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Sample records for bergbauforschung-foster wheeler process

  1. Spectral caustics in laser assisted Breit-Wheeler process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nousch, T.; Seipt, D.; Kämpfer, B.; Titov, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    Electron-positron pair production by the Breit-Wheeler process embedded in a strong laser pulse is analyzed. The transverse momentum spectrum displays prominent peaks which are interpreted as caustics, the positions of which are accessible by the stationary phases. Examples are given for the superposition of an XFEL beam with an optical high-intensity laser beam. Such a configuration is available, e.g., at LCLS at present and at European XFEL in near future. It requires a counter propagating probe photon beam with high energy which can be generated by synchronized inverse Compton backscattering.

  2. Electron-positron pairs beaming in the Breit-Wheeler process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeyre, X.; d'Humières, E.; Jansen, O.; Jequier, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2017-01-01

    The pair creation from the Breit-Wheeler process is one of the basic processes in the universe. Laser induced intense γ-ray sources will allow a direct observation of this process in the laboratory for the first time. In this paper we demonstrate the effect of pair beaming in the collision of two photon beams which may facilitate the experimental observation of the Breit-Wheeler process.

  3. Pair production by Schwinger and Breit-Wheeler processes in bi-frequent fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, A.; Nousch, T.; Seipt, D.; Kämpfer, B.; Blaschke, D.; Panferov, A. D.; Smolyansky, S. A.; Titov, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    > Counter-propagating and suitably polarized light (laser) beams can provide conditions for pair production. Here, we consider in more detail the following two situations: (i) in the homogeneity regions of anti-nodes of linearly polarized ultra-high intensity laser beams, the Schwinger process is dynamically assisted by a second high-frequency field, e.g. by an XFEL beam; and (ii) a high-energy probe photon beam colliding with a superposition of co-propagating intense laser and XFEL beams gives rise to the laser-assisted Breit-Wheeler process. The prospects of such bi-frequent field constellations with respect to the feasibility of conversion of light into matter are discussed.

  4. Remembering Wheeler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Timir

    2008-06-01

    Kenneth Ford's obituary of John Wheeler (May p7), who died in April at the age of 96, reminded me of a wonderful dinner one summer evening at the home of the mathematical physicist Carl Brans and his wife Anna in New Orleans in June 1977. I can't remember what we ate - seafood and Dixie beer must have been on the menu - but two things about the evening stand out.

  5. Hypersorption process for separation of components of a medium -Btu gas. Final report. [Gas obtained from Lurgi process, Texaco gasification process, and Foster-Wheeler process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-17

    This study has been performed to determine the technical and economic feasibility of employing hypersorption process technology to separate and purify a medium - Btu gas, derived from oxygen-blown gasifiers, to obtain a H/sub 2//CO ratio of 2:1 as a feed to a Fischer-Tropsch type plant. Technical feasibility is a measure of the ability to design a hypersorption separation and purification process from available data. Economic feasibility can be made through comparisons with commercially available process technology. Three gasification processes have been used as a basis for this study. These processes are based upon EPRI Report AF-244 for the Lurgi moving bed, oxygen-blown, dry bottom gasifier, and EPRI Report AF-642 for the Texaco, slurry fed, oxygen-blown, entrained bed gasifier and for the Foster-Wheeler, oxygen-blown, entrained bed gasifier. Process designs for the hypersorption separation and purification for each case have been made using engineering judgments based on the available adsorption isotherms, which have been obtained from the Calgon Corporation. No attempt has been made to optimize these designs although some additional studies have been done where it has been deemed desirable. Cryogenic separation and acid gas purification for each case have been supplied by Lotepro as a packaged unit. Economic evaluations are ambiguous. All plant investments are within the +- 30% accuracy of this study. No clear cut choice between cryogenic separation - acid gas purification and hypersorptive separation - purification can be made based on plant investment. Operating costs are within the +- 30% accuracy. However, in the Foster-Wheeler case the operating costs are 28% greater for the hypersorption process. 12 figures, 42 tables.

  6. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesterson, David B.

    Designed for use by the general reader, the college student, and the teacher, this book analyzes the life and literary career of Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw), emphasizing his literary ventures and artistic talents. The analysis reveals Billings' talents as a subtle humorist, homespun philosopher, and artist of the essay. Chapters include…

  8. WHEELER PEAK ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitebread, Donald H.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Wheeler Peak Roadless Area in east-central Nevada were conducted. The field studies included geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, geophysical surveys, and a survey of mines and prospects. Several areas in the sedimentary and granitic rocks in the lower plate of the Snake Range decollement have probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten, beryllium, and lead. A small area of gravels near the north border of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential for placer gold. The geologic setting is not conducive for the occurrence of energy resources.

  9. SRTM Anaglyph: Wheeler Ridge, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Wheeler Ridge and vicinity, California, is a site of major tectonic activity, both historically and over recent geologic time. The epicenter of the 7.5 magnitude Kern County earthquake occurred here on July 21,1952, and numerous geologic and topographic features indicate rapid geologic processes. The ridge itself (upper-right center) is a geologic fold that is growing out of the southern San Joaquin Valley. A prominent 'wind gap,' now used for passage of the California aquaduct (with the aid of a pumping station), is evidence that the ridge grew faster than tranversing streams could erode down. Nearby abrupt and/or landslid mountain fronts similarly indicate a vigorous tectonic setting here, just north of the San Andreas fault. The Interstate 5 freeway can be seen crossing agricultural fields on the right and entering the very rugged and steep Grapevine Canyon toward the bottom.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect

  10. Edward Wheeler Hones Jr. (1922-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.; McPherron, Robert L.; Birn, Joachim

    2013-02-01

    Space physicist Edward Wheeler Hones Jr. died on 17 September 2012 at his home in Los Alamos, N. M. He was 90 years old. The cause of death was a heart attack that came following a brief hospitalization.

  11. Foster Wheeler compact CFB boiler with INTREX

    SciTech Connect

    Hyppaenen, T.; Rainio, A.; Kauppinen, K.V.O.; Stone, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Foster Wheeler has introduced a new COMPACT Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler design based on the rectangular hot solids separator. The Compact design also enables easy implementation of new designs for INTREX fluid bed heat exchangers. These new products result in many benefits which affect the boiler economy and operation. After initial development of the Compact CFB design it has been applied in demonstration and industrial scale units. The performance of Compact CFB has been proved to be equivalent to conventional Foster Wheeler CFB has been proved to be equivalent to conventional Foster Wheeler CFB boilers with high availability. Several new Foster Wheeler Compact boilers are being built or already in operation. Operational experiences from different units will be discussed in this paper. There are currently Compact units with 100--150 MW{sub e} capacity under construction. With the scale-up experience with conventional CFB boilers and proven design approach and scale-up steps, Foster Wheeler will have the ability to provide large Compact CFB boilers up to 400--600 MW{sub e} capacity.

  12. Wheeler County Riparian Buffers; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Homer, Will

    2006-01-01

    Number of Contacts Made--I have contacted 35 landowners in Wheeler County. Of the 35 contacts 12 have resulted in meeting on their property to discuss available options. Included an article in the Annual Report and Wheeler SWCD newsletter mailed to 550 landowners. Contacts are primarily through networking with others here in the office as well as working closely with the NRCS office. Number of Contracts Negotiated--This Project has produced five riparian buffers within the past contract year. Each has greater meaning to the landowner than simply a buffer. In most cases the buffer is providing the landowner with improved grazing management and/or more reliable water source for livestock. Landowners also feel the enhanced wildlife habitat is a bonus to the program. Other Accomplishments--I took part in the John Day Subbasin Planning process and was able to offer assistance into the inventory items related to Wheeler County. I was often the only local representative able to attend the meetings. I assisted the Wheeler SWCD in writing a successful OWEB grant to remove 110 acres of junipers for watershed restoration, range rehabilitation, and economic development. One partner in the project is a manufacturer that uses juniper as their primary construction material. The goal is to create a pilot project that may grow into a self sustaining industry within the county. I also assisted in writing a small grant to improve water usage in the Muddy Creek watershed. I assisted with the Pine Creek Conservation Area ''Twilight Tour'' as well as the Wheeler SWCD ''Annual Meeting and Dinner''. Both events were successful in getting information out about our riparian buffer program. Facilitate office training and utilization of advanced GIS technology and mapping. Problems Encountered During Contract Year--The NRCS Cultural Resources Review process has ground to a halt. It is takes 6 months to get initial results from the Portland offices. Nearly all requests require site surveys

  13. DDT contamination at Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Fleming, W.J.; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Disposal of industrial waste resulted in massive DDT contamination atWheeler National Wildlife Refuge, Alabama. Nearly a decade after the cessation of DDT manufacturing at the facility responsible, concentrations of DDT residues in the local fauna are still high enough to suggest avian reproductive impairment and mortality. Populations of fish-eating birds are low, endangered species are being exposed, and muscle lipids of game birds contain up to 6900 parts of DDT (isomers and metabolites) per million.

  14. Lindquist-Wheeler formulation of lattice universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rex G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the properties of "lattice universes" wherein point masses are arranged in a regular lattice on spacelike hypersurfaces; open, flat, and closed universes are considered. The universes are modeled using the Lindquist-Wheeler (LW) approximation scheme, which approximates the space-time in each lattice cell by Schwarzschild geometry. Extending Lindquist and Wheeler's work, we derive cosmological scale factors describing the evolution of all three types of universes, and we use these scale factors to show that the universes' dynamics strongly resemble those of Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universes. In particular, we use the scale factors to make more salient the resemblance between Clifton and Ferreira's Friedmann-like equations for the LW models and the actual Friedmann equations of FLRW space-times. Cosmological redshifts for such universes are then determined numerically, using a modification of Clifton and Ferreira's approach; the redshifts are found to closely resemble their FLRW counterparts, though with certain differences attributable to the "lumpiness" in the underlying matter content. Most notably, the LW redshifts can differ from their FLRW counterparts by as much as 30%, even though they increase linearly with FLRW redshifts, and they exhibit a nonzero integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, something which would not be possible in matter-dominated FLRW universes without a cosmological constant.

  15. Wheeler & Feynman's Response of the Universe, revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Milo

    2003-04-01

    In a famous 1945 paper Wheeler and Feynman (1) sought the cause of radiation from an accelerated electron. They assumed that acceleration produced an electromagnetic wave pulse from the electron that caused responding waves from static point-particle absorbers in the universe. Problems arose with possible violation of causality by waves that begin before their cause. This paper points out that a rigorous logical solution is obtained (2) when the electron is a dynamic structure of two scalar quantum waves. The scalar wave equation produces two such inward and outward spherical waves. The two waves combined have complete properties of positrons and electrons and the natural laws. Thus the problem is resolved by replacing the point particle with a scalar quantum wave structure (3). ... The conclusion: The universe and the laws of nature are inter-connected by co-mingled matter waves. Thus if the stars did not exist, it would be meaningless to think that we could exist. 1) Wheeler & Feynman, RMP, 17, 157 (1945). 2) Wolff, Gravition and Cosmology, Kluwer Acad. Publ. (2002). 3) www.QuantumMatter.com

  16. SRTM Stereo Pair: Wheeler Ridge, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Wheeler Ridge and vicinity, California, is a site of major tectonic activity, both historically and over recent geologic time. The epicenter of the 7.5 magnitude Kern County earthquake occurred here on July 21,1952, and numerous geologic and topographic features indicate rapid geologic processes. The ridge itself (upper-right center) is a geologic fold that is growing out of the southern San Joaquin Valley. A prominent 'wind gap,' now used for passage of the California aquaduct (with the aid of a pumping station), is evidence that the ridge grew faster than tranversing streams could erode down. Nearby abrupt and/or landslid mountain fronts similarly indicate a vigorous tectonic setting here, just north of the San Andreas fault. The Interstate 5 freeway can be seen crossing agricultural fields on the right and entering the very rugged and steep Grapevine Canyon toward the bottom.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle

  17. Development of Foster Wheeler's Vision 21 Partial Gasification Module

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.

    2001-11-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded Foster Wheeler Development Corporation a contract to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx} 2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate

  18. Exploring manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler manufacturing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deep Singh, Chandan; Singh Khamba, Jaimal; Singh, Rajdeep; Singh, Navdeep

    2014-07-01

    The two wheeler industry of India is one of the most dependable industries as every person has at least a two wheeler with him, if not any four wheeler. Earlier there were scooters like Bajaj Chetak, Priya but with evolution of motorcycles like splendor, splendor+, etc. the scooter market started declining but with arrival of gearless scooters like Honda Activa, Scooty Pep, etc. the market place has become increasingly competitive in recent time and industries are facing tough test of improving products and thus market share. The competitiveness among industries is an important issue. Competency development is a vital tool to enhance the competitiveness of industries. Based, on aggregate performance of a firm, it comprehensively explores the varying importance of manufacturing competencies and drives of industrial competitiveness. Hence by, exploring the manufacturing competencies of a two wheeler industry, one can reflect the competitiveness of two wheeler manufacturing industry as a whole. This study presents various factors of manufacturing competencies affecting industrial competitiveness as the significance of these competencies is increasing day by day in two wheeler manufacturing industry.

  19. John Wheeler, 1933 - 1959: Particles and Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Kenneth

    2009-05-01

    During the early part of his career, John Archibald Wheeler made an astonishing number of contributions to nuclear and particle physics, as well as to classical electrodynamics, often in collaboration with another physicist. He was also a major contributor to the Manhattan Project (in Chicago and Hanford rather than Los Alamos), and, following World War II, became an influential scientific cold warrior. His early achievements in physics include the calculated scattering of light by light (with Gregory Breit), the prediction of nuclear rotational states (with Edward Teller), the theory of fission (with Niels Bohr), action-at-a-distance electrodynamics (with Richard Feynman), the theory of positronium, the universal weak interaction (with Jayme Tiomno), and the proposed use of the muon as a nuclear probe particle. He gained modest fame as the person who identified xenon 135 as a reactor poison. His Project Matterhorn contributed significantly to the design of the H bomb, and his Project 137, which he had hoped would flower into a major defense lab, served as the precursor to the Jason group.

  20. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  1. Wheeler-DeWitt quantization and singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.; Struyve, W.

    2015-02-01

    We consider a Bohmian approach to the Wheeler-DeWitt quantization of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model and investigate the question of whether or not there are singularities, in the sense that the Universe reaches zero volume. We find that for generic wave functions (i.e., nonclassical wave functions), there is a nonzero probability for a trajectory to be nonsingular. This should be contrasted to the consistent histories approach for which it was recently shown by Craig and Singh that there is always a singularity. This result illustrates that the question of singularities depends much on which version of quantum theory one adopts. This was already pointed out by Pinto-Neto et al., albeit with a different Bohmian approach. Our current Bohmian approach agrees with the consistent histories approach by Craig and Singh for single-time histories, unlike the one studied earlier by Pinto-Neto et al. Although the trajectories are usually different in the two Bohmian approaches, their qualitative behavior is the same for generic wave functions.

  2. John Archibald Wheeler: A study of mentoring in modern physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Terry M.

    This dissertation has two objectives. The first objective is to determine where best to situate the study of mentoring (i.e. the 'making of scientists') on the landscape of the history of science and science studies. This task is accomplished by establishing mentoring studies as a link between the robust body of literature dealing with Research Schools and the emerging scholarship surrounding the development, dispersion, and evolution of pedagogy in the training of twentieth century physicists. The second, and perhaps more significant and novel objective, is to develop a means to quantitatively assess the mentoring workmanship of scientific craftsmen who preside over the final stages of preparation when apprentices are transformed into professional scientists. The project builds upon a 2006 Master's Thesis that examined John Archibald Wheeler's work as a mentor of theoretical physicists at Princeton University in the years 1938--1976. It includes Wheeler's work as a mentor at the University of Texas and is qualitatively and quantitatively enhanced by virtue of the author having access to five separate collections with archival holdings of John Wheeler's papers and correspondence, as well as having access to thirty one tape recorded interviews that feature John Wheeler as either the interviewee or a prominent subject of discussion. The project also benefited from the opportunity to meet with and gather background information from a number of John Wheeler's former colleagues and students. Included in the dissertation is a content analysis of the acknowledgements in 949 Ph.D. dissertations, 122 Master's Theses, and 670 Senior Theses that were submitted during Wheeler's career as an active mentor. By establishing a census of the students of the most active mentors at Princeton and Texas, it is possible to tabulate the publication record of these apprentice groups and obtain objective measures of mentoring efficacy. The dissertation concludes by discussing the wider

  3. John Wheeler, 1952 - 1976: Black Holes and Geometrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Kip S.

    2009-05-01

    In 1952 John Wheeler turned his attention from nuclear physics and national defense to a backwater of physics: general relativity. Over the next 25 years, with students and postdocs he led a ``revolution'' that made relativity a major subfield of fundamental physics and a tool for astrophysics. Wheeler viewed curved spacetime as a nonlinear dynamical entity, to be studied via tools of geometrodynamics (by analogy with electrodynamics) -- including numerical relativity, for which his students laid the earliest foundations. With Joseph Weber (his postdoc), he did theoretical work on gravitational waves that helped launch Weber on a career of laying foundations for modern gravitational-wave detectors. Wheeler and his students showed compellingly that massive stars must form black holes; and he gave black holes their name, formulated the theory of their pulsations and stability (with Tullio Regge), and mentored several generations of students in seminal black-hole research (including Jacob Bekenstein's black-hole entropy). Before the discovery of pulsars, Wheeler identified magnetized, spinning neutron stars as the likely power sources for supernova remnants including the Crab nebula. He identified the Planck length and time as the characteristic scales for the laws of quantum gravity, and formulated the concept of quantum fluctuations of spacetime geometry and quantum foam. With Bryce DeWitt, he defined a quantum wave function on the space of 3-geometries and derived the Wheeler-DeWitt equation that governs it, and its a sum-over-histories action principle. Wheeler was a great inspiration to his colleagues and students, pointing the directions toward fruitful research problems and making intuitive-leap speculations about what lies beyond the frontiers of knowledge. Many of his ideas that sounded crazy at the time were ``just crazy enough to be right''.

  4. The asymmetry of radiation: Reinterpreting the Wheeler-Feynman argument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Huw

    1991-08-01

    This paper suggests a novel reinterpretation of the mathematical core of Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory, and hence a new route to the conclusion that the temporal asymmetry of classical electromagnetic radiation has the same origin as that of thermodynamics. The argument begins (Sec. 2) with a careful analysis of what the apparent asymmetry of radiation actually involves. Two major flaws in the standard version of the Wheeler-Feynman treatment of radiative asymmetry are then identified (Secs. 4 5), and the proposed reinterpretation is described (Sec. 6). This avoids the two flaws previously mentioned, and also the problematic dependence of radiation on cosmological structure.

  5. The Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory: A reinterpretation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridderbos, T. M.

    1997-10-01

    The “reinterpretation” of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory of radiation, as presented by H. Price in Refs. 1 and 2, is shown not to be a reinterpretation of the mathematical framework of the theory, but an alteration of the theory, which renders it asymmetric. It is shown that Price is mistaken in accusing Wheeler and Feynman of presenting flawed arguments as to whether the advanced and retarded components are distinct; and about the reasons for excluding the time-reversed version of the absorber theory.

  6. Formulation and justification of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, L. S.

    1980-12-01

    The “absorber theory” of Wheeler and Feynman is supposed to justify the use of retarded potentials in ordinary electromagnetic calculations despite a fundamentally time symmetric interaction. We restate the thesis of absorber theory as follows: here exist causal solutions of time symmetric electrodynamics. In our formulation, absorption need only take place in one direction of time (the future) rather than both, as seems to be required by Wheeler and Feynman. Even with complete absorption, however, the effects of advanced interactions are not entirely eliminated and a residual field may introduce a degree of indeterminacy into particle trajectories obtained using retarded potentials alone.

  7. Effective fields in the Fokker-Feynman-Wheeler scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolokhov, S. V.; Kolybasova, V. V.

    We discuss the possible ways to generalize the so-called action-at-a-distance principle (initially developed for the electromagnetic interactions in the works of Fokker, Feynman, and Wheeler) on the case of gravity and non-Abelian fields. Our approach is based on the relational-statistical theory of spacetime and interactions developed by Yu. S. Vladimirov.

  8. WheelerLab: An interactive program for sequence stratigraphic analysis of seismic sections, outcrops and well sections and the generation of chronostratigraphic sections and dynamic chronostratigraphic sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amosu, Adewale; Sun, Yuefeng

    WheelerLab is an interactive program that facilitates the interpretation of stratigraphic data (seismic sections, outcrop data and well sections) within a sequence stratigraphic framework and the subsequent transformation of the data into the chronostratigraphic domain. The transformation enables the identification of significant geological features, particularly erosional and non-depositional features that are not obvious in the original seismic domain. Although there are some software products that contain interactive environments for carrying out chronostratigraphic analysis, none of them are open-source codes. In addition to being open source, WheelerLab adds two important functionalities not present in currently available software: (1) WheelerLab generates a dynamic chronostratigraphic section and (2) WheelerLab enables chronostratigraphic analysis of older seismic data sets that exist only as images and not in the standard seismic file formats; it can also be used for the chronostratigraphic analysis of outcrop images and interpreted well sections. The dynamic chronostratigraphic section sequentially depicts the evolution of the chronostratigraphic chronosomes concurrently with the evolution of identified genetic stratal packages. This facilitates a better communication of the sequence-stratigraphic process. WheelerLab is designed to give the user both interactive and interpretational control over the transformation; this is most useful when determining the correct stratigraphic order for laterally separated genetic stratal packages. The program can also be used to generate synthetic sequence stratigraphic sections for chronostratigraphic analysis.

  9. Evaluation of the mussel fishery in Wheeler Reservoir, Tennessee River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zack H.; Malvestuto, S. P.; Davies, W. D.; Crance, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the freshwater mussel fishery on Wheeler Reservoir, a 27,155-hectare mainstream impoundment of the Tennessee River in Alabama. During July 1991 through June 1992, we used a roving creel survey to conduct 285 interviews over 57 weekdays and 12 weekend days. Total harvest during the 12-month survey period was estimated to be 570 metric tons, and included 15 mussel species. The most frequently harvested species were the washboard Megalonaias nervosa. Ohio pigtoe Pleurobema cordatum, and butterfly Ellipsaria lineolata. Harvest peaked in June at 290,414 mussels. Among collection techniques, total estimated effort was highest for divers (71,160 musseler-hours). The total estimated value of the 12-month mussel harvest (in terms of money paid to harvesters) from Wheeler Reservoir was US$2,119,921.

  10. Werner-Wheeler mass tensor for fusionlike configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Gherghescu, R.A.; Poenaru, D.N.

    2005-08-01

    The Werner-Wheeler approach is used to calculate the components of the mass tensor for a binary configuration of two intersected spheroids. Four free coordinates form the deformation space: the small semiaxis of the projectile, the two semiaxis ratios of the spheroids, and the distance between centers. A correction term is also calculated, due to the center of mass motion. Final results are presented for the fusion channel {sup 54}Cr+{sup 240}Pu, and all possible couplings are analyzed.

  11. Wheeler-Feynman dynamics of spin-1/2 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Alstine, Peter; Crater, Horace W.

    1986-02-01

    By combining a supersymmetric description of a spinning particle in an external field with an appropriate modification of the ``adjunct field'' of Wheeler and Feynman, we construct a many-time relativistic dynamics for arbitrary numbers of spin-(1/2) and spinless particles in mutual scalar or vector interaction. Quantization of the slow-motion approximation to the dynamics of two spinning particles reproduces the corresponding field-theoretic (Bethe-Salpeter) dynamics through order α4.

  12. Solutions of the Wheeler-Feynman equations with discontinuous velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Daniel Câmara; De Luca, Jayme

    2015-01-01

    We generalize Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics with a variational boundary value problem for continuous boundary segments that might include velocity discontinuity points. Critical-point orbits must satisfy the Euler-Lagrange equations of the action functional at most points, which are neutral differential delay equations (the Wheeler-Feynman equations of motion). At velocity discontinuity points, critical-point orbits must satisfy the Weierstrass-Erdmann continuity conditions for the partial momenta and the partial energies. We study a special setup having the shortest time-separation between the (infinite-dimensional) boundary segments, for which case the critical-point orbit can be found using a two-point boundary problem for an ordinary differential equation. For this simplest setup, we prove that orbits can have discontinuous velocities. We construct a numerical method to solve the Wheeler-Feynman equations together with the Weierstrass-Erdmann conditions and calculate some numerical orbits with discontinuous velocities. We also prove that the variational boundary value problem has a unique solution depending continuously on boundary data, if the continuous boundary segments have velocity discontinuities along a reduced local space.

  13. Solutions of the Wheeler-Feynman equations with discontinuous velocities.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Daniel Câmara; De Luca, Jayme

    2015-01-01

    We generalize Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics with a variational boundary value problem for continuous boundary segments that might include velocity discontinuity points. Critical-point orbits must satisfy the Euler-Lagrange equations of the action functional at most points, which are neutral differential delay equations (the Wheeler-Feynman equations of motion). At velocity discontinuity points, critical-point orbits must satisfy the Weierstrass-Erdmann continuity conditions for the partial momenta and the partial energies. We study a special setup having the shortest time-separation between the (infinite-dimensional) boundary segments, for which case the critical-point orbit can be found using a two-point boundary problem for an ordinary differential equation. For this simplest setup, we prove that orbits can have discontinuous velocities. We construct a numerical method to solve the Wheeler-Feynman equations together with the Weierstrass-Erdmann conditions and calculate some numerical orbits with discontinuous velocities. We also prove that the variational boundary value problem has a unique solution depending continuously on boundary data, if the continuous boundary segments have velocity discontinuities along a reduced local space.

  14. Nonlinear Breit-Wheeler Pair Production in a Tightly Focused Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Piazza, A.

    2016-11-01

    The only available analytical framework for investigating QED processes in a strong laser field systematically relies on approximating the latter as a plane wave. However, realistic high-intensity laser beams feature much more complex space-time structures than plane waves. Here, we show the feasibility of an analytical framework for investigating strong-field QED processes in laser beams of arbitrary space-time structure by determining the energy spectrum of positrons produced via nonlinear Breit-Wheeler pair production as a function of the background field in the realistic assumption that the energy of the incoming photon is the largest dynamical energy in the problem. A numerical evaluation of the angular resolved positron spectrum shows significant quantitative differences with respect to the analogous result in a plane wave, such that the present results will be also important for the design of upcoming strong laser facilities aiming at measuring this process.

  15. An agent-based model for queue formation of powered two-wheelers in heterogeneous traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tzu-Chang; Wong, K. I.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an agent-based model (ABM) for simulating the queue formation of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) in heterogeneous traffic at a signalized intersection. The main novelty is that the proposed interaction rule describing the position choice behavior of PTWs when queuing in heterogeneous traffic can capture the stochastic nature of the decision making process. The interaction rule is formulated as a multinomial logit model, which is calibrated by using a microscopic traffic trajectory dataset obtained from video footage. The ABM is validated against the survey data for the vehicular trajectory patterns, queuing patterns, queue lengths, and discharge rates. The results demonstrate that the proposed model is capable of replicating the observed queue formation process for heterogeneous traffic.

  16. DNA sequence compression using the burrows-wheeler transform.

    PubMed

    Adjeroh, Don; Zhang, Yong; Mukherjee, Amar; Powell, Matt; Bell, Tim

    2002-01-01

    We investigate off-line dictionary oriented approaches to DNA sequence compression, based on the Burrows-Wheeler Transform (BWT). The preponderance of short repeating patterns is an important phenomenon in biological sequences. Here, we propose off-line methods to compress DNA sequences that exploit the different repetition structures inherent in such sequences. Repetition analysis is performed based on the relationship between the BWT and important pattern matching data structures, such as the suffix tree and suffix array. We discuss how the proposed approach can be incorporated in the BWT compression pipeline.

  17. Wheeler and Feynman electrodynamics within the framework of retarded causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaremko, Yu

    2002-11-01

    A frontal collision of two point-like charged particles which are asymptotically free in the remote past and in the distant future is considered. Ten conserved quantities corresponding to the symmetry of a closed system of particles and electromagnetic field under the Poincaré group are expressed in terms of particle variables. It is shown that an interference of outgoing electromagnetic waves (retarded Liénard-Wiechert solutions) ensures the action of the field of one source on another (mutual interaction). The combination of wave motions accords with the modified Wheeler and Feynman absorber theory of radiation where (acausal) 'perfect absorption' is replaced by an interference phenomenon.

  18. A DISCUSSION OF THE WHEELER-FEYNMAN ABSORBER THEORY OF RADIATION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Wheeler - Feynman absorber theory of radiation is reviewed. A proof is offered to show that a sum of advanced and retarded effects from the...absorber can provide the origin of radiative reaction. This proof is different from and perhaps simpler than that of Wheeler and Feynman . From arguments

  19. Calculations in the Wheeler-Feynman Absorber Theory of Radiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Kalathur Sreenivasan

    One dimensional computer aided calculations were done to find the self-consistent solutions for various absorber configurations in the context of the Wheeler-Feynman Absorber theory, wherein every accelerating charge is assumed to produce a time symmetric combination of advanced and retarded fields. These calculations picked out the so called "outerface" solution for incomplete absorbers and showed that advanced as well as retarded signals interact with matter in the same manner as in the full retarded theory. Based on these calculations the Partridge experiment and the Schmidt-Newman experiment were ruled out as tests of the Absorber theory. An experiment designed to produce and detect advanced effects is proposed, based on more one-dimensional calculations.

  20. Semiclassical solutions of generalized Wheeler-DeWitt cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cesare, Marco; Gargiulo, Maria Vittoria; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2016-01-01

    We consider an extension of Wheeler-DeWitt minisuperpace cosmology with additional interaction terms that preserve the linear structure of the theory. General perturbative methods are developed and applied to known semiclassical solutions for a closed Universe filled with a massless scalar. The exact Feynman propagator of the free theory is derived by means of a conformal transformation in minisuperspace. As an example, a stochastic interaction term is considered, and first order perturbative corrections are computed. It is argued that such an interaction can be used to describe the interaction of the cosmological background with the microscopic d.o.f. of the gravitational field. A Helmoltz-like equation is considered for the case of interactions that do not depend on the internal time, and the corresponding Green's kernel is obtained exactly. The possibility of linking this approach to fundamental theories of quantum gravity is investigated.

  1. Organizations Involving Youth in Leadership Positions: A Conversation with Wendy Wheeler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2005-01-01

    Based on her experiences working with various organizations to develop strategies to support young people and strengthen communities, Ms. Wheeler answers our questions on involving youth in leadership positions.

  2. An analysis of the Wheeler method for measuring the radiating efficiency of antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    A model problem is formulated to evaluate the limitations imposed by the assumptions in the Wheeler or cap method for measuring the radiating efficiency of antennas. The antenna in the model is a circular loop and the radiation shield is a spherical metal shell. Calculated values of the actual efficiency of the antenna and the efficiency that would be measured using the Wheeler method are compared to determine the accuracy of the method and set guidelines for its application.

  3. Wheeler County Riparian Buffers; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Judy; Homer, Will

    2004-02-01

    Problems Encountered During Contract Year--Wheeler County residents are mostly non participants when it comes to Farm Services programs. Results of the counties non participation is the rental rates are the lowest in the state. There is a government fear factor as well as an obvious distance limitation. The FSA office is nearly 150 mile roundtrip from two of the counties urban areas. I find myself not only selling the CREP-Riparian Buffer but also selling Farm Services in general. Training has been very limited. NRCS is obviously not designed around training and certification. They are an on-the-job training organization. It has caused a hesitation in my outreach program and a great deal of frustration. I feel my confidence will strengthen with the follow through of the current projects. The most evident problem has come to light as of late. The program is too expensive to implement. The planting is too intensive for a 12''-18'' rainfall area. I provide the potential landowner a spread sheet with the bonuses, the costs, and the final outcome. No matter the situation, CREP or CCRP, the landowner always balks at the cost. The program assumes the landowner has the capital to make the initial investment. For example, project No.2 is going to be a minimum width buffer. It is approximately 3,000 ft long and 5.5 acres. The buffer for tree planting and fencing alone will result in a cost of nearly $13,000. With the water developments it nears $23,000. That is nearly 10% of a 250 mother-cow operating budget. Project No.1, the tree planting estimate is $45,000. This alone is nearly 25% of the same type of budget. I would greatly appreciate any help in finding a third party willing to put money to work covering the initial costs of the program, expecting reimbursement from Farm Services Agency. I believe this could create a powerful tool in buffering streams in Wheeler County. Outlook for Contract Year 2--I have been in this position now for 6 months. I am beginning to feel a

  4. On the existence of dynamics in Wheeler-Feynman electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Deckert, D.-A.; Dürr, D.

    2013-08-01

    Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics (WF) is an action-at-a-distance theory about world-lines of charges that in contrary to the textbook formulation of classical electrodynamics is free of ultraviolet singularities and is capable of explaining the irreversible nature of radiation. In WF, the world-lines of charges obey the so-called Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode (FST) equations, a coupled set of nonlinear and neutral differential equations that involve time-like advanced as well as retarded arguments of unbounded delay. Using a reformulation of this theory in terms of Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics without self-interaction that we have introduced in a preceding work, we are able to establish the existence of conditional solutions. These conditional solutions solve the FST equations on any finite time interval with prescribed continuations outside of this interval. As a byproduct, we also prove existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Synge equations on the time half-line for a given history of charge world-lines.

  5. Tachyons and the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    2001-11-01

    The Proca equation with negative mass-square is studied in a refractive and absorptive spacetime. The generation of superluminal radiation fields by subluminal currents is discussed. The possibility of time-symmetric wave propagation is analysed in the context of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory; it is shown how advanced modes of the Proca field can be turned into retarded ones in a permeable spacetime capable of producing an absorber field. A microscopic oscillator model for the permeability is suggested. Tachyonic Liénard-Wiechert potentials are studied and strictly causal retarded wave solutions are obtained. Energy transfer by superluminal radiation is discussed, and explicit formulae for the spectral energy density and intensity are derived. Superluminal radiation fields generated by classical damped oscillators carrying tachyonic charge are investigated, including the tachyonic analogue to Thomson and Rayleigh cross sections. The Maxwell equations for negative mass-square are derived, their non-local generalization to frequency-dependent permeabilities, as well as the Poynting theorem for superluminal radiation in an absorptive spacetime.

  6. Situation report: Heavy DDT contamination at Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Atkeson, T.Z.

    1980-01-01

    A DDT manufacturing plant that operated on the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama discharged DDT-Iaden effluent from 1947 to 1970 into a creek on Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Seven to 9 years after the plant closed, high DDT, DDE, and DDD levels were reported in soils, river sediments, and fish in the area. Eleven of 27 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) collected on the Refuge during February 1979 had carcass DDE residues that exceeded levels associated with eggshell thinning. DDE residues in a smaller number of mallards exceeded levels associated with egg breakage, poor hatchability, and abnormal hehavior and poor survival of offspring. Several avian species have disappeared from the Refuge since 1950, probably due to both industrial discharges of DDT from the plant and insecticidal use of DDT in the area. The contamination still presents a threat to herons, waterfowl, and raptors including occasional wintering or migrant eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and probably many other avian species. A maternity colony of endangered gray bats (Myotis grisescens) is also threatened by this contamination.

  7. Waiting endurance time estimation of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Huan, Mei; Yang, Xiao-bao

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposed a model for estimating waiting endurance times of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections using survival analysis method. Waiting duration times were collected by video cameras and they were assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and red-light running behavior. A Cox proportional hazard model was introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics and traffic conditions were defined as covariates to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Empirical results show that riders do not want to wait too long to cross intersections. As signal waiting time increases, electric two-wheelers get impatient and violate the traffic signal. There are 12.8% of electric two-wheelers with negligible wait time. 25.0% of electric two-wheelers are generally nonrisk takers who can obey the traffic rules after waiting for 100 seconds. Half of electric two-wheelers cannot endure 49.0 seconds or longer at red-light phase. Red phase time, motor vehicle volume, and conformity behavior have important effects on riders' waiting times. Waiting endurance times would decrease with the longer red-phase time, the lower traffic volume, or the bigger number of other riders who run against the red light. The proposed model may be applicable in the design, management and control of signalized intersections in other developing cities.

  8. Waiting Endurance Time Estimation of Electric Two-Wheelers at Signalized Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Mei; Yang, Xiao-bao

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposed a model for estimating waiting endurance times of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections using survival analysis method. Waiting duration times were collected by video cameras and they were assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and red-light running behavior. A Cox proportional hazard model was introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics and traffic conditions were defined as covariates to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Empirical results show that riders do not want to wait too long to cross intersections. As signal waiting time increases, electric two-wheelers get impatient and violate the traffic signal. There are 12.8% of electric two-wheelers with negligible wait time. 25.0% of electric two-wheelers are generally nonrisk takers who can obey the traffic rules after waiting for 100 seconds. Half of electric two-wheelers cannot endure 49.0 seconds or longer at red-light phase. Red phase time, motor vehicle volume, and conformity behavior have important effects on riders' waiting times. Waiting endurance times would decrease with the longer red-phase time, the lower traffic volume, or the bigger number of other riders who run against the red light. The proposed model may be applicable in the design, management and control of signalized intersections in other developing cities. PMID:24895659

  9. Efficient maximal repeat finding using the burrows-wheeler transform and wavelet tree.

    PubMed

    Külekci, M Oğuzhan; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott; Xu, Bojian

    2012-01-01

    Finding repetitive structures in genomes and proteins is important to understand their biological functions. Many data compressors for modern genomic sequences rely heavily on finding repeats in the sequences. The notion of maximal repeats captures all the repeats in the data in a space-efficient way. Prior work on maximal repeat finding used either a suffix tree or a suffix array along with other auxiliary data structures. Their space usage is 19--50 times the text size with the best engineering efforts, prohibiting their usability on massive data. Our technique uses the Burrows-Wheeler Transform and wavelet trees. For data sets consisting of natural language texts, the space usage of our method is no more than three times the text size. For genomic sequences stored using one byte per base, the space usage is less than double the sequence size. Our method is also orders of magnitude faster than the prior methods for processing massive texts, since the prior methods must use external memory. For the first time, our method enables a desktop computer with 8GB internal memory to find all the maximal repeats in the whole human genome in less than 17 hours. We have implemented our method as general-purpose open-source software for public use.

  10. Reviving Complementarity: John Wheeler's efforts to apply complementarity toward a quantum description of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In 1978, John Wheeler proposed the delayed-choice thought experiment as a generalization of the classic double slit experiment intended to help elucidate the nature of decision making in quantum measurement. In particular, he wished to illustrate how a decision made after a quantum system was prepared might retrospectively affect the outcome. He extended his methods to the universe itself, raising the question of whether the universe is a ``self-excited circuit'' in which scientific measurements in the present affect the quantum dynamics in the past. In this talk we'll show how Wheeler's approach revived the notion of Bohr's complementarity, which had by then faded from the prevailing discourse of quantum measurement theory. Wheeler's advocacy reflected, in part, his wish to eliminate the divide in quantum theory between measurer and what was being measured, bringing greater consistency to the ideas of Bohr, a mentor whom he deeply respected.

  11. 33 CFR 165.1329 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA. 165.1329... Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA... Waterways EPA superfund cleanup site. Vessels may otherwise transit or navigate within this area...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1329 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA. 165.1329... Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA... Waterways EPA superfund cleanup site. Vessels may otherwise transit or navigate within this area...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1329 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA. 165.1329... Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA... Waterways EPA superfund cleanup site. Vessels may otherwise transit or navigate within this area...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1329 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA. 165.1329... Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA... Waterways EPA superfund cleanup site. Vessels may otherwise transit or navigate within this area...

  15. Alwyne (Wyn) Cooper Wheeler (1929-2005) and the libraries of the Natural History Museum, London.

    PubMed

    Datta, Ann

    2009-01-01

    As a senior scientist working in the Fish Section of the Department of Zoology at the Natural History Museum, Alwyne (Wyn) Wheeler was a regular library user and well-known to library staff. Always amiable and helpful, and possessing a broad general knowledge of natural history as well as expertise on fishes, Wyn interacted with library staff at all levels. A close working relationship developed where he contributed to section library management and collection building. He also published catalogues of some of the library's most important art collections. This paper celebrates the collaboration between Museum scientist Wyn Wheeler and librarians at the National History Museum.

  16. Strong-field Breit-Wheeler pair production in two consecutive laser pulses with variable time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Martin J. A.; Müller, Carsten

    2017-03-01

    Photoproduction of electron-positron pairs by the strong-field Breit-Wheeler process in an intense laser field is studied. The laser field is assumed to consist of two consecutive short pulses, with a variable time delay in between. By numerical calculations within the framework of scalar quantum electrodynamics, we demonstrate that the time delay exerts a strong impact on the pair-creation probability. For the case when both pulses are identical, the effect is traced back to the relative quantum phase of the interfering S-matrix amplitudes and explained within a simplified analytical model. Conversely, when the two laser pulses differ from each other, the pair-creation probability depends not only on the time delay but, in general, also on the temporal order of the pulses.

  17. Cosmological constant from a deformation of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garattini, Remo; Faizal, Mir

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the Wheeler-DeWitt equation modified by a deformation of the second quantized canonical commutation relations. Such modified commutation relations are induced by a Generalized Uncertainty Principle. Since the Wheeler-DeWitt equation can be related to a Sturm-Liouville problem where the associated eigenvalue can be interpreted as the cosmological constant, it is possible to explicitly relate such an eigenvalue to the deformation parameter of the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt equation. The analysis is performed in a Mini-Superspace approach where the scale factor appears as the only degree of freedom. The deformation of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation gives rise to a Cosmological Constant even in absence of matter fields. As a Cosmological Constant cannot exist in absence of the matter fields in the undeformed Mini-Superspace approach, so the existence of a non-vanishing Cosmological Constant is a direct consequence of the deformation by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle. In fact, we are able to demonstrate that a non-vanishing Cosmological Constant exists even in the deformed flat space. We also discuss the consequences of this deformation on the big bang singularity.

  18. Interview with Elizabeth Boling, aka Noel Wheeler, aka Skater Owens, aka EXB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsburger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Elizabeth Boling, aka Noel Wheeler, aka Skater Owens, aka EXB, editor of "TechTrends" magazine. EXB has edited AECT's bi-monthly peer-reviewed magazine since January 2003. She is also an associate professor in the Instructional Systems Technology department at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB),…

  19. Methods of numerical analysis of 1-dimensional 2-body problem in Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, S. V.; Nikitin, I. N.; Urazmetov, W. F.

    2000-04-01

    Numerical methods for solution of differential equations with deviating arguments describing 1-dimensional ultra-relativistic scattering of 2 identical charged particles in classical electrodynamics with half-retarded/halfadvanced interaction (Wheeler and Feynman, 1949) are developed. A bifurcation of solutions and violation of their reflectional symmetries in the region of velocities v>0.937c are found in numerical analysis.

  20. The Feynman-Wheeler Perfect Absorber Theory in a New Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidharth, B. G.

    2010-08-01

    The original Feynman-Wheeler perfect absorber theory lead to the Instantaneous Action at a Distance formulation. We observe that this is perfectly meaningful in the light of recent studies pointing to a small but non-zero photon mass. The Quantum Mechanical effects within the Compton scale of such a small mass photon would lead to the above formulation.

  1. Strong-field Breit-Wheeler pair production in short laser pulses: Identifying multiphoton interference and carrier-envelope-phase effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Martin J. A.; Müller, Carsten

    2016-03-01

    The creation of electron-positron pairs by the strong-field Breit-Wheeler process in intense short laser pulses is investigated in the framework of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. Regarding laser field parameters in the multiphoton regime, special attention is brought to the energy spectrum of the created particles, which can be reproduced and explained by means of an intuitive model. The model is based on the probabilities of multiphoton events driven by the spectral components of the laser pulse. It allows us, in particular, to identify interferences between different pair production channels which exhibit a characteristic dependence on the laser carrier-envelope phase.

  2. Report: Independent Ground Water Sampling Generally Confirms EPA’s Data at Wheeler Pit Superfund Site in Wisconsin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-P-0218, September 8, 2010. With minimal exceptions, our independent sampling results at the Wheeler Pit Superfund Site were consistent with the sampling results that EPA Region 5 has obtained historically.

  3. Traffic safety analysis of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Šraml, Matjaž; Tollazzi, Tomaž; Renčelj, Marko

    2012-11-01

    Due to the 2006 European research report on powered two-wheelers (PTWs) riders' traffic safety, Slovenia represents the highest risk for PTW riders in the European Union. Namely, in Slovenia we have the largest number of PTW riders' deaths per billion travelled kilometers in 2006. Since then the traffic safety situation in the field of PTW riders in Slovenia has been improving and we will discuss that phenomenon in the present paper. The paper identifies and analyzes the causes that led to such a critical situation. Further, the evaluation of activities that were carried out to improve the road safety for powered two-wheeler riders in Slovenia in the last past years are discussed. In conclusion a selection of measures and actions is presented that already has been and also should be carried out in the future.

  4. Two Approaches to Rehabilitation of Metal Roofing at Wheeler Army Airfield Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Center Approach/Technologies • Polyurea coating over existing metal roof • New metal roofing system over existing metal roof US Army Corps of Engineers...Engineer Research & Development Center Wheeler Army Airfield US Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center Polyurea Coating... Polyurea Coating Restoration Existing Conditions • Overlay with coating • Some rusting • Persistent leaking US Army Corps of Engineers Engineer

  5. Wheeler-DeWitt equation and Lie symmetries in Bianchi scalar-field cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, A.; Karpathopoulos, L.; Wojnar, A.; Capozziello, S.

    2016-04-01

    Lie symmetries are discussed for the Wheeler-De Witt equation in Bianchi Class A cosmologies. In particular, we consider general relativity, minimally coupled scalar-field gravity and hybrid gravity as paradigmatic examples of the approach. Several invariant solutions are determined and classified according to the form of the scalar-field potential. The approach gives rise to a suitable method to select classical solutions and it is based on the first principle of the existence of symmetries.

  6. The Wheeler-DeWitt Equation in Filćhenkov Model: The Lie Algebraic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.; Baradaran, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Wheeler-DeWitt equation in Filćhenkov model with terms related to strings, dust, relativistic matter, bosons and fermions, and ultra stiff matter is solved in a quasi-exact analytical manner via the Lie algebraic approach. In the calculations, using the representation theory of sl(2), the general (N+1)-dimensional matrix equation is constructed whose determinant yields the solutions of the problem.

  7. Foster Wheeler's Solutions for Large Scale CFB Boiler Technology: Features and Operational Performance of Łagisza 460 MWe CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Arto

    During recent years, once-through supercritical (OTSC) CFB technology has been developed, enabling the CFB technology to proceed to medium-scale (500 MWe) utility projects such as Łagisza Power Plant in Poland owned by Poludniowy Koncern Energetyczny SA. (PKE), with net efficiency nearly 44%. Łagisza power plant is currently under commissioning and has reached full load operation in March 2009. The initial operation shows very good performance and confirms, that the CFB process has no problems with the scaling up to this size. Also the once-through steam cycle utilizing Siemens' vertical tube Benson technology has performed as predicted in the CFB process. Foster Wheeler has developed the CFB design further up to 800 MWe with net efficiency of ≥45%.

  8. Exact solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and the Yamabe construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ita, Eyo Eyo, III; Soo, Chopin

    2015-08-01

    Exact solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation of the full theory of four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature are obtained. They are characterized by Schrödinger wavefunctionals having support on 3-metrics of constant spatial scalar curvature, and thus contain two full physical field degrees of freedom in accordance with the Yamabe construction. These solutions are moreover Gaussians of minimum uncertainty and they are naturally associated with a rigged Hilbert space. In addition, in the limit the regulator is removed, exact 3-dimensional diffeomorphism and local gauge invariance of the solutions are recovered.

  9. Dr Percy Charles Edward d'Erf Wheeler (1859-1944): a notable medical missionary of the Holy Land.

    PubMed

    Perry, Yaron; Lev, Efraim

    2008-05-01

    Dr Percy Charles Edward d'Erf Wheeler, a medical missionary of the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews, spent 24 years (1885-1909) as head of the English medical institution in Jerusalem. Wheeler dedicated the years he served in Palestine to promote the medical condition of the Jews as a means of missionary work. The most significant of his achievements was his leading role in the founding of the new British Hospital for the Jews in Jerusalem, the flagship of the British presence in Palestine, to be inaugurated in 1897.

  10. Are leaves 'freewheelin'? Testing for a wheeler-type effect in leaf xylem hydraulic decline.

    PubMed

    Scoffoni, Christine; Sack, Lawren

    2015-03-01

    A recent study found that cutting shoots under water while xylem was under tension (which has been the standard protocol for the past few decades) could produce artefactual embolisms inside the xylem, overestimating hydraulic vulnerability relative to shoots cut under water after relaxing xylem tension (Wheeler et al. 2013). That study also raised the possibility that such a 'Wheeler effect' might occur in studies of leaf hydraulic vulnerability. We tested for such an effect for four species by applying a modified vacuum pump method to leaves with minor veins severed, to construct leaf xylem hydraulic vulnerability curves. We tested for an impact on leaf xylem hydraulic conductance (Kx ) of cutting the petiole and minor veins under water for dehydrated leaves with xylem under tension compared with dehydrated leaves after previously relaxing xylem tension. Our results showed no significant 'cutting artefact' for leaf xylem. The lack of an effect for leaves could not be explained by narrower or shorter xylem conduits, and may be due to lesser mechanical stress imposed when cutting leaf petioles, and/or to rapid refilling of emboli in petioles. These findings provide the first validation of previous measurements of leaf hydraulic vulnerability against this potential artefact.

  11. Prospects of inspection and maintenance of two-wheelers in India.

    PubMed

    Das, S; Schmoyer, R; Harrison, G; Hausker, K

    2001-10-01

    Two-wheeler vehicles in Delhi, India--roughly 70% of the total vehicle fleet--are responsible for a significant portion of the city's vehicle emissions and petroleum consumption. An inspection and maintenance (I/M) program that ensures vehicle emission control systems are well maintained can complement other emission reduction strategies. This paper presents the initial findings of extensive data collected on vehicle characteristics and emissions for two-wheeler vehicles operating in Delhi in a series of I/M camps conducted by the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers and various partners in late 1999. The analysis shows idle HC and CO emissions [measured in terms of parts per million (ppm) and volume % (vol %), respectively] in a slow declining trend with subsequent model years, reflecting tighter emission standards and more advanced emission technologies. The I/M benefits--3 vol % and 39% reduction in idle and mass CO, respectively; 40 vol % and 22% reduction in idle and mass HC, respectively; and a 10-20% increase in fuel efficiency--were higher than those reported in the literature. Although these benefits are substantial, any implementation strategy needs to consider cost-effectiveness. In the present study, only 10% of vehicles--contributing 22% of the total vehicle emissions--failed the idle CO standard. Fleet emissions data variability necessitates a large sample size to develop a baseline for the vehicle fleet, but a smaller, scientifically designed sample and better data collection quality could periodically track the benefits at future camps.

  12. Prospects of Inspection and Maintenance of Two-Wheelers in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujit; Schmoyer, Rick; Harrison, Glen; Hausker, Karl

    2001-10-01

    Two-wheeler vehicles in Delhi, India-roughly 70% of the total vehicle fleet-are responsible for a significant portion of the city's vehicle emissions and petroleum consumption. An inspection and maintenance (I/M) program that ensures vehicle emission control systems are well maintained can complement other emission reduction strategies. This paper presents the initial findings of extensive data collected on vehicle characteristics and emissions for two-wheeler vehicles operating in Delhi in a series of I/M camps conducted by the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers and various partners in late 1999. The analysis shows idle HC and CO emissions [measured in terms of parts per million (ppm) and volume % (vol %), respectively] in a slow declining trend with subsequent model years, reflecting tighter emission standards and more advanced emission technologies. The I/M benefits-3 vol % and 39% reduction in idle and mass CO, respectively; 40 vol % and 22% reduction in idle and mass HC, respectively; and a 10-20% increase in fuel efficiency-were higher than those reported in the literature. Although these benefits are substantial, any implementation strategy needs to consider cost-effectiveness. In the present study, only 10% of vehicles-contributing 22% of the total vehicle emissions-failed the idle CO standard. Fleet emissions data variability necessitates a large sample size to develop a baseline for the vehicle fleet, but a smaller, scientifically designed sample and better data collection quality could periodically track the benefits at future camps.

  13. 75 FR 76280 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a permanent regulated navigation area (RNA) on portions of the Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington. The RNA will... Agency's (EPA's) Commencement Bay Nearshore/ Tideflats superfund cleanup remediation efforts. This...

  14. 75 FR 30753 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... proposed rule that would establish a permanent regulated navigation area (RNA) on portions of the Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington. The RNA would protect the seabed... proposed RNA. DATES: Comments and related material must be received by the Coast Guard on or before...

  15. Adaptive Driving Equipment: Selection and Major Considerations [and] Battery Powered Scooters and 3-Wheelers. Information Support Packets #1 and #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    Two brief guides offer suggestions for persons with physical disabilities who are considering the purchase of adaptive driving equipment, battery-powered scooters, or three wheelers. The first guide offers guidelines for individuals considering purchase of special hand controls or other modifications or a van lift to enhance their independence in…

  16. Traumatic tentorial hematoma in two-wheeler riders: Correlation with helmet use

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Deepak; Dawar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tentorial hematoma is frequently seen in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, especially in motorized two-wheeler riders following head injury. However its relevance and prognostic significance are not known. Objective: To evaluate patients of TBI with tentorial hematoma using a simple grading system and attempt to correlate this grading with factors like helmet use and neurological outcome. Materials and Methods: This prospective study over a 1-year period included patients with TBI who had tentorial hematoma in the initial plain head. Patients were divided into three grades based on the initial CT findings: Grade I: Isolated tentorial hematoma, grade II: tentorial hematoma with midline shift but open cisterns and grade III: Tentorial hematoma with effaced cisterns. Clinical and radiological records of patients including admission GCS and GOS at discharge were assessed in all cases. Observations: A total of 1786 patients of TBI were admitted during the study period. Of these, 106 (5.9%) patients had tentorial hematoma. 84.9% (n = 90) were male and 15.1% (n = 16) were female with the mean age being 36.5 years (range 2-66 years). The mean admission GCS was 13, 11 and 8 in patients with grade I, II and III tentorial hematoma respectively. 43.4% (n = 46) of the patients had grade I, 32.1% (n = 34) had grade II and 24.5% (n = 26) patients had grade III tentorial hematoma. Seventy-one patients (84.5%) were riding motorized two wheelers with 63 (89%) wearing helmets. The majority of the patients wearing helmets (58.8%) had grade I hematoma with 35% (n = 22) having grade II hematoma and only 6.3% (n = 4) having grade III hematoma. Overall, there were 20 deaths. 50% (n = 10) of the deaths were in patients with grade III hematoma and 40% (n = 8) of the deaths were in patients with grade II hematoma. There were two (10%) deaths in patients with grade I hematoma (both unrelated to head injury). The mean GOS at the time of discharge was 5, 4.1 and 2.2 in patients

  17. Surface response of blind thrust shown from high resolution topographic data and updated geochronology at Wheeler Ridge, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; DeVecchio, D. E.; Johnstone, S. A.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Wheeler Ridge is an asymmetric east-propagating anticline (10km axis, 330m relief) above a north-vergent blind thrust deforming Quaternary alluvial fan and shallow marine rocks at the northern front of the Transverse Ranges, San Joaquin Valley, CA. This area was a research foci in the 1990's when the soils, u-series soil carbonate dating, and subsurface structure of deformed strata identified from oil wells were used to create a kinematic model of deformation, and estimates of fault slip, uplift, and lateral propagation rates. A recent collection of light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data allow us to complete meter scale topographic analyses of the fluvial networks and hillslopes and correlate geomorphic response to tectonics. We interpret these results using a detailed morphological map and observe drainage network and hillslope process transitions both along and across the fold axis. With lidar topography, we extract common morphometrics (e.g., channel steepness-- ksn, eroded volume, hillslope relief) to illustrate how the landscape is responding to variations in uplift rate along the fold axis and show asymmetry of surface response on the forelimb and backlimb. The forelimb is dominated by large drainages with landslides initiating in the marine units at the core of the fold. Our topographic analysis shows that the stream channel indices values on the forelimb increase along the fold axis, away from the propagation tip. The backlimb drainages are dominantly long and linear with broad ridgelines. Using lidar and fieldwork, we see that uplifted backlimb surfaces preserve the deformed fan surface. The preliminary OSL results from alluvial fan units improve age control of previously defined surfaces, refining our understanding of the deposition and uplift of alluvial fan units on preserved on backlimb.

  18. A Linear-Time Burrows-Wheeler Transform Using Induced Sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okanohara, Daisuke; Sadakane, Kunihiko

    To compute Burrows-Wheeler Transform (BWT), one usually builds a suffix array (SA) first, and then obtains BWT using SA, which requires much redundant working space. In previous studies to compute BWT directly [5,12], one constructs BWT incrementally, which requires O(n logn) time where n is the length of the input text. We present an algorithm for computing BWT directly in linear time by modifying the suffix array construction algorithm based on induced sorting [15]. We show that the working space is O(n logσloglog σ n) for any σ where σ is the alphabet size, which is the smallest among the known linear time algorithms.

  19. Quantization of second-order Lagrangians: The Fokker-Wheeler-Feynman model of electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. A.; Scott, T. C.

    1992-10-01

    The consequences of quantizing the Fokker-Wheeler-Feynman model of electrodynamics, treating the Lagrangian via its acceleration-dependent (1/c) power-series representation, is examined using recently validated methods. An exact treatment of this acceleration dependence yields, under certain circumstances, high-energy resonant modes. In the past, such modes have been assumed unphysical and have been removed by perturbative or order-reduction techniques. However, these modes appear to be of physical significance. This conclusion follows because this completely ab initio calculation, with no adjustable parameters, has a number of successes. It provides a description for resonances observed in the electron-positron emission from heavy-ion collisions, in particular, and in diproton collisions and, possibly, in other collision experiments as well.

  20. Indirect optic nerve injury in two-wheeler riders in northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Jain, Lokesh; Sarma, Gitumoni; Sarma, Angshuman Sen; Medhi, Jnanankar; Das, Dipankar; Buragohain, Sanjoy Kr

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of posterior indirect traumatic optic neuropathy and superior temporal orbital rim injury in two-wheeler riders and documentation of the clinical profile of such cases. Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Records of all patients reporting with cranio-orbital injury and vision loss following road traffic accidents between October 1994 and April 2006 were reviewed and from them cases with vision loss solely from indirect optic nerve injury were taken up for study. The prognostic significance of different presenting features, role of intravenous methyl prednisolone (IVMP) and relative risk of superior orbital rim injury to posterior indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (at 95% confidence interval) was calculated. Results: Out of 129 consecutive cases of cranio-orbital injury, 35 had posterior indirect traumatic optic neuropathy with minor ipsilateral superior temporal orbital rim trauma and none used any protective headwear. Presenting clinical features like relative afferent pupillary defect (P= 0.365), optic disc status (P= 0.518) and visual evoked potential (VEP) (P= 0.366) were disproportionate to visual loss. Only VEP had prognostic significance. The IVMP did not provide any added therapeutic benefit. The remaining 94 cases sustained direct blinding ocular trauma and 28 of them had associated intracranial pathology. The relative risk of superior temporal orbital rim injury to posterior indirect optic nerve trauma was 2.25. Conclusion: Superior temporal orbital rim injury, even when minor, carries a potential risk for development of blindness from indirect posterior indirect traumatic optic neuropathy in two-wheeler drivers. Presenting signs do not correlate with visual status. Only VEP has prognostic significance and the condition is untreatable. PMID:18974518

  1. Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws.

  2. Efficient haplotype matching and storage using the positional Burrows–Wheeler transform (PBWT)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Over the last few years, methods based on suffix arrays using the Burrows–Wheeler Transform have been widely used for DNA sequence read matching and assembly. These provide very fast search algorithms, linear in the search pattern size, on a highly compressible representation of the dataset being searched. Meanwhile, algorithmic development for genotype data has concentrated on statistical methods for phasing and imputation, based on probabilistic matching to hidden Markov model representations of the reference data, which while powerful are much less computationally efficient. Here a theory of haplotype matching using suffix array ideas is developed, which should scale too much larger datasets than those currently handled by genotype algorithms. Results: Given M sequences with N bi-allelic variable sites, an O(NM) algorithm to derive a representation of the data based on positional prefix arrays is given, which is termed the positional Burrows–Wheeler transform (PBWT). On large datasets this compresses with run-length encoding by more than a factor of a hundred smaller than using gzip on the raw data. Using this representation a method is given to find all maximal haplotype matches within the set in O(NM) time rather than O(NM2) as expected from naive pairwise comparison, and also a fast algorithm, empirically independent of M given sufficient memory for indexes, to find maximal matches between a new sequence and the set. The discussion includes some proposals about how these approaches could be used for imputation and phasing. Availability: http://github.com/richarddurbin/pbwt Contact: richard.durbin@sanger.ac.uk PMID:24413527

  3. Class of solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, H. S.; Bezerra, V. B.

    2016-07-01

    We show that the solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in a homogeneous and isotropic universe are given by triconfluent Heun functions for the spatially closed, flat, and open geometries of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with different forms of energy. In a matter-dominated universe, we find the polynomial solution and the energy density spectrum. In the cases of radiation-dominated and vacuum universes, there are no polynomial solutions as shown.

  4. Methods of Numerical Analysis of One-Dimensional Two-Body Problem in Wheeler-Feynman Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, S. V.; Nikitin, I. N.; Urazmetov, W. F.

    Numerical methods for solutions of differential equations with deviating arguments describing one-dimensional ultra-relativistic scattering of two identical charged particles in Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics with half-retarded/half-advanced interaction are developed. Utilization of the methods for the physical problem analysis leads to the discovery of a bifurcation of solutions and breaking of their reflectional symmetry for particles asymptotic velocity v>0.937c in their center-of-mass frame.

  5. A covariant extrapolation of the noncovariant two particle Wheeler-Feynman Hamiltonian from the Todorov equation and Dirac's constraint mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crater, Horace; Yang, Dujiu

    1991-09-01

    A semirelativistic expansion in powers of 1/c2 is canonically matched through order (1/c4) of the two-particle total Hamiltonian of Wheeler-Feynman vector and scalar electrodynamics to a similar expansion of the center of momentum (c.m.) total energy of two interacting particles obtained from covariant generalized mass shell constraints derived with the use of the classical Todorov equation and Dirac's Hamiltonian constraint mechanics. This determines through order 1/c4 the direct interaction used in the covariant Todorov constraint equation. We show that these interactions are momentum independent in spite of the extensive and complicated momentum dependence of the potential energy terms in the Wheeler-Feynman Hamiltonian. The invariant expressions for the relativistic reduced mass and energy of the fictitious particle of relative motion used in the Todorov equation are also dynamically determined through this order by this same procedure. The resultant covariant Todorov equation then not only reproduces the noncovariant Wheeler-Feynman dynamics through order 1/c4 but also implicitly provides a rather simple covariant extrapolation of it to all orders of 1/c2.

  6. A space-efficient construction of the Burrows-Wheeler transform for genomic data.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Ross A; Mobarry, Clark M; Walenz, Brian P

    2005-09-01

    Algorithms for exact string matching have substantial application in computational biology. Time-efficient data structures which support a variety of exact string matching queries, such as the suffix tree and the suffix array, have been applied to such problems. As sequence databases grow, more space-efficient approaches to exact matching are becoming more important. One such data structure, the compressed suffix array (CSA), based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform, has been shown to require memory which is nearly equal to the memory requirements of the original database, while supporting common sorts of query problems time efficiently. However, building a CSA from a sequence in efficient space and time is challenging. In 2002, the first space-efficient CSA construction algorithm was presented. That implementation used (1+2 log2 |summation|)(1+epsilon) bits per character (where epsilon is a small fraction). The construction algorithm ran in as much as twice that space, in O(| summation|n log(n)) time. We have created an implementation which can also achieve these asymptotic bounds, but for small alphabets, and only uses 1/2 (1+|summation|)(1+epsilon) bits per character, a factor of 2 less space for nucleotide alphabets. We present time and space results for the CSA construction and querying of our implementation on publicly available genome data which demonstrate the practicality of this approach.

  7. Space-efficient whole genome comparisons with Burrows-Wheeler transforms.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Ross A

    2005-05-01

    The starting point for any alignment of mammalian genomes is the computation of exact matches satisfying various criteria. Time-efficient, O(n), data structures for this computation, such as the suffix tree, require O(n log(n)) space, several times the space of the genomes themselves. Thus, any reasonable whole-genome comparative project finds itself requiring tens of Gigabytes of RAM to maintain time-efficiency. This is beyond most modern workstations. With a new data structure, the compressed suffix array (CSA) implemented via the Burrows-Wheeler transform, we can trade time-efficiency for space-efficiency, taking O(n log(n)) time, but running in O(n) space, typically in total space less than or equal to that of the genomes themselves. If space is more expensive than time, this is an appropriate approach to consider. The most space-efficient implementation of this data structure requires 5 bits per nucleotide character to build on-line, in the worst case, and 2.5 bits per character to store once built. We present a description of this data structure and how it is used to obtain matches. An implementation (called bbbwt) is demonstrated by aligning two mammalian genomes on a modest workstation equipped with under 2 GB of free RAM in time superior to that of the implementations of other data structures.

  8. Rediscovery and reclassification of the dipteran taxon Nothomicrodon Wheeler, an exclusive endoparasitoid of gyne ant larvae

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Jahyny, Benoit J. B.; Ståhls, Gunilla; Rotheray, Graham; Delabie, Jacques H. C.; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    The myrmecophile larva of the dipteran taxon Nothomicrodon Wheeler is rediscovered, almost a century after its original description and unique report. The systematic position of this dipteran has remained enigmatic due to the absence of reared imagos to confirm indentity. We also failed to rear imagos, but we scrutinized entire nests of the Brazilian arboreal dolichoderine ant Azteca chartifex which, combined with morphological and molecular studies, enabled us to establish beyond doubt that Nothomicrodon belongs to the Phoridae (Insecta: Diptera), not the Syrphidae where it was first placed, and that the species we studied is an endoparasitoid of the larvae of A. chartifex, exclusively attacking sexual female (gyne) larvae. Northomicrodon parasitism can exert high fitness costs to a host colony. Our discovery adds one more case to the growing number of phorid taxa known to parasitize ant larvae and suggests that many others remain to be discovered. Our findings and literature review confirm that the Phoridae is the only taxon known that parasitizes both adults and the immature stages of different castes of ants, thus threatening ants on all fronts. PMID:28361946

  9. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  10. DDT contamination of benthic macroinvertebrates and sediments from tributaries of Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Webber, E C; Bayne, D R; Seesock, W C

    1989-09-01

    Residues of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) were measured quarterly during 1983-84 in bottom sediments and benthic macroinvertebrates from heavily contaminated sections of Huntsville Spring Branch (HSB) and Indian Creek (IC), backwater streams on Wheeler Reservoir (Alabama). Bottom muds from both channel and overbank locations contained mean concentrations of DDTR (DDT and its metabolites) ranging from 12 to 2,730 ppm (dry weight). Sediment DDTR were highest in HSB at stations closest to the original DDT source. Stations in IC, downstream from HSB, had progressively lower DDTR as distance from the DDT source increased. Macroinvertebrate DDTR measured from several stations suggested bioaccumulation of residues mainly through food webs; however, at the most contaminated locations, substrate and mode of life appeared to override trophic level effects in determining DDTR in the benthos. There is apparently an upper limit to the amount of DDTR these organisms usually accumulate. For example, detritivore DDTR from channel sediments at two stations just downstream from the DDT source averaged 125.1 and 157.9 ppm, respectively, although sediment DDTR at these two sites averaged 2,730 ppm and 96 ppm, respectively. Benthic macroinvertebrates in the highly contaminated sediments of HSB and IC apparently acquire DDTR from water, sediments, and food.

  11. Star crossings and stone monuments-Field astronomy by the Wheeler Survey in 1870s Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The decade of the 1870s was a time of extensive exploration and surveying in the American West. The nation needed knowledge of the cultural features, topography, natural resources, and geology of this land to promote and aid the 'rapid development of an empire.' The need was particularly acute in the region that still was known in the early 1870s as Colorado Territory. There, cities and towns were springing up along the base of the Front Range, railroads were expanding, and in the mountains prospectors and miners were exploring the countryside seeking and extracting the region's abundant mineral resources. Also, recurring conflicts between the newcomers and Native Americans made it desirable to have accurate maps for military purposes. Four major government-sponsored scientific surveys formed the principal organized effort to provide critical knowledge of the land. Civilian scientists led three of these: John Wesley Powell ('Geographical and Topographical Survey of the Colorado River of the West'); Ferdinand V. Hayden ('Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories'); and Clarence King ('Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel'). Lt. George Montague Wheeler, a young graduate of West Point (Class of 1866) and a member of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, led the fourth and most ambitious project ('United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian').

  12. Analytic solutions for Wheeler-Feynman interaction: Two bodies in straight-line motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephas, Paul

    1992-02-01

    Analytic solutions are obtained for two point particles with any total energy that have charges of like sign and whose motions are confined to one dimension. These solutions are obtained by explicitly deriving the conserved quantities associated with Wheeler-Feynman interactions into forms that do not contain integrals but, rather, contain ``partial contributions'' to the momenta and potentials of particle two. The resulting conserved energy, momentum, and Lorentz momentum equations are separated in time to yield one set of equations with variables t1 and t2- (retarded) and another set with variables t1 and t1+ (advanced). These are solved to obtain auxiliary solutions x1r(t1) and x1a(t1), which are then combined for the case m1 = m2 to give the actual world lines x1(t1) and x2(t2). Comparison is made with a previous computer-generated exact solution for the same interaction and energy; good qualitative agreement is found, although some quantitative differences persist.

  13. Emitter near an arbitrary body: Purcell effect, optical theorem and the Wheeler-Feynman absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatapathi, Murugesan

    2012-09-01

    The altered spontaneous emission of an emitter near an arbitrary body can be elucidated using an energy balance of the electromagnetic field. From a classical point of view it is trivial to show that the field scattered back from any body should alter the emission of the source. But it is not at all apparent that the total radiative and non-radiative decay in an arbitrary body can add to the vacuum decay rate of the emitter (i.e.) an increase of emission that is just as much as the body absorbs and radiates in all directions. This gives us an opportunity to revisit two other elegant classical ideas of the past, the optical theorem and the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory of radiation. It also provides us alternative perspectives of Purcell effect and generalizes many of its manifestations, both enhancement and inhibition of emission. When the optical density of states of a body or a material is difficult to resolve (in a complex geometry or a highly inhomogeneous volume) such a generalization offers new directions to solutions.

  14. Relativistic dynamics of interacting point particles: Central position of the Wheeler-Feynman scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa de Beauregard, O.

    1985-06-01

    The Wheeler-Feynman (WF) relativistic theory of interacting point particles, generalized by acceptance of an arbitrary spacelike interaction, is shown to possess a privileged status, reminiscent of the “central force” interactions occurring in Newtonian mechanics. This scheme is shown to be isomorphic to the classical one of the statics of interacting flexible current-carrying wires obeying the Ampère-Laplace (AL) formulas: to the tension T (T 2 =const) of the wire corresponds the momentum-energy pi (pipi=-c2m2) of the particle; to the Laplace linear force density -i H×dr corresponds the Lorentz force QHij drj; to the Laplace potential ir-1 dr corresponds the WF potential Qδ(r2) dri, etc. Among the differences, there is self-action in the AL scheme and no self-action in the WF scheme. A stationary energy principle in the AL scheme is isomorphic to Fokker's stationary action principle in the WF scheme.

  15. Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics and wheelers' quality of life: an exploratory review.

    PubMed

    Chow, John W; Levy, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To provide an overview of associations between wheelchair propulsion biomechanics for both everyday and racing wheelchairs, wheeling-related upper limb injuries, and quality of life of manual wheelchair users through a synthesis of the available information. METHODS. A search of publications was carried out in PubMed and SportsDiscus databases. Studies on wheelchair propulsion biomechanics, upper limb injuries associated with wheelchair propulsion and quality of life of wheelchair users were identified. Relevant articles cited in identified articles but not cited in PubMed or SportsDiscus were also included. RESULTS. Wheelchair sports participation has positive impact on quality of life and research in racing wheelchair biomechanics can indirectly promote the visibility of wheelchair sports. The impact of pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchairs (a hybrid between manual and battery-powered wheelchairs) and geared manual wheels on wheelers' everyday life were discussed. CONCLUSIONS. The study of wheelchair propulsion biomechanics focuses on how a wheelchair user imparts power to the wheels to achieve mobility and the accumulated knowledge can help to improve wheelchair users' mobility, reduce physical stress associated with wheelchair propulsion, and as a result, enhance quality of life.

  16. Lossless compression of 3D hyperspectral sounder data using the wavelet and Burrows-Wheeler transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Bormin

    2004-10-01

    Hyperspectral sounder data is used for retrieval of useful geophysical parameters which promise better weather prediction. It features two characteristics. First it is huge in size with 2D spatial coverage and high spectral resolution in the infrared region. Second it allows low tolerance of noise and error in retrieving the geophysical parameters where a mathematically ill-posed problem is involved. Therefore compression is better to be lossless or near lossless for data transfer and archive. Meanwhile medical data from X-ray computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques also possesses similar characteristics. It provides motivation to apply lossless compression schemes for medical data to the hyperspectral sounder data. In this paper, we explore the use of a wavelet-based lossless data compression scheme for the 3D hyperspectral data which uses in sequence a forward difference scheme, an integer wavelet transform, a Burrows-Wheeler transform and an arithmetic coder. Compared to previous work, our approach is shown to outperform the CALIC and 3D EZW schemes.

  17. Critical power two wheeler driving patterns at the emergence of an incident.

    PubMed

    Vlahogianni, Eleni I; Yannis, George; Golias, John C

    2013-09-01

    The paper proposes a methodology based on Bayesian Networks for identifying the power two wheeler (PTW) driving patterns that arise at the emergence of a critical incident based on high resolution driving data (100Hz) from a naturalistic PTW driving experiment. The proposed methodology aims at identifying the prevailing PTW drivers' actions at the beginning and during critical incidents and associating the critical incidents to specific PTW driving patterns. Results using data from one PTW driver reveal three prevailing driving actions for describing the onset of an incident and an equal number of actions that a PTW driver executes during the course of an incident to avoid a crash. Furthermore, the proposed methodology efficiently relates the observed sets of actions with different types of incidents occurring during overtaking or due to the interactions of the rider with moving or stationary obstacles and the opposing traffic. The observed interrelations define several driving patterns that are characterized by different initial actions, as well as by different likelihood of sequential actions during the incident. The proposed modeling may have significant implications to the efficient and less time consuming analysis of the naturalist data, as well as to the development of custom made PTW driver assistance systems.

  18. Impact of real world driving pattern and all-electric range on battery sizing and cost of plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Shaik; Rudramoorthy, R.; Neelakrishnan, S.; Varman, K. Sri Raja; Arjunan, T. V.

    2011-03-01

    This study addresses the impact of an actual drive pattern on the sizing and cost of a battery pack for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler. To estimate the daily average travel distance in fixing the all-electric range of two wheelers, a study conducted in Coimbatore city is presented. A MATLAB simulation model developed for estimating the energy and power requirements in an all-electric strategy using an Indian driving cycle (IDC) and a real-world driving pattern are discussed. The simulation results reveal the impact of the real-world driving pattern on energy consumption and also the influence of all-electric range in sizing the battery pack. To validate the results, a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler developed by modifying a standard two-wheeler has been tested on the road with the help of the IDC simulator kit. An annual battery cost comparison shows that nickel-metal-hydride batteries are more economical and suitable for in plug-in hybrid electric two-wheelers.

  19. Implementation of a custom hardware-accelerator for short-read mapping using Burrows-Wheeler alignment.

    PubMed

    Waidyasooriya, Hasitha Muthumala; Hariyama, Masanori; Kameyama, Michitaka

    2013-01-01

    The mapping of millions of short DNA fragments to a large genome is a great challenge in modern computational biology. Usually, it takes many hours or days to map a large genome using software. However, the recent progress of programmable hardware such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) provides a cost effective solution to this challenge. FPGAs contain millions of programmable logic gates to design massively parallel accelerators. This paper proposes a hardware architecture to accelerate the short-read mapping using Burrows-Wheeler alignment. The speed-up of the proposed architecture is estimated to be at least 10 times compared to its equivalent software application.

  20. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  1. Risk and threat factors in prior representations of driving situations among powered two-wheeler riders and car drivers.

    PubMed

    Ragot-Court, Isabelle; Mundutéguy, Christophe; Fournier, Jean-Yves

    2012-11-01

    Our research objective is to contribute to gaining a better understanding of the difficulties inherent to managing interactions between power two-wheeler riders and car drivers. 132 power two-wheeler riders and 94 car drivers have been asked what they perceive as being riskiest in driving situations for the representatives of their generic reference group. From all the answers produced, only those which provide information on risk factors related to the other and the occurrence of interferences due to the dynamic situation have been retained and analysed. The results provide a partial explanation of the difficulties related to the two types of users' taking each other into account. On the one hand, the frequency with which the other is mentioned as a source of risk is linked to the concept of conspicuity. This interpretation is related to the relative frequency of the interactions and the difference of real and perceived vulnerability between the users. On the other hand, the specific risk factors attributed to the other illustrates a mutual misunderstanding or ignorance of the driving situation's determinants. These include various practices among users which can be related to the physical and dynamic characteristics of their vehicle and their level of familiarity with other users. The potential road safety consequences of prior representations of risk factors among users are presented and suggestions for improving road user safety are proposed.

  2. Reentrant Processing in Intuitive Perception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Reentrant Processing in Intuitive Perception Phan Luu1*, Alexandra Geyer2, Cali Fidopiastis3, Gwendolyn Campbell4, Tracey Wheeler5, Joseph Cohn6, Don...and Perfor- mance 8: 562–581. 13. Brown JW (1994) Morphogenesis and the mental process. Development and Psychopathology 6: 551–563. 14. Michel CM...asymmetries: attention to visual and auditory primitives. Current Directions in Psychological Science 9: 59–63. 19. Goffaux V, Hault B, Michel C, Vuong QC

  3. Leveraging 3D Wheeler Diagrams and relative time mapping in seismic data to improve stratigraphic interpretation: Application, Assumptions, and Sequence Stratigraphic Revelations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggin, L. R.

    2014-12-01

    Our understanding of subsurface stratigraphic relationships is guided by stratigraphic concepts that were developed using many varieties and scales of data including paleontological samples, cuttings and core, outcrop analogs, well logs, and seismic. Subsurface stratigraphic correlations are strongly influenced by the type, density, and distribution of the data available. The exploration geologist typically interprets 2D and 3D seismic reflections to define prospects and plays. In structurally simple areas, he or she often assumes that seismic reflectors mark depositional boundaries that are essentially time-synchronous events represented by a single wavelet character. In reality, seismic reflectors usually display spatial wavelet variability, seldom resolve individual beds and are the product of the amplitude expression of a range of lithologic changes that encompasses a range of geologic time and depositional processes. Our assumption that seismic reflections are time-synchronous can lead to errors in stratigraphic correlation that only become evident when our prediction of well or field performance is unrealized. To mitigate the potential for this correlation error, we must modify how we interpret seismic data. In this presentation we will focus on the concept of defining or approximating time-correlative surfaces in seismic data, leverage concepts of the Wheeler transform to place these seismic reflectors into the relative time domain and then examine the diachronous nature of these time-mapped surfaces in 3D. We will then explore how the 3D mapping of time-correlative surfaces fits sequence stratigraphic concepts and discuss whether this new approach requires us to change our interpretation paradigms.

  4. Spectral: Solving Schroedinger and Wheeler-DeWitt equations in the positive semi-axis by the spectral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa Silva, E. V.; Monerat, G. A.; de Oliveira Neto, G.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.

    2014-01-01

    The Galerkin spectral method can be used for approximate calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of unidimensional Schroedinger-like equations such as the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. The criteria most commonly employed for checking the accuracy of results is the conservation of norm of the wave function, but some other criteria might be used, such as the orthogonality of eigenfunctions and the variation of the spectrum with varying computational parameters, e.g. the number of basis functions used in the approximation. The package Spectra, which implements the spectral method in Maple language together with a number of testing tools, is presented. Alternatively, Maple may interact with the Octave numerical system without the need of Octave programming by the user.

  5. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    AD-A142 517 ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF DDT CONTAMINATION OF HUNTSVILLE SP..(U) WATER AND AIR RESEARCH INC GAINESVILLE FL d H...DDT Con- tamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek and Adjacent Lands and Waters , Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama a. i irk ut iPOR...Pruitt and J. C. Nichols 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER)» DACW01-79-C-0224 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Water and Air Research

  6. Parallel and Space-Efficient Construction of Burrows-Wheeler Transform and Suffix Array for Big Genome Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongchao; Hankeln, Thomas; Schmidt, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have led to the sequencing of more and more genomes, propelling related research into the era of big data. In this paper, we present ParaBWT, a parallelized Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) and suffix array construction algorithm for big genome data. In ParaBWT, we have investigated a progressive construction approach to constructing the BWT of single genome sequences in linear space complexity, but with a small constant factor. This approach has been further parallelized using multi-threading based on a master-slave coprocessing model. After gaining the BWT, the suffix array is constructed in a memory-efficient manner. The performance of ParaBWT has been evaluated using two sequences generated from two human genome assemblies: the Ensembl Homo sapiens assembly and the human reference genome. Our performance comparison to FMD-index and Bwt-disk reveals that on 12 CPU cores, ParaBWT runs up to 2.2× faster than FMD-index and up to 99.0× faster than Bwt-disk. BWT construction algorithms for very long genomic sequences are time consuming and (due to their incremental nature) inherently difficult to parallelize. Thus, their parallelization is challenging and even relatively small speedups like the ones of our method over FMD-index are of high importance to research. ParaBWT is written in C++, and is freely available at http://parabwt.sourceforge.net.

  7. Wheeler-Feynman absorber revisited: a useful technique to calculate decay rates and lifetimes in small scale optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatapathi, Murugesan

    2011-05-01

    The Wheeler-Feynman (WF) absorber theory of radiation though no more of interest in explaining self interaction of an electron, can be very useful in today's research in small scale optical systems. The significance of the WF absorber is the use of time-symmetrical solution of Maxwell's equations as opposed to only the retarded solution. The radiative coupling of emitters to nano wires in the near field and change in their lifetimes due to small mode volume enclosures have been elucidated with the retarded solutions before. These solutions have also been shown to agree with quantum electrodynamics, thus allowing for classical electromagnetic approaches in such problems. It is here assumed that the radiative coupling of the emitter with a body is in proportion to its contribution to the classical force of radiative reaction as derived in the WF absorber theory. Representing such nano structures as a partial WF absorber acting on the emitter makes the computations considerably easier than conventional electromagnetic solutions for full boundary conditions.

  8. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) for Wheeler AFB, Wahiawa, Hawaii. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-11

    225B WHEELER AFB HI b8 -70,73-79 JAN STATION ST’ITIOX NA.E YEARS MONTH ALL "EATHER 1200-1400 CLASS HOURS (L S.T) SPEED fT I f MEAN (KNTS) 1 .3 4-6 7...0__ ,HrELER 4FB HI b8 -70, 73-79 AP: STaT. $t 5T, .task *flflU,. ALL wEATr-q !20r-140C CLAlS *.As MsL.TS sp:ED MEAN: (KNTS) 1-3 4-6 7.10 11-16 17-21...821762.1 62.1! 62.1 > 4500 C 4 4 4 ,. . 4 . 64. 1 ,, 6,.1 64. 64.6 64.61 64.71 64." 64.71 64 7 64.71 1 > 4 b7 9.d 69 .1 b9 .1 69. 𔄃 69.2 69.:2 69.2 69.21

  9. Injuries among powered two-wheeler users in eight European countries: a descriptive analysis of hospital discharge data.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason L; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Pollack, Keshia; Heredero-Ordoyo, Rafael; Molinero, Aquilino; Mansilla, Alberto; Fildes, Brian; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2012-11-01

    Powered two-wheelers (PTWs--mopeds, motorcycles, and scooters) remain the most dangerous form of travel on today's roads. This study used hospital discharge data from eight European countries to examine the frequencies and patterns of injury among PTW users (age≥14 years), the predicted incidence of the loss of functional ability, and the mechanisms of the head injuries observed (all in light of increased helmet use). Of 977,557 injured patients discharged in 2004, 12,994 were identified as having been injured in PTW collisions. Lower extremity injuries accounted for 26% (25.6-26.7, 95% C.I.) of the total injuries, followed by upper extremity injuries (20.7%: 20.3-21.2), traumatic brain injuries (TBI) (18.5%: 18-19), and thoracic injuries (8.2%: 7.8-8.5). Approximately 80% of the lower extremity injury cases were expected to exhibit some functional disability one year following discharge (predicted Functional Capacity Index, pFCI-AIS98<100), compared to 47% of the upper extremity injury cases and 24% of the TBI cases. Although it occurred less frequently, patients that were expected to experience some functional limitation from TBI were predicted to fair worse on average (lose more functional ability) than patients expected to have functional limitations from extremity injuries. Cerebral concussion was the most common head injury observed (occurring in 56% of head injury cases), with most concussion cases (78%) exhibiting no other head injury. Among the AIS3+ head injuries that could be mapped to an injury mechanism, 48% of these were associated with a translational-impact mechanism, and 37% were associated with a rotational mechanism. The observation of high rates of expected long-term disability suggests that future efforts aim to mitigate lower and upper extremity injuries among PTW users. Likewise, the high rates of concussion and head injuries associated with a rotational mechanism provide goals for the next phase of PTW user head protection.

  10. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Ajacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-04

    Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Adjacent Lands and Waters , Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama,Sprepared under contract by Water and Air...Sample Collect.-.o 1.2 3.1 Se-npling Schedule 12 3.2 Uischdrge Measurements 12 3.3 Water Quality Samples 31 4.U Sawiple Handling and Laboratory...Sample Location Maps Appendix A kaw Uata Tabulations Appendix 8 REVISED APRIL 1984 3.3 VULATILIZkTIUN FROM SUIL, WATER MNU UTHEli SURFAC.ES Tkie major

  11. The Wheeler-Dewitt Equation for the Heterotic Superstring Theory Including Terms Quartic in the Riemann Tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, M. D.

    The Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the wave function of the Universe Ψ can be derived for the heterotic superstring, after reduction of the effective action, including terms hat { R}4 quartic in the Riemann tensor, from ten dimensions to { D} = M+1 dimensions, where { D} < 10. If the compactified space is Ricci flat, then no terms R3 appear, since the coefficient of hat { R}3 in the ten-dimensional action vanishes. The reduced Lagrangian, ignoring all non-gravitational fields, is then L=(16πG)-1R+a2R2+a4α‧2R4, where G is the Newton gravitational constant, α‧ is the Regge slope parameter, and a2 and a4 are dimensionless coefficients. Including only the first two terms, in the Friedmann space-time ds2=dt2-e2α(t)dx2, leads to the Schrödinger equation i∂Ψ/∂t=[-AMe-Mα∂2/∂ξ2+ VM,K(α, ξ)]Ψ, where AM is a positive constant, ξ≡dα/dt and K is the curvature of the M-space dx2. After the Wick rotation t = ∓ ĩ {t}, ξ = ± ĩ {ξ } , this equation becomes ± ∂ Ψ /∂ ˜ {t} = [-AM e{- Mα } ∂ 2/∂ ˜ {ξ }2 + ˜ {V}M,K (α ,˜ {ξ })]Ψ , where ˜ {V}M,K(α ,˜ {ξ }) = -VM,K (α ,± iξ ). The requirement that both V and ˜ {V} are positive semi-definite leads to the conditions M=3, K=0, which state that space is three-dimensional and flat. Here, a more complete Schrödinger equation is derived, via a perturbative treatment of the terms a4α‧2R4, which lifts the degeneracy of the potential V3,0 under Wick rotations, the Lorentzian signature being energetically favoured over the Euclidean signature. This corroborates results concerning supersymmetry and the quantum mechanical consistency of the string theory on the world sheet, for which the Lorentzian signature is also necessary, as it is argued to be for the Feynman path-integral formulation of Ψ.

  12. Smaller Communities Program: Grant and Wheeler Counties, Oregon. Combined Economic Base Report and Applicant Potential Report; An Evaluation of the Economic and Human Resources of a Rural Oregon County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Employment, Salem.

    Prepared by the Smaller Communities Services Program of the Oregon Department of Employment, this 1968 report summarizes the program findings with relation to Grant and Wheeler counties, Oregon. As stated, the overall objective of the program was promotion of the economic adjustment of specific rural, low-income areas--including the occupational…

  13. Physics as Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2011-03-01

    I review some recent advances in foundational research at Pavia QUIT group. The general idea is that there is only Quantum Theory without quantization rules, and the whole Physics—including space-time and relativity—is emergent from the quantum-information processing. And since Quantum Theory itself is axiomatized solely on informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms: this is the It from bit of J. A. Wheeler. The review is divided into four parts: a) the informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; b) how space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from quantum computation; c) what is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and of ℏ, and how the quantum field emerges; d) an observational consequence of the new quantum field theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will conclude with the research lines that will follow in the immediate future.

  14. Rock magnetic and other geophysical signatures of relative sea level change in the Middle Cambrian Wheeler Formation, Drum Mountains, West-Central Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halgedahl, S. L.; Jarrard, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Wheeler Formation of West-Central Utah is a succession of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic rocks deposited during the Middle Cambrian along a passive continental margin of Laurentia (western margin, in today's coordinates). The depositional setting was a gentle ramp, bounded by a normal fault on the south. The present study focuses on the Wheeler Formation in the Drum Mountains, Utah, which is thought to have recorded Middle Cambrian sea level changes and which is known to yield exceptionally-preserved fossils with soft parts, similar to the famed Burgess shale. An integrated approach has been used here to investigate the following: (1) high-resolution changes in water depth (sea level changes?) with stratigraphic position; (2) where exceptionally preserved fossils are most likely to occur; and (3) mineralogical indicators of sea level change, such as magnetic susceptibility and other rock magnetic properties. Rocks consist of limestones, argillaceous limestones, and finely-bedded mudstones (shales). Methods used here are: measurements of magnetic susceptibility, natural remanent magnetization, and viscous remanent magnetization; hysteresis loops; spectral gamma ray; coulometry to determine calcite content; X-ray diffraction; and field mapping. In these rocks, mineralogical analyses indicate primarily a 2-component system of calcite and terrigenous minerals, mainly illite. Magnetic susceptibility, gamma ray, and coulometry results strongly indicate that magnetic susceptibility stems primarily from the paramagnetic clay component, namely, illite. Thus, both magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray increase linearly with decreasing calcite content throughout the section studied. Deep-water shales yield very high values of gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility; by contrast, carbonates with low gamma ray and low magnetic susceptibilities were deposited in relatively shallow water. These results lead to the following conclusions: (1) changes in relative water depth have

  15. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

    2014-01-15

    Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ≤ 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted.

  16. [Optimization of the pertussis vaccine production process].

    PubMed

    Germán Santiago, J; Zamora, N; de la Rosa, E; Alba Carrión, C; Padrón, P; Hernández, M; Betancourt, M; Moretti, N

    1995-01-01

    The production of Pertussis Vaccine was reevaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in order to optimise it in terms of vaccine yield, potency, specific toxicity and efficiency (cost per doses). Four different processes, using two culture media (Cohen-Wheeler and Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1) and two types of bioreactors (25 L Fermentador Caracas and a 450 L industrial fermentor) were compared. Runs were started from freeze-dried strains (134 or 509) and continued until the obtention of the maximal yield. It was found that the combination Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1/industrial fermentor, shortened the process to 40 hours while consistently yielding a vaccine of higher potency (7.91 +/- 2.56 IU/human dose) and lower specific toxicity in a mice bioassay. In addition, the physical aspect of the preparation was rather homogeneous and free of dark aggregates. Most importantly, the biomass yield more than doubled those of the Fermentador Caracas using the two different media and that in the industrial fermentor with the Cohen-Wheeler medium. Therefore, the cost per doses was substantially decreased.

  17. Quantum processes in short and intensive electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, Burkhard; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    This work provides an overview of our recent results in studying two most important and widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.g. laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process, and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that the probabilities of particle production in both processes are determined by interplay of two dynamical effects, where the first one is related to the shape and duration of the pulse and the second one is non-linear dynamics of the interaction of charged fermions with a strong electromagnetic field. We elaborate suitable expressions for the production probabilities and cross sections, convenient for studying evolution of the plasma in presence of strong electromagnetic fields.

  18. Physics as quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo

    2011-10-01

    The experience from Quantum Information has lead us to look at Quantum Theory (QT) and the whole Physics from a different angle. The information-theoretical paradigm—It from Bit— prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler is relentlessly advancing. Recently it has been shown that QT is derivable from pure informational principles. The possibility that there is only QT at the foundations of Physics has been then considered, with space-time, Relativity, quantization rules and Quantum Field Theory (QFT) emerging from a quantum-information processing. The resulting theory is a discrete version of QFT with automatic relativistic invariance, and without fields, Hamiltonian, and quantization rules. In this paper I review some recent advances on these lines. In particular: i) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; ii) The derivation of the Dirac equation as free information flow, without imposing Lorentz covariance; iii) the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and Planck constant; iv) An observable consequence of the theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will then conclude with two possible routes to Quantum Gravity.

  19. Hydrogeologic setting, ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at the Lake Wheeler Road research station, 2001-03 : North Carolina Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Bolich, Richard E.; Huffman, Brad A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a 2-year field study of the regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system at the Lake Wheeler Road research station in Wake County, North Carolina, indicate both disconnection and interaction among components of the ground-water system. The three components of the ground-water system include (1) shallow, porous regolith; (2) a transition zone, including partially weathered rock, having both secondary (fractures) and primary porosity; and (3) deeper, fractured bedrock that has little, if any, primary porosity and is dominated by secondary fractures. The research station includes 15 wells (including a well transect from topographic high to low settings) completed in the three major components of the ground-water-flow system and a surface-water gaging station on an unnamed tributary. The Lake Wheeler Road research station is considered representative of a felsic gneiss hydrogeologic unit having steeply dipping foliation and a relatively thick overlying regolith. Bedrock foliation generally strikes N. 10? E. to N. 30? E. and N. 20? W. to N. 40? W. to a depth of about 400 feet and dips between 70? and 80? SE. and NE., respectively. From 400 to 600 feet, the foliation generally strikes N. 70? E. to N. 80? E., dipping 70? to 80? SE. Depth to bedrock locally ranges from about 67 to 77 feet below land surface. Fractures in the bedrock generally occur in two primary sets: low dip angle, stress relief fractures that cross cut foliation, and steeply dipping fractures parallel to foliation. Findings of this study generally support the conceptual models of ground-water flow from high to low topographic settings developed for the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces in previous investigations, but are considered a refinement of the generalized conceptual model based on a detailed local-scale investigation. Ground water flows toward a surface-water boundary, and hydraulic gradients generally are downward in recharge areas and upward in discharge areas; however, local

  20. Sources de photons uniques et expérience à choix retardé de Wheeler : la dualité onde corpuscule à l'épreuve de l'expérience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, V.

    Young's double-slit experiment realized with particles sent one at a time through an interferometer is at the heart of quantum mechanics. The striking feature is that the phenomenon of interference, interpreted as a wave following simultaneously two paths, is incompatible with our common sense representation of a particle following one route or the other but not both. The work described in this book is dedicated to the study of wave-particle duality for a single photon emitted by the triggered photoluminescence of a single NV color center in a diamond nanocrystal. We first present the realization of a single-photon interference experiment using a Fresnel's biprism, in a scheme equivalent to the standard Young's double-slit textbook experiment. We then discuss the complementarity between interference and which-path information in this two-path interferometer. We finally describe the experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice gedanken experiment, which is a fascinating and subtle illustration of wave-particle duality. In such experiment, the choice either to observe interference fringes, obviously associated to a wave-like behavior, or to know which path of the interferometer has been followed, according to a particle-like behavior, is made whereas the photon has already entered into the interferometer. Furthermore, the choice is made by a quantum random number generator and is relativistically separated from the entering of the photon into the interferometer. The results of that experiment show once again that no classical physical reality can be attributed to the photon independent of the measurement apparatus, as stated by the complementarity principle. La théorie quantique nécessite de renoncer à certaines images classiques héritées du sens commun. Elle stipule en particulier une description duale de la lumière et de la matière, présentant simultanément les propriétés d'une onde et d'une particule et conduisant ainsi à des repr

  1. The Role of Coherence Effects in the Measurement Process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Allaine

    Information measures corresponding to the development of a system's wave and particle properties are derived. The formulism is extended to the spin 1/2 operators. For both cases pure states are shown to be the maximal information states. Coherence which plays a crucial role in the information measures' definition is also found to be of paramount importance in the measurement process. With the aid of the "haunted measurement" gedankenexperiment it is shown that the incoherence introduced by the interaction between the measuring apparatus and the observed system can be removed thereby reversing the measurement process, obliterating any trace of its occurrence. This is a direct consequence of the quantum mechanical correlations between the two systems. Thus, such correlations previously thought to be significant only in the microscopic domain must be taken into account in the macroscopic realm for a proper description of the measuring process. Haunted measurement versions of Wheeler's delayed choice experiment, Schrodinger's cat experiment and the EPR paradox are also discussed.

  2. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  3. First-order strong-field QED processes in a tightly focused laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Piazza, A.

    2017-03-01

    In a previous article [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 213201 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.213201] we have determined the angular resolved and the total energy spectrum of a positron produced via nonlinear Breit-Wheeler pair production by a high-energy photon counterpropagating with respect to a tightly focused laser beam. Here, we first generalize the results in that article by including the possibility that the incoming photon is not exactly counterpropagating with respect to the laser field. As main focus of the present paper, we determine the photon angular resolved and total energy spectrum for the related process of nonlinear Compton scattering by an electron impinging into a tightly focused laser beam. Analytical integral expressions are obtained under the realistic assumption that the energy of the incoming electron is the largest dynamical energy of the problem and that the electron is initially almost counterpropagating with respect to the laser field. The crossing symmetry relation between the two processes in a tightly focused laser beam is also elucidated.

  4. Coal gasification via the Lurgi process: Topical report: Volume 2, Production of IFG (industrial fuel gas)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnstecher, L.W.

    1984-12-01

    A Lurgi baseline study was requested by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee of the Joint Coal Gasification Program for the purpose of updating the economics of earlier Lurgi coal gasification plant studies for the production of industrial fuel gas (IFG) based on commercially advanced technologies. The current study incorporates the recent experience with large size Lurgi plants in an effort to improve capital and operating costs of earlier plant designs. The present coal gasification study is based upon a plant producing 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of IFG using the Lurgi dry bottom coal gasification technology. A Western subbituminous coal was designated as the plant feed, obtained from the Rosebud seam at Colstrip, Montana. This study presents the detailed description of an integrated facility which utilizes coal, air, and water to produce 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of industrial fuel gas. The plant consists of coal handling and preparation, seven Lurgi dry bottom gasifiers, acid gas removal, sulfur recovery, phenol and ammonia recovery, as well as necessary support facilities. The plant is a grass roots facility located in the area of Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Lurgi Corporation assisted in this study, under subcontract to Foster Wheeler, by supplying the heat and material balances, flow sheets, utilities, catalysts and chemical requirements, and cost data for Lurgi designed process sections. Details of material supplied by Lurgi Corporation are presented in Appendix A. 39 refs., 33 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. God's Turnstile: The Work of John Wheeler and Stephen Hawking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbye, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from the book entitled "Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos." Provides narration of behind-the-scenes events in the lives, the scientific debates, and the intellectual triumphs of the two physicists responsible for inventing the concept of the black hole. (JJK)

  6. Variational principle for the Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Jayme

    2009-06-01

    We adapt the formally defined Fokker action into a variational principle for the electromagnetic-two-body problem. We introduce properly defined boundary conditions to construct a functional of a finite orbital segment into the reals. The boundary conditions for the variational principle are an end point along each trajectory plus the respective segment of trajectory for the other particle inside the light cone of each end point. We show that the conditions for an extremum of our functional are the mixed-type neutral equations with implicit state-dependent delay of the electromagnetic-two-body problem. We put the functional on a natural Banach space and show that the functional is Frechét differentiable. We develop a method to calculate the second variation for C2 orbital perturbations, in general, and, in particular, about circular orbits of large enough radii. We prove that our functional has a local minimum at circular orbits of large enough radii, at variance with the limiting Kepler action that has a minimum at circular orbits of arbitrary radii. Our results suggest a bifurcation at some O(1) radius below which the circular orbits become saddle-point extrema. We give a precise definition for the distributional-like integrals of the Fokker action and discuss a generalization to a Sobolev space H02 of trajectories where the equations of motion are satisfied almost everywhere. Last, we discuss the existence of solutions for the state-dependent delay equations with slightly perturbated arcs of circle as the boundary conditions and the possibility of nontrivial solenoidal orbits.

  7. Wheeler-DeWitt equation and Feynman diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, Andrei O.; Kiefer, Claus

    1998-08-01

    We present a systematic expansion of all constraint equations in canonical quantum gravity up to the order of the inverse Planck mass squared. It is demonstrated that this method generates the Feynman diagrammatic technique involving graviton loops and vertices. It also reveals explicitly the back-reaction effects of quantized matter and graviton vacuum polarization. This provides an explicit correspondence between the frameworks of canonical and covariant quantum gravity in the semiclassical limit.

  8. Science Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.

    1983-01-01

    Reports an investigation of the epistomologic foundations of Gagne's conception of science processes. Results indicate that a commitment to inductive empiricism pervades the presently held view of science processes. Implications for science education are considered. (Author/JN)

  9. Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guodace, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation details shuttle processing flow which starts with wheel stop and ends with launching. The flow is from landing the orbiter is rolled into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where processing is performed, it is then rolled over to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is mated with the propellant tanks, and payloads are installed. A different flow is detailed if the weather at Kennedy Space Center requires a landing at Dryden.

  10. Peat Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

  11. Processible Polyazomethines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Processibility enhanced by incorporating trifluoromethylbenzene units into molecules. Results of two unexpected properties: high solubility in common organic solvents and lack of crystallinity. Properties coupled with ability of this class of polymers to undergo exchange reactions at elevated temperatures allow these materials to moderate their molecular weights during processing, which affects resulting mechanical properties after processing. Fluorinated polyazomethines form amorphous films that have excellent mechanical properties. Used in moisture-free environments as electronic semiconducting films and adhesives, and as matrix resins for advanced structural composites.

  12. Manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennet, Jay; Brower, David; Levine, Stan; Walker, Ray; Wooten, John

    1991-01-01

    The following issues are covered: process development frequently lags behind material development, high fabrication costs, flex joints (bellows) - a continuing program, SRM fabrication-induced defects, and in-space assembly will require simplified design.

  13. Grants Process

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Grants Process provides an overview of the end-to-end lifecycle of grant funding. Learn about the types of funding available and the basics for application, review, award, and on-going administration within the NCI.

  14. Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Describes the kinds of computer equipment needed for a personal word processing system. The characteristics and capabilities of specific devices, including keyboards, printers, and disk drives, are discussed. (JL)

  15. Multifractal Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Processes 1 Introduction and Summary Fractal processes have been instrumental in a variety of fields ranging from the theory of fully developed...formalism in a stochastic setting . Thereby, the importance of higher order statistics will become evident. It might be especially appealing to the...rates occur in multifractal ‘trading time’ [68, 69]. With the theory developed in this paper, it be- comes an easy task to explore B1/2(M(t)) from the

  16. Power processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Processing of electric power has been presented as a discipline that draws on almost every field of electrical engineering, including system and control theory, communications theory, electronic network design, and power component technology. The cost of power processing equipment, which often equals that of expensive, sophisticated, and unconventional sources of electrical energy, such as solar batteries, is a significant consideration in the choice of electric power systems.

  17. Anodizing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This anodizing process traces its origin to the 1960's when Reynolds Metals Company, under contract with Goddard Space Flight Center, developed a multipurpose anodizing electrolyte (MAE) process to produce a hard protective finish for spacecraft aluminum. MAE produces a high-density, abrasion-resistant film prior to the coloring step, in which the pores of the film are impregnated with a metallic form of salt. Tru-Color product applications include building fronts, railing, curtain walls, doors and windows.

  18. Consortium for Adaptive Optics and Image Post-Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-12

    optics bench laboratory is located in Kula , Maui, and is called “The Space Surveillance Simulator” (S-Cube). S-Cube is designed to simulate both the...Wheeler, Trex Maui Personnel from the Center for Adaptive Optics Contributed DURIP Maui Adaptive Optics Laboratory (S-Cube), Kula Setup Meeting (26...for Astronomy’s buildings in Kula , Maui. The move also caused a change in the scientists directly involved in the simulator as well as a change in

  19. Process Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The ChemScan UV-6100 is a spectrometry system originally developed by Biotronics Technologies, Inc. under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. It is marketed to the water and wastewater treatment industries, replacing "grab sampling" with on-line data collection. It analyzes the light absorbance characteristics of a water sample, simultaneously detects hundreds of individual wavelengths absorbed by chemical substances in a process solution, and quantifies the information. Spectral data is then processed by ChemScan analyzer and compared with calibration files in the system's memory in order to calculate concentrations of chemical substances that cause UV light absorbance in specific patterns. Monitored substances can be analyzed for quality and quantity. Applications include detection of a variety of substances, and the information provided enables an operator to control a process more efficiently.

  20. Organosolv Processes.

    PubMed

    Brosse, Nicolas; Hussin, Mohd Hazwan; Rahim, Afidah Abdul

    2017-03-10

    Biofuels and chemicals can be produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks using biotechnological processes. The effective utilization of carbohydrates from biomass for the production of biofuels necessitates the development of pretreatment technologies to enhance their enzymatic digestibility. Among all the various pretreatment methods currently studied and developed, the organosolv processes, in which organic solvents or aqueous organic solvent mixtures are used as the pretreatment medium, appear to be specially promising in the context of the biorefinery because (1) they produce cellulosic pulp with a good enzymatic digestibility for monomeric glucose production and (2) they allow a clean fractionation of the major biomass components (cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses) into three process streams. In this chapter we give an updated overview of organosolv methods using conventional solvents and ionic liquids which have recently gained considerable interest as solvents for lignocellulosic biomass and pretreatment.

  1. Reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsche, R.T.; Pope, G.N.

    1981-01-06

    A process for reforming a naphtha feedstock is disclosed. The reforming process is effected at reforming conditions in contact with a catalyst comprising a platinum group metal component and a group iv-a metal component composited with an alumina support wherein said support is prepared by admixing an alpha alumina monohydrate with an aqueous ammoniacal solution having a ph of at least about 7.5 to form a stable suspension. A salt of a strong acid, e.g., aluminum nitrate, is commingled with the suspension to form an extrudable paste or dough. On extrusion, the extrudate is dried and calcined to form said alumina support.

  2. FLUORINATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, T.S.

    1957-10-29

    A process for the fluorination of uranium metal is described. It is known that uranium will react with liquid chlorine trifluoride but the reaction proceeds at a slow rate. However, a mixture of a halogen trifluoride together with hydrogen fluoride reacts with uranium at a significantly faster rate than does a halogen trifluoride alone. Bromine trifluoride is suitable for use in the process, but chlorine trifluoride is preferred. Particularly suitable is a mixture of ClF/sub 3/ and HF having a mole ratio (moles

  3. The PARA-suite: PAR-CLIP specific sequence read simulation and processing

    PubMed Central

    Kloetgen, Andreas; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hoell, Jessica I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing technologies have profoundly impacted biology over recent years. Experimental protocols, such as photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP), which identifies protein–RNA interactions on a genome-wide scale, commonly employ deep sequencing. With PAR-CLIP, the incorporation of photoactivatable nucleosides into nascent transcripts leads to high rates of specific nucleotide conversions during reverse transcription. So far, the specific properties of PAR-CLIP-derived sequencing reads have not been assessed in depth. Methods We here compared PAR-CLIP sequencing reads to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) to identify distinctive properties that are relevant for reference-based read alignment of PAR-CLIP datasets. We developed a set of freely available tools for PAR-CLIP data analysis, called the PAR-CLIP analyzer suite (PARA-suite). The PARA-suite includes error model inference, PAR-CLIP read simulation based on PAR-CLIP specific properties, a full read alignment pipeline with a modified Burrows–Wheeler Aligner algorithm and CLIP read clustering for binding site detection. Results We show that differences in the error profiles of PAR-CLIP reads relative to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) make a distinct processing advantageous. We examine the alignment accuracy of commonly applied read aligners on 10 simulated PAR-CLIP datasets using different parameter settings and identified the most accurate setup among those read aligners. We demonstrate the performance of the PARA-suite in conjunction with different binding site detection algorithms on several real PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP datasets. Our processing pipeline allowed the improvement of both alignment and binding site detection accuracy. Availability The PARA-suite toolkit and the PARA-suite aligner are available at https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA-suite and https

  4. SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.

    1961-10-24

    A process for separating tetravalent plutonium from aqueous solutions and from niobium and zirconium by precipitation on lanthanum oxalate is described. The oxalate ions of the precipitate may be decomposed by heating in the presence of an oxidizing agent, forming a plutonium compound readily soluble in acid. (AEC)

  5. Fragmentation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Colm T.

    2012-12-01

    Preface; 1. Direct and resonant double-photoionization: from atoms to solids L. Avaldi and G. Stefani; 2. The application of propagation exterior complex scaling to atomic collisions P. L. Bartlett and A. T. Stelbovics; 3. Fragmentation of molecular-ion beams in intense ultra-short laser pulses I. Ben-Itzhak; 4. Atoms with one and two active electrons in strong laser fields I. A. Ivanov and A. S. Kheifets; 5. Experimental aspects of ionization studies by positron and positronium impact G. Laricchia, D. A. Cooke, Á. Kövér and S. J. Brawley; 6. (e,2e) spectroscopy using fragmentation processes J. Lower, M. Yamazaki and M. Takahashi; 7. A coupled pseudostate approach to the calculation of ion-atom fragmentation processes M. McGovern, H. R. J. Walters and C. T. Whelan; 8. Electron Impact Ionization using (e,2e) coincidence techniques from threshold to intermediate energies A. J. Murray; 9. (e,2e) processes on atomic inner shells C. T. Whelan; 10. Spin resolved atomic (e,2e) processes J. Lower and C. T. Whelan; Index.

  6. Budgeting Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Shaughnessy, John

    1973-01-01

    Discusses steps three and four in a budgeting process that uses Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT). Step three involves developing time estimates and scheduling each of the activities in the PERT chart. Step four involves responsibility identification and coordination. (Author/JF)

  7. Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Images are prepared from data acquired by the multispectral scanner aboard Landsat, which views Earth in four ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, two visible bands and two infrared. Scanner picks up radiation from ground objects and converts the radiation signatures to digital signals, which are relayed to Earth and recorded on tape. Each tape contains "pixels" or picture elements covering a ground area; computerized equipment processes the tapes and plots each pixel, line be line to produce the basic image. Image can be further processed to correct sensor errors, to heighten contrast for feature emphasis or to enhance the end product in other ways. Key factor in conversion of digital data to visual form is precision of processing equipment. Jet Propulsion Laboratory prepared a digital mosaic that was plotted and enhanced by Optronics International, Inc. by use of the company's C-4300 Colorwrite, a high precision, high speed system which manipulates and analyzes digital data and presents it in visual form on film. Optronics manufactures a complete family of image enhancement processing systems to meet all users' needs. Enhanced imagery is useful to geologists, hydrologists, land use planners, agricultural specialists geographers and others.

  8. On Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxler, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Claims that the product approach to business writing prescribes a way of operating similar to imitation and creates an illusion of a static world when, in reality, the business environment is constantly in flux. Argues that the process approach to writing instruction should be used in business communication classes. (JD)

  9. Process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were successfully achieved. Other efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Microwave enhanced plasma deposition experiments were performed. An updated version of the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) was presented, along with a life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells. The last presentation was on the evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate encapsulating system.

  10. Restoration Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  11. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  12. Hydropyrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Ullman, Alan Z.; Silverman, Jacob; Friedman, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for producing a methane-enriched gas wherein a hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrogen-containing pyrolysis gas at an elevated temperature and pressure to produce a product gas mixture including methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The improvement comprises passing the product gas mixture sequentially through a water-gas shift reaction zone and a gas separation zone to provide separate gas streams of methane and of a recycle gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane for recycle to the process. A controlled amount of steam also is provided which when combined with the recycle gas provides a pyrolysis gas for treatment of additional hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material. The amount of steam used and the conditions within the water-gas shift reaction zone and gas separation zone are controlled to obtain a steady-state composition of pyrolysis gas which will comprise hydrogen as the principal constituent and a minor amount of carbon monoxide, steam and methane so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to supply the hydrogen requirements of the process. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment, conditions are controlled such that there also is produced a significant quantity of benzene as a valuable coproduct.

  13. Ceramic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  14. Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    ORGANIZATION Univ of Minnesota (f*fto U. S. Army Research Office 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (Wiy Stat, and ZIP Code...Minneapolis, MN 55455 P. 0. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Sa. NAME Of FUNDING ISPONSORING Sb. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT...PROJECT ITASK jWORK UNIT Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 EMNTO.I NO NO CESOIO 11. TITLE (Incudt Security Classifiratio") Signal Processing of, he auth

  15. Signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, David M.

    The application of signal processing technology to conventional weapons systems can lower operator workloads and enhance kill probabilities, while automating wide-area surveillance, target search and classification, target tracking, and aimpoint selection. Immediate opportunities exist for automatic target cueing in underwater and over-the-horizon targeting, as well as for airborne multiple-target fire control. By embedding the transit/receive electronics into conformal aircraft sensor arrays, a 'smart' skin can be created. Electronically scanned phased arrays can be used to yield accurate azimuthal and elevation positions while nullifying EW threats. Attention is given to major development thrusts in algorithm design.

  16. RF processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1982-06-01

    The Loran-C radio frequency processing is discussed. A diagram which generally illustrates the automatic gain control is presented. The augmented differentiator for pulse envelopes adapts conventional communications receiver with wideband AM capability to detect pulse signals such as Loran-C. The circuit enhances reception for surveillance and observation of HF over-the-horizon radar signals or others where time difference estimates between pulse returns are of interest. The high resolution VLF spectrum which receives weak VLF signals by using an HP 3581A wave analyzer detecting signals with a very narrow bandwidth of only 3 Hz is also presented.

  17. Nonequilibrium processes.

    PubMed

    Polanyi, J C

    1971-08-01

    Nonequilibrium phenomena have been studied for over half a century, particularly as a means to understanding the mechanism of energy transfer. Application of the insights and techniques of molecular physics to chemistry has resulted in a view of chemistry as constituting an aspect of the study of strong collisions, and chemical reaction as a special type of energy transfer. Increasing use has been made in experimental work of nonequilibrium environments for the study of chemical processes. The nature and purpose of such experiments are reviewed here, very briefly, and an attempt is made to point to areas that appear ripe for development over the coming decade.

  18. Lithospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.S.; Wohletz, K.; Fehler, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was to improve understanding of the origin and evolution of the Earth`s lithosphere by studying selected processes, such as deformation and magmatic intrusion during crustal extension, formation and extraction of mantle melts, fluid transport of heat and mass, and surface processes that respond to deep-seated events. Additional objectives were to promote and develop innovative techniques and to support relevant educational endeavors. Seismic studies suggest that underplating of crust by mantle melts is an important crustal-growth mechanism, that low-angle faults can be seismogenic, and that shear deformation creates mantle anisotropy near plate boundaries. Results of geochemical work determined that magmas from oceanic intraplate islands are derived from a uniform depth in the upper mantle, whereas melts erupted at mid-ocean ridges are mixed from a range of depths. The authors have determined the extent and style of fluid infiltration and trace-element distribution in natural magmatic systems, and, finally, investigated {sup 21}Ne as a tool for dating of surficial materials.

  19. Coal gasification via the Lurgi process: Topical report: Volume 1, Production of SNG (substitute material gas)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnstecher, L.W.

    1984-09-01

    A Lurgi baseline study was requested by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee of the Joint Coal Gasification Program for the purpose of updating the economics of earlier Lurgi coal gasification plant studies for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) based on commercially advanced technologies. The current study incorporates the recent experience with large size Lurgi plants in an effort to improve capital and operating costs of earlier plant designs. The present coal gasification study is based on a mine mouth plant producing 250 billion Btu (HHV) per day of SNG using the Lurgi dry bottom coal gasification technology. A Western subbituminous coal was designated as the plant food, obtained from the Rosebud seam at Colstrip, Montana. This study presents the detailed description of an integrated facility which utilizes coal, air, and water to produce 250 billion Btu (HHV) per day of SNG. The plant consists of coal handling and preparation, twenty-six Lurgi dry bottom gasifiers, shift conversion, acid gas removal, methanation, compression and drying of product gas, sulfur recovery, phenol and ammonia recovery, as well as necessary support facilities. The plant is a grass roots, mine mouth facility located in a Western location similar to the town of Colstrip in Rosebud County, Montana. The Lurgi Corporation assisted in this study, under subcontract to Foster Wheeler, by supplying the heat and material balances, flow sheets, utilities, catalysts and chemical requirements, and cost data for Lurgi designed process sections. Details of material supplied by Lurgi Corporation are presented in Appendix A. 52 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  20. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and forecasters from the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violating the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider et al. 2006; Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR), NASA/JSC 2004)). As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool that creates an anvil threat corridor graphic that can be overlaid on satellite imagery using the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS, Short and Wheeler, 2002). The tool helps forecasters estimate the locations of thunderstorm anvils at one, two, and three hours into the future. It has been used extensively in launch and landing operations by both the 45 WS and SMG. The Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) is now used along with MIDDS for weather analysis and display at SMG. In Phase I of this task, SMG tasked the AMU to transition the tool from MIDDS to AWIPS (Barrett et aI., 2007). For Phase II, SMG requested the AMU make the Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS more configurable by creating the capability to read model gridded data from user-defined model files instead of hard-coded files. An NWS local AWIPS application called AGRID was used to accomplish this. In addition, SMG needed to be able to define the pressure levels for the model data, instead of hard-coding the bottom level as 300 mb and the top level as 150 mb. This paper describes the initial development of the Anvil Forecast Tool for MIDDS, followed by the migration of the tool to AWIPS in Phase I. It then gives a detailed presentation of the Phase II improvements to the AWIPS tool.

  1. Oligomerization process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  2. Etherification process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  3. Retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.

    1984-06-19

    Fines in the overhead vapors from an oil shale retort process in which fresh shale together with hot recycle combusted shale from a combustor are fed to a retort and at least partly fluidized by a countercurrent stripping gas stream are handled by removing a portion of the fines in a vapor-solid separation optionally subjecting the portion of fines to additional retorting in a fines retort condensing the partially dedusted gas separating the condensate into a substantially finesfree liquid oil and a wet solids and recycling at least a portion of the wet solids to the retort, fines retort, and/or combustor whereby the liquid on the wet solids is recovered and/or burned and the wet solids are dried.

  4. Oligomerization process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1991-03-26

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

  5. Etherification process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1990-08-21

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

  6. Process Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Axiomatics Corporation developed a shunting Dielectric Sensor to determine the nutrient level and analyze plant nutrient solutions in the CELSS, NASA's space life support program. (CELSS is an experimental facility investigating closed-cycle plant growth and food processing for long duration manned missions.) The DiComp system incorporates a shunt electrode and is especially sensitive to changes in dielectric property changes in materials at measurements much lower than conventional sensors. The analyzer has exceptional capabilities for predicting composition of liquid streams or reactions. It measures concentrations and solids content up to 100 percent in applications like agricultural products, petrochemicals, food and beverages. The sensor is easily installed; maintenance is low, and it can be calibrated on line. The software automates data collection and analysis.

  7. Lithospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  8. WELDING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Zambrow, J.; Hausner, H.

    1957-09-24

    A method of joining metal parts for the preparation of relatively long, thin fuel element cores of uranium or alloys thereof for nuclear reactors is described. The process includes the steps of cleaning the surfaces to be jointed, placing the sunfaces together, and providing between and in contact with them, a layer of a compound in finely divided form that is decomposable to metal by heat. The fuel element members are then heated at the contact zone and maintained under pressure during the heating to decompose the compound to metal and sinter the members and reduced metal together producing a weld. The preferred class of decomposable compounds are the metal hydrides such as uranium hydride, which release hydrogen thus providing a reducing atmosphere in the vicinity of the welding operation.

  9. Crystallization process

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  10. Polymerization process

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, R.J.

    1987-03-03

    An improved process is described for preparing a hydrocarbon fluid friction reducing composition comprising mixing two or more alpha-monoolefins having 2 to about 30 carbon atoms in a diluent or an organic solvent and copolymerizing the alpha-monoolefins in the presence of a catalyst. The catalyst is comprised of a reducible or reduced titanium halide and an organo metal catalyst activator consisting of, per each 100 total moles of activator, about 1 to 20 moles of at least one trialkylaluminium compound, each alkyl group of which has 1 to 10 carbon atoms and about 99 to 80 moles of at least one dialkylaluminium halide compound, each alkyl group of which has 1 to about 10 carbon atoms. The mole ratio of activator to catalyst in the reaction mixture is in the range of about 0.001:1 to 50:1.

  11. Dairy processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kenneth W

    2003-07-01

    The United States dairy processing sector is dynamic and adaptive to new changes in the market place. Changes in consumer preferences and manufacturing technologies are resulting in new challenges to the processing sector. Consumers want a wider array of quality dairy products. Fluid processors are adapting to changing consumer demands for beverage products by introducing new flavors, providing ultrapasteurization, and using creative packaging. In addition, United States food manufacturers are requesting dairy processors to provide new dairy fractions such as MPC for new nutrition products. United States dairy policy is attempting to adapt to these changes. Federal order reform has resulted in new market-oriented signals for dairy farmers to produce what the market wants; namely, quality milk components. US dairy farmers, however, also wants to maintain programs such as the DPSP that have had the unfortunate consequence of spurring demand for protein imports (i.e., MPCs, casein, and caseinates) and also resulted in a disincentive to produce these new innovative protein products here in the United States. Surplus skim milk solids are now moving into US Government warehouses rather than into commercial markets. The future of the United States dairy industry will clearly be toward producing innovative products that the market wants. There is a strong market for dairy products not only here in the United States but also overseas, which will mean learning to compete on a global scale. The challenge is to modernize our United States milk pricing programs to provide dairy farmers and processors proper price signals while providing a minimum level of support to dairy farmers. The benefit of a greater orientation toward the market place will be stronger rates of growth for United States-produced dairy products.

  12. Dynamic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingshirn, C.

    . Phys. Lett. 92:211105, 2008). For this point, recall Figs. 6.16 and 6.33. Since the polarisation amplitude is gone in any case after the recombination process, there is an upper limit for T 2 given by T 2 ≤ 2 T1. The factor of two comes from the fact that T 2 describes the decay of an amplitude and T 1 the decay of a population, which is proportional to the amplitude squared. Sometimes T 2 is subdivided in a term due to recombination described by T 1 and another called 'pure dephasing' called T 2 ∗ with the relation 1 / T 2 = 1 / 2 T 1 + 1 / T2 ∗. The quantity T 2 ∗ can considerably exceed 2 T 1. In the part on relaxation processes that is on processes contributing to T 3, we give also examples for the capture of excitons into bound, localized, or deep states. For more details on dynamics in semiconductors in general see for example, the (text-) books [Klingshirn, Semiconductor Optics, 3rd edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2006); Haug and Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 4th edn. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004); Haug and Jauho, Quantum Kinetics in Transport and Optics of Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 123 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 115 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); Schafer and Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 2002)]. We present selected data for free, bound and localized excitons, biexcitons and electron-hole pairs in an EHP and examples for bulk materials, epilayers, quantum wells, nano rods and nano crystals with the restriction that - to the knowledge of the author - data are not available for all these systems, density ranges and temperatures. Therefore, we subdivide the topic below only according to the three time constants T 2, T 3 and T 1.

  13. Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grangeat, P.

    A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of

  14. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  15. 76 FR 56969 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ..., Orig Greenville, TX, Majors, TACAN RWY 35, Orig Wheeler, TX, Wheeler Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 17, Orig Wheeler, TX, Wheeler Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 35, Orig Wheeler, TX, Wheeler Muni, VOR/DME-A, Amdt 2...

  16. Personal and Organizational Factors Affecting Faculty Productivity: The Socialization Process in Graduate School. ASHE 1986 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Karen S.; And Others

    Scholarly productivity of faculty was studied based on the Brim and Wheeler framework of socialization, which takes into account personal and organizational influences on socialization outcomes. Specific influences included norms governing the system, the university's capacity to provide relevant performance opportunities, and the school's…

  17. Hydrothermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater

  18. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  19. Extensible packet processing architecture

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  20. Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Kang, Dohee

    1984-01-01

    In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

  1. A Distributed Processing Approach to Word Processing/Data Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robert D.; Magnuson, Jerry R.

    1980-01-01

    A word processing system developed at the University of Kansas is described. A cost-benefit analysis of the system v standard typewriter, mag-card, and other advanced word processing systems is developed. Intangible benefits such as worker satisfaction and reduced training and editing needs are discussed, and possible uses outlined. (MSE)

  2. SAR processing using SHARC signal processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huxtable, Barton D.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Skaron, Steve A.

    1998-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is uniquely suited to help solve the Search and Rescue problem since it can be utilized either day or night and through both dense fog or thick cloud cover. Other papers in this session, and in this session in 1997, describe the various SAR image processing algorithms that are being developed and evaluated within the Search and Rescue Program. All of these approaches to using SAR data require substantial amounts of digital signal processing: for the SAR image formation, and possibly for the subsequent image processing. In recognition of the demanding processing that will be required for an operational Search and Rescue Data Processing System (SARDPS), NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA/Stennis Space Center are conducting a technology demonstration utilizing SHARC multi-chip modules from Boeing to perform SAR image formation processing.

  3. Desalination processes and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, L. J.

    1995-06-01

    Different desalination processes are evaluated for feed, capacity, performance, energy requirements, and cost. These include distillation, reverse osmosis, or electrodialysis. Detailed information is given on distillation processes and membrane processes.

  4. Special parallel processing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

  5. Digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Euclid

    2004-01-01

    Digital image processing is now commonplace in radiology, nuclear medicine and sonography. This article outlines underlying principles and concepts of digital image processing. After completing this article, readers should be able to: List the limitations of film-based imaging. Identify major components of a digital imaging system. Describe the history and application areas of digital image processing. Discuss image representation and the fundamentals of digital image processing. Outline digital image processing techniques and processing operations used in selected imaging modalities. Explain the basic concepts and visualization tools used in 3-D and virtual reality imaging. Recognize medical imaging informatics as a new area of specialization for radiologic technologists.

  6. Thermochemical water decomposition processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermochemical processes which lead to the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water without the consumption of any other material have a number of advantages when compared to other processes such as water electrolysis. It is possible to operate a sequence of chemical steps with net work requirements equal to zero at temperatures well below the temperature required for water dissociation in a single step. Various types of procedures are discussed, giving attention to halide processes, reverse Deacon processes, iron oxide and carbon oxide processes, and metal and alkali metal processes. Economical questions are also considered.

  7. Acoustic signal processing toolbox for array processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tien; Whipps, Gene T.

    2003-08-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed an acoustic signal processing toolbox (ASPT) for acoustic sensor array processing. The intent of this document is to describe the toolbox and its uses. The ASPT is a GUI-based software that is developed and runs under MATLAB. The current version, ASPT 3.0, requires MATLAB 6.0 and above. ASPT contains a variety of narrowband (NB) and incoherent and coherent wideband (WB) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and beamforming algorithms that have been researched and developed at ARL. Currently, ASPT contains 16 DOA and beamforming algorithms. It contains several different NB and WB versions of the MVDR, MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithms. In addition, there are a variety of pre-processing, simulation and analysis tools available in the toolbox. The user can perform simulation or real data analysis for all algorithms with user-defined signal model parameters and array geometries.

  8. Spacelab Data Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The capabilities of the Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SPDPF) are highlighted. The capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of vital Spacelab data to various user facilities around the world are described.

  9. Polyamines in tea processing.

    PubMed

    Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Arisan, Elif Damla; Terzioglu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    The distribution of dietary polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was determined during processing of Camellia sinensis. Black tea manufacture is carried by a series of processes on fresh tea leaves involving withering, rolling, fermentation, drying and sieving. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea processing on the polyamine content in relation with antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. Before processing, the spermine content was much higher than the putrescine and spermidine content in green tea leaves. Spermine was significantly decreased during processing while the putrescine and spermine contents increased during withered and rolling and decreased in the following stages. The superoxide dismutase activity increased at the withering stage and declined during processing. The transcript level of the polyamine biosynthesis-responsible enzyme ornithine decarboxylase was reduced during each processing step. This study reveals the importance of protection of nutritional compounds that are essential for health during the manufacturing process.

  10. Test processing system (SEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaulene, P.

    1986-01-01

    The SEE data processing system, developed in 1985, manages and process test results. General information is provided on the SEE system: objectives, characteristics, basic principles, general organization, and operation. Full documentation is accessible by computer using the HELP SEE command.

  11. News: Process intensification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conservation of materials and energy is a major objective to the philosophy of sustainability. Where production processes can be intensified to assist these objectives, significant advances have been developed to assist conservation as well as cost. Process intensification (PI) h...

  12. GREENSCOPE: Sustainable Process Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA researchers are responding to environmental problems by incorporating sustainability into process design and evaluation. EPA researchers are also developing a tool that allows users to assess modifications to existing and new chemical processes to determine whether changes in...

  13. Process evaluation distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  14. The requirements discovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Dean, F.F.

    1997-02-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

  15. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  16. Infrared processing of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  17. Lyophilization process design space.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal Manubhai; Pikal, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    The application of key elements of quality by design (QbD), such as risk assessment, process analytical technology, and design space, is discussed widely as it relates to freeze-drying process design and development. However, this commentary focuses on constructing the Design and Control Space, particularly for the primary drying step of the freeze-drying process. Also, practical applications and considerations of claiming a process Design Space under the QbD paradigm have been discussed.

  18. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  19. MITRE Adaptive Processing Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    gathering, Funded Research and Development transfer, processing , and interpretation of Center (FFRDC) under the primary data are provided. A strong state-of...1988: Unisys Reston Technology Center, Reston, VA Dr. Bronez was a Member of the Technical Staff. He performed research on signal processing and... processing , mathematical research , and sensor array processing . He was Project Leader and Principal Investigator for projects in adaptive beamforming

  20. Processes for metal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowersox, David F.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the processing of plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and operation illustrating concepts that may be applicable to the processing of lunar materials. The toxic nature of plutonium requires a highly closed system for processing lunar surface materials.

  1. Image processing in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Richard

    1994-04-01

    Today's personal computers are more powerful than the mainframes that processed images during the early days of space exploration. We have entered an age in which anyone can do image processing. Topics covering the following aspects of image processing are discussed: digital-imaging basics, image calibration, image analysis, scaling, spatial enhancements, and compositing.

  2. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  3. The Natural Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Teacher-educator and researcher Daniel L. Kohut suggests in "Musical Performance: Learning Theory and Pedagogy" that there are many problems that result from the way music teachers often teach. Most teachers focus on the process, not the goal. The Natural Learning Process that Kohut advocates is the same process that young children use when they…

  4. Change Processes in Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on change processes in organizations. "Mid-stream Corrections: Decisions Leaders Make during Organizational Change Processes" (David W. Frantz) analyzes three organizational leaders to determine whether and how they take corrective actions or adapt their decision-making processes when…

  5. Current Duplicating Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groneman, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    While business instructors are still teaching spirit and stencil duplicating processes, most businesses now use copiers or offset printing processes. The article discusses offset and copier skills needed by office workers, pointing out that the processes being taught should be compatible with those used in business. (MF)

  6. Comprehension Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition"…

  7. How yogurt is processed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This month’s Processing column on the theme of “How Is It Processed?” focuses on yogurt. Yogurt is known for its health-promoting properties. This column will provide a brief overview of the history of yogurt and the current market. It will also unveil both traditional and modern yogurt processing t...

  8. How tofu is processed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This month’s Processing column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The column will focus on tofu, which is sometimes called “the cheese of Asia.” It is a nutritious, protein-rich bean curd made by coagulating soy milk. There are many different types of tofu, and they are processed in a...

  9. Survey of Event Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    In the past decade, event processing technology has exploded from research at universities to a number of commercial products. In this paper, event... processing technology will be reviewed, starting with the motivations behind its development and ending with a look into the future of event processing

  10. Image-Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Apple Image-Processing Educator (AIPE) explores ability of microcomputers to provide personalized computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in digital image processing of remotely sensed images. AIPE is "proof-of-concept" system, not polished production system. User-friendly prompts provide access to explanations of common features of digital image processing and of sample programs that implement these features.

  11. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  12. Metallurgical processing: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The items in this compilation, all relating to metallurgical processing, are presented in two sections. The first section includes processes which are general in scope and applicable to a variety of metals or alloys. The second describes the processes that concern specific metals and their alloys.

  13. Statistical Process Control for KSC Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Roger G.; Delgado, Hector; Tilley, Randy

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) served as the basis for a research effort into statistical process control for KSC processing. The effort entailed several tasks and goals. The first was to develop a customized statistical process control (SPC) course for the Safety and Mission Assurance Trends Analysis Group. The actual teaching of this course took place over several weeks. In addition, an Internet version of the same course complete with animation and video excerpts from the course when it was taught at KSC was developed. The application of SPC to shuttle processing took up the rest of the summer research project. This effort entailed the evaluation of SPC use at KSC, both present and potential, due to the change in roles for NASA and the Single Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC). Individual consulting on SPC use was accomplished as well as an evaluation of SPC software for KSC use in the future. A final accomplishment of the orientation of the author to NASA changes, terminology, data format, and new NASA task definitions will allow future consultation when the needs arise.

  14. Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

    2012-01-01

    The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

  15. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.; Bonk, D.

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  16. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  17. Biomass process handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  18. Containerless processing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oran, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review of containerless processing activities sponsored by NASA's Microgravity Science Division is presented. Attention is given to ground based systems such as shot tower processing of molten materials, single axis levitation and flight processing concepts including BeO processing aboard the Space Shuttle, a medium temperature three-axis acoustic positioning system and a high temperature single axis acoustic positioning system. In the future, more sophisticated experiments will be conducted using improved measurement techniques which will quantitatively define the advantages of containerless processing, as well as improve the understanding of nuclear kinetics and of the thermophysical properties of materials at high temperatures.

  19. Evaluation of steelmaking processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

  20. An improved plating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, John C.

    1994-01-01

    An alternative to the immersion process for the electrodeposition of chromium from aqueous solutions on the inside diameter (ID) of long tubes is described. The Vessel Plating Process eliminates the need for deep processing tanks, large volumes of solutions, and associated safety and environmental concerns. Vessel Plating allows the process to be monitored and controlled by computer thus increasing reliability, flexibility and quality. Elimination of the trivalent chromium accumulation normally associated with ID plating is intrinsic to the Vessel Plating Process. The construction and operation of a prototype Vessel Plating Facility with emphasis on materials of construction, engineered and operational safety and a unique system for rinse water recovery are described.

  1. Gas processing handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Brief details are given of processes including: BGC-Lurgi slagging gasification, COGAS, Exxon catalytic coal gasification, FW-Stoic 2-stage, GI two stage, HYGAS, Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi pressure gasification, Saarberg-Otto, Shell, Texaco, U-Gas, W-D.IGI, Wellman-Galusha, Westinghouse, and Winkler coal gasification processes; the Rectisol process; the Catacarb and the Benfield processes for removing CO/SUB/2, H/SUB/2s and COS from gases produced by the partial oxidation of coal; the selectamine DD, Selexol solvent, and Sulfinol gas cleaning processes; the sulphur-tolerant shift (SSK) process; and the Super-meth process for the production of high-Btu gas from synthesis gas.

  2. Future Steelmaking Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. R. J. Fruehan

    2004-09-20

    There is an increasing demand for an ironmaking process with lower capital cost, energy consumption and emissions than a blast furnace. It is the hypothesis of the present work that an optimized combination of two reasonable proven technologies will greatly enhance the overall process. An example is a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) linked to a smelter (e.g., AISI, HIsmelt). The objective of this research is to select promising process combinations, develop energy, materials balance and productivity models for the individual processes, conduct a limited amount of basic research on the processes and evaluate the process combinations. Three process combinations were selected with input from the industrial partners. The energy-materials and productivity models for the RHF, smelter, submerged arc furnace and CIRCOFER were developed. Since utilization of volatiles in coal is critical for energy and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, basic research on this topic was also conducted. The process models developed are a major product developed in this research. These models can be used for process evaluation by the industry. The process combinations of an RHF-Smelter and a simplified CIRCOFER-Smelter appear to be promising. Energy consumption is reduced and productivity increased. Work on this project is continuing using funds from other sources.

  3. Rumor Processes on and Discrete Renewal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Sandro; Garcia, Nancy L.; Junior, Valdivino Vargas; Rodríguez, Pablo M.

    2014-05-01

    We study two rumor processes on , the dynamics of which are related to an SI epidemic model with long range transmission. Both models start with one spreader at site and ignorants at all the other sites of , but differ by the transmission mechanism. In one model, the spreaders transmit the information within a random distance on their right, and in the other the ignorants take the information from a spreader within a random distance on their left. We obtain the probability of survival, information on the distribution of the range of the rumor and limit theorems for the proportion of spreaders. The key step of our proofs is to show that, in each model, the position of the spreaders on can be related to a suitably chosen discrete renewal process.

  4. Badge Office Process Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haurykiewicz, John Paul; Dinehart, Timothy Grant; Parker, Robert Young

    2016-05-12

    The purpose of this process analysis was to analyze the Badge Offices’ current processes from a systems perspective and consider ways of pursuing objectives set forth by SEC-PS, namely increased customer flow (throughput) and reduced customer wait times. Information for the analysis was gathered for the project primarily through Badge Office Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and in-person observation of prevailing processes. Using the information gathered, a process simulation model was constructed to represent current operations and allow assessment of potential process changes relative to factors mentioned previously. The overall purpose of the analysis was to provide SEC-PS management with information and recommendations to serve as a basis for additional focused study and areas for potential process improvements in the future.

  5. Pultrusion process characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, James G.; Hackett, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Pultrusion is a process through which high-modulus, lightweight composite structural members such as beams, truss components, stiffeners, etc., are manufactured. The pultrusion process, though a well-developed processing art, lacks a fundamental scientific understanding. The objective here was to determine, both experimentally and analytically, the process parameters most important in characterizing and optimizing the pultrusion of uniaxial fibers. The effects of process parameter interactions were experimentally examined as a function of the pultruded product properties. A numerical description based on these experimental results was developed. An analytical model of the pultrusion process was also developed. The objective of the modeling effort was the formulation of a two-dimensional heat transfer model and development of solutions for the governing differential equations using the finite element method.

  6. Universal Heliophysical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    The physical processes in the heliospace are a direct consequence of the Sun s mass and electromagnetic emissions. There has been enormous progress in studying these processes since the dawn of the space age half a century ago. The heliospace serves as a great laboratory to study numerous physical processes, using the vast array of ground and spacebased measurements of various physical quantities. The observational capabilities collectively form the Great Observatory to make scientific investigations not envisioned by individual instrument teams. The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program has been promoting scientific investigations on the universality of physical processes such as shocks, particle acceleration, dynamo, magnetic reconnection, magnetic flux ropes, plasma-neutral matter interactions, turbulence, and several other topics. This chapter highlights scientific deliberations on these and related topics that took place during the IAGA session on "Universal Heliophysical Processes" in Sopron, Hungary. The session featured several invited and contributed papers that focused on observations, theory and modeling of the universal heliophysical processes.

  7. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  8. From High-Wheelers to High-Tech: Bicycle Manufacturing Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    The 1890s was the heyday for the bicycle in the United States. By 1896, bicycle manufacturing was a major industry with 300 established firms. Interest in bicycling, or "wheeling" as it was known then, grew rapidly into a national craze during the latter part of the 19th century. In 1890, American manufacturers produced nearly 30,000…

  9. Strong-field Breit-Wheeler pair production in short laser pulses: Relevance of spin effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, M. J. A.; Kamiński, J. Z.; Krajewska, K.; Müller, C.

    2016-07-01

    Production of electron-positron pairs in the collision of a high-energy photon with a high-intensity few-cycle laser pulse is studied. By utilizing the frameworks of laser-dressed spinor and scalar quantum electrodynamics, a comparison between the production of pairs of Dirac and Klein-Gordon particles is drawn. Positron energy spectra and angular distributions are presented for various laser parameters. We identify conditions under which predictions from Klein-Gordon theory either closely resemble or largely differ from those of the proper Dirac theory. In particular, we address the question to which extent the relevance of spin effects is influenced by the short duration of the laser pulse.

  10. 75 FR 68319 - Paulina Ranger District; Ochoco National Forest; Crook and Wheeler Counties, OR; Jackson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...; reduce the risk of bark beetles and impacts of mistletoe by reducing stand density and tree canopy layers through mechanical treatments; change stand structure and tree canopy ] closure to create conditions...

  11. Testing of Westinghouse hot gas candle filter at Foster Wheeler Karhula R and D Center

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, T.; Sellakumar, K.M.; Lippert, T.; Dennis, R.; Feldmann, H.; Brown, R.

    1996-12-31

    The main objectives of the project are to provide performance and environmental data to the design of a PCFB Demonstration project and evaluate Westinghouse advanced ceramic barrier filter system and candle materials. A total test duration of 1,000 to 1,500 hrs in three segments of 500 hrs each has been planned for evaluating the filter unit. A single cluster Westinghouse hot gas candle filter is being tested. The filter system, which houses 112 ceramic candles in three plenums, takes the full flue gas flow from the PCFB combustor. At full load operation (10 MW load, 10 Bar, 850 C), the nominal filtration velocity is 4.3 cm/s. FWEI and WEC have selected a set of advanced ceramic candle materials based on a state of the art evaluation of the material characteristics in the WEC facilities and earlier test experience at many coal-fired test sites including the 2000 hour testing at the Karhula PCFB pilot plant. The selection comprises the following four types of advanced ceramic candles: Schumacher FT-20; 3M SiCoNeX; Pall 326; and Coors mullite. The ICB has supplied coal and the sorbent. Tests have been in progress since November 1995 and are scheduled for completion by the middle of 1996. The filter unit performance so far has been very satisfactory at the nominal design conditions--10 to 12 bar (150 to 175 psis), 800 to 850 C (1,500 to 1,575 F), and nearly 100% dust removal. There was no visible evidence of any dust carry over into the clean side. This paper describes the performance of the filter including the pulse system and the mechanical package.

  12. Installation Restoration Program, Phase 1. Records Search, Wheeler Air Force Base, Oahu, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    34Analysis of Pollution from Marine Engines - Status Report". 27th Annual Purdue Industrial Waste Conference, 1972. A I I 3 A-4 1 1 Simon, Philip B. and John...April 1972 Bender, Michael E., Robert A. Jordan, and John E. Schenk, "Status of Outboard Marine Exhaust Research Project". Summer Symposium, Boating...Industry Association, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, June 31972. Schenk, John E., et. al., "Effects of Outboard Marine Engine Exhaust on the Aquatic

  13. 78 FR 73920 - Morgan 3 Wheeler Limited, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... with dual horizontally-mounted headlamps mounted 29 inches apart (lens edge to lens edge) rather than... lens areas shall not be greater than 200 mm (8 in.). Paragraph S10.17.1.2.2 (applies only to the... lens areas must not be greater than 200 mm. V. Summary of Morgan's Analyses: Morgan stated its...

  14. The process audit.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Few executives question the idea that by redesigning business processes--work that runs from end to end across an enterprise--they can achieve extraordinary improvements in cost, quality, speed, profitability, and other key areas Yet in spite of their intentions and investments, many executives flounder, unsure about what exactly needs to be changed, by how much, and when. As a result, many organizations make little progress--if any at all--in their attempts to transform business processes. Michael Hammer has spent the past five years working with a group of leading companies to develop the Process and Enterprise Maturity Model (PEMM), a new framework that helps executives comprehend, formulate, and assess process-based transformation efforts. He has identified two distinct groups of characteristics that are needed for business processes to perform exceptionally well over a long period of time. Process enablers, which affect individual processes, determine how well a process is able to function. They are mutually interdependent--if any are missing, the others will be ineffective. However, enablers are not enough to develop high-performance processes; they only provide the potential to deliver high performance. A company must also possess or establish organizational capabilities that allow the business to offer a supportive environment. Together, the enablers and the capabilities provide an effective way for companies to plan and evaluate process-based transformations. PEMM is different from other frameworks, such as Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), because it applies to all industries and all processes. The author describes how several companies--including Michelin, CSAA, Tetra Pak, Shell, Clorox, and Schneider National--have successfully used PEMM in various ways and at different stages to evaluate the progress of their process-based transformation efforts.

  15. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  16. Digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, A. V.; Baggeroer, A. B.; Lim, J. S.; Musicus, B. R.; Mook, D. R.; Duckworth, G. L.; Bordley, T. E.; Curtis, S. R.; Deadrick, D. S.; Dove, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    Signal and image processing research projects are described. Topics include: (1) modeling underwater acoustic propagation; (2) image restoration; (3) signal reconstruction; (4) speech enhancement; (5) pitch detection; (6) spectral analysis; (7) speech synthesis; (8) speech enhancement; (9) autoregressive spectral estimation; (10) knowledge based array processing; (11) speech analysis; (12) estimating the degree of coronary stenosis with image processing; (13) automatic target detection; and (14) video conferencing.

  17. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The chemical engineering analysis of the preliminary process design of a process for producing solar cell grade silicon from dichlorosilane is presented. A plant to produce 1,000 MT/yr of silicon is analyzed. Progress and status for the plant design are reported for the primary activities of base case conditions (60 percent), reaction chemistry (50 percent), process flow diagram (35 percent), energy balance (10 percent), property data (10 percent) and equipment design (5 percent).

  18. Fjords: Processes and products

    SciTech Connect

    Syvitski, J.P.M.; Burrell, D.C.; Skei, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fjords are a major feature of coasts and provide geologists and oceanographers with an excellent environment for studying and modeling coastal processes and products. This book brings together and integrates an enormous amount of information on fjords and provides the reader with a thorough, interdisciplinary account of current research with emphasis on sedimentary processes. The processes demonstrated in fjords are often relevant to the estuarine or open ocean environment.

  19. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  20. Solution Processing - Rodlike Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    Polybenzoxazole (PBO) Polybenzthiozole (PBT) Dry-Jet Wet Spinning Cone-and-Plate Rheometry 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and identify...by block number) The solution processing of polybenzoxazole (PBO) and polybenzthiozole (PBT) to form oriented solids is discussed. The rheological...considerations important in solution processing are considered, with special emphasis on the dry-jet wet spinning process used to form fibers . Pertinent

  1. Containerless processing technology analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Research on acoustic levitation, air-jet levitation, and heat transfer from molten samples is reported. The goal was to obtain a better understanding and improving the quality of containerless processing systems. These systems are applied to the processing of materials in situations in which contact with a container must be avoided, and have potential application in both ground based and orbiting laboratories. Containerless processing is reviewed. The development of glasses from materials which normally crystallize upon cooling, are studied.

  2. GPS Decision Analysis Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-23

    712 A/B: GPS Decision Analysis Process Revised title:___________________________________________________________________ Presented in (input and Bold...JUN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GPS Decision Analysis Process 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 GPS Decision Analysis Process Nisha Shah The Boeing Company 73rd MORS Symposium US Military Academy – West Point 21-23

  3. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  4. Biased predecision processing.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Aaron L

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers conduct biased predecision processing when they restructure their mental representation of the decision environment to favor one alternative before making their choice. The question of whether biased predecision processing occurs has been controversial since L. Festinger (1957) maintained that it does not occur. The author reviews relevant research in sections on theories of cognitive dissonance, decision conflict, choice certainty, action control, action phases, dominance structuring, differentiation and consolidation, constructive processing, motivated reasoning, and groupthink. Some studies did not find evidence of biased predecision processing, but many did. In the Discussion section, the moderators are summarized and used to assess the theories.

  5. Powder towpreg process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    The process for dry powder impregnation of carbon fiber tows being developed at LaRC overcomes many of the difficulties associated with melt, solution, and slurry prepregging. In the process, fluidized powder is deposited on spread tow bundles and fused to the fibers by radiant heating. Impregnated tows have been produced for preform, weaving, and composite materials applications. Design and operating data correlations were developed for scale up of the process to commercial operation. Bench scale single tow experiments at tow speeds up to 50 cm/sec have demonstrated that the process can be controlled to produce weavable towpreg. Samples were woven and molded into preform material of good quality.

  6. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  7. Central waste processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

  8. Acoustic Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William M.; Candy, James V.

    Signal processing refers to the acquisition, storage, display, and generation of signals - also to the extraction of information from signals and the re-encoding of information. As such, signal processing in some form is an essential element in the practice of all aspects of acoustics. Signal processing algorithms enable acousticians to separate signals from noise, to perform automatic speech recognition, or to compress information for more efficient storage or transmission. Signal processing concepts are the building blocks used to construct models of speech and hearing. Now, in the 21st century, all signal processing is effectively digital signal processing. Widespread access to high-speed processing, massive memory, and inexpensive software make signal processing procedures of enormous sophistication and power available to anyone who wants to use them. Because advanced signal processing is now accessible to everybody, there is a need for primers that introduce basic mathematical concepts that underlie the digital algorithms. The present handbook chapter is intended to serve such a purpose.

  9. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  10. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  11. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  12. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  13. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  14. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  15. JSME scatterometer data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A software system was developed which processes digitized scatterometer data from the 13.3 GHz, 1.6 GHz and 400 MHz scatterometer systems. In addition to this, the hardware capability has been developed to recover the raw analog radar signals and the aircraft parameters from an ADAS data stream in a digital format for processing by the software package. Software for the preparation of data reports and chart presentation of scattering coefficients time histories has also been developed. This report documents the development of the software, describes key components of the processing system and presents examples of the processed data and procedure for software operation.

  16. Mineral Processing Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  17. Future integrated design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The design process is one of the sources used to produce requirements for a computer system to integrate and manage product design data, program management information, and technical computation and engineering data management activities of the aerospace design process. Design activities were grouped chronologically and explored for activity type, activity interface, data quantity, and data flow. The work was based on analysis of the design process of several typical aerospace products, including both conventional and supersonic airplanes and a hydrofoil design. Activities examined included research, preliminary design, detail design, manufacturing interface, product verification, and product support. The design process was then described in an IPAD environment--the future.

  18. Ultrasonics in food processing.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Oliver, Christine; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, the physical and chemical effects of ultrasound in liquid and solid media have been extensively used in food processing applications. Harnessing the physical forces generated by ultrasound, in the absence and presence of cavitation, for specific food processing applications such as emulsification, filtration, tenderisation and functionality modification have been highlighted. While some applications, such as filtration and emulsification are "mature" industrial processes, other applications, such as functionality modification, are still in their early stages of development. However, various investigations discussed suggest that ultrasonic processing of food and dairy ingredients is a potential and viable technology that will be used by many food industries in the near future.

  19. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  20. Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Morton; Winchell, Harry S.

    1977-01-04

    A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical.

  1. ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TONDOW, MURRAY

    EDUCATION HAS BEEN SLOW IN FULLY UTILIZING ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT (EDP). EDUCATOR CONFIDENCE IN THE EDP HAS GROWN, HOWEVER, AS A RESULT OF THE SUCCESS OF ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING IN SCIENCE, INDUSTRY, AND OTHER PROFESSIONS. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID STATE TRANSISTORIZED COMPUTERS HAS MADE POWERFUL DESK-SIZE COMPUTERS A REALITY AND…

  2. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  3. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, Ken N.; Murphy, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  4. Positron annihilation processes update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guessoum, Nidhal; Skibo, Jeffrey G.; Ramaty, Reuven

    1997-01-01

    The present knowledge concerning the positron annihilation processes is reviewed, with emphasis on the data of the cross sections of the various processes of interest in astrophysical applications. Recent results are presented including results on reaction rates and line widths, the validity of which is verified.

  5. Processing of plastics

    PubMed Central

    Spaak, Albert

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the processing of plastic materials from the handling of polymers in the pellet and powder form to manufacturing of a plastic fabricated product. Various types of equipment used and melt processing ranges of various polymer formulations to make the myriad of plastic products that are commercially available are discussed. PMID:1175556

  6. Sentences as Biological Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, David

    A study of the speech process was conducted. The process is described as one closely linked to the one involved in the problem of the serial order in behavior. It is pointed out that in the speech of young children the grammatical relations that are properties of elementary underlying sentences appear in the grammatical meanings. Six examples of…

  7. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  8. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  9. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2016-10-01

    Literature published in 2015 and early 2016 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  10. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  11. Space processing applications bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

  12. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  13. Hybrid quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  14. Process Writing with Hawthorne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lita R.

    Teachers can use the process writing format for many assignments to teach and refine more skills than are often incorporated in older methods, and this is exemplified by a teaching unit comparing two short stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Peer conferences and peer editing in the revision stages, which are features of the process model, can lead to…

  15. A Textbook Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.

    In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…

  16. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  17. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  18. Microsystem process networks

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2007-09-18

    Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of Microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  19. Microsystem process networks

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2006-10-24

    Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  20. Microsystem process networks

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

    2010-01-26

    Various aspects and applications or microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  1. How hummus is processed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This month’s column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The food to be discussed this month is hummus. Hummus is known for its healthfulness. This column will provide a brief overview of the history of hummus and the current market. It will also unveil hummus processing techniques....

  2. HEPA filter dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  3. Monitoring Process Effectiveness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatment of municipal sludges to produce biosolids which meet federal and/or state requirements for land application requires process monitoring. The goal of process monitoring is to produce biosolids of consistent and reliable quality. In its simplest form, for Class B treatme...

  4. Clean, Agile Processing Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Research ltr dtd 10 Jun 98 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED FINAL REPORT CLEAN, AGILE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Contract # N00014-96-C-0139 PI: S. W . Sinton...Agile Processing Technology . T UNCLAS I N Sinton, S. W.IN S REQUIRED FOR (Explain needin detaiO E C This document is requested by the Canadian Department

  5. Polarization Radar Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Oi"C FILE ( J qII RADC-TR-89-144 In-House Report October 1989 AD-A215 242 POLARIZATION RADAR PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Kenneth C. Stiefvater, Russell D...NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 62702F 4506 11 58 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) POLARIZATION RADAR PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  6. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  7. METAL PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1958-08-12

    A process ts described for obtaining a closely bonded coating of steel or iron on uranium. The process consists of providing, between the steel and uramium. a layer of silver. amd then pressure rolling tbe assembly at about 600 deg C until a reduction of from l0 to 50% has been obtained.

  8. Monitoring Business Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellandi, Valerio; Ceravolo, Paolo; Damiani, Ernesto; Frati, Fulvio

    In this chapter, we introduce the TEKNE Metrics Framework that performs services to monitor business processes. This framework was designed to support the prescription and explanation of these processes. TEKNE's most innovative contribution is managing data expressed in declarative form. To face this challenge, the TEKNE project implemented an infrastructure that relies on declarative Semantic Web technologies designed to be used in distributed systems.

  9. Building Successful Cleaning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and…

  10. Process, Product, and Playmaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maisha T.; Purcell, Susie Spear; May, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This article examines relationships among process, product, and playmaking in a southeastern playwriting and performance program for teen girls, Playmaking for Girls (PFG). The authors have chosen to focus on tensions between process and product. Such tensions are present in the challenges teachers experience when privileging student-centered…

  11. Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-09-01

    This document represents the roadmap for Processing Technology Research in the US Mining Industry. It was developed based on the results of a Processing Technology Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held January 24 - 25, 2000.

  12. Image processing mini manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Christine G.; Posenau, Mary-Anne; Leonard, Desiree M.; Avis, Elizabeth L.; Debure, Kelly R.; Stacy, Kathryn; Vonofenheim, Bill

    1992-01-01

    The intent is to provide an introduction to the image processing capabilities available at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Central Scientific Computing Complex (CSCC). Various image processing software components are described. Information is given concerning the use of these components in the Data Visualization and Animation Laboratory at LaRC.

  13. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  14. Processes in Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Grayce A.

    This examination of the processes in reading comprehension is divided into seven categories. "Theoretical Foundations" reviews some of the research conducted by Bruner, Piaget, and Bloom in the areas of cognition or comprehension processes of young children. "Development of a Spiraling Reading Curriculum" examines a spiraling taxonomy of reading…

  15. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  16. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  17. Economics of polysilicon processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Li, K. Y.; Chou, S. M.

    1986-02-01

    Techniques are being developed to provide lower cost polysilicon material for solar cells. Existing technology which normally provides semiconductor industry polysilicon material is undergoing changes and also being used to provide polysilicon material for solar cells. Economics of new and existing technologies are presented for producing polysilicon. The economics are primarily based on the preliminary process design of a plant producing 1,000 metric tons/year of silicon. The polysilicon processes include: Siemen's process (hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane); Union Carbide process (silane decomposition); and Hemlock Semiconductor process (hydrogen reduction of dichlorosilane). The economics include cost estimates of capital investment and product cost to produce polysilicon via the technology. Sensitivity analysis results are also presented to disclose the effect of major paramentes such as utilities, labor, raw materials and capital investment.

  18. Optical signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses several optical configurations used for signal processing. Electronic-to-optical transducers are outlined, noting fixed window transducers and moving window acousto-optic transducers. Folded spectrum techniques are considered, with reference to wideband RF signal analysis, fetal electroencephalogram analysis, engine vibration analysis, signal buried in noise, and spatial filtering. Various methods for radar signal processing are described, such as phased-array antennas, the optical processing of phased-array data, pulsed Doppler and FM radar systems, a multichannel one-dimensional optical correlator, correlations with long coded waveforms, and Doppler signal processing. Means for noncoherent optical signal processing are noted, including an optical correlator for speech recognition and a noncoherent optical correlator.

  19. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) for producing silicon from dichlorosilane in a 1,000 MT/yr plant was continued. Progress and status for the chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process are reported for the primary process design engineering activities: base case conditions (85%), reaction chemistry (85%), process flow diagram (60%), material balance (60%), energy balance (30%), property data (30%), equipment design (20%) and major equipment list (10%). Engineering design of the initial distillation column (D-01, stripper column) in the process was initiated. The function of the distillation column is to remove volatile gases (such as hydrogen and nitrogen) which are dissolved in liquid chlorosilanes. Initial specifications and results for the distillation column design are reported including the variation of tray requirements (equilibrium stages) with reflux ratio for the distillation.

  20. Business Process Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendling, Jan

    The recent progress of Business Process Management (BPM) is reflected by the figures of the related industry. Wintergreen Research estimates that the international market for BPM-related software and services accounted for more than USD 1 billion in 2005 with a tendency towards rapid growth in the subsequent couple of years [457]. The relevance of business process modeling to general management initiatives has been previously studied in the 1990s [28]. Today, Gartner finds that organizations that had the best results in implementing business process management spent more than 40 percent of the total project time on discovery and construction of their initial process model [265]. As a consequence, Gartner considers Business Process Modeling to be among the Top 10 Strategic Technologies for 2008.

  1. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Processing-refining of raw materials from extraterrestrial sources is detailed for a space materials handling facility. The discussion is constrained to those steps necessary to separate desired components from raw or altered input ores, semi-purified feedstocks, or process scrap and convert the material into elements, alloys, and consumables. The materials are regarded as originating from dead satellites and boosters, lunar materials, and asteroids. Strong attention will be given to recycling reagent substances to avoid the necessity of transporting replacements. It is assumed that since no aqueous processes exist on the moon, the distribution of minerals will be homogeneous. The processing-refining scenario will include hydrochemical, pyrochemical, electrochemical, and physical techniques selected for the output mass rate/unit plant mass ratio. Flow charts of the various materials processing operations which could be performed with lunar materials are provided, noting the necessity of delivering several alloying elements from the earth due to scarcities on the moon.

  2. Spacelab Data Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SDPF) processes, monitors, and accounts for the payload data from Spacelab and other Shuttle missions and forwards relevant data to various user facilities worldwide. The SLDPF is divided into the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). The SIPS division demultiplexes, synchronizes, time tags, quality checks, accounts for the data, and formats the data onto tapes. The SOPS division further edits, blocks, formats, and records the data on tape for shipment to users. User experiments must conform to the Spacelab's onboard High Rate Multiplexer (HRM) format for maximum process ability. Audio, analog, instrumentation, high density, experiment data, input/output data, quality control and accounting, and experimental channel tapes along with a variety of spacelab ancillary tapes are provided to the user by SLDPF.

  3. Formed HIP Can Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Kester Diederik

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  4. Economics of polysilicon processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Li, K. Y.; Chou, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are being developed to provide lower cost polysilicon material for solar cells. Existing technology which normally provides semiconductor industry polysilicon material is undergoing changes and also being used to provide polysilicon material for solar cells. Economics of new and existing technologies are presented for producing polysilicon. The economics are primarily based on the preliminary process design of a plant producing 1,000 metric tons/year of silicon. The polysilicon processes include: Siemen's process (hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane); Union Carbide process (silane decomposition); and Hemlock Semiconductor process (hydrogen reduction of dichlorosilane). The economics include cost estimates of capital investment and product cost to produce polysilicon via the technology. Sensitivity analysis results are also presented to disclose the effect of major paramentes such as utilities, labor, raw materials and capital investment.

  5. EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton Johansen, Geir; Wang, Mi

    2008-09-01

    There has been tremendous development within measurement science and technology over the past couple of decades. New sensor technologies and compact versatile signal recovery electronics are continuously expanding the limits of what can be measured and the accuracy with which this can be done. Miniaturization of sensors and the use of nanotechnology push these limits further. Also, thanks to powerful and cost-effective computer systems, sophisticated measurement and reconstruction algorithms previously only accessible in advanced laboratories are now available for in situ online measurement systems. The process industries increasingly require more process-related information, motivated by key issues such as improved process control, process utilization and process yields, ultimately driven by cost-effectiveness, quality assurance, environmental and safety demands. Industrial process tomography methods have taken advantage of the general progress in measurement science, and aim at providing more information, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on multiphase systems and their dynamics. The typical approach for such systems has been to carry out one local or bulk measurement and assume that this is representative of the whole system. In some cases, this is sufficient. However, there are many complex systems where the component distribution varies continuously and often unpredictably in space and time. The foundation of industrial tomography is to conduct several measurements around the periphery of a multiphase process, and use these measurements to unravel the cross-sectional distribution of the process components in time and space. This information is used in the design and optimization of industrial processes and process equipment, and also to improve the accuracy of multiphase system measurements in general. In this issue we are proud to present a selection of the 145 papers presented at the 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography in Bergen

  6. Process measurement assurance program

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for determining, improving, and controlling the measurement process errors (or measurement uncertainty) of a measurement system used to monitor product as it is manufactured. The method is called the Process Measurement Assurance Program (PMAP). It integrates metrology early into the product realization process and is a step beyond statistical process control (SPC), which monitors only the product. In this method, a control standard is used to continuously monitor the status of the measurement system. Analysis of the control standard data allow the determination of the measurement error inherent in the product data and allow one to separate the variability in the manufacturing process from variability in the measurement process. These errors can be then associated with either the measurement equipment, variability of the measurement process, operator bias, or local environmental effects. Another goal of PMAP is to determine appropriate re-calibration intervals for the measurement system, which may be significantly longer or shorter than the interval typically assigned by the calibration organization.

  7. CCD gate definition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluzer

    1986-02-01

    The present invention utilizes a double masking step in a CCD gate definition process to eliminate the re-entrant oxide by using a thin film layer other than photoresist to define the polysilicon gates used by defining the thin film layer with a double masking process before any of the polysilicon gate layer is etched. It is one object of the present invention, therefore, to provide an improved process for CCD gate definition. It is another object of the invention to provide an improved CCD gate definition process wherein a profiled oxide layer is produced over a polysilicon layer without re-entrant oxide regions. It is another object of the invention to provide an improved CCD gate definition process wherein a thin film layer is utilized to define the polysilicon gate layers. It is another object of the invention to provide an improved CCD gate definition process wherein the thin film layer is defined by a double masking process before any polysilicon layer is etched.

  8. Processes in Lingua Cosmica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollongren, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    In a sequence of papers on the topic of message construction for interstellar communication by means of a cosmic language, representations of various kinds of concepts of reality in a Lingua Cosmica system [1]. Those studied were logic relations of a static character. The present contribution contains an important, fundamental extension: groundwork is done for the purpose of interpreting (dynamic) proc esses of various sorts in the linguistic system. Individual processes are abstracted in a logic sense and provided with basic properties as termination and communication functions. They can be combined into kinds of processes: sequential and parallel ones represented by only one inductive definition in logic. Based on concepts from the so-called process algebra, processes are provided with channel s mapping them to their states. State vectors are introduced to represent states of conglomerates of processes. Communication between processes (locally or globally) is effectuated by means of state transitions. Together with a programmed arb itration function, state vectors play a crucial role in representing communication. With these ingredients possibilities for general interpretations of a wide range of processes in the Lingua Cosmica system come in view.

  9. The VISAR Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David; Meyer, Paul; Templeton, Gary F.

    2003-01-01

    The Video Image Stabilization And Registration (VISAR) process is an award winning video image processing software developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. VISAR has a wide variety of application areas where the refinement of digital video is needed. It is used to correct jitter, rotation, and zoom effects by registering and processing on individual image captures that are a part of normal video capturing. Its most prominent uses were the 1996 Olympic Bombing case and in identifying Saddam Hussein during the Iraq war. Based on first-hand knowledge, this paper describes the VISAR process, which consists of several steps designed to refine digital video using VISAR software. The process determines the differences between two video images so that one, or both, of the images can be changed in ways that make them match as well as possible. Corrections include changes in position (horizontal and vertical image shifts), changes in orientation (image rotation), and changes in magnification (image zoom). While much of the VISAR process is automated, in its current embodiment it requires the user to initially identify the area of interest and to reset a threshold parameter if the default gives unacceptable results. The basic process that is used is an old tried and true method that determines how well the two images match. This process is called cross-correlation. It gives a single number, the correlation coefficient, that is equal to 1.0 if the images are perfectly matched, is equal to 0.0 if the images have nothing in common, and is equal to -1.0 if one image is the negative of the other. This basic process is used by many image stabilization methods. With VISAR we use it in a manner that provides statistical information needed to best determine orientation and magnification.

  10. Advanced Hydrogen Liquefaction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Kromer, Brian; Neu, Ben; Jankowiak, Jerome; Barrett, Philip; Drnevich, Raymond

    2011-09-28

    The project identified and quantified ways to reduce the cost of hydrogen liquefaction, and reduce the cost of hydrogen distribution. The goal was to reduce the power consumption by 20% and then to reduce the capital cost. Optimizing the process, improving process equipment, and improving ortho-para conversion significantly reduced the power consumption of liquefaction, but by less than 20%. Because the efficiency improvement was less than the target, the program was stopped before the capital cost was addressed. These efficiency improvements could provide a benefit to the public to improve the design of future hydrogen liquefiers. The project increased the understanding of hydrogen liquefaction by modeling different processes and thoroughly examining ortho-para separation and conversion. The process modeling provided a benefit to the public because the project incorporated para hydrogen into the process modeling software, so liquefaction processes can be modeled more accurately than using only normal hydrogen. Adding catalyst to the first heat exchanger, a simple method to reduce liquefaction power, was identified, analyzed, and quantified. The demonstrated performance of ortho-para separation is sufficient for at least one identified process concept to show reduced power cost when compared to hydrogen liquefaction processes using conventional ortho-para conversion. The impact of improved ortho-para conversion can be significant because ortho para conversion uses about 20-25% of the total liquefaction power, but performance improvement is necessary to realize a substantial benefit. Most of the energy used in liquefaction is for gas compression. Improvements in hydrogen compression will have a significant impact on overall liquefier efficiency. Improvements to turbines, heat exchangers, and other process equipment will have less impact.

  11. Precision Heating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A heat sealing process was developed by SEBRA based on technology that originated in work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The project involved connecting and transferring blood and fluids between sterile plastic containers while maintaining a closed system. SEBRA markets the PIRF Process to manufacturers of medical catheters. It is a precisely controlled method of heating thermoplastic materials in a mold to form or weld catheters and other products. The process offers advantages in fast, precise welding or shape forming of catheters as well as applications in a variety of other industries.

  12. Carbon wastewater treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Simmons, G. M.; Dowler, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    A new powdered-carbon treatment process is being developed for the elimination of the present problems, associated with the disposal of biologically active sewage waste solids, and with water reuse. This counter-current flow process produces an activated carbon, which is obtained from the pyrolysis of the sewage solids, and utilizes this material to remove the adulterating materials from the water. Additional advantages of the process are the elimination of odors, the removal of heavy metals, and the potential for energy conservation.

  13. Robot welding process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  14. Chemical Processing Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  15. Membrane separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rautenbach, R.; Albrecht, R.

    1989-01-01

    The success of two membrane processes, reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, has helped make membrane processes a central technique in solving separation problems for fluid systems. This book discusses the various applications and developments in membrane technology and shows how accurate membrane processes can be designed. Starting with the local transport phenomena, the behavior of individual elements such as tube or plate membrane and the behavior of the technical unit - the module - are discussed in detail. The book goes on to demonstrate the most effective ways of arranging modules for forming an optimal plant.

  16. Neural Analog Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    1982-07-01

    Neural Analog Information Processing (NAIP) is an effort to develop general purpose pattern classification architectures based upon biological information processing principles. This paper gives an overview of NAIP and its relationship to the previous work in neural modeling from which its fundamental principles are derived. It also presents a theorem concerning the stability of response of a slab (a two dimensional array of identical simple processing units) to time-invariant (spatial) patterns. An experiment (via computer emulation) demonstrating classification of a spatial pattern by a simple, but complete NAIP architecture is described. A concept for hardware implementation of NAIP architectures is briefly discussed.

  17. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  18. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  19. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  20. Superfund Site Assessment Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the site assessment process used by the federal Superfund program to evaluate releases of hazardous substances that may pose a threat to human health or the environment and select an appropriate program for sites needing cleanup.

  1. Processing composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The fabrication of several composite structural articles including DC-10 upper aft rudders, L-1011 vertical fins and composite biomedical appliances are discussed. Innovative composite processing methods are included.

  2. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.

    1993-10-26

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300 C to 400 C for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  3. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  4. George: Gaussian Process regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    George is a fast and flexible library, implemented in C++ with Python bindings, for Gaussian Process regression useful for accounting for correlated noise in astronomical datasets, including those for transiting exoplanet discovery and characterization and stellar population modeling.

  5. Associative list processing unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  6. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on microwave processing of ceramics: Microwave-material interactions; anticipated advantage of microwave sintering; ceramic sintering; and ceramic joining. 24 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  7. Space processing economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredt, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of space processing operations may be considered economically justified; they are manufacturing operations that make profits and experiment operations that provide needed applied research results at lower costs than those of alternative methods. Some examples from the Skylab experiments suggest that applied research should become cost effective soon after the space shuttle and Spacelab become operational. In space manufacturing, the total cost of space operations required to process materials must be repaid by the value added to the materials by the processing. Accurate estimates of profitability are not yet possible because shuttle operational costs are not firmly established and the markets for future products are difficult to estimate. However, approximate calculations show that semiconductor products and biological preparations may be processed on a scale consistent with market requirements and at costs that are at least compatible with profitability using the Shuttle/Spacelab system.

  8. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

  9. Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at the University of Southern California on coal liquefaction processes. Lecture topics and course requirements are discussed. A 64-item bibliography of papers used in place of a textbook is included. (BT)

  10. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Rindt, John R.; Hetland, Melanie D.

    1993-01-01

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  11. Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

  12. [The irradiation process].

    PubMed

    Barillot, I; Chauvet, B; Hannoun Lévi, J M; Lisbona, A; Leroy, T; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the regulatory framework of the radiotherapy practice in France, the external irradiation and brachytherapy process and the guidelines for patient follow-up.

  13. Log processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bowlin, W.P.; Kneer, M.P.; Ballance, J.D.

    1989-11-07

    This patent describes an improvement in a computer controlled processing system for lumber production. It comprises: a computer, a sequence of processing stations for processing a log segment including; an excess material removing station for generating opposed flat side surfaces on the log segment. The flat side surfaces determined by the computer to become sides of boards to be severed from the log segments; a profiling station for forming profiled edges above and below the flat side surfaces to become the side edges of the boards to be severed from the log segment, and a severing station for severing the boards from the log segments, a conveyance means establishing a path of conveyance and having continuous control of the log segment on conveying the log segment along the path and through the above defined sequence of processing stations.

  14. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Breuker, J.H.; De H.H.; Kwant, P.B.

    1980-01-15

    A process for preparing light distillate fractions and medicinal oil from heavy hydrocarbon oils comprises two-stage hydrocracking, fractionation distillation and catalytic hydrotreatment of at least part of the fractionation residue.

  15. Shaping process makes fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, S.A.; Krambeck, F.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Mobil Olefin to Gasoline and Distillate (MOGD) process is described in which light olefinic compunds can be converted to high quality gasoline and distillate. This process, now ready for commercialization is based on a unique synthetic zeolite catalyst, the shape of which selectively oligomerizes light olefins to higher molecular weight iso-olefins. The highly flexible process can be designed to produce distillate/gasoline ratios of 0/100 to 90/10 for a commercial plant, depending on market requirements. MOGD is applicable to a wide range of feed streams ranging from ethylene to 400 degrees F end point olefinic naphtha. The process has been tested using commercially produced catalyst in refinery-scale equipment.

  16. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  17. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  19. Image Processing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    To convert raw data into environmental products, the National Weather Service and other organizations use the Global 9000 image processing system marketed by Global Imaging, Inc. The company's GAE software package is an enhanced version of the TAE, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center to support remote sensing and image processing applications. The system can be operated in three modes and is combined with HP Apollo workstation hardware.

  20. Electrochemical Atomic Layer Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-25

    where an atomic layer of an element is deposited , or removed, in a surface limited reaction. The potentials used are referred to as underpotentials in...the electrochemical literature. The atomic layer deposition process is referred to as underpotential deposition (UPD). 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15, NUMBER OF...reaction. The potentials used are referred to as underpotentials in the electrochemical literature. The atomic layer deposition process is referred to as

  1. Unconventional olefin processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.C.

    1983-05-01

    The conversion of syngas into olefins is based on the Fischer-Tropsch technology. The FT modified process for olefins includes: upgraded liquids for olefins and aromatics, and catcracking of methanol. Because of the number of catalysts for olefins, data is not yet possible. Economic projections suggest that methanol cracking for olefins will be feasible in 1990. Olefin demand will grow, and C/sub 1/ chemistry research will increase, so that some unconventional olefin processes can be commercialized by then.

  2. Textile composite processing science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loos, Alfred C.; Hammond, Vincent H.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Hasko, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-dimensional model of the Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process was developed for the prediction of the infiltration behavior of a resin into an anisotropic fiber preform. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was developed for in-situ monitoring of the RTM process. Flow visualization and mold filling experiments were conducted to verify sensor measurements and model predictions. Test results indicated good agreement between model predictions, sensor readings, and experimental data.

  3. Bank Record Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  4. Transparent materials processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A zero gravity processing furnace system was designed that will allow acquisition of photographic or other visual information while the sample is being processed. A low temperature (30 to 400 C) test model with a flat specimen heated by quartz-halide lamps was constructed. A high temperature (400 to 1000 C) test model heated by resistance heaters, utilizing a cylindrical specimen and optics, was also built. Each of the test models is discussed in detail. Recommendations are given.

  5. Spherical nitroguanidine process

    DOEpatents

    Sanchez, John A.; Roemer, Edward L.; Stretz, Lawrence A.

    1990-01-01

    A process of preparing spherical high bulk density nitroguanidine by dissing low bulk density nitroguanidine in N-methyl pyrrolidone at elevated temperatures and then cooling the solution to lower temperatures as a liquid characterized as a nonsolvent for the nitroguanidine is provided. The process is enhanced by inclusion in the solution of from about 1 ppm up to about 250 ppm of a metal salt such as nickel nitrate, zinc nitrate or chromium nitrate, preferably from about 20 to about 50 ppm.

  6. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  7. Processing Of Binary Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  8. Worldwide gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Radler, M.

    1998-06-08

    Tables are presented on capacity and production in natural gas processing plants by country (by province or by state when appropriate), and by company within each country. Production figures are presented separately for ethane, propane, isobutane, butane, LP-gas mixtures, raw NGL mixtures, debutanized natural gasoline, an other. Another table gives world sulfur production by company within each country. The sulfur production table gives the source of the sulfur, type of process used, and figures for design capacity and production.

  9. A grieving process illustrated?

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Rory

    2016-06-10

    The sudden death of Pablo Picasso's closest friend Carlos Casagemas in 1901 came as a great shock to the young Picasso. From a young age, Picasso had ruminated on life and death; however, this was his first experience of bereavement. Following the death of Casagemas, Picasso's paintings can be seen as a diary of his grieving process and clearly illustrate the five stages of the grieving process as outlined by Kubler-Ross in 'On Death and Dying' (1969).

  10. Microwave Processing of Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    of peak output power of 100 megawatts at 10 GHz. Microwave Fundamentals 11 RESONANT HELIX TWT STO KLYSTRON CTf C 0 Grid oShadow Grid PPM FOCUS SPACE C...Rather, broadband and high-temperature measurement techniques that have been used in conjunction with microwave processing of materials-specifically... Broadband Dielectric Properties Measurement Techniques. Pp. 527-539 in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 269, Microwave Processing

  11. Research in Stochastic Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    appear. G. Kallianpur, Finitely additive approach to nonlinear filtering, Proc. Bernoulli Soc. Conf. on Stochastic Processes, T. Hida , ed., Springer, to...Nov. 85, in Proc. Bernoulli Soc. Conf. on Stochastic Processes, T. Hida , ed., Springer, to appear. i. Preparation T. Hsing, Extreme value theory for...1507 Carroll, R.J., Spiegelman, C.H., Lan, K.K.G., Bailey , K.T. and Abbott, R.D., Errors in-variables for binary regression models, Aug.82. 1508

  12. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  13. Business Development Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-31

    entity’s real estate situation and condition for use by 17 customers including (but not limited to) the business entity. 18 Information is processed to...the score to provide a well- 3 rounded picture of a particular real estate situation. 4 Stratmann discloses a method for assisting an individual in...identify a potential 9 flaw in the opportunity analysis . These criteria include whether 10 the process is dealing with a real customer, if it is

  14. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  15. Hydrogen recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; He, Zhenjie; Pinnau, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

  16. Scramjet Combustion Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    plan for these flights is as follows: Scramjet Combustion Processes RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 21 HyShot 5 – A Free-Flying Hypersonic Glider HyShot...5 will be a hypersonic glider designed to fly at Mach 8. It will separate from its rocket booster in space and perform controlled manoeuvres as it...RTO-EN-AVT-185 11 - 1 Scramjet Combustion Processes Michael Smart and Ray Stalker Centre for Hypersonics The University of Queensland

  17. Materials Processing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A report describes investigations of materials processing in low-gravity environment. Ultimately, research could lead to new commercially-applicable materials and processes and to an understanding of constraints imposed by gravity. NASA-supported work is carried out in 46 academic, industrial, and Government laboratories, and covers a number of areas. An overview is given of objective and current state of development for over 100 tasks.

  18. Polycrystalline semiconductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Glaeser, Andreas M.; Haggerty, John S.; Danforth, Stephen C.

    1983-01-01

    A process for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by imgingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step.

  19. Process energy management

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    In many facilities, energy management is simply a matter of managing the energy required for lighting and space conditioning. In many others, however, energy management is much more complex and involves large motors and controls, industrial insulation, complex combustion monitoring, unique steam distribution problems, significant amounts of waste heat, etc. Typical facilities offering large energy management opportunities include industrial facilities, large office and commercial operations, government institutions such as schools, hospitals and prisons. Such facilities generally have specialized industrial, commercial or institutional processes that incorporate many of the concepts covered in other chapters. These processes require thorough analytical evaluations to determine the appropriate energy-saving measures. This chapter provides some examples. In this chapter the authors present a suggested procedure for process energy improvement. Then, motors and controls are discussed since they form an integral part of most processes. Next, some sample case studies of process energy management opportunities are provided. Finally, the authors outline some common process activities where better energy management can be practiced. Air compressors are also discussed.

  20. Synroc processing options

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsa, R.B.; Hoenig, C.L.

    1981-09-01

    Synroc is a titanate-based ceramic material currently being developed for immobilizing high-level nuclear reactor wastes in solid form. Synroc D is a unique variation of Synroc. It can contain the high-level defense wastes, particularly those in storage at the Savannah River Plant. In this report, we review the early development of the initial Synroc process, discuss modification and other options that simplify it overall, and recommend the future direction of research and development in the processing area. A reference Synroc process is described briefly and contrasted with the Savannah River Laboratory glass-based reference case. Preliminary engineering layouts show Synroc to be a more complex processing operation and, thus, more expensive than the glass-based process. However, we believe that simplifications, which will significantly reduce the cost difference, are possible. Further research and development will continue in the areas of slurry processing, fluidized bed calcination, and mineralization. This last will use sintering, hot uniaxial pressing, or hot isostatic pressing.

  1. PALSAR ground data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Heinrich; Palsetia, Marzban; Carande, Richard; Curlander, James C.

    2002-02-01

    The upcoming launches of new satellites like ALOS, Envisat, Radarsat2 and ECHO will pose a significant challenge for many ground stations, namely to integrate new SAR processing software into their existing systems. Vexcel Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has built a SAR processing system, named APEX -Suite, for spaceborne SAR satellites that can easily be expanded for the next generation of SAR satellites. APEX-Suite includes an auto-satellite-detecting Level 0 Processor that includes bit-error correction, data quality characterization, and as a unique feature, a sophisticated and very accurate Doppler centroid estimator. The Level 1 processing is divided into the strip mode processor FOCUST, based on the well-proven range-Doppler algorithm, and the SWATHT ScanSAR processor that uses the Chirp Z Trans-form algorithm. A high-accuracy ortho-rectification processor produces systematic and precision corrected Level 2 SAR image pro ducts. The PALSAR instrument is an L-band SAR with multiple fine and standard resolution beams in strip mode, and several wide-swath ScanSAR modes. We will address the adaptation process of Vexcel's APEX-Suite processing system for the PALSAR sensor and discuss image quality characteristics based on processed simulated point target phase history data.

  2. Polycrystalline semiconductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Glaeser, A.M.; Haggerty, J.S.; Danforth, S.C.

    1983-04-05

    A process is described for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by impingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step. 10 figs.

  3. Studsvik Processing Facility Update

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J. B.; Oliver, T. W.; Hill, G. M.; Davin, P. F.; Ping, M. R.

    2003-02-25

    Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container has been 395 R/hr (3.95 Sv/h). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Ion Exchange Resins (IER), activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h). The licensed and heavily shielded SPF can receive and process liquid and solid LLRWs with high water and/or organic content. This paper provides an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing radioactive LLRW from commercial nuclear power plants. Process improvements and lessons learned will be discussed.

  4. Helium process cycle

    DOEpatents

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  5. Helium process cycle

    DOEpatents

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  6. 21 CFR 1271.220 - Processing and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing and process controls. 1271.220 Section... process controls. (a) General. If you are an establishment that processes HCT/Ps, you must process each... mixed in a single receptacle) during manufacturing. (c) In-process control and testing. You must...

  7. NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J; Watkins, R; Hensel, S

    2009-05-27

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into an oxide, and Part 2 which consisted of oxide made from additional H-Canyon neptunium solutions which required processing to purify the solution prior to conversion into an oxide. The neptunium was received as a nitrate solution and converted to oxide through ion-exchange column extraction, precipitation, and calcination. Numerous processing challenges were encountered in order make a final neptunium oxide product that could be shipped in a 9975 shipping container. Among the challenges overcome was the issue of scale: translating lab scale production into full facility production. The balance between processing efficiency and product quality assurance was addressed during this campaign. Lessons learned from these challenges are applicable to other processing projects.

  8. Coal processing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterlich, W.; Bohn, T.; Eickhoff, H. G.; Geldmacher, H.; Mengis, W.; Oomatia, H.; Stroppel, K. G.

    1980-08-01

    The efficient design of processing plants which combine various coal based technologies in order to maximize the effectiveness of coal utilization is considered. The technical, economical and ecological virtues which compound plants for coal conversion offer are assayed. Twenty-two typical processes of coal conversion and product refinement are selected and described by a standardized method of characterization. An analysis of product market and a qualitative assessment of plant design support six different compound plant propositions. The incorporation of such coal conversion schemes into future energy supply systems was simulated by model calculations. The analysis shows that byproducts and nonconverted materials from individual processes can be processed in a compound plant in a profitable manner. This leads to an improvement in efficiencies. The product spectrum can be adapted to a certain degree to demand variations. Furthermore, the integration of fluidized bed combustion can provide an efficient method of desulfurization. Compound plants are expected to become economic in the 1990's. A necessary condition to compound technologies is high reliability in the functioning of all individual processes.

  9. Range Process Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  10. Microwave sintering process model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hu; Tinga, W R; Sundararaj, U; Eadie, R L

    2003-01-01

    In order to simulate and optimize the microwave sintering of a silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt toolbits process, a microwave sintering process model has been built. A cylindrical sintering furnace was used containing a heat insulating layer, a susceptor layer, and an alumina tube containing the green toolbit parts between parallel, electrically conductive, graphite plates. Dielectric and absorption properties of the silicon nitride green parts, the tungsten carbide/cobalt green parts, and an oxidizable susceptor material were measured using perturbation and waveguide transmission methods. Microwave absorption data were measured over a temperature range from 20 degrees C to 800 degrees C. These data were then used in the microwave process model which assumed plane wave propagation along the radial direction and included the microwave reflection at each interface between the materials and the microwave absorption in the bulk materials. Heat transfer between the components inside the cylindrical sintering furnace was also included in the model. The simulated heating process data for both silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt samples closely follow the experimental data. By varying the physical parameters of the sintering furnace model, such as the thickness of the susceptor layer, the thickness of the allumina tube wall, the sample load volume and the graphite plate mass, the model data predicts their effects which are helpful in optimizing those parameters in the industrial sintering process.

  11. Due process traditionalism.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  12. Image processing in planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulchignoni, M.; Picchiotti, A.

    The authors summarize the state of art in the field of planetary image processing in terms of available data, required procedures and possible improvements. More than a technical description of the adopted algorithms, that are considered as the normal background of any research activity dealing with interpretation of planetary data, the authors outline the advances in planetology achieved as a consequence of the availability of better data and more sophisticated hardware. An overview of the available data base and of the organizational efforts to make the data accessible and updated constitutes a valuable reference for those people interested in getting information. A short description of the processing sequence, illustrated by an example which shows the quality of the obtained products and the improvement in each successive step of the processing procedure gives an idea of the possible use of this kind of information.

  13. Process of timbral composing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withrow, Sam

    In this paper, I discuss the techniques and processes of timbral organization I developed while writing my chamber work, Afterimage. I compare my techniques with illustrative examples by other composers to place my work in historical context. I examine three elements of my composition process. The first is the process of indexing and cataloging basic sonic materials. The second consists of the techniques and mechanics of manipulating and assembling these collections into larger scale phrases, textures, and overall form in a musical work. The third element is the more elusive, and often extra-musical, source of inspiration and motivation. The evocative power of tone color is both immediately evident yet difficult to explain. What is timbre? This question cannot be answered solely in scientific terms; subjective factors affect our perception of it.

  14. URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

    1957-12-01

    A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

  15. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Engineering design of the third distillation column in the process was accomplished. The initial design is based on a 94.35% recovery of dichlorosilane in the distillate and a 99.9% recovery of trichlorosilane in the bottoms. The specified separation is achieved at a reflux ratio of 15 with 20 trays (equilibrium stages). Additional specifications and results are reported including equipment size, temperatures and pressure. Specific raw material requirements necessary to produce the silicon in the process are presented. The primary raw materials include metallurgical grade silicon, silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen, copper (catalyst) and lime (waste treatment). Hydrogen chloride is produced as by product in the silicon deposition. Cost analysis of the process was initiated during this reporting period.

  16. Quartz resonator processing system

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  17. Empathy and error processing.

    PubMed

    Larson, Michael J; Fair, Joseph E; Good, Daniel A; Baldwin, Scott A

    2010-05-01

    Recent research suggests a relationship between empathy and error processing. Error processing is an evaluative control function that can be measured using post-error response time slowing and the error-related negativity (ERN) and post-error positivity (Pe) components of the event-related potential (ERP). Thirty healthy participants completed two measures of empathy, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Empathy Quotient (EQ), and a modified Stroop task. Post-error slowing was associated with increased empathic personal distress on the IRI. ERN amplitude was related to overall empathy score on the EQ and the fantasy subscale of the IRI. The Pe and measures of empathy were not related. Results remained consistent when negative affect was controlled via partial correlation, with an additional relationship between ERN amplitude and empathic concern on the IRI. Findings support a connection between empathy and error processing mechanisms.

  18. Improving Metal Casting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  19. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  20. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, John D.

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  1. Isothermal separation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.

    1982-01-01

    The isothermal processes of membrane separation, supercritical extraction and chromatography were examined using availability analysis. The general approach was to derive equations that identified where energy is consumed in these processes and how they compare with conventional separation methods. These separation methods are characterized by pure work inputs, chiefly in the form of a pressure drop which supplies the required energy. Equations were derived for the energy requirement in terms of regular solution theory. This approach is believed to accurately predict the work of separation in terms of the heat of solution and the entropy of mixing. It can form the basis of a convenient calculation method for optimizing membrane and solvent properties for particular applications. Calculations were made on the energy requirements for a membrane process separating air into its components.

  2. Exclusion processes with avalanches.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Uttam; Krapivsky, P L

    2014-07-01

    In an exclusion process with avalanches, when a particle hops to a neighboring empty site which is adjacent to an island the particle on the other end of the island immediately hops, and if it joins another island this triggers another hop. There are no restrictions on the length of the islands and the duration of the avalanche. This process is well defined in the low-density region ρ < 1/2. We describe the nature of steady states (on a ring) and determine all correlation functions. For the asymmetric version of the process, we compute the steady state current, and we describe shock and rarefaction waves which arise in the evolution of the step-function initial profile. For the symmetric version, we determine the diffusion coefficient and examine the evolution of a tagged particle.

  3. Advanced Containerless Processing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    Breadboards for high temperature containerless processing systems are to be developed, the principles of operation are to be studied, the performance is to be characterized, the limitations identified, and the influence of the acoustic field on the samples established. The subjects to be addressed are experimental and theoretical studies of: (1) acoustic positioning and manipulation capabilities in a high temperature gradient environment (from 26 C to 990 C); (2) acoustic waveforms, harmonic contents, power transfer, sample transport and stability associated with high temperature gradient system; (3) high temperature ground based levitation systems which will allow melting, processing, and solidifying samples without crucibles in the laboratory, (4) KC-135 and laboratory tests of various acoustic geometries which may have spherical applications in the Materials Processing in Space Program; and (5) provide technical information to Acoustics Containerless Experimental System (ACES) engineering team and establish the operation conditions for ACES.

  4. Containerless processing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oran, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    A partial description of the technology, hardware, and facilities developed by NASA in support of space-based containerless processing experiments in the early 1970s is presented, along with recent results. Supercooling was necessary, at a rate of 500 K over a 400 ft span, in early drop tower and molten sample experiments. Placing an electromagnetic levitation coil/chamber at the top of the tube avoided contamination of the sample by guide wires. Recent tests have been performed in attempts to produce metastable bulk A-15 Nb3Ge. The use of copper coils for levitation is suspected to have induced stirring motions in samples. Aerodynamic levitation, needed for nonconducting materials, has been employed to process glass beads at temperatures over 1000 K. An electromagnetic levitation device used to process a gram of BeO on a sounding rocket flight will be carried on a Shuttle flight, as will an acoustic suspension system.

  5. Cantilever epitaxial process

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I.; Follstaedt, David M.; Mitchell, Christine C.; Han, Jung

    2003-07-29

    A process of growing a material on a substrate, particularly growing a Group II-VI or Group III-V material, by a vapor-phase growth technique where the growth process eliminates the need for utilization of a mask or removal of the substrate from the reactor at any time during the processing. A nucleation layer is first grown upon which a middle layer is grown to provide surfaces for subsequent lateral cantilever growth. The lateral growth rate is controlled by altering the reactor temperature, pressure, reactant concentrations or reactant flow rates. Semiconductor materials, such as GaN, can be produced with dislocation densities less than 10.sup.7 /cm.sup.2.

  6. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Allemann, R.T.; Johnson, B.M. Jr.

    1961-10-31

    A process for concentrating fission-product-containing waste solutions from fuel element processing is described. The process comprises the addition of sugar to the solution, preferably after it is made alkaline; spraying the solution into a heated space whereby a dry powder is formed; heating the powder to at least 220 deg C in the presence of oxygen whereby the powder ignites, the sugar is converted to carbon, and the salts are decomposed by the carbon; melting the powder at between 800 and 900 deg C; and cooling the melt. (AEC) antidiuretic hormone from the blood by the liver. Data are summarized from the following: tracer studies on cardiovascular functions; the determination of serum protein-bound iodine; urinary estrogen excretion in patients with arvanced metastatic mammary carcinoma; the relationship between alheroclerosis aad lipoproteins; the physical chemistry of lipoproteins; and factors that modify the effects of densely ionizing radia

  7. COTS software selection process.

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

    2006-05-01

    Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

  8. Kennedy Space Center Payload Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Ronnie; Engler, Tom; Colloredo, Scott; Zide, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the payload processing functions at Kennedy Space Center. It details some of the payloads processed at KSC, the typical processing tasks, the facilities available for processing payloads, and the capabilities and customer services that are available.

  9. NTP comparison process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corban, Robert

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  10. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  11. AERONET Version 3 processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holben, B. N.; Slutsker, I.; Giles, D. M.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) database has evolved in measurement accuracy, data quality products, availability to the scientific community over the course of 21 years with the support of NASA, PHOTONS and all federated partners. This evolution is periodically manifested as a new data version release by carefully reprocessing the entire database with the most current algorithms that fundamentally change the database and ultimately the data products used by the community. The newest processing, Version 3, will be released in 2015 after the entire database is reprocessed and real-time data processing becomes operational. All V 3 algorithms have been developed, individually vetted and represent four main categories: aerosol optical depth (AOD) processing, inversion processing, database management and new products. The primary trigger for release of V 3 lies with cloud screening of the direct sun observations and computation of AOD that will fundamentally change all data available for analysis and all subsequent retrieval products. This presentation will illustrate the innovative approach used for cloud screening and assesses the elements of V3 AOD relative to the current version. We will also present the advances in the inversion product processing with emphasis on the random and systematic uncertainty estimates. This processing will be applied to the new hybrid measurement scenario intended to provide inversion retrievals for all solar zenith angles. We will introduce automatic quality assurance criteria that will allow near real time quality assured aerosol products necessary for real time satellite and model validation and assimilation. Last we will introduce the new management structure that will improve access to the data database. The current version 2 will be supported for at least two years after the initial release of V3 to maintain continuity for on going investigations.

  12. NTP comparison process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  13. Stochastic Process Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza, Javier

    In many areas of computer science entities can “reproduce”, “replicate”, or “create new instances”. Paramount examples are threads in multithreaded programs, processes in operating systems, and computer viruses, but many others exist: procedure calls create new incarnations of the callees, web crawlers discover new pages to be explored (and so “create” new tasks), divide-and-conquer procedures split a problem into subproblems, and leaves of tree-based data structures become internal nodes with children. For lack of a better name, I use the generic term systems with process creation to refer to all these entities.

  14. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  15. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  16. Array signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Haykin, S.; Justice, J.H.; Owsley, N.L.; Yen, J.L.; Kak, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    This is the first book to be devoted completely to array signal processing, a subject that has become increasingly important in recent years. The book consists of six chapters. Chapter 1, which is introductory, reviews some basic concepts in wave propagation. The remaining five chapters deal with the theory and applications of array signal processing in (a) exploration seismology, (b) passive sonar, (c) radar, (d) radio astronomy, and (e) tomographic imaging. The various chapters of the book are self-contained. The book is written by a team of five active researchers, who are specialists in the individual fields covered by the pertinent chapters.

  17. Accelerated stochastic diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr

    1990-07-01

    We give a purely probabilistic demonstration that all effects of non-random (external, conservative) forces on the diffusion process can be encoded in the Nelson ansatz for the second Newton law. Each random path of the process together with a probabilistic weight carries a phase accumulation (complex valued) weight. Random path summation (integration) of these weights leads to the transition probability density and transition amplitude respectively between two spatial points in a given time interval. The Bohm-Vigier, Fenyes-Nelson-Guerra and Feynman descriptions of the quantum particle behaviours are in fact equivalent.

  18. Sequential elution process

    DOEpatents

    Kingsley, I.S.

    1987-01-06

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for the separation of complex mixtures of carbonaceous material by sequential elution with successively stronger solvents. In the process, a column containing glass beads is maintained in a fluidized state by a rapidly flowing stream of a weak solvent, and the sample is injected into this flowing stream such that a portion of the sample is dissolved therein and the remainder of the sample is precipitated therein and collected as a uniform deposit on the glass beads. Successively stronger solvents are then passed through the column to sequentially elute less soluble materials. 1 fig.

  19. Reversible brazing process

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  20. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  1. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  2. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, Nancy N.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  3. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  4. Modularity of music processing.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Coltheart, Max

    2003-07-01

    The music faculty is not a monolithic entity that a person either has or does not. Rather, it comprises a set of neurally isolable processing components, each having the potential to be specialized for music. Here we propose a functional architecture for music processing that captures the typical properties of modular organization. The model rests essentially on the analysis of music-related deficits in neurologically impaired individuals, but provides useful guidelines for exploring the music faculty in normal people, using methods such as neuroimaging.

  5. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  6. Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

    2007-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

  7. Research Planning Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofton, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  9. Biomass Processing Photolibrary

    DOE Data Explorer

    Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

  10. Image Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) is using a digital image processing system which employs NASA-developed technology. MIR's computer system is the largest radiology system in the world. It is used in diagnostic imaging. Blood vessels are injected with x-ray dye, and the images which are produced indicate whether arteries are hardened or blocked. A computer program developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory known as Mini-VICAR/IBIS was supplied to MIR by COSMIC. The program provides the basis for developing the computer imaging routines for data processing, contrast enhancement and picture display.

  11. Analogical Processes in Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-15

    CLASSICATMN OF ThIS PA5UrSfie Dule gIt.,.d ANALOGICAL PROCESSES IN LEARNING David E . Rumelhart & Donald A. Norman Program in Cognitive Science Center...for Human Information Processing University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California 92093 Copyright Q) 1980 David E . Rumelhart & Donald A. Norman...4) SEARS 7 E Ilamnp C5P Tota $.600 Aprovd.L. Figure 1. Stimuli for the two conditions of D’Andrade’s reasoning * experiment. The left panel shows the

  12. On Filtered Binary Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    BINARY PROCESSES 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) R.F. Pawula and S.O. Rice 13s. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED.!14 DATE OF REPORT MY,, o.. Day) 15. PAGE COUNT...APR EDITION OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE eO R.TR. 85-0055 On Filtered Binary Processes R . F. Pawula ...is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation ",."/ hereon. R. F. Pawula is with

  13. Coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Billimoria, Rustom M.; Tao, Frank F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  14. Thermal stir welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A welding method is provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  15. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Yeager, J.H.

    1958-08-12

    In the prior art processing of uranium ores, the ore is flrst digested with nitric acid and filtered, and the uranium values are then extracted tom the filtrate by contacting with an organic solvent. The insoluble residue has been processed separately in order to recover any uranium which it might contain. The improvement consists in contacting a slurry, composed of both solution and residue, with the organic solvent prior to filtration. Tbe result is that uranium values contained in the residue are extracted along with the uranium values contained th the solution in one step.

  16. Disposables in downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Disposable equipment has been used for many years in the downstream processing industry, but mainly for filtration and buffer/media storage. Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of disposable concepts for chromatography, replacing steel and glass fixed systems with disposable plastic modules that can be discarded once exhausted, fouled or contaminated. These modules save on cleaning and validation costs, and their reduce footprints reduce buffer consumption, water for injection, labor and facility space, contributing to an overall reduction in expenditure that lowers the cost of goods. This chapter examines the practical and economic benefits of disposable modules in downstream processing.

  17. Statecharts Via Process Algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

    1999-01-01

    Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

  18. Examinations of the new direct smelting processes for iron and steelmaking. [ELRED process, INRED process, SKF Plasmasmelt process, McDowell-Wellman process, the direct converter smelting process

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    This paper discusses the need for a radical technological change in the production of iron and steel and suggests the salient features that should be addressed. Five new direct smelting steelmaking systems have been compared with blast furnace/basic oxygen furnace route. These are the ELRED process the INRED process, the SKF Plasmasmelt process, the McDowell-Wellman process, and a converter smelting process. 20 refs.

  19. Modeling hyporheic zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2003-01-01

    Stream biogeochemistry is influenced by the physical and chemical processes that occur in the surrounding watershed. These processes include the mass loading of solutes from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, the physical transport of solutes within the watershed, and the transformation of solutes due to biogeochemical reactions. Research over the last two decades has identified the hyporheic zone as an important part of the stream system in which these processes occur. The hyporheic zone may be loosely defined as the porous areas of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater. Exchange of water and solutes between the stream proper and the hyporheic zone has many biogeochemical implications, due to differences in the chemical composition of surface and groundwater. For example, surface waters are typically oxidized environments with relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations. In contrast, reducing conditions are often present in groundwater systems leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Further, microbial oxidation of organic materials in groundwater leads to supersaturated concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide relative to the atmosphere. Differences in surface and groundwater pH and temperature are also common. The hyporheic zone is therefore a mixing zone in which there are gradients in the concentrations of dissolved gasses, the concentrations of oxidized and reduced species, pH, and temperature. These gradients lead to biogeochemical reactions that ultimately affect stream water quality. Due to the complexity of these natural systems, modeling techniques are frequently employed to quantify process dynamics.

  20. Language Processing and Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Juan

    Three aspects of language behavior--linguistic independence, linguistic interference, and code-switching, are an integral part of the language processing experiences of the bilingual person. Complex cerebral mechanisms function in a coordinated effort to analyze and synthesize the various components of linguistic codes, store them in semantic…

  1. Optical Data Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    advancing a , useful for visually coneying results. However, they are misleading final decision. since they bias one to favor a feature extractor that yields...34. , 18. University of Maryland - "Optical Processing for Autonomous Land Vehicle Navigation". % January 1985 ° . 26 19. Fairchild Weston - Long Island

  2. Quantum image processing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastriani, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a number of problems concerning the practical (real) implementation of the techniques known as quantum image processing. The most serious problem is the recovery of the outcomes after the quantum measurement, which will be demonstrated in this work that is equivalent to a noise measurement, and it is not considered in the literature on the subject. It is noteworthy that this is due to several factors: (1) a classical algorithm that uses Dirac's notation and then it is coded in MATLAB does not constitute a quantum algorithm, (2) the literature emphasizes the internal representation of the image but says nothing about the classical-to-quantum and quantum-to-classical interfaces and how these are affected by decoherence, (3) the literature does not mention how to implement in a practical way (at the laboratory) these proposals internal representations, (4) given that quantum image processing works with generic qubits, this requires measurements in all axes of the Bloch sphere, logically, and (5) among others. In return, the technique known as quantum Boolean image processing is mentioned, which works with computational basis states (CBS), exclusively. This methodology allows us to avoid the problem of quantum measurement, which alters the results of the measured except in the case of CBS. Said so far is extended to quantum algorithms outside image processing too.

  3. Streamlining the Hiring Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePrater, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Historically, education employees have been hired after a process that consists of these steps: Determining the need for a position, posting the vacancy, paper-screening applications, an interview with a panel or committee, background check, reference calling, and finally the selection of a candidate. This is a very time-consuming and costly…

  4. Von Willebrand factor processing.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Maria A

    2017-01-31

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a multimeric glycoprotein essential for primary haemostasis that is produced only in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. Key to VWF's function in recruitment of platelets to the site of vascular injury is its multimeric structure. The individual steps of VWF multimer biosynthesis rely on distinct posttranslational modifications at specific pH conditions, which are realized by spatial separation of the involved processes to different cell organelles. Production of multimers starts with translocation and modification of the VWF prepropolypeptide in the endoplasmic reticulum to produce dimers primed for glycosylation. In the Golgi apparatus they are further processed to multimers that carry more than 300 complex glycan structures functionalized by sialylation, sulfation and blood group determinants. Of special importance is the sequential formation of disulfide bonds with different functions in structural support of VWF multimers, which are packaged, stored and further processed after secretion. Here, all these processes are being reviewed in detail including background information on the occurring biochemical reactions.

  5. Computing and data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smarr, Larry; Press, William; Arnett, David W.; Cameron, Alastair G. W.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Helfand, David J.; Horowitz, Paul; Kleinmann, Susan G.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Madore, Barry F.

    1991-01-01

    The applications of computers and data processing to astronomy are discussed. Among the topics covered are the emerging national information infrastructure, workstations and supercomputers, supertelescopes, digital astronomy, astrophysics in a numerical laboratory, community software, archiving of ground-based observations, dynamical simulations of complex systems, plasma astrophysics, and the remote control of fourth dimension supercomputers.

  6. Processing heterogeneous biomass

    PubMed Central

    Buyel, Johannes F.; Fischer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been developed as an alternative platform for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins, culminating recently with the FDA approval of the first plant-derived recombinant pharmaceutical enzyme for human use (ELELYSOÔ by Protalix Biotherapeutics). Among the many different plant-based technologies that have been proposed, transient expression mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens has proven to be particularly suitable for the rapid production of vaccines in response to emerging pandemics. However, one potential drawback of transient expression in whole plants is the large variation in recombinant protein expression levels among different leaves, which introduces a level of uncertainty in process design that can increase the regulatory burden and production costs. Transient expression is also used to test expression constructs prior to the longer and more expensive process of generating transgenic plants, and here the variation can produce misleading results leading to erroneous conclusions about the relative activity of different promoters and other regulatory elements. Such variation can be caused by loosely controlled environmental and process factors such incubation temperature, plant characteristics and the method and timing of harvesting. Here we discuss differences between transgenic plants and transient expression in intact plants, and their specific pitfalls for model building. We also highlight which aspects researchers should consider when using a DoE approach to investigate protein expression in plants, both for fundamental research and process development. PMID:22895059

  7. Image Processing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosio, M. A.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT: A brief description of astronomical image software is presented. This software was developed in a Digital Micro Vax II Computer System. : St presenta una somera descripci6n del software para procesamiento de imagenes. Este software fue desarrollado en un equipo Digital Micro Vax II. : DATA ANALYSIS - IMAGE PROCESSING

  8. Instructional Reorganization: The Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael H.

    This paper proposes a process for community colleges to engage and direct discontinuous change in the face of the coming millennium. Described are several characteristics of change envisioned in the near future, including a complete break with the past, major reconstruction of nearly every element of the organization, and modification of the…

  9. Qualitative Process Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    write a heat flow process that violates energy conservation and transfers " caloric fluid" between the source and destination. The assumptions made about...removed in ease of ex1-0ClCits. Seco nd, if’ thle program is drawNing concilsions that rely criticaillyoi atClrsum in, then1 it IIos’t test ss

  10. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  11. The Serendipitous Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Ryder, Phyllis Mentzell

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study asking faculty in the first-year writing program and instruction librarians about their research process focusing on results specifically related to serendipity. Steps to prepare for serendipity are highlighted as well as a model for incorporating serendipity into a first-year writing…

  12. The Creative Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harjo, Joy; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Four Native American poets in easy narrative style tell about some of the aesthetic judgments they make in their work and, in the process, shed some light upon the traditions from which their poetry emerges. Joy Harjo discusses how she wrote "The Woman Hanging from the Thirteenth Floor Window," her use of repetition influenced by music…

  13. Food processing in action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  14. Change Process in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on the change process in organizations moderated by John Redding at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Corporate Culture: Friend or Foe of Change?" (Joanne Burgess) reports a study of the characteristics of corporate culture that facilitate…

  15. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analysis was continued for the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) in which solar cell silicon is produced in a 1,000 MT/yr plant. Progress and status are reported for the primary engineering activities involved in the preliminary process engineering design of the plant base case conditions (96%), reaction chemistry (96%), process flow diagram (85%), material balance (85%), energy balance (60%), property data (60%), equipment design (40%), major equipment list (30%) and labor requirements (10%). Engineering design of the second distillation column (D-02, TCS column) in the process was completed. The design is based on a 97% recovery of the light key (TCS, trichlorosilane) in the distillate and a 97% recovery of the heavy key (TET, silicon tetrachloride) in the bottoms. At a reflux ratio of 2, the specified recovery of TCS and TET is achieved with 20 trays (equilibrium stages, N=20). Respective feed tray locations are 9, 12 and 15 (NF sub 1 = 9, NF sub 2 = 12,, and NF sub 3 = 15). A total condenser is used for the distillation which is conducted at a pressure of 90 psia.

  16. Photonic curvilinear data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Clyde; Quaglio, Thomas; Figueiro, Thiago; Pauliac, Sébastien; Belledent, Jérôme; Fay, Aurélien; Bustos, Jessy; Marusic, Jean-Christophe; Schiavone, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    With more and more photonic data presence in e-beam lithography, the need for efficient and accurate data fracturing is required to meet acceptable manufacturing cycle time. Large photonic based layouts now create high shot count patterns for VSB based tools. Multiple angles, sweeping curves, and non-orthogonal data create a challenge for today's e-beam tools that are more efficient on Manhattan style data. This paper describes techniques developed and used for creating fractured data for VSB based pattern generators. Proximity Effect Correction is also applied during the fracture process, taking into account variable shot sizes to apply for accuracy and design style. Choosing different fracture routines for pattern data on-the-fly allows for fast and efficient processing. Data interpretation is essential for processing curvilinear data as to its size, angle, and complexity. Fracturing complex angled data into "efficient" shot counts is no longer practical as shot creation now requires knowledge of the actual data content as seen in photonic based pattern data. Simulation and physical printing results prove the implementations for accuracy and write times compared to traditional VSB writing strategies on photonic data. Geometry tolerance is used as part of the fracturing algorithm for controlling edge placement accuracy and tuning to different e-beam processing parameters.

  17. The magnetization process: Hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsamel, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The magnetization process, hysteresis (the difference in the path of magnetization for an increasing and decreasing magnetic field), hysteresis loops, and hard magnetic materials are discussed. The fabrication of classroom projects for demonstrating hysteresis and the hysteresis of common magnetic materials is described in detail.

  18. URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    McVey, W.H.; Reas, W.H.

    1959-03-10

    The separation of uranium from an aqueous solution containing a water soluble uranyl salt is described. The process involves adding an alkali thiocyanate to the aqueous solution, contacting the resulting solution with methyl isobutyl ketons and separating the resulting aqueous and organic phase. The uranium is extracted in the organic phase as UO/sub 2/(SCN)/sub/.

  19. Software process assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon E.; Tucker, George T.; Verducci, Anthony J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Software process assessments (SPA's) are part of an ongoing program of continuous quality improvements in AT&T. Their use was found to be very beneficial by software development organizations in identifying the issues facing the organization and the actions required to increase both quality and productivity in the organization.

  20. Attentional Processes in Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Gerald; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2001-01-01

    Attention processes in 103 children and adults with high functioning autism were compared with a matched control group using a battery of attention measures. Differences were found only on tasks which placed demands on cognitive flexibility or psychomotor speed, suggesting that purported attention deficits in autism may actually be primary…

  1. Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

    This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

  2. Intelligent OCR Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Identifies types and distributions of errors in text produced by optical character recognition (OCR) and proposes a process using machine learning techniques to recognize and correct errors in OCR texts. Results of experiments indicating that this strategy can reduce human interaction required for error correction are reported. (25 references)…

  3. Process for functionalizing alkanes

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana, R.A.

    1988-05-24

    Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R[sub 1]H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R[sub 1] represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R[sub 2])[sub 3

  4. HYNOL PROCESS EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines process alternatives for the optimal use of natural gas and biomass for production of fuel-cell vehicle fuel, emphasizing maximum displacement of petroleum and maximum reduction of overall fuel-cycle carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at least cost. Three routes a...

  5. Customer requirements process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Yvonne; Falsetti, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    Customer requirements are presented through three viewgraphs. One graph presents the range of services, which include requirements management, network engineering, operations, and applications support. Another viewgraph presents the project planning process. The third viewgraph presents the programs and/or projects actively supported including life sciences, earth science and applications, solar system exploration, shuttle flight engineering, microgravity science, space physics, and astrophysics.

  6. Processing Materials in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoller, L. K.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested program of material processing experiments in space described in 81 page report. For each experiment, report discusses influence of such gravitational effects as convection, buoyancy, sedimentation, and hydrostatic pressure. Report contains estimates of power and mission duration required for each experiment. Lists necessary equipment and appropriate spacecraft.

  7. The Process of Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jane B.

    Written to help couples prepare for parenthood and to improve the effectiveness of parents, this book provides extensive guidelines and background information for accomplishing the basic tasks of parenting. Chapter One depicts parenting as a process, delineates parents' tasks and describes how parents learn to be parents. Based on Erikson's theory…

  8. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Norman L.; Moon, William G.; Prudich, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  9. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Navratil, James D.; Saba, Mark T.

    1987-07-28

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrenedivinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like.

  10. Audio Spectral Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Global Security & Engineering Solutions Division 1300-B Floyd Avenue Rome, NY 13440-4615 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...18 1 1. BACKGROUND This report is being submitted by L-3 Global Security...tasks. Utilized the Avid Xpress video enhancement system to process the Group 2, Phase II competency test A. This was done to attempt to recreate

  11. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar; Sunder, Swaminathan

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

  12. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  13. Superconducting materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, John S.; Karikari, Emmanuel K.; Hiamang, S. O.; Danjaji, M.; Bassey, Affiong; Morgan, Andre

    1995-08-01

    The effects of materials processing on the properties and behavior of high temperature yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconductors were investigated. Electrical, magnetic, and structural characteristics of thin films (300 nm) YBA2CU3O(delta) structures grown by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates were used to evaluate processing. Pole projection and thin film diffraction measurements were used to establish grain orientation and verify structural integrity of the samples. Susceptibility magnetization, and transport measurements were used to evaluate the magnetic and electrical transport properties of the samples. Our results verified that an unfortunate consequence of processing is inherent changes to the internal structure of the material. This effect translates into modifications in the properties of the materials, and undesired feature that makes it very difficult to consistently predict material behavior. The results show that processing evaluation must incorporate a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the materials. Future studies will emphasize microstructural characteristics of the materials, in particular, those microscopic properties that map macroscopic behavior.

  14. Research into Process Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Burton G.; And Others

    These papers are related to the basic comprehensive research and development plan of the Eastern Regional Institute for Education (ERIE). The first paper, Improving Process Education: A Comprehensive Plan by Burton G. Andreas, describes the comprehensive plan and introduces the succeeding papers. The goals of the program are to improve process…

  15. Readily Processable Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Harris, Frank W.; Beltz, Mark W.

    1988-01-01

    Polymer exhibits resistance to hydraulic fluid, excellent processability, and extremely high adhesive strength. Synthesis involves reaction of new diamine, 1,3-bis 2-ethyl ether, with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride to form polyamic acid and subsequent conversion to polyimide.

  16. Image Processing for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Image Processing for Teaching project provides a powerful medium to excite students about science and mathematics, especially children from minority groups and others whose needs have not been met by traditional teaching. Using professional-quality software on microcomputers, students explore a variety of scientific data sets, including…

  17. Flax shive thermocatalytic processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, E. M.; Lugovoy, Yu. V.; Chalov, K. V.; Kosivtsov, Yu. Yu.; Stepacheva, A. A.; Shimanskaya, E. I.

    2016-11-01

    In the paper the thermogravimetric study of biomass waste thermodestruction process is presented. Metal chlorides have the highest influence on the flax shive thermodestruction. The results of kinetic modeling are also shown on the base of thermogravimetric analysis both of the samples of flax shive and flax shive with addition of 10% (wt.) nickel chloride at different heating rate.

  18. Reading: Process and Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; Niles, Olive S.

    Broad and major concerns dealing with reading are set forth in this monograph to provoke discussion and examination by both researchers and practitioners. In Part 1, Kenneth S. Goodman presents a psycholinguistic view of language and reading (within a transformational-generative framework) as essentially a set of processes of recoding, decoding,…

  19. Performance Evaluation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on the performance evaluation process and human resource development (HRD). "Assessing the Effectiveness of OJT (On the Job Training): A Case Study Approach" (Julie Furst-Bowe, Debra Gates) is a case study of the effectiveness of OJT in one of a high-tech manufacturing company's product…

  20. Pervaporation process and assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wynn, Nicholas P.; Huang, Yu; Aldajani, Tiem; Fulton, Donald A.

    2010-07-20

    The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

  1. Image processing and reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Rick

    2012-06-15

    This talk will examine some mathematical methods for image processing and the solution of underdetermined, linear inverse problems. The talk will have a tutorial flavor, mostly accessible to undergraduates, while still presenting research results. The primary approach is the use of optimization problems. We will find that relaxing the usual assumption of convexity will give us much better results.

  2. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  3. Accent processing in dementia

    PubMed Central

    Hailstone, Julia C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Bartlett, Jonathan W.; Goll, Johanna C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Accented speech conveys important nonverbal information about the speaker as well as presenting the brain with the problem of decoding a non-canonical auditory signal. The processing of non-native accents has seldom been studied in neurodegenerative disease and its brain basis remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the processing of non-native international and regional accents of English in cohorts of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n=20) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n=6) in relation to healthy older control subjects (n=35). A novel battery was designed to assess accent comprehension and recognition and all subjects had a general neuropsychological assessment. Neuroanatomical associations of accent processing performance were assessed using voxel-based morphometry on MR brain images within the larger AD group. Compared with healthy controls, both the AD and PNFA groups showed deficits of non-native accent recognition and the PNFA group showed reduced comprehension of words spoken in international accents compared with a Southern English accent. At individual subject level deficits were observed more consistently in the PNFA group, and the disease groups showed different patterns of accent comprehension impairment (generally more marked for sentences in AD and for single words in PNFA). Within the AD group, grey matter associations of accent comprehension and recognition were identified in the anterior superior temporal lobe. The findings suggest that accent processing deficits may constitute signatures of neurodegenerative disease with potentially broader implications for understanding how these diseases affect vocal communication under challenging listening conditions. PMID:22664324

  4. The disablement process.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, L M; Jette, A M

    1994-01-01

    Building on prior conceptual schemes, this article presents a sociomedical model of disability, called The Disablement Process, that is especially useful for epidemiological and clinical research. The Disablement Process: (1) describes how chronic and acute conditions affect functioning in specific body systems, generic physical and mental actions, and activities of daily life, and (2) describes the personal and environmental factors that speed or slow disablement, namely, risk factors, interventions, and exacerbators. A main pathway that links Pathology, Impairments, Functional Limitations, and Disability is explicated. Disability is defined as difficulty doing activities in any domain of life (from hygiene to hobbies, errands to sleep) due to a health or physical problem. Feedback effects are included in the model to cover dysfunction spirals (pernicious loops of dysfunction) and secondary conditions (new pathology launched by a given disablement process). We distinguish intrinsic disability (without personal or equipment assistance) and actual disability (with such assistance), noting the scientific and political importance of measuring both. Disability is not a personal characteristic, but is instead a gap between personal capability and environmental demand. Survey researchers and clinicians tend to focus on personal capability, overlooking the efforts people commonly make to reduce demand by activity accommodations, environmental modifications, psychological coping, and external supports. We compare the disablement experiences of people who acquire chronic conditions early in life (lifelong disability) and those who acquire them in mid or late life (late-life disability). The Disablement Process can help inform research (the epidemiology of disability) and public health (prevention of disability) activities.

  5. Image-Processing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Hull, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    IMAGEP manipulates digital image data to effect various processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within subroutines are sub-subroutines also selected via keyboard. Algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in study of flows in materials, analysis of steels and ores, and pathology, respectively.

  6. Materials and Processes Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.; And Others

    This instructional resource guide is intended to assist the industrial arts (IA) teacher in implementing a comprehensive materials and Processes Technology program at the technical level in Virginia high schools. The course is designed to help students make informed educational and occupational choices and prepare them for advanced technical or…

  7. Research in Stochastic Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    of stable processes: Spectral and moving average representations." S. Cambanis and A. Soltani , Z. Wahrsch. verw. Geb., 66, 1984, 593-612. "Comparisons...average representation for stationary random fields and Beurling’s theorem." A. Soltani , Ann. Probabilit, 12, 1984, 120-132. S "Decomposability of p

  8. Superconducting materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, John S.; Karikari, Emmanuel K.; Hiamang, S. O.; Danjaji, M.; Bassey, Affiong; Morgan, Andre

    1995-01-01

    The effects of materials processing on the properties and behavior of high temperature yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconductors were investigated. Electrical, magnetic, and structural characteristics of thin films (300 nm) YBA2CU3O(delta) structures grown by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates were used to evaluate processing. Pole projection and thin film diffraction measurements were used to establish grain orientation and verify structural integrity of the samples. Susceptibility magnetization, and transport measurements were used to evaluate the magnetic and electrical transport properties of the samples. Our results verified that an unfortunate consequence of processing is inherent changes to the internal structure of the material. This effect translates into modifications in the properties of the materials, and undesired feature that makes it very difficult to consistently predict material behavior. The results show that processing evaluation must incorporate a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the materials. Future studies will emphasize microstructural characteristics of the materials, in particular, those microscopic properties that map macroscopic behavior.

  9. Performance Improvement Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance improvement processes. In "Never the Twain Shall Meet?: A Glimpse into High Performance Work Practices and Downsizing" (Laurie J. Bassi, Mark E. Van Buren) evidence from a national cross-industry of more than 200 establishments is used to demonstrate that high-performance…

  10. Observer, Process, and Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Noa

    1996-01-01

    The structure of art as a symbol system is composed of three dimensions: observer, process, and product. Each dimension is described, discussed, and its application to art therapy illustrated through the case study of a 12-year-old boy suffering from a progressive neurological disorder. (LSR)

  11. Data Processing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, James; And Others

    This competency-based data processing curriculum guide consists of a total of 65 curriculum worksheets dealing with data entry, computer operations, and computer programing. Provided in each worksheet are the following materials: a duty title, a task description, a pretest, references and resources, student learning activities, teacher activities,…

  12. Laser material processing system

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos

    2015-04-28

    A laser material processing system and method are provided. A further aspect of the present invention employs a laser for micromachining. In another aspect of the present invention, the system uses a hollow waveguide. In another aspect of the present invention, a laser beam pulse is given broad bandwidth for workpiece modification.

  13. Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Huff, Marylin

    2002-01-01

    A process for the production of a mono-olefin from a gaseous paraffinic hydrocarbon having at least two carbon atoms or mixtures thereof comprising reacting said hydrocarbons and molecular oxygen in the presence of a platinum catalyst. The catalyst consist essentially of platinum supported on alumina or zirconia monolith, preferably zirconia and more preferably in the absence of palladium, rhodium and gold.

  14. Lexical Processing in Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Data from an auditory lexical decision experiment with English-Dutch bilinguals are compared with data from a similar experiment using visual lexical decision to determine the effect of language proficiency, mode of presentation, and cognateness of lexical items on lexical processing. The results indicate significant within and between-language…

  15. Biomedical image processing.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K

    1981-01-01

    Biomedical image processing is a very broad field; it covers biomedical signal gathering, image forming, picture processing, and image display to medical diagnosis based on features extracted from images. This article reviews this topic in both its fundamentals and applications. In its fundamentals, some basic image processing techniques including outlining, deblurring, noise cleaning, filtering, search, classical analysis and texture analysis have been reviewed together with examples. The state-of-the-art image processing systems have been introduced and discussed in two categories: general purpose image processing systems and image analyzers. In order for these systems to be effective for biomedical applications, special biomedical image processing languages have to be developed. The combination of both hardware and software leads to clinical imaging devices. Two different types of clinical imaging devices have been discussed. There are radiological imagings which include radiography, thermography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and CT. Among these, thermography is the most noninvasive but is limited in application due to the low energy of its source. X-ray CT is excellent for static anatomical images and is moving toward the measurement of dynamic function, whereas nuclear imaging is moving toward organ metabolism and ultrasound is toward tissue physical characteristics. Heart imaging is one of the most interesting and challenging research topics in biomedical image processing; current methods including the invasive-technique cineangiography, and noninvasive ultrasound, nuclear medicine, transmission, and emission CT methodologies have been reviewed. Two current federally funded research projects in heart imaging, the dynamic spatial reconstructor and the dynamic cardiac three-dimensional densitometer, should bring some fruitful results in the near future. Miscrosopic imaging technique is very different from the radiological imaging technique in the sense that

  16. Particle processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshio, Sakka

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, there has been strong demand for the development of novel devices and equipment that support advanced industries including IT/semiconductors, the environment, energy and aerospace along with the achievement of higher efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Many studies have been conducted on the fabrication of innovative inorganic materials with novel individual properties and/or multifunctional properties including electrical, dielectric, thermal, optical, chemical and mechanical properties through the development of particle processing. The fundamental technologies that are key to realizing such materials are (i) the synthesis of nanoparticles with uniform composition and controlled crystallite size, (ii) the arrangement/assembly and controlled dispersion of nanoparticles with controlled particle size, (iii) the precise structural control at all levels from micrometer to nanometer order and (iv) the nanostructural design based on theoretical/experimental studies of the correlation between the local structure and the functions of interest. In particular, it is now understood that the application of an external stimulus, such as magnetic energy, electrical energy and/or stress, to a reaction field is effective in realizing advanced particle processing [1-3]. This special issue comprises 12 papers including three review papers. Among them, seven papers are concerned with phosphor particles, such as silicon, metals, Si3N4-related nitrides, rare-earth oxides, garnet oxides, rare-earth sulfur oxides and rare-earth hydroxides. In these papers, the effects of particle size, morphology, dispersion, surface states, dopant concentration and other factors on the optical properties of phosphor particles and their applications are discussed. These nanoparticles are classified as zero-dimensional materials. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene are well-known one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials, respectively. This special issue also

  17. Electrohydrodynamics of electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, Alexandre F.

    2000-12-01

    The emerging technology of manufacturing of polymer nanofibers by the electrospinning method is addressed in this dissertation. Rapidly growing interest in the electrospinning process is based on a large number of current and potential applications of polymer nanofibers. Major subprocesses of the electrospinning process, i.e. jet initiation, steady state spinning, and jet instabilities, are studied analytically in this dissertation. Jet initiation is treated as a problem of shape evolution of a charged liquid meniscus. A closed form solution for the meniscus shape is obtained and analyzed and a criterion for jet initiation is derived. A steady state electrospinning model is developed. A governing equation for the jet radius is derived from the general coupled electrohydrodynamic equations. Non-linear rheological behavior of the polymer fluids is taken into account. An asymptotic solution for the long jets is obtained and analyzed. Stability of a rectilinear jet is analyzed by modeling axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric jet radius fluctuations. An equation for the critical initial jet radius is derived. It is shown that the initial jet radius does not depend on the size of the capillary tube. Bending instability of an electrospun jet is considered. A general model is formulated taking into account viscoelastic properties of a polymer fluid. Governing equations for the viscoelastic jet bending are derived and analyzed. Numerical simulations of the kinetics of bending instability development are performed. A criterion of bending instability is derived. Experimental studies of the electrospinning process are also conducted. Experimental observations are compared with the theoretical predictions. The electrospinning process zone, starting at the point of the first bending instability and extending to the nanofiber collection area, is experimentally studied for the first time. Spatial distributions of the mass flow rate, current density, and jet segment diameters are

  18. Biosphere Process Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schmitt

    2000-05-25

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor

  19. Retinomorphic image processing.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kuntal; Bhaumik, Kamales; Sarkar, Sandip

    2008-01-01

    The present work is aimed at understanding and explaining some of the aspects of visual signal processing at the retinal level while exploiting the same towards the development of some simple techniques in the domain of digital image processing. Classical studies on retinal physiology revealed the nature of contrast sensitivity of the receptive field of bipolar or ganglion cells, which lie in the outer and inner plexiform layers of the retina. To explain these observations, a difference of Gaussian (DOG) filter was suggested, which was subsequently modified to a Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG) filter for computational ease in handling two-dimensional retinal inputs. Till date almost all image processing algorithms, used in various branches of science and engineering had followed LOG or one of its variants. Recent observations in retinal physiology however, indicate that the retinal ganglion cells receive input from a larger area than the classical receptive fields. We have proposed an isotropic model for the non-classical receptive field of the retinal ganglion cells, corroborated from these recent observations, by introducing higher order derivatives of Gaussian expressed as linear combination of Gaussians only. In digital image processing, this provides a new mechanism of edge detection on one hand and image half-toning on the other. It has also been found that living systems may sometimes prefer to "perceive" the external scenario by adding noise to the received signals in the pre-processing level for arriving at better information on light and shade in the edge map. The proposed model also provides explanation to many brightness-contrast illusions hitherto unexplained not only by the classical isotropic model but also by some other Gestalt and Constructivist models or by non-isotropic multi-scale models. The proposed model is easy to implement both in the analog and digital domain. A scheme for implementation in the analog domain generates a new silicon retina

  20. Cassini science planning process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczkowski, Brian G.; Ray, Trina L.

    2004-01-01

    The mission design for Cassini-Huygens calls for a four-year orbital survey of the Saturnian system and the descent into the Titan atmosphere and eventual soft-landing of the Huygens probe. The Cassini orbiter tour consists of 76 orbits around Saturn with 44 close Titan flybys and 8 targeted icy satellite flybys. The Cassini orbiter spacecraft carries twelve scientific instruments that will perform a wide range of observations on a multitude of designated targets. The science opportunities, frequency of encounters, the length of the Tour, and the use of distributed operations pose significant challenges for developing the science plan for the orbiter mission. The Cassini Science Planning Process is the process used to develop and integrate the science and engineering plan that incorporates an acceptable level of science required to meet the primary mission objectives far the orbiter. The bulk of the integrated science and engineering plan will be developed prior to Saturn Orbit Insertion (Sol). The Science Planning Process consists of three elements: 1) the creation of the Tour Atlas, which identifies the science opportunities in the tour, 2) the development of the Science Operations Plan (SOP), which is the conflict-free timeline of all science observations and engineering activities, a constraint-checked spacecraft pointing profile, and data volume allocations to the science instruments, and 3) an Aftermarket and SOP Update process, which is used to update the SOP while in tour with the latest information on spacecraft performance, science opportunities, and ephemerides. This paper will discuss the various elements of the Science Planning Process used on the Cassini Mission to integrate, implement, and adapt the science and engineering activity plans for Tour.

  1. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  2. Resurfacing processes on Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohn, K.; Jaumann, R.; Otto, K.; Elbeshausen, D.; Stephan, K.; Kneissl, T.; Schmedemann, N.; Roatsch, T.; Raymond, C.; Russell, C.

    2014-07-01

    Planetary surfaces are steadily modified by endogenic processes. The most important resurfacing processes on dry airless bodies are: mass-wasting processes, volcanic activity, and tectonics due to impact cratering. Due to the absence of volcanic activity on Vesta [1], mass wasting and impact cratering are the most likely resurfacing processes on Vesta. The high elevation differences on Vesta [2] and the steady bombardment of Vesta's surface by impacts cause seismic shaking which promote material to move downwards. We analyzed different types of mass-wasting features in the South Polar Region, such as slumping blocks at the steep scarp Matronalia Rupes, spur-and-gully morphologies, and landslides in craters [3]. Collapse processes, instability of slopes, and seismic-triggered events cause the landslides, rotational slumping blocks on scarps, as well as spur-and-gully morphologies on crater walls and scarps. Spur-and-gully morphology is known to form on Mars and the Earth normally supported by liquid flow but, on Vesta, these features formed under dry conditions. At Matronalia Rupes, rotational rock slumping blocks are clearly exposed as material slumped down the scarp wall in a stair-stepped pattern, which is interrupted by minor scarps and covers the underlying terrain. This rotational rock slumping is affected by slope instability and gravitationally triggered events, such as seismic shaking mostly produced by impacts elsewhere on Vesta [3]. The sloping surface of Vesta cause not only the formation of mass wasting features, but also the formation of craters on slopes. These craters are in turn influenced by mass wasting and show an asymmetric crater shape with a sharp uphill rim and a smooth downhill rim. The craters show a sharp crater rim uphill and a smooth one downhill as well as ejecta on the downhill rim and only thin ejecta over the uphill rim. Three-dimensional numerical simulations have been performed to study the formation process of the unusual craters

  3. Vaccine process technology.

    PubMed

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  4. 5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TSP is notified in writing that the legal process has been appealed, and that the effect of the filing... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing legal processes. 1653.13... PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Legal Process for the Enforcement of a Participant's...

  5. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  6. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.; Komashko, Aleksey M.; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Perry, Michael D.

    2000-05-01

    The use of femtosecond lasers allows materials processing of practically any material with extremely high precision and minimal collateral damage. Advantages over conventional laser machining (using pulses longer than a few tens of picoseconds) are realized by depositing the laser energy into the electrons of the material on a time scale short compared to the transfer time of this energy to the bulk of the material, resulting in increased ablation efficiency and negligible shock or thermal stress. The improvement in the morphology by using femtosecond pulses rather than nanosecond pulses has been studied in numerous materials from biological materials to dielectrics to metals. During the drilling process, we have observed the onset of small channels which drill faster than the surrounding material.

  7. Femtosecond Laser Materials Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P.S.; Stuart, B.C.; Komashko, A.M.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Perry, M.D.

    2000-03-06

    The use of femtosecond lasers allows materials processing of practically any material with extremely high precision and minimal collateral damage. Advantages over conventional laser machining (using pulses longer than a few tens of picoseconds) are realized by depositing the laser energy into the electrons of the material on a time scale short compared to the transfer time of this energy to the bulk of the material, resulting in increased ablation efficiency and negligible shock or thermal stress. The improvement in the morphology by using femtosecond pulses rather than nanosecond pulses has been studied in numerous materials from biologic materials to dielectrics to metals. During the drilling process, we have observed the onset of small channels which drill faster than the surrounding material.

  8. Youpi: YOUr processing PIpeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnerville, Mathias; Sémah, Gregory

    2012-03-01

    Youpi is a portable, easy to use web application providing high level functionalities to perform data reduction on scientific FITS images. Built on top of various open source reduction tools released to the community by TERAPIX (http://terapix.iap.fr), Youpi can help organize data, manage processing jobs on a computer cluster in real time (using Condor) and facilitate teamwork by allowing fine-grain sharing of results and data. Youpi is modular and comes with plugins which perform, from within a browser, various processing tasks such as evaluating the quality of incoming images (using the QualityFITS software package), computing astrometric and photometric solutions (using SCAMP), resampling and co-adding FITS images (using SWarp) and extracting sources and building source catalogues from astronomical images (using SExtractor). Youpi is useful for small to medium-sized data reduction projects; it is free and is published under the GNU General Public License.

  9. A Logical Process Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  10. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, G.A.; Baird, W.C. Jr.

    1986-09-23

    In a process for improving the octane quality of a naphtha in a reforming unit comprised of a plurality of serially connected reactors, inclusive of one or more lead reactors and a tail reactor, each of which contains a platinum or platinum-rhenium catalyst, the naphtha flowing in sequence from one reactor of the series to another and contacting the catalyst at reforming conditions in the presence of hydrogen, the improvement is described which consists of: providing the tail reactor with a platinum-rhenium catalyst to which iridium has been added in amount sufficient to increase the C/sub 5/+ liquid yield via-a-vis a similar process utilizing in the tall reactor a platinum-rhenium catalyst to which no iridium has been added.

  11. Catalyst reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, G.A. III

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a process for catalytically reforming a gasoline boiling range naphtha, with hydrogen, in a semi-regenerative or semi-cyclic reforming process unit comprised of serially connected reactors, inclusive of a lead reactor and one or more downstream reactors, the last of which is the tail reactor, each of which contains a halogenated reforming catalyst comprised of a halide, a Group VIII noble metal, and an inorganic oxide support, the improvement which comprises continuously injecting into each downstream reactor a mixture of water and halide at a water to halide ratio from about 20:1 to about 60:1 wherein the specific ratio of water to halide for each individual downstream reactor is chosen so as to maintain the level of halide on catalyst in each downstream reactor from about 0.5 to 1.5 wt. % based on the total weight of the catalyst.

  12. High temperature lubricating process

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.W.; Shell, T.E.

    1979-10-04

    It has been difficult to provide adequate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface, such as in an engine being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining the following steps: a gas phase is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant; the gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface; the load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant; and the solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  13. High temperature lubricating process

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Robert W.; Shell, Thomas E.

    1982-01-01

    It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  14. Adaptive passive fathometer processing.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Martin; Song, Heechun; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Hursky, Paul; Harrison, Chris

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a technique has been developed to image seabed layers using the ocean ambient noise field as the sound source. This so called passive fathometer technique exploits the naturally occurring acoustic sounds generated on the sea-surface, primarily from breaking waves. The method is based on the cross-correlation of noise from the ocean surface with its echo from the seabed, which recovers travel times to significant seabed reflectors. To limit averaging time and make this practical, beamforming is used with a vertical array of hydrophones to reduce interference from horizontally propagating noise. The initial development used conventional beamforming, but significant improvements have been realized using adaptive techniques. In this paper, adaptive methods for this process are described and applied to several data sets to demonstrate improvements possible as compared to conventional processing.

  15. URANIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Ruhoff, J.R.; Winters, C.E.

    1957-11-12

    A process is described for the purification of uranyl nitrate by an extraction process. A solution is formed consisting of uranyl nitrate, together with the associated impurities arising from the HNO/sub 3/ leaching of the ore, in an organic solvent such as ether. If this were back extracted with water to remove the impurities, large quantities of uranyl nitrate will also be extracted and lost. To prevent this, the impure organic solution is extracted with small amounts of saturated aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate thereby effectively accomplishing the removal of impurities while not allowing any further extraction of the uranyl nitrate from the organic solvent. After the impurities have been removed, the uranium values are extracted with large quantities of water.

  16. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  17. PREFACE: Quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Andrew; Ferry, David; Stoneham, Marshall

    2006-05-01

    Microelectronics and the classical information technologies transformed the physics of semiconductors. Photonics has given optical materials a new direction. Quantum information technologies, we believe, will have immense impact on condensed matter physics. The novel systems of quantum information processing need to be designed and made. Their behaviours must be manipulated in ways that are intrinsically quantal and generally nanoscale. Both in this special issue and in previous issues (see e.g., Spiller T P and Munro W J 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 V1-10) we see the emergence of new ideas that link the fundamentals of science to the pragmatism of market-led industry. We hope these papers will be followed by many others on quantum information processing in the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.

  18. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

  19. Soft Pion Processes

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Nambu, Y.

    1968-01-01

    My talk is concerned with a review, not necessarily of the latest theoretical developments, but rather of an old idea which has contributed to recent theoretical activities. By soft pion processes I mean processes in which low energy pions are emitted or absorbed or scattered, just as we use the word soft photon in a similar context. Speaking more quantitatively, we may call a pion soft if its energy is small compared to a natural scale in the reaction. This scale is determined by the particular dynamics of pion interaction, and one may roughly say that a pion is soft if its energy is small compared to the energies of the other individual particles that participate in the reaction. It is important to note at this point that pion is by far the lightest member of all the hadrons, and much of the success of the soft pion formulas depends on this fact.

  20. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.