Arnold-Chiari type I malformation in the differential diagnosis of adult vertigo cases. We present a 51-year-old patient with Arnold-Chiari type I malformation that was initially diagnosed as posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

  19. Benign breast disease: when to treat, when to reassure, when to refer.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Lakshmi; Barnard, Karen; Elnicki, D Michael

    2002-05-01

    Many women have breast symptoms-swelling and tenderness, nodularity, pain, palpable lumps, nipple discharge, or breast infections and inflammation. Fortunately, relatively few have breast cancer. Physicians must distinguish benign breast conditions from malignant ones, and know when to refer the patient to a specialist. We have included some of the newer diagnostic techniques and the approach to patients with nonpalpable lesions detected on a screening mammogram.

  20. Universal Cystoscopy After Benign Hysterectomy: Examining the Effects of an Institutional Policy

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Alice M; Curran, Diana S; Morgan, Daniel M; Fenner, Dee E; Swenson, Carolyn W

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between a universal cystoscopy policy at the time of benign hysterectomy and the detection of urologic injuries. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care academic center where a policy of universal cystoscopy at the time of benign hysterectomy was instituted on October 1, 2008. Benign hysterectomies performed from March 3, 2006 –September 25, 2013 were included and dichotomized into preuniversal and postuniversal cystoscopy groups. Medical records were reviewed for baseline and perioperative characteristics, cystoscopy use, and urologic injuries related to hysterectomy. Urologic injuries were identified by using a search engine and a departmental quality improvement database. Results Two thousand nine hundred eighteen hysterectomies were identified during the study time period, 96 of which were excluded for indications of abdomino-pelvic cancers and peripartum indications. Therefore, 973 women were in the preuniversal cystoscopy group and 1,849 were in the postuniversal cystoscopy group. Thirty-six percent (347/973, 95% CI 32.8 – 38.8%) and 86.1% (1,592/1,849, 95% CI 84.5 – 87.7%) of cases underwent cystoscopy prepolicy and postpolicy, respectively. The urologic injury rates were 2.6% (25/973, 95% CI 1.6 – 3.6%) and 1.8% (34/1,849, 95% CI 1.2 – 2.5%) in the prepolicy and postpolicy groups, respectively. Delayed urologic injuries decreased significantly (0.7% [7/973], 95% CI 0.3 – 1.2% vs. 0.1% [2/1,849], 95% CI 0.0 – 0.3%). Of the nine delayed injuries, four had normal intraoperative cystoscopy findings and five had no cystoscopy performed. Conclusion The practice of universal cystoscopy at the time of hysterectomy for benign indications is associated with decreased delayed postoperative urologic complications. PMID:26942367

  1. Benign pituitary adenoma associated with hyperostosis of the spenoid bone and monocular blindness. Case report.

    PubMed

    Milas, R W; Sugar, O; Dobben, G

    1977-01-01

    The authors describe a case of benign chromophobe adenoma associated with hyperostosis of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone and monocular blindness in a 38-year-old woman. The endocrinological and radiological evaluations were all suggestive of a meningioma. The diagnosis was established by biopsy of the tumor mass. After orbital decompression and removal of the tumor, the patient was treated with radiation therapy. Her postoperative course was uneventful, and her visual defects remained fixed.

  2. [Safety ov benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment with alpha-adrenoblocker dalphas].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Pushkar', D Iu; Rasner, P I

    2000-01-01

    The study was made of dalphas-retard safety and effectiveness in 940 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and relevant urination problems. The drug was given in a dose 5-10 mg/day for 12 weeks. The results were assessed in 881 patients who had completed the treatment course. 18 patients (1.9%) discontinued the treatment because of side effects. 38 patients (4%) had side effects once or more times.

  3. Elevated blood plasma concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin in benign ovarian neoplasms and ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Markowska, A; Ziółkowska, A; Jaszczyńska-Nowinka, K; Madry, R; Malendowicz, L K

    2009-01-01

    Both ghrelin and obestatin are derived from preproghrelin by post-translational processing. The two peptides are secreted into the blood but circulating levels of these peptides have not been assessed in women with ovarian tumours. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate peripheral blood concentrations of active and total ghrelin and obestatin in patients with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer. The studies were conducted on 22 patients operated due to benign ovarian tumours, and 31 patients operated due to ovarian cancer. A control group consisted of 32 women, 24 to 65 years of age. Both in women with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer blood concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin were higher than in the control group (active ghrelin: 90 +/- 4, 84 +/- 4 and 56 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively, obestatin: 660 +/- 36; 630 +/- 30 and 538 +/- 31 ng/ml (x +/- SE), respectively). In contrast, total ghrelin concentrations in blood were similar in the studied groups. The alterations resulted in increased values of active to total ghrelin concentration ratio in the peripheral blood of patients with benign ovarian tumours or with ovarian cancer (0.79 +/- 0.02 and 0.93 +/- 0.05, respectively vs 0.58 +/- 0.02 in the control group). Due to the absence of any convincing proof for the presence of a functional GHS-R-1a receptor for ghrelin in human ovaries it did not seem probable that the observed elevated levels of active ghrelin and obestatin were directly linked to development of ovarian tumours.

  4. Antidepression medication improves quality of life in elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and depression.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lina; Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Huizhen; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Wei; Qian, Yuying; Wang, Jieyu; Feng, Ming; Li, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We aim to explore the influence of an antidepression medication on symptom scores and quality of life in elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia accompanied by depression. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial which included 94 elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia accompanied by depression in Xuan Wu Hospital and Beijing Boai Hospital during August 2008 to May 2012. The study was designed to compare outcomes related to patient quality of life (QoL). The patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, consisting of a control group (n = 47) and a therapy group (n = 47), and were followed up for 3 months. The pre-treatment and post-treatment changes among patients in the two groups were compared using their respective IPSS symptom scores, HAM-D scores, and scores on the Short Form 36 Health Survey. Following treatment, the patient IPSS symptom scores in the therapy group were significantly lower than those in the control group (10.74 ± 4.72 vs. 16.42 ± 8.09, respectively; t = 4.157, P < 0.05). Additionally, each measured dimension of QoL was significantly higher in the therapy group [total score (69.12 ± 3.92) vs. (61.30 ± 3.51), P < 0.05]. The results show antidepression medication can improve the symptoms and quality of life among elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia accompanied by depression. Our findings suggest that an antidepression medication should be included when treating elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  5. Benign paroxysmal vertigo, and Bárány's caloric reactions.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2007-01-01

    The Nobel Prize winner Robert Bárány described benign positional vertigo and related it to the otoliths in 1921. Dix and Hallpike further elucidated this clinically distinctive, common disorder in 1952. The displacement of otoliths from the utricle or saccule into one of the semicircular canals later proved to be the underlying mechanism, described by Schuknecht and utilised therapeutically by Semont and Epley.

  6. [Zinc, calcium and sodium values in secretions of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D

    1990-12-01

    In two randomized patients groups suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) two exprimate samples were drawn at a seven-day interval. In the untreated control group no changes in the values of Ca, Na and Zn were found. In the other group the patients have been treated with ERU capsules (Radicis urticae) for 7 days and thereafter a significant decrease of Zn values were found.

  7. Diffusion weighted imaging for the differential diagnosis of benign vs. malignant ovarian neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Fu; Zhu, Shi-Cai; Sun, Shao-Juan; Guo, Ji-Cai; Wang, Xue

    2016-06-01

    In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms, a systemic meta-analysis was conducted. Relevant studies were retrieved from scientific literature databases, including the PubMed, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP databases. Following a multi-step screening and study selection process, the relevant data was extracted for use in the present study. Statistical analyses were performed using Meta-disc software version 1.4 and STATA statistical software version 12.0. A total of 285 articles were retrieved from the database searches. Following a careful screening process, 10 case-control studies were selected for the present meta-analysis. The 10 studies investigated the efficacy of DWI in diagnosing ovarian neoplasms, and included a combined total of 1,159 subjects, of which 559 patients had malignant lesions and 600 had benign lesions. The results showed that the pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity, pooled positive likelihood ratio, pooled negative likelihood ratio, pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the curve of the summary receiver operating characteristics curve of DWI for differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms were 0.93, 0.89, 7.58, 0.10, 85.33 and 0.95, respectively. A subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed no significant difference between Asians and Caucasians. Another subgroup analysis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) type showed that the DORs for GE Healthcare Life Sciences and Siemens AG machines were 100.76 [95% confidence interval (CI), 65.28-155.53] and 30.85 (95% CI, 10.40-91.53), respectively; this indicates that the diagnostic efficiency of the GE Healthcare Life Sciences MRI is superior compared with the Siemens AG MRI. The DWI demonstrated an excellent diagnostic performance in discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms, and

  8. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Jing-Jing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Zhe; Li, Na; Song, Chen; Li, Man

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Methods The scientific literature databases PubMed, Cochrane Library and CNKI were comprehensively searched for studies relevant to the use of CEUS technique for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian cancer. Pooled summary statistics for specificity (Spe), sensitivity (Sen), positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/LR−), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and their 95%CIs were calculated. Software for statistical analysis included STATA version 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) and Meta-Disc version 1.4 (Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain). Results Following a stringent selection process, seven high quality clinical trials were found suitable for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The 7 studies contained a combined total of 375 ovarian cancer patients (198 malignant and 177 benign). Statistical analysis revealed that CEUS was associated with the following performance measures in differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors: pooled Sen was 0.96 (95%CI = 0.92∼0.98); the summary Spe was 0.91 (95%CI = 0.86∼0.94); the pooled LR+ was 10.63 (95%CI = 6.59∼17.17); the pooled LR− was 0.04 (95%CI = 0.02∼0.09); and the pooled DOR was 241.04 (95% CI = 92.61∼627.37). The area under the SROC curve was 0.98 (95% CI = 0.20∼1.00). Lastly, publication bias was not detected (t = −0.52, P = 0.626) in the meta-analysis. Conclusions Our results revealed the high clinical value of CEUS in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Further, CEUS may also prove to be useful in differential diagnosis at early stages of this disease. PMID:25764442

  9. Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of benign salivary gland obstruction.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jackie E

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature published on minimally invasive techniques developed to treat benign salivary gland obstruction. Techniques reported include extracorporeal and intracorporeal salivary gland lithotripsy, endoscopy and radiologically guided techniques for the extraction of calculi and dilatation of duct strictures. These techniques are described, their advantages and disadvantages discussed and their success rates compared. Recommendations are made on the most appropriate application of each technique.

  10. Minimally Invasive Techniques for the Treatment of Benign Salivary Gland Obstruction: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jackie E.

    2002-10-15

    This paper reviews the literature published on minimally invasive techniques developed to treat benign salivary gland obstruction. Techniques reported include extracorporeal and intracorporeal salivary gland lithotripsy, endoscopy and radiologically guided techniques for the extraction of calculi and dilatation of duct strictures. These techniques are described, their advantages and disadvantages discussed and their success rates compared. Recommendations are made on the most appropriate application of each technique.

  11. A Benign, Low Z Electron Capture Agent for Negative Ion TPCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martoff, C. J.; Dion, M. P.; Hosack, M.; Barton, D.; Black, J. K.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified nitromethane (CH3NO2) as an effective electron capture agent for negative ion TPCs (NITPCs). We present drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion measurements for negative ion gas mixtures using nitromethane as the capture agent. Not only is nitromethane substantially more benign than the only other identified capture agent, CS2, but its low atomic number will enable the use of the NITPC as a photoelectric X-ray polarimeter in the 1-10 keV band.

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of Anterior-Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kouzi, Ioanna; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In contrast to the posterior- and horizontal-canal variants, data on the frequency and therapeutic management of anterior-canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (AC-BPPV) are sparse. To synthesize the existing body of evidence into a systematic review regarding the incidence and treatment of AC-BPPV. Methods Systematic search of medical databases employing predefined criteria, using the term "anterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo." Results The electronic search retrieved 178 unique citations, 31 of which were considered eligible for further analysis. Analysis of the collected data revealed an estimated occurrence of AC-BPPV among benign paroxysmal positional vertigo patients of 3% (range 1-17.1%). No controlled therapeutic trials could be identified, and so the analysis was focused on uncontrolled case series. Treatment was categorized into three groups: Epley maneuver, Yacovino maneuver, and specific, nonstandard maneuvers described in individual articles. All three categories demonstrated success rates of over 75%, and the overall sample-size-weighted mean was 85.6%. Conclusions The present analysis demonstrated that AC-BPPV comprises about 3% of all BPPV cases. It can be treated safely using the Epley, Yacovino, and other maneuvers with rates of symptom resolution lying in the range of that reported for the other, more frequent canal variants. Multicenter controlled trials are needed in order to develop evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of AC-BPPV. PMID:26022461

  13. Treatment of Benign Tracheal Stenosis Utilizing Self-Expanding Nitinol Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Sesterhenn, Andreas M. Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Alfke, Heiko; Werner, Jochen A.; Lippert, Burkard M.

    2004-08-15

    We assessed the results of self-expanding metallic stent insertion into benign proximal tracheal stenosis in patients not appropriate or unfit for surgical repair. Proximal benign tracheal stenoses had occurred in 11 patients (7 men, 4 women, mean age 68.8 years) after long-time intubation (n = 6), tracheostomy (n = 4), or chondropathia (n = 1). Fourteen self-expanding nitinol stents were placed in the patients under general anesthesia with endoscopical and fluoroscopical guidance. Stent insertion was successful in all cases and led to immediate relief of the morphological and functional airway obstruction. No immediate complications were noted. During the mean follow-up period of 67.5 weeks we observed one recurrent dyspnea 3 months after implantation and granuloma formation at the stent insertion site in another patient. Both complications were successfully treated with additional stent insertion in one case and laser resection of granulomas in the other. Self-expanding nitinol stents should be considered for the treatment of benign proximal tracheal obstruction in selected patients for whom surgical repair is contraindicated.

  14. Distinct profile of the mitochondrial DNA common deletion in benign skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Christian; Kamenisch, York; Landthaler, Michael; Berneburg, Mark

    2011-02-01

    Mutations of mitochondrial (mt) DNA, particularly the 4977 bp long common deletion, are increased in aging tissues and preferentially found in chronologically and photoaged skin. Mutations of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have also been identified in malignant tumors of the skin and of other organs. However, benign skin lesions have not yet been investigated. We analyzed the frequency of the common deletion in 27 benign skin lesions [8 seborrheic keratoses (SK), 5 epidermal nevi (EN), 14 solar lentigos (SL)] by quantitative real-time PCR, because SK and especially SL have been related to (photo)aged skin. All SK and four of five EN displayed reduced common deletion levels compared with adjacent normal skin. In contrast, 50% of SL revealed a higher percentage of the common deletion than the adjacent normal skin, and some SL showed very high absolute common deletion levels up to 14% of total mtDNA. Our results show that the amount of the common deletion is significantly different in benign skin lesions and raise further questions regarding the pathogenesis of SL and its possible role as a precursor lesion of SK.

  15. Efficacy of Retrievable Metallic Stent with Fixation String for Benign Stricture after Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Myungsu; Hur, Saebeom; Kim, Minuk; Lee, Sang Hwan; Cho, Soo Buem; Kim, Chan Sun; Han, Joon Koo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of retrievable metallic stent with fixation string for benign anastomotic stricture after upper gastrointestinal (UGI) surgery. Materials and Methods From June 2009 to May 2015, a total of 56 retrievable metallic stents with fixation string were placed under fluoroscopy guidance in 42 patients who were diagnosed with benign anastomotic stricture after UGI surgery. Clinical success was defined as achieving normal regular diet (NRD). Results The clinical success rate after the first stent placement was 57.1% (24/42). After repeated stent placement and/or balloon dilation, the clinical success rate was increased to 83.3% (35/42). Six (14.3%) patients required surgical revision to achieve NRD. One (2.4%) patient failed to achieve NRD. Stent migration occurred in 60.7% (34/56) of patients. Successful rate of removing the stent using fixation string and angiocatheter was 94.6% (53/56). Distal migration occurred in 12 stents. Of the 12 stents, 10 (83.3%) were successfully removed whereas 2 could not be removed. No complication occurred regarding distal migration. Conclusion Using retrievable metallic stent with a fixation string is a feasible option for managing early benign anastomotic stricture after UGI surgery. It can reduce complications caused by distal migration of the stent. PMID:27833405

  16. Benign mesocolon schwannoma in PET/CT and immunohistochemistry assessment: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Schwannoma is a common soft tissue tumour, but it appears to be very rare in the gastrointestinal tract. Benign schwannoma develops extremely rarely in the mesocolon, with only 2 patients reported in the literature. A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our Department of Oncological Surgery with an abdominal mass, which was discovered incidentally during abdominal ultrasound examination. Positron emission tomography/ computed tomography imaging with the use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET/CT) showed an abnormal mass in the upper right abdomen with the presence of diffuse FDG uptake. A laparotomy revealed an encapsulated, non-invasive mesocolon tumour in the hepatic flexure region. Definitive diagnosis was confirmed by the histopathological examination of the postoperative preparation. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed benign mesocolon schwannoma. Previous cases indicate that schwannomas in the mesocolon are benign tumours. Our patient had a good prognosis even after enucleation treatment. Although schwannomas are very rare and generally asymptomatic, the differential diagnosis of schwannomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumours is important for practical purposes. PMID:23788911

  17. Towards an Automated MEMS-based Characterization of Benign and Cancerous Breast Tissue using Bioimpedance Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Kim, Hyun Tae; Roy, Rajarshi; Chen, Wenjin; Cong, Lei; Zhong, Hua; Foran, David J.; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) are desirable for use within medical diagnostics because of their capacity to manipulate and analyze biological materials at the microscale. Biosensors can be incorporated into portable lab-on-a-chip devices to quickly and reliably perform diagnostics procedure on laboratory and clinical samples. In this paper, electrical impedance-based measurements were used to distinguish between benign and cancerous breast tissues using microchips in a real-time and label-free manner. Two different microchips having inter-digited electrodes (10 µm width with 10 µm spacing and 10 µm width with 30 µm spacing) were used for measuring the impedance of breast tissues. The system employs Agilent E4980A precision impedance analyzer. The impedance magnitude and phase were collected over a frequency range of 100 Hz to 2 MHz. The benign group and cancer group showed clearly distinguishable impedance properties. At 200 kHz, the difference in impedance of benign and cancerous breast tissue was significantly higher (3110 Ω) in the case of microchips having 10 µm spacing compared to microchip having 30 µm spacing (568 Ω). PMID:25013305

  18. Expression of the KAI1 protein in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, T.; Ichikawa, T.; Tamaru, J.; Mikata, A.; Akakura, K.; Akimoto, S.; Imai, T.; Yoshie, O.; Shiraishi, T.; Yatani, R.; Ito, H.; Shimazaki, J.

    1996-01-01

    The KAI1 gene, recently identified as a metastatic suppressor gene for prostate cancer, was cloned and was revealed to be identical to the C33/IA4/ R2/4R9 gene. The expression of KAI1 protein was examined immunohistochemically in the tissues from 14 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and 46 cases of prostate cancer using mouse monoclonal anti-human C33 antibody. In benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues, KAI1 protein was uniformly expressed in the glandular cell membrane at cell-to-cell borders. The KAI1 protein in the tissues of untreated prostate cancer was also located at similar sites to those of benign prostatic hyperplasia, but the percentage of strongly positive cancer cells was correlated inversely to the Gleason pattern (P < 0.0001, one-way analysis of variance). There was also a statistically inverse correlation between the percentage of KAI1-positive cancer cells and the clinical stage (chi 2 = 9.6; P = 0.0081). In 4 cancer death cases relapsed from endocrine therapy, KAI1 protein was not stained in either primary or metastatic foci. These results indicate that the expression of KAI1 protein correlates to tumor characteristics in prostate cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:8909232

  19. [Serum metabolomics analysis on benign prostate hyperplasia in mice based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Geng, Yue; Sun, Fengxia; Ma, Yu; Deng, Ligang; Lü, Jianyun; Li, Teng; Wang, Congcong

    2014-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) increasingly becomes a common factor affecting the quality of life of aging men. Its pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated. Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) was employed to detect the changes of serum metabolites in normal mice, benign prostatic hyperplasia model mice and BPH model mice with finasteride intervention. The serum metabolite profiles of the three groups of mice were analyzed. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used for group differentiation and biomarker selection. The results showed good distinction among the three groups of mice serum metabolite spectra. Three potential biomarkers, 1-hexadecanoyl-SN-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine and (Z)-13-docosenamide, were discovered and identified. They all indicated the occurrence of benign prostatic hypertrophy is closely related to the disorders of lipid metabolism. Coinpared with the control group, the contents of the first two substances were significantly increased in the serum of BPH model mice, and significantly decreased after intervened by finasteride. The contents of (Z)-13-docosenamide decreased significantly in the serum of model group, and increased after intervened by finasteride. Compared with the control group, the contents of three biomarkers in finasteride group did not recover completely and had significant differences. This study is conductive to open new avenues of diagnosis and medical treatment for BPH.

  20. Radiofrequency ablation compared to surgery for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Stella; Dobrinja, Chiara; Fabris, Bruno; Bazzocchi, Gabriele; Sabato, Nicoletta; Ulcigrai, Veronica; Giacca, Massimo; Barro, Enrica; De Manzini, Nicolò; Stacul, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Benign thyroid nodules are a common occurrence whose only remedy, in case of symptoms, has always been surgery until the advent of new techniques, such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA). This study aimed at evaluating RFA efficacy, tolerability, and costs and comparing them to hemithyroidectomy for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. Design and Methods. 37 patients who underwent RFA were retrospectively compared to 74 patients surgically treated, either in a standard inpatient or in a short-stay surgical regimen. Efficacy, tolerability, and costs were compared. The contribution of final pathology was also taken into account. Results. RFA reduced nodular volume by 70% after 12 months and it was an effective method for treating nodule-related clinical problems, but it was not as effective as surgery for the treatment of hot nodules. RFA and surgery were both safe, although RFA had less complications and pain was rare. RFA costed €1,661.50, surgery costed €4,556.30, and short-stay surgery costed €4,139.40 per patient. RFA, however, did not allow for any pathologic analysis of the nodules, which, in 6 patients who had undergone surgery (8%), revealed that the nodules harboured malignant cells. Conclusions. RFA might transform our approach to benign thyroid nodules.

  1. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of benign thyroid nodules assisted by a virtual needle tracking system.

    PubMed

    Turtulici, Giovanni; Orlandi, Davide; Corazza, Angelo; Sartoris, Riccardo; Derchi, Lorenzo Egildo; Silvestri, Enzo; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the feasibility and outcome of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of benign thyroid nodules assisted by a real-time virtual needle tracking (VT) system. Forty-five patients (34 females, mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 44 ± 16 y, range: 29-68 y) with 45 benign non-functioning thyroid nodules (mean volume ± SD: 13.5 ± 6.7 mL, range: 12-22 mL) underwent VT-assisted US-guided RF ablation. Nodule volume was evaluated before treatment and during 6-mo of follow-up. Complication rates and patient satisfaction after treatment were also evaluated. By use of the VT system, the tip of the RF electrode was identified during all ablation procedures. The overall mean volume reduction and complication rate were 72.6 ± 11.3% and 2.5%, respectively. Overall satisfaction at the 6-mo follow-up was rated by patients as positive in 42 cases (93%). The VT system could be useful in thyroid nodule ablation procedures because it is able to track the RF electrode tip even when the tip is obscured by the bubbles produced by the ablative process. VT-assisted RF ablation can be a tolerable, non-surgical treatment for patients with benign non-functioning thyroid nodules.

  2. Radiofrequency Ablation Compared to Surgery for the Treatment of Benign Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Stella; Dobrinja, Chiara; Fabris, Bruno; Bazzocchi, Gabriele; Sabato, Nicoletta; Ulcigrai, Veronica; Giacca, Massimo; Barro, Enrica; De Manzini, Nicolò; Stacul, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Benign thyroid nodules are a common occurrence whose only remedy, in case of symptoms, has always been surgery until the advent of new techniques, such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA). This study aimed at evaluating RFA efficacy, tolerability, and costs and comparing them to hemithyroidectomy for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. Design and Methods. 37 patients who underwent RFA were retrospectively compared to 74 patients surgically treated, either in a standard inpatient or in a short-stay surgical regimen. Efficacy, tolerability, and costs were compared. The contribution of final pathology was also taken into account. Results. RFA reduced nodular volume by 70% after 12 months and it was an effective method for treating nodule-related clinical problems, but it was not as effective as surgery for the treatment of hot nodules. RFA and surgery were both safe, although RFA had less complications and pain was rare. RFA costed €1,661.50, surgery costed €4,556.30, and short-stay surgery costed €4,139.40 per patient. RFA, however, did not allow for any pathologic analysis of the nodules, which, in 6 patients who had undergone surgery (8%), revealed that the nodules harboured malignant cells. Conclusions. RFA might transform our approach to benign thyroid nodules. PMID:25045352

  3. Benign müllerian glandular inclusions in men undergoing pelvic lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Gallan, Alexander J; Antic, Tatjana

    2016-11-01

    Benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in lymph nodes are commonly seen in women, but to our knowledge, there have only been 4 reported cases in men. Distinction of these glandular structures from metastatic adenocarcinoma is crucial for proper staging, prognosis, and treatment of the patient. We report 3 cases of benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in men undergoing either prostatectomy or cystoprostatectomy with lymph node dissection for treatment of prostatic adenocarcinoma and/or urothelial carcinoma. None of the patients were receiving hormonal therapy. All 3 cases showed benign glands with ciliated cuboidal to columnar cells and rare secretory cells, morphologically comparable with endosalpingiosis in women. These glands were diffusely positive for PAX-8, WT-1, estrogen receptor, and progesteron receptor consistent with müllerian origin. Our study is the first to confirm müllerian origin of these glands by PAX-8 and WT-1 positivity. This finding of müllerian glands in men identical to endosalpingiosis in women supports the theory that this entity can result from müllerian metaplasia of the peritoneal mesothelium rather than displacement of tubal-type epithelium. Pathologists should also be aware that müllerian-type glands can rarely occur in men to prevent the incorrect diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma involving a lymph node.

  4. Differential Utilization of Dietary Fatty Acids in Benign and Malignant Cells of the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Dueregger, Andrea; Schöpf, Bernd; Eder, Theresa; Höfer, Julia; Gnaiger, Erich; Aufinger, Astrid; Kenner, Lukas; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs) and long chain triglycerides (LCTs) under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1) have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3) as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  5. Combined texture feature analysis of segmentation and classification of benign and malignant tumour CT slices.

    PubMed

    Padma, A; Sukanesh, R

    2013-01-01

    A computer software system is designed for the segmentation and classification of benign from malignant tumour slices in brain computed tomography (CT) images. This paper presents a method to find and select both the dominant run length and co-occurrence texture features of region of interest (ROI) of the tumour region of each slice to be segmented by Fuzzy c means clustering (FCM) and evaluate the performance of support vector machine (SVM)-based classifiers in classifying benign and malignant tumour slices. Two hundred and six tumour confirmed CT slices are considered in this study. A total of 17 texture features are extracted by a feature extraction procedure, and six features are selected using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This study constructed the SVM-based classifier with the selected features and by comparing the segmentation results with the experienced radiologist labelled ground truth (target). Quantitative analysis between ground truth and segmented tumour is presented in terms of segmentation accuracy, segmentation error and overlap similarity measures such as the Jaccard index. The classification performance of the SVM-based classifier with the same selected features is also evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation method. The proposed system provides some newly found texture features have an important contribution in classifying benign and malignant tumour slices efficiently and accurately with less computational time. The experimental results showed that the proposed system is able to achieve the highest segmentation and classification accuracy effectiveness as measured by jaccard index and sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid in benign and malignant breast disease.

    PubMed

    Romppanen, J; Eskelinen, M; Tikanoja, S; Mononen, I

    1997-01-01

    Elevation in the total sialic acid (TSA), TSA/total protein (TSA/TP) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LASA) concentration in serum occurs in breast cancer and we have studied the applicability of the assays in classification of undefined breast tumors. Sialic acid was determined by HPLC and the statistical evaluation included the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Youden's index analyses. In cancer patients, the serum LASA and TSA concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in patients with benign breast disease and all the markers were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in normal controls. All the markers had a low accuracy (AUCs < 0.75) in differentiating between breast cancer and benign breast disease and at the specificity level of 0.95 the corresponding sensitivities were 0.32 (TSA), 0.14 (TSA/TP) and 0.23 (LASA). The results indicate that both breast cancer and benign breast disease cause elevation of TSA, TSA/TP and LASA values in serum and do not provide reliable classification of undefined breast tumors.

  7. 27.12 MHz Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Cutaneous Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Hyun, Dong Ju; Piquette, Raymonde; Beaumont, Clément; Germain, Lucie; Larouche, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    As surgical and/or ablative modalities, radiofrequency (RF) has been known to produce good clinical outcomes in dermatology. Recently, 27.12 MHz RF has been introduced and has several advantages over conventional 4 or 6 MHz in terms of the precise ablation and lesser pain perception. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 27.12 MHz RF for the treatment of benign cutaneous lesions. Twenty female patient subjects were enrolled. Digital photography and a USB microscope camera were used to monitor the clinical results before one session of treatment with 27.12 MHz RF and after 1 and 3 weeks. Treated lesions included telangiectasias, cherry and spider angiomas, skin tags, seborrheic keratoses, lentigo, milium, dilated pore, acne, piercing hole, and one case of neurofibroma. For vascular lesions, clinical results were excellent for 33.3%, good for 44.4%, moderate for 11.1%, and poor for 11.1%. For nonvascular lesions (epidermal lesions and other benign cutaneous lesions), clinical results were excellent for 48.3%, good for 45.2%, moderate for 3.2%, and poor for 3.2%. No serious adverse events were observed. Mild adverse events reported were slight erythema, scale, and crust. The 27.12 MHz RF treatment of benign vascular and nonvascular lesions appears safe and effective after 3 weeks of follow-up. PMID:27127789

  8. Ethanol ablation of benign thyroid cysts and predominantly cystic thyroid nodules: factors that predict outcome.

    PubMed

    In, Hyun Sin; Kim, Dong Wook; Choo, Hye Jung; Jung, Soo Jin; Kang, Taewoo; Ryu, Ji Hwa

    2014-05-01

    No study has so far investigated the relationship between aspirate color or degree of aspiration on the success of ethanol ablation (EA) of cystic thyroid nodules. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of EA of benign cystic thyroid nodules and assess the relevant factors influencing the outcome. Over a 2-year period, 64 benign cystic thyroid nodules in 62 patients were treated with EA. Several factors related to EA efficacy were evaluated, including the cystic component volume, volume and color of aspirates, degree of aspiration, and volume of injected ethanol. In all cases, we performed ultrasound follow-up for at least 12 months after the last EA session to evaluate the collapsed cystic component. The 64 treated nodules had aspirate colors that were red bloody (n = 3), dark bloody (n = 31), brownish (n = 15), greenish-yellow (n = 13), and colorless (n = 2). The degrees of aspiration were scant (n = 8), mild (n = 3), moderate (n = 8), and complete (n = 45). There was successful collapse of the cystic component after initial EA in 52 cases, but a repeat EA was employed in 12 failed cases. Statistical analysis showed that the degree of aspiration and color of aspirates correlated significantly with the success of EA. The results of this study suggest that complete aspiration of cystic contents was the most important factor in the efficacy of EA of benign cystic thyroid nodules, and greenish-yellow contents were closely related to scant or mild aspiration.

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Long Term Success Rate of Different Interventions in Benign Biliary Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Huszár, Orsolya; Kokas, Bálint; Mátrai, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Pétervári, Erika; Vincze, Áron; Pár, Gabriella; Sarlós, Patrícia; Bajor, Judit; Czimmer, József; Mosztbacher, Dóra; Márta, Katalin; Zsiborás, Csaba; Varjú, Péter; Szücs, Ákos

    2017-01-01

    Background Benign biliary stricture is a rare condition and the majority of the cases are caused by operative trauma or chronic inflammation based on various etiology. Although the initial results of endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical treatment are impressive, no comparison about long term stricture resolution is available. Aims The goal of this study was to compare the long term disease free survival in benign biliary strictures with various etiology after surgery, percutaneous transhepatic—and endoscopic treatment. Methods PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched by computer and manually for published studies. The investigators selected the publications according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, processed the data and assessed the quality of the selected studies. Meta-analysis of data of 24 publications was performed to compare long term disease free survival of different treatment groups. Results Compared the subgroups surgery resulted in the highest long term stricture resolution rate, followed by the percutaneous transhepatic treatment, the multiple plastic stent insertion and covered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS), however the difference was not significant. All compared methods are significantly superior to the single plastic stent placement. Long term stricture resolution rate irrespectively of any therapy is still not more than 84%. Conclusions In summary, the use of single plastic stent is not recommended. Further randomized studies and innovative technical development are required for improving the treatment of benign biliary strictures. PMID:28076371

  10. Differential Utilization of Dietary Fatty Acids in Benign and Malignant Cells of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Theresa; Höfer, Julia; Gnaiger, Erich; Aufinger, Astrid; Kenner, Lukas; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs) and long chain triglycerides (LCTs) under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1) have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3) as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26285134

  11. Multiple oncogenic mutations and clonal relationship in spatially distinct benign human epidermal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Christian; Toll, Agustí; Fernández-Casado, Alejandro; Earl, Julie; Marqués, Miriam; Acquadro, Francesco; Méndez-Pertuz, Marinela; Urioste, Miguel; Malats, Núria; Burns, Julie E.; Knowles, Margaret A.; Cigudosa, Juan C.; Hartmann, Arndt; Vogt, Thomas; Landthaler, Michael; Pujol, Ramón M.; Real, Francisco X.

    2010-01-01

    Malignant tumors result from the accumulation of genetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Much less is known about the genetic changes in benign tumors. Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are very frequent benign human epidermal tumors without malignant potential. We performed a comprehensive mutational screen of genes in the FGFR3-RAS-MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways from 175 SK, including multiple lesions from each patient. SK commonly harbored multiple bona fide oncogenic mutations in FGFR3, PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, EGFR, and AKT1 oncogenes but not in tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and PTEN. Despite the occurrence of oncogenic mutations and the evidence for downstream ERK/MAPK and PI3K pathway signaling, we did not find induction of senescence or a DNA damage response. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis revealed that SK are genetically stable. The pattern of oncogenic mutations and X chromosome inactivation departs significantly from randomness and indicates that spatially independent lesions from a given patient share a clonal relationship. Our findings show that multiple oncogenic mutations in the major signaling pathways involved in cancer are not sufficient to drive malignant tumor progression. Furthermore, our data provide clues on the origin and spread of oncogenic mutations in tissues, suggesting that apparently independent (multicentric) adult benign tumors may have a clonal origin. PMID:21078999

  12. Incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm in patients after major hepatectomy for preoperative benign hepatolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeong Min; Cho, Chol Kyoon; Koh, Yang Seok; Kim, Hee Joon; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Despite hepatolithiasis being a risk factor for biliary neoplasm including cholangiocarcinoma, the incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm is unknown in patients with preoperative benign hepatolithiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm in patients who underwent major hepatectomy for preoperative benign hepatolithiasis. Methods Between March 2005 and December 2015, 73 patients who underwent major hepatectomy for preoperative benign hepatolithiasis were enrolled in this study. The incidence and pathological differentiation of concomitant biliary neoplasm were retrospectively determined by review of medical records. Postoperative complications after major hepatectomy were evaluated. Results Concomitant biliary neoplasm was pathologically confirmed in 20 patients (27.4%). Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BIN) was detected in 12 patients (16.4%), and 1 patient (1.4%) had intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), as the premalignant lesion. Cholangiocarcinoma was pathologically confirmed in 7 patients (9.6%). Preoperative imaging of the 73 patients revealed biliary stricture at the first branch of bile duct in 31 patients (42.5%), and at the second branch of bile duct in 39 patients (53.4%). Postoperative complications developed in 14 patients (19.1%). Almost all patients recovered from complications, including intra-abdominal abscess (9.6%), bile leakage (4.1%), pleural effusion (2.7%), and wound infection (1.4%). Only 1 patient (1.4%) died from aspiration pneumonia. Conclusions The incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm was not negligible in the patients with hepatolithiasis, despite meticulous preoperative evaluations. PMID:28261696

  13. Functional Brain Dysfunction in Patients with Benign Childhood Epilepsy as Revealed by Graph Theory.

    PubMed

    Adebimpe, Azeez; Aarabi, Ardalan; Bourel-Ponchel, Emilie; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Wallois, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that brain networks are altered in epileptic subjects. In this study, we investigated the functional connectivity and brain network properties of benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes using graph theory. Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes is the most common form of idiopathic epilepsy in young children under the age of 16 years. High-density EEG data were recorded from patients and controls in resting state with eyes closed. Data were preprocessed and spike and spike-free segments were selected for analysis. Phase locking value was calculated for all paired combinations of channels and for five frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β1 and β2). We computed the degree and small-world parameters--clustering coefficient (C) and path length (L)--and compared the two patient conditions to controls. A higher degree at epileptic zones during interictal epileptic spikes (IES) was observed in all frequency bands. Both patient conditions reduced connection at the occipital and right frontal regions close to the epileptic zone in the α band. The "small-world" features (high C and short L) were deviated in patients compared to controls. A changed from an ordered network in the δ band to a more randomly organized network in the α band was observed in patients compared to healthy controls. These findings show that the benign epileptic brain network is disrupted not only at the epileptic zone, but also in other brain regions especially frontal regions.

  14. Enhanced expression of Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) protein in benign vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Clarissa N; Wians, Frank H; Bryan, Brad A; Torabi, Alireza

    2017-04-01

    Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands have been shown to play a significant role in evasion of malignant tumour cells from the immune system. Last year, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved anti-PD-1 inhibitors for treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma and recently has approved anti-PD-L1 blocker for treatment of metastatic urothelial cell carcinoma. However, the role that the immune system might have on benign tumours including vascular anomalies has received less attention. In this study, we evaluated PD-1 and PD-L1 expression on two benign vascular anomalies: infantile haemangiomas and venous malformations. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) from these two entities were stained for PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies. Blood vessels from normal tissue were used as control. The endothelial cells in both infantile haemangioma and venous malformation showed high expression of PD-1 but were negative for PD-L1. Endothelial cells within the blood vessels in normal tissues were negative for both PD-1 and PD-L1. Our results showed over-expression of PD-1 in subsets of vascular anomalies, while PD-L1 was negative. This would raise the possibility of immunotherapy in benign vascular tumour when other options are exhausted.

  15. A rare location of benign osteoblastoma: case study and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, R; Serra, A; Bonfiglio, M; Platania, N; Albanese, V; Lanzafame, S; Cocuzza, S

    2012-11-01

    Osteoblastoma is a solitary, benign bone tumor that is rarely localized in the frontal sinus. It consists of hypocellular mineralized tissue that may form large masses or irregular trabeculae. A 31 year old man came to our attention with a 7 month history of diplopia, photophobia, frontal headhaches and progressive exophthalmos with proptosis of the left eye. The patient was submitted to computed tomography (CT) which allowed to appraise the extension of the lesion. The mass expanded inside the left frontal sinus and the upper ethmoidal cells invading the left orbital roof. Considering the extension of the tumor, the site and the connections with contiguous structures, a combination of endoscopic endonasal technique with intraorbital approach was performed. At histological examination typical features of benign osteoblastoma were observed. The sites of predilection for the tumor are the long bones, vertebral column, and small bones of hands and feet. Its occurrence in the skull and jaw bones is relatively rare and represents only 15% of all osteoblastomas. To our knowledge, only 5 cases of osteoblastoma of the frontal sinus have been previously reported in the English-language literature. This report describes a case of benign osteoblastoma in a rare site, namely, the frontal sinus with particular attention about the differential diagnosis and the treatment.    

  16. Pleural fluid analysis of lung cancer vs benign inflammatory disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, R; Best, L A; Savulescu, D; Gavish, M; Nagler, R M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Correct diagnosis of pleural effusion (PE) as either benign or malignant is crucial, although conventional cytological evaluation is of limited diagnostic accuracy, with relatively low sensitivity rates. Methods: We identified biological markers accurately detected in a simple PE examination. We analysed data from 19 patients diagnosed with lung cancer (nine adeno-Ca, five non-small-cell Ca (not specified), four squamous-cell Ca, one large-cell Ca) and 22 patients with benign inflammatory pathologies: secondary to trauma, pneumonia or TB. Results: Pleural effusion concentrations of seven analysed biological markers were significantly lower in lung cancer patients than in benign inflammatory patients, especially in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-3 and CycD1 (lower by 65% (P<0.000003), 40% (P<0.0007) and 34% (P<0.0001), respectively), and in Ki67, ImAnOx, carbonyls and p27. High rates of sensitivity and specificity values were found for MMP-9, MMP-3 and CycD1: 80 and 100% 87 and 73% and 87 and 82%, respectively. Conclusion: Although our results are of significant merit in both the clinical and pathogenetic aspects of lung cancer, further research aimed at defining the best combination for marker analysis is warranted. The relative simplicity in analysing these markers in any routine hospital laboratory may result in its acceptance as a new diagnostic tool. PMID:20216542

  17. Radiofrequency ablation of benign thyroid nodules: safety and imaging follow-up in 236 patients.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Baek, Jung Hwan; Rhim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yoon Suk; Kwak, Min Sook; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Lee, Ducky

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the safety and volume reduction of ultrasonography (US)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for benign thyroid nodules, and the factors affecting the results obtained. A total of 302 benign thyroid nodules in 236 euthyroid patients underwent RFA between June 2002 and January 2005. RFA was carried out using an internally cooled electrode under local anesthesia. The volume-reduction ratio (VRR) was assessed by US and safety was determined by observing the complications during the follow-up period (1-41 months). The correlation between the VRR and several factors (patient age, volume and composition of the index nodule) was evaluated. The volume of index nodules was 0.11-95.61 ml (mean, 6.13 +/- 9.59 ml). After ablation, the volume of index nodules decreased to 0.00-26.07 ml (mean, 1.12 +/- 2.92 ml) and the VRR was 12.52-100% (mean, 84.11 +/- 14.93%) at the last follow-up. A VRR greater than 50% was observed in 91.06% of nodules, and 27.81% of index nodules disappeared. The complications encountered were pain, hematoma and transient voice changes. In conclusion, RFA is a safe modality effective at reducing volume in benign thyroid nodules.

  18. Liver resection for benign hepatic lesions: A retrospective analysis of 827 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Li-Ning; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Huang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhang, Wen-Zhi; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the operative and perioperative factors associated with hepatectomy of benign hepatic lesions. METHODS: A total of 827 condecutive cases of benign hepatic lesion undergoing hepatectomy from January 1986 to December 2005 in the Chinese PLA General Hospital were investigated retrospectively according to their medical documentation. RESULTS: The effect of operative and perioperative factors on the outcome of patients were analyzed. Of the 827 cases undergoing hepatectomy for more than 3 liver segments accounted for 22.1%, 316 (38.21%) required transfusion of blood products during operation. The average operating time was 220.59 ± 109.13 min, the average hospital stay after operation was 13.55 ± 9.38 d. Child-Pugh A accounted for 98.13%. The postoperative complication rate was 13.54% and the in-hospital mortality rate was 0.24%. Multivariate analysis showed that operating time (P = 0.004, OR = 1.003) and albumin value (P = 0.040, OR = 0.938) were the independent predictors of morbidity and indicated that operating time, blood transfusion, complication rate, and LOS had a trend to decrease. CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy for benign hepatic lesions can be performed safely with a low morbidity and mortality, provided that it is carried out with optimized perioperative management and an innovative surgical technique. PMID:19084942

  19. A heuristic approach using multiple criteria for environmentally benign 3PLs selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongar, Elif

    2005-11-01

    Maintaining competitiveness in an environment where price and quality differences between competing products are disappearing depends on the company's ability to reduce costs and supply time. Timely responses to rapidly changing market conditions require an efficient Supply Chain Management (SCM). Outsourcing logistics to third-party logistics service providers (3PLs) is one commonly used way of increasing the efficiency of logistics operations, while creating a more "core competency focused" business environment. However, this alone may not be sufficient. Due to recent environmental regulations and growing public awareness regarding environmental issues, 3PLs need to be not only efficient but also environmentally benign to maintain companies' competitiveness. Even though an efficient and environmentally benign combination of 3PLs can theoretically be obtained using exhaustive search algorithms, heuristics approaches to the selection process may be superior in terms of the computational complexity. In this paper, a hybrid approach that combines a multiple criteria Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Linear Physical Weighting Algorithm (LPPW) to be used in efficient and environmentally benign 3PLs is proposed. A numerical example is also provided to illustrate the method and the analyses.

  20. Introducing Cichorium Pumilum as a potential therapeutical agent against drug-induced benign breast tumor in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Akhras, M-Ali H; Aljarrah, Khaled; Al-Khateeb, Hasan; Jaradat, Adnan; Al-Omari, Abdelkarim; Al-Nasser, Amjad; Masadeh, Majed M; Amin, Amr; Hamza, Alaaeldin; Mohammed, Karima; Al Olama, Mohammad; Daoud, Sayel

    2012-12-01

    Cichorium Pumilum (chicory) is could be a promising cancer treatment in which a photosensitizing drug concentrates in benign tumor cells and activated by quanta at certain wavelength. Such activated extracts could lead to cell death and tumor ablation. Previous studies have shown that Cichorium Pumilum (chicory) contains photosensitive compounds such as cichoriin, anthocyanins, lactucin, and Lactucopicrin. In the present study, the protective effect of sun light-activated Cichorium against the dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced benign breast tumors to female Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. Chicory's extract has significantly increase P.carbonyl (PC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreases the hepatic levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in benign breast tumors-induced group compared to control. It also significantly decrease the number of estrogen receptors ER-positive cells in tumor masses. These results suggest that chicory extracts could be used as herbal photosensitizing agent in treating benign breast tumor in rats.

  1. Bioimpedance spectroscopy can precisely discriminate human breast carcinoma from benign tumors

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhenggui; Wan, Hangyu; Chen, Yu; Pu, Yang; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Intraoperative frozen pathology is critical when a breast tumor is not diagnosed before surgery. However, frozen tumor tissues always present various microscopic morphologies, leading to a high misdiagnose rate from frozen section examination. Thus, we aimed to identify breast tumors using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), a technology that measures the tissues’ impedance. We collected and measured 976 specimens from breast patients during surgery, including 581 breast cancers, 190 benign tumors, and 205 normal mammary gland tissues. After measurement, Cole-Cole curves were generated by a bioimpedance analyzer and parameters R0/R∞, fc, and α were calculated from the curve. The Cole-Cole curves showed a trend to differentiate mammary gland, benign tumors, and cancer. However, there were some curves overlapped with other groups, showing that it is not an ideal model. Subsequent univariate analysis of R0/R∞, fc, and α showed significant differences between benign tumor and cancer. However, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated the diagnostic value of fc and R0/R∞ were not superior to frozen sections (area under curve [AUC] = 0.836 and 0.849, respectively), and α was useless in diagnosis (AUC = 0.596). After further research, we found a scatter diagram that showed a synergistic effect of the R0/R∞ and fc, in discriminating cancer from benign tumors. Thus, we used multivariate analysis, which revealed that these two parameters were independent predictors, to combine them. A simplified equation, RF′ = 0.2fc + 3.6R0/R∞, based on multivariate analysis was developed. The ROC curve for RF′ showed an AUC = 0.939, and the sensitivity and specificity were 82.62% and 95.79%, respectively. To match a clinical setting, the diagnostic criteria were set at 6.91 and 12.9 for negative and positive diagnosis, respectively. In conclusion, RF′ derived from BIS can discriminate benign tumor and cancers, and integrated criteria

  2. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation for treating benign thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoyin; Cui, Dan; Chi, Jiachang; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Tao; Zhai, Bo; Li, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively new procedure for treating benign thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of RFA for treating benign thyroid nodules so as to serve as a reference for future clinical practice. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients receiving percutaneous RFA for treating thyroid nodules from November 2014 to July 2015 in our medical center. One hundred and eight patients with a total of 380 nodules received ultrasound-guided RFA for treating thyroid nodules. Comparisons of the volume change of thyroid nodules before and after RFA treatment, post-treatment complication, and change of thyroid function, were carried out afterwards. Results: Before treatments, all patients received fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) which supported the diagnosis of benign tumor. There were 13 males and 95 females included in the study. Twenty-six cases (24.07%) had single nodule, and 82 cases (75.93%) had multiple nodules. Before treatments, the thyroid functions (FT3, FT4, and TSH) were normal originally or adjusted to normal range by endocrinology treatment. The preoperative nodules had minimum volume of 0.01mL, maximum volume of 70.89 mL, and mean volume of 1.02 ± 4.24mL. The volume of nodules one month and three months after RFA were 0.29 ± 0.72mL and 0.15 ± 0.87mL, respectively. In addition, volume reduction ratio (VRR) of nodules one month and three months after RFA were 64.12% and 85.54%, respectively. Both volume of nodules and VRR had statistically significant differences for pre-operative and post-operative comparison (P<0.05). Thyroid functions were in normal range after treatments, and there was no serious complications. Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided RFA treating benign thyroid nodules had the advantages of definite efficacy, safety, strong in control ability, no incision, less damage to surrounding normal tissues and no effect on thyroid function

  3. Application of Single Voxel 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Hepatic Benign and Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zifeng; Sun, Shiqiang; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background To quantify the metabolite changes in hepatic tumors by single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3.0 T and explore the application value of 1HMRS in the diagnosis of hepatic benign and malignant lesions. Material/Methods A total of 45 patients (55 lesions) diagnosed with hepatic lesions by ultrasound and/or computer topography (CT) from November 2006 to March 2007 were included in this study. All patients underwent 3D-dynamic enhanced scan with liver acquisition with acceleration volume acquisition (LAVA) sequence and single-voxel 1HMRS imaging with PRESS (point-resolved spectroscopy) sequence. The metabolite concentrations such as choline (Cho) and lipids (Lip) were measured. Results There was significant difference regarding the occurrence rate of the obvious elevated Cho peaks between benign and malignant tumors (7/27 vs. 21/28, p=0.000). There was statistical significant differences regarding the Cho/Lip ratios in hepatic benign (0.0686±0.0283, 95% CI: 0.0134–0.1245) and malignant (0.1266±0.1124, 95% CI: 0.0937–0.2203) lesions (p<0.05). When compared with the pathological results, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy were 85.7% (24/28), 92.6% (25/27), 92.3% (24/26), 86.2% (25/29), and 89.1% (49/55) respectively for the MRI assessment, and 92.6% (26/28), 88.9% (24/27), 89.7 (26/29), 92.3 (24/26), and 90.9% (50/55) respectively for 1HMRS combined with MRI assessment. Conclusions Single Cho peaks or Lip peaks cannot be used for the diagnosis of hepatic benign and malignant lesions. Combined use of 1HMRS and MRI can greatly improve the application value of MRI assessment in the diagnosis of hepatic benign and malignant lesions with a higher sensitivity, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy. PMID:27992399

  4. Application Value of Mass Spectrometry in the Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Liver Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Li, Boan; Guo, Tongsheng; Sun, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxi; Wang, Han; Chen, Weijiao; Chen, Peng; Qiao, Mengran; Xia, Lifang; Mao, Yuanli

    2017-01-01

    Background Differentiation of malignant from benign liver tumors remains a challenging problem. In recent years, mass spectrometry (MS) technique has emerged as a promising strategy to diagnose a wide range of malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to establish classification models to distinguish benign and malignant liver tumors and identify the liver cancer-specific peptides by mass spectrometry. Material/Methods In our study, serum samples from 43 patients with malignant liver tumors and 52 patients with benign liver tumors were treated with weak cation-exchange chromatography Magnetic Beads (MB-WCX) kits and analyzed by the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Then we established genetic algorithm (GA), supervised neural networks (SNN), and quick classifier (QC) models to distinguish malignant from benign liver tumors. To confirm the clinical applicability of the established models, the blinded validation test was performed in 50 clinical serum samples. Discriminatory peaks associated with malignant liver tumors were subsequently identified by a qTOF Synapt G2-S system. Results A total of 27 discriminant peaks (p<0.05) in mass spectra of serum samples were found by ClinPro Tools software. Recognition capabilities of the established models were 100% (GA), 89.38% (SNN), and 80.84% (QC); cross-validation rates were 81.67% (GA), 81.11% (SNN), and 86.11% (QC). The accuracy rates of the blinded validation test were 78% (GA), 84% (SNN), and 84% (QC). From the 27 discriminatory peptide peaks analyzed, 3 peaks of m/z 2860.34, 2881.54, and 3155.67 were identified as a fragment of fibrinogen alpha chain, fibrinogen beta chain, and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4), respectively. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that MS technique can be helpful in differentiation of benign and malignant liver tumors. Fibrinogen and ITIH4 might be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of malignant liver tumors

  5. Endosonographic features predictive of benign and malignant gastrointestinal stromal cell tumours

    PubMed Central

    Palazzo, L; Landi, B; Cellier, C; Cuillerier, E; Roseau, G; Barbier, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM—Some endoscopic ultrasonographic (EUS) features have been reported to be suggestive of malignancy in gastrointestinal stromal cell tumours (SCTs). The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of these features for malignancy.
METHODS—A total of 56 histologically proven cases of SCT studied by EUS between 1989 and 1996 were reviewed. There were 42 gastric tumours, 12 oesophageal tumours, and two rectal tumours. The tumours were divided into two groups: (a) benign SCT, comprising benign leiomyoma (n = 34); (b) malignant or borderline SCT (n = 22), comprising leiomyosarcoma (n = 9), leiomyoblastoma (n = 9), and leiomyoma of uncertain malignant potential (n = 4). The main EUS features recorded were tumour size, ulceration, echo pattern, cystic spaces, extraluminal margins, and lymph nodes with a malignant pattern. The two groups were compared by univariate and multivariate analysis.
RESULTS—Irregular extraluminal margins, cystic spaces, and lymph nodes with a malignant pattern were most predictive of malignant or borderline SCT. Pairwise combinations of the three features had a specificity and positive predictive value of 100% for malignant or borderline SCT, but a sensitivity of only 23%. The presence of at least one of these three criteria had 91% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and 83% predictive positive value. In multivariate analysis, cystic spaces and irregular margins were the only two features independently predictive of malignant potential. The features most predictive of benign SCTs were regular margins, tumour size ⩽30 mm, and a homogeneous echo pattern. When the three features were combined, histology confirmed a benign SCT in all cases.
CONCLUSIONS—The combined presence of two out of three EUS features (irregular extraluminal margins, cystic spaces, and lymph nodes with a malignant pattern) had a positive predictive value of 100% for malignant or borderline gastrointestinal SCT. Tumours less than 30

  6. Characteristics of fasciculations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the benign fasciculation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kerry R

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine first, if benign fasciculations and those in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis can de distinguished on the basis of their waveforms or firing characteristics, and second to determine how fasciculation parameters evolved with progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Fasciculation potentials recorded from 63 muscles of 28 patients with definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were compared with those from 21 muscles of 11 patients with the benign fasciculation syndrome. In each muscle, at a single site, up to 15 identifiable fasciculation potentials could be recognized. Thus the characteristics of 430 fasciculations from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 191 benign fasciculations were analysed. Fasciculation potential amplitude, area, turns, duration, firing interval, indices of waveform variability, evidence of axonal conduction block, evidence of axonal conduction variability and propensity to produce double fasciculations were measured. The waveforms of fasciculations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were on average of shorter duration and had a greater number of turns than benign fasciculations, but, although irregular in both conditions, the firing rate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was significantly higher. In both conditions, there was evidence of multifocal distal generation of fasciculations, axonal conduction block in the motor unit arborization and of variable axonal conduction. When severe weakness and marked chronic neurogenic change were present on electromyography, the firing rate of fasciculations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was higher but fasciculation potential amplitude, area and indices of waveform variability were little changed. Double fasciculations in which the waveforms of the two potentials were the same occurred in both conditions. The intervals were in two bands: an early band with 4-10 ms intervals showed identical waveforms of the two potentials, indicating the region of

  7. Successful surgery in lesional epilepsy secondary to posterior quandrant ulegyria coexisting with benign childhood focal epilepsy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengpeng; Zheng, Honghua; Zhang, Xiaobin; Li, Yanfang; Gao, Zhiying; Wang, Yuanqing; Liu, Xiaowei; Yao, Yi

    2016-10-01

    The present study reports, for the first time, a rare case of benign childhood focal epilepsy(BCFE) coexisting with lesional epilepsy secondary to parietooccipital ulegyria. The patient underwent right parietooccipital lobe disconnection plus tailored resection of temporooccipitoparietal junction cortex under electrocorticography (ECoG) monitoring. Post-operatively, there was no impairment of neurological function and the patient only experiences a few breakthrough benign partial seizures during sleep.

  8. Plasma cell-free DNA levels and integrity in patients with chest radiological findings: NSCLC versus benign lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Szpechcinski, Adam; Rudzinski, Piotr; Kupis, Wlodzimierz; Langfort, Renata; Orlowski, Tadeusz; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    Effective discrimination between lung cancer and benign tumours is a common clinical problem in the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules. The analysis of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in blood may greatly aid the early detection of lung cancer by evaluating cancer-related alterations. The plasma cfDNA levels and integrity were analysed in 65 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, 28 subjects with benign lung tumours, and 16 healthy controls using real-time PCR. The NSCLC patients demonstrated significantly higher mean plasma cfDNA levels compared with those with benign tumours (P = 0.0009) and healthy controls (P < 0.0001). The plasma cfDNA integrity in healthy individuals was significantly different than that found in patients with NSCLC or benign lung tumours (P < 0.0003). In ROC curve analysis, plasma cfDNA levels >2.8 ng/ml provided 86.4% sensitivity and 61.4% specificity in discriminating NSCLC from benign lung pathologies and healthy controls. cfDNA integrity showed better discriminatory power (91% sensitivity, 68.2% specificity). These data demonstrate that plasma cfDNA concentration and integrity analyses can significantly differentiate between NSCLC and benign lung tumours. The diagnostic capacity of the quantitative cfDNA assay is comparable to the values presented by conventional imaging modalities used in clinical practice.

  9. Benign esophageal stricture after thermal injury treated with esophagectomy and ileocolon interposition

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Momose, Kota; Lee, Seigi; Haruta, Shusuke; Shinohara, Hisashi; Ueno, Masaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Udagawa, Harushi

    2014-01-01

    Thermal injuries of the esophagus are rare causes of benign esophageal stricture, and all published cases were successfully treated with conservative management. A 28-year-old Japanese man with a thermal esophageal injury caused by drinking a cup of hot coffee six months earlier was referred to our hospital. The hot coffee was consumed in a single gulp at a party. Although the patient had been treated conservatively at another hospital, his symptoms of dysphagia gradually worsened after discharge. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and computed tomography revealed a pin-hole like area of stricture located 19 cm distally from the incisors to the esophagogastric junction, as well as circumferential stenosis with notable wall thickness at the same site. The patient underwent a thoracoscopic esophageal resection with reconstruction using ileocolon interposition. The pathological findings revealed wall thickening along the entire length of the esophagus, with massive fibrosis extending to the muscularis propria and adventitia at almost all levels. Treatment with balloon dilation for long areas of stricture is generally difficult, and stent placement in patients with benign esophageal stricture, particularly young patients, is not yet widely accepted due to the incidence of late adverse events. Considering the curability and quality-of-life associated with a long expected prognosis, we determined that surgery was the best treatment option for this young patient. In this case, we decided to perform an esophagectomy and reconstruction with ileocolon interposition in order to preserve the reservoir function of the stomach and to avoid any problems related to the reflux of gastric contents. In conclusion, resection of the esophagus is a treatment option in patients with benign esophageal injury, especially in cases involving young patients with refractory esophageal stricture. In addition, ileocolon interposition may help to improve the quality-of-life of patients. PMID

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of benign liver nodules: Brazilian Society of Hepatology (SBH) recommendations.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Edna; Ferreira, Adalgisa de Souza Paiva; França, Alex Vianey Callado; Lyra, Andre Castro; Barros, Fabio Marinho do Rego; Silva, Ivonete; Garcia, José Huygens Parente; Parise, Edison Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Space-occupying lesions of the liver may be cystic or solid. Ultrasonography is an extremely useful method for initial screening, and suffices for diagnosis of simple hepatic cysts. Complex cysts and solid masses require computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for confirmation. Wide surgical excision is indicated in cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Clinical and epidemiological data are important, as nodules in noncirrhotic livers are more likely to be benign. Hemangiomas, the most common benign tumors, require no follow-up after diagnostic confirmation if they are small and asymptomatic. Patients with giant, symptomatic hemangiomas or compression of adjacent structures should be referred to hepatobiliary centers for potential surgery. The genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular adenomas and their epidemiology and prognosis prompted classification of these tumors into four subtypes based on histology and immunohistochemistry. The major complications of hepatocellular adenomas are rupture with bleeding and malignant transformation. Rupture occurs in approximately 30% of cases. The main risk factors are tumors size >5 cm and inflammatory subtype. Hepatocellular adenomas may enlarge during pregnancy due to marked hormonal stimulation. As oral contraceptive pills and anabolic steroids have associated with hepatocellular adenomas growth, particularly of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alfa subtype, these drugs should be discontinued. Focal nodular hyperplasia is the second most common benign tumor of the liver. It is most frequent in women aged 20 to 60, and 70% to 90% of cases are asymptomatic. In the absence of a central scar and/or other hallmarks of Focal nodular hyperplasia, with uncertainty between this diagnosis and hepatocellular adenoma, liver-specific contrast agents are indicated.

  11. New insight into benign tumours of major salivary glands by proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Donadio, Elena; Giusti, Laura; Seccia, Veronica; Ciregia, Federica; da Valle, Ylenia; Dallan, Iacopo; Ventroni, Tiziana; Giannaccini, Gino; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano; Lucacchini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Major salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms of the head and neck. The increase of precise pre-operative diagnosis is crucial for their correct management and the identification of molecular markers would surely improve the required accuracy. In this study we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of fine needle aspiration fluids of the most frequent benign neoplasms of major salivary glands, namely pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumour, in order to draw their proteomic profiles and to point out their significant features. Thirty-five patients submitted to parotidectomy were included in the study, 22 were identified to have pleomorphic adenoma and 14 Warthin's tumour. Fine needle aspiration samples were processed using a two-dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry-based approach. A total of 26 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Ingenuity software was used to search the biological processes to which these proteins belong and to construct potential networks. Intriguingly, all Warthin's tumour up-regulated proteins such as Ig gamma-1 chain C region, Ig kappa chain C region and Ig alpha-1 chain C region and S100A9 were correlated to immunological and inflammatory diseases, while pleomorphic adenomas such as annexin A1, annexin A4, macrophage-capping protein, apolipoprotein E and alpha crystalline B chain were associated with cell death, apoptosis and tumorigenesis, showing different features of two benign tumours. Overall, our results shed new light on the potential usefulness of a proteomic approach to study parotid tumours and in particular up regulated proteins are able to discriminate two types of benign parotid lesions.

  12. Indications of Free Grafts in Mandibular Reconstruction, after Removing Benign Tumors: Treatment Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Alister, Juan Pablo; Uribe, Francisca; Olate, Sergio; Arriagada, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mandibular reconstruction has been the subject of much debate and research in the fields of maxillofacial surgery and head and neck surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was undertaken with 14 patients diagnosed with benign tumorous pathologies and who underwent immediate mandibular resection and reconstruction at the Hospital del Salvador Maxillofacial Surgery Unit and Dr. Rodrigo Fariña’s private clinic between the years 2002 and 2012. We propose a treatment algorithm, which is previous teeth extractions in area that will be removed. Results: Fourteen patients underwent surgery, and a total of 40 dental implants were installed in 6 men and 8 women, the mean age of 33.5 (age range, 14–58 y). Reconstruction with iliac crest bone graft, and rehabilitation following this protocol (average of reconstruction was 8.7 cm), was successful with no complications at all in 12 patients. One patient had a minor complication, and the graft was partially reabsorbed because of communication of the graft with the oral cavity. This complication did not impede rehabilitation with dental implants. Another patient suffered the total loss of the graft due to infection because of dehiscence of oral mucosa and great communication with the mouth. Another iliac crest free graft reconstruction was undertaken 6 months later. Conclusions: The scientific evidence suggests that mandibular reconstruction using free grafts following the removal of benign tumors is a biologically sustainable alternative. The critical factor to improve the prognosis of free grafts reconstruction in benign tumors is to have good quality soft tissue and avoid communication with the oral cavity. For this, it is vital to do dental extractions before removing the tumor. PMID:27622113

  13. Novel MIR143-NOTCH Fusions in Benign and Malignant Glomus Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Sboner, Andrea; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chun-Liang; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Agaram, Narasimhan P.; Briskin, Daniel; Basha, Basma M.; Singer, Samuel; Rubin, Mark A.; Tuschl, Thomas; Antonescu, Cristina R.

    2013-01-01

    Glomus tumors (GT) have been classified among tumors of perivascular smooth muscle differentiation, together with myopericytoma, myofibroma/tosis, and angioleiomyoma, based on their morphologic overlap. However, no molecular studies have been carried out to date to investigate their genetic phenotype and to confirm their shared pathogenesis. RNA sequencing was performed in three index cases (GT1, malignant GT; GT2, benign GT and M1, multifocal myopericytoma), followed by FusionSeq data analysis, a modular computational tool developed to discover gene fusions from paired-end RNA-seq data. A gene fusion involving MIR143 in band 5q32 was identified in both GTs with either NOTCH2 in 1p13 in GT1 or NOTCH1 in 9q34 in GT2, but none in M1. After being validated by FISH and RT-PCR, these abnormalities were screened on 33 GTs, 6 myopericytomas, 9 myofibroma/toses, 18 angioleiomyomas and in a control group of 5 sino-nasal hemangiopericytomas. Overall NOTCH2 gene rearrangements were identified in 52% of GT, including all malignant cases and one NF1-related GT. No additional cases showed NOTCH1 rearrangement. As NOTCH3 shares similar functions with NOTCH2 in regulating vascular smooth muscle development, the study group was also investigated for abnormalities in this gene by FISH. Indeed, NOTCH3 rearrangements were identified in 9% of GTs, all present in benign soft tissue GT, one case being fused to MIR143. Only 1/18 angioleiomyomas showed NOTCH2 gene rearrangement, while all the myopericytomas and myofibroma/toses were negative. In summary we describe novel NOTCH1-3 rearrangements in benign and malignant, visceral and soft tissue GTs. PMID:23999936

  14. Transanal Endoscopic Operation for Benign Rectal Lesions and T1 Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihara, Emi; Dedrye, Lieven; Vindevoghel, Koen; Nuytens, Frederiek; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Transanal endoscopic operation (TEO) is a minimally invasive technique used for local excision of benign and selected malignant rectal lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility, safety, and oncological outcomes of the procedure and to report the experience in 3 centers. Methods: Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was performed of all patients with benign lesions or ≤cT1N0 rectal cancer who underwent TEO with curative intent at 3 Belgian centers (2012 through 2014). Results: Eighty-three patients underwent 84 TEOs for 89 rectal lesions (37 adenomas, 43 adenocarcinomas, 1 gastrointestinal stromal tumor, 1 lipoma, 2 neuroendocrine tumors, and 5 scar tissues). Operative time was associated with lesion size (P < .001). Postoperative complications occurred in 13 patients: 7 hemorrhages, 1 urinary tract infection, 1 urinary retention, 2 abscesses, 1 anastomotic stenosis, and 1 entrance into the peritoneal cavity. Median hospital stay was 3 days (range, 1–8). During a median follow-up of 13 months (range, 2–27), there was 1 recurrence. Conclusion: Although longer follow-up is still necessary, TEO appears to be an effective method of excising benign tumors and low-risk T1 carcinomas of the rectum. However, TEO should be considered as part of the diagnostic work-up. Furthermore, the resected specimen of a TEO procedure allows adequate local staging in contrast to an endoscopic piecemeal excision. Nevertheless, definitive histology must be appreciated, and in case of unfavorable histology, radical salvage resection still has to be performed. PMID:28144126

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Bill W. Bogan; Brigid M. Lamb; Gemma Husmillo; Kristine Lowe; J. Robert Paterek; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-12-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Various chemicals that inhibit the growth and/or the metabolism of corrosion-associated microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and methanogenic bacteria were evaluated to determine their ability to inhibit corrosion in experiments utilizing pure and mixed bacterial cultures, and planktonic cultures as well as mature biofilms. Planktonic cultures are easier to inhibit than mature biofilms but several compounds were shown to be effective in decreasing the amount of metal corrosion. Of the compounds tested hexane extracts of Capsicum pepper plants and molybdate were the most effective inhibitors of sulfate reducing bacteria, bismuth nitrate was the most effective inhibitor of nitrate reducing bacteria, and 4-((pyridine-2-yl)methylamino)benzoic acid (PMBA) was the most effective inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria. All of these compounds were demonstrated to minimize corrosion due to MIC, at least in some circumstances. The results obtained in this project are consistent with the hypothesis that any compound that disrupts the metabolism of any of the major microbial groups present in corrosion-associated biofilms shows promise in limiting the amount/rate of corrosion. This approach of controlling MIC by controlling the metabolism of biofilms is more environmentally benign than the current approach involving the use of potent biocides, and warrants further investigation.

  16. Inflammatory Responses in a Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epithelial Cell Line (BPH-1) Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Su; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). PMID:27180569

  17. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Hemoptysis Due to Benign Diseases: Immediate and Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Akira; Kudo, Sho; Matsumoto, Koichi; Fukahori, Tetsuhiro; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Uchino, Akira; Hayashi, Shinichiro

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: To clarify the immediate effect and long-term results of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for hemoptysis due to benign diseases and the factors influencing the outcomes.Methods: One hundred and one patients (aged 34-89 years) received bronchial artery embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles and gelatin sponge for massive or continuing moderate hemoptysis caused by benign pulmonary diseases and resistant to medical treatment.Results: After BAE, bleeding stopped in 94 patients (94%). The immediate effect was unfavorable in cases where feeder vessels were overlooked or the embolization of the intercostal arteries was insufficient. Long-term cumulative hemoptysis non recurrence rates after the initial embolization were 77.7% for 1 year and 62.5% for 5 years. In bronchitis (n 9) and active tuberculosis (n = 4) groups, an excellent (100%) 5-year cumulative non recurrence rate was obtained. The rate was lower in groups with pneumonia/abscess/pyothorax (n = 8) or with pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 9) (53.3%, 1-year cumulative non recurrence). There were higher incidences of early recurrence among patients with massive hemorrhage or more marked vascularity and systemic artery-pulmonary artery shunt in angiography: however, these trends were not statistically significant. Conclusions: BAE can yield long-term benefit in patients with hemoptysis due to benign diseases. Technical problems in the procedure had an impact on the short-term effect. The degree of hemorrhage or the severity of angiographical findings were not significant factors affecting the outcome. The most significant factor affecting long-term results was whether the inflammation caused by the underlying disease was medically well controlled.

  18. Inflammatory Responses in a Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epithelial Cell Line (BPH-1) Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Su; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

  19. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Benign Tumors With Symptoms From Brainstem Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaya, Kotaro; Niranjan, Ajay; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: This study evaluated the role of radiosurgery in the management of symptomatic patients with brainstem compression from benign basal tumors. Methods and Materials: Over a 17-year, period 246 patients (202 vestibular schwannomas and 44 meningiomas) with brainstem compression from benign skull-base tumors were managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Median tumor volumes were 3.9 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.8-39.0 mL) and 6.6 mL (range, 1.6-25.1 mL) for vestibular schwannomas and meningiomas, respectively. For both tumors, a median marginal dose of 13 Gy was prescribed. Median follow-up of patients was 65 months for vestibular schwannomas and 60 months for meningiomas. Patients were categorized into four groups on the basis of the tumor-brainstem relationship on neuroimaging. Results: Preservation of function was stratified according to grade of brainstem compression. We analyzed the effect of radiosurgery on symptoms of brainstem compression. The tumor control rate was 100 % for meningioma and 97% for vestibular schwannomas (although 5% required an additional procedure such as a ventriculoperitoneal shunt). In patients with vestibular schwannoma, serviceable hearing was preserved in 72.0%. Balance improved in 31.9%, remained unchanged in 56.5%, and deteriorated in 11.6% of patients who had imbalance at presentation. Balance improved significantly in patients who had less tumor compression (p = 0.0357) after radiosurgery. Symptoms improved in 43.2% of patients with meningioma. Conclusion: Radiosurgery is a minimally invasive option for patients with benign basal tumors that indent or distort the brainstem. A high tumor growth control rate and satisfactory rate of neurological preservation and symptom control can be obtained with radiosurgery.

  20. [The current approach to the management of benign hypertrophy of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Abbou, C C; Salomon, L; Chopin, D; Ravery, V; Haillot, O

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiology. The incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has increased in proportion to the life expectancy and has become the third leading cause of health expenditure in industrialized countries. Eighty per cent of men are treated for benign prostatic hyperplasia during their lifetime. In Europe, the mean age of diagnosis is 65 years. The clinical symptoms are assessed by the IPSS score (International Prostate Symptom Score) and by the maximum flow rate, where frank dysuria is defined as a flow rate of less than 10 ml/sec. Physiology. The prostate contains equal proportions of glandular epithelial structures and fibromuscular connective tissue stroma. The glandular prostate is innervated by cholinergic nerves, while the smooth muscle of the stroma and the urethra are innervated by adrenergic nerves. BPH arises in the transitional zone (fairly glandular). Androgen deprivation (castration, antiandrogens, progestogens, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors) induces a 30% reduction of the prostatic volume (especially epithelial). BPH could be due to reactivation of the embryonic potential of the stroma. Certain growth factors appear to be involved in BPH. Inflammatory and immunological phenomena may also be involved. Evaluation. Plan of clinical interview, clinical examination and laboratory and radiological data. A 40-year-old man has one chance in 30 of being operated for benign prostatic hyperplasia if he lives to the age of 80. Medical treatments have been developed since 1980 which inhibit the course of BPH and minimize some of the clinical symptoms: plant extracts, alpha-blockers, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors. Conventional surgical treatments, open prostatectomy and endoscopic resection, have been completed by laser therapy, thermotherapy and cryotherapy.

  1. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults

    SciTech Connect

    al-Mefty, O.; Kersh, J.E.; Routh, A.; Smith, R.R. )

    1990-10-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors. One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered safe treatment for benign brain tumors. 163 refs.

  2. A Comparative Study of Immunohistochemical Myoepithelial Cell Markers in Cutaneous Benign Cystic Apocrine Lesions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew; Houghton, Sinatra L; Biswas, Asok

    2016-07-01

    The use of immunohistochemical markers for myoepithelial cells (MEC) is a useful tool in the distinction of benign from malignant epithelial neoplasms. Although their use in breast tumors is well recognized, little is known concerning its application in comparable cutaneous lesions. Using benign cutaneous cystic apocrine lesions as a study model, the aim of this study was to compare 5 immunohistochemical markers [calponin, p63, smooth muscle actin (SMA), cytokeratin 14, and CD10] in their effectiveness to highlight MEC. Cases of apocrine hidrocystoma and cystadenoma (n = 44) were reviewed with a particular emphasis on proliferative features and apocrine change. The MEC staining pattern and the intensity and distribution scores in proliferative (n = 29) and nonproliferative (n = 15) lesions were assessed, and the differences between the 2 groups were statistically analyzed using Fisher exact test. Calponin and SMA stained MEC in the most consistent manner. Being a nuclear stain, p63 was easy to interpret but typically showed discontinuous staining. Cytokeratin 14 not only effectively highlighted MEC but also stained some luminal epithelial cells in an unpredictable manner. Because of prominent background dermal fibroblast staining, CD10 was often difficult to interpret. Only SMA and p63 showed a statistically significant difference in MEC staining intensity scores between the proliferative and nonproliferative groups. Our results show that immunohistological staining for MEC in benign cystic apocrine lesions of the skin is variable. The authors recommend that a panel of markers that includes calponin and p63 be used and highlight the need for awareness of specific caveats associated with individual markers.

  3. Prevalence of sex chromosome loss in benign and malignant brain neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Al Saadi, A.

    1994-09-01

    Loss of gonosomes in a variety of benign and malignant neoplasms is well-documented, but the clinical and/or biological significance of such loss remains obscure. Loss of the Y chromosome from the leukocytes of elderly men is also well-known. In an attempt to elucidate the significance of the loss of gonosomes, we have determined the incidence of such loss in human brain tumors ranging from benign to highly malignant. Loss of the X or Y chromosomes were evaluated by karyotyping short-term cultures and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on uncultured samples of 129 tumors. Loss of gonosomes was also evaluated in leukocytes from these patients. In glioblastoma multiforme (GM), the Y chromosome was lost from 64% and the X from 41% of 42 tumors. The Y chromosome was lost from 36% of 55 meningiomas (MA) and from 33% of other less malignant gliomas. Loss of the X chromosome was negligible in both MAs and the pre- or less malignant gliomas. Loss of the X or the Y in GM was the most common nonrandom abnormality and loss of the Y was the most nonrandom abnormality in all brain tumors, other than MA in which loss of chromosome 22 is the most common. There was insignificant difference in the detection of gonosomes loss by karyotyping or by FISH of interphase cells. There was no loss of gonosomes in the leukocytes of the studied patients. Although the significance of the X or Y loss is not clear, it appears that gonosomes play a role in the development of brain tumors. The gonosomes may carry genes involved in growth regulation. Although loss of the X or Y is nonrandom, loss of the X was limited to the malignant brain neoplasms whereas loss of the Y was noted in both benign and malignant tumors, which may suggest different functions in growth regulation of the two chromosomes.

  4. Radiofrequency ablation of benign thyroid nodules: evaluation of the treatment efficacy using ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for benign thyroid nodules and assess the usefulness of internal factors (ultrasonographic findings) and external factors (treatment-related findings) in prediction of treatment efficacy. Methods: We evaluated 22 benign thyroid nodules from 19 patients treated with RF ablation between March 2010 and January 2013. The internal and external factors of these nodules were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with the therapeutic success and the volume reduction ratio (VRR). The volume and size of the nodules were determined before treatment, and the VRR was calculated at 6-month and 1-year follow-up examinations after RF ablation. Therapeutic success was defined as a >50% volume reduction. Results: The mean VRRs were 66.1±18.7% at 6 months and 74.3±16.7% at 1 year. The therapeutic success rate after 6 months and 1 year was 81.8% and 90.9%, respectively. At the 1-year follow-up, the margin of the nodule correlated with therapeutic success. Most of the successfully ablated nodules showed well-defined margins on initial ultrasonography (18/20, 90%) (P=0.026). In addition, nodules with ill-defined margins showed a tendency toward having a low VRR at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up examinations. Conclusion: RF ablation was effective in decreasing the volume of benign thyroid nodules. Thyroid nodules with well-defined margins tended to show successful outcomes at the 1-year follow-up examination after RF ablation. PMID:27101983

  5. Benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast. A cytomorphologic study.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, P B; Ljung, B M

    1994-04-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology of benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast has been infrequently described. To define the cytologic features of benign and malignant papillary breast lesions better, the authors retrospectively reviewed the fine-needle aspiration cytology of five cases of histologically proven intracystic papillary carcinoma (IPC) and six cases of histologically proven papilloma. Clinical information was obtained from the medical records in each case. Intracystic papillary carcinoma tended to present as a larger tumor (average, 5 cm) in older women (average, 65.4 years). Papilloma, however, tended to present as a smaller tumor (average, 1.5 cm) in younger women (average, 43 years). Eighty percent of the IPC cases (4/5) and 50% of the papilloma cases (3/6) yielded highly cellular aspirates with complex vascular papillae and single columnar cells. Macrophages were a constant feature of IPC and were present in all but one case of papilloma. Although cellular atypia was not a prominent feature in either IPC or papilloma, moderate atypia was noted in one case of IPC and two cases of papilloma. Severe atypia was noted in a single case of IPC. Although IPC tended to yield a harvest with higher cellularity and single intact cells, no single feature or constellation of findings was consistently reliable in distinguishing IPC from papilloma. The authors found that papillary lesions of the breast demonstrate a distinct cytomorphology characterized by complex vascular papillae, columnar cells, and macrophages. They concluded, however, that, in the absence of overt cytologic malignancy, distinguishing between benign and malignant papillary breast lesions is difficult, if not impossible.

  6. The current role of U tubes for benign and malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, K W; Gleason, T G; Deziel, D J; Doolas, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The recent experience with U tubes at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Lukes Medical Center was reviewed in order to assess their current role in hepatobiliary surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA. Transhepatic intubation by a variety of methods has been used routinely for biliary decompression and inhibition of anastomotic stricture since the 1960s. U tubes were popularized in the early 1970s. However, little has been written about their use and efficacy in recent years. Because of the apparent benefits associated with the use of U tubes versus other stenting techniques, the authors performed this study. METHODS. The hospital and office charts of all patients who had U tubes placed between 1980 and 1992 were reviewed retrospectively. Between 1980 and 1992, U tubes were placed intraoperatively in 54 patients for biliary decompression and/or stenting. Twelve patients were operated on for benign causes of obstruction. Forty-two patients with malignant tumors underwent surgery for U tube placement in conjunction with or without tumor resection and anastomotic bypass. RESULTS. There was a 0% operative mortality rate in the benign group. In six patients, the U tube played a major role in the long-term management of their disease processes. None of these patients has had restricture since removal of the tube. In the malignant group, the 30-day operative mortality rate was 12%. After 3 months, marked clinical improvement and complete biliary decompression were achieved, with mean bilirubin levels dropping from 14.0 mg/dL to 1.3 mg/dL. No patients in the malignant group required reoperation for recurrent biliary obstruction after U tube placement. CONCLUSIONS. The use of U tubes is advocated for biliary decompression and/or anastomotic stenting in patients with benign stricture or resectable malignancy and in patients with nonresectable, malignant biliary obstruction for adequate palliation of intractable jaundice. PMID:8239776

  7. MOG antibody–positive, benign, unilateral, cerebral cortical encephalitis with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Ryo; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Kimihiko; Akaishi, Tetsuya; Takai, Yoshiki; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Nishiyama, Shuhei; Misu, Tatsuro; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Aoki, Masashi; Fujihara, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the features of adult patients with benign, unilateral cerebral cortical encephalitis positive for the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody. Methods: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, after we encountered an index case of MOG antibody–positive unilateral cortical encephalitis with epileptic seizure, we tested for MOG antibody using our in-house, cell-based assay in a cohort of 24 consecutive adult patients with steroid-responsive encephalitis of unknown etiology seen at Tohoku University Hospital (2008–2014). We then analyzed the findings in MOG antibody–positive cases. Results: Three more patients, as well as the index case, were MOG antibody–positive, and all were adult men (median age 37 years, range 23–39 years). The main symptom was generalized epileptic seizure with or without abnormal behavior or consciousness disturbance. Two patients also developed unilateral benign optic neuritis (before or after seizure). In all patients, brain MRI demonstrated unilateral cerebral cortical fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense lesions, which were swollen and corresponded to hyperperfusion on SPECT. CSF studies showed moderate mononuclear pleocytosis with some polymorphonuclear cells and mildly elevated total protein levels, but myelin basic protein was not elevated. A screening of encephalitis-associated autoantibodies, including aquaporin-4, glutamate receptor, and voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies, was negative. All patients received antiepilepsy drugs and fully recovered after high-dose methylprednisolone, and the unilateral cortical MRI lesions subsequently disappeared. No patient experienced relapse. Conclusions: These MOG antibody–positive cases represent unique benign unilateral cortical encephalitis with epileptic seizure. The pathology may be autoimmune, although the findings differ from MOG antibody–associated demyelination and Rasmussen and other known immune

  8. A lexicon for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance ultrasonography: benign versus malignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    An, Chansik; Rakhmonova, Gulbahor; Han, Kyunghwa; Seo, Nieun; Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Park, Mi-Suk

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims To suggest a lexicon for liver ultrasonography and to identify radiologic features indicative of benign or malignant lesions on surveillance ultrasonography. Methods This retrospective study included 188 nodules (benign, 101; malignant, 87) from 175 at-risk patients identified during surveillance ultrasonography for hepatocellular carcinoma. We created a lexicon for liver ultrasonography by reviewing relevant literature regarding the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lesions. Using this lexicon, two abdominal radiologists determined the presence or absence of each ultrasonographic feature for the included hepatic lesions. Independent factors associated with malignancy and interobserver agreement were determined by logistic regression analysis and kappa statistics, respectively. Results Larger tumor size (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.183; P<0.001), multinodular confluent morphology (OR, 7.712; 95% CI, 1.053-56.465; P=0.044), thick hypoechoic rim (OR, 5.878; 95% CI, 2.681-12.888; P<0.001), and posterior acoustic enhancement (OR, 3.077; 95% CI, 1.237-7.655; P=0.016) were independently associated with malignant lesions. In a subgroup analysis of lesions <2 cm, none of the ultrasonographic features were significantly associated with malignancy or benignity. Interobserver agreement for morphology was fair (κ=0.36), while those for rim (κ=0.427), echogenicity (κ=0.549), and posterior acoustic enhancement (κ=0.543) were moderate. Conclusions For hepatic lesions larger than 2 cm, some ultrasonography (US) features might be suggestive of malignancy. We propose a lexicon that may be useful for surveillance US. PMID:28349678

  9. Severe hydrocephalus complicated with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: one case report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian Jun; Cheng, Wei Jin; Rao, Jie; Lu, Ye Fen; Qiu, Wei Wen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we reported one female patient diagnosed with severe hydrocephalus who presented with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). She presented with progressive headache and dizziness prior to hospitalization as chief complaints. She received Diagnostic Dix-Hallpike and Roll tests to make a definite diagnosis. The patient was cured after Gufoni maneuver and did not recur after 6-month follow-up. The diagnostic procedures of this female case prompted that prior to formal treatment, patients developing severe hydrocephalus complicated with BPPV should receive provocative test for positional dizziness, performed by experienced physicians from the Department of neurology and otolaryngology. PMID:26885146

  10. New Treatment Strategy for Apogeotropic Horizontal Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    e Maia, Francisco Zuma

    2016-01-01

    The apogeotropic variant of horizontal semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV) is attributed to canalithiasis of the anterior arm or cupulolithiasis. Despite some therapeutic maneuvers, I propose a new treatment strategy for apogeotropic HC-BPPV that is designed to detach both the otoconial debris from the anterior arm of the semicircular canal and the debris that is attached to the utricular side of the cupula using inertia and gravity and based on simulations with a 3D biomechanical model. PMID:27942374

  11. [Treatment of the benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) by Epley maneuver].

    PubMed

    Pino Rivero, V; Pantoja Hernández, C G; González Palomino, A; Mora Santos, M E; Marcos García, M; Montero García, C; Blasco Huelva, A

    2007-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common of the peripheral vertigo. We report the case of a 45 years old female with that pathology suspected by the symptoms which the patient related to head changes of positions and movements. Her diagnosis was confirmed by the maneuver of Dix-Hallpike, that was positive, and the treatment consisted in a maneuver of canalicular reposition according to Epley's technique. Such maneuver was successful and actually the patient is without symptoms after more than 2 years since the first episode. Finally we have performed a bibliographic review to verify the effectiveness of that treatment.

  12. Tracheal Lobular Capillary Haemangioma: A Rare Benign Cause of Recurrent Haemoptysis

    PubMed Central

    Kotidis, Konstantinos; Loubani, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Lobular capillary haemangioma (LCH), previously known as pyogenic granuloma, is a benign vascular lesion commonly found within the oral and nasal cavity. However, it is rarely encountered within the trachea, where presenting features include recurrent haemoptysis, cough, and wheeze. We here describe a case of a 7 mm tracheal LCH in a 56-year-old woman, which was successfully resected at interventional bronchoscopy using biopsy forceps. Clinicians should be aware of tracheal LCH in the differential diagnosis for recurrent haemoptysis. PMID:27747126

  13. Benign Fibroepithelial Polyps: A Rare Cause of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ezekiel, Anitha; Agrawal, Vaidehi; Romero, Elena; Smith-Harrison, Leon I.

    2015-01-01

    FEPs are rare, benign mucosal growths that may cause urinary tract obstruction in both adults and children. We present the case of a ten year old Hispanic male with recurring urinary tract infections and hydronephrosis diagnosed with fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs). Despite multiple radiographic procedures, we were unable to accurately preoperatively diagnose FEPs. Here we demonstrate the difficulties in preoperative diagnosis and suggest that perhaps a combination of US and MRI in the setting of persistent urinary tract infections and flank pain may be the best approach for early diagnosis and conservative management, including less invasive treatment protocols. PMID:26793521

  14. Coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor and invasive ductal carcinoma in distinct breasts: case report.

    PubMed

    Neto, Guerino Barbalaco; Rossetti, Claudia; Souza, Natalia A; LA Fonseca, Fernando; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Junqueira, Virginia Berlanga Campos; Valenti, Vitor E; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2012-04-25

    This report describes a rare case of coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor, which measured 9 cm in the right breast, and invasive ductal carcinoma of 6 cm in the left breast, synchronous and independent, in a 66-year-old patient. The patient underwent a bilateral mastectomy due to the size of both lesions. Such situations are rare and usually refer to the occurrence of ductal or lobular carcinoma in situ when associated with malignant phyllodes tumors, and more often in ipsilateral breast or intra-lesional.

  15. Coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor and invasive ductal carcinoma in distinct breasts: case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor, which measured 9 cm in the right breast, and invasive ductal carcinoma of 6 cm in the left breast, synchronous and independent, in a 66-year-old patient. The patient underwent a bilateral mastectomy due to the size of both lesions. Such situations are rare and usually refer to the occurrence of ductal or lobular carcinoma in situ when associated with malignant phyllodes tumors, and more often in ipsilateral breast or intra-lesional. PMID:22534285

  16. A rare benign renal tumour presenting as polycythaemia in a teenage girl.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, S; Fitzpatrick, J M; McGuire, B; O'Malley, K J; Shaw, C; Fabre, A

    2010-04-01

    We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with polycythemia. CT abdomen revealed an enhancing mass in the upper pole of her left kidney with features suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. She underwent a laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. Histology demonstrated a well circumscribed, focally encapsulated, round blue cell tumour showing areas of microcalcifications and numerous psammoma bodies. Imunostaining showed diffuse positive staining for CD 57. This was consistent with a diagnosis of metanephric adenoma a rare benign epithelial renal tumour.

  17. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate: a paradigm shift in benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Holmium laser enucleation (HoLEP) was developed in the 1990s as a more efficient and cost effective method of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery than laser vaporization and resection techniques. As a true anatomical enucleation it mimics open prostatectomy and is as durable. There is a significant body of level 1 evidence in support of HoLEP, including 2 meta-analyses and 14 randomized trials which compare HoLEP with a number of other procedures. This review describes the development of and summarizes the evidence for HoLEP. PMID:24082919

  18. Benign myoclonic epilepsy: long-term follow-up of 11 new cases.

    PubMed

    Rossi, P G; Parmeggiani, A; Posar, A; Santi, A; Santucci, M

    1997-11-01

    The authors report a long-term follow-up of 11 new subjects with benign myoclonic epilepsy. There were some unusual clinical features such as the need for dual therapy in 45.5% of subjects, and the presence of non-epileptic myoclonus in 54.5%, neither of which influenced the prognosis. Neuropsychological and behavioral evolution was less favorable in 45.5% of patients (mental retardation, school learning problems, attention deficit disorder, hyperkinesia, aggressiveness, irritability, negativism). The less favorable neuropsychological outcome might be related to additional interacting factors such as personal antecedents, seizure onset and antiepileptic treatment.

  19. [The use of drug vitaprost forte in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Neĭmark, B A; Neĭmark, A I; Nozdrachev, N A

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of vitaprost forte rectal suppositories 100 mg in 30 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were evaluated. It is proven, that the use of this drug positively affects both the subjective and the objective symptoms of BPH. Vitaprost forte significantly reduces the clinical signs of the disease and improves quality of life, that is, reduces the severity of bladder outlet obstruction (according to the data of uroflowmetry, it increases maximum urinary flow rate), decreases the amount of residual urine. In addition, moderate reduction in mean prostate volume was revealed in BPH patients receiving vitaprost forte.

  20. Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xinhua; Zhang, Hongbin; Meng, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Chuge

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the diagnostic values of computed tomography (CT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors and a meta-analysis to further confirm our results on DW-MRI. Methods: Totally 64 patients pathologically confirmed as ovarian cancer were included in this study. CT scan and DWI-MRI were performed and analyzed to get compared with pathological results, thereby assessing their accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Meta-analysis was conducted by database searching and strict eligibility criteria, using STATA 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) software. Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for diagnosis of ovarian cancer in CT were 81.82%, 84.48%, 76.67%, 87.50% and 71.88%, respectively; those in DW-MRI were 89.77%, 93.10%, 83.33%, 91.53% and 86.21%, respectively. The Kappa coefficient of DW-MRI (K = 0.771) compared with pathological results was higher than CT (K = 0.602). The average apparent diffusion coefficient values of DW-MRI in diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors suggested statistically significant difference (1.325 ± 0.269×10-3 mm2/s vs. 0.878 ± 0.246×10-3 mm2/s, P < 0.001). Meta-analysis results showed that the combined sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio of DW-MRI in discriminating benign versus malignant ovarian tumors were 0.93, 0.88, 7.70, 0.08 and 101.24, respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.95. Conclusions: Both CT and DW-MRI were of great diagnostic value in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors, while DW-MRI was superior to CT with higher accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26884905

  1. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis: a review.

    PubMed

    Strubbe, B; Geerts, A; Van Vlierberghe, H; Colle, I

    2012-12-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) are two rare autosomal recessive disorders, characterized by cholestasis. They are related to mutations in hepatocellular transport system genes involved in bile formation. The differentiation between PFIC and BRIC is based on phenotypic presentation: PFIC is a progressive disease, with evolution to end-stage liver disease. BRIC is characterized by intermittent recurrent cholestatic episodes, with irresistible pruritus, mostly without evident liver damage. Between symptomatic periods, patients are completely asymptomatic. In this article, a short overview of the aetiology, the clinical and diagnostic characteristics and the therapy of both PFIC and BRIC are given.

  2. Post-traumatic refractory multiple canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Dundar, Mehmet Akif; Derin, Serhan; Aricigil, Mitat; Eryilmaz, Mehmet Akif; Arbag, Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most prevalent form of peripheral vertigo and is seen in a significant number of patients who present at neurology and ear, nose, and throat clinics. Various maneuvers may be used to determine the affected canal based on observation of specific nystagmus signs, and may also be used for treatment. Multiple canal pathology can make diagnosis and treatment more difficult. Presently described is case of BPPV with multiple canal pathology and traumatic etiology that was resistant to treatment. PMID:28275757

  3. Benign phyllodes tumor with tubular adenoma-like epithelial component in FNAC: A diagnostic pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Kishori M

    2016-01-01

    Benign phyllodes tumor (BPT) is a biphasic neoplasm composed of bland stromal and epithelial elements. Cytologic diagnostic criteria of BPT, though documented in the literature, diagnostic pitfalls in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) may occur due to sampling error, high cellularity, ductal hyperplasia, paucity of stromal component, and occasional dissociation of epithelial cells. Here, we describe a case of BPT diagnosed by histology in a 19-year-old female, where FNAC features were inconclusive due to paucity of stromal component, predominance of tubular adenoma-like epithelial component, and due to the presence of other overlapping features with fibroadenoma. PMID:28028339

  4. A benign presentation of primary ductal adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland: A rare malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Lindfay Laura; Lung, Chong Ka; Ahmad, Syed Shoeb

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old patient with a swelling over the upper eyelid for nearly 1 year was seen in our clinic. The history, examination and investigations were suggestive of a benign lacrimal gland tumor. The tumor and lacrimal gland were resected. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed the tumor was a primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland. This is a very rare tumor with less than half a dozen cases reported so far. This case report is being presented to highlight an unusual presentation of this rare malignancy. PMID:26669339

  5. Abdomen: normal variations and benign conditions resulting in uptake on FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Zukotynski, Katherine; Kim, Chun K

    2014-04-01

    The increasing use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in oncology has led to: improved sensitivity and specificity in detecting localized and metastatic disease, increased ability to target biopsies to the site of most aggressive disease, and development of a noninvasive biomarker to assess prognosis and effects of therapy. However, for correct interpretation of FDG-PET/CT studies, an understanding of both normal and abnormal imaging appearances commonly encountered in oncology patients is important. This article discusses commonly seen normal variations and benign findings on FDG-PET/CT of the abdomen.

  6. Do you know this syndrome? Type 2 benign symmetric lipomatosis (Launois-Bensaude)*

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Ana Cláudia Cavalcante; Munhoz, Tania; Abbade, Luciana Patrícia Fernandes; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old female showed bulky, loose tumors, which progressively spread to her arms, anterior chest, and back. She reported dysphagia and dyspnea after mild exertion. She denied alcohol consumption. CT scan of her chest showed no internal lesions. Benign symmetric lipomatosis is a rare syndrome, clinically described as multiple nonencapsulated lipomas of various sizes and symmetrical distribution. This syndrome has three known phenotypes; in type 2 (Launois-Bensaude syndrome), lesions occur primarily on the shoulders, upper arms, and chest, and is unrelated to alcoholism. It causes aesthetic deformities and might block the upper airways. Mediastinal invasion might occur as well. PMID:28099616

  7. Benign phyllodes tumor with tubular adenoma-like epithelial component in FNAC: A diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kishori M

    2016-01-01

    Benign phyllodes tumor (BPT) is a biphasic neoplasm composed of bland stromal and epithelial elements. Cytologic diagnostic criteria of BPT, though documented in the literature, diagnostic pitfalls in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) may occur due to sampling error, high cellularity, ductal hyperplasia, paucity of stromal component, and occasional dissociation of epithelial cells. Here, we describe a case of BPT diagnosed by histology in a 19-year-old female, where FNAC features were inconclusive due to paucity of stromal component, predominance of tubular adenoma-like epithelial component, and due to the presence of other overlapping features with fibroadenoma.

  8. [Unusual triggering circumstance of benign acute cerebral angiopathy; link with exertion cephalalgia?].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, S; Baron, J C

    1994-01-01

    Immediately following a scream of fear, a sixty-year old woman complained of severe bilateral headache which relapsed several times over the following month during exercise. There was no history of sympathomimetic drug intake. The work-up was normal save for minimal subarachnoid bleeding and the angiogram showed a disseminated "sausage-string" appearance over all cerebral arterial territories, without aneurysm. The unusual triggering event in this case and the subsequent recurrence of headache in relation to exercise lead us to discuss possible links between the clinical entity of "Isolated benign cerebral angiopathy" and exertional headache.

  9. What do I tell patients about saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Kane, Christopher J; Raheem, Omer A; Bent, Stephen; Avins, Andrew L

    2011-08-01

    Saw palmetto is widely used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although there is passionate support for herbal and complementary therapies for LUTS, clinical evidence is mixed. Because there is a well-recognized, profound placebo effect in tests of efficacy for agents treating LUTS, it is imperative that all therapies be tested in placebo-controlled trials. This article reviews evidence of the efficacy and safety of saw palmetto for men with LUTS caused by BPH, with particular emphasis on published randomized clinical trials and the upcoming Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urologic Symptoms (CAMUS) trial.

  10. A hemorrhagic pineal cyst with a bacterial meningitis-like manifestation and benign outcome.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kanji; Omodaka, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Rie; Kodaira, Minori

    2013-01-01

    Pineal cysts are a common incidental finding in imaging studies, and the majority of such cysts are asymptomatic. However, hemorrhaging pineal cysts, which are considered to be rare, are often associated with severe symptoms. We herein describe the case of a 58-year-old patient with the novel manifestation of a bleeding pineal cyst, who had a benign outcome without any surgical treatment. Although the clinical manifestations resembled those of bacterial meningitis, magnetic resonance images suggested chemical meningitis caused by an intracystic hemorrhage and rupture of the pineal cyst.

  11. Symptomatic and asymptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: Molecular differentiation by using microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Kulkarni; Pirozzi, Gregorio; Elashoff, Michael; Munger, William; Waga, Iwao; Dhir, Rajiv; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Getzenberg, Robert H.

    2002-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a disease of unknown etiology that significantly affects the quality of life in aging men. Histologic BPH may present itself either as symptomatic or asymptomatic in nature. To elucidate the molecular differences underlying BPH, gene expression profiles from the prostate transition zone tissue have been analyzed by using microarrays. A set of 511 differentially expressed genes distinguished symptomatic and asymptomatic BPH. This genetic signature separates BPH from normal tissue but does not seem to change with age. These data could provide novel approaches for alleviating symptoms and hyperplasia in BPH.

  12. Interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a minimally invasive treatment alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordonez, Robert F.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.; Aronoff, David R.; de Riese, Werner T. W.

    2003-06-01

    The use of minimally invasive treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have been introduced into the medical community. Over the last decade several minimally invasive treatment techniques have been approved for use. In particular, interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) has shown pomise as an alternative to the current gold standard, transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). Studies show ILC to have equal efficacy as TURP while causing less side effects. Future technical advances as well as increased physician experience with ILC could lead to the replacement of TURP as the gold standard in trestment of BPH.

  13. Extravasation of Urine Associated with Bilateral Complete Ureteral Duplication, Vesicoureteral Reflux and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Issei; Kaga, Kanya; Takei, Kohei; Tokura, Yuumi; Sakamoto, Kazumasa; Nishihara, Daisaku; Mizuno, Tomoya; Yuki, Hideo; Betsunoh, Hironori; Abe, Hideyuki; Yashi, Masahiro; Fukabori, Yoshitatsu; Yamanishi, Tomonori; Kamai, Takao

    2017-02-01

    We report a rare case of extravasation of urine, which may be associated with bilateral complete ureteral duplication, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A 71-year-old male presented with a complaint of right abdominal pain. An extravasation of urine was noted, and was improved by indwelling urethral catheterization. Transurethral resection of the prostate and the endoscopic subureteral injection of dextanomer/hyaluronic acid were performed for the treatment of BPH and VUR, respectively. The post-surgery recovery was successful.

  14. Confocal imaging of benign and malignant proliferative skin lesions in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Salvador; Rajadhyaksha, Milind M.; Anderson, R. Rox

    1999-06-01

    Near-infrared confocal reflectance microscopy (CM) provides non- invasive real-time images of thin en-face tissue sections with high resolution and contrast. Imaging of cells, nuclei, other organelles, microvessels, and hair follicles has been possible at resolution comparable to standard histology, to a maximum depth of 250-300 μm in human skin in vivo. We have characterized psoriasis as a prototype of benign proliferative skin conditions, and non-pigmented skin malignancies in vivo based on their unstained, native histologic features using CM. Our data shows that reflectance CM may potentially diagnose and morphometrically evaluate proliferative skin lesions in vivo.

  15. Adamantinoma of the tibia mimicking a benign cystic lesion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Galanakos, Spyridon; Savvidou, Olga D; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2010-01-01

    Adamantinoma of the long bones is a rare primary malignant bone tumor accounting for less than 1% of all primary malignant bone tumors. Most typical imaging findings include heterogeneous osteolytic cortical lesions showing multiple sharply circumscribed lucent zones of various sizes with sclerotic bone surroundings, interspersing between, and extending above and below the lucent zones by the thinning and bulging cortex. Advanced or recurrent lesions may be associated with destruction of the cortex and soft tissue extension. In this article, the authors present a case report of a patient with a distal tibia adamantinoma mimicking a benign cystic lesion.

  16. [Benign pre-sacral teratoma and vestigial retrorectal cysts in the adult].

    PubMed

    Chêne, G; Voitellier, M

    2006-01-01

    Benign mature presacral teratomas or dermoid cysts occur rarely in the adult; the incidence is estimated at less than 1/40,000. They are considered to be retrorectal vestigial growths from embryonal rests; they are usually asymptomatic and discovered by chance. However, since they have a 20-30% risk of secondary infection and a 1-12.5% risk of malignant degeneration, they should undergo complete surgical resection. We present a case of presacral dermoid cyst in a young male and summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  17. Diffusion weighted imaging for the differential diagnosis of benign vs. malignant ovarian neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    MENG, XIANG-FU; ZHU, SHI-CAI; SUN, SHAO-JUAN; GUO, JI-CAI; WANG, XUE

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms, a systemic meta-analysis was conducted. Relevant studies were retrieved from scientific literature databases, including the PubMed, Wiley, EBSCO, Ovid, Web of Science, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP databases. Following a multi-step screening and study selection process, the relevant data was extracted for use in the present study. Statistical analyses were performed using Meta-disc software version 1.4 and STATA statistical software version 12.0. A total of 285 articles were retrieved from the database searches. Following a careful screening process, 10 case-control studies were selected for the present meta-analysis. The 10 studies investigated the efficacy of DWI in diagnosing ovarian neoplasms, and included a combined total of 1,159 subjects, of which 559 patients had malignant lesions and 600 had benign lesions. The results showed that the pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity, pooled positive likelihood ratio, pooled negative likelihood ratio, pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the curve of the summary receiver operating characteristics curve of DWI for differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms were 0.93, 0.89, 7.58, 0.10, 85.33 and 0.95, respectively. A subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed no significant difference between Asians and Caucasians. Another subgroup analysis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) type showed that the DORs for GE Healthcare Life Sciences and Siemens AG machines were 100.76 [95% confidence interval (CI), 65.28–155.53] and 30.85 (95% CI, 10.40–91.53), respectively; this indicates that the diagnostic efficiency of the GE Healthcare Life Sciences MRI is superior compared with the Siemens AG MRI. The DWI demonstrated an excellent diagnostic performance in discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms

  18. Benign coital headache relieved by partner's pregnancies with implications for future treatment.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Selwyn

    2010-01-01

    This is a case of a male patient with a 27 year history of severe benign coital headache and associated symptoms. His condition was spontaneously relieved in the first trimester of his partner's pregnancy. This relief continued through the remainder of the pregnancy term, returning only after the birth of their child. The timing of the condition's relief and return of symptoms suggested progesterone was an intrinsic factor in this. Post-pregnancy the patient was able to prevent his attacks by taking oral norethisterone 5 mg. While writing this case the patient's partner became pregnant once more, resulting again in spontaneous relief of the patient's syndrome.

  19. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy Associated With Benign Choroidal Nevus.

    PubMed

    De Salvo, Gabriella; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Sehmi, Kulwant S; Andrews, Richard M; Sagoo, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) complicating benign choroidal nevus and their tomographic features at spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) are reported. Two eyes with choroidal nevus and associated subretinal fluid underwent complete ophthalmological examination, SD-OCT, fundus fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). SD-OCT and ICGA confirmed the diagnosis of PCV in both cases. Ophthalmologists should be aware of this rare combination between choroidal nevus and PCV. If a choroidal nevus presents with subretinal fluid, this does not always herald malignant transformation, and PCV should be ruled out so that the correct treatment can be planned.

  20. Intraoperative /sup 99m/Tc bone imaging in the treatment of benign osteoblastic tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Sty, J.; Simons, G.

    1982-05-01

    Benign bone tumors can be successfully treated by local resection with the use of intraoperative bone imaging. Intraoperative bone imaging provided accurate localization of an osteoid osteoma in a patella of a 16-year-old girl when standard radiographs failed to demonstrate the lesion. In a case of osteoblastoma of the sacrum in a 12-year old girl, intraoperative scanning was used repeatedly to guide completeness of resection. In these cases in which routine intraoperative radiographs would have failed, intraoperative scanning proved to be essential for success.

  1. Peristence of triamcinolone crystals after intra-vitreal injection: Benign crystalline hyaloidopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zarifa, Rafik; Shaikh, Saad; Kester, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of unusually long persistence of triamcinolone crystals after intra-vitreal injection. Crystals were noted on fundus examination predominantly confined to the posterior pole. Optical coherence tomography localized the crystals to the posterior hyaloidal surface. Over 6 years of follow-up the patient has retained good visual acuity and no observable changes in the retina. As the condition clinically resembles both crystalline maculopathy and asteroid hyalosis, we suggest the term ‘drug-induced benign crystalline hyaloidopathy’. PMID:23685493

  2. Preventing Progression in Men with Mild Symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Potential Role for Phytotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Yan Kit; Marihart, Sibylle; Harik, Mike; Djavan, Bob

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is increasing with the aging population worldwide. Throughout the 20th century, men with minimally symptomatic BPH were generally advised to defer treatment. Treatment deferral or watchful waiting has always appeared reasonable because mild lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of bladder outlet obstruction are not bothersome and are often regarded as part of the aging process, progression is usually slow, and symptoms often regress spontaneously. This review examines the evidence of the natural history of BPH, highlighting the group of patients with mild symptoms, the risk factors for progression, and the potential role of phytotherapy in this group of men. PMID:16985600

  3. Symptomatic and asymptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: Molecular differentiation by using microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Kulkarni; Pirozzi, Gregorio; Elashoff, Michael; Munger, William; Waga, Iwao; Dhir, Rajiv; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Getzenberg, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a disease of unknown etiology that significantly affects the quality of life in aging men. Histologic BPH may present itself either as symptomatic or asymptomatic in nature. To elucidate the molecular differences underlying BPH, gene expression profiles from the prostate transition zone tissue have been analyzed by using microarrays. A set of 511 differentially expressed genes distinguished symptomatic and asymptomatic BPH. This genetic signature separates BPH from normal tissue but does not seem to change with age. These data could provide novel approaches for alleviating symptoms and hyperplasia in BPH. PMID:12032329

  4. Role of vestibular testing in diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    López-Escámez, José A

    2009-07-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a mixture of empiricism of particle repositioning with the rationally-based knowledge obtained from clinical observations, histopathology, and neurophysiological experiments. The recently published clinical practice guideline on BPPV makes recommendations on the management of BPPV. One of the statements discourages the use of radiographic or vestibular testing, unless the diagnosis was uncertain or there were additional signs or symptoms unrelated to BPPV. The role of video-oculography in diagnosis and treatment of BPPV is argued, since vestibular testing has provided key relevant information to understand positional nystagmus in patients with BPPV.

  5. The Diagnostic Value of B-Mode Sonography in Differentiation of Malignant and Benign Tumors of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Khalife, Ali; Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Davachi, Behrouz; Mashhadi, Leila; Khazaeni, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Different imaging modalities are used to evaluate salivary gland diseases, including tumors. Ultrasonography (US) is the preferred method on account of its ease of use, affordability, safety profile, and good tolerance among patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of US in differentiating malignant from benign parotid tumors, in the context of previous controversy in the literature on this subject. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in patients who presented to Qaem Medical Center with parotid masses and who were candidates for parotidectomy between June 2013 and January 2015. Patients were initially referred for a diagnostic US of the parotid. US examinations were performed and sonographic features were reported. The tumors were then classified as benign or malignanton the basis of literature descriptions of the US features of parotid tumors, and were next diagnosed pathologically. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US for the purpose of differentiating malignant from benign tumors were then calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (aged 18–92 years) underwent US of parotid masses. Twenty-three tumors were diagnosed as benign and five were diagnosed as malignant. The final histopathologic examination showed 21 benign and seven malignant tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US for differentiating malignant from benign tumors were calculated as 57%, 95%, 80%, and 87%, respectively. Conclusion: US has a high specificity in differentiating between malignant and benign tumors. However, fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy is advocated for an exact diagnosis. PMID:27738606

  6. Benign Orofacial Lesions in Libyan Population: A 17 Years Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hatem, Marwa; Abdulmajid, Ziad S.; Taher, Elsanousi M.; El Kabir, Mohamed A.; Benrajab, Mohamed A.; Kwafi, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the frequency and type of benign orofacial lesions submitted for diagnosis at Tripoli Medical Centre over 17 years period (1997-2013). Materials and Methods: Entries for specimens from patients were retrieved and compiled into 9 diagnostic categories and 82 diagnoses. Results: During the 17 years period, a total of 975 specimens were evaluated, it comprised a male-female ratio of 0.76:1. The mean age of biopsied patients was 36.3±18.32 years. The diagnostic category with the highest number of specimens was skin and mucosal pathology (22.87%); and the most frequent diagnosis was pyogenic granuloma (14.05%). Conclusion: Pyogenic granuloma, lichen planus, radicular cyst and fibroepithelial polyp were found to be the most predominant diagnoses. Frequencies of most benign orofacial diseases were comparable to similar studies in the literature and to those reported from the eastern region of Libya. Further surveys are needed to define the epidemiology of orofacial diseases in Libyan population. PMID:26962370

  7. Prehistological evaluation of benign and malignant pigmented skin lesions with optical computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokolakis, Athanasios; Zacharakis, Giannis; Krasagakis, Konstantin; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Favicchio, Rosy; Spiliopoulos, George; Giannikaki, Elpida; Ripoll, Jorge; Tosca, Androniki

    2012-06-01

    Discrimination of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions is a major issue in clinical dermatology. Assessment of the thickness of melanoma is critical for prognosis and treatment selection. We aimed to evaluate a novel optical computed tomography (optical-CT) system as a tool for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of melanocytic lesions and its ability to discriminate benign from malignant melanocytic lesions while simultaneously determining the thickness of invasive melanoma. Seventeen melanocytic lesions, one hemangioma, and normal skin were assessed immediately after their excision by optical-CT and subsequently underwent histopathological examination. Tomographic reconstructions were performed with a back-propagation algorithm calculating a 3-D map of the total attenuation coefficient (AC). There was a statistically significant difference between melanomas, dysplastic nevi, and non-dysplastic nevi, as indicated by Kruskal-Wallis test. Median AC values were higher for melanomas compared with dysplastic and non-dysplastic nevi. No statistically significant difference was observed when thickness values obtained by optical-CT were compared with histological thickness using a Wilcoxon sighed rank test. Our results suggest that optical-CT can be important for the immediate prehistological evaluation of biopsies, assisting the physician for a rapid assessment of malignancy and of the thickness of a melanocytic lesion.

  8. Benign-malignant mass classification in mammogram using edge weighted local texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabidas, Rinku; Midya, Abhishek; Sadhu, Anup; Chakraborty, Jayasree

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces novel Discriminative Robust Local Binary Pattern (DRLBP) and Discriminative Robust Local Ternary Pattern (DRLTP) for the classification of mammographic masses as benign or malignant. Mass is one of the common, however, challenging evidence of breast cancer in mammography and diagnosis of masses is a difficult task. Since DRLBP and DRLTP overcome the drawbacks of Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) by discriminating a brighter object against the dark background and vice-versa, in addition to the preservation of the edge information along with the texture information, several edge-preserving texture features are extracted, in this study, from DRLBP and DRLTP. Finally, a Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis method is incorporated with discriminating features, selected by stepwise logistic regression method, for the classification of benign and malignant masses. The performance characteristics of DRLBP and DRLTP features are evaluated using a ten-fold cross-validation technique with 58 masses from the mini-MIAS database, and the best result is observed with DRLBP having an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.982.

  9. Benign Post-Radiation Rectal Stricture Treated with Endoscopic Balloon Dilation and Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection

    PubMed Central

    Karanikas, Michael; Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Mitrakas, Alexandros; Zezos, Petros; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Efremidou, Eleni; Liratzopoulos, Nikolaos; Polychronidis, Alexandros; Kouklakis, George

    2012-01-01

    Post-radiation stricture is a rare complication after pelvis irradiation, but must be in the mind of the clinician evaluating a lower gastrointestinal obstruction. Endoscopy has gained an important role in chronic radiation proctitis with several therapeutic options for management of intestinal strictures. The treatment of rectal strictures has been limited to surgery with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a less invasive therapeutic approach for benign rectal strictures, endoscopic balloon dilation with or without intralesional steroid injection, has become a common treatment modality. We present a case of benign post-radiation rectal stricture treated successfully with balloon dilation and adjuvant intralesional triamcinolone injection. A 70-year-old woman presented to the emergency room complaining for 2 weeks of diarrhea and meteorism, 11 years after radiation of the pelvis due to adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Colonoscopy revealed a stricture at the rectum and multiple endoscopic biopsies were obtained from the stricture. The stricture was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and intralesional triamcinolone injection. The procedure appears to have a high success rate and a very low complication rate. Histologic examination of the biopsies revealed non-specific inflammatory changes of the rectal mucosa and no specific changes of the mucosa due to radiation. All biopsies were negative for malignancy. The patient is stricture-free 12 months post-treatment. PMID:23271987

  10. A decreased metabolic clearance rate of aldosterone in benign essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nowaczynski, W.; Kuchel, O.; Genest, J.

    1971-01-01

    Aldosterone secretion rate, metabolic clearance rate, and/or plasma concentration were determined in 16 patients with benign, uncomplicated essential hypertension and compared with those of control subjects. The mean metabolic clearance rate of aldosterone in 10 patients was significantly (P < 0.001) lower (mean 867 liters of plasma/day per m2 ±270 SD) than in a group of 7 healthy subjects (mean 1480 liters/day per m2 ±265 SD). Secretion rates in 13 patients (including the 10 already mentioned) tended to be low (83 ±43 vs. 109 ±54 μg/day) and plasma concentrations tended to be high (13.6 ±4.6 vs. 7.5 ±4.8 ng/100 ml), but neither of these differences was statistically significant. The lower metabolic clearance rate could account for elevated plasma concentrations of aldosterone even when the secretion rate is normal or low. Measurement of secretion rate or urinary excretion only is therefore insufficient to establish the presence and/or mode of evolution of hyperaldosteronism. Failure of the aldosterone secretion to adapt fully to a decreased aldosterone metabolic clearance rate (MCR) could explain the state of relative hyperaldosteronism in patients with benign essential hypertension, even when the secretion rate and the urinary excretion rate are in the normal range. PMID:5116208

  11. Stenting of the Cystic Duct in Benign Disease: A Definitive Treatment for the Elderly and Unwell

    SciTech Connect

    Hersey, N.; Goode, S. D.; Peck, R. J. Lee, F.

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThere have been few case reports describing cystic duct stent insertion in the management of acute cholecystitis secondary to benign disease with no case series published to date. We present our series demonstrating the role of cystic duct stents in managing benign gallbladder disease in those patients unfit for surgery.Materials and MethodsThirty three patients unfit for surgery in our institution underwent cystic duct stent insertion for the management of acute cholecystitis in the period June 2008 to June 2013. Patients underwent a mixture of transperitoneal and transhepatic gallbladder puncture. The cystic duct was cannulated with a hydrophilic guidewire which was subsequently passed through the common bile duct and into the duodenum. An 8Fr 12-cm double-pigtail stent was placed with the distal end lying within the duodenum and the proximal end within the gallbladder.ResultsTen patients presented with gallbladder perforation, 21 patients with acute cholecystitis, 1 with acute cholangitis and 1 with necrotising pancreatitis. The technical success rate was 91 %. We experienced a 13 % complication rate with 3 % mortality rate at 30 days.ConclusionCystic duct stent insertion can be successfully used to manage acute cholecystitis, gallbladder empyema or gallbladder perforations in those unfit for surgery and should be considered alongside external gallbladder drainage as a definitive mid-term treatment option.

  12. Familial cholestasis: progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    van der Woerd, Wendy L; van Mil, Saskia W C; Stapelbroek, Janneke M; Klomp, Leo W J; van de Graaf, Stan F J; Houwen, Roderick H J

    2010-10-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) type 1, 2 and 3 are due to mutations in ATP8B1, ABCB11 and ABCB4, respectively. Each of these genes encodes a hepatocanalicular transporter, which is essential for the proper formation of bile. Mutations in ABCB4 can result in progressive cholestatic disease, while mutations in ATP8B1 and ABCB11 can result both in episodic cholestasis, referred to as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) type 1 and 2, as well as in progressive cholestatic disease. This suggests a clinical continuum and these diseases are therefore preferably referred to as ATP8B1 deficiency and ABCB11 deficiency. Similarly PFIC type 3 is designated as ABCB4 deficiency. Heterozygous mutations in each of these transporters can also be associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. This review summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical features and current as well as future therapeutic options for progressive familial- and benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis as well as intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

  13. Topical PDT in the Treatment of Benign Skin Diseases: Principles and New Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miri; Jung, Haw Young; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-09-25

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses a photosensitizer, light energy, and molecular oxygen to cause cell damage. Cells exposed to the photosensitizer are susceptible to destruction upon light absorption because excitation of the photosensitizing agents leads to the production of reactive oxygen species and, subsequently, direct cytotoxicity. Using the intrinsic cellular heme biosynthetic pathway, topical PDT selectively targets abnormal cells, while preserving normal surrounding tissues. This selective cytotoxic effect is the basis for the use of PDT in antitumor treatment. Clinically, PDT is a widely used therapeutic regimen for oncologic skin conditions such as actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma in situ, and basal cell carcinoma. PDT has been shown, under certain circumstances, to stimulate the immune system and produce antibacterial, and/or regenerative effects while protecting cell viability. Thus, it may be useful for treating benign skin conditions. An increasing number of studies support the idea that PDT may be effective for treating acne vulgaris and several other inflammatory/infective skin diseases, including psoriasis, rosacea, viral warts, and aging-related changes. This review provides an overview of the clinical investigations of PDT and discusses each of the essential aspects of the sequence: its mechanism of action, common photosensitizers, light sources, and clinical applications in dermatology. Of the numerous clinical trials of PDT in dermatology, this review focuses on those studies that have reported remarkable therapeutic benefits following topical PDT for benign skin conditions such as acne vulgaris, viral warts, and photorejuvenation without causing severe side effects.

  14. Epidemiologic study on carcinoma of the breast following irradiation for benign conditions in infancy and childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Oviedo, M.A.; Chmiel, J.S.; Curb, J.D.; Kautz, J.A.; Haenszel, W.; Scanlon, E.F.

    1983-07-01

    To investigate the relationship of irradiation during infancy and childhood to the subsequent development of carcinoma of the breast, 996 eligible patients were studied at Evanston Hospital, Evanston, Illinois, and Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago. This was a case-control study, with those in the control group being selected from concurrent hospital admissions for nonmalignant surgical conditions. A second group consisting of those with benign biopsy results was also studied. The Mantel-Haenszel method of analysis, controlling for age and race, was used to estimate the approximate relative risk of carcinoma of the breast in the irradiated group compared with that for the nonirradiated group. The type of radiation history included radiotherapy for mastitis or enlarged thymus (nine patients), irradiation of the head and neck (69 patients), diagnostic fluoroscopies (ten patients) and miscellaneous irradiation (52 patients) for bursitis, eczema or keloid. Based upon the data obtained from the results of this study and its analysis, we conclude that there is little evidence of increased risk of carcinoma of the breast after irradiation about the head, neck and chest areas for benign conditions in the population being studied herein. Such a risk, if indeed it exists at all for this population, is estimated to be about 10 per cent.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo

    2002-07-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Capsicum sp. extracts and pure compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against MIC causing bacteria. Studies on the ability of these compounds to dissociate biofilm from the substratum were conducted using microtiter plate assays. Tests using laboratory scale pipeline simulators continued. Preliminary results showed that the natural extracts possess strong antimicrobial activity being comparable to or even better than the pure compounds tested against strains of sulfate reducers. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations had been determined. It was also found that they possess bactericidal properties at minimal concentrations. Biofilm dissociation activity as assessed by microtiter plate assays demonstrated varying degrees of differences between the treated and untreated group with the superior performance of the extracts over pure compounds. Such is an indication of the possible benefits that could be obtained from these natural products. Confirmatory experiments are underway.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Bill W. Bogan; Brigid M. Lamb; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-30

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Previous testing indicated that the growth, and the metal corrosion caused by pure cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria were inhibited by hexane extracts of some pepper plants. This quarter tests were performed to determine if chemical compounds other than pepper extracts could inhibit the growth of corrosion-associated microbes and to determine if pepper extracts and other compounds can inhibit corrosion when mature biofilms are present. Several chemical compounds were shown to be capable of inhibiting the growth of corrosion-associated microorganisms, and all of these compounds limited the amount of corrosion caused by mature biofilms to a similar extent. It is difficult to control corrosion caused by mature biofilms, but any compound that disrupts the metabolism of any of the major microbial groups present in corrosion-associated biofilms shows promise in limiting the amount/rate of corrosion.

  17. EVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Bill W. Bogan; Wendy R. Sullivan; Kristine M. H. Cruz; Kristine L. Lowe; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-04-30

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Previous testing of pepper extracts resulted in preliminary data indicating that some pepper extracts inhibit the growth of some corrosion-associated microorganisms. This quarter additional tests were performed to more specifically investigate the ability of three pepper extracts to inhibit the growth, and to influence the metal corrosion caused by two microbial species: Desulfovibrio vulgaris, and Comomonas denitrificans. All three pepper extracts rapidly killed Desulfovibrio vulgaris, but did not appear to inhibit Comomonas denitrificans. While corrosion rates were at control levels in experiments with Desulfovibrio vulgaris that received pepper extract, corrosion rates were increased in the presence of Comomonas denitrificans plus pepper extract. Further testing with a wider range of pure bacterial cultures, and more importantly, with mixed bacterial cultures should be performed to determine the potential effectiveness of pepper extracts to inhibit MIC.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kristine L. Lowe; Bill W. Bogan; Wendy R. Sullivan; Kristine Mila H. Cruz; Brigid M. Lamb; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-07-30

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Previous testing indicated that the growth, and the metal corrosion caused by pure cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria were inhibited by hexane extracts of some pepper plants. This quarter tests were performed with mixed bacterial cultures obtained from natural gas pipelines. Treatment with the pepper extracts affected the growth and metabolic activity of the microbial consortia. Specifically, the growth and metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria was inhibited. The demonstration that pepper extracts can inhibit the growth and metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria in mixed cultures is a significant observation validating a key hypothesis of the project. Future tests to determine the effects of pepper extracts on mature/established biofilms will be performed next.

  19. Role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the management of benign biliary strictures: What’s new?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rosa; Loureiro, Rui; Nunes, Nuno; Santos, António Alberto; Maio, Rui; Cravo, Marília; Duarte, Maria Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Benign biliary strictures comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases. The most common strictures amenable to endoscopic treatment are post-cholecystectomy, post-liver transplantation, related to primary sclerosing cholangitis and to chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic treatment of benign biliary strictures is widely used as first line therapy, since it is effective, safe, noninvasive and repeatable. Endoscopic techniques currently used are dilation, multiple plastic stents insertion and fully covered self-expandable metal stents. The main indication for dilation alone is primary sclerosing cholangitis related strictures. In the vast majority of the remaining cases, temporary placement of multiple plastic stents with/without dilation is considered the treatment of choice. Although this approach is effective, it requires multiple endoscopic sessions due to the short duration of stent patency. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents appear as a good alternative to plastic stents, since they have an increased radial diameter, longer stent patency, easier insertion technique and similar efficacy. Recent advances in endoscopic technique and various devices have allowed successful treatment in most cases. The development of novel endoscopic techniques and devices is still ongoing. PMID:26962404

  20. Spatial and temporal age-related spectral alterations in benign human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theophilou, Georgios; Fogarty, Simon W.; Trevisan, Júlio; Strong, Rebecca J.; Heys, Kelly A.; Patel, Imran I.; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that cancers attributable to exogenous carcinogenic agents may appear decades after initiating exposures. Environmental factors including lifestyle and/or diet have been implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer. Breast tissue undergoes continuous molecular and morphological changes from the time of thelarche to menopause and thereafter. These alterations are both cyclical and longitudinal, and can be influenced by several environmental factors including exposure to oestrogens. Research into the latent period leading to breast carcinogenesis has been mostly limited to when hyperplastic lesions are present. Investigations to identify a biomarker of commitment to disease in normal breast tissue are hindered by the molecular and histological diversity of disease-free breast tissue. Benign tissue from reduction mammoplasties provides an opportunity to study biochemical differences between women of similar ages as well as alterations with advancing age. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy was used to examine the terminal ductal lobular epithelium (TDLU) and, intra- and inter-lobular epithelium to identify spatial and temporal changes within these areas. Principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis of mid-infrared spectra revealed unambiguous inter-individual as well as age-related differences in each histological compartment interrogated. Moreover, exploratory PCA of luminal and myoepithelial cells within the TDLU indicated the presence of specific cells, potentially stem cells. Understanding alterations within benign tissue may assist in the identification of alterations in latent pre-clinical stages of breast cancer.