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Sample records for bergsj amer cati

  1. CATIE: Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center. http://www.catie.ac.cr

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article features CATIE (Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza), a tropical agricultural research and higher education center. CATIE's mission is to be instrumental in poverty reduction and rural development in the American tropics, by promoting diversified and competitive agriculture and sustainable management of natural…

  2. Notoedres cati in cats and its management.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C; Sreedevi, C

    2015-06-01

    Notoedres cati was observed in two domestic cats. Cats exhibited crust formation, hyperkeratosis, alopecia and intense pruritus. Distribution of lesions observed at the ear margins, face, and legs. Owners also had intense pruritus over the hands, small erythematic crusted papules on the wrists and both the legs. Laboratory examination of skin scrapings from the cat revealed the presence of ova, adult mites of N. cati. The infected cats were treated with weekly twice oral administration of ivermectin at 200 μg/kg body weight, oral administration of 2 ml of multi-vitamin and mineral syrup daily. Improvement was noticed by complete clinical recovery along with absence of mites in skin scrapings, after completion of four doses of oral ivermectin along with supportive therapy.

  3. Lace plant ethylene receptors, AmERS1a and AmERS1c, regulate ethylene-induced programmed cell death during leaf morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rantong, Gaolathe; Evans, Rodger; Gunawardena, Arunika H L A N

    2015-10-01

    The lace plant, Aponogeton madagascariensis, is an aquatic monocot that forms perforations in its leaves as part of normal leaf development. Perforation formation occurs through developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD). The molecular basis of PCD regulation in the lace plant is unknown, however ethylene has been shown to play a significant role. In this study, we examined the role of ethylene receptors during perforation formation. We isolated three lace plant ethylene receptors AmERS1a, AmERS1b and AmERS1c. Using quantitative PCR, we examined their transcript levels at seven stages of leaf development. Through laser-capture microscopy, transcript levels were also determined in cells undergoing PCD and cells not undergoing PCD (NPCD cells). AmERS1a transcript levels were significantly lower in window stage leaves (in which perforation formation and PCD are occurring) as compared to all other leaf developmental stages. AmERS1a and AmERS1c (the most abundant among the three receptors) had the highest transcript levels in mature stage leaves, where PCD is not occurring. Their transcript levels decreased significantly during senescence-associated PCD. AmERS1c had significantly higher transcript levels in NPCD compared to PCD cells. Despite being significantly low in window stage leaves, AmERS1a transcripts were not differentially expressed between PCD and NPCD cells. The results suggested that ethylene receptors negatively regulate ethylene-controlled PCD in the lace plant. A combination of ethylene and receptor levels determines cell fate during perforation formation and leaf senescence. A new model for ethylene emission and receptor expression during lace plant perforation formation and senescence is proposed.

  4. CATI: A Large Distributed Infrastructure for the Neuroimaging of Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Operto, Grégory; Chupin, Marie; Batrancourt, Bénédicte; Habert, Marie-Odile; Colliot, Olivier; Benali, Habib; Poupon, Cyril; Champseix, Catherine; Delmaire, Christine; Marie, Sullivan; Rivière, Denis; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Perlbarg, Vincent; Trebossen, Régine; Bottlaender, Michel; Frouin, Vincent; Grigis, Antoine; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Dary, Hugo; Fillon, Ludovic; Azouani, Chabha; Bouyahia, Ali; Fischer, Clara; Edward, Lydie; Bouin, Mathilde; Thoprakarn, Urielle; Li, Jinpeng; Makkaoui, Leila; Poret, Sylvain; Dufouil, Carole; Bouteloup, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Mangin, Jean-François; Cointepas, Yann

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of CATI, a platform dedicated to multicenter neuroimaging. Initiated by the French Alzheimer's plan (2008-2012), CATI is a research project called on to provide service to other projects like an industrial partner. Its core mission is to support the neuroimaging of large populations, providing concrete solutions to the increasing complexity involved in such projects by bringing together a service infrastructure, the know-how of its expert academic teams and a large-scale, harmonized network of imaging facilities. CATI aims to make data sharing across studies easier and promotes sharing as much as possible. In the last 4 years, CATI has assisted the clinical community by taking charge of 35 projects so far and has emerged as a recognized actor at the national and international levels.

  5. Mona M. Amer: APA/APAGS award for distinguished graduate student in professional psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation of Mona M. Amer, who received the APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology "for her outstanding and innovative leadership in addressing the mental health needs of Muslim and Arab Americans." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Impact of the CATIE findings on state mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Parks, Joseph J; Radke, Alan Q; Tandon, Rajiv

    2008-05-01

    The authors, who are medical directors of three state mental health agencies and members of the Medical Directors' Council of the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD), describe the impact on public mental health policy of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE). Before publication of the CATIE results, the preponderance of information indicated substantial and broad-ranging advantages of second-generation antipsychotics over first-generation agents. State mental health authorities focused on improving access to and increasing utilization of the newer agents. In many states, expenditures for these agents accounted for 10% of the total pharmacy budget of the Medicaid program. After CATIE, state policy makers have had to take a more critical look at the data and formulate more nuanced approaches. The authors summarize policy recommendations of the NASMHPD Medical Directors' Council, which reviewed efficacy studies of antipsychotics and formulated a position statement. The recommendations cover three broad areas of policy. First, neither complete open access for all patients at all times nor a uniform fail-first trial of a first-generation antipsychotic is an optimal approach. A more nuanced middle ground is necessary. Second, excessive emphasis on the cost of second-generation antipsychotics has led to a lack of focus on optimizing use of all antipsychotic medication in usual practice. More research and management attention must be focused on improving how these medications are prescribed for individual patients. Third, more resources should be invested in clinical trials that more clearly and accurately reflect current practice.

  7. What CATIE Found: Results From the Schizophrenia Trial

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Marvin S.; Stroup, T. Scott; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Davis, Sonia M.; Rosenheck, Robert A.; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Hsiao, John K.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The authors provide an overview of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health. CATIE was designed to compare a proxy first-generation antipsychotic, perphenazine, to several newer drugs. In phase 1 of the trial, consenting patients were randomly assigned to receive olanzapine, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone for up to 18 months on a double-blind basis. Patients with tardive dyskinesia were excluded from being randomly assigned to perphenazine and were assigned to one of the four second-generation antipsychotics in phase 1A. Clozapine was included in phase 2 of the study. Overall, olanzapine had the longest time to discontinuation in phase 1, but it was associated with significant weight and metabolic concerns. Perphenazine was not significantly different in overall effectiveness, compared with quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone. Also, perphenazine was found to be the most cost-effective drug. Clozapine was confirmed as the most effective drug for individuals with a poor symptom response to previous antipsychotic drug trials, although clozapine was also associated with troublesome adverse effects. There were no differences in neurocognitive or psychosocial functioning in response to medications. Subsequent randomizations suggest that a poor response to an initial medication may mean that a different medication will be more effective or better tolerated. Although the CATIE results are controversial, they are broadly consistent with most previous antipsychotic drug trials and meta-analyses; however, the results may not generalize well to patients at high risk of tardive dyskinesia. Patient characteristics and clinical circumstances affected drug effectiveness; these patient factors are important in making treatment choices. PMID:18451005

  8. Exome sequencing reveals AMER1 as a frequently mutated gene in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Pamplona, Rebeca; Lopez-Doriga, Adriana; Paré-Brunet, Laia; Lázaro, Kira; Bellido, Fernando; Alonso, M. Henar; Aussó, Susanna; Guinó, Elisabet; Beltrán, Sergi; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Gut, Marta; Sanjuan, Xavier; Closa, Adria; Cordero, David; Morón-Duran, Francisco D.; Soriano, Antonio; Salazar, Ramón; Valle, Laura; Moreno, Victor

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Somatic mutations occur at early stages of adenoma and accumulate throughout colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. The aim of this study was to characterize the mutational landscape of stage II tumors and to search for novel recurrent mutations likely implicated in CRC tumorigenesis. DESIGN The exomic DNA of 42 stage II, microsatellite stable, colon tumors and their paired mucosae were sequenced. Other molecular data available in the discovery dataset (gene expression, methylation, and CNV) was used to further characterize these tumors. Additional datasets comprising 553 CRC samples were used to validate the discovered mutations. RESULTS As a result, 4,886 somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were found. Almost all SNVs were private changes, with few mutations shared by more than one tumor, thus revealing tumor-specific mutational landscapes. Nevertheless, these diverse mutations converged into common cellular pathways such as cell cycle or apoptosis. Among this mutational heterogeneity, variants resulting in early stop-codons in the AMER1 (also known as FAM123B or WTX) gene emerged as recurrent mutations in CRC. Loses of AMER1 by other mechanisms apart from mutations such as methylation and copy number aberrations were also found. Tumors lacking this tumor suppressor gene exhibited a mesenchymal phenotype characterized by inhibition of the canonical Wnt pathway. CONCLUSION In silico and experimental validation in independent datasets confirmed the existence of functional mutations in AMER1 in approximately 10% of analyzed CRC tumors. Moreover, these tumors exhibited a characteristic phenotype. PMID:26071483

  9. Soil radon dynamics in the Amer fault zone: An example of very high seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Moreno, V; Bach, J; Font, Ll; Baixeras, C; Zarroca, M; Linares, R; Roqué, C

    2016-01-01

    Soil radon levels of the Amer fault zone have been measured for a 4 year-period with the aim of checking seasonal fluctuations obtained in previous studies and to understand radon origin and dynamics. In this manuscript additional results are presented: updated continuous and integrated soil radon measurements, radionuclide content of soil materials and a detailed analysis of an urban profile by means of the electrical resistivity imaging technique and punctual soil radon, thoron and CO2 measurements. Integrated and continuous measurements present a wide range of values, [0.2-151.6] kBq m(-3) for radon, [4.5-39.6] kBq m(-3) for thoron and [4.0-71.2] g m(-2) day(-1) for CO2. The highest soil radon levels in the vicinity of the Amer fault (>40 kBq m(-3)) are found close to the fractured areas and present very important fluctuations repeated every year, with values in summer much higher than in winter, confirming previous studies. The highest radon values, up to 150 kBq m(-3), do not have a local origin because the mean value of radium concentration in this soil (19 ± 5 Bq kg(-1)) could not explain these values. Then soil radon migration through the fractures, influenced by atmospheric parameters, is assumed to account for such a high seasonal fluctuation. As main conclusion, in fractured areas, seasonal variations of soil radon concentration can be very important even in places where average soil radon concentration and radium content are not especially high. In these cases the migration capability of the soil is given not by intrinsic permeability but by the fracture structure. Potential risk estimation based on soil radon concentration and intrinsic permeability must be complemented with geological information in fractured systems.

  10. Soil radon dynamics in the Amer fault zone: An example of very high seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Moreno, V; Bach, J; Font, Ll; Baixeras, C; Zarroca, M; Linares, R; Roqué, C

    2016-01-01

    Soil radon levels of the Amer fault zone have been measured for a 4 year-period with the aim of checking seasonal fluctuations obtained in previous studies and to understand radon origin and dynamics. In this manuscript additional results are presented: updated continuous and integrated soil radon measurements, radionuclide content of soil materials and a detailed analysis of an urban profile by means of the electrical resistivity imaging technique and punctual soil radon, thoron and CO2 measurements. Integrated and continuous measurements present a wide range of values, [0.2-151.6] kBq m(-3) for radon, [4.5-39.6] kBq m(-3) for thoron and [4.0-71.2] g m(-2) day(-1) for CO2. The highest soil radon levels in the vicinity of the Amer fault (>40 kBq m(-3)) are found close to the fractured areas and present very important fluctuations repeated every year, with values in summer much higher than in winter, confirming previous studies. The highest radon values, up to 150 kBq m(-3), do not have a local origin because the mean value of radium concentration in this soil (19 ± 5 Bq kg(-1)) could not explain these values. Then soil radon migration through the fractures, influenced by atmospheric parameters, is assumed to account for such a high seasonal fluctuation. As main conclusion, in fractured areas, seasonal variations of soil radon concentration can be very important even in places where average soil radon concentration and radium content are not especially high. In these cases the migration capability of the soil is given not by intrinsic permeability but by the fracture structure. Potential risk estimation based on soil radon concentration and intrinsic permeability must be complemented with geological information in fractured systems. PMID:26551588

  11. Fish consumption (hair mercury) and nutritional status of Amazonian Amer-Indian children.

    PubMed

    Dórea, José G; Barbosa, Antonio C; Ferrari, Iris; De Souza, Jurandir R

    2005-01-01

    Fish are abundant and important dietary items for the Amer-Indians, and total hair-Hg (HHg) concentration is a reliable marker of fish consumption. We studied the impact of fish consumption (HHg) on the nutritional status of Indian children of Eastern Amazonia. Weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) was measured, and HHg was determined in 203 children younger than 10 years of age in three villages. There was significantly higher fish consumption in Kayabi children (16.55 microg Hg/g; SD, 11.44) than in children of the Munduruku villages of Missão-Cururu (4.76 microg Hg/g; SD, 2.09) and Kaburua (2.87 microg Hg/g; SD, 2.13). Anthropometric indices showed WHZ means of -0.27, -0.22, and 0.40, respectively, for Kayabi, Missão-Cururu and Kaburua villages. Despite a different pattern of fish-protein consumption between tribes, there was no significant correlation between WHZ and HHg concentrations (r2 = 0.0079; P < 0.2021). Dietary differences among Amazonian tribes can be traced and used in measuring health outcomes. Higher fish consumption, although important for Kayabis, was compensated by other protein sources by the Kaburua villagers.

  12. Occurrence of Thelazia callipaeda and Toxocara cati in an imported European lynx (Lynx lynx) in Japan.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Khaled; Abo El-Hadid, Shawky; Shimizu, Hirofumi; El-Nahass, Shaymaa; Murai, Atsuko; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2012-09-01

    A necropsy was performed on an adult European lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758), held in captivity until its death, to determine level of parasitism. Examination of the eyes revealed the oriental eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda, in the conjunctival sac and the third eyelid of both eyes. The species was confirmed by location and morphology. Intact worms were fixed, mounted, and identified. Examination of the alimentary tract revealed the common ascaroid nematode, Toxocara cati. Species was confirmed by the arrow-like anterior end. One hundred and forty-one adult worms were collected. The presence of these nematodes indicated the importance of eliminating the contact of zoo animals with Amiota spp. vectors and to prevent contamination with the infective T. cati eggs. PMID:23082531

  13. Occurrence of Thelazia callipaeda and Toxocara cati in an imported European lynx (Lynx lynx) in Japan.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Khaled; Abo El-Hadid, Shawky; Shimizu, Hirofumi; El-Nahass, Shaymaa; Murai, Atsuko; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2012-09-01

    A necropsy was performed on an adult European lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758), held in captivity until its death, to determine level of parasitism. Examination of the eyes revealed the oriental eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda, in the conjunctival sac and the third eyelid of both eyes. The species was confirmed by location and morphology. Intact worms were fixed, mounted, and identified. Examination of the alimentary tract revealed the common ascaroid nematode, Toxocara cati. Species was confirmed by the arrow-like anterior end. One hundred and forty-one adult worms were collected. The presence of these nematodes indicated the importance of eliminating the contact of zoo animals with Amiota spp. vectors and to prevent contamination with the infective T. cati eggs.

  14. Contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs from sandpits in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Macuhova, K; Akao, N; Fujinami, Y; Kumagai, T; Ohta, N

    2013-09-01

    The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host.

  15. Experimental infection with Toxocara cati in pigs: migratory pattern and pathological response in early phase.

    PubMed

    Sommerfelt, Irma Estela; Duchene, Adriana; Daprato, Betina; Lopez, Clara María; Cardillo, Natalia; Franco, Aníbal Juan

    2014-01-01

    Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi). Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  16. Modified method to enhanced recovery of Toxocara cati larvae for the purposes of diagnostic and therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Zibaei, Mohammad; Uga, Shoji

    2016-10-01

    Human toxocariasis, extraintestinal-migration of Toxocara species, is a worldwide helminthic zoonosis in many places of the undeveloped countries. Toxocara cati is one of the common helminths in cats and it is a potentially preventable disease. Its diagnosis and treatment depend on the demonstration of specific excretory-secretory Toxocara antibodies from Toxocara larvae by immunological assays. This study provides a simple manual technique which can be performed in any laboratory for recovering a large number of Toxocara cati larvae from the thick-shelled eggs. The devices that are required contain a manual homogenizer and a filter membrane of 40 μm mesh; the rest of materials and solutions is standard laboratory ware. In the modified method the larval yields were 2.7 times higher (3000 larval/ml) and the time spent in performing the modified method was shorter (75 min). Further benefits over already techniques are the easy and repeatable, inexpensive and convenient materials, simplicity to perform and require less time for recovery of Toxocara cati larvae for subsequent cultivation and harvest of the larval excretory-secretory antigens for diagnostic or treatment purposes. PMID:27502936

  17. Flotation and adherence characteristics of Toxocara canis and T. cati and a reliable method for recovering Toxocara eggs from soil.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Annika; Janecek, Elisabeth; Waindok, Patrick; Strube, Christina

    2016-08-30

    Toxocara canis and T. cati are worldwide distributed intestinal nematodes of canids and felids and pose a threat to public health due to possible clinical manifestations in humans. Different methods for detection of Toxocara eggs in soil have been described, but conducted studies deal with egg recovery rates of T. canis or "Toxocara spp." only whereas T. cati egg recovery has not been taken into consideration. Thus, flotation properties in sodium chloride solution and adherence characteristics to different substrates possibly coming into contact with Toxocara eggs before or during purification from soil were evaluated for both, T. canis and T. cati eggs. No significant difference was observed in flotation characteristics, but comparison of adherence properties revealed significantly less adherence of T. cati eggs on almost all evaluated substrates ("sand", side sealed bags, glass beaker, centrifuge tube) and different washing solutions (tap water, Tween(®) 80, Triton™ X-100). Mean adhesion rates of T. cati eggs ranged from 15.9% to 68.9%, those of T. canis eggs from 28.3% to 83.9%. While adherence of T. cati eggs on any substrate was significantly reduced when rinsing with Tween(®) 80 solution, no effect on T. canis eggs could be observed. Generally, Toxocara eggs adhere better on plastic than on glass. Evaluation of a method including only non-hazardous substances for purification of Toxocara eggs from soil resulted in a statistically significant higher recovery rate of T. canis (42.6% recovered eggs) compared to T. cati eggs (30.9% recovered eggs). As these percentages are above average for described methods to recover Toxocara eggs from soil, the presented method is considered reliable for prevalence studies. PMID:27523935

  18. Adult Toxocara cati infections in U.S. children: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Alfano, E

    1998-09-01

    We report four cases of passage of subadult or adult Toxocara cati worms by young children ages 20 months to seven years. Worms were expelled rectally in two cases and in two cases they were vomited. A single worm was passed in two cases, three worms in one case, and 15 worms in the fourth case. All worms that were available for study were identified as T. cati by morphologic criteria, including the arrow-shaped cervical alae and the digitiform shape of the male tail. None of the four children exhibited clinical signs of ocular or visceral larva migrans, and in two cases where serum samples were available, neither child had a titer to Toxocara. These results further the argument that these children acquired the worms through the ingestion of immature worms passed by infected cats, not through the ingestion of infective eggs. Although the children were generally not ill as a result of these unusual infections, it does serve to reinforce the public health issue that potential serious consequences can occur where children have exposure to an environment that has been contaminated with cat feces, or, more specifically, infective eggs, and could become infected with larval forms of Toxocara. PMID:9749634

  19. Adult Toxocara cati infections in U.S. children: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Alfano, E

    1998-09-01

    We report four cases of passage of subadult or adult Toxocara cati worms by young children ages 20 months to seven years. Worms were expelled rectally in two cases and in two cases they were vomited. A single worm was passed in two cases, three worms in one case, and 15 worms in the fourth case. All worms that were available for study were identified as T. cati by morphologic criteria, including the arrow-shaped cervical alae and the digitiform shape of the male tail. None of the four children exhibited clinical signs of ocular or visceral larva migrans, and in two cases where serum samples were available, neither child had a titer to Toxocara. These results further the argument that these children acquired the worms through the ingestion of immature worms passed by infected cats, not through the ingestion of infective eggs. Although the children were generally not ill as a result of these unusual infections, it does serve to reinforce the public health issue that potential serious consequences can occur where children have exposure to an environment that has been contaminated with cat feces, or, more specifically, infective eggs, and could become infected with larval forms of Toxocara.

  20. Situated Professional Development and Technology Integration: The Capital Area Technology and Inquiry in Education (CATIE) Mentoring Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Karen; Holmes, Aliya; Vargas, Juan D.; Jennings, Sybillyn; Meier, Ellen; Rubenfeld, Lester

    2002-01-01

    Explores the theoretical basis for a mentoring model of professional development addressing technology integration into classroom teaching and learning. Describes the Capital Area Technology and Inquiry in Education (CATIE) Program for elementary schools and discusses situative theories of knowledge and learning, technology planning, access to…

  1. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study 1999-2000 (NPSAS:2000), CATI Nonresponse Bias Analysis Report. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Peter H.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Johnson, Ruby E.; Yu, Di

    Unit nonresponse causes bias in survey estimates when the outcomes of respondents and nonrespondents are different. In the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study of 1999-2000 (NPSAS:2000) there were three levels of response, one of which was computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) response. Because the response rates were less than 70% in…

  2. A Comparative Histopathology, Serology and Molecular Study, on Experimental Ocular Toxocariasis by Toxocara cati in Mongolian Gerbils and Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zibaei, Mohammad; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Karamian, Mehdi; Uga, Shoji; Oryan, Ahmad; Jahadi-Hosseini, Seyed Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three in-house diagnostic tests, that is, histopathology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for the diagnosis after experimental infection with Toxocara cati. Twenty Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (n = 2/group). Toxocara cati infections were established in Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats by administering doses of 240 and 2500 embryonated Toxocara cati eggs by gavage, respectively. Tissue sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and observed under the light microscope. Sera and vitreous fluid collected from separate infected groups were tested against Toxocara cati antigens, for 92 days postinfection. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks, and aqueous fluids belong to the animals. The histopathology test gave negative results among the groups of animals examined between 5 and 92 days postinfection. The ELISA results showed that anti-Toxocara antibodies have risen between 7 and 61 days postinfection in sera and vitreous fluid in the animals infected, respectively. Analysis of PCR products revealed positive band (660 bp) in the orbital tissue infected Mongolian gerbils at 5 days postinfection. Of the three evaluated methods, the PCR could be recommended for scientific and laboratory diagnoses of toxocariasis in experimentally infected animals. PMID:24069585

  3. Treatment and prevention of vertical transmission of Toxocara cati in cats with an emodepside/praziquantel spot-on formulation.

    PubMed

    Wolken, Sonja; Schaper, Roland; Mencke, Norbert; Kraemer, Friederike; Schnieder, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of emodepside 2.14%/praziquantel 8.58% topical solution (Profender, Bayer) in the prevention and treatment of lactogenic Toxocara cati infections. Eight pregnant cats were orally infected with T. cati eggs during late pregnancy. Four queens were treated on day 60 post conception and four queens were left untreated. The kittens of two untreated queens were treated 28 days after birth. The two other negative control litters were left untreated. The efficacy of emodepside was determined by faecal egg counts. While faecal samples of queens and litters in the control group became positive for T. cati, egg shedding was completely prevented in all four treated queens, in their litters and in the kittens from the two litters which were treated four weeks after birth. The untreated mothers of the latter stayed also coproscopically negative, which might be explained by an oral uptake of emodepside through grooming. The treatment was well tolerated by pregnant queens as well as by four-weeks-old kittens.To our knowledge, this is the first publication that focuses on the prevention of lactogenic transmission of T. cati. PMID:19575228

  4. The CATIE and CUtLASS studies in schizophrenia: results and implications for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Naber, Dieter; Lambert, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Numerous double-blind studies have compared second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), with most finding better efficacy and tolerability for SGAs. However, these 'efficacy trials' were generally short term and included only highly selected patients. Mostly because of weight gain and other metabolic effects of the SGAs, as well as their high acquisition price, the debate on the (cost) effectiveness of the SGAs led to two pragmatic clinical trials with no sponsorship by industry. Both trials had broad inclusion criteria and long follow-up, and tried to mimic clinical routine: CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness) and CUtLASS (Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic drugs in Schizophrenia Study). 1493 patients participated in CATIE, an 18-month, double-blind trial comparing the SGAs olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone with the FGA perphenazine. If efficacy or tolerability was insufficient, patients were re-randomized to a medication other than the one they previously received. Improvement of psychopathology and of quality of life was only moderate. Overall, 74% of patients discontinued study medication before 18 months, and the median time to discontinuation was 4.6 months. Aside from olanzapine (time to discontinuation 9.2 months), the other SGAs did not differ from each other or from perphenazine. Except for adverse effects as a reason for discontinuation, differences between the SGAs and the FGA were minimal. In CUtLASS, a 12-month open-label trial, 277 patients were randomized to receive an FGA or a SGA. Again, efficacy was rather similar between the two groups, with only limited improvement of psychopathology and quality of life. The authors of both trials concluded that SGAs do not markedly differ from FGAs regarding compliance, quality of life and effectiveness. The methodological problems of both trials have been discussed extensively. Patients had psychotic symptoms that

  5. Chemical characterization and biological activity of Macfadyena unguis-cati (Bignoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Duarte, D S; Dolabela, M F; Salas, C E; Raslan, D S; Oliveiras, A B; Nenninger, A; Wiedemann, B; Wagner, H; Lombardi, J; Lopes, M T

    2000-03-01

    Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) has been widely used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, antimalarial and antivenereal. The purpose of this study was to chemically characterize the main plant components, and to evaluate the biological properties of some of the fractions derived from leaves (MACb) and liana (MACa) of this plant. Chemical characterization allowed the identification of the compounds corymboside, vicenin-2, quercitrin, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterylglucoside, allantoin and lapachol. The biological screening of fractions and/or purified substances derived from fractions revealed antitumoral and antitrypanosomal activities in fractions MACa/lapachol and MACb/MACb21, respectively. The anti-lipoxygenase and anti-cyclooxygenase effect seen in fractions MACa and MACb showed a partial correlation with the anti-inflammatory property attributed to this plant. PMID:10757425

  6. Toxocara cati larva migrans in domestic pigs--detected at slaughterhouse control in Norway.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Mermer, Anna; Øines, Øivind

    2012-11-21

    Routine Trichinella meat inspection at the slaughterhouse detected one larva in a pooled batch of 100 pig samples. The larva was sent to the Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI) for species identification.Morphological examination revealed that the larva was not Trichinella spp. Molecular analysis was performed. PCR and sequencing of 5S/ITS identified the larva as Toxocara cati. A second round of digests was carried out at the meat inspection laboratory, in smaller batches to try to identify the infected animal. No further larvae were detected and it was not possible to identify which of the 100 animals the larva had come from. This is the first time that Toxocara cati has been reported in slaughterhouse pigs in Norway.Although the infected individual could not be identified, the meat originated from one of six potential farms. A small survey regarding rodent control and cats was sent to each of these farms. Cats had restricted access to food storage areas (two farms reported that cats had access) whilst none of the farms allowed cats into the production housing. Cats were, however, present on all the farms (mostly stray cats of unknown health status). Half of the farms also reported seeing rodents in the pig housing during the previous six months and half reported finding rodents in the feed and straw storage areas. We were unable to narrow down the source of infection - however contamination of food or bedding material, with cat faeces or infected rodents, in addition to the presence of infected rodents in pig housing remain potential routes of infection.

  7. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea) in soil and fecal samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati), two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. Methods A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR) targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum) and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum). The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. Results 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD) in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. Conclusion The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits. PMID:23216873

  8. High temperature stability of the dielectric and insulating properties of Ca(Ti, Zr)SiO5 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Junichi; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Iijima, Takashi; Shimizu, Takao; Yasui, Shintaro; Itoh, Mitsuru; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Useful dielectric properties for high-temperature ceramic capacitors are demonstrated in a non-perovskite oxide, Ca(Ti0.85 Zr0.15)SiO5, which is mainly composed of one-dimensional chains of oxygen octahedra that are mutually linked by SiO4 tetrahedra. Its dielectric constant and low temperature coefficient of capacitance were found to be 43 and -102 ppm/K, respectively, over the wide temperature range of 300-780 K. The high insulating performance was also indicated by the high resistivity, exceeding 1011 Ω cm up to 523 K. The systematic dielectric measurements for Ca(Ti1-x Zrx)SiO5 as functions of the composition and temperature indicate that the suppression of the anti-ferroelectric phase transition of CaTiSiO5 by Zr4+-substitution is a key to improve the temperature-stability and the high-resistivity in Ca(Ti1-x Zrx)SiO5. The present results shed light on the development of a designing principle for ceramic capacitors for the high-temperature use.

  9. Production of Toxocara cati TES-120 Recombinant Antigen and Comparison with its T. canis Homolog for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Zahabiun, Farzaneh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hosein Falaki; Saidin, Syazwan; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Diagnosis in humans is usually based on clinical symptoms and serology. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits using T. canis excretory–secretory (TES) larval antigens are commonly used for serodiagnosis. Differences in the antigens of the two Toxocara species may influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the test. In this study, T. cati recombinant TES-120 (rTES-120) was cloned, expressed, and compared with its T. canis homolog in an IgG4-western blot. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of T. cati rTES-120 were 70% (33/47) and 100% (39/39), respectively. T. canis rTES-120 showed 57.4% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. When the results of assays using rTES-120 of both species were considered, the diagnostic sensitivity was 76%. This study shows that using antigens from both Toxocara species may improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis. PMID:26033026

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of perphenazine in schizophrenia patients from CATIE: impact of race and smoking.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuyan; Pollock, Bruce G; Coley, Kim; Miller, Del; Marder, Stephen R; Florian, Jeff; Schneider, Lon; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Kirshner, Margaret; Bies, Robert R

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the study was to characterize population pharmacokinetics (PPK) for perphenazine in patients with schizophrenia from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE). Patients (n = 156) received 8 to 32 mg of perphenazine daily for 14 to 600 days for a total of 421 plasma concentrations measurements. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to determine PPK characteristics of perphenazine. One- and 2-compartment models with various random effect implementations and mixture distributions were evaluated. Objective function values and goodness-of-fit plots were used as model selection criteria. Age, weight, sex, race, smoking, and concomitant medications were evaluated as covariates. A 1-compartment linear model with proportional error best described the data. The population mean clearance and volume of distribution for perphenazine were 483 L/h and 18 200 L, respectively. Race and smoking status had significant impacts on perphenazine clearance estimates. In addition, the estimated population mean clearance was 48% higher in nonsmoking African Americans than in nonsmoking other races (512 L/h vs 346 L/h). Active smokers eliminated perphenazine 159 L/h faster than nonsmokers in each race. Clearances for smoking African Americans versus smokers in other races were 671 L/h versus 505 L/h, respectively.

  11. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against adult and larval stages of Toxocara cati in cats.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Baker, Christine F; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v), and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) was evaluated against adult and larval Toxocara cati in four controlled studies. All studies included experimentally infected, purpose-bred, short-haired cats. In two studies, 22 or 20 cats harbouring patent infections as confirmed by pre-treatment faecal examination, were included. Within each study, cats were allocated to one of two groups: control or treated. In a further two studies, 30 cats were included in each; cats were allocated to one of three groups: control, treated when T. cati were expected to be either migrating third and/or fourth-stage larvae, or treated when T. cati were expected to be fourth-stage larvae. Cats allocated to the treated groups received a single topical application of the combination product at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight (10mg fipronil+12 mg (S)-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg). For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely at different intervals after treatment. In the studies targeting adult T. cati, ascarids were recovered from all controls (range 1-150) while only two worms were isolated from one treated cat. Thus, the efficacy of the novel combination was 99.4% and 100% against adult T. cati. For studies targeting larval T. cati, up to 21 worms were recovered from each of seven or eight of the control cats per study. No T. cati were recovered from the treated cats in two studies, corresponding to 100% efficacy against both, migrating third and/or fourth-stage larvae and luminal fourth-stage larvae. All cats accepted the treatment well and no adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. PMID:24703074

  12. Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs against hostility in patients with schizophrenia in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study

    PubMed Central

    Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pál; Citrome, Leslie; Van Dorn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aggressive behavior can be a dangerous complication of schizophrenia. Hostility is related to aggression. This study aimed to compare the effects of olanzapine, perphenazine, risperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone on hostility in schizophrenia. Methods We used the data that were acquired in the 18-month Phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study. We analyzed the scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) hostility item in a subset of 614 patients who showed at least minimal hostility (a score ≥ 2) at baseline. Results The primary analysis of hostility indicated an effect of difference between treatments (F4,1487 = 7.78, P<0.0001). Olanzapine was significantly superior to perphenazine and quetiapine at months 1, 3, 6, and 9. It was also significantly superior to ziprasidone at months 1, 3, and 6, and to risperidone at months 3 and 6. Discussion Our results are consistent with those of a similar post-hoc analysis of hostility in first-episode subjects with schizophrenia enrolled in the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST) trial, where olanzapine demonstrated advantages compared with haloperidol, quetiapine, and amisulpride. Conclusion Olanzapine demonstrated advantages in terms of a specific antihostility effect over the other antipsychotics tested in Phase 1 of the CATIE trial. PMID:24284234

  13. Microarray gene expression analysis reveals major differences between Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati neurotoxocarosis and involvement of T. canis in lipid biosynthetic processes.

    PubMed

    Janecek, Elisabeth; Wilk, Esther; Schughart, Klaus; Geffers, Robert; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are globally occurring intestinal nematodes of dogs and cats with a high zoonotic potential. Migrating larvae in the CNS of paratenic hosts, including humans, may cause neurotoxocarosis resulting in a variety of neurological symptoms. Toxocara canis exhibits a stronger affinity to the CNS than T. cati, causing more severe neurological symptoms in the mouse model. Pathomechanisms of neurotoxocarosis as well as host responses towards the respective parasite are mostly unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the pathogenesis at a transcriptional level using whole genome microarray expression analysis and identify differences and similarities between T. canis- and T. cati-infected brains. Microarray analysis was conducted in cerebra and cerebella of infected C57Bl/6J mice 42daysp.i. revealing more differentially transcribed genes for T. canis- than T. cati-infected brains. In cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice, a total of 2304 and 1954 differentially transcribed genes, respectively, were identified whereas 113 and 760 differentially transcribed genes were determined in cerebra and cerebella of T. cati-infected mice. Functional annotation analysis revealed major differences in host responses in terms of significantly enriched biological modules. Up-regulated genes were mainly associated with the terms "immune and defence response", "sensory perception" as well as "behaviour/taxis" retrieved from the Gene Ontology database. These observations indicate a strong immune response in both infection groups with T. cati-infected brains revealing less severe reactions. Down-regulated genes in T. canis-infected cerebra and cerebella revealed a significant enrichment for the Gene Ontology term "lipid/cholesterol biosynthetic process". Cholesterol is a highly abundant and important component in the brain, representing several functions. Disturbances of synthesis as well as concentration changes may lead to

  14. Loparite, a rare-earth ore (Ce, Na, Sr, Ca)(Ti, Nb, Ta, Fe+3)O3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, James B.; Sinha, Shyama P.; Kosynkin, Valery D.

    1997-01-01

    The mineral loparite (Ce, NA, Sr, Ca)(Ti, Nb, Ta, Fe+3)O3 is the principal ore of the light-group rare-earth elements (LREE) in Russia. The complex oxide has a perovskite (ABO3) structure with coupled substitutions, polymorphism, defect chemistry and a tendency to become metamict. The A site generally contains weakly bonded, easily exchanged cations of the LREE, Na and Ca. The B site generally contains smaller, highly charged cations of Ti, Nb or Fe+3. Mine production is from Russia's Kola Peninsula. Ore is beneficiated to produce a 95% loparite concentrate containing 30% rare-earth oxides. Loparite concentrate is refined by either a chlorination process or acid decomposition process to recover rare-earths, titanium, niobium and tantalum. Rare-earths are separated by solvent extraction and selective precipitation/dissolution. The concentrate is processed at plants in Russia, Estonia and Kazakstan.

  15. Development and validation of a fecal PCR assay for Notoedres cati and application to notoedric mange cases in bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Northern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Clifford, Deana; Worth, S Joy; Serieys, Laurel E K; Foley, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Notoedric mange in felids is a devastating disease caused by a hypersensitivity reaction to the mite Notoedres cati. The burrowing of the mite causes intense pruritis resulting in self-mutilation, secondary bacterial infection, and often death of affected felids if left untreated. Our understanding of how notoedric mange is maintained in felid populations, and the true geographic extent of infestations, has been hampered because wild felids are elusive and, thus, traditional diagnostic methods are difficult to implement. To create a noninvasive diagnostic test, we developed and validated a novel PCR assay to detect N. cati DNA in fecal samples of bobcats (Lynx rufus) and used this assay to investigate a recent outbreak of mange in northern California, United States. Although the fecal PCR assay was 100% specific and could detect as few as 1.9 mites/200 μg of feces, it had a moderate sensitivity of 52.6%, potentially due to intermittent shedding of mites in feces or fecal PCR inhibitors. In a field investigation, 12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 0.23) of fecal samples (n=65) collected from Rancho San Antonia County Park and Open Space Preserve in Santa Clara County, California were PCR-positive for N. cati. When this estimate was adjusted for test sensitivity, the corrected proportion for fecal samples containing N. cati was 23% (95% CI: 0.14, 0.36), suggesting widespread mange in this area. This novel PCR assay will be an important tool to assess the distribution and spread of notoedric mange in bobcats and could be validated to test other wild felids such as mountain lions (Puma concolor). The assay could also be used to detect notoedric mange in domestic cats (Felis catus), particularly feral cats, which may also suffer from mange and could represent an important contributor to mange in periurban bobcat populations. PMID:23568905

  16. Development and validation of a fecal PCR assay for Notoedres cati and application to notoedric mange cases in bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Northern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Clifford, Deana; Worth, S Joy; Serieys, Laurel E K; Foley, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Notoedric mange in felids is a devastating disease caused by a hypersensitivity reaction to the mite Notoedres cati. The burrowing of the mite causes intense pruritis resulting in self-mutilation, secondary bacterial infection, and often death of affected felids if left untreated. Our understanding of how notoedric mange is maintained in felid populations, and the true geographic extent of infestations, has been hampered because wild felids are elusive and, thus, traditional diagnostic methods are difficult to implement. To create a noninvasive diagnostic test, we developed and validated a novel PCR assay to detect N. cati DNA in fecal samples of bobcats (Lynx rufus) and used this assay to investigate a recent outbreak of mange in northern California, United States. Although the fecal PCR assay was 100% specific and could detect as few as 1.9 mites/200 μg of feces, it had a moderate sensitivity of 52.6%, potentially due to intermittent shedding of mites in feces or fecal PCR inhibitors. In a field investigation, 12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 0.23) of fecal samples (n=65) collected from Rancho San Antonia County Park and Open Space Preserve in Santa Clara County, California were PCR-positive for N. cati. When this estimate was adjusted for test sensitivity, the corrected proportion for fecal samples containing N. cati was 23% (95% CI: 0.14, 0.36), suggesting widespread mange in this area. This novel PCR assay will be an important tool to assess the distribution and spread of notoedric mange in bobcats and could be validated to test other wild felids such as mountain lions (Puma concolor). The assay could also be used to detect notoedric mange in domestic cats (Felis catus), particularly feral cats, which may also suffer from mange and could represent an important contributor to mange in periurban bobcat populations.

  17. Prevention of Lactogenic Toxocara cati Infections in Kittens by Application of an Emodepside/Praziquantel Spot-on (Profender®) to the Pregnant Queen.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Claudia; Petry, Gabriele; Schaper, Roland; Wolken, Sonja; Strube, Christina

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an emodepside 2.1 % (w/v)/praziquantel 8.6 % (w/v) topical solution (Profender® spot-on for cats) in the prevention of lactogenic Toxocara cati infections. A controlled test was performed with two groups of 8 cats with confirmed pregnancy. All cats were infected with daily doses of 2000 T. cati eggs for 10 consecutive days starting 50 days post conception to produce an acute infection. Treatment was performed 60 days post conception. Queens in the treatment group received the emodepside/praziquantel solution at the minimum therapeutic dose (3 mg/kg emodepside and 12 mg/kg praziquantel), while the control group was treated with a placebo spot-on. Efficacy was evaluated 56 days post partum by necropsy of one randomly selected kitten of each litter and comparison of the worm burdens between the study groups. Additionally the necropsy results were supported by quantification of worms expelled with the faeces after deworming of the remaining kittens and all queens. The treatment in late pregnancy resulted in an efficacy of 98.7 % (p < 0.0001). All necropsied control kittens were infected (geometric mean 30.6). Seven of 8 kittens from treated mothers were free of T. cati (geometric mean 0.4). Worm counts after deworming reflected the results obtained at necropsy. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that treatment with an emodepside/praziquantel spot-on solution during late pregnancy effectively prevents lactogenic transmission of T. cati to the offspring. The study design facilitated the generation of reliable data, while at the same time a minimum number of animals was sacrificed. PMID:26152418

  18. Treatment adherence in schizophrenia: a patient-level meta-analysis of combined CATIE and EUFEST studies.

    PubMed

    Czobor, Pál; Van Dorn, Richard A; Citrome, Leslie; Kahn, Rene S; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Volavka, Jan

    2015-08-01

    The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) obtained a sample of 1493 chronic schizophrenia patients. The European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST) studied a sample of 498 patients. We have combined these two samples to study the predictors and correlates of adherence to treatment. Here we report on adherence to pharmacological treatment at the six and twelve month assessments of these trials with a combined subsample of 1154 schizophrenia patients. Individual patients׳ data were used for analyses. We used logistic regression to examine the effects of substance use, akathisia, parkinsonism, dyskinesia, hostility, and insight on pharmacological adherence. The results showed that reduced adherence to pharmacological treatment was associated with substance use (p=0.0003), higher levels of hostility (p=0.0002), and impaired insight (p<0.0001). Furthermore, poor adherence to study medication was associated with earlier discontinuation in the combined data. The clinical implications of the results point to the importance of routine assessments and interventions to address patients׳ insight and comorbid substance use and the establishment of therapeutic alliance.

  19. Effect of antipsychotic medication on overall life satisfaction among individuals with chronic schizophrenia: findings from the NIMH CATIE study.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Foussias, George; Remington, Gary

    2014-07-01

    The field of schizophrenia is redefining optimal outcome, moving beyond clinical remission to a more comprehensive model including functional recovery and improved subjective well-being. Although numerous studies have evaluated subjective outcomes within the domain of subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia, less is known about global evaluations of subjective well-being. This study examined the effects of antipsychotic medication on overall life satisfaction in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Data were drawn from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study, where participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia were randomized to receive olanzapine, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone under double-blind conditions (N=753). The primary outcome measure was prospective change in subjectively evaluated overall life satisfaction scores following 12 months of antipsychotic treatment. Psychopathology, medication side effects and functional status were also evaluated, among other variables. Patients experienced modest improvements in overall life satisfaction (d=0.22, p<0.001), with no differences between antipsychotic medications (all tests, p>0.05). Change in severity of positive, negative, and depressive symptoms as well as functional status each demonstrated a small, albeit statistically significant, association with change in life satisfaction (r=0.10-0.21, p׳s<0.01). In a multivariate regression model, change in clinical symptoms and functional status had limited independent predictive value for change in life satisfaction scores (explained variance <3%). These data suggest that despite antipsychotic medications being effective for symptom-based psychopathology, such clinical effectiveness does not necessarily translate to improved general satisfaction with life. Clinicians should be aware that these two domains are not inextricably linked.

  20. Efficacy of a milbemycin oxime-praziquantel combination product against adult and immature stages of Toxocara cati in cats and kittens after induced infection.

    PubMed

    Schenker, R; Bowman, D; Epe, C; Cody, R; Seewald, W; Strehlau, G; Junquera, P

    2007-04-10

    Two studies were performed to examine the efficacy of milbemycin oxime against fourth-stage larvae or adults of Toxocara cati. In the study to determine efficacy against fourth-stage larvae, 20 domestic shorthair cats were inoculated with 500 embryonated eggs. Four weeks after inoculation, the animals were allocated to two groups, and cats in one group were treated with medicated tablets containing 4 mg milbemycin oxime and 10mg praziquantel (MILBEMAX) and cats in the other group with placebo tablets. Seven days after treatment the animals were euthanatized and necropsied for worm counting. The number of worms found was significantly (p=0.0002) lower in cats treated with medicated tablets than in cats treated with placebo tablets. The reduction in the number of worms was 96.53%. In the study to determine efficacy against mature adult worms, 13 kittens were inoculated with T. cati embryonated eggs. On day 45 after inoculation and after the infection had been confirmed through faecal examinations for 11 out of the 13 animals, the 11 infected animals were allocated to two groups and treated as in the first study. Seven days after treatment, all animals were euthanatized and necropsied for worm counting. The number of worms found was significantly (p=0.0043) lower in kittens treated with medicated tablets than in kittens treated with placebo tablets. The reduction in the number of worms was 95.90%. No adverse effects were recorded during either study. It is concluded that the milbemycin oxime-praziquantel tablets that were used are efficacious for the control of T. cati infections in cats. PMID:17140736

  1. Efficacy of Procox® oral suspension for dogs (0.1% emodepside and 2% toltrazuril) against experimental nematode (Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma tubaeforme) infections in cats.

    PubMed

    Petry, Gabriele; Kruedewagen, Eva; Bach, Thomas; Gasda, Nadine; Krieger, Klemens J

    2011-08-01

    Two exploratory studies were performed to determine the optimum therapeutic dose of Procox(®) for the removal of experimental infection with mature adult Toxocara (T.) cati and Ancylostoma (A.) tubaeforme in kittens. Procox(®) is a new oral suspension containing a combination of the nematocidal and coccidiocidal active principles emodepside (0.1 %) and toltrazuril (2 %).In the first study, 18 eight-weeks-old kittens were inoculated with 450 L3 larvae of T. cati. 56 days after infection, the kittens were allocated to three treatment groups and were treated with 0.5 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 1), 0.25 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 2) and 0.1 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 3), respectively. In the second study, 10 eight-weeks-old kittens were inoculated with 350 L3 larvae of A. tubaeforme. Four weeks after infection, the kittens were allocated to two treatment groups and were treated with 0.1 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 1) or 0.25 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 2). In both studies, all kittens received a reference treatment with Drontal(®) (230 mg pyrantel embonate and 20 mg praziquantel per tablet) at the recommended dose of one tablet/4 kg body weight 5 days after treatment with Procox(®). Anthelmintic efficacy was calculated by reduction in worm numbers expelled with the faeces following treatment with Procox(®) as compared with faecal worm numbers after reference treatment with Drontal(®), by thus avoiding necropsy of the animals.In the T. cati study, emodepside was at 99.9 %, 100 % and 96.5 % effective at a dosage of 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.1 mg per kg body weight, respectively. Against A. tubaeforme emodepside was at 95.7 % and 100 % effective at a dosage of 0.1 mg and 0.25 mg per kg body weight. No adverse events were seen during either study.It can be concluded that Procox(®) is efficacious for the control of mature adult T. cati and A. tubaeforme infections in cats at a single-dose rate of 0.25 mg emodepside/kg body

  2. Intraspecific variation between the ITS sequences of Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina from different host species in south-western Poland.

    PubMed

    Fogt-Wyrwas, R; Mizgajska-Wiktor, H; Pacoń, J; Jarosz, W

    2013-12-01

    Some parasitic nematodes can inhabit different definitive hosts, which raises the question of the intraspecific variability of the nematode genotype affecting their preferences to choose particular species as hosts. Additionally, the issue of a possible intraspecific DNA microheterogeneity in specimens from different parts of the world seems to be interesting, especially from the evolutionary point of view. The problem was analysed in three related species - Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina - specimens originating from Central Europe (Poland). Using specific primers for species identification, internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 regions were amplified and then sequenced. The sequences obtained were compared with sequences previously described for specimens originating from other geographical locations. No differences in nucleotide sequences were established in T. canis isolated from two different hosts (dogs and foxes). A comparison of ITS sequences of T. canis from Poland with sequences deposited in GenBank showed that the scope of intraspecific variability of the species did not exceed 0.4%, while in T. cati the differences did not exceed 2%. Significant differences were found in T. leonina, where ITS-1 differed by 3% and ITS-2 by as much as 7.4% in specimens collected from foxes in Poland and dogs in Australia. Such scope of differences in the nucleotide sequence seems to exceed the intraspecific variation of the species. PMID:23069601

  3. caTIES: a grid based system for coding and retrieval of surgical pathology reports and tissue specimens in support of translational research.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Rebecca S; Castine, Melissa; Mitchell, Kevin; Chavan, Girish; McSherry, Tara; Feldman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the development of the Cancer Tissue Information Extraction System (caTIES)--an application that supports collaborative tissue banking and text mining by leveraging existing natural language processing methods and algorithms, grid communication and security frameworks, and query visualization methods. The system fills an important need for text-derived clinical data in translational research such as tissue-banking and clinical trials. The design of caTIES addresses three critical issues for informatics support of translational research: (1) federation of research data sources derived from clinical systems; (2) expressive graphical interfaces for concept-based text mining; and (3) regulatory and security model for supporting multi-center collaborative research. Implementation of the system at several Cancer Centers across the country is creating a potential network of caTIES repositories that could provide millions of de-identified clinical reports to users. The system provides an end-to-end application of medical natural language processing to support multi-institutional translational research programs.

  4. A Structural Study of the Perovskite Series CaTi 1-2 xFe xNb xO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakhmouradian, Anton R.; Mitchell, Roger H.

    1998-07-01

    An X-ray powder diffraction study of the series CaTi1-2xFexNbxO3is presented. The series comprises orthorhombic perovskites (Pbnm,a≈b≈√2ap,c≈2ap,Z=4) in the range 0≤x≤0.3, and monoclinic perovskites (P21/n,a≈b≈√2ap,c≈2ap,β≠90°,Z=4) in the range 0.4≤x≤0.5. The structure of the orthorhombic members is derived from the cubic aristotype by octahedral rotationa-a-c+. The structural distortion in the monoclinic members involves octahedral rotation and short-range cation ordering at theB-site (4cand 4d). In the series CaTi1-2xFexNbxO3, the unit-cell parameters and degree of octahedral rotation increase withx. The [111]ptilt angle increases from 16.1° in CaTiO3to 17.6-18.9° in CaFe1/2Nb1/2O3(for the NbO6and FeO6octahedra, respectively). In contrast to previous studies, here the diffraction pattern of the end-member CaFe1/2Nb1/2O3is interpreted to exhibit splitting of thehklandh0llines indicative of a monoclinic derivative of the CaTiO3-type structure.

  5. Estudio teórico de la distribución catiónica en la capa octaédrica de silicatos laminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Laguna, A.

    Los silicatos laminares son unos minerales de gran extensión en la corteza de nuestro y otros planetas, y se ha detectado su presencia en masas de partículas de polvo interplanatario. Están formados por láminas estructuradas en una capa tetraedros de sílice y una de octaédros de oxihidroxido de aluminio. Según el número de capas y la disposición aparecen distintos minerales. Además, también pueden aparecer distintos minerales como consecuencia de la substitución isomórfica de cationes en la capas, en particular, Al(III) por Si en la capa tetraédrica y Fe(III) y/o Mg(II) por Al(III) en la octaédrica. Cuando el catión substituyente presenta un estado de oxidación más bajo que al que substituye genera carga negativa que tiene que neutralizarse con cationes que se disponen en el espacio interlaminar. En este trabajo vamos a estudiar, mediante distintos métodos computacionales, las distribuciones de dichos cationes de substitución en la capa octaédrica de silicatos laminares 2:1 (dos capas tetraédricas y en medio una octaédrica), en particular, en los minerales esmectitas e ilitas. En primer lugar, estudiaremos la distribución de dichos cationes en la capa octaédrica en un modelo de gas reticular por el método de Monte Carlo, minimizando el número de pares de cationes Al, Fe y Mg de nuestro modelo con respecto a los procedentes de resultados espectroscópicos de muestras de minerales. Posteriormente, y mediante un modelo de potenciales empíricos, estudiamos la energética de las distribuciones binarias en dichos minerales, generando unos potenciales de interacción intercambio a dos y tres cationes (extrapolables a cualquier filosilicato) que son la base para una investigación Monte Carlo-"simulated-annealing" en la que se encuentran las transiciones de fase y las estructuras ordenadas, dependiendo dichas estructuras y la temperatura de cambio de fase de la de la naturaleza y concentración de los cationes de substitución. También se han

  6. Native AmerIndian Theor(h)etoric: The Periphery Speaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Malea D.

    Rhetoric scholars must open space for the unheard counter-stories of American Indians, which exist alongside the echo of American-ness that implicates all people in this country. As the scholarly discourse of the academy itself is situated within a framework of the American narrative of conquest and imperialism, scholars must recognize that they…

  7. Providing Sufficient Opportunity to Learn: A Response to Grehaigne, Caty and Godbout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Dennis G.; Webb, Louisa A.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the last 30 years, traditional skill-based game teaching models have gradually been supplemented by instruction under an inclusive banner of "Teaching Games for Understanding" (TGfU). This approach focuses on developing tactical understanding through modified games and a philosophy that places the learner rather than the…

  8. Materials Data on CaTi4O8 (SG:8) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-09-30

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Materials Data on CaTi4(PO4)6 (SG:148) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-04

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on CaTi4(FeO4)3 (SG:204) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Materials Data on Ba4Na2CaTi3Si4(SO13)2 (SG:1) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Comparative efficacy between clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics on depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: Analysis of the CATIE Phase 2E data

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Caravaggio, Fernando; Iwata, Yusuke; Mihashi, Yukiko; Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Mulsant, Benoit; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Background The comparative antidepressant effects of clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia remain elusive, leading us to examine this question using the data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Interventions Effectiveness phase 2E. Methods Ninety-nine patients who discontinued treatment with olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone because of inadequate efficacy were randomly assigned to open-label treatment with clozapine (n=49) or double-blind treatment with another atypical antipsychotic not previously received in the trial (olanzapine [n=19], quetiapine [n=15], or risperidone [n=16]). The primary outcome was the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) total score. Antidepressant effects of clozapine and the other atypical antipsychotics were compared in patients with chronic schizophrenia and those with a major depressive episode (MDE) at baseline (i.e. ≥6 on the CDSS), using mixed models. Results No differences in the baseline CDSS total scores were found between the treatment groups regardless of presence of an MDE. Clozapine was more effective than quetiapine in antidepressant effects for chronic schizophrenia (p<.01 for the whole sample and p=.01 for those with an MDE), and comparable to olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion The present findings suggest clozapine demonstrates superior antidepressant effects to quetiapine and comparable effects to olanzapine and risperidone in chronic schizophrenia regardless of presence of MDE. Given the indication of clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and the negative impacts of depressive symptoms on clinical outcomes in schizophrenia, further research is warranted to investigate antidepressant effects of clozapine in TRS with an MDE. PMID:25556080

  13. Structural properties of CaTi 1-x(Nb 2/3Li 2/3) xO 3-δ (CNLTO) and CaTi 1-x(Nb 1/2Ln 1/2) xO 3 (Ln=Fe (CNFTO), Bi (CNBTO)), modified dielectric ceramics for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. C. S.; Bruno Costa, A. D. S.; Freire, F. N. A.; Santos, M. R. P.; Almeida, J. S.; Sohn, R. S. T. M.; Sasaki, J. M.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the structural characteristics of Nb 1/2Bi 1/2 (CNBTO), Nb 1/2Fe 1/2 (CNFTO) and Nb 2/3Li 1/3 (CNLTO) substitution into the B-site of calcium titanate ceramics. The modified CaTiO 3 (CTO) ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state method. The compounds were investigated, by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). The X-ray analysis shows that all samples have an orthorhombic structure. The refinement analysis of all samples were also performed and discussed in this paper. For all studied samples, a Raman mode at 805 cm -1 was detected and its intensity increases as the substitution increases. The dielectric permittivity and loss at microwave frequencies (MW) were investigated. The CNLTO phase, present the highest dielectric constant ( k=35.8) at 3.9 GHz with loss (tg α=7×10 -3). The lowest value of k=25.7 ( f=4.8 GHz) and tg α=3×10 -3, was obtained for the CNFTO phase. These measurements confirm the possible use of such material for microwave devices like dielectric resonator antennas.

  14. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... control of ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria..., Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.). (B) Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): Ascarid (Toxocara cati... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm...

  15. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... control of ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria..., Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.). (B) Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): Ascarid (Toxocara cati... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm...

  16. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... control of ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria..., Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.). (B) Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): Ascarid (Toxocara cati... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm...

  17. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... control of ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria..., Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.). (B) Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): Ascarid (Toxocara cati... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm...

  18. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... control of ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria..., Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.). (B) Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): Ascarid (Toxocara cati... (Panthera onca): Ascarid (Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina), Hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.), Tapeworm...

  19. A new species, Toxocara lyncis, in the caracal (Lynx caracal).

    PubMed

    Macchioni, G

    1999-12-01

    Toxocara lyncis, sp. n. is described from Lynx caracal in Somalia. It most closely resembles T. cati, the only species of Toxocara reported from L. caracal. It differs from T. cati in the comparative length of the spicules and the esophagus, and in the shape of the cervical alae. Cervical alae have a nearly uniform width along their length in T. lyncis, while they are narrow anteriorly and broad posteriorly forming an arrow head shaped cephalic end in T. cati. PMID:10870554

  20. A new species, Toxocara lyncis, in the caracal (Lynx caracal).

    PubMed

    Macchioni, G

    1999-12-01

    Toxocara lyncis, sp. n. is described from Lynx caracal in Somalia. It most closely resembles T. cati, the only species of Toxocara reported from L. caracal. It differs from T. cati in the comparative length of the spicules and the esophagus, and in the shape of the cervical alae. Cervical alae have a nearly uniform width along their length in T. lyncis, while they are narrow anteriorly and broad posteriorly forming an arrow head shaped cephalic end in T. cati.

  1. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme), and large roundworms (Toxocara cati... and Toxascaris leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme), and large roundworms (Toxocara cati... and Toxascaris leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme), and large roundworms (Toxocara cati... and Toxascaris leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme), and large roundworms (Toxocara cati... and Toxascaris leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1146 - Imidacloprid and moxidectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala), and whipworms (Trichuris vulpis... (Toxocara cati), and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme); kills adult fleas and treats flea...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1146 - Imidacloprid and moxidectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala), and whipworms (Trichuris vulpis... (Toxocara cati), and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme); kills adult fleas and treats flea...

  7. 21 CFR 520.903e - Febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (2) Indications for use. (i) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala...) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) and ascarids (Toxocara cati) in cats and kittens....

  8. 21 CFR 524.1146 - Imidacloprid and moxidectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala), and whipworms (Trichuris vulpis... (Toxocara cati), and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme); kills adult fleas and treats flea...

  9. 21 CFR 520.903e - Febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (2) Indications for use. (i) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala...) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) and ascarids (Toxocara cati) in cats and kittens....

  10. 21 CFR 520.903e - Febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (2) Indications for use. (i) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala...) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) and ascarids (Toxocara cati) in cats and kittens....

  11. 21 CFR 524.1146 - Imidacloprid and moxidectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... leonina), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala), and whipworms (Trichuris vulpis... (Toxocara cati), and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme); kills adult fleas and treats flea...

  12. 21 CFR 520.903e - Febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (2) Indications for use. (i) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala...) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) and ascarids (Toxocara cati) in cats and kittens....

  13. 21 CFR 520.903e - Febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (2) Indications for use. (i) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala...) For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) and ascarids (Toxocara cati) in cats and kittens....

  14. Female Combat Medics Fight Every Day & Earn Respect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Temperatures exceeded 115 degrees on July 11 during the five-hour mission in the city of Amerli. More than 50 soldiers were on site and tensions were high; Amerli was the scene of a massive suicide truck bombing just four days earlier. Soldiers kept alert but visibly struggled under the weight of dozens of pounds of battle gear. Throughout the…

  15. 78 FR 29321 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... three waves whose sample is selected from the Master Address File. In 2011, because of limited funding... a high success rate in obtaining the correct phone numbers for our addresses. This caused the Wave 1 CATI response rates to plummet. Wave 2 and Wave 3 CATI did better because the majority of the...

  16. Science off the Sphere: Space Balloonacy

    NASA Video Gallery

    In his off duty time, NASA Astronaut Don Pettit cools down with some microgravity water balloon experiments aboard the International Space Station. Through a partnership between NASA and the Americ...

  17. Effect of survey instrument on participation in a follow-up study: a randomization study of a mailed questionnaire versus a computer-assisted telephone interview

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological and public health surveys report increasing difficulty obtaining high participation rates. We conducted a pilot follow-up study to determine whether a mailed or telephone survey would better facilitate data collection in a subset of respondents to an earlier telephone survey conducted as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Methods We randomly assigned 392 eligible mothers to receive a self-administered, mailed questionnaire (MQ) or a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) using similar recruitment protocols. If mothers gave permission to contact the fathers, fathers were recruited to complete the same instrument (MQ or CATI) as mothers. Results Mothers contacted for the MQ, within all demographic strata examined, were more likely to participate than those contacted for the CATI (86.6% vs. 70.6%). The median response time for mothers completing the MQ was 17 days, compared to 29 days for mothers completing the CATI. Mothers completing the MQ also required fewer reminder calls or letters to finish participation versus those assigned to the CATI (median 3 versus 6), though they were less likely to give permission to contact the father (75.0% vs. 85.8%). Fathers contacted for the MQ, however, had higher participation compared to fathers contacted for the CATI (85.2% vs. 54.5%). Fathers recruited to the MQ also had a shorter response time (median 17 days) and required fewer reminder calls and letters (median 3 reminders) than those completing the CATI (medians 28 days and 6 reminders). Conclusions We concluded that offering a MQ substantially improved participation rates and reduced recruitment effort compared to a CATI in this study. While a CATI has the advantage of being able to clarify answers to complex questions or eligibility requirements, our experience suggests that a MQ might be a good survey option for some studies. PMID:22849754

  18. 21 CFR 520.600 - Dichlorvos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms), and Trichuris vulpis (whipworm) residing in the lumen of... of intestinal roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... (Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala)....

  19. 21 CFR 520.600 - Dichlorvos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms), and Trichuris vulpis (whipworm) residing in the lumen of... of intestinal roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... (Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala)....

  20. 21 CFR 520.600 - Dichlorvos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms), and Trichuris vulpis (whipworm) residing in the lumen of... of intestinal roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... (Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala)....

  1. 21 CFR 520.600 - Dichlorvos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms), and Trichuris vulpis (whipworm) residing in the lumen of... of intestinal roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... (Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala)....

  2. 21 CFR 520.600 - Dichlorvos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms), and Trichuris vulpis (whipworm) residing in the lumen of... of intestinal roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... (Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala)....

  3. Expect the Unexpected: A Case of Isolated Eosinophilic Meningitis in Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sick, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young police officer suffering from headache without other neurological symptoms caused by isolated eosinophilic meningitis, which resulted from an infection with Toxocara cati, along with a discussion of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25535488

  4. Toxocariasis (also known as Roundworm Infection) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the intestine of dogs ( Toxocara canis ) and cats ( T. cati ). Who is at risk for toxocariasis? ... Toxocara. Young children and owners of dogs or cats have a higher chance of becoming infected. Approximately ...

  5. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Cancer.gov

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  6. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... For the treatment and control of hookworm infections caused by Ancylostoma tubaeforme (adults, immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  7. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... For the treatment and control of hookworm infections caused by Ancylostoma tubaeforme (adults, immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  8. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... For the treatment and control of hookworm infections caused by Ancylostoma tubaeforme (adults, immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  9. 21 CFR 524.775 - Emodepside and praziquantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... For the treatment and control of hookworm infections caused by Ancylostoma tubaeforme (adults, immature adults, and fourth stage larvae), roundworm infections caused by Toxocara cati (adults and fourth stage larvae), and tapeworm infections caused by Dipylidium caninum (adults) and Taenia...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala), and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum... for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis), hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme), and large roundworms (Toxocara cati) in cats and kittens. (iii) Limitations. Not...

  11. Differential gene expression by Moniliophthora roreri while overcoming cacao tolerance in the field.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Bryan A; Melnick, Rachel L; Strem, Mary D; Crozier, Jayne; Shao, Jonathan; Sicher, Richard; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Ali, Shahin S; Zhang, Dapeng; Meinhardt, Lyndel

    2014-09-01

    Frosty pod rot (FPR) of Theobroma cacao (cacao) is caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora roreri. Cacao clones tolerant to FPR are being planted throughout Central America. To determine whether M. roreri shows a differential molecular response during successful infections of tolerant clones, we collected field-infected pods at all stages of symptomatology for two highly susceptible clones (Pound-7 and CATIE-1000) and three tolerant clones (UF-273, CATIE-R7 and CATIE-R4). Metabolite analysis was carried out on clones Pound-7, CATIE-1000, CATIE-R7 and CATIE-R4. As FPR progressed, the concentrations of sugars in pods dropped, whereas the levels of trehalose and mannitol increased. Associations between symptoms and fungal loads and some organic and amino acid concentrations varied depending on the clone. RNA-Seq analysis identified 873 M. roreri genes that were differentially expressed between clones, with the primary difference being whether the clone was susceptible or tolerant. Genes encoding transcription factors, heat shock proteins, transporters, enzymes modifying membranes or cell walls and metabolic enzymes, such as malate synthase and alternative oxidase, were differentially expressed. The differential expression between clones of 43 M. roreri genes was validated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression profiles of some genes were similar in susceptible and tolerant clones (other than CATIE-R4) and varied with the biotrophic/necrotropic shift. Moniliophthora roreri genes associated with stress metabolism and responses to heat shock and anoxia were induced early in tolerant clones, their expression profiles resembling that of the necrotrophic phase. Moniliophthora roreri stress response genes, induced during the infection of tolerant clones, may benefit the fungus in overcoming cacao defense mechanisms.

  12. Molecular characterization of a Toxocara variant from cats in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X Q; Jacobs, D E; Chilton, N B; Sani, R A; Cheng, N A; Gasser, R B

    1998-08-01

    The ascaridoid nematode of cats from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, previously identified morphologically as Toxocara canis, was characterized using a molecular approach. The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region spanning the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1), the 5.8S gene and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) was amplified and sequenced. The sequences for the parasite from Malaysian cats were compared with those for T. canis and T. cati. The sequence data showed that this taxon was genetically more similar to T. cati than to T. canis in the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2. Differences in the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences between the taxa (9.4-26.1%) were markedly higher than variation between samples within T. canis and T. cati (0-2.9%). The sequence data demonstrate that the parasite from Malaysian cats is neither T. canis nor T. cati and indicate that it is a distinct species. Based on these data, PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) methods were employed for the unequivocal differentiation of the Toxocara variant from T. canis and T. cati. These methods should provide valuable tools for studying the life-cycle, transmission pattern(s) and zoonotic potential of this parasite.

  13. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (P<0.05). Temperature changes also influenced T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestation, and a rise in temperature caused an increase in the number of T. leonina and Toxo. cati eggs. This study provides a better understanding of ascarid infestation among the captive Siberian tigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo.

  14. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (P<0.05). Temperature changes also influenced T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestation, and a rise in temperature caused an increase in the number of T. leonina and Toxo. cati eggs. This study provides a better understanding of ascarid infestation among the captive Siberian tigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. PMID:27514888

  15. Concurrent infestation of Notoedres, Sarcoptic and Psoroptic acariosis in rabbit and its management.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, P N; Mohanty, B N; Gupta, A R; Patra, R C; Dey, S

    2016-09-01

    Acariotic mange in rabbits is one of the important constraints in rabbit husbandry. Sarcoptes scabies var. cuniculi and Psoroptes cuniculi are most common mites prevailed in rabbits, but Notoedres cati, is the rarest mite ever been reported in rabbit. Two New Zealand white rabbits were presented with clinical signs of pruritus, alopecia, scab and crust formation and lichenification on the upper lip, ear pinnae, eyelids, lower jaw and limbs. Deep skin scraping was taken separately from 4 to 5 different skin lesions from each rabbit, revealed mixed infestations of N. cati, S. cuniculi and P. cuniculi. Subcutaneous injection of ivermectin at weekly intervals for four weeks resulted in remission of clinical signs and improvement of health condition in rabbits. This is the first report of N. cati infestation of rabbit in Odisha. PMID:27605843

  16. Salicylic acid is a modulator of catalase isozymes in chickpea plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.

    PubMed

    Gayatridevi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Sreeramulu, K

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between salicylic acid level catalases isoforms chickpea cv. ICCV-10 infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was investigated. Pathogen-treated chickpea plants showed high levels of SA compared with the control. Two isoforms of catalases in shoot extract (CAT-IS and CAT-IIS) and single isoform in root extract (CAT-R) were detected in chickpea. CAT-IS and CAT-R activities were inhibited in respective extracts treated with pathogen whereas, CAT-IIS activity was not inhibited. These isoforms were purified and their kinetic properties studied in the presence or absence of SA. The molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE of CAT-IS, CAT-IIS and CAT-R was found to be 97, 40 and 66 kDa respectively. Kinetic studies indicated that Km and V(max) of CAT-IS were 0.2 mM and 300 U/mg, 0.53 mM and 180 U/mg for CAT-IIS and 0.25 mM and 280 U/mg for CAT-R, respectively. CAT-IS and CAT-R were found to be more sensitive to SA and 50% of their activities were inhibited at 6 and 4 μM respectively, whereas CAT-IIS was insensitive to SA up to 100 μM. Quenching of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of purified catalases were used to quantitate SA binding; the estimated K(d) value for CAT-IS, CAT-IIS and CAT-R found to be 2.3 μM, 3.1 mM and 2.8 μM respectively. SA is a modulator of catalase isozymes activity, supports its role in establishment of SAR in chickpea plants infected with the pathogen.

  17. Measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility in Support of Global Security Mission Space

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Mayo, Douglas R.; Herrera, Gary D.; McLaughlin, Anastasia D.; Montoya, Charles M.; Quihuis, Becky A.; Trujillo, Julio B.; Van Pelt, Craig E.; Wenz, Tracy R.

    2012-07-13

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility at Technical Area (TA) 55 is one of a few nuclear facilities in the United States where Research & Development measurements can be performed on Safeguards Category-I (CAT-I) quantities of nuclear material. This capability allows us to incorporate measurements of CAT-IV through CAT-I materials as a component of detector characterization campaigns and training courses conducted at Los Alamos. A wider range of measurements can be supported. We will present an overview of recent measurements conducted in support of nuclear emergency response, nuclear counterterrorism, and international and domestic safeguards. This work was supported by the NNSA Office of Counterterrorism.

  18. Characterization of an EPG waveform library for redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on soybean plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted with the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), using AC-DC electropenetrography (EPG) to record feeding behaviors on vegetative (stem and leaflet) and reproductive (pod) tissues of soybean, Glycine max (L.). P. guildinii is a major pest of soybean in the Americ...

  19. Laurel wilt: A global threat to avocado production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laurel wilt kills members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado. The disease has invaded much of the southeastern USA, and threatens avocado commerce and homeowner production in Florida, valuable germplasm in Miami (USDA-ARS), and major production and germplasm in California and MesoAmer...

  20. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology. Volume 1.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixit, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    Articles in this issue of "Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology" include: (1) Input Data Processing Techniques in Intrusion Detection Systems--Short Review (Suhair H. Amer and John A. Hamilton, Jr.); (2) Semantic Annotation of Stock Photography for CBIR Using MPEG-7 standards (R. Balasubramani and V. Kannan); (3) An Experimental Study…

  1. Estimating North American background ozone in U.S. surface air with two independent global models: Variability, uncertainties, and recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate estimates for North American background (NAB) ozone (O3) in surface air over the United States are needed for setting and implementing an attainable national O3 standard. These estimates rely on simulations with atmospheric chemistry-transport models that set North Amer...

  2. Keeping Students Engaged in School through the UK-I-Can Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Steven W.; Edwards, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    The UK-I-Can Program is an adaptation of the Amer-I-Can Program, introduced in 1988 to help individuals meet their full potential and improve the quality of their lives. The focus of the program is equipping young people with life management skills necessary to lead fulfilling and productive lives, based on the belief that individuals' self-esteem…

  3. A Simple Method to Find out when an Ordinary Differential Equation Is Separable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cid, Jose Angel

    2009-01-01

    We present an alternative method to that of Scott (D. Scott, "When is an ordinary differential equation separable?", "Amer. Math. Monthly" 92 (1985), pp. 422-423) to teach the students how to discover whether a differential equation y[prime] = f(x,y) is separable or not when the nonlinearity f(x, y) is not explicitly factorized. Our approach is…

  4. The Law of Cosines for an "n"-Dimensional Simplex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yiren

    2008-01-01

    Using the divergence theorem technique of L. Eifler and N.H. Rhee, "The n-dimensional Pythagorean Theorem via the Divergence Theorem" (to appear: Amer. Math. Monthly), we extend the law of cosines for a triangle in a plane to an "n"-dimensional simplex in an "n"-dimensional space.

  5. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and generation of novel reassortants, United States, 2014-2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North Americ...

  6. Education through Art after the Second World War: A Critical Review of Art Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyungsook

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how progressive education was introduced to South Korea after the Second World War and takes a closer look at critical studies of this history. It argues that the America-led progressive education policies, which focused on art education, were an uncritical adaptation of the superpower's educational ideology and did not…

  7. Psychosocial mechanisms linking the social environment to mental health in African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African Amer...

  8. THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT -- AN ALTERNATIVES FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

  9. 42 CFR 37.43 - Approval of radiographic facilities that use film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... roentgenography of the chest. Amer J Roentgenol 117(4):771-776. (b) Each radiographic facility submitting chest... facility addressing radiation exposures, equipment maintenance, and image quality, and must conform to the... individual data, interpretations, and images) consistent with applicable statutes and regulations...

  10. 42 CFR 37.43 - Approval of radiographic facilities that use film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... roentgenography of the chest. Amer J Roentgenol 117(4):771-776. (b) Each radiographic facility submitting chest... facility addressing radiation exposures, equipment maintenance, and image quality, and must conform to the... individual data, interpretations, and images) consistent with applicable statutes and regulations...

  11. ESTIMATION OF CRITICAL LOADS OF ACIDITY FOR LAKESIN NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES AND EASTERN CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers (NEG/ECP) adopted the Acid Rain Action Plan in June 1998, and issued a series of action items to support its work toward a reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx ) emissions in northeastern North Americ...

  12. POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

  13. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  14. A complete plastid phylogeny of Daucus – concordance to nuclear results, and markers necessary for phylogenetic resolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of study: Our purposes were to (1) obtain a well-resolved plastid counterpart to the 94 gene nuclear ortholog gene phylogeny of Arbizu et al. (2014, Amer. J. Bot. 101:1666-1685; and Syst. Bot., in press), and (2) to investigate various classes and numbers of plastid markers necessary for a c...

  15. Tolerance of Swallowworts (Vincetoxicum spp.) to multiple years of artificial defoliation and clipping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European vines, pale swallowwort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallowwort (V. nigrum), are invading various habitats in northeastern North America. It is unclear how these plants might respond to potential biological control agents, as they experience little herbivore damage in North Americ...

  16. Molecular and biological characterization of Mexican papita viroid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mexican papita viroid (MPVd), a member of the genus Pospiviroid, family Pospiviroidae, was first isolated from wild papita (Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl) plants in 1996. Beginning in 2009, several disease outbreaks caused by this viroid have been reported in greenhouse tomatoes growing in North Amer...

  17. Development of a fish assemblage tolerance index for the National Rivers and Streams Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whittier et al (Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 136:254-271) developed an assemblage tolerance index (ATI) for stream fishes in the western US based on quantitative tolerance values developed for individual fish and amphibian species. The ATI is conceptually similar to the Hilsenhoff Bi...

  18. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the final part of a three part series specifically addressing lessons learned concerning the management of rehabilitated cheatgrass-infested rangelands. Steve Novak and Richard Mack reported in 2003 that they found no evidence of outcrossing in 2,000 cheatgrass seedlings from 60 North Americ...

  19. Understanding Pedagogical Design Capacity through Teachers' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; Beyer, Carrie; Forbes, Cory T.; Stevens, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    Teachers need to develop the ability to adapt curriculum materials. Two elementary teachers, Maggie and Catie, were asked to write narratives about their use of and changes to particular reform-oriented science lesson plans. Maggie drew on her knowledge of and experiences with students, as well as other knowledge, experiences, and resources, to…

  20. Gastrointestinal parasites of cougars (Felis concolor) in Washington and the first report of Ollulanus tricuspis in a sylvatic felid from North America.

    PubMed

    Rickard, L G; Foreyt, W J

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths including two species of cestodes (Taenia omissa and T. ovis krabbei) and three species of nematodes (Toxocara cati, Cylicospirura subequalis and Ollulanus tricuspis) are reported from two free-ranging cougars (Felis concolor) in Washington (USA). Ollulanus tricuspis is reported for the first time from cougars and represents the first occurrence of this parasite in a sylvatic felid from North America.

  1. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala) from dogs and of the ascarid (Toxocara cati) and hookworm (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) from cats. (ii)(a) Animals should not be fed... symptoms of large roundworms a dose should be given and repeated in 10 days. Removal of hookworms...

  2. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala) from dogs and of the ascarid (Toxocara cati) and hookworm (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) from cats. (ii)(a) Animals should not be fed... symptoms of large roundworms a dose should be given and repeated in 10 days. Removal of hookworms...

  3. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Uncinaria stenocephala) from dogs and of the ascarid (Toxocara cati) and hookworm (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) from cats. (ii)(a) Animals should not be fed... symptoms of large roundworms a dose should be given and repeated in 10 days. Removal of hookworms...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1441 - Milbemycin oxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) (d) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs and puppies—(i) Amount. For hookworm... use. For prevention of heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, control of hookworm infections... the removal of adult Toxocara cati (roundworm) and Ancylostoma tubaeforme (hookworm) infections...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1441 - Milbemycin oxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) (d) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs and puppies—(i) Amount. For hookworm... use. For prevention of heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, control of hookworm infections... the removal of adult Toxocara cati (roundworm) and Ancylostoma tubaeforme (hookworm) infections...

  6. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use. (i) It is used for the removal of ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms... (Toxocara cati) and hookworm (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) from cats. (ii)(a) Animals should not be fed for 18 to... roundworms a dose should be given and repeated in 10 days. Removal of hookworms may require 3 or 4 doses...

  7. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... use. (i) It is used for the removal of ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms... (Toxocara cati) and hookworm (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) from cats. (ii)(a) Animals should not be fed for 18 to... roundworms a dose should be given and repeated in 10 days. Removal of hookworms may require 3 or 4 doses...

  8. BENZO[A]PYRENE-7,8-QUINONE FORMS COVALENT-DNA ADDUCTS IN VITRO BUT NONE WERE DETECTED IN THE LUNGS OR LIVERS OF STRAIN A/J MICE IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a potent human and rodent lung carcinogen. This activity has been ascribed in part to the formation of B[a]P-7,8-dio1-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts. Other carcinogenic mechanisms have been proposed: 1.] The induction of apurinic sites from radical cati...

  9. The People United Shall Never Be Divided: Reflections on Community, Collaboration, and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de los Rios, Cati V.; Ochoa, Gilda L.

    2012-01-01

    Mounted on the walls, windows, and bookcases of Ms. Cati de los Rios's Pomona High School classroom are a multitude of faces, mainly heroes, martyrs, and leaders of Latina/o and African descent. These faces are a symbol of the countercultural and student-centered approach to education that occurs in her classroom. The mere presence of these…

  10. Titanium-44 and Light Sulfur in Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains with Heavy Silicon: Proof of a Supernova Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, P.; Fujiya, W.

    2011-03-01

    We report here on C, Mg-Al, Si, S, and Ca-Ti isotope measurements on presolar SiC grains with heavy Si. Heavy Si together with light S and large excesses in 44Ca, resulting from in situ decay of 44Ti, are a proof for a SN origin of these grains.

  11. 76 FR 14020 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... 1997, in accordance with the 1995 initiative to increase the integration of surveys within DHHS. It is designed to collect needed health and well-being data at the national, state, and local levels. Using the... Interviewing (CATI), and when necessary independent samples, mail, and Internet modes to support...

  12. CYANOBACTERIA PASSAGE DURING FILTER PERTURBATION EPISODES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight pilot-scale in-line filtration trials were performed to evaluate the passage of cyanobacterial cells through drinking water filters after sudden increases in hydraulic loading rates. Trials were performed at 30 C using two coagulant combinations (aluminum sulfate and cati...

  13. Cultural Capital and Transnational Parenting: The Case of Ghanaian Migrants in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Cati; Shani, Serah

    2015-01-01

    What does cultural capital mean in a transnational context? In this article, Cati Coe and Serah Shani illustrate through the case of Ghanaian immigrants to the United States that the concept of cultural capital offers many insights into immigrants' parenting strategies, but that it also needs to be refined in several ways to account for the…

  14. [ANIMAL TOXOCARIASIS IN A MEGALOPOLIS: EPIDEMIC ASPECTS].

    PubMed

    Panova, O A; Glamazdin, I G; Spiridonov, S E

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of toxocariasis was studied among a population of domestic and stray dogs and cats. In a megalopolis, Toxocara invasion was 31.6% in a population of cats and 82 and 25.4% in that of puppies and dogs, respectively. A method was developed for the molecular genetic identification of T. cati and T. canis. PMID:26720970

  15. 21 CFR 524.2098 - Selamectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... control of flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis), prevention of heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, and treatment and control of ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestations in dogs and cats... (Toxocara cati) infections in cats. For dogs 6 weeks of age and older, and cats 8 weeks of age and older....

  16. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... leonina in dogs and T. cati in cats. (ii) For prevention of heartworm and ascarid infections in dogs, the... cats, the drug is administered at a dosage level of 25 to 50 milligrams per pound of body weight... in animals over 4 weeks of age for the prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis)....

  17. 21 CFR 524.2098 - Selamectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... control of flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis), prevention of heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, and treatment and control of ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestations in dogs and cats... (Toxocara cati) infections in cats. For dogs 6 weeks of age and older, and cats 8 weeks of age and older....

  18. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... leonina in dogs and T. cati in cats. (ii) For prevention of heartworm and ascarid infections in dogs, the... cats, the drug is administered at a dosage level of 25 to 50 milligrams per pound of body weight... in animals over 4 weeks of age for the prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis)....

  19. 21 CFR 524.2098 - Selamectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... control of flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis), prevention of heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, and treatment and control of ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestations in dogs and cats... (Toxocara cati) infections in cats. For dogs 6 weeks of age and older, and cats 8 weeks of age and older....

  20. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... leonina in dogs and T. cati in cats. (ii) For prevention of heartworm and ascarid infections in dogs, the... cats, the drug is administered at a dosage level of 25 to 50 milligrams per pound of body weight... in animals over 4 weeks of age for the prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis)....

  1. Canine notoedric mange: a case report.

    PubMed

    Leone, Federico

    2007-04-01

    Notoedric mange is a cutaneous ectoparasitic disease of cats caused by Notoedres cati, a mite belonging to the Sarcoptidae family. The disease occurs in felids, occasionally in other mammals and in humans. The canine form, even if cited by some authors, has never been documented. This report describes for the first time a case of notoedric mange in a dog.

  2. 21 CFR 524.2098 - Selamectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Dirofilaria immitis, and treatment and control of ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestations in dogs and cats... (Toxocara cati) infections in cats. For dogs 6 weeks of age and older, and cats 8 weeks of age and older....

  3. 21 CFR 524.2098 - Selamectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Dirofilaria immitis, and treatment and control of ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestations in dogs and cats... (Toxocara cati) infections in cats. For dogs 6 weeks of age and older, and cats 8 weeks of age and older....

  4. A survey of helminths in stray cats from Copenhagen with ecological aspects.

    PubMed

    Engbaek, K; Madsen, H; Larsen, S O

    1984-01-01

    At autopsy of 230 adult stray cats, 120 from backyards and 110 from gardens, the intestinal tract was scrutinized for helminths. The prevalence of Toxocara cati, Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum was found to be 79%, 11% and 14%, respectively. Comparisons were made with the results of previous Danish investigations. The prevalence of Toxocara cati was found to be independent of time of collection and the sex and habitat of the cats and identical in cats with or without Taenia. This indicates that paratenic hosts do not play an important epizootiological role in the transmission of T. cati. The intensity of Toxocara per cat followed a negative binomial pattern. The high prevalence of T. cati combined with most cats having a low wormload shows that the cat population generally possesses a high degree of resistance against superimposed infections. The intensity of male Toxocara increases with the size of the worm population. This we consider to be an expression of increasing susceptibility of the cats. The prevalence of T. taeniaeformis was significantly higher in garden cats, due to their greater opportunity for catching mice. D. caninum, however, was significantly more frequent in backyard cats, probably owing to better living condition for the flea larvae in backyards. For both T. taeniaeformis and D. caninum a higher frequency was found in female cats, which is thought to be associated with their care for the kittens.

  5. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 520.622b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) The drug is indicated for use in dogs for the prevention of infection with Dirofilaria immitis and T.... leonina in dogs and T. cati in cats. (ii) For prevention of heartworm and ascarid infections in dogs,...

  6. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 520.622b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) The drug is indicated for use in dogs for the prevention of infection with Dirofilaria immitis and T.... leonina in dogs and T. cati in cats. (ii) For prevention of heartworm and ascarid infections in dogs,...

  7. 75 FR 81965 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census Barriers, Attitudes, and Motivators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... participation. CBAMS included over 4,000 in-depth interviews: about 3,000 by phone and another 1,000 in person... that emerged, these mindsets exist throughout the population, regardless of race or ethnicity. CBAMS II... Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI), while a small portion of the interviews will be conducted...

  8. Zoonotic Parasites of Bobcats around Human Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Andrea V.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue; Lappin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans. PMID:22718941

  9. Root-selective expression of "AtCAX4" and "AtCAX2" results in reduced lamina cadmium in field-grown "Nicotiana tabacum L"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the impact of enhanced root vacuole cadmium (Cd) sequestration on leaf Cd accumulation under a low Cd dose, as generally occurs in agriculture, leaf Cd accumulation was examined in field-grown tobacco plants expressing genes encoding the high-capacity-Cd, tonoplast-localized, divalent cati...

  10. Science to services: consumers need "real-world" science.

    PubMed

    Amador, Xavier F; Fitzpatrick, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a revolution in pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia and related disorders. The second generation, or atypical, antipsychotic medications have demonstrated efficacy and generally better side-effect profiles. However, from the perspective of policy makers the higher costs associated with these newer medications leads to tough decisions regarding their continued use in light of an escalating fiscal crisis. For consumers, both persons with the illness and their family caregivers, the budgetary cutbacks leave many scrambling for answers to questions that most treatment (efficacy) studies were never designed to answer. "Should we oppose formulary restrictions on principle alone, or is there scientific data that can be relied on to inform our position?" On a more personal note, many are asking whether or not to switch to one of the newer medications and which medication would be best for them. Unlike CATIE, efficacy studies were never designed to answer such questions. In this article, we start by highlighting how CATIE will fill important gaps in translating the results of efficacy studies to effectiveness in the real world. Both the development of the CATIE methodology and the study design itself reflect what we will refer to as "real-world science": i.e., science that sheds light on effectiveness in vivo and can inform decisions consumers, clinicians, and policy makers are faced with day-to-day. We discuss CATIE in the context of the fiscal crisis hitting MEDICAID programs leading many policy makers to take the more expensive, atypical antipsychotics off the list of medications made available to patients. We argue that studies like CATIE will be highly informative and ultimately vital to policy makers wishing to create mental health policies that will succeed. Throughout, we highlight how CATIE, and real-world science more generally, are vital to consumers striving to find the medication(s) that works best for them. Given the organic

  11. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid to n-3 LCPUFA and expression of PPAR-alpha, acyl Coenzyme A oxidase 1 and carnitine acyl transferase I are incremented after feeding rats with α-linolenic acid-rich oils.

    PubMed

    González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys; Gormaz, Juan Guillermo; D'Espessailles, Amanda; Espinosa, Alejandra; Masson, Lilia; Varela, Patricia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Valenzuela, Rodrigo

    2012-07-01

    High dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids in relation to n-3 fatty acids may generate health disorders, such as cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Fish consumption rich in n-3 fatty acids is low in Latin America, it being necessary to seek other alternatives to provide α-linolenic acid (ALA), precursor of n-3 LCPUFA (EPA and DHA). Two innovative oils were assayed, chia (Salvia hispanica) and rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa). This study evaluated hepatic bioconversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, expression of PPAR-α, acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT-I), and accumulation of EPA and DHA in plasma and adipose tissue in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three experimental groups were fed 21 days: sunflower oil (SFO, control); chia oil (CO); rosa mosqueta oil (RMO). Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids from plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and TLC. Expression of PPAR-α (RT-PCR) and ACOX1 and CAT-I (Western blot). CO and RMO increased plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue levels of ALA, EPA and DHA and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio compared to SFO (p < 0.05, One-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test). CO increased levels of ALA and EPA compared to RMO (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for DHA levels. CO also increased the expression of PPAR-α, ACOX1 and CAT-I. Only CAT-I levels were increased by RO. CO and RMO may be a nutritional alternative to provide ALA for its bioconversion to EPA and DHA, and to increase the expression of PPAR-α, ACOX1 and CAT-I, especially CO-oil.

  12. A Converse of the Mean Value Theorem Made Easy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortici, Cristinel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss some results about the converse mean value theorem stated by Tong and Braza [J. Tong and P. Braza, "A converse of the mean value theorem", Amer. Math. Monthly 104(10), (1997), pp. 939-942] and Almeida [R. Almeida, "An elementary proof of a converse mean-value theorem", Internat. J. Math. Ed. Sci. Tech. 39(8)…

  13. Capacity Building and Financing Oral Health in the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Mumghamba, E G; Joury, E; Fatusi, O; Ober-Oluoch, J; Onigbanjo, R J; Honkala, S

    2015-07-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries do not yet have policies to implement effective oral health programs. A reason is lack of human and financial resources. Gaps between resource needs and available health funding are widening. By building capacity, countries aim to improve oral health through actions by oral health care personnel and oral health care organizations and their communities. Capacity building involves achieving measurable and sustainable results in training, research, and provision of care. Actions include advancement of knowledge, attitudes and skills, expansion of support, and development of cohesiveness and partnerships. The aim of this critical review is to review existing knowledge and identify gaps and variations between and within different income levels in relation to the capacity building and financing oral health in the African and Middle East region (AMER). A second aim is to formulate research priorities and outline a research agenda for capacity building and financing to improve oral health and reduce oral health inequalities in the AMER. The article focuses on capacity building for oral health and oral health financing in the AMER of the IADR. In many communities in the AMER, there are clear and widening gaps between the dental needs and the existing capacity to meet these needs in terms of financial and human resources. Concerted efforts are required to improve access to oral health care through appropriate financing mechanisms, innovative health insurance schemes, and donor support and move toward universal oral health care coverage to reduce social inequality in the region. It is necessary to build capacity and incentivize the workforce to render evidence-based services as well as accessing funds to conduct research on equity and social determinants of oral health while promoting community engagement and a multidisciplinary approach.

  14. Novel fiber lasers and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenteno, Luis A.; Walton, Donnell T.

    2003-07-01

    Glass fiber lasers were invented in the 60's by Elias Snitzer at Americal Optical, soon after the invention of the first solid-state glass laser. However, it was not until the 80's when these waveguide devices were deployed in industrial applications, driven largely by the technological success of the semiconductor laser diode, which provided practical and efficient pumps, and by the advent of low loss rare-earth-doped optical fiber.

  15. Tantalum-bearing titanite: synthesis and crystal structure data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liferovich, Ruslan P.; Mitchell, Roger H.

    2006-04-01

    Synthetic titanite, CaTiOSiO4, and the series of (Ca1- x Na x )(Ti1- x Ta x )OSiO4 and Ca(Ti1-2 x Ta x Al x )OSiO4 solid solutions have been prepared by ceramic methods, and their crystal structure determined by the Rietveld analysis. At ambient conditions, titanite can contain up to 20 mol% NaTaOSiO4 or 60 mol% Ca(Al0.5Ta0.5)OSiO4. These limits might differ in natural samples due to combination with substitutions involving fluorine and/or hydroxyl replacing oxygen together with vacancies at cationic sites. All cations located at the vii X- and vi Y-sites in the structures of tantalian titanite are disordered. Expansion of the bond from 1.618 to 1.621 Å in CaTi0.8Ta0.1Al0.1OSiO4 and CaTi0.6Ta0.2Al0.2OSiO4 to 1.644 Å in the CaTi0.4Ta0.3Al0.3OSiO4 titanite suggests the possible presence of some Al3+ in the tetrahedral site replacing Si4+ in the latter. All tantalian titanites crystallize in the space group A2 /a. This implies that both single-site and complex double-site substitutional schemes induce P21/ a → A2/ a phase transition(s). The (Ca1- x Na x )(Ti1- x Ta x )OSiO4 substitution scheme incorporates larger cations at both the vii X and vi Y sites, whereas the Ca(Ti1-2 x Ta x Al x )OSiO4 scheme involves only vi Y-site (Al3+,Ta5+) cations with a slightly smaller “average” radius. Unit cell dimensions change insignificantly or increase incrementally with increase of average cationic radii in the (Ca1- x Na x )(Ti1- x Ta x )OSiO4 series, and with an insignificant decrease in the viR Y average cationic radii in the Ca(Ti1-2 x Ta x Al x )OSiO4 series. Both Ta-doped titanite and CaTiOSiO4 consist of distorted polyhedra with the XO7, YO6 coordination polyhedra and the SiO4 tetrahedron in tantalian titanite being less distorted compared to those of the pure CaTiOSiO4.

  16. A Rare Cause of Hypereosinophilia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Merdin, Alparslan; Ogur, Emine; Çiçek Kolak, Çiğdem; Avcı Merdin, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Toxocariasis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of Toxocara cati and T. canis, which live in the intestinal system of cats (T. cati) and dogs (T. canis). Infective eggs can enter the gastrointestinal system by the oral route via foods contaminated with feces of dogs or cats or via dirty contaminated hands. The larvae penetrate the small intestine and migrate to visceral organs by systemic circulation. Hypereosinophilia is a common finding in the tissue invasion of parasites. Serological methods are the principle diagnostic methods for toxocariasis. In this study, we reported a toxocariasis patient presented with hypereosinophilia, hepatomegaly, and intestinal involvement. Computed tomography showed diffuse thickening of the ileal bowel loop walls around the umbilicus. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed an enlarged periduodenal lymph node. Symptoms improved with albendazole treatment with a subsequent flare. PMID:27594294

  17. Toxocara malaysiensis infection in domestic cats in Vietnam--An emerging zoonotic issue?

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Anh, Nguyen Thi Lan; Nguyen, Khue Thi; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Thuy, Do Thi Thu; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis of canids is a parasitic nematode (ascaridoid) that infects humans and other hosts, causing different forms of toxocariasis. This species of Toxocara appears to be the most important cause of human disease, likely followed by Toxocara cati from felids. Although some studies from Malaysia and China have shown that cats can harbor another congener, T. malaysiensis, no information is available about this parasite for other countries. Moreover, the zoonotic potential of this parasite is unknown at this point. In the present study, we conducted the first investigation of domestic dogs and cats for Toxocara in Vietnam using molecular tools. Toxocara malaysiensis was identified as a common ascaridoid of domestic cats (in the absence of T. cati), and T. canis was commonly found in dogs. Together with findings from previous studies, the present results emphasize the need to explore the significance and zoonotic potential of T. malaysiensis in Vietnam and other countries where this parasite is endemic and prevalent in cats.

  18. Water-free titania-bronze thin films with superfast lithium-ion transport.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Katz, Michael B; Li, Baihai; Kim, Sung Joo; Du, Xianfeng; Hao, Xiaoguang; Jokisaari, Jacob R; Zhang, Shuyi; Graham, George W; Van der Ven, Anton; Bartlett, Bart M; Pan, Xiaoqing

    2014-11-19

    Using pulsed laser deposition, TiO2 (-) B and its recently discovered variant Ca:TiO2 (-) B (CaTi5O11) are synthesized as highly crystalline thin films for the first time by a completely water-free process. Significant enhancement in the Li-ion battery performance is achieved by manipulating the crystal orientation of the films, used as anodes, with a demonstration of extraordinary structural stability under extreme conditions.

  19. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi-Storm, N; Mejer, H; Al-Sabi, M N S; Olsen, C S; Thamsborg, S M; Enemark, H L

    2015-12-15

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n=92) and household cats with outdoor access (n=7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region, Denmark. The sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) was used to isolate helminths and coproscopy was done by concentration McMaster technique (c-McMaster). Overall, 90.1% of the cats were infected and a total of 10 species were recorded by SCT: 5 nematode species: Toxocara cati (84.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (13.1%), Aonchotheca putorii (7.1%), Paersonema spp. (3.0%), Strongyloides spp. (1.0%); 3 cestodes: Hydatigera taeniaeformis (36.4%), Mesocestoides sp. (3.0%), Dipylidium caninum (1.0%); and 2 trematodes: Cryptocotyle spp. (5.1%) and Pseudamphistomum truncatum (1.0%). O. tricuspis was the second most common gastrointestinal nematode of cats but had the highest intensity of infection. For T. cati, prevalence and worm burden were significantly higher in feral than household cats. No juvenile cats were infected with H. taeniaeformis, and age thus had a significant effect on prevalence and worm burdens of this species. Rural cats had a higher prevalence and worm burden of A. putorii than urban cats. By c-McMaster, ascarid, capillarid, strongylid or taeniid type eggs were found in 77.9% of the cats while Cystoisospora felis was found in 2.1%. The sensitivity of the c-McMaster was 82.5% for T. cati but 26.5% for taeniid eggs, using the SCT as gold standard. A positive correlation between faecal egg counts and worm burdens was seen for T. cati, but not for taeniid eggs (assumed to be H. taeniaeformis). Coprological examination also detected the eggs of extraintestinal Capillariidae species including Eucoleus aerophilus and Eucoleus boehmi, but further necropsy studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  20. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation. PMID:26535453

  1. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation.

  2. Neurotoxocarosis alters myelin protein gene transcription and expression.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Lea; Beyerbach, Martin; Lühder, Fred; Beineke, Andreas; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Neurotoxocarosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by migrating larvae of the common dog and cat roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati), which are zoonotic agents. As these parasites are prevalent worldwide and neuropathological and molecular investigations on neurotoxocarosis are scare, this study aims to characterise nerve fibre demyelination associated with neurotoxocarosis on a molecular level. Transcription of eight myelin-associated genes (Cnp, Mag, Mbp, Mog, Mrf-1, Nogo-A, Plp1, Olig2) was determined in the mouse model during six time points of the chronic phase of infection using qRT-PCR. Expression of selected proteins was analysed by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Additionally, demyelination and neuronal damage were investigated histologically. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between transcription rates of T. canis-infected and uninfected control mice were detected for all analysed genes while T. cati affected five of eight investigated genes. Interestingly, 2', 3 ´-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (Cnp) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog) were upregulated in both T. canis- and T. cati-infected mice preceding demyelination. Later, CNPase expression was additionally enhanced. As expected, myelin basic protein (Mbp) was downregulated in cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice when severe demyelination was present 120 days post infectionem (dpi). The transcriptional pattern observed in the present study appears to reflect direct traumatic and hypoxic effects of larval migration as well as secondary processes including host immune reactions, demyelination and attempts to remyelinate damaged areas.

  3. Therapeutic efficacy of Broadline against notoedric mange in cats.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Capári, Balázs; Visser, Martin

    2014-11-01

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% w/v, (S)-methoprene 10 % w/v, eprinomectin 0.4% w/v, and praziquantel 8.3% w/v (Broadline, Merial) was evaluated in 18 cats naturally infested by Notoedres cati in a controlled, blinded clinical efficacy study. Cats were blocked on pretreatment bodyweight and randomly allocated to two groups of nine cats each. One group served as control (untreated) and one group was treated once topically with Broadline according to the label instructions. Skin scrapings (three scrapings per animal per occasion) were collected prior to treatment and every other week for 8 weeks thereafter and examined for live N. cati mites. In addition, lesions were evaluated at each sampling to monitor the clinical recovery. Based on live mite counts, efficacy against N. cati of a single topical administration with Broadline was >99%, and all treated cats recovered from clinical signs of notoedric mange. No treatment-related adverse events were observed. PMID:25258041

  4. AB025. Medication adherence: placing the ‘when’ and ‘which’ in the equation

    PubMed Central

    Dima, Alexandra L.; van Ganse, Eric; Laforest, Laurent; de Bruin, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    Background Medication adherence is a dynamic process and may vary depending on life circumstances and treatment regimens, particularly in health conditions with variable symptoms such as asthma. Yet, adherence is commonly operationalized in observational studies as a single average score, which ignores its dynamic nature. Moreover, current self-report measures often do not assess behaviour nor capture relevant distinct properties of adherence, which reduces their accuracy and usefulness compared to, for example, electronic monitoring. Within a 2-year cohort study on asthma (ASTRO-LAB), we developed a new 6-item self-report tool for assessing adherence to daily inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) which used only items that capture the different relevant properties of adherence behaviours. We tested its ability to capture suboptimal adherence and variability in adherence for different types of inhaler and in different time intervals. Methods Adults and parents of children with asthma (age ≥12 and 6–11) in the United Kingdom (UK) and France answered up to seven 4-monthly computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATIs) conducted by trained interviewers. Respondents specified which inhalers they were prescribed daily and in what dosage, and reported on key elements of inhaler implementation adherence (e.g., dosing per intake; daily dosing; drug holidays), with more detailed questions on shorter time intervals (last day, week, month, and 4 months). We estimated adherence for different time intervals and examined its variation between treatments (Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon) and within and between individuals (multilevel models). Results Of the 934 participants interviewed in the baseline CATI, 810 reported being prescribed one daily inhaler [241 ICS, 28 LABA, 541 fixed dose combination (FDC)], 60 participants were prescribed ICS and LABA in separate inhalers, 22 reported FDC simultaneously with ICS or LABA inhalers, and 42 reported none

  5. Fixed point theorems for generalized contractions in ordered metric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Regan, Donal; Petrusel, Adrian

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some fixed point results for self-generalized contractions in ordered metric spaces. Our results generalize and extend some recent results of A.C.M. Ran, M.C. Reurings [A.C.M. Ran, MEC. Reurings, A fixed point theorem in partially ordered sets and some applications to matrix equations, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 132 (2004) 1435-1443], J.J. Nieto, R. Rodríguez-López [J.J. Nieto, R. Rodríguez-López, Contractive mapping theorems in partially ordered sets and applications to ordinary differential equations, Order 22 (2005) 223-239; J.J. Nieto, R. Rodríguez-López, Existence and uniqueness of fixed points in partially ordered sets and applications to ordinary differential equations, Acta Math. Sin. (Engl. Ser.) 23 (2007) 2205-2212], J.J. Nieto, R.L. Pouso, R. Rodríguez-López [J.J. Nieto, R.L. Pouso, R. Rodríguez-López, Fixed point theorem theorems in ordered abstract sets, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 135 (2007) 2505-2517], A. Petrusel, I.A. Rus [A. Petrusel, I.A. Rus, Fixed point theorems in ordered L-spaces, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 134 (2006) 411-418] and R.P. Agarwal, M.A. El-Gebeily, D. O'Regan [R.P. Agarwal, M.A. El-Gebeily, D. O'Regan, Generalized contractions in partially ordered metric spaces, Appl. Anal., in press]. As applications, existence and uniqueness results for Fredholm and Volterra type integral equations are given.

  6. Prevalence and Severity of Oral Diseases in the Africa and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Abid, A; Maatouk, F; Berrezouga, L; Azodo, C; Uti, O; El-Shamy, H; Oginni, A

    2015-07-01

    This review aims to determine the prevalence and severity of oral health diseases in the Africa and Middle East region (AMER). The profile of oral diseases is not homogeneous across the AMER. There are large disparities between groups. Reliable data are scarce. The prevalence and severity of oral diseases appear to be increasing in the African region, as does associated morbidity. There are substantial differences in inequalities in oral health. Dental caries prevalence is less severe in most African countries than in developed countries, but the high rate of untreated caries reflects the limited resources available and difficulties of access and affordability to essential oral health care services. The prevalence of gingival inflammation is very high in all age groups in several African countries. The prevalence of maxillofacial trauma has increased in many countries, with a wide variation of the incidence and high prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary and permanent teeth. Orofacial clefts are among the most common birth defects. Annual incidence of oral cancer is estimated as 25 cases per 100,000 people in Africa. Noma is a major public health problem for the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. Data about human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS are limited, particularly in the MENA region. According to the World Health Organization Regional Committee for Africa report, some fundamental key basic knowledge gaps need to be underlined. They include inequalities in oral health, low priority for oral health, lack of adequate funding, inadequate dental student training, obstacles to medical and dental research, and poor databases. There are very few effective public prevention and oral health promotion programs in the AMER. Universal health coverage is not achievable without scientific research on the effectiveness of health promotion interventions.

  7. Syncom 4 deploy, LDEF retrieval highlight 10-day Columbia flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of Space Shuttle Mission STS-32 are described along with major flight activities, prelaunch and launch operations, trajectory sequence of events, and landing and post-landing operations. The primary objectives of STS-32 are the deployment of a Navy synchronous communications satellite (Syncom 4) and the retrieval of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) launched from the Challenger in April 1984. Secondary STS-32 payloads include a protein crystal growth experiment, the Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA) for the investigation of microgravity materials processing, the Mesoscale Lighting Experiment, the Latitude-Longitude Locator Experiment, the Americal Flight Echocardiograph, and an experiment to investigate neurospora circadian rhythms in a microgravity environment.

  8. HST Observations of Saturnian Satellites during the 1995 Ring Plane Crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGhee, Colleen A.; Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.; Hall, Katherine J.

    2001-08-01

    In May, August, and November 1995, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations during Saturn's ring-plane crossings allowed us to view saturnian satellites normally hidden to Earth-based observers in the glare of the rings. New measurements of Janus, Epimetheus, Prometheus, and Pandora have been combined to form revised orbital solutions using all three HST data sets. These measurements and orbit fits are presented, as well as similar fits for the brighter satellites Mimas, Tethys, Enceladus, Dione, and Rhea. Observations of the Lagrangian satellites Telesto, Calypso, and Helene are also reported. While most satellites were found to be close to their expected positions based on previous orbital solutions (Nicholson et al. 1992, Icarus100, 464-484; Jacobson 1996, Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc.28, 1185; and Harper and Taylor 1993, Astron. Astrophys. 268, 326-349). Prometheus lagged behind its predicted longitude by 18.85°±0.04°. A systematic drift in Pandora's longitude of -1.85° relative to the Voyager ephemeris was observed between May and November. The new data on the coorbital satellites Janus and Epimetheus have resulted in a revised mass for Janus, ˜6% smaller than the previous value (Jacobson 1995, Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc.27, 1202). Subtraction of light from the edge-on rings has led to additional detections of objects S/1995-S1 and S3 (Bosh and Rivkin 1995, Science272, 518-521) in the May data, and S/1995-S5, S6, S7 (Nicholson et al. 1995, Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc. 27, 1202) and S/1995-S9 (Roddier et al. 1996) in the August images. S1 is identified with Atlas but leads its predicted position by ˜25°. S3 has an orbit consistent with that of the narrow F ring, but S5, S6, S7, and S9 now appear to orbit ˜530-950 km interior to this ring. S7 and S9 may even be coorbital with Prometheus. An object in the May images, possibly corresponding to S7, is also found to lie very close to Prometheus' orbit (˜800 km interior to the F ring), but no convincing detections of

  9. Study of physico-chemical characteristics of water bodies around Jaipur.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Neera; Agrawal, Meena; Tyagi, Anupama

    2003-04-01

    The present study has been undertaken to evaluate physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, alkalinity and hardness) and zinc concentration in water bodies in and around Jaipur. Water samples from Jalmachal Lake, Nevta Lake, Amer Lake and Ramgarh Lake were analysed. Results reveal that the water of Jalmahal Lake is most polluted due to high pH, hardness, alkalinity, free carbon dioxide, zinc content, and a low level of dissolved oxygen. Contrarily Ramgarh Lake is least polluted, as it has high dissolved oxygen and low pH, alkalinity, free carbon dioxide, hardness and zinc content.

  10. Functional calculus and *-regularity of a class of Banach algebras II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Chi-Wai; Ng, Chi-Keung

    2006-10-01

    In this article, we define a natural Banach *-algebra for a C*-dynamical system (A,G,[alpha]) which is slightly bigger than L1(G;A) (they are the same if A is finite-dimensional). We will show that this algebra is *-regular if G has polynomial growth. The main result in this article extends the two main results in [C.W. Leung, C.K. Ng, Functional calculus and *-regularity of a class of Banach algebras, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., in press].

  11. Synthesis and equation of state of high pressure phase of chromium-bearing spinel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, S. R.; Khan, T.; Prescher, C.; Prakapenka, V.; MI, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Chromium-bearing spinel (Mg,Fe)Cr2O4 can be found in the Earth's crust, upper mantle, and even in meteorites. Mantle derived chromium-bearing spinel suggests that its high pressure phase may be existing at deep mantle but however its high pressure elastic property is not well understood yet. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies of magnesiochromite and chromite using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell were performed at GSECARS, Advanced Photon Source, to explore their high pressure phases and elastic property. Our results on magnesiochromite showed dissociation of MgCr2O4 to Cr2O3+MgO at ~15 GPa and to modified Ludwigite (mLd)-type Mg2Cr2O5+Cr2O3 below and above ~1500 K, respectively. At above 20 GPa, only a single phase CaTi2O4-type structure of MgCr2O4 was observed at 1400-2000 K. Pressure-volume data of CaTi2O4 type structure of MgCr2O4 fitted to Birch-Murnaghan equation of state yield zero-pressure volume (V0) = 264.4(8) Å3, bulk modulus (K0) = 185.4(4) GPa, and pressure derivative (K0') = 4; and mLd-type Mg2Cr2O5 yields: V0 = 338.9(8) Å3, K0 = 186.5(6) GPa, K0' = 4. For CaTi2O4 type structure of natural chromite, our fitted P-V data show V0 = 261(1) Å3, K0 = 175.4(2) GPa, and K0' = 4.

  12. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection.

  13. A human platelet calcium calculator trained by pairwise agonist scanning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei Yan; Diamond, Scott L

    2015-02-01

    Since platelet intracellular calcium mobilization [Ca(t)]i controls granule release, cyclooxygenase-1 and integrin activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure, blood clotting simulations require prediction of platelet [Ca(t)]i in response to combinatorial agonists. Pairwise Agonist Scanning (PAS) deployed all single and pairwise combinations of six agonists (ADP, convulxin, thrombin, U46619, iloprost and GSNO used at 0.1, 1, and 10xEC50; 154 conditions including a null condition) to stimulate platelet P2Y1/P2Y12 GPVI, PAR1/PAR4, TP, IP receptors, and guanylate cyclase, respectively, in Factor Xa-inhibited (250 nM apixaban), diluted platelet rich plasma that had been loaded with the calcium dye Fluo-4 NW. PAS of 10 healthy donors provided [Ca(t)]i data for training 10 neural networks (NN, 2-layer/12-nodes) per donor. Trinary stimulations were then conducted at all 0.1x and 1xEC50 doses (160 conditions) as was a sampling of 45 higher ordered combinations (four to six agonists). The NN-ensemble average was a calcium calculator that accurately predicted [Ca (t)]i beyond the single and binary training set for trinary stimulations (R = 0.924). The 160 trinary synergy scores, a normalized metric of signaling crosstalk, were also well predicted (R = 0.850) as were the calcium dynamics (R = 0.871) and high-dimensional synergy scores (R = 0.695) for the 45 higher ordered conditions. The calculator even predicted sequential addition experiments (n = 54 conditions, R = 0.921). NN-ensemble is a fast calcium calculator, ideal for multiscale clotting simulations that include spatiotemporal concentrations of ADP, collagen, thrombin, thromboxane, prostacyclin, and nitric oxide.

  14. A human platelet calcium calculator trained by pairwise agonist scanning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei Yan; Diamond, Scott L

    2015-02-01

    Since platelet intracellular calcium mobilization [Ca(t)]i controls granule release, cyclooxygenase-1 and integrin activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure, blood clotting simulations require prediction of platelet [Ca(t)]i in response to combinatorial agonists. Pairwise Agonist Scanning (PAS) deployed all single and pairwise combinations of six agonists (ADP, convulxin, thrombin, U46619, iloprost and GSNO used at 0.1, 1, and 10xEC50; 154 conditions including a null condition) to stimulate platelet P2Y1/P2Y12 GPVI, PAR1/PAR4, TP, IP receptors, and guanylate cyclase, respectively, in Factor Xa-inhibited (250 nM apixaban), diluted platelet rich plasma that had been loaded with the calcium dye Fluo-4 NW. PAS of 10 healthy donors provided [Ca(t)]i data for training 10 neural networks (NN, 2-layer/12-nodes) per donor. Trinary stimulations were then conducted at all 0.1x and 1xEC50 doses (160 conditions) as was a sampling of 45 higher ordered combinations (four to six agonists). The NN-ensemble average was a calcium calculator that accurately predicted [Ca (t)]i beyond the single and binary training set for trinary stimulations (R = 0.924). The 160 trinary synergy scores, a normalized metric of signaling crosstalk, were also well predicted (R = 0.850) as were the calcium dynamics (R = 0.871) and high-dimensional synergy scores (R = 0.695) for the 45 higher ordered conditions. The calculator even predicted sequential addition experiments (n = 54 conditions, R = 0.921). NN-ensemble is a fast calcium calculator, ideal for multiscale clotting simulations that include spatiotemporal concentrations of ADP, collagen, thrombin, thromboxane, prostacyclin, and nitric oxide. PMID:25723389

  15. A Human Platelet Calcium Calculator Trained by Pairwise Agonist Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mei Yan; Diamond, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Since platelet intracellular calcium mobilization [Ca(t)]i controls granule release, cyclooxygenase-1 and integrin activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure, blood clotting simulations require prediction of platelet [Ca(t)]i in response to combinatorial agonists. Pairwise Agonist Scanning (PAS) deployed all single and pairwise combinations of six agonists (ADP, convulxin, thrombin, U46619, iloprost and GSNO used at 0.1, 1, and 10xEC50; 154 conditions including a null condition) to stimulate platelet P2Y1/P2Y12 GPVI, PAR1/PAR4, TP, IP receptors, and guanylate cyclase, respectively, in Factor Xa-inhibited (250 nM apixaban), diluted platelet rich plasma that had been loaded with the calcium dye Fluo-4 NW. PAS of 10 healthy donors provided [Ca(t)]i data for training 10 neural networks (NN, 2-layer/12-nodes) per donor. Trinary stimulations were then conducted at all 0.1x and 1xEC50 doses (160 conditions) as was a sampling of 45 higher ordered combinations (four to six agonists). The NN-ensemble average was a calcium calculator that accurately predicted [Ca (t)]i beyond the single and binary training set for trinary stimulations (R = 0.924). The 160 trinary synergy scores, a normalized metric of signaling crosstalk, were also well predicted (R = 0.850) as were the calcium dynamics (R = 0.871) and high-dimensional synergy scores (R = 0.695) for the 45 higher ordered conditions. The calculator even predicted sequential addition experiments (n = 54 conditions, R = 0.921). NN-ensemble is a fast calcium calculator, ideal for multiscale clotting simulations that include spatiotemporal concentrations of ADP, collagen, thrombin, thromboxane, prostacyclin, and nitric oxide. PMID:25723389

  16. Discovery, validation and characterization of Erbb4 and Nrg1 haplotypes using data from three genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Agim, Zeynep Sena; Esendal, Melda; Briollais, Laurent; Uyan, Ozgun; Meschian, Mehran; Martinez, Luis Antonio Mendoza; Ding, Yongmei; Basak, A Nazli; Ozcelik, Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most common and complex neuropsychiatric disorders, which is contributed both by genetic and environmental exposures. Recently, it is shown that NRG1-mediated ErbB4 signalling regulates many important cellular and molecular processes such as cellular growth, differentiation and death, particularly in myelin-producing cells, glia and neurons. Recent association studies have revealed genomic regions of NRG1 and ERBB4, which are significantly associated with risk of developing schizophrenia; however, inconsistencies exist in terms of validation of findings between distinct populations. In this study, we aim to validate the previously identified regions and to discover novel haplotypes of NRG1 and ERBB4 using logistic regression models and Haploview analyses in three independent datasets from GWAS conducted on European subjects, namely, CATIE, GAIN and nonGAIN. We identified a significant 6-kb block in ERBB4 between chromosome locations 212,156,823 and 212,162,848 in CATIE and GAIN datasets (p = 0.0206 and 0.0095, respectively). In NRG1, a significant 25-kb block, between 32,291,552 and 32,317,192, was associated with risk of schizophrenia in all CATIE, GAIN, and nonGAIN datasets (p = 0.0005, 0.0589, and 0.0143, respectively). Fine mapping and FastSNP analysis of genetic variation located within significantly associated regions proved the presence of binding sites for several transcription factors such as SRY, SOX5, CEPB, and ETS1. In this study, we have discovered and validated haplotypes of ERBB4 and NRG1 in three independent European populations. These findings suggest that these haplotypes play an important role in the development of schizophrenia by affecting transcription factor binding affinity. PMID:23301017

  17. Discovery, Validation and Characterization of Erbb4 and Nrg1 Haplotypes Using Data from Three Genome-Wide Association Studies of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Agim, Zeynep Sena; Esendal, Melda; Briollais, Laurent; Uyan, Ozgun; Meschian, Mehran; Martinez, Luis Antonio Mendoza; Ding, Yongmei; Basak, A. Nazli; Ozcelik, Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most common and complex neuropsychiatric disorders, which is contributed both by genetic and environmental exposures. Recently, it is shown that NRG1-mediated ErbB4 signalling regulates many important cellular and molecular processes such as cellular growth, differentiation and death, particularly in myelin-producing cells, glia and neurons. Recent association studies have revealed genomic regions of NRG1 and ERBB4, which are significantly associated with risk of developing schizophrenia; however, inconsistencies exist in terms of validation of findings between distinct populations. In this study, we aim to validate the previously identified regions and to discover novel haplotypes of NRG1 and ERBB4 using logistic regression models and Haploview analyses in three independent datasets from GWAS conducted on European subjects, namely, CATIE, GAIN and nonGAIN. We identified a significant 6-kb block in ERBB4 between chromosome locations 212,156,823 and 212,162,848 in CATIE and GAIN datasets (p = 0.0206 and 0.0095, respectively). In NRG1, a significant 25-kb block, between 32,291,552 and 32,317,192, was associated with risk of schizophrenia in all CATIE, GAIN, and nonGAIN datasets (p = 0.0005, 0.0589, and 0.0143, respectively). Fine mapping and FastSNP analysis of genetic variation located within significantly associated regions proved the presence of binding sites for several transcription factors such as SRY, SOX5, CEPB, and ETS1. In this study, we have discovered and validated haplotypes of ERBB4 and NRG1 in three independent European populations. These findings suggest that these haplotypes play an important role in the development of schizophrenia by affecting transcription factor binding affinity. PMID:23301017

  18. Neurotoxocarosis alters myelin protein gene transcription and expression.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Lea; Beyerbach, Martin; Lühder, Fred; Beineke, Andreas; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Neurotoxocarosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by migrating larvae of the common dog and cat roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati), which are zoonotic agents. As these parasites are prevalent worldwide and neuropathological and molecular investigations on neurotoxocarosis are scare, this study aims to characterise nerve fibre demyelination associated with neurotoxocarosis on a molecular level. Transcription of eight myelin-associated genes (Cnp, Mag, Mbp, Mog, Mrf-1, Nogo-A, Plp1, Olig2) was determined in the mouse model during six time points of the chronic phase of infection using qRT-PCR. Expression of selected proteins was analysed by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Additionally, demyelination and neuronal damage were investigated histologically. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between transcription rates of T. canis-infected and uninfected control mice were detected for all analysed genes while T. cati affected five of eight investigated genes. Interestingly, 2', 3 ´-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (Cnp) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog) were upregulated in both T. canis- and T. cati-infected mice preceding demyelination. Later, CNPase expression was additionally enhanced. As expected, myelin basic protein (Mbp) was downregulated in cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice when severe demyelination was present 120 days post infectionem (dpi). The transcriptional pattern observed in the present study appears to reflect direct traumatic and hypoxic effects of larval migration as well as secondary processes including host immune reactions, demyelination and attempts to remyelinate damaged areas. PMID:25773181

  19. SEM analysis of rock varnish chemistry: A geomorphic age discriminator

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, C.D.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1989-07-01

    Rock varnish, a manganese- and iron-rich coating commonly found on rock surfaces in arid and semiarid regions, has long been of interest as a potential age indicator. Rock varnish has been shown to be an effective medium for dating of geomorphic surfaces over a time range of several thousand to over a million years, utilizing a ratio among minor cations ((K + Ca)/Ti) for the total volume of rock varnish. We have recently, developed a technique using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray analyzer (EDAX) to analyze the chemistry of rock varnish. This technique has several advantages over the earlier cation ratio technique.

  20. Kassite from the Diamond Jo quarry, Magnet Cove, Hot Spring County, Arkansas: the problem of cafetite and kassite.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.; Dwornik, E.J.; Milton, C.

    1986-01-01

    Small (<0.5 mm), brownish-pink platy rosettes and yellow spherules, in cavities in nepheline syenite at the Diamond Jo quarry, Magnet Cove, have been identified as kassite, CaTi2O4(OH)2, a mineral previously known only from the Kola Peninsula, USSR. The X-ray powder and single-crystal data and density of the Magnet Cove kassite correspond with those reported by earlier workers for cafetite, (Ca,Mg)(Fe,Al)2Ti4O12.4H2O, from Kola, but the chemical and physical properties correspond with those given in their description of kassite.-J.A.Z.

  1. New hosts and localities for helminths of carnivores in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moleón, María Soledad; Kinsella, John Mike; Moreno, Pablo Gastón; Ferreyra, Hebe Del Valle; Pereira, Javier; Pía, Mónica; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín

    2015-12-09

    A total of 111 samples (43 faeces and 79 gastrointestinal tracts) of 14 wild carnivore species from 12 Argentine provinces were analyzed. Helminth eggs were identified in 73% of the faecal samples and adult worms were recovered from 81% of the gastrointestinal tracts. We found 19 helminth species. Among the most frequent findings were parasites of domestic carnivores, namely Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala. In addition, new hosts are reported for 6 nematode species and 5 helminth species are recorded for the first time in Argentina: Aonchotheca putorii, Molineus brachiurus, Cyathospirura chevreuxi, Physaloptera praeputialis and Oncicola martini.

  2. Toxocariasis: A Rare Cause of Multiple Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyun Hee

    2015-06-01

    Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, mostly due to accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs. Clinical manifestations vary and are classified as visceral larva migrans or ocular larva migrans according to the organs affected. Central nervous system involvement is an unusual complication. Here, we report a case of multiple cerebral infarction and concurrent multi-organ involvement due to T. canis infestation of a previous healthy 39-year-old male who was admitted for right leg weakness. After treatment with albendazole, the patient's clinical and laboratory results improved markedly. PMID:26157596

  3. New hosts and localities for helminths of carnivores in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moleón, María Soledad; Kinsella, John Mike; Moreno, Pablo Gastón; Ferreyra, Hebe Del Valle; Pereira, Javier; Pía, Mónica; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín

    2015-01-01

    A total of 111 samples (43 faeces and 79 gastrointestinal tracts) of 14 wild carnivore species from 12 Argentine provinces were analyzed. Helminth eggs were identified in 73% of the faecal samples and adult worms were recovered from 81% of the gastrointestinal tracts. We found 19 helminth species. Among the most frequent findings were parasites of domestic carnivores, namely Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala. In addition, new hosts are reported for 6 nematode species and 5 helminth species are recorded for the first time in Argentina: Aonchotheca putorii, Molineus brachiurus, Cyathospirura chevreuxi, Physaloptera praeputialis and Oncicola martini. PMID:26701468

  4. Notoedric mange in two free-ranging mountain lions (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Houston, Robin S; Riley, Seth P D; Poppenga, Robert; Odani, Jenee; Boyce, Walter

    2007-04-01

    Two mountain lions (Puma con-color) were found dead in the Simi Hills area of southern California (Ventura County). Postmortem examination and toxicological analyses indicated that the cause of death was anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. In addition, both lions had marked alopecia and skin crusts, caused by Notoedres cati. The diagnosis of notoedric mange was confirmed by histology and direct examination of mites obtained from skin scrapings of the two animals. Histologically, the affected skin showed acanthotic epidermis with parakeratosis and parasitic tunnels in the stratum corneum. This is the first report of the pathological changes associated with notoedric mange in free-ranging mountain lions.

  5. Notoedric mange in two free-ranging mountain lions (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Houston, Robin S; Riley, Seth P D; Poppenga, Robert; Odani, Jenee; Boyce, Walter

    2007-04-01

    Two mountain lions (Puma con-color) were found dead in the Simi Hills area of southern California (Ventura County). Postmortem examination and toxicological analyses indicated that the cause of death was anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. In addition, both lions had marked alopecia and skin crusts, caused by Notoedres cati. The diagnosis of notoedric mange was confirmed by histology and direct examination of mites obtained from skin scrapings of the two animals. Histologically, the affected skin showed acanthotic epidermis with parakeratosis and parasitic tunnels in the stratum corneum. This is the first report of the pathological changes associated with notoedric mange in free-ranging mountain lions. PMID:17495313

  6. Defect chemistry and dielectric properties of Yb{sup 3+}:CaTiO{sub 3} perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Bassoli, M.; Buscaglia, M. T.; Bottino, C.; Buscaglia, V.; Molinari, M.; Maglia, F.; Parravicini, G.; Dapiaggi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The defect chemistry of Yb{sup 3+}:CaTiO{sub 3} solid solutions has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Three different incorporation mechanisms with similar solution energy were predicted for Yb{sup 3+} by atomistic simulation: (i) Ca site substitution with Ca vacancy compensation; (ii) Ti site substitution with O vacancy compensation; (iii) simultaneous substitution at both Ca and Ti sites with self-compensation. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results strongly support the possibility to realize the above defect chemistries in CaTiO{sub 3} by changing the Ca/Ti ratio to force Yb{sup 3+} on the Ca site (Ca/Ti<1), on Ti site (Ca/Ti>1), or on both sites (Ca/Ti=1) according to the calculations. The temperature dependence of the relative dielectric constant (10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} Hz) of ceramics corresponding to predominant Yb substitution either at the Ca site or the Ti site is qualitatively similar to that of undoped CaTiO{sub 3}. The Curie-Weiss temperature is shifted to more negative values in comparison to CaTiO{sub 3}, suggesting that the compositions Ca{sub 1-3/2x}Yb{sub x}TiO{sub 3} and CaYb{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 3} are further driven away from the ferroelectric instability. In contrast, the dielectric properties (10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} Hz) of ceramics corresponding to Ca{sub 1-x/2}Yb{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x/2}O{sub 3} are radically different. The relative dielectric constant is increased of about one order of magnitude (2200 at 30 K), is almost independent of temperature, with a maximum variation of 20% in range of 20-300 K, and shows frequency dispersion above 150 K. The loss tangent at 20-300 K is <5% for frequencies {>=}1 kHz. The possible mechanism for the observed dielectric behavior is discussed.

  7. Enhanced bending-resonance magnetoelectric response in end-bonding magnetostrictive/piezoelectric heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jinshuan; Lu, Caijiang; Xu, Changbao; Gao, Jipu; Gui, Junguo; Lin, Chenhui

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present a magnetoelectric (ME) heterostructure made by attaching two magnetostrictive Nickel (Ni) plates at the two free ends of a piezoelectric Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) plate. With this configuration, the Ni and the PZT plates vibrate more freely due to the absence of an interfacial epoxy layer, which results in a larger bending deformation of the PZT plate. The Ni and the PZT plates couple to each other by mechanical magnetic forces, instead of shear forces. In addition, the two Ni plates act as proof masses for the PZT plate, which can reduce the bending resonant frequency ( f r) the of PZT plate. The experimental results demonstrate that the bendingresonance ME voltage coefficient ( aME,r) is 2.82 times larger than that of the traditional bilayer laminate Ni/PZT. As the length of the Ni plates (L) increases, the fr decreases and can be shifted in a range of 34.6 kHz ≤ fr ≤ 61.02 kHz. The maximum aME,r of 49.84 V/cm Oe is observed at dc bias magnetic field H dc = 158 Oe when L = 18 mm. This heterostructure is of interest for high-sensitive dc magnetic-field sensors, ME transducers.

  8. Stability of large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Harold

    2007-03-01

    We address a long-standing dilemma concerning stability of large systems. MacArthur (1955) and Hutchinson (1959) argued that more ``complex'' natural systems tended to be more stable than less complex systems based upon energy flow. May (1972) argued the opposite, using random matrix models; see Cohen and Newman (1984, 1985), Bai and Yin (1986). We show that in some sense both are right: under reasonable scaling assumptions on interaction strength, Lyapunov stability increases but structural stability decreases as complexity is increased (c.f. Harrison, 1979; Hastings, 1984). We apply this result to a variety of network systems. References: Bai, Z.D. & Yin, Y.Q. 1986. Probab. Th. Rel. Fields 73, 555. Cohen, J.E., & Newman, C.M. 1984. Annals Probab. 12, 283; 1985. Theoret. Biol. 113, 153. Harrison, G.W. 1979. Amer. Natur. 113, 659. Hastings, H.M. 1984. BioSystems 17, 171. Hastings, H.M., Juhasz, F., & Schreiber, M. 1992. .Proc. Royal Soc., Ser. B. 249, 223. Hutchinson, G.E. 1959. Amer. Natur. 93, 145, MacArthur, R. H. 1955. Ecology 35, 533, May, R.M. 1972. Nature 238, 413.

  9. Testing the Pareto against the lognormal distributions with the uniformly most powerful unbiased test applied to the distribution of cities.

    PubMed

    Malevergne, Yannick; Pisarenko, Vladilen; Sornette, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Fat-tail distributions of sizes abound in natural, physical, economic, and social systems. The lognormal and the power laws have historically competed for recognition with sometimes closely related generating processes and hard-to-distinguish tail properties. This state-of-affair is illustrated with the debate between Eeckhout [Amer. Econ. Rev. 94, 1429 (2004)] and Levy [Amer. Econ. Rev. 99, 1672 (2009)] on the validity of Zipf's law for US city sizes. By using a uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) test between the lognormal and the power-laws, we show that conclusive results can be achieved to end this debate. We advocate the UMPU test as a systematic tool to address similar controversies in the literature of many disciplines involving power laws, scaling, "fat" or "heavy" tails. In order to demonstrate that our procedure works for data sets other than the US city size distribution, we also briefly present the results obtained for the power-law tail of the distribution of personal identity (ID) losses, which constitute one of the major emergent risks at the interface between cyberspace and reality. PMID:21517562

  10. Testing the Pareto against the lognormal distributions with the uniformly most powerful unbiased test applied to the distribution of cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevergne, Yannick; Pisarenko, Vladilen; Sornette, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Fat-tail distributions of sizes abound in natural, physical, economic, and social systems. The lognormal and the power laws have historically competed for recognition with sometimes closely related generating processes and hard-to-distinguish tail properties. This state-of-affair is illustrated with the debate between Eeckhout [Amer. Econ. Rev.SCIEAS0002-828210.1257/0002828043052303 94, 1429 (2004)] and Levy [Amer. Econ. Rev.SCIEAS0002-828210.1257/aer.99.4.1672 99, 1672 (2009)] on the validity of Zipf’s law for US city sizes. By using a uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) test between the lognormal and the power-laws, we show that conclusive results can be achieved to end this debate. We advocate the UMPU test as a systematic tool to address similar controversies in the literature of many disciplines involving power laws, scaling, “fat” or “heavy” tails. In order to demonstrate that our procedure works for data sets other than the US city size distribution, we also briefly present the results obtained for the power-law tail of the distribution of personal identity (ID) losses, which constitute one of the major emergent risks at the interface between cyberspace and reality.

  11. Real Paley-Wiener theorems for the Koornwinder-Swarttouw q-Hankel transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Luís Daniel

    2007-10-01

    We derive two real Paley-Wiener theorems in the setting of quantum calculus. The first uses techniques due to Tuan and Zayed [V.K. Tuan, A.I. Zayed, Paley-Wiener-type theorems for a class of integral transforms, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 266 (1) (2002) 200-226] in order to describe the image of the space under Koornwinder and Swarttouw q-Hankel transform [T.H. Koornwinder, REF. Swarttouw, On q-analogues of the Fourier and Hankel transforms, TransE Amer. Math. Soc. 333 (1) (1992) 445-461] and contains as a special case a description of the domain of the q-sampling theorem associated with the q-Hankel transform [L.D. Abreu, A q-sampling theorem related to the q-Hankel transform, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 133 (4) (2005) 1197-1203]. The second characterizes the image of compactly supported q-smooth functions under a rescaled version of the q-Hankel transform and is a q-analogue of a recent result due to Andersen [N.B. Andersen, Real Paley-Wiener theorems for the Hankel transform, J. Fourier Anal. Appl. 12 (1) (2006) 17-25].

  12. Renewing Our Physics Curriculum Based on Research in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Robert G.

    2004-05-01

    Physics departments in the USA are being bombarded by calls for curriculum reform, from David Goodstein's" Now Boarding The Flight from Physics" (1) to Ruth Howes and Robert Hilborn's "Winds of Change" (2). This presentation will focus on two aspects of curriculum renewal - 1) developing critical thinking, based on work of Robert Karplus, physicist and science educator 'extraordinaire', of the University of California, Berkeley (3). After a brief look at his life as a physicist, his work on scientific reasoning and its implications for physics curriculum renewal will be discussed. 2) learning for long-term retention and transfer, based on the science of learning as presented by Halpern and Hakel(4). References: 1. Goodstein, D., Amer. J. Phys., 67(3), 183, 1999. 2. Howes, R. and Hilborn, R., Amer. J. Phys., 68(5), 401, 2000. 3. A Love of Discovery: Science Education - the Second Career of Robert Karplus, R.G. Fuller(Ed), Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, "2001. 4. Halpern, D.F. and Hakel, M.D., "Applying the Science of Learning to the University and Beyond", Change, 35(4), 36, 2003.

  13. Oscillation criteria for second order forced ordinary differential equations with mixed nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuan Gong; Wong, James S. W.

    2007-10-01

    We present new oscillation criteria for the second order forced ordinary differential equation with mixed nonlinearities: where , p(t) is positive and differentiable, [alpha]1>...>[alpha]m>1>[alpha]m+1>...>[alpha]n. No restriction is imposed on the forcing term e(t) to be the second derivative of an oscillatory function. When n=1, our results reduce to those of El-Sayed [M.A. El-Sayed, An oscillation criterion for a forced second order linear differential equation, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 118 (1993) 813-817], Wong [J.S.W. Wong, Oscillation criteria for a forced second linear differential equations, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 231 (1999) 235-240], Sun, Ou and Wong [Y.G. Sun, C.H. Ou, J.S.W. Wong, Interval oscillation theorems for a linear second order differential equation, Comput. Math. Appl. 48 (2004) 1693-1699] for the linear equation, Nazr [A.H. Nazr, Sufficient conditions for the oscillation of forced super-linear second order differential equations with oscillatory potential, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 126 (1998) 123-125] for the superlinear equation, and Sun and Wong [Y.G. Sun, J.S.W. Wong, Note on forced oscillation of nth-order sublinear differential equations, JE Math. Anal. Appl. 298 (2004) 114-119] for the sublinear equation.

  14. Navier-Stokes equations in 3D thin domains with Navier friction boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changbing

    In this article we study the 3D Navier-Stokes equations with Navier friction boundary condition in thin domains. We prove the global existence of strong solutions to the 3D Navier-Stokes equations when the initial data and external forces are in large sets as the thickness of the domain is small. We generalize the techniques developed to study the 3D Navier-Stokes equations in thin domains, see [G. Raugel, G. Sell, Navier-Stokes equations on thin 3D domains I: Global attractors and global regularity of solutions, J. Amer. Math. Soc. 6 (1993) 503-568; G. Raugel, G. Sell, Navier-Stokes equations on thin 3D domains II: Global regularity of spatially periodic conditions, in: Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations and Their Application, College de France Seminar, vol. XI, Longman, Harlow, 1994, pp. 205-247; R. Temam, M. Ziane, Navier-Stokes equations in three-dimensional thin domains with various boundary conditions, Adv. Differential Equations 1 (1996) 499-546; R. Temam, M. Ziane, Navier-Stokes equations in thin spherical shells, in: Optimization Methods in Partial Differential Equations, in: Contemp. Math., vol. 209, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 1996, pp. 281-314], to the Navier friction boundary condition by introducing a new average operator M in the thin direction according to the spectral decomposition of the Stokes operator A. Our analysis hinges on the refined investigation of the eigenvalue problem corresponding to the Stokes operator A with Navier friction boundary condition.

  15. Helicon mode formation and rf power deposition in a helicon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Michael; Niemi, Kari

    2007-11-01

    The nonlinear nature of the rf absorption in a helicon-produced plasma was investigated on the helicon device HE-L [1] with the aid of a double pulse technique providing high and low amplitude helicon propagation under nearly identical conditions. Time- and space-resolved (2D) measurements of the rf magnetic field (amplitude and phase of all components) were carried out by means of a B-dot probe array. For high rf power, a small narrow peak arises on top of the density profile close to the axis leading to focusing of the rf field energy and the rf power deposition. Nevertheless, in accordance with the linear helicon theory for a non-uniform plasma, the axial wavenumber remains nearly the same as for low power. The rf power deposition in the core of the helicon discharge deduced from the energy flux balance was compared with that obtained from the rf field distribution assuming collisional absorption. It turns out that collisions are by far not sufficient to account for the absorption of helicon modes, particularly for high rf power. Nonlinear processes, most likely associated with the parametric excitation of electrostatic fluctuations [2], are thus involved.- This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Sonderforschungsbereich 591, Project A7).- [1] M. Kr"amer, B. Lorenz, B. Clarenbach, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 11A (2002) 120. [2] B. Lorenz, M. Kr"amer, V.L. Selenin, Yu.M. Aliev, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 14, 623 (2005).

  16. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest

    PubMed Central

    Hiestand, Shelby J.; Nielsen, Clayton K.; Jiménez, F. Agustín

    2014-01-01

    A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2), and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases. PMID:24521984

  17. Comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia: what have real-world trials taught us?

    PubMed

    Attard, Azizah; Taylor, David M

    2012-06-01

    Real-world, effectiveness studies add an important new dimension to the evaluation of the benefits of individual antipsychotics. Efficacy studies have already shown the unique effectiveness of clozapine, and suggested improved outcomes for olanzapine compared with some atypical antipsychotics and a reduced tendency to produce acute and chronic movement disorders for atypical compared with typical drugs. Recent effectiveness studies largely confirm these prior observations. The CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness), CUtLASS (Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study) and SOHO (Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes) programmes confirmed the superiority of clozapine over other antipsychotics; CATIE and SOHO also confirmed olanzapine as probably the second most effective antipsychotic. Effectiveness studies have confirmed the high incidence of adverse metabolic effects with clozapine, olanzapine and (with less certainty) quetiapine but the ZODIAC (Ziprasidone Observational Study of Cardiac Outcomes) study found no excess cardiovascular events or deaths for olanzapine compared with ziprasidone. Prior observations on reduced frequency of movement disorders for second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotics were also largely (but not uniformly) supported. Overall, recent real-world studies have done much to confirm prior observations from efficacy-based randomized, controlled trials.

  18. Molecular identification of Salmonella Infantis isolated from backyard chickens and detection of their resistance genesby PCR.

    PubMed

    Ghoddusi, A; Nayeri Fasaei, B; Karimi, V; Ashrafi Tamai, I; Moulana, Z; Zahraei Salehi, T

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at molecular identification of Salmonella Infantis isolated from backyard chickens and the detection of their antibiotic resistance genes. A total of 46 Salmonella-suspected samples isolated from backyard chickens of northern Iran were collected. Serotyping was done by the traditional method and then confirmed by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates against 13 antimicrobial agents was determined by the standard disk diffusion method. There were 44 samples identified as Salmonella. Serotyping results showed that all 44 isolates belonged to serogroup C1 and serovar Infantis. The most resistance observed was to tetracycline and doxycycline (100%), chloramphenicol (79%) and florfenicol (72%). The floR, catI, tetA and tetG genes were used for the detection of florfenicol chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance. In order to identify the phenotypic resistance in strains which showed resistance genes by PCR, colony PCR and culture on plates each containing antibiotic was performed simultaneously. All the Salmonella Infantis resistant to florfenicol and chloramphenicol harbored floR and catI. None of the Salmonella resistant to tetracycline carried tetA or tetG. The result of colony PCR and culture in antibiotic medium confirmed the results of PCR and indicated phenotypic resistance in these samples. PMID:27175192

  19. A Hydroalcoholic Extract from Paullinia pinnata L. Roots Exerts Anthelmintic Activity against Free-Living and Parasitic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Spiegler, Verena; Liebau, Eva; Peppler, Carolin; Raue, Katharina; Werne, Steffen; Strube, Christina; Heckendorn, Felix; Agyare, Christian; Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant traditionally used in West Africa against a wide range of diseases including soil-transmitted helminthiases. In this study, a hydroethanolic root extract was investigated for its phytochemical composition and in vitro activity against the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as well as the larval stages of the parasitic helminths Ancylostoma caninum, Haemonchus contortus, Toxocara cati, and Trichuris vulpis.LC-MS analysis of the ethanol-water (1 : 1) extract revealed epicatechin and different A-type linked oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins as the predominant compounds.Within an in vitro mortality assay, the extract showed a lethal activity against T. cati (LC50 of 112 µg/mL), T. vulpis (LC50 of 17 µg/mL), and C. elegans (LC50 2.5 of mg/mL), but not against A. caninum. Additionally, effects on egg hatching and larval migration of H. contortus were investigated, but no inhibitory activity was observed.Overall, these findings rationalize the traditional use of the root extract from P. pinnata as an anthelmintic remedy and provide insight into the phytochemical composition of the extract. PMID:27286336

  20. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest.

    PubMed

    Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2014-01-01

    A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2), and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases.

  1. Endoparasites of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland.

    PubMed

    Deksne, Gunita; Laakkonen, Juha; Näreaho, Anu; Jokelainen, Pikka; Holmala, Katja; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

    2013-04-01

    We sampled 339 fecal samples, 296 intestines, and 82 lungs from 371 lynx hunted during the 2010-2011 season in Finland. The fecal samples were analyzed for endoparasites by a quantitative flotation method, and helminths from intestines were studied morphologically, while lungs were investigated for pulmonary parasites. From fecal samples, eggs and oocysts of at least 6 different endoparasite species were identified, with a mean of 1.5 (range 0-4) parasite species per host. In the intestines, at least 4 different helminth species were found, with the mean of 2.0 (range 1-4) species per infected host. The prevalence of eggs in feces and the prevalence of worms in intestines were 71% and 93% for Toxocara cati , 29% and 68% for Taenia spp., and 5% and 2% for Diphyllobothrium sp., respectively. Only eggs were detected for Capillaria sp. (46%) and Uncinaria sp. (0.6%) nematodes, and only adults were detected for Mesocestoides sp. cestodes (0.3%). Significant positive correlations were evident between the number of T. cati (r = 0.664; P = 0.01) and Diphyllobothrium sp. (r = 0.645; P = 0.01) eggs per gram of feces and adult worms detected in intestine. In addition to the metazoan parasites, protozoan Isospora sp. oocysts were also found (0.6%). Pulmonary samples were all negative for parasites. These data demonstrate that lynx commonly harbor various endoparasites, some of which are zoonotic.

  2. Toxocara malaysiensis infection in domestic cats in Vietnam--An emerging zoonotic issue?

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Anh, Nguyen Thi Lan; Nguyen, Khue Thi; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Thuy, Do Thi Thu; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis of canids is a parasitic nematode (ascaridoid) that infects humans and other hosts, causing different forms of toxocariasis. This species of Toxocara appears to be the most important cause of human disease, likely followed by Toxocara cati from felids. Although some studies from Malaysia and China have shown that cats can harbor another congener, T. malaysiensis, no information is available about this parasite for other countries. Moreover, the zoonotic potential of this parasite is unknown at this point. In the present study, we conducted the first investigation of domestic dogs and cats for Toxocara in Vietnam using molecular tools. Toxocara malaysiensis was identified as a common ascaridoid of domestic cats (in the absence of T. cati), and T. canis was commonly found in dogs. Together with findings from previous studies, the present results emphasize the need to explore the significance and zoonotic potential of T. malaysiensis in Vietnam and other countries where this parasite is endemic and prevalent in cats. PMID:26584512

  3. Effects of Toxocara larvae on brain cell survival by in vitro model assessment.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Lea; Haendel, Sabine; Beineke, Andreas; Strube, Christina

    2015-09-01

    Neuroinvasive larvae of the common dog and cat roundworms, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, may cause severe neurological and neuropsychological disturbances in humans. Despite their pathogenic potential and high prevalence worldwide, little is known about their cell-specific influences and cerebral host-pathogen interactions in neurotoxocarosis. To address this discrepancy, a co-culture system of viable larvae with murine neuronal (CAD), oligodendrocytal (BO-1) and microglial (BV-2) cell lines has been established. Additionally, murine adult brain slices have been co-cultured with Toxocara larvae to consider complex organotypic cell-cell interplay. Cytotoxicity of larval presence was measured enzymatically and microscopically. Microscopic evaluation using trypan blue exclusion assay revealed to be less reliable and sensitive than the lactate dehydrogenase activity assay. Ultimately, even low numbers of both T. canis and T. cati larvae have impaired survival of differentiated CAD cells, which morphologically resemble primary neurons. In contrast, viability of oligodendrocytal and microglial cells as well as brain slices was not impaired by larval presence. Therefore, immune-mediated mechanisms or trauma by migrating larvae presumably induce the in vivo pathology rather than acute cytotoxic effects. Conclusively, the helminthic larvae co-culture system presented here is a valuable in vitro tool to study cell-specific effects of parasitic larvae and their products. PMID:26080924

  4. Comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia: what have real-world trials taught us?

    PubMed

    Attard, Azizah; Taylor, David M

    2012-06-01

    Real-world, effectiveness studies add an important new dimension to the evaluation of the benefits of individual antipsychotics. Efficacy studies have already shown the unique effectiveness of clozapine, and suggested improved outcomes for olanzapine compared with some atypical antipsychotics and a reduced tendency to produce acute and chronic movement disorders for atypical compared with typical drugs. Recent effectiveness studies largely confirm these prior observations. The CATIE (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness), CUtLASS (Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study) and SOHO (Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes) programmes confirmed the superiority of clozapine over other antipsychotics; CATIE and SOHO also confirmed olanzapine as probably the second most effective antipsychotic. Effectiveness studies have confirmed the high incidence of adverse metabolic effects with clozapine, olanzapine and (with less certainty) quetiapine but the ZODIAC (Ziprasidone Observational Study of Cardiac Outcomes) study found no excess cardiovascular events or deaths for olanzapine compared with ziprasidone. Prior observations on reduced frequency of movement disorders for second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotics were also largely (but not uniformly) supported. Overall, recent real-world studies have done much to confirm prior observations from efficacy-based randomized, controlled trials. PMID:22668246

  5. A Hydroalcoholic Extract from Paullinia pinnata L. Roots Exerts Anthelmintic Activity against Free-Living and Parasitic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Spiegler, Verena; Liebau, Eva; Peppler, Carolin; Raue, Katharina; Werne, Steffen; Strube, Christina; Heckendorn, Felix; Agyare, Christian; Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant traditionally used in West Africa against a wide range of diseases including soil-transmitted helminthiases. In this study, a hydroethanolic root extract was investigated for its phytochemical composition and in vitro activity against the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as well as the larval stages of the parasitic helminths Ancylostoma caninum, Haemonchus contortus, Toxocara cati, and Trichuris vulpis.LC-MS analysis of the ethanol-water (1 : 1) extract revealed epicatechin and different A-type linked oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins as the predominant compounds.Within an in vitro mortality assay, the extract showed a lethal activity against T. cati (LC50 of 112 µg/mL), T. vulpis (LC50 of 17 µg/mL), and C. elegans (LC50 2.5 of mg/mL), but not against A. caninum. Additionally, effects on egg hatching and larval migration of H. contortus were investigated, but no inhibitory activity was observed.Overall, these findings rationalize the traditional use of the root extract from P. pinnata as an anthelmintic remedy and provide insight into the phytochemical composition of the extract.

  6. Analbite - Sanidine Thermodynamic Mixing Properties: Highly Precise HF Solution Calorimetric Data Across A Twenty-Member Crystalline Solution Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    Enthalpies of K-Na mixing for the analbite - sanidine feldspar series were investigated by Hovis (1988, J. Petrology) in the early 80's. That work was based on data at a limited number of compositions, owing to the large sample sizes required for HF solution calorimetric measurements at the time. Thermodynamic mixing properties for mineral series, especially those exhibiting compositionally asymmetric mixing quantities, are best defined when samples at a large number of compositions are utilized. Enabled by the small sample sizes now possible for HF solution calorimetric dissolutions (Hovis et al., 1998, Amer. Mineral.), we revisit feldspar thermodynamic properties, having synthesized an analbite - sanidine series consisting of samples at 20 compositions. Solution calorimetric experiments on these samples at 50 °C in 20.1 wt% HF under isoperibolic conditions have resulted in highly precise calorimetric data (standard deviation per sample averaging 0.06 % of the heat of solution). Although enthalpies of K-Na mixing based on the new data display some degree of compositional asymmetry, with a maximum value of 4.8 kJ/mol at a mole fraction potassium of 0.47, the distribution of enthalpy-of-mixing values remains nearly symmetric with respect to K content. This contrasts significantly with data for Al-Si ordered low albite - microcline crystalline solutions, reinvestigated via synthesis of a 21-member series, which show significantly higher mixing magnitudes and considerably greater asymmetry with respect to composition. The maximization of enthalpies of K-Na mixing at sodic compositions correlates well with the sodic critical compositions for both solvi. The lower mixing magnitudes for analbite - sanidine are consistent with the comparatively lower critical temperature of the analbite - sanidine solvus (e.g., Smith & Parsons, 1974, Mineral. Mag.) relative to that for low albite - microcline (Bachinski & Müller, 1971, J. Petrology). Entropies of K-Na mixing for

  7. Analbite - Sanidine Thermodynamic Mixing Properties: Highly Precise HF Solution Calorimetric Data Across A Twenty-Member Crystalline Solution Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, G. L.

    2012-12-01

    Enthalpies of K-Na mixing for the analbite - sanidine feldspar series were investigated by Hovis (1988, J. Petrology) in the early 80's. That work was based on data at a limited number of compositions, owing to the large sample sizes required for HF solution calorimetric measurements at the time. Thermodynamic mixing properties for mineral series, especially those exhibiting compositionally asymmetric mixing quantities, are best defined when samples at a large number of compositions are utilized. Enabled by the small sample sizes now possible for HF solution calorimetric dissolutions (Hovis et al., 1998, Amer. Mineral.), we revisit feldspar thermodynamic properties, having synthesized an analbite - sanidine series consisting of samples at 20 compositions. Solution calorimetric experiments on these samples at 50 °C in 20.1 wt% HF under isoperibolic conditions have resulted in highly precise calorimetric data (standard deviation per sample averaging 0.06 % of the heat of solution). Although enthalpies of K-Na mixing based on the new data display some degree of compositional asymmetry, with a maximum value of 4.8 kJ/mol at a mole fraction potassium of 0.47, the distribution of enthalpy-of-mixing values remains nearly symmetric with respect to K content. This contrasts significantly with data for Al-Si ordered low albite - microcline crystalline solutions, reinvestigated via synthesis of a 21-member series, which show significantly higher mixing magnitudes and considerably greater asymmetry with respect to composition. The maximization of enthalpies of K-Na mixing at sodic compositions correlates well with the sodic critical compositions for both solvi. The lower mixing magnitudes for analbite - sanidine are consistent with the comparatively lower critical temperature of the analbite - sanidine solvus (e.g., Smith & Parsons, 1974, Mineral. Mag.) relative to that for low albite - microcline (Bachinski & Müller, 1971, J. Petrology). Entropies of K-Na mixing for

  8. The origin of cellular life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This essay presents a scenario of the origin of life that is based on analysis of biological architecture and mechanical design at the microstructural level. My thesis is that the same architectural and energetic constraints that shape cells today also guided the evolution of the first cells and that the molecular scaffolds that support solid-phase biochemistry in modern cells represent living microfossils of past life forms. This concept emerged from the discovery that cells mechanically stabilize themselves using tensegrity architecture and that these same building rules guide hierarchical self-assembly at all size scales (Sci. Amer 278:48-57;1998). When combined with other fundamental design principles (e.g., energy minimization, topological constraints, structural hierarchies, autocatalytic sets, solid-state biochemistry), tensegrity provides a physical basis to explain how atomic and molecular elements progressively self-assembled to create hierarchical structures with increasingly complex functions, including living cells that can self-reproduce.

  9. On the rate of convergence of the alternating projection method in finite dimensional spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galántai, A.

    2005-10-01

    Using the results of Smith, Solmon, and Wagner [K. Smith, D. Solomon, S. Wagner, Practical and mathematical aspects of the problem of reconstructing objects from radiographs, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 83 (1977) 1227-1270] and Nelson and Neumann [S. Nelson, M. Neumann, Generalizations of the projection method with application to SOR theory for Hermitian positive semidefinite linear systems, Numer. Math. 51 (1987) 123-141] we derive new estimates for the speed of the alternating projection method and its relaxed version in . These estimates can be computed in at most O(m3) arithmetic operations unlike the estimates in papers mentioned above that require spectral information. The new and old estimates are equivalent in many practical cases. In cases when the new estimates are weaker, the numerical testing indicates that they approximate the original bounds in papers mentioned above quite well.

  10. Stability and bifurcation analysis in hematopoietic stem cell dynamics with multiple delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Ying; Wei, Junjie; Ruan, Shigui

    2010-10-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a maturity structured system of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) populations in the bone marrow. The model is a system of differential equations with several time delays. We discuss the stability of equilibria and perform the analysis of Hopf bifurcation. More precisely, we first obtain a set of improved sufficient conditions ensuring the global asymptotical stability of the zero solution using the Lyapunov method and the embedding technique of asymptotically autonomous semiflows. Then we prove that there exists at least one positive periodic solution for the n-dimensional system as a time delay varies in some region. This result is established by combining Hopf bifurcation theory, the global Hopf bifurcation theorem due to Wu [J. Wu, Symmetric functional differential equations and neural networks with memory, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 350 (1998) 4799-4838], and a continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory. Some numerical simulations are also presented to illustrate the analytic results.

  11. Influence of the Surface Mechanical Treatment on the Photothermal Piezoelectric Spectra of ZnSe Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Maliński, M.; Strzałkowski, K.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents experimental and theoretical piezoelectric photoacoustic spectra of ZnSe samples after different surface treatments: grinding, polishing, and etching. The modification of the Jackson and Amer theory, presented in the paper, enabled numerical interpretation of the spectra in the model of a mechanically damaged surface layer. The nature of the characteristic peak observed at E = 2.65 eV below the energy gap is explained as caused by the Urbach absorption tail and the damaged surface layer of a sample. The correlation between the microhardness of the Zn1- x Be x Se and ZnSe crystals and the thickness of the mechanically damaged surface layer was observed.

  12. Asymptotic stability of rarefaction waves for 2 × 2 viscous hyperbolic conservation laws—The two-modes case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Zhouping

    In this paper, we continue our study on the asymptotic behavior toward rare-faction waves of a general 2 × 2 system of hyperbolic conservation laws with positive viscosity matrix. It is shown that when the initial data is a small perturbation of a weak rarefaction wave (a linear superposition of a 1-rarefaction wave and a 2-rarefaction wave) for the corresponding inviscid hyperbolic conservation laws, then the solution of the Cauchy problem for the viscous system globally exists and tends to the rarefaction wave. The result is proved by using an energy method, combining the technique in [Z. P. Xin, J. Differential Equations73 (1988), 45-77], and using the characteristic-energy method of T. P. Liu [ Mem. Amer. Math. Soc.328 (1975), 1-108].

  13. Nonlinear geochemical dynamics and petrography: Burial dolomitization (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, E.

    2010-12-01

    both the formation of self-organized syntaxial zebra veins [4,9] hosted by the replacive dolomite, and the curving of the displacive (“saddle”) dolomite crystals, precisely as observed petrographically. The model also explains why dolomitization affects only limestones and why MVT Pb and Zn ores are hosted in dolostones. [1] Merino (1984), in Nicolis & Baras, eds., Chemical Instabilities, NATO Adv. Sci. Series C 120, 305-328. [2] Merino, Wang (2001) in H.J. Krug & J.H. Kruhl, eds., Non-Equilibrium Processes in Geoscience, Self-Organization Yearbook 11, 13-45 (Dunker Humblot) [3] Ortoleva et al (1982) Amer J Sci 282, 617-643. [4] Merino et al (2006) Geologica Acta 4, 383-393. [5] Merino et al (1983) Contrib Min. Petrol. 82, 360-370. [6] Haase et al (1980) Science 209, 272-274; Wang, Merino (1992) GCActa 56, 587-596. [7] Merino, Banerjee (2008) J. Geology 116, 62-75. [8] Wang et al (2009) Nature-Geoscience 2, 781-784. [9] Merino, Canals (2010) Dynamics of dolomitization, Amer J Sci, submitted. [10] Wilson et al (2001) Amer J Sci 301, 727-752; Caspard et al (2004) Geofluids 4, 40-60; Whittaker et al (2004) in Braithwaite et al, eds., Geometry and Petrogenesis of Dolomite Hydrocarbon Reservoirs, Geol Soc London, Spec Publ 235, 99-139; Jones, Xiao (2005) Amer Assoc Petroleum Geologists bull. 89, 577-601.

  14. Periodic-parabolic eigenvalue problems with a large parameter and degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daners, Daniel; Thornett, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    We consider a periodic-parabolic eigenvalue problem with a non-negative potential λm vanishing on a non-cylindrical domain Dm satisfying conditions similar to those for the parabolic maximum principle. We show that the limit as λ → ∞ leads to a periodic-parabolic problem on Dm having a periodic-parabolic principal eigenvalue and eigenfunction which are unique in some sense. We substantially improve a result from [Du and Peng, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 364 (2012), p. 6039-6070]. At the same time we offer a different approach based on a periodic-parabolic initial boundary value problem. The results are motivated by an analysis of the asymptotic behaviour of positive solutions to semilinear logistic periodic-parabolic problems with temporal and spacial degeneracies.

  15. Fundamental Dynamics of Black Hole Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haramein, Nassim

    2002-04-01

    The dynamics of rotating, charged black holes, obeying the Kerr-Newman metric is presented. These dynamical high-density, gravitationally collapsing, black hole systems for stellar, galactic, intergalactic and cosmogenesis appear to obey similar constraints on their mass, apparent density and radius. Under these extreme conditions, the gravitational force becomes "balanced" with the larger coupling constant of the electromagnetic force. Thus, the gravitational attraction forms dynamic pseudo equilibrium with the plasma dynamics surrounding the black holes. Thermodynamic-type processes occupy a role in energy transfer between gravitational attraction and electro-dynamic repulsion. Solving the modified Einstein-Maxwell's equations under high magnetic field conditions, with additional thermodynamic conditions, leads to a good description of the processes occurring externally, near and in the event horizons of the Kerr-Newman geometry and leads to a unification possibility. Reference; N. Haramein, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. AB06, 1154(2001)

  16. Effect of multiplicative and additive noise on genetic transcriptional regulatory mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Mei; Xie, Hui-Zhang; Liu, Liang-Gang; Li, Zhi-Bing

    2009-02-01

    A multiplicative noise and an additive noise are introduced in the kinetic model of Smolen-Baxter-Byrne [P. Smolen, D.A. Baxter, J.H. Byrne, Amer. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 274 (1998) 531], in which the expression of gene is controlled by protein concentration of transcriptional activator. The Fokker-Planck equation is solved and the steady-state probability distribution is obtained numerically. It is found that the multiplicative noise converts the bistability to monostability that can be regarded as a noise-induced transition. The additive noise reduces the transcription efficiency. The correlation between the multiplicative noise and the additive noise works as a genetic switch and regulates the gene transcription effectively.

  17. An aquarium experiment on the American eel as a predator on larval lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perlmutter, Alfred

    1951-01-01

    The parasitic sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, has in recent years spread throughout Lakes Huron and Michigan and is now firmly established in these waters (Applegate, 1949, Mich. Cons., 18 (4): 13-15). Coincident with their spread, the abundance of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, has declined in both lakes (Hile, 1949, Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc., 76 (1946): 121-147) and the lake trout as well as other species of fishes are showing an increase in scarring from lamprey attacks. For Lake Michigan the analysis of fishermen's questionnaires gave an increase in percentage by weight of lamprey-scarred lake trout from 31 percent in 1947 to 41 percent in 1948. The sea lamprey is now spreading through Lake Superior, the last of the Great Lakes containing a large population of lake trout.

  18. Enthalpies of Mixing in Sodium Silicate Glasses and Relevance to Adam-Gibbs Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, G.; Jarry, P.; Toplis, M.; Richet, P.

    2003-12-01

    Solution calorimetric measurements have been made in 20.1 wt % hydrofluoric acid at 50° C on binary Na2O-SiO2 glasses ranging in composition from 0 to 50 mol % Na2O. The initial calorimetric data for compositions between 20 and 50 mol % Na2O were highly variable, determined later to be due to the development of Na carbonate on the glass surfaces. However, additional measurements using minimally-ground specimens that had been remelted shortly before the calorimetric dissolutions produced highly reproducible results. After adjustment of the data for glass transition temperature (Richet et al., 1984, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc.), the results show nearly linear ("ideal") behavior of the heats of solution between 50 % Na2O and 30-35 % Na2O. However, positive enthalpies of mixing (Hex) are evident in the compositional region between 0 and 30-35 mol % Na2O, with maximum magnitudes of Hex on the order of 5 kJ/mol relative to 0 and 35 % Na2O end members. Within the framework of the Adam-Gibbs theory of structural relaxation, viscosity and heat capacity data may be combined to determine configurational entropies of silicate glasses. When applied to sodium silicate glasses (Toplis, 2001, Chemical Geology), positive entropies of mixing (Sex) are calculated for compositions between 0 and 30 mole % Na2O, a compositional region where liquid immiscibility also is known to occur (Haller et al., 1974, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc.) and where Gibbs free energies of mixing (Gex) therefore must be positive. Because positive entropies of mixing contribute negatively (-TSex) to Gex, the observed immiscibility requires positive enthalpies of mixing (Hex) in the silicic part of the compositional range. The present study confirms such positive enthalpies of mixing and supports the usefulness of Adam-Gibbs theory for the prediction of viscosity/entropy behavior of silicate glasses and liquids.

  19. Hydrated sulfates on Mars's surface: water cycle and S isotope tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracas, R.; Bobocioiu, E.

    2014-12-01

    We study a range of hydrated sulfate minerals from first-principles calculations based on density-functional and density-functional perturbation theory. We report the results extensively on the WURM website (http://wurm.info, Caracas and Bobcioiu, 2011). We find that hydration has a more pronounced effect on the spectroscopic properties than cation replacement. The Raman spectra of all phases present clear SO4 features that are easily identifiable. We use this to show one can use the vibrational spectroscopic information as an identification tool in a remote environment, like the Martian surface. Based on the computed vibrational results we analyze the S isotope partitioning. We observe that in general hydration favors enrichment in the lighter S isotope 32S with respect to the heavier 34S, which is accumulated in the less hydrous structures. Thus we show for the first time that the signature of 34S/32S partitioning could be observed by in situ spectroscopy on the surface of Mars. Finally we compute hydration energies. For example, in the hydrated magnesium sulfate series we find that epsomite and meridianiite with, respectively 7 and 11 water molecules per MgSO4 unit are particularly stable with respect to other individual or combinations of hydration states (Bobocioiu and Caracas, 2014). This can be related to the diurnal cycle of hydration and dehydration and hence it can improve the modeling of the water circulation on Mars. References: E. Bobocioiu, R. Caracas (2014) Stability and spectroscopy of Mg sulfate minerals. Role of hydration on sulfur isotope partitioning. Amer. Mineral., 99, 1216-1220. R. Caracas, E. Bobocioiu (2011) The WURM project - a freely available web-based repository of computed physical data for minerals. Amer. Mineral. 96, 437-444.

  20. Exclusive traveling waves for competitive reaction-diffusion systems and their stabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Anthony W.; Hou, Xiaojie; Li, Yi

    2008-02-01

    We study the existence, uniqueness and asymptotic behavior, as well as the stability of a special kind of traveling wave solutions for competitive PDE systems involving intrinsic growth, competition, crowding effects and diffusion. The traveling waves are exclusive in the sense that as the variable goes to positive or negative infinity, different species are close to extinction or carrying capacity. We perform an appropriate affine transformation of the traveling wave equations into monotone form and construct appropriate upper and lower solutions. By this means, we reduce the existence proof to application of well-known theory about monotone traveling wave systems (cf. [A. Leung, Systems of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations: Applications to Biology and Engineering, MIA, Kluwer, Boston, 1989; J. Wu, X. Zou, Traveling wave fronts of reaction-diffusion systems with delay, J. Dynam. Differential Equations 13 (2001) 651-687] and [I. Volpert, V. Volpert, VE Volpert, Traveling Wave Solutions of Parabolic Systems, Transl. Math. Monogr., vol. 140, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 1994]). Then, by using spectral analysis of the linearization over the profile, we prove the orbital stability of the traveling wave in some Banach spaces with exponentially weighted norm. Furthermore, we show that the introduction of some weight is necessary in the sense that, in general, traveling wave solutions with initial perturbations in the (unweighted) space C0 are unstable (cf. [I. Volpert, V. Volpert, V. Volpert, Traveling Wave Solutions of Parabolic Systems, Transl. Math. Monogr., vol. 140, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 1994] and [D. Henry, Geometric Theory of Semilinear Parabolic Equations, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 840, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981]).

  1. A geochemical comparison of alkalic lavas in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, peninsular Baja California and intraplate volcanoes in the eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, L.; Castillo, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is a continental volcanic arc built along the southern edge of the North American plate. The volcanic rocks along TMVB are compositionally diverse and the origin of its alkalic lavas with ocean island basalt (OIB)-like composition is highly controversial. Alkalic lavas from four regions in the western, central, and eastern TMVB [e.g., Verma and Hasenaka, Geochem. J., 58, 2004; Petrone et al., Geol. S. Am. S., 402, 2006; Orozco-Esquivel et al., Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 93, 2007] are compared with similar OIB-like alkalic lavas from peninsular Baja California [e.g., Storey et al., Terra Nova, 1, 1989; Castillo, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 120, 2008] and intraplate volcanoes in the eastern Pacific [Tian et al., Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 12, 2011] in order to ascertain their geochemical similarities and differences and to constrain the compositions of their respective magma sources. A few of the alkalic lavas from TMVB have very similar trace element and isotopic compositions as the OIB-like alkalic lavas from peninsular Baja California and intraplate volcanoes in the eastern Pacific. Majority of the TMVB alkalic lavas, however, are compositionally more heterogeneous, similar to the less-alkalic Nb-enriched basalts in peninsular Baja California representing OIB-like alkalic lavas that had been contaminated by other mantle components and/or crustal materials. Thus, data seem to indicate that all the OIB-like alkalic lavas can be traced to a similar source, the compositionally heterogeneous Pacific asthenosphere.

  2. Utility of telephone survey methods in population-based health studies of older adults: an example from the Alberta Older Adult Health Behavior (ALERT) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Random digit dialing is often used in public health research initiatives to accrue and establish a study sample; however few studies have fully described the utility of this approach. The primary objective of this paper was to describe the implementation and utility of using random digit dialing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) for sampling, recruitment and data collection in a large population-based study of older adults [Alberta Older Adult Health Behavior (ALERT) study]. Methods Using random digit dialing, older adults (> = 55 years) completed health behavior and outcome and demographic measures via CATI. After completing the CATI, participants were invited to receive a step pedometer and waist circumference tape measure via mail to gather objectively derived ambulatory activity and waist circumference assessments. Results Overall, 36,000 telephone numbers were called of which 7,013 were deemed eligible for the study. Of those, 4,913 (70.1%) refused to participate in the study and 804 (11.4%) participants were not included due to a variety of call dispositions (e.g., difficult to reach, full quota for region). A total of 1,296 participants completed telephone interviews (18.5% of those eligible and 3.6% of all individuals approached). Overall, 22.8% of households did not have an age 55+ resident and 13.6% of individuals refused to participate, Average age was 66.5 years, and 43% were male. A total of 1,081 participants (83.4%) also submitted self-measured ambulatory activity (i.e., via step pedometer) and anthropometric data (i.e., waist circumference). With the exception of income (18.7%), the rate of missing data for demographics, health behaviors, and health measures was minimal (<1%). Conclusions Older adults are willing to participate in telephone-based health surveys when randomly contacted. Researchers can use this information to evaluate the feasibility and the logistics of planned studies using a similar population

  3. A Men's Workplace Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven T.; Stolp, Sean; Seaton, Cherisse; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M.; Bottorff, Joan L.; Oliffe, John L.; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Lamont, Sonia; Medhurst, Kerensa; Errey, Sally; Healy, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore physical activity and eating behaviors among men following the implementation of a gender-sensitive, workplace health promotion program. Methods: Using a pre-post within-subjects design, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) was used to collect health-related information along with physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At baseline, participants (N = 139) consumed 3.58 servings of fruit and vegetables/day and engaged in an average of 229.77 min/week moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). At 6 months, daily fruit/vegetable intake did not increase, whereas MVPA increased by 112.3 min/week. Conclusions: The POWERPLAY program successfully increased weekly MVPA. Engaging men in health promotion can be a challenge; here, the workplace served as a valuable environment for achieving positive change. PMID:27281710

  4. Electromechanical and magnetic properties of BiFeO3-LaFeO3-CaTiO3 ceramics near the rhombohedral-orthorhombic phase boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinsky, D. V.; Troyanchuk, I. O.; Sikolenko, V.; Efimov, V.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2013-05-01

    BiFeO3-LaFeO3-CaTiO3 ceramics have been studied by X-ray diffraction, magnetization measurements, and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The compositional ranges of the polar, antipolar, and non-polar phases have been estimated. PFM measurements testify gradual decrease of piezoelectric response in Bi0.85-xLa0.15CaxFe1-xTixO3 system with Ca/Ti content increase, except a narrow concentration region near polar-antipolar phase boundary where piezoelectric signal shows maximum value. It is found that increase of dopant concentration leads to apparent decrease of the off-center Bi-O displacement and, consequently, causes a reduction of piezoelectric response. It is concluded that notable remanent magnetization in polar and non-polar structural phases is a result of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moria interaction.

  5. Infrared-thermography imaging system multiapplications for manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Sharon A.

    1990-03-01

    Imaging systems technology has been utilized traditionally for diagnosing structural envelope or insulation problems in the general thermographic comunity. Industrially, new applications for utilizing thermal imaging technology have been developed i n pred i cti ve/preventi ye mai ntenance and prod uct moni tori ng prociures at Eastman Kodak Company, the largest photographic manufacturering producer in the world. In the manufacturing processes used at Eastman Kodak Company, new applications for thermal imaging include: (1) Fluid transfer line insulation (2) Web coating drying uniformity (3) Web slitter knives (4) Heating/cooling coils (5) Overheated tail bearings, and (6) Electrical phase imbalance. The substantial cost benefits gained from these applications of infrared thermography substantiate the practicality of this approach and indicate the desirability of researching further appl i cati ons.

  6. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall, Dana M.; Eberhard, Mark L.; Parise, Monica E.

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a preventable parasitic disease that is caused by the dog and cat roundworms Toxocara cani and T. cati, respectively. Humans become infected when they accidently ingest infectious Toxocara eggs commonly found in contaminated soil; children are most often affected. Clinical manifestations of Toxocara infection in humans include ocular toxocariasis and visceral toxocariasis. Although infection with Toxocara can cause devastating disease, the burden of toxocariasis in the United States population remains unknown. In addition, risk factors for acquiring infection need to be better defined, and research needs to be conducted to better understand the pathophysiology and clinical course of toxocariasis. Development of diagnostic tests would enable clinicians to detect active infection, and determination of optimal drug regiments would ensure patients were appropriately treated. Addressing these public health gaps is necessary to understand and address the impact of toxocariasis in the United States. PMID:24808249

  7. Neighbourhood vitality and physical activity among the elderly: The role of walkable environments on active ageing in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Oriol; Miralles-Guasch, Carme

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether neighbourhood vitality and walkability were associated with active ageing of the elderly. Immobility, activity engagement and physical activity were explored in relation with age, gender and walkability of the built environment. Number of trips per day and minutes spent on walking by the elderly were extracted from a broad travel survey with more than 12,000 CATI interviews and were compared across vital and non-vital urban environments. Results highlight the importance of vital environments for elderly active mobility as subpopulations residing in highly walkable neighbourhoods undertook more trips and spent more minutes walking than their counterparts. The results also suggest that the built environment has different effects in terms of gender, as elderly men were more susceptible to urban vitality than elderly women.

  8. [Quality service in supermarkets: a proposal of measurement].

    PubMed

    Pascual Soler, Marcos; Pascual Llobel, Juan; Frías Navarro, María Dolores; Rosel Remírez, Jesús

    2006-08-01

    This assignment has the aim of going deeply into the study of service quality perception in supermarkets. The research tries to find the criterion used when rating the services received in a supermarket and also to elaborate an instrument to measure the service quality in this context. From the review of the existing bibliography, four theoretical factors and a thirteen items scale have been composed. These four factors are: price, product, service and image and fresh product. In order to check the psychometrical properties of the questionnaire we carried out a computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) with a sample of 300 interviews. The results obtained allow us to show a scale with a factorial structure of 4 dimensions that throws up optimal indexes of reliability and validity. At the same time we conclude that the variable called establishment global rate is an important variable in the perceptive structure of the consumers.

  9. Chemical characterisation of african dust transported to Canary Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelado, M. D.; López, P.; Prieto, S.; Collado, C.; Hernández, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    African dust pulses have important effects on the climate conditions and the marine biogeochemistry in the Canary Region. Aerosol samples have been collected at three stations on Gran Canaria Island (Taliarte at sea level, Tafira 269 m a.s.l. and Pico de la Gorra 1930 m a.s.l.) during 2000-2008. Elemental characterisation of the collected mineral aerosol and back trajectories of the air masses are used to distinguish regional African sources of dust. Dust aerosol samples from North Sahara (Morocco, North Algeria and Tunisia), West and Central Sahara (20°-30°N, 18°W-50°E) and Sahel (0°-20°N, 18°W-50°E) have shown different Ca/Ti, Al/Ti and Fe/Al ratios. Ti appears as a better tracer element of specific source of dust than Fe, probably due to a less mineral alteration during the atmospheric transport.

  10. [Ocular toxocariasis--case report].

    PubMed

    Moraru, Andreea; Panfil, Madălina; Totolici, Geanina; Brănişteanu, Daniel; Costin, Dănut; Schmitzer, Speranţa

    2014-01-01

    Ocular Toxocariasis is a parasitosis caused by Toxocara catis/canis larvae localized in the eye. The most frequent clinical manifestations are the central retinal granuloma, peripheral retinal granuloma and chronic endophthalmitis. Secondary complications due to the presence of parasite in the posterior segment of the eye may have significant consequences on visual function. We present the case of a 23 years old patient, admitted for progressive decrease of the right eye BCVA during the last 6 months. After performing clinical examination and serological tests we established the diagnosis of ocular Toxocariasis. The patient presented a particular form of the disease consisting in the presence of both a central retinal granuloma and a peripheral one. We performed 23G pars plana vitrectomy and membrane peeling. VA improved as soon as the first month after surgery.

  11. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Oriana; Greenwood, Spencer; Vanderstichel, Raphael; Gelens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus, and other intestinal parasites, in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Fecal samples were collected from 100 feral cats, 100 cats from the PEI Humane Society, and 5 cats from a private residence. The occurrence of T. foetus, based on fecal culture, was 0% in feral and shelter cats. A single positive sample was obtained from an owned Abyssinian cat that was imported to PEI. Intestinal parasites were identified via fecal flotation in 76% of feral cats and 39% of cats from the humane society. Feral cats had a higher incidence of Toxocara cati than cats from the humane society (P < 0.001), conversely, shelter cats had a higher incidence of Cystoisospora spp. (P < 0.001). These results suggest that while T. foetus is not of importance in feral and shelter cats in PEI, imported cats could serve as reservoirs. PMID:26933262

  12. Helminths in feline coprolites up to 9000 years in the Brazilian Northeast.

    PubMed

    Sianto, Luciana; de Souza, Mônica Vieira; Chame, Marcia; da Luz, Maria de Fátima; Guidon, Niéde; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Araújo, Adauto

    2014-12-01

    The identification of parasites in animal coprolites has been an important tool to promote knowledge about parasites infecting different zoological groups in the past. It also helps the understanding of parasites causing zoonoses, which is especially important for animals that were part of the diet of prehistoric human groups. Nevertheless, the study of feline coprolites is still scarce. This study analyzed 30 feline coprolites from southeastern Piauí taken from archeological sites used by human groups in the past. Eggs of Spirometra sp., Toxocara cati, Spirurida, Oxyuroidea Calodium cf. hepaticum, Trichuris cf. muris, Trichuris sp., and other Trichuridae, Oncicola sp., and nematode larvae were found. Some of these findings reflect the consumption of infected prey. The role of felines in the transmission of helminthes causing zoonoses in the region is discussed.

  13. Relationships between sources of health information and diabetes knowledge in the U.S. Hispanic population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2014-01-01

    Data from the 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey were analyzed to examine the relationship between health information use and diabetes knowledge in the U.S. Hispanic population. A nationally representative sample of 4,013 adults self-identified as Hispanics or Latinos was generated through stratified random digit dialing (RDD) and interviewed using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Results showed that receiving health information from health care providers, family and friends, newspapers and magazines, and the Internet was positively associated with diabetes knowledge. Getting health information from churches and community organizations, however, was negatively associated with diabetes knowledge. Use of television as a source of health information showed mixed results. Implications of these findings for diabetes interventions targeting the Hispanic population in the United States are discussed.

  14. Minority marketing for resource conservation. A research project to study methods of outreach in Hispanic minority communities regarding issues of energy and resource conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Minority Marketing Program established baseline environmental informational data related to City of Tucson minority communities. The data is intended to be used to further develop the energy conservation, environmental education and neighborhood outreach programs. The goal of these new programs is to positively affect the participating rates of all City sponsored community environmental programs with a special emphasis on minority communities. The Minority Marketing Program developed a survey, in conjunction with the University of Arizona, to establish a database of environmental awareness information City-wide but with a special emphasis on an area composed of 10 census tracts within a primarily Hispanic community. This survey was constructed using federal non-proprietary software entitled Questionnaire Programming Language (QPL) and was administered as a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), as well as a total design method mail-out survey. This approach produced data that is reliable within {+-} 5%. It will also establish a database against which future data can be compared.

  15. [Effect of nitrogen source on gene expression of first steps of methanol utilization pathway in Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Rumiantsev, A M; Padkina, M V; Sambuk, E V

    2013-04-01

    Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast that is widely used for the expression of heterologous proteins. Here, we have investigated the dependence of AOX1 and CAT1 expression on the source of nitrogen. It has shown that the expression of AOX1 and CAT1 depends on the source of nitrogen. In the presence of a rich nitrogen source, such as glutamine or ammonium sulfate, the AOX1 and CAT1 expression was dramatically induced. With proline as the nitrogen source AOX1 and CATI expression was reduced by more than threefold. The expression of these genes is controlled at the level of transcription. We have shown the impact of the nitrogen source on the growth rate in the presence of methanol as a sole carbon source. The specific growth rate was highest on media that contained proline as a nitrogen source compared to media with a rich nitrogen source. PMID:23866622

  16. A putative role for Toxocara species in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Theorell, Töres

    2004-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of unknown aetiology. The finding of monoclonal antibodies in MS has been attributed to various infectious agents. Nematodes, such as Toxocara species have not been explored as possible aetiologic agents of MS. Some epidemiological studies have found an association between exposure to stress and household pets prior to the diagnosis of MS. In a case known to the authors, slight malaise and eosinophilia in peripheral blood preceded the diagnosis of MS by one year in a middle-aged man who lived in rural surroundings with cats in the household. The ubiquitary parasite Toxocara catis or canis is prevalent and serum antibodies are found regularly in populations examined. It is able to develop into the larval stage in human beings. The hypothesis presented here is that MS could be initiated by such infections in previously unexposed subjects under conditions of long-term stress. PMID:15193348

  17. Deep and superficial skin scrapings from a feline immunodeficiency virus-positive cat.

    PubMed

    Neel, Jennifer A; Tarigo, Jaime; Tater, Kathy C; Grindem, Carol B

    2007-03-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male, domestic shorthair cat housed at the North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory Animal Research facility as part of a research colony was examined because of mulifocal skin lesions. The lesions consisted of patchy alopecia with mild crusting of the periauricular region, neck, and dorsum; periauricular excoriations; marked dorsal seborrhea and scaling; and generalized erythematous papules. A moderate amount of ceruminous exudate was present in both ear canals. Results of testing for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were positive. An ear swab specimen and superficial and deep skin scrapings were obtained, mounted with oil on glass slides, and coverslipped for microscopic examination. Two populations of mites were observed: a large population of slender, long (approximately 200 microm), adult mites with long, tapering abdomens that comprised two-thirds of the total body length; and a smaller population of more translucent and shorter mites (approximately 100 microm) with wide, blunt abdomens that had prominent transverse ridges. The interpretation was demodicosis, with Demodex cati and D gatoi co-infection. Histologic sections of biopsies from skin lesions on the neck, dorsum, and periauricular area contained a mild perivascular and perifollicular inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of histiocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Diffusely within the follicular lumina and occasionally within the superficial keratin, a myriad of Demodex organisms were observed. Intrafollicular mites were compatible in appearance with D cati whereas those in the corneal layer were suggestive of D gatoi. Demodicosis is an uncommon disease of cats, and rare cases of dual infection have been documented, occasionally in FIV-infected cats. The dual infection emphasizes the importance of doing both superficial and deep skin scrapings and of recognizing the unique microscopic features of different Demodex mites.

  18. Toxocariasis and Epilepsy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quattrocchi, Graziella; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Marin, Benoit; Bruno, Elisa; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objective Human toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stages of Toxocara canis (T. canis) and less frequently Toxocara cati (T. cati). A relationship between toxocariasis and epilepsy has been hypothesized. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available data to evaluate the strength of association between epilepsy and Toxocara spp. seropositivity and to propose some guidelines for future surveys. Data Sources Electronic databases, the database from the Institute of Neuroepidemiology and Tropical Neurology of the University of Limoges (http://www-ient.unilim.fr/) and the reference lists of all relevant papers and books were screened up to October 2011. Methods We performed a systematic review of literature on toxocariasis (the exposure) and epilepsy (the outcome). Two authors independently assessed eligibility and study quality and extracted data. A common odds ratio (OR) was estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis model of aggregated published data. Results Seven case-control studies met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 1867 participants (850 cases and 1017 controls). The percentage of seropositivity (presence of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies) was higher among people with epilepsy (PWE) in all the included studies even if the association between epilepsy and Toxocara spp. seropositivity was statistically significant in only 4 studies, with crude ORs ranging 2.04–2.85. Another study bordered statistical significance, while in 2 of the included studies no significant association was found. A significant (p<0.001) common OR of 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50–2.44] was estimated. Similar results were found when meta-analysis was restricted to the studies considering an exclusively juvenile population and to surveys using Western Blot as confirmatory or diagnostic serological assay. Conclusion Our results support the existence of a positive association between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and epilepsy

  19. Helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber), from Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Tiekotter, K L

    1985-04-01

    Cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreber), in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. Of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: South Dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; Kansas, 3/2; and Wyoming, 1/1. Helminths recovered included: Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929 (67%), Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) Gmelin, 1790 (27%), Taenia macrocystis (Diesing, 1850) Lühe, 1910 (19%), Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (55%), Physaloptera rara Hall and Wigdor, 1918 (32%), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) Leiper, 1907 (31%), Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1780) (39%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (Zeder, 1800) von Linstow, 1885 (5%), Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) cahirensis (Jägerskiöld, 1909) Quentin, 1969 (1%), Vogeloides felis (Vogel, 1928) Davtian, 1933 (7%), Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1932 (12%), and Capillaria aerophila (Creplin, 1839) (4%). One bobcat was not infected; 74 had 1 to 7 species (means = 3). Simpson's index for helminth species was moderately low (0.12), indicating a relatively diverse helminth fauna. Mean levels of infection between prominent species pairs and within each species were compared with bobcat sex and age differences using Student's t-test. Mean intensity of Physaloptera praeputialis was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of Toxocara cati; mean intensity of Mesocestoides corti was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of all other prominent species. No significant intensity differences were indicated among bobcat sex and age categories. G-tests computed for prevalence of prominent species with bobcat age indicated no significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Modelling potential presence of metazoan endoparasites of bobcats (Lynx rufus) using verified records.

    PubMed

    Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2014-10-01

    Helminth parasites of wild and domestic felines pose a direct or potential threat to human health. Since helminths depend on multiple environmental factors that make their transmission possible, it is imperative to predict the areas where these parasites may complete the transmission to potential hosts. Bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreberer), are the most abundant and widely-distributed wild felid species in North America. The increase of population densities of bobcats raises concerns about their importance as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites that may affect wildlife, domestic animals and humans. Our objective was to predict the potential presence of the tapeworm Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929, the fluke Alaria marcianae (La Rue, 1917) and the roundworm Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) in southern Illinois. The empirical presence of these parasites in localities across the region was analysed in combination with a sampling bias layer (i.e. bobcat presence) and with environmental data: layers of water, soil, land cover, human density and climate variables in MAXENT to create maps of potential presence for these three species in an area of 46436 km2. All climatic variables were low contributors (0.0-2.0% contribution to model creation) whereas land cover surfaced as an important variable for the presence of A. marcianae (7.6%) and T. cati (6.3%); human density (4.8%) was of secondary importance for T. rileyi. Variables of importance likely represent habitat requirements necessary for the completion of parasite life cycles. Larger areas of potential presence were found for the feline specialist T. rileyi (85%) while potential presence was less likely for A. marcianae (73%), a parasite that requires multiple aquatic intermediate hosts. This study provides information to wildlife biologists and health officials regarding the potential impacts of growing bobcat populations in combination with complex and changing environmental factors.

  1. Modelling potential presence of metazoan endoparasites of bobcats (Lynx rufus) using verified records.

    PubMed

    Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2014-10-01

    Helminth parasites of wild and domestic felines pose a direct or potential threat to human health. Since helminths depend on multiple environmental factors that make their transmission possible, it is imperative to predict the areas where these parasites may complete the transmission to potential hosts. Bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreberer), are the most abundant and widely-distributed wild felid species in North America. The increase of population densities of bobcats raises concerns about their importance as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites that may affect wildlife, domestic animals and humans. Our objective was to predict the potential presence of the tapeworm Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929, the fluke Alaria marcianae (La Rue, 1917) and the roundworm Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) in southern Illinois. The empirical presence of these parasites in localities across the region was analysed in combination with a sampling bias layer (i.e. bobcat presence) and with environmental data: layers of water, soil, land cover, human density and climate variables in MAXENT to create maps of potential presence for these three species in an area of 46436 km2. All climatic variables were low contributors (0.0-2.0% contribution to model creation) whereas land cover surfaced as an important variable for the presence of A. marcianae (7.6%) and T. cati (6.3%); human density (4.8%) was of secondary importance for T. rileyi. Variables of importance likely represent habitat requirements necessary for the completion of parasite life cycles. Larger areas of potential presence were found for the feline specialist T. rileyi (85%) while potential presence was less likely for A. marcianae (73%), a parasite that requires multiple aquatic intermediate hosts. This study provides information to wildlife biologists and health officials regarding the potential impacts of growing bobcat populations in combination with complex and changing environmental factors. PMID:25549497

  2. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Wolken, Sonja; Ianiello, Davide; Rinaldi, Laura; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Cringoli, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g). A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg) and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post

  3. Obtaining Accelerometer Data in a National Cohort of Black and White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; Rhodes, J. David; Mosher, Aleena; Hutto, Brent; Stewart, Margaret S.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Vena, John E.; Blair, Steven N.; Hooker, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report methodological details and feasibility of conducting an accelerometer ancillary study in a large U.S. cohort being followed for stroke and cognitive decline. Methods REGARDS is a national, population-based study of 30,239 blacks and whites, aged ≥ 45 years, enrolled January 2003–October 2007. Baseline evaluations were conducted through computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) and an in-home visit. Participants are followed by CATI every 6 months. Starting with May 2009 follow-up, contingent on accelerometer availability, participants were invited to wear an accelerometer for 7 days. Device inventory was 1,150. Accelerometer, instructions, log sheet and stamped addressed return envelope were mailed to consenting participants. Postcard acknowledgement and reminders, and ≤ two calls were made to encourage compliance. Results Between May 2009 and January 2013, 20,076 were invited to participate; 12,146 (60.5%) consented. Participation rates by race-sex groups were similar: black women 58.6%, black men 59.6%, white women 62.3% and white men 60.5%. Mean age of the 12,146 participants to whom devices were shipped was 63.5 ± 8.7 years. Return rate was 92%. Of 11,174 returned, 1,187 were not worn, 14 had device malfunction, and of 9,973 with data, 8,096 (81.2%) provided usable data, defined as ≥ 4 days of 10+ hours of wear time, ranging from 74.4% among black women to 85.2% among white men. Conclusions Using mail and telephone methods, it is feasible to obtain objective measures of physical activity from a sizeable proportion of a national cohort of adults, with similar participation rates among blacks and whites. Linked with the clinical health information collected through follow-up, these data will allow future analyses on the association between objectively-measured sedentary time, physical activity and health outcomes. PMID:25333247

  4. The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes.

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Sven; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Aksu, Gülendem; Fischer, Katja; Strassen, Bianca; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    The anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. The extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (PEG) and/or propylencarbonate (PC) elution at room temperature or at 37°C. The plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. The worm systems tested both in vivo and in vitro were Trichuris muris and Angiostrongylus cantonensis but only in vivo Toxocara cati. The tests clearly showed that the different extraction methods eluted different components and different mass amounts, which had different efficacies against the above-cited worms. In vitro effects against A. cantonensis and T.muris were best with aqueous extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. The other plant extracts showed only low or no effects on A. cantonensis in vitro. In the case of T. muris, best results were obtained in vivo and in vitro with PEG/PC extracts of the onion followed by the aqueous extract of coconut. The complete elimination of worms in the in vivo experiments with T. muris was obtained when infected mice were treated with a 1:1 mixture of extracts of coconut and onion being produced by elutions with a mixture of 1:1 PEG and PC and fed daily for 8 days. T. cati in a naturally infected cat was eliminated by daily oral application of 6 ml coco's fluid for 5 days. This study shows that a broad spectrum of plants has anti-nematodal activities, the intensity of which, however, depends on the mode of extraction. This implicates that, if results should be really comparable, the same extraction methods at the same temperatures have to be used. Furthermore, efficacy in in vitro systems does not guarantee as good--if at all--efficacy in vivo. PMID:21110041

  5. SULFUR ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF SUBMICROMETER SiC GRAINS FROM THE MURCHISON METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuchen; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto; Heger, Alexander; Pignatari, Marco; Lin, Yangting

    2015-02-01

    We report C, Si, N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti isotopic compositions of presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains from the SiC-rich KJE size fraction (0.5-0.8 μm) of the Murchison meteorite. One thousand one hundred thirteen SiC grains were identified based on their C and Si isotopic ratios. Mainstream, AB, C, X, Y, and Z subtypes of SiC, and X-type silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) account for 81.4%, 5.7%, 0.1%, 1.5%, 5.8%, 4.9%, and 0.4%, respectively. Twenty-five grains with unusual Si isotopic ratios, including one C grain, 16 X grains, 1 Y grain, 5 Z grains, and 2 X-type Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains were selected for N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti isotopic analysis. The C grain is highly enriched in {sup 29}Si and {sup 30}Si (δ{sup 29}Si = 1345‰ ± 19‰, δ{sup 30}Si = 1272‰ ± 19‰). It has a huge {sup 32}S excess, larger than any seen before, and larger than that predicted for the Si/S supernova (SN) zone, providing evidence against the elemental fractionation model by Hoppe et al. Two SN models investigated here present a more satisfying explanation in terms of a radiogenic origin of {sup 32}S from the decay of short-lived {sup 32}Si (τ{sub 1/2} = 153 yr). Silicon-32 as well as {sup 29}Si and {sup 30}Si can be produced in SNe by short neutron bursts; evidence for initial {sup 44}Ti (τ{sub 1/2} = 60 yr) in the C grain is additional evidence for an SN origin. The X grains have marginal {sup 32}S excesses, much smaller than expected from their large {sup 28}Si excesses. Similarly, the Y and Z grains do not show the S-isotopic anomalies expected from their large Si isotopic anomalies. Low intrinsic S contents and contamination with isotopically normal S are the most likely explanations.

  6. Methods and feasibility of collecting occupational data for a large population-based cohort study in the United States: the reasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease and stroke are major contributors to preventable mortality. Evidence links work conditions to these diseases; however, occupational data are perceived to be difficult to collect for large population-based cohorts. We report methodological details and the feasibility of conducting an occupational ancillary study for a large U.S. prospective cohort being followed longitudinally for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Methods Current and historical occupational information were collected from active participants of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. A survey was designed to gather quality occupational data among this national cohort of black and white men and women aged 45 years and older (enrolled 2003–2007). Trained staff conducted Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI). After a brief pilot period, interviewers received additional training in the collection of narrative industry and occupation data before administering the survey to remaining cohort members. Trained coders used a computer-assisted coding system to assign U.S. Census codes for industry and occupation. All data were double coded; discrepant codes were independently resolved. Results Over a 2-year period, 17,648 participants provided consent and completed the occupational survey (87% response rate). A total of 20,427 jobs were assigned Census codes. Inter-rater reliability was 80% for industry and 74% for occupation. Less than 0.5% of the industry and occupation data were uncodable, compared with 12% during the pilot period. Concordance between the current and longest-held jobs was moderately high. The median time to collect employment status plus narrative and descriptive job information by CATI was 1.6 to 2.3 minutes per job. Median time to assign Census codes was 1.3 minutes per rater. Conclusions The feasibility of conducting high-quality occupational data collection and coding for a large heterogeneous

  7. Current status of L. infantum infection in stray cats in the Madrid region (Spain): implications for the recent outbreak of human leishmaniosis?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2009, the incidence of human leishmaniosis in the SW of the Madrid region has been unusually high. Although dogs are the main reservoir for this disease, a role played by dogs in this outbreak has been ruled out and investigators are now considering other hosts (eg. cats, rabbits, hares) as possible alternative reservoirs. This study was designed to examine the Leishmania infantum status of stray cats in Madrid to assess its possible implications in the human leishmaniosis outbreak. Methods 346 captured stray cats were tested for antibodies against L. infantum by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and nested-PCR methods were used to detect Leishmania DNA in blood samples of cats testing seropositive for L. infantum and/or retroviruses infection. Cats were also tested for Toxoplasma gondii using the direct agglutination test (DAT) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies (PetChek* FIV/FeLV). The presence of intestinal parasites was determined using a routine coprological method. Results The seroprevalence of L. infantum infection (cut off ≥ 1/100) was 3.2% (11/346). However, it was not possible to amplify Leishmania DNA in any of the blood samples. Seropositivity was not associated with sex, age, capture site, clinical status, retrovirus infection or T. gondii seropositivity. Of the 11 cats seropositive for L. infantum, 3 also tested positive for FIV, none for FeLV and 6 for T. gondii. It should be mentioned that the prevalence of FeLV p27 antigen was 4% and of FIV antibody was 9.2%. Although the seroprevalence of T. gondii was quite high at 53.5%, no T. gondii oocysts were found in any of the faeces samples analysed (n = 287). In contrast, intestinal parasites were detected in 76 (26.5%) samples, Toxocara cati being the most prevalent. Conclusions Our results suggest a stable L. infantum infection situation among the stray cats of the Madrid area; the disease is uncommon

  8. Sulfur Isotopic Compositions of Submicrometer SiC Grains from the Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuchen; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto; Heger, Alexander; Pignatari, Marco; Lin, Yangting

    2015-02-01

    We report C, Si, N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti isotopic compositions of presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains from the SiC-rich KJE size fraction (0.5-0.8 μm) of the Murchison meteorite. One thousand one hundred thirteen SiC grains were identified based on their C and Si isotopic ratios. Mainstream, AB, C, X, Y, and Z subtypes of SiC, and X-type silicon nitride (Si3N4) account for 81.4%, 5.7%, 0.1%, 1.5%, 5.8%, 4.9%, and 0.4%, respectively. Twenty-five grains with unusual Si isotopic ratios, including one C grain, 16 X grains, 1 Y grain, 5 Z grains, and 2 X-type Si3N4 grains were selected for N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti isotopic analysis. The C grain is highly enriched in 29Si and 30Si (δ29Si = 1345‰ ± 19‰, δ30Si = 1272‰ ± 19‰). It has a huge 32S excess, larger than any seen before, and larger than that predicted for the Si/S supernova (SN) zone, providing evidence against the elemental fractionation model by Hoppe et al. Two SN models investigated here present a more satisfying explanation in terms of a radiogenic origin of 32S from the decay of short-lived 32Si (τ1/2 = 153 yr). Silicon-32 as well as 29Si and 30Si can be produced in SNe by short neutron bursts; evidence for initial 44Ti (τ1/2 = 60 yr) in the C grain is additional evidence for an SN origin. The X grains have marginal 32S excesses, much smaller than expected from their large 28Si excesses. Similarly, the Y and Z grains do not show the S-isotopic anomalies expected from their large Si isotopic anomalies. Low intrinsic S contents and contamination with isotopically normal S are the most likely explanations.

  9. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  10. Cardiometabolic Consequences of Therapy For Chronic Schizophrenia Using Second-Generation Antipsychotic Agents in a Medicaid Population

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Alex; Quon, Peter; Abouzaid, Safiya; Haber, Noah; Ahmed, Saed; Kim, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the potential clinical and economic impact of coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes arising after the use of second-generation (“atypical”) antipsychotic agents for the treatment of chronic schizophrenia. We compared the use of these medications in patients with a higher risk of cardiometabolic adverse events (in a higher-risk scenario) and in patients with a lower risk (in a lower-risk scenario). Our U.S.-based analysis estimated the costs of CHD and diabetes arising from antipsychotic medication–related cardiometabolic effects. Methods: We constructed a health economic model to predict the 5-year incidence of CHD and diabetes and associated costs after treatment. In this cost-consequence model, we used CHD risk functions derived from the Framingham Heart Study and diabetes risk functions derived from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Patient characteristics and treatment effects on cardiometabolic risk factors were estimated from the Clinical Trials of Antipsychotic Treatment Effectiveness (CATIE) study. We evaluated two cost-consequence scenarios: the incidence of CHD and diabetes predicted for 1,000 patients with chronic schizophrenia in a higher-risk scenario based on data from CATIE associated with olanzapine (Zyprexa) and in a lower-risk scenario with ziprasidone (Geodon). We evaluated rates of adverse outcomes for each scenario and the cost of treatment for CHD and diabetes. All costs were reported in 2011 U.S. dollars. Because Medicaid is often the payer for patients with chronic schizophrenia, all costs in this analysis were derived from the perspective of Medicaid. Results: Over a period of 5 years in 1,000 patients with chronic schizophrenia, the higher-risk scenario with olanzapine showed a 9% increased incidence of CHD and a 59% increased incidence of diabetes, compared with no change in treatment from baseline. By contrast, the lower-risk scenario with ziprasidone showed a 9% reduced incidence of

  11. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiters Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Robert W.; Baines, Kevin H.; Anderson, M. S.; Filacchione, G.; Simon, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The high altitude of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) may enhance the upward flux of gaseous ammonia (NH3 ) into the high troposphere, where NH3 molecules can be photodissociated and initiate a chain of chemical reactions with downwelling acetylene molecules (C2H2 ). These reactions, experimentally studied earlier by (Ferris and Ishikawa [1987] Nature 326, 777-778) and (Ferris and Ishikawa [1988] J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 110, 4306-4312), produce chromophores that absorb in the visible and ultraviolet regions. In this work we photolyzed mixtures of NH3 and C2H2 using ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 214 nm and measured the spectral transmission of the deposited films in the visible region (400-740 nm). From these transmission data we estimated the imaginary indices of refraction. Assuming that ammonia grains at the top of the GRS clouds are coated with this material, we performed layered sphere and radiative transfer calculations to predict GRS reflection spectra. Comparison of those results with observed and previously unreported Cassini visible spectra and with true-color images of the GRS show that the unknown GRS chromophore is spectrally consistent with the coupled NH3-C2H2 photochemical products produced in our laboratory experiments. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy we infer that the chromophore-containing residue is composed of aliphatic azine, azo, and diazo compounds.

  12. Differentiation of Wines Treated with Wood Chips Based on Their Phenolic Content, Volatile Composition, and Sensory Parameters.

    PubMed

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Chira, Kleopatra; Tzanakouli, Eleni; Ligas, Ioannis; Kotseridis, Yorgos

    2015-12-01

    The effects of both wood chips addition and contact time on phenolic content, volatile composition, color parameters, and organoleptic character of red wine made by a native Greek variety (Agiorgitiko) were evaluated. For this purpose, chips from American, French, Slavonia oak, and Acacia were added in the wine after fermentation. A mixture consisting of 50% French and 50% Americal oak chips was also evaluated. In an attempt to categorize wine samples, various chemical parameters of wines and sensory parameters were studied after 1, 2, and 3 mo of contact time with chips. The results showed that regardless of the type of wood chips added in the wines, it was possible to differentiate the samples according to the contact time based on their phenolic composition and color parameters. In addition, wood-extracted volatile compounds seem to be the critical parameter that could separate the samples according to the wood type. The wines that were in contact with Acacia and Slavonia chips could be separated from the rest mainly due to their distinct sensory characters.

  13. Multi-chord fiber-coupled interferometry of supersonic plasma jets andcomparisons with synthetic data

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, Elizabeth C.; Lynn, Alan G.; Gilmore, Mark A.; Thoma, Carsten; Loverich, John; Hsu, Scott C.

    2012-05-03

    A multi-chord fiber-coupled interferometer [Merritt et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033506 (2012)] is being used to make time-resolved density measurements of supersonic argon plasma jets on the Plasma Liner Experiment [Hsu et al., Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 56, 307 (2011)]. The long coherence length of the laser (> 10 m) allows signal and reference path lengths to be mismatched by many meters without signal degradation, making for a greatly simplified optical layout. Measured interferometry phase shifts are consistent with a partially ionized plasma in which an initially positive phase shift becomes negative when the ionization fraction drops below a certain threshold. In this case, both free electrons and bound electrons in ions and neutral atoms contribute to the index of refraction. This paper illustrates how the interferometry data, aided by numerical modeling, are used to derive total jet density, jet propagation velocity ({approx} 15-50 km/s), jet length ({approx} 20-100 cm), and 3D expansion.

  14. The influence of temperature on extracellular and intracellular pH in the American eel, Anguilla Rostrata (Le Sueur).

    PubMed

    Walsh, P J; Moon, T W

    1982-11-01

    The effects of ambient temperature (5-20 degrees C) on the pH of the extracellular and intracellular compartments of the Americal eel (Anguilla rostrata) were measured. Venous blood pH was sampled from an indwelling catheter in the caudal vein, and intracellular pH of liver, heart, white muscle, and red muscle was estimated by the distribution ratio of 14C-5,5 dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione (DMO). The absolute value of pH varies in a manner blood greater than liver greater than red muscle greater than heart and white muscle. The values for the change in pH with temperature (delta pH/delta T degrees C) are: blood, -0.0076; liver, -0.0177; heart, -0.0203; white muscle, -0.0090; red muscle, -0.0033. Delta pH/delta T degrees C values for blood, white muscle and red muscle are not statistically different, and are far from the -0.018 value predicted by the alphastat hypothesis. In contrast, delta pH/delta T degrees C values for liver and heart are statistically different from blood and match those expected for alphastat regulation. The results are discussed in the context of the alphastat hypothesis and metabolic 'torpor' in the American eel.

  15. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  16. Future Power Production by LENR with Thin-Film Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz; Lipson, Andrei; Luo, Nie; Shrestha, P. Joshi

    2007-03-01

    PdD cluster reaction theory was recently proposed to explain a wide range of Low energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) experiments. If understood and optimized, cluster reactions could lead to a revolutionary new power source of nuclear energy. The route is two-fold. First, the excess heat must be obtained reproducibly and over extended run times. Second, the percentage of excess must be significantly (order of magnitude or more) higher than the 20-50% typically today. The thin film methods described here have proven to be quite reproducible, e.g. providing excess heat of 20-30% in nine consecutive runs of several weeks each. However, mechanical separation of the films occurs over long runs due to the severe mechanical stresses created.. Techniques to overcome these problems are possible using graded bonding techniques similar to that used in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Thus the remaining key issue is to increase the excess heat. The cluster model provides import insight into this. G. H. Miley, H. Hora, et al., 233rd Amer Chem Soc Meeting, Chicago, IL, March 25-29, 2007.

  17. Far-Infrared and Microwave Spectroscopic Examination of Weakly Bound Molecular Complexes: Potential Energy Surfaces and Internal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Scott Wayne

    1992-01-01

    High resolution far infrared gas phase absorption experiments on both the Ar-HX (X = F, Cl, Br) and the Ar -NH_3 systems are described. All of the spectroscopic measurements were obtained with a tunable far infrared difference frequency sideband (TuFIRS) spectrometer which was coupled to a continuous free jet expansion. In each system the low frequency bending and stretching vibrations, corresponding to the van der Waals coordinates, were observed and measured. The experimental measurements allow basic physical properties (e.g., rotational and centrifugal distortion constants) for these systems to be determined which are sensitive to the global topology of the intermolecular potential energy surface, and thus, provide critical tests for the physical models used to construct potential energy surfaces. A high resolution rotational spectroscopic study of the gas phase complex HCN-BF_3, done as a collaborative effort with scientists at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), is also described. Here, a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer is used to determine the molecular structure and basic physical properties of the HCN-BF_3 complex. We find the molecular structure to be that of an incipiently bonded molecule. In addition, we interpret the molecular structure, and the other measured molecular properties, within the generalized reaction path framework for BF_3 + nitrogen adducts discussed previously by Dvorak, et. al.^1 ftn^1M. A. Dvorak, R. S. Ford, R. D. Suenram, F. J. Lovas, and K. R. Leopold, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 114, 108 (1992).

  18. Implications of crustal permeability for fluid movement between terrestrial fluid reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Manning, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    A classic paper by Rubey [Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull 62 (1951) 1111] examined various hypotheses regarding the origin of sea water and concluded that the most likely hypothesis was volcanic outgassing, a view that was generally accepted by Earth scientists for the next several decades. More recent work suggests that the rate of subduction of water is much larger than the volcanic outgassing rate, lending support to hypotheses that either ocean volume has decreased with time, or that the imbalance is offset by continuous replenishment of water by cometary impacts. These alternatives are required in the absence of additional mechanisms for the return of water from subducting lithosphere to the Earth's surface. Our recent work on crustal permeability suggests a large capacity for water upflow through tectonically active continental crust, resulting in a heretofore-unrecognized degassing pathway that can accommodate the water-subduction rate. Escape of recycled water via delivery from the mantle through zones of active metamorphism eliminates the mass-balance argument for the loss of ocean volume or extraterrestrial sources. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal Effect in Opal Below Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Buerger, Martin J.; Shoemaker, Gerald L.

    1972-01-01

    Opal, once believed to be amorphous silica, was shown by Levin and Ott (1932, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 54, 828-829) to give an x-ray powder pattern of the high-temperature form of cristobalite. The early explanation of this anomalous existence of a phase below its high-low transition temperature is now known to be untenable. One of us suggested that the tiny sizes of the component cristobalite crystals might explain the anomaly; if so, the transition might be expected below ambient temperatures. The record of a du Pont 900 Thermoanalyzer indeed revealed heat effects in opal below ambient temperatures, with an exotherm having a maximum at about -40° on cooling and an endotherm that began about -50° on heating. This was not a latent-heat effect due to the high-low transition of cristobalite, however, for the low-cristobalite pattern persisted to below -50°. Opal normally contains 4-9% water, which is tenaciously held; water loss is nearly linear with temperatures up to about 422°, when water loss is abruptly complete. Water-free opal does not display the thermal effect, but the same opal rehydrated does display it. Water is housed in minute voids, judged to be a few hundred Ångströms across, between minute particles of cristobalite. This water behaves differently from water in bulk, for its begins to melt at about -50°. PMID:16592025

  20. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Baines, K. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Filacchione, G.; Simon, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high altitude of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) may enhance the upward flux of gaseous ammonia (NH3) into the high troposphere, where NH3 molecules can be photodissociated and initiate a chain of chemical reactions with downwelling acetylene molecules (C2H2). These reactions, experimentally studied earlier by (Ferris and Ishikawa [1987] Nature 326, 777-778) and (Ferris and Ishikawa [1988] J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 110, 4306-4312), produce chromophores that absorb in the visible and ultraviolet regions. In this work we photolyzed mixtures of NH3 and C2H2 using ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 214 nm and measured the spectral transmission of the deposited films in the visible region (400-740 nm). From these transmission data we estimated the imaginary indices of refraction. Assuming that ammonia grains at the top of the GRS clouds are coated with this material, we performed layered sphere and radiative transfer calculations to predict GRS reflection spectra. Comparison of those results with observed and previously unreported Cassini visible spectra and with true-color images of the GRS show that the unknown GRS chromophore is spectrally consistent with the coupled NH3-C2H2 photochemical products produced in our laboratory experiments. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy we infer that the chromophore-containing residue is composed of aliphatic azine, azo, and diazo compounds.

  1. Europa: Characterization and interpretation of global spectral surface units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.L.; McCord, T.B.; Clark, R.N.; Johnson, T.V.; Matson, D.L.; Mosher, J.A.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Voyager global multispectral mosaic of the Galilean satellite Europa (T. V. Johnson, L. A. Soderblom, J. A. Mosher, G. E. Danielson, A. F. Cook, and P. Kupferman, 1983, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5789-5805) was analyzed to map surface units with similar optical properties (T. B. McCord, M. L. Nelson, R. N. Clark, A. Meloy, W. Harrison, T. V. Johnson, D. L. Matson, J. A. Mosher, and L. Soderblom, 1982, Bull Amer. Astron. Soc. 14, 737). Color assignments in the unit map are indicative of the spectral nature of the unit. The unit maps make it possible to infer extensions of the geologic units mapped by B. K. Lucchitta and L. A. Soderblom (1982, in Satellites of Jupiter, pp. 521-555, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson) beyond the region covered in the high-resolution imagery. The most striking feature in the unit maps is a strong hemispheric asymmetry. It is seen most clearly in the ultraviolet/violet albedo ratio image, because the asymmetry becomes more intense as the wavelength decreases. It appears as if the surface has been darkened, most intensely in the center of the trailing hemisphere and decreasing gradually, essentially as the cosine of the angle from the antapex of motion, to a minimum in the center of the leading hemisphere. The cosine pattern suggests that the darkening is exogenic in origin and is interpreted as evidence of alteration of the surface by ion bombardment from the Jovian magnetosphere. ?? 1986.

  2. Speleothems in the desert: Glimpses of the Pleistocene history of the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System, Nevada and California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spötl, Christoph; Dublyansky, Yuri; Moseley, Gina; Wendt, Kathleen; Edwards, Larry; Scholger, Robert; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Death Valley in eastern California holds North Americás record for the deepest, hottest and driest place. Despite these unfavourable boundary conditions speleothems are present in this hyperarid depression and the surrounding deserts and provide unique insights into long-term regional climate change and landscape evolution of this tectonically and geomorphologically highly active region. Most of the speleothems are inactive and exposed due to tectonic uplift and erosion. They differ from common speleothems, because the majority formed under phreatic conditions as part of a regional groundwater flow system that is still active today. Data from three sites will be discussed illustrating the spectrum of speleothem deposits and their modes of formation. At Devils Hole, the thermal aquifer and the associated subaqueous and water-table speleothems can be directly accessed and provide a record reaching back about 1 million years. At Travertine Point, close to modern discharge points of this large groundwater flow system, phreatic speleothems form near-vertical veins up to about 2 m wide showing evidence of high flow rates along these fractures, which are connected to fossil spring tufa deposits. Finally, outcrops along Titus Canyon expose several generations of speleothems documenting the progressive lowering of the regional groundwater table. The youngest calcite generation records the transition towards vadose conditions 500-400 ka ago.

  3. Lower bounds of Copson type for the transposes of lower triangular matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang-Pao; Wang, Kuo-Zhong

    2008-05-01

    Let A=(an,k)n,k[greater-or-equal, slanted]0 be a non-negative matrix. Denote by Lp,q(A) the supremum of those L satisfying the following inequality: In this paper, we focus on the evaluation of Lp,p(At) for a lower triangular matrix A, where 0Amer. Math. Soc. 124 (2) (1996), Corollary on p. 544]. Our results also improve Bennett's results for some cases.

  4. Prey detection with electrical sense in the paddlefish (Polydon spathula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Xing; Wilkens, Lon; Russell, David; Moss, Frank

    1997-03-01

    Paddlefish,Polyodon spathula, is a threatened species which inhabits major mid-western river systems. Paddlefishes are plankton feeders, preying on small crustaceans including Daphnia sp.. Their rostrum is elongated and flattened into a paddle shape on which many electro-sensitive ampullary receptor cells are located. We demonstrate that the paddlefishes use their electrical sense to locate prey in its food searching behavior. Our experiments show that both Daphnia and the related brine shrimp Artemia produce weak low-frequency electric fields, which are capable of evoking responses in ampullary electroreceptor cells, which were recorded in responses from the primary afferents. The response characteristics of the sensory afferents are low-frequency band pass, which overlap the frequencies of the electric fields produced by the aforementioned plankton. Behavioral experiments also show that the paddlefish detect and strike at dipole -electrodes (0.25uA-1uA) operating at 5 to 10 Hz frequencies. This result supports the hypothesis(Wilkens L, Cox M and Russell D. Amer. Zool. 34, 43 (1994)) that the paddlefish uses its paddle as an antenna to sense the outside world.

  5. Geomorphology, acoustic backscatter, and processes in Santa Monica Bay from multibeam mapping.

    PubMed

    Gardner, James V; Dartnell, Peter; Mayer, Larry A; Hughes Clarke, John E

    2003-01-01

    Santa Monica Bay was mapped in 1996 using a high-resolution multibeam system, providing the first substantial update of the submarine geomorphology since the initial compilation by Shepard and Emery [(1941) Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper 31]. The multibeam mapping generated not only high-resolution bathymetry, but also coregistered, calibrated acoustic backscatter at 95 kHz. The geomorphology has been subdivided into six provinces; shelf, marginal plateau, submarine canyon, basin slope, apron, and basin. The dimensions, gradients, and backscatter characteristics of each province is described and related to a combination of tectonics, climate, sea level, and sediment supply. Fluctuations of eustatic sea level have had a profound effect on the area; by periodically eroding the surface of Santa Monica plateau, extending the mouth of the Los Angeles River to various locations along the shelf break, and by connecting submarine canyons to rivers. A wetter glacial climate undoubtedly generated more sediment to the rivers that then transported the increased sediment load to the low-stand coastline and canyon heads. The trends of Santa Monica Canyon and several bathymetric highs suggest a complex tectonic stress field that has controlled the various segments. There is no geomorphic evidence to suggest Redondo Canyon is fault controlled. The San Pedro fault can be extended more than 30 km to the northwest by the alignment of a series of bathymetric highs and abrupt changes in direction of channel thalwegs. PMID:12648948

  6. ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

  7. Spatial Organization of Decadal and Bidecadal Rainfall On Southern North America and Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, O. A.; Rodriguez, N. C.

    The spatial organization of decadal and bidecadal components (fluctuations) of annual rainfall is identified in this research for two regions: 1) southern South America, and 2) southern North America (conterminous USA, southeastern Canada and northern and central Mexico). Findings indicate that these decadal and bidecadal components have highly-coherent wave-like spatial organization. Two types of organization of decadal and bidecadal components of annual rainfall were identified: a train of propagating fluctuations, and quasi-standing fluctuations. For decadal components, such patterns alternate in time. A widespread change in the spatial organization of decadal com- ponents of annual rainfall took place simultaneously in both continents in 1932. The bidecadal component is organized as standing fluctuations in southern North Amer- ica, and as travelling fluctuations in southern South America. The spatial pattern of decadal fluctuations of annual rainfall has 12- and 13-year cycle; and the spatial pat- tern of bidecadal fluctuations has predominantly 21- and 22-year cycles. Correspond- ing author's email: omarabellucero@yahoo.com

  8. Geomorphology, acoustic backscatter, and processes in Santa Monica Bay from multibeam mapping.

    PubMed

    Gardner, James V; Dartnell, Peter; Mayer, Larry A; Hughes Clarke, John E

    2003-01-01

    Santa Monica Bay was mapped in 1996 using a high-resolution multibeam system, providing the first substantial update of the submarine geomorphology since the initial compilation by Shepard and Emery [(1941) Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper 31]. The multibeam mapping generated not only high-resolution bathymetry, but also coregistered, calibrated acoustic backscatter at 95 kHz. The geomorphology has been subdivided into six provinces; shelf, marginal plateau, submarine canyon, basin slope, apron, and basin. The dimensions, gradients, and backscatter characteristics of each province is described and related to a combination of tectonics, climate, sea level, and sediment supply. Fluctuations of eustatic sea level have had a profound effect on the area; by periodically eroding the surface of Santa Monica plateau, extending the mouth of the Los Angeles River to various locations along the shelf break, and by connecting submarine canyons to rivers. A wetter glacial climate undoubtedly generated more sediment to the rivers that then transported the increased sediment load to the low-stand coastline and canyon heads. The trends of Santa Monica Canyon and several bathymetric highs suggest a complex tectonic stress field that has controlled the various segments. There is no geomorphic evidence to suggest Redondo Canyon is fault controlled. The San Pedro fault can be extended more than 30 km to the northwest by the alignment of a series of bathymetric highs and abrupt changes in direction of channel thalwegs.

  9. Level architecture in genetic regulatory networks and the role of microRNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that genes that code for proteins regulate the expression of each other through protein-mediated interactions. With the discovery of microRNAs^1 (miRNAs), it has been conjectured that there are many such regulatory miRNAs in the cell that are never transcribed into proteins but are important for regulation and, hence, could explain the nature of the non-coding (or junk) DNA.^2 Furthermore, miRNAs are highly conserved molecules. So, just as genes that code for proteins form regulatory networks, we conjecture that miRNAs form a higher-level regulatory network amongst themselves as mediated by the genes-coding-for-proteins regulatory network to form a complex organism. We investigate this conjecture within the framework of random Boolean networks where the two-level architecture is modelled via two coupled random Boolean networks with one network taking precedence over the other for various input/output values. Aspects of the evolution of the lower-level network will also be addressed. ^1 D. P. Bartel, Cell 116, 281 (2004). ^2 J. S. Mattick, Sci. Amer. 291, 60 (2004).

  10. Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.

    PubMed

    Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    2004-04-01

    Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel. PMID:12898064

  11. Crinoids columnals (Echinodermata) of the Ererê Formation (late Eifelian-early Givetian, Amazon Basin), State of Pará, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, S. M.; Fernandes, A. C. S. F.; da Fonseca, V. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The faunal composition of stalked echinoderms in the Brazilian Devonian is still largely unknown despite the great abundance of crinoids in the shallow epicontinental seas of the Paleozoic. The first Devonian crinoids of Brazil, recorded in the literature in 1875 and 1903, were from the sedimentary rocks of the Ererê Formation in the Amazon Basin. Since then, the echinoderms of this formation have not been studied. This study, based on isolated pluricolumnals and columnals, described and identified Botryocrinus meloi n. sp., the first record for this genus in Brazil. In addition to this species, two other morphological patterns were identified: Tjeecrinus sp. and Morphotype AM/Er-01. The form of occurrence of the crinoid material and the paleoautoecology of B. meloi allow preliminary characterization of the habitat as a moderately deep water with weak to moderate currents and soft substrate. The similarity between B. meloi and Botryocrinus montguyonensis and of Tjeecrinus? sp. and T. crassijugatus, from the Devonian of the Armorican and Rhenan Massif, represents new evidence for the existence of contact between the faunas of the Amazon Basin with those of northern Gondwana and Armorica during the Middle Devonian.

  12. Bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck Simulation of Runaway Avalanche from Secondary Knock-on Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, S. C.; Chan, V. S.; Harvey, R. W.; Rosenbluth, M. N.

    1996-11-01

    It has been pointed out that secondary production of runaway electrons by knock-on collisions with very energetic confined electrons can significantly change the runaway rate,(M.N. Rosenbluth, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 40), 1804 (1995).^,(N.T. Besedin, I.M. Pankratov, Nucl. Fusion 26), 807 (1986).^,(R. Jaspers, K.H. Finden, G. Mank et al.), Nucl. Fusion 33, 1775 (1993). and is potentially a serious problem in reactors. Previous calculations of the effect have only partially included important effects such as toroidal trapping, synchrotron radiation, and bremsstrahlung. Furthermore, in a normal constant current operation, the increase of the density of runaway electrons causes a decrease of the ohmic field and all these effects can balance to a steady-state. The purpose of the present paper is to present results on bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck simulations of knock-on avalanching runaways including these effects. Initially, an energetic seed component is inserted to initiate knock-on avalanching. Results on the dependence of the steady-state runaway current on Z_eff, density, and radial location will be presented.

  13. Perturbation Enstrophy Decay in Poiseuille and Couette Flows according to Synge's Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenicale, Loris; Fraternale, Federico; Staffilani, Gigliola; Tordella, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    In this work we derive the conditions for no enstrophy growth for bidimensional perturbations in the plane Couette and Poiseuille flows. We follow the method of vorticity proposed by Synge in 1938 (see the Semi-Centennial Puplication of the Amer. Math. Soc., equation 12.13, and the more detailed version in the Proc. of the Fifth Inter. Congress of Applied Mechanics, pages 326-332), which is actually based on the analysis of the spatially averaged enstrophy. We find that the limit curve in the perturbation wavenumber-Reynolds number map differs from the limit for no energy growth (see e.g. Reddy 1993). In particular, the absolute stability region for the enstrophy is wider than that of the kinetic energy, and the maximum Reynolds number giving the monotonic enstrophy decay, at all wavenumbers, is 155 and 80 for the Poiseuille and Couette flows, respectively. It should be noted that in past literature the energy-based analysis was preferred to Synge's enstrophy analysis. This, possibly, for two reasons: the low diffusivity of the 1938 Vth ICAM proceedings and the objectively very complicated analytical treatment required. Nevertheless, the potentiality of this method seems high and therefore it is interesting nowadays to exploit it by means of the symbolic calculus. MITOR-MISTI SEEDS GRANT http://web.mit.edu/mitor/recipients/faculty.html

  14. The Logic of Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, John; Yang, Taewon

    2015-12-01

    Since the work of Crown (J. Natur. Sci. Math. 15(1-2), 11-25 1975) in the 1970's, it has been known that the projections of a finite-dimensional vector bundle E form an orthomodular poset ( omp) {P}(E). This result lies in the intersection of a number of current topics, including the categorical quantum mechanics of Abramsky and Coecke (2004), and the approach via decompositions of Harding (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 348(5), 1839-1862 1996). Moreover, it provides a source of omps for the quantum logic program close to the Hilbert space setting, and admitting a version of tensor products, yet having important differences from the standard logics of Hilbert spaces. It is our purpose here to initiate a basic investigation of the quantum logic program in the vector bundle setting. This includes observations on the structure of the omps obtained as {P}(E) for a vector bundle E, methods to obtain states on these omps, and automorphisms of these omps. Key theorems of quantum logic in the Hilbert setting, such as Gleason's theorem and Wigner's theorem, provide natural and quite challenging problems in the vector bundle setting.

  15. Subdivisions with infinitely supported mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song; Pan, Yali

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the convergence of subdivision schemes associated with masks being polynomially decay sequences. Two-scale vector refinement equations are the formwhere the vector of functions [phi]=([phi]1,E..,[phi]r)T is in and is polynomially decay sequence of rxr matrices called refinement mask. Associated with the mask a is a linear operator on given byBy using same methods in [B. Han, R. Q. Jia, Characterization of Riesz bases of wavelets generated from multiresolution analysis, manuscript]; [BE Han, Refinable functions and cascade algorithms in weighted spaces with infinitely supported masks, manuscript]; [R.Q. Jia, Q.T. Jiang, Z.W. Shen, Convergence of cascade algorithms associated with nonhomogeneous refinement equations, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 129 (2001) 415-427]; [R.Q. Jia, Convergence of vector subdivision schemes and construction of biorthogonal multiple wavelets, in: Advances in Wavelet, Hong Kong,1997, Springer, Singapore, 1998, pp. 199-227], a characterization of convergence of the sequences in the L2-norm is given, which extends the main results in [R.Q. Jia, S.D. Riemenschneider, D.X. Zhou, Vector subdivision schemes and multiple wavelets, Math. Comp. 67 (1998) 1533-1563] on convergence of the subdivision schemes associated with a finitely supported mask to the case in which mask a is polynomially decay sequence. As an application, we also obtain a characterization of smoothness of solutions of the refinement equation mentioned above for the case r=1.

  16. Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayoya, J. B.

    2005-02-01

    Using the Jordan algebras methods, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of studied by Gelbart [Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 108 (1971)] and Godement and Jacquet [Zeta functions of simple algebras, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 260, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972], and the case of studied by Muro [Adv. Stud. Pure Math. 15 (1989) 429]. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one-to-one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras [Local Zeta Functions Attached to the Minimal Spherical Series for a Class of Symmetric Spaces, IRMA, Strasbourg, 2003]. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of type II.

  17. The Fundamental Gap of Simplices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhiqin; Rowlett, Julie

    2013-04-01

    The gap function of a domain {Ω subset {R}^n} is ξ(Ω) := d^2 (λ_2 - λ_1) , where d is the diameter of Ω, and λ1 and λ2 are the first two positive Dirichlet eigenvalues of the Euclidean Laplacian on Ω. It was recently shown by Andrews and Clutterbuck (J Amer Math Soc 24:899-916, 2011) that for any convex {Ω subset {R}^n}, ξ(Ω) ≥ 3 π^2 , where the infimum occurs for n = 1. On the other hand, the gap function on the moduli space of n-simplices behaves differently. Our first theorem is a compactness result for the gap function on the moduli space of n-simplices. Next, specializing to n = 2, our second main result proves the recent conjecture of Antunes-Freitas (J Phys A: Math Theor 41(5):055201, 2008) for any triangle {T subset {R}^2}, ξ(T) ≥ 64 π^2/9 , with equality if and only if T is equilateral.

  18. Impact of molecular packing on electronic polarization in organic crystals: the case of pentacene vs TIPS-pentacene.

    PubMed

    Ryno, Sean M; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2014-04-30

    Polarization energy corresponds to the stabilization of the cation or anion state of an atom or molecule when going from the gas phase to the solid state. The decrease in ionization energy and increase in electron affinity in the solid state are related to the (electronic and nuclear) polarization of the surrounding atoms and molecules in the presence of a charged entity. Here, through a combination of molecular mechanics and quantum mechanics calculations, we evaluate the polarization energies in two prototypical organic semiconductors, pentacene and 6,13-bis(2-(tri-isopropylsilyl)ethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene). Comparison of the results for the two systems reveals the critical role played by the molecular packing configurations in the determination of the polarization energies and provides physical insight into the experimental data reported by Lichtenberger and co-workers (J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 580; J. Phys. Chem. C 2010, 114, 13838). Our results underline that the impact of packing configurations, well established in the case of the charge-transport properties, also extends to the polarization properties of π-conjugated materials. PMID:24725006

  19. Shifted Riccati Procedure: Application to Conformal Barotropic FRW Cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosu, Haret C.; Khmelnytskaya, Kira V.

    2011-02-01

    In the case of barotropic FRW cosmologies, the Hubble parameter in conformal time is the solution of a simple Riccati equation of constant coefficients. We consider these cosmologies in the framework of nonrelativistic supersymmetry that has been effective in the area of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Recalling that Faraoni [Amer. J. Phys. 67 (1999), 732-734] showed how to reduce the barotropic FRW system of differential equations to simple harmonic oscillator differential equations, we set the latter equations in the supersymmetric approach and divide their solutions into two classes of 'bosonic' (nonsingular) and 'fermionic' (singular) cosmological zero-mode solutions. The fermionic equations can be considered as representing cosmologies of Stephani type, i.e., inhomogeneous and curvature-changing in the conformal time. We next apply the so-called shifted Riccati procedure by introducing a constant additive parameter, denoted by S, in the common Riccati solution of these supersymmetric partner cosmologies. This leads to barotropic Stephani cosmologies with periodic singularities in their spatial curvature indices that we call U and V cosmologies, the first being of bosonic type and the latter of fermionic type. We solve completely these cyclic singular cosmologies at the level of their zero modes showing that an acceptable shift parameter should be purely imaginary, which in turn introduces a parity-time (PT) property of the partner curvature indices.

  20. Differentiation of Wines Treated with Wood Chips Based on Their Phenolic Content, Volatile Composition, and Sensory Parameters.

    PubMed

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Chira, Kleopatra; Tzanakouli, Eleni; Ligas, Ioannis; Kotseridis, Yorgos

    2015-12-01

    The effects of both wood chips addition and contact time on phenolic content, volatile composition, color parameters, and organoleptic character of red wine made by a native Greek variety (Agiorgitiko) were evaluated. For this purpose, chips from American, French, Slavonia oak, and Acacia were added in the wine after fermentation. A mixture consisting of 50% French and 50% Americal oak chips was also evaluated. In an attempt to categorize wine samples, various chemical parameters of wines and sensory parameters were studied after 1, 2, and 3 mo of contact time with chips. The results showed that regardless of the type of wood chips added in the wines, it was possible to differentiate the samples according to the contact time based on their phenolic composition and color parameters. In addition, wood-extracted volatile compounds seem to be the critical parameter that could separate the samples according to the wood type. The wines that were in contact with Acacia and Slavonia chips could be separated from the rest mainly due to their distinct sensory characters. PMID:26552030

  1. Second decision in the EVS concept: an experiment to evaluate pilot ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aymeric, Bruno; Leger, Alain; Kostoj, Thierry

    1998-07-01

    The scope of this research is the use of an infrared sensor image, projected on a HUD, to land an A/C in 200 m RVR (CATIII) when the airfield is equipped only for CATI. The corresponding operational scenario requires that the pilot perform a second decision on direct visual cues at 50 ft (CATIII DH). This second decision is the core of the concept and appears as one of the most acute problems against the EVS concept. To initiate the reflection, we conducted an experiment to test the ability of pilots to take a correct decision in abnormal situations, using SXT part task simulator. Results show an overall correct behavior of the pilots despite a workload much higher than it would be in real operations. Their comments during and after each trial demonstrate a correct awareness of their situation with respect to the real runway at 50 ft (direct visual cues). However a few instances of incorrect decision occurred and are discussed. The conclusion is that it seems possible to propose a 2 decisions procedure, but further experiments are required. Lessons learned to set up these experiments are presented.

  2. Soil contamination by parasite eggs in rural village in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Saori; Paller, Vachel Gay V; Uga, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are important diseases of humans, which affect about one third of the world's population. Examination of soil can be used to estimate the risk of STH infection in humans. We carried out this survey to clarify the current status of soil contamination by parasite eggs and to assess the risk of STH infection. During survey periods, we examined soil, faeces, and the lifestyle of residents. Six genera and eight species of parasite eggs including Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis, and Trichuris trichiura were recovered from 85 out of 120 soil samples (71%). Contamination of soil by parasite eggs had spread widely throughout the village, and 50% of eggs recovered had already developed into fertilized eggs. It is remarkable that Ascaris eggs were recovered from inside the houses. Prevalence of STH in school children was 63%. This may indicate that school or preschool children cause soil contamination. Some of the eggs recovered were not only from humans but also from dogs and cats. From the results obtained, the need for health education with regards to zoonoses was revealed because 77% of fertilized Toxocara spp. eggs were detected. We conclude that the risk of STH infection in residents was extremely high, because the soil in this village was highly contaminated by infective parasite eggs. PMID:24189679

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites in Cats from China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Hongde

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%). 64 (17.78%) were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94%) with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39%) with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17%) with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39%) with hookworms, 11 (3.06%) with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78%) with Trichuris, 4 (1.11%) with lungworm, 2 (0.56%) with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28%) with Trematode. The cats' living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China.

  4. Intestinal parasites of owned dogs and cats from metropolitan and micropolitan areas: prevalence, zoonotic risks, and pet owner awareness in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Scarpa, Paola; Berrilli, Federica; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%-60.42%) and dogs (57.41%-43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas.

  5. Multidrug-resistant Commensal Escherichia coli in Children, Peru and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Pallecchi, Lucia; Benedetti, Marta; Fernandez, Connie; Vallejos, Yolanda; Guzman, Elisa; Villagran, Ana Liz; Mantella, Antonia; Lucchetti, Chiara; Bartalesi, Filippo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bechini, Angela; Gamboa, Herlan; Rodríguez, Hugo; Falkenberg, Torkel; Kronvall, Göran; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Paradisi, Franco; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2006-01-01

    Using a rapid screening method, we investigated the prevalence of fecal carriage of antimicrobial drug–resistant Escherichia coli in 3,174 healthy children from 4 urban settings in Peru and Bolivia. High resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (94%), tetracycline (93%), streptomycin (82%), and chloramphenicol (70%). Lower resistance rates were observed for nalidixic acid (35%), kanamycin (28%), gentamicin (21%), and ciprofloxacin (18%); resistance to ceftriaxone and amikacin was uncommon (<0.5%). In a random sample of 1,080 resistant E. coli isolates, 90% exhibited a multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. The 2 most common MDR phenotypes (ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin/tetracycline/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/chloramphenicol) could be transferred en bloc in conjugation experiments. The most common acquired resistance genes were blaTEM, tet(A), tet(B), drfA8, sul1, sul2, and catI. These findings underscore the magnitude of the problem of antimicrobial drug resistance in low-resource settings and the urgent need for surveillance and control of this phenomenon. PMID:16707045

  6. Enteric protozoa of cats and their zoonotic potential-a field study from Austria.

    PubMed

    Hinney, Barbara; Ederer, Christina; Stengl, Carina; Wilding, Katrin; Štrkolcová, Gabriela; Harl, Josef; Flechl, Eva; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2015-05-01

    Domestic cats can be infected with a variety of enteric protozoa. Genotyping of protozoan species, especially Giardia as the most common, can improve assessment of their relevance as zoonotic agents. For an overview on the occurrence of feline enteric protozoa, 298 faecal samples of cats from private households, catteries and animal shelters in Austria were collected. All samples were examined by flotation and using a rapid test for Giardia (FASTest). For the detection of Tritrichomonas blagburni, freshly voided faeces (n = 40) were processed using a commercial culturing system (InPouch TF-Feline). Genotyping was done at the β-giardin gene loci (each sample) and triosephosphate isomerase gene loci (positive samples) for Giardia and at the 18S rRNA gene (positive samples) for Cryptosporidium. Thirty-seven samples (12.4%) were positive for Giardia by flotation and/or using a rapid test. Cryptosporidium was present in 1.7%, Cystoisospora in 4.0%, Sarcocystis in 0.3% and T. blagburni in 2.5% of the samples. Genotyping revealed Giardia cati, the potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium felis. Most of the infected cats had no diarrhoea. Cats from shelters were significantly more often infected than owned cats (p = 0.01). When comparing Giardia detection methods, the rapid test had a higher sensitivity than flotation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were mostly independent from the other two tests.

  7. Parasitic infections detected by FLOTAC in zoo mammals from Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Maesano, Gianpaolo; Capasso, Michele; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of intestinal parasites in groups of mammals kept in the Warsaw zoological garden (Poland). 71 pools of fecal samples were analyzed using the FLOTAC techniques. 48% of animals were positive and 47% of positivities showed multiple infections. Toxocara cati (71.4%) was found in felines; marsupials were infected with Coccidia (90%). Giardia spp. (24.0%), Blastocystis spp. (12.3%), Iodamoeba spp. (10.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (6.0%) and Entamoeba coli (3.3%) were found in primates. Gastrointestinal strongyles (60.5%) were prevalent in ruminants which resulted positive also to Coccidia (Eimeria spp. = 50.0%), Trichuris spp. (25.0%) and Nematodirus (14.0%). Strongyles (34.0%) were the most frequent parasites in monogastric herbivores, followed by Parascaris equorum (17.0%). None of the animals showed any symptom associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections. According to our results the need to prevent, diagnose, control, and treat intestinal parasitism trough specific control programs is mandatory for animal welfare in order to limit the spread of parasitic infections in animals and humans.

  8. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a FIV-positive cat.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M S; Ball, N W; Love, D N; Canfield, P J; Wigney, D I; Dawson, D; Davis, P E; Malik, R

    1999-03-01

    An 8-year-old FIV-positive Australian cat was presented with coughing, periocular alopecia, pyrexia and inappetence. Skin scrapings demonstrated Demodex cati mites. Antibiotics were administered and it was treated successfully for periocular demodectic mange, but the cat continued to exhibit respiratory signs and lose weight. Further investigation revealed an ascarid infection and active chronic inflammation of undetected cause affecting the lower airways. Repetitive treatment with pyrantel failed to eradicate the ascarid infection. The cat became cachectic and developed moist ulcerative dermatitis of the neck, severe non-regenerative anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Necropsy and histopathology revealed mycobacteriosis affecting skin, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, liver and kidney. Attempted culture of frozen tissues at a mycobacteria reference laboratory was unsuccessful. Paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue was retrieved and examined using PCR to amplify part of the 16S rRNA gene. A diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection was made based on the presence of acid fast bacteria in many tissues and partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Although M genavense has been identified previously as a cause of disseminated disease in AIDS patients, this is the first report of infection in a cat. It was suspected that the demodecosis, recurrent ascarid infections and disseminated M genavense infection resulted from an immune deficiency syndrome consequent to longstanding FIV infection.

  9. Technology innovation and management in the US Bureau of the Census: Discussion and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Edwards, R.; Goeltz, R.; Hake, K.

    1990-09-01

    This report contains a set of recommendations prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Bureau of the Census pertaining to technology innovation and management. Technology has the potential to benefit the Bureau's data collection, capture, processing, and analysis activities. The entire Bureau was represented from Decennial Census to Economic Programs and various levels of Bureau management and numerous experts in technology. Throughout the Bureau, workstations, minicomputers, and microcomputers have found their place along side the Bureau's mainframes. The Bureau's new computer file structure called the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing data base (TIGER) represents a major innovation in geographic information systems and impressive progress has been made with Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Other innovations, such as SPRING, which aims to provide Bureau demographic analysts with the capability of interactive data analysis on minicomputers, are in the initial stages of development. Recommendations fall into five independent, but mutually beneficial categories. (1) The ADP Steering Committee be disbanded and replaced with The Technology Forum. (2) Establishment of a Technology Review Committee (TRC), to be composed of technology experts from outside the Bureau. (3) Designate technological gurus. These individuals will be the Bureau's experts in new and innovative technologies. (4) Adopt a technology innovation process. (5) Establish an Advanced Technology Studies Staff (ATSS) to promote technology transfer, obtain funding for technological innovation, manage innovation projects unable to find a home in other divisions, evaluate innovations that cut across Bureau organizational boundaries, and provide input into Bureau technology analyses. (JF)

  10. Evidence of Himalayan erosional event at ˜0.5 Ma from a sediment core from the equatorial Indian Ocean in the vicinity of ODP Leg 116 sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, B. Nagender; Gupta, S. M.; Mislankar, P. G.; Rao, B. Ramalingeswara; Parthiban, G.; Roelandts, I.; Patil, S. K.

    2005-07-01

    A sediment core collected from an area ˜100 miles south of the ODP Leg 116 (distal Bengal Fan) in the equatorial Indian Ocean was investigated for microfossils, mineralogy, mineral chemistry, magnetic susceptibility, grain size, major, minor and rare-earth element geochemistry, organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in the bulk sediments. Distinct changes in depositional characteristics (including presence of abundant sand-sized micas and other detrital minerals) occur at two sub-surface depths corresponding to ˜0.5 and probably 0.8 Ma time periods. The detrital mineral suite of this core resembles that of turbidite unit I sediments of ODP cores in the distal Bengal Fan. The core site has received an increased supply of terrigenous sediments at these two time periods, the older pulse (0.8 Ma) stronger than the younger pulse. Several lines of evidence such as the nature of the mineral suite, lower magnetic susceptibility values, Si/Al in mica mineral separates; major element composition; discrimination plots of Ca/Ti versus K/Ti and K 2O/Al 2O 3 and La/Yb ratios suggest a highly metamorphosed source such as higher Himalayan crystalline (HHC) series indicating two events of increased physical weathering and erosion in the Himalayan region. While the erosional event of 0.8 Ma is well known, the episode of 0.5 Ma was not reported earlier.

  11. Cerebral Toxocariasis: Silent Progression to Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Celia V.; Loxton, Karen; Barghouth, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxocara canis and T. cati are highly prevalent nematode infections of the intestines of dogs and cats. In paratenic hosts, larvae do not mature in the intestine but instead migrate through the somatic tissues and organs of the body. The presence of these migrating larvae can contribute to pathology. Toxocara larvae can invade the brains of humans, and while case descriptions of cerebral toxocariasis are historically rare, improved diagnosis and greater awareness have contributed to increased detection. Despite this, cerebral or neurological toxocariasis (NT) remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Furthermore, our understanding of cognitive deficits due to toxocariasis in human populations remains particularly deficient. Recent data describe an enhanced expression of biomarkers associated with brain injury, such as GFAP, AβPP, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), NF-L, S100B, tTG, and p-tau, in mice receiving even low doses of Toxocara ova. Finally, this review outlines a hypothesis to explore the relationship between the presence of T. canis larvae in the brain and the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to enhanced AD-associated neurodegenerative biomarker expression. PMID:26062575

  12. Macroparasite communities in stray cat populations from urban cities in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena; Sahimin, Norhidayu; Pal, Paul; Lewis, John W

    2013-09-23

    The occurrence of macroparasites was studied from 543 stray cats in four urban cities from the west (Kuala Lumpur), east (Kuantan), north (Georgetown) and south (Malacca) of Peninsular Malaysia from May 2007 to August 2010. Five ectoparasites species were recovered namely, Ctenocephalides felis, Felicola subrostratus, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Heterodoxus spiniger and Lynxacarus radovskyi. Two cats from Georgetown were infested with the dog louse, H. spiniger and this represented the first host record for this species in Malaysia. Up to nine species of helminths were recovered with overall high prevalences of infection of 83% in Kuantan, followed by 75.1% in Kuala Lumpur, 71.6% in Georgetown and 68% in Malacca. The helminth species comprised five nematodes, Toxocara malaysiensis, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma braziliensis, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Physaloptera praeputialis, two cestodes Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and one trematode, Playtnosomum fastosum. The majority of helminths were present in the four study sites except for the absence of P. praeputialis in Kuala Lumpur. The prevalence and abundance of infections were analysed taking intrinsic (host age and sex) and extrinsic (season) factors into consideration. Levels of infection and infestation were mainly influenced by host age and to a lesser extent sex and season, whereas four nematode species exhibited significant interactions within the intestine of the cat host. The potential for transmission of some macroparasite species from stray cats to the human population in urban areas is discussed.

  13. Urban stray cats infested by ectoparasites with zoonotic potential in Greece.

    PubMed

    Lefkaditis, Menelaos A; Sossidou, Anna V; Panorias, Alexandros H; Koukeri, Smaragda E; Paştiu, Anamaria I; Athanasiou, Labrini V

    2015-10-01

    A large population of stray cats is encountered in many urban areas sharing the same environment with people, usually being in a close direct contact with them. A variety of ectoparasites can infest such cats, causing mild dermatological abnormalities to more severe systemic disorders. In order to determine the extent of which stray cats carry ectoparasites, particularly those of zoonotic potential, 341 stray cats originating from the urban area of Thessaloniki, Greece, were examined between 2012 and 2014. The signalment of each cat such as gender, hair length, and roughly estimated age were recorded. From a total of 341 examined stray cats, 127 (37.24%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 32.14-42.64) were infested with at least one of the following ectoparasites: mites-Otodectes cynotis (15.8%), Notoedres cati (2.35%), Cheyletiella blakei (2.05%); fleas-Ctenocephalides felis (24.3%); ticks-Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.88%); and lice-Felicola subrostratus (0.59%). A significantly higher prevalence of ectoparasites was observed in long-haired individuals (p < 0.00001). The above ectoparasites may either cause or transmit diseases not only in cats but also in humans Therefore, antiparasitic control should be included in stray cat neutering campaigns while public health education for taking preventive measures will decrease the risk of transmission to humans.

  14. Prevalence of otitis externa in stray cats in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Spada, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder that has not been evaluated much in stray cats. One hundred and eighty-seven stray cats were randomly selected during a trap-neuter-release programme to investigate the prevalence of otitis externa in stray cat colonies in northern Italy. Swabs for cytological examination were obtained from the external ear canal of each cat. A direct otoscopic assessment of the external ear canal was made in 86/187 cats. Cytological evidence of otitis externa was present in 55.1% of cats. The influence on otitis of age, gender, habitat and season of sampling was tested, but no risk factors were found. Otodectes cynotis (as a sole agent or in combination) was the primary cause of otitis in 53.3% of cats. Cocci and rods, either alone or in combination with other agents, were perpetuating factors in 71.8% and 29.1% of cats, respectively. Pregnancy status was a risk factor for otitis caused by coccal infections. Malassezia species, alone or in combination, was the perpetuating factor in 50.5% of cats with otitis. Urban habitat and winter season were risk factors for otitis associated with Malassezia species. Demodex cati was identified as an incidental finding in two cats. There was good agreement between otoscopy and cytology with regard to the diagnosis of otitis externa. The results of this study show a high prevalence of otitis externa in stray colony cats and provide information on causal factors for feline otitis externa.

  15. Mediating relationship between body mass index and the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour on physical activity intention.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch J; Mummery, Kerry; Steele, Rebekah; Schofield, Grant

    2008-03-01

    This research examines (a) the interrelationships between body mass index (BMI), the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and physical activity intention and (b) the potential mediation effects of the direct measures of the TPB in the relationship between BMI and physical activity intention in a sample of Australian adults. A total sample of 1,062 respondents participated in a computer-assisted telephone-interview (CATI) survey comprised of a standardised introduction; questions regarding TPB and physical activity; and standard demographic questions. BMI for each participant was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Separate regression analyses were performed to examine the mediating effects of each of the direct measures of the TPB on the predictive relationship between the BMI and physical activity intention, as proposed by Baron and Kenny (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173 - 1182, 1986). Findings indicated that the direct measure of attitude and perceived behavioural control mediated the relationship between BMI and physical activity intention. However, the direct measure of subjective norm failed to act as a mediating mechanism. To date there has been no research that has examined the mechanism by which body mass may affect physical activity behaviour. Given the current focus for health promotion specialists on promoting physical activity as a strategy for reducing overweight and obesity, a theoretical understanding of weight-related barriers to physical activity may aid in the development of future interventions and community physical activity programs, particularly those targeting overweight and obese populations.

  16. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause

    PubMed Central

    Shibazaki, Shunichi; Eguchi, Shunsuke; Endo, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Tadamasa; Araki, Makoto; Gu, Yoshiaki; Imai, Taku; Asano, Kouji; Taniuchi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole. PMID:27123346

  17. Optimization of an Atmospheric Carbon Source for Extremophile Cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaubien, Courtney

    This thesis examines the use of the moisture swing resin materials employed at the Center for Negative Carbon Emissions (CNCE) in order to provide carbon dioxide from ambient air to photobioreactors containing extremophile cyanobacteria cultured at the Arizona Center for Algae Technology and Innovation (AzCATI). For this purpose, a carbon dioxide feeding device was designed, built, and tested. The results indicate how much resin should be used with a given volume of algae medium: approximately 500 grams of resin can feed 1% CO2 at about three liters per minute to a ten liter medium of the Galdieria sulphuraria 5587.1 strain for one hour (equivalent to about 0.1 grams of carbon dioxide per hour per seven grams of algae). Using the resin device, the algae grew within their normal growth range: 0.096 grams of ash-free dry weight per liter over a six hour period. Future applications in which the resin-to-algae process can be utilized are discussed.

  18. High-precision measurement of variations in calcium isotope ratios in urine by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.L.L.; Gordon, G.W.; Arrua, R.C.; Skulan, J.L.; Anbar, A.D.; Bullen, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new chemical separation method to isolate Ca from other matrix elements in biological samples, developed with the long-term goal of making high-precision measurement of natural stable Ca isotope variations a clinically applicable tool to assess bone mineral balance. A new two-column procedure utilizing HBr achieves the purity required to accurately and precisely measure two Ca isotope ratios (44Ca/42Ca and 44Ca/43Ca) on a Neptune multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) in urine. Purification requirements for Sr, Ti, and K (Ca/Sr > 10000; Ca/Ti > 10000000; and Ca/K > 10) were determined by addition of these elements to Ca standards of known isotopic composition. Accuracy was determined by (1) comparing Ca isotope results for samples and standards to published data obtained using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), (2) adding a Ca standard of known isotopic composition to a urine sample purified of Ca, and (3) analyzing mixtures of urine samples and standards in varying proportions. The accuracy and precision of δ44/42Ca measurements of purified samples containing 25 μg of Ca can be determined with typical errors less than ±0.2‰ (2σ).

  19. The Seismic risk perception in Italy deduced by a statistical sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Pessina, Vera; Peruzza, Laura; Cerbara, Loredana; Crescimbene, Cristiana

    2015-04-01

    In 2014 EGU Assembly we presented the results of a web a survey on the perception of seismic risk in Italy. The data were derived from over 8,500 questionnaires coming from all Italian regions. Our questionnaire was built by using the semantic differential method (Osgood et al. 1957) with a seven points Likert scale. The questionnaire is inspired the main theoretical approaches of risk perception (psychometric paradigm, cultural theory, etc.) .The results were promising and seem to clearly indicate an underestimation of seismic risk by the italian population. Based on these promising results, the DPC has funded our research for the second year. In 2015 EGU Assembly we present the results of a new survey deduced by an italian statistical sample. The importance of statistical significance at national scale was also suggested by ISTAT (Italian Statistic Institute), considering the study as of national interest, accepted the "project on the perception of seismic risk" as a pilot study inside the National Statistical System (SISTAN), encouraging our RU to proceed in this direction. The survey was conducted by a company specialised in population surveys using the CATI method (computer assisted telephone interview). Preliminary results will be discussed. The statistical support was provided by the research partner CNR-IRPPS. This research is funded by Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC).

  20. Prevalence of selected zoonotic and vector-borne agents in dogs and cats in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Andrea V; Duncan, Colleen; Miles, Laura; Lappin, Michael R

    2011-12-29

    To estimate the prevalence of enteric parasites and selected vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in San Isidro de El General, Costa Rica, fecal and serum samples were collected from animals voluntarily undergoing sterilization. Each fecal sample was examined for parasites by microscopic examination after fecal flotation and for Giardia and Cryptosporidium using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Giardia and Cryptosporidium IFA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification of specific DNA if possible. The seroprevalence rates for the vector-borne agents (Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) were estimated based on results from a commercially available ELISA. Enteric parasites were detected in samples from 75% of the dogs; Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis, Giardia, and Toxocara canis were detected. Of the cats, 67.5% harbored Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Ancylostoma tubaeforme, or Toxocara cati. Both Cryptosporidium spp. isolates that could be sequenced were Cryptosporidium parvum (one dog isolate and one cat isolate). Of the Giardia spp. isolates that were successfully sequenced, the 2 cat isolates were assemblage A and the 2 dog isolates were assemblage D. D. immitis antigen and E. canis antibodies were identified in 2.3% and 3.5% of the serum samples, respectively. The prevalence of enteric zoonotic parasites in San Isidro de El General in Costa Rica is high in companion animals and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks.

  1. Molecular phylogeny and biotechnological potential of bacterial endophytes associated with Malpighia emarginata.

    PubMed

    Specian, V; Costa, A T; Felber, A C; Polonio, J C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-04-27

    Acerola (Malpighia emarginata) is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical climates, which has great commercial interest due to the high vitamin C content of its fruit. However, there are no reports of the endophytic community of this plant species. The aim of this study was to verify the genetic diversity of the leaf endophytic bacterial community of two varieties (Olivier & Waldy Cati 30) of acerola, and to evaluate their biotechnological ability by assessing their in vitro control of pathogenic fungi and the enzymatic production of cellulase, xylanase, amylase, pectinase, protease, lipase, esterase, and chitinase. In total, 157 endophytic bacteria were isolated from the leaves of two varieties of the plant at 28° and 37°C. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of 58 bacteria, 39.65% of which were identified at the species level. For the first time, the genus Aureimonas was highlighted as an endophytic bacterium. Furthermore, 12.82% of the isolates inhibited the growth of all phytopathogens evaluated and at least one of the above-mentioned enzymes was produced by 64.70% of the endophytes, demonstrating that M. emarginata isolates have potential use in biotechnological studies.

  2. A synthetic review of notoedres species mites and mange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Janet E; Serieys, L.E.; Stephenson, N.; Riley, S.; Foley, C.; Jennings, M.; Wengert, G.; Vickers, W.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa L.; Moriarty, J.; Clifford, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.

  3. [Zoonotic parasites of cats and dogs found in playground sandboxes in the Reykjavik area, Iceland.].

    PubMed

    Smaradottir, H; Skirnisson, K

    1996-09-01

    Recent surveys on the parasites of household cats and dogs in Iceland have revealed the zoonotic protozoans Cryptosporidium parvwn and Toxoplasma gondii and the zoonotic nematodes Toxocara cati and T. canis. Furthermore, a Giardia sp., recently found in cats in Iceland, is also suspected to be a zoonotic parasite. In Iceland children frequently play in open sandboxes commonly found at kindergartens, in public areas or in private gardens. During the cold months of the year, when the soil is frequently frozen, cats frequently visit these sandboxes and dig their faeces in the dry and loose sand. To evaluate the risk of zoonotic infections, altogether 32 sandboxes in the Reykjavik area in SW-Iceland were examined for the presence of cat and dog protozoan and helminth parasites. Systematically collected sand samples (30 ml sand from every square meter of each sandbox), altogether 411 samples, were examined by a modified salt flotation technique. Furthermore, cat and dog faeces were collected from the surface of the sandboxes and also by sieving approximately five liters of sand from every square meter of each sandbox. The faecal samples found were examined by salt flotation and the formalin-ethylacetate concentration method.

  4. A survey of environmental contamination with ascarid ova, Wallingford, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Chorazy, Margaret L; Richardson, Dennis J

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in the United States to quantify the potential risk associated with encountering zoonotic ascarid ova in the environment. In an effort to raise awareness and to better understand the risk of acquiring visceral larva migrans in south central Connecticut, this environmental survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of ascarid ova (Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Baylisascaris columnaris, and Baylisascaris procyonis) in public areas of Wallingford, Connecticut, to compare prevalence levels among these public areas, and to determine what host species are primarily responsible for environmental contamination. A preliminary study was conducted to determine if ascarid ova of different species could be identified by size and appearance utilizing light microscopy alone; results did not support the differentiation of species via these methods. To determine the prevalence of environmental contamination with ascarid ova, samples of approximately 250 g of soil were collected from park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school. Ova were detected in 46 (14.4%) of 319 samples collected. Ova were collected from three of the 60 (5.0%) park green area samples, 11 of the 40 (27.5%) playground samples, six of the 98 (6.1%) public housing samples, and 26 of the 96 (27.1%) parkway samples. Public areas of Wallingford, Connecticut are frequently contaminated by potentially infectious ascarid ova. Of particular concern is the high degree of contamination of playgrounds and the potential risk these areas pose to children's health.

  5. Required competencies of occupational physicians: a Delphi survey of UK customers

    PubMed Central

    Reetoo, K; Harrington, J; Macdonald, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Occupational physicians can contribute to good management in healthy enterprises. The requirement to take into account the needs of the customers when planning occupational health services is well established. Aims: To establish the priorities of UK employers, employees, and their representatives regarding the competencies they require from occupational physicians; to explore the reasons for variations of the priorities in different groups; and to make recommendations for occupational medicine training curricula in consideration of these findings. Methods: This study involved a Delphi survey of employers and employees from public and private organisations of varying business sizes, and health and safety specialists as well as trade union representatives throughout the UK. It was conducted in two rounds by a combination of computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) and postal survey techniques, using a questionnaire based on the list of competencies described by UK and European medical training bodies. Results: There was broad consensus about the required competencies of occupational physicians among the respondent subgroups. All the competencies in which occupational physicians are trained were considered important by the customers. In the order of decreasing importance, the competencies were: Law and Ethics, Occupational Hazards, Disability and Fitness for Work, Communication, Environmental Exposures, Research Methods, Health Promotion, and Management. Conclusion: The priorities of customers differed from previously published occupational physicians' priorities. Existing training programmes for occupational physicians should be regularly reviewed and where necessary, modified to ensure that the emphasis of training meets customer requirements. PMID:15901889

  6. Response of an invasive liana to simulated herbivory: implications for its biological control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghu, S.; Dhileepan, K.; Treviño, M.

    2006-05-01

    Pre-release evaluation of the efficacy of biological control agents is often not possible in the case of many invasive species targeted for biocontrol. In such circumstances simulating herbivory could yield significant insights into plant response to damage, thereby improving the efficiency of agent prioritisation, increasing the chances of regulating the performance of invasive plants through herbivory and minimising potential risks posed by release of multiple herbivores. We adopted this approach to understand the weaknesses herbivores could exploit, to manage the invasive liana, Macfadyena unguis-cati. We simulated herbivory by damaging the leaves, stem, root and tuber of the plant, in isolation and in combination. We also applied these treatments at multiple frequencies. Plant response in terms of biomass allocation showed that at least two severe defoliation treatments were required to diminish this liana's climbing habit and reduce its allocation to belowground tuber reserves. Belowground damage appears to have negligible effect on the plant's biomass production and tuber damage appears to trigger a compensatory response. Plant response to combinations of different types of damage did not differ significantly to that from leaf damage. This suggests that specialist herbivores in the leaf-feeding guild capable of removing over 50% of the leaf tissue may be desirable in the biological control of this invasive species.

  7. Native defects and Pr impurities in orthorhombic CaTiO3 by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ailing; Wang, Jianchuan; Zhao, Dongdong; Du, Yong

    2011-07-01

    Formation energies of native defects and Pr impurities in orthorhombic CaTiO3 are explored using the first-principles calculations. The Ca vacancy (VCa), Ti vacancy (VTi) and Ca antisite (CaTi) are found to be energetically preferable. The Ti antisite (TiCa) and O vacancy (VO) are not energetically favorable in the wide range of Fermi level. In Pr-doped CaTiO3, Pr substituting for Ca (PrCa) is likely to form under condition A in which CaTiO3 is in equilibrium with CaO and O2. Under condition B (TiO2, CaTiO3 and O2 are in equilibrium), PrTi defect is energetically preferable depending on the Fermi levels. Several native defects and the two sites of Pr impurities in CaTiO3 are coincided with several different defects in Pr-doped CaTiO3 reported in the literature. Based on the present calculations, we can elucidate that the Ca deficiency design of the traditional formula Ca1-xVCa(x/2)PrxTiO3 is not the best for efficient red photoluminescence, which is realized via the experimental measurements.

  8. Cross transmission of gastrointestinal nematodes between captive neotropical felids and feral cats.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Romero-Callejas, Evangelina; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Muñoz-García, Claudia I

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen cross transmission between wildlife and domestic animals represents an extinction risk for wildlife; however, reliable verification is difficult to perform, and in some cases, it is even considered unlikely to be conducted. The aim of this work was to identify cross transmission of helminths between feral cats and captive wild felids at a zoological park in southeastern Mexico. Feces were collected from jaguars (Panthera onca), cougars (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi). A flotation technique and macroscopic sieving were performed on the feces. Additionally, as part of the noxious fauna control program of the park, feral cats were captured and euthanized. To perform parasitologic studies, helminths from these animals were recovered. Toxocara cati and Trichuris campanula were shared by jaguarundis and feral cats. Ancylostoma sp. was found in jaguar and ocelot and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in feral cats. Additionally, during this study, a couple of jaguarundis died with clinical signs of trichuriasis. This is the first report of T. campanula in jaguarundi. Because feral cats roam freely in the park, transmission could occur from these vertebrates to wild felids. This study shows the risk that parasites represent to wild felids; a similar situation could be found in free-living species, especially in fragmented habitats that favor contact with domestic animals. PMID:24450052

  9. Assembling a puzzle of dispersed retrotransposable sequences in the genome of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Staginnus, C; Desel, C; Schmidt, T; Kahl, G

    2010-12-01

    Several repetitive elements are known to be present in the genome of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) including satellite DNA and En/Spm transposons as well as two dispersed, highly repetitive elements, CaRep1 and CaRep2. PCR was used to prove that CaRep1, CaRep2, and previously isolated CaRep3 of C. arietinum represent different segments of a highly repetitive Ty3-gypsy-like retrotransposon (Metaviridae) designated CaRep that makes up large parts of the intercalary heterochromatin. The full sequence of this element including the LTRs and untranslated internal regions was isolated by selective amplification. The restriction pattern of CaRep was different within the annual species of the genus Cicer, suggesting its rearrangement during the evolution of the genus during the last 100 000 years. In addition to CaRep, another LTR and a non-LTR retrotransposon family were isolated, and their restriction patterns and physical localization in the chickpea genome were characterized. The LINE-like element CaLin is only of comparatively low abundance and reveals a considerable heterogeneity. The Ty1-copia-like element (Pseudoviridae) CaTy is located in the distal parts of the intercalary heterochromatin and adjacent euchromatic regions, but it is absent from the centromeric regions. These results together with earlier findings allow to depict the distribution of retroelements on chickpea chromosomes, which extensively resembles the retroelement landscape of the genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn.

  10. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause.

    PubMed

    Shibazaki, Shunichi; Eguchi, Shunsuke; Endo, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Tadamasa; Araki, Makoto; Gu, Yoshiaki; Imai, Taku; Asano, Kouji; Taniuchi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole. PMID:27123346

  11. Evaluation of the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient in the immunological diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu Jian; Zhou, Min; Cao, Wen Jun; Ji, Jian; Bi, Ying Wen; Huang, Xin; Xu, Ge Zhi

    2016-06-01

    Ocular toxocariasis (OT) is a zoonotic parasitic infection mainly caused by the intraocular tissue invasion of second-stage Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati larva. Measuring specific anti-T. canis antibodies in the intraocular fluid (IF) can increase OT diagnosis accuracy using Goldmann-Witmer coefficient (GWC). However, there is no systemic evaluation of GWC application in the immunological diagnosis of OT. To assess GWC for the immunodiagnosis of ocular toxocariasis, paired IF and serum samples from 72 patients diagnosed with OT were retrospectively analyzed for specific anti-T. canis IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GWC values were calculated to determine intraocular specific IgG production. Clinical features and other laboratory data were recorded, and their correlations with GWC evaluated. Of the 72 OT patients, 60 (83.33%) showed intraocular specific IgG production confirmed by GWC, while intraocular nonspecific IgE production was found in 64/69 (92.75%) cases. No significant correlation was found among clinical features and IF specific IgG production. Values for peripheral blood samples were lower than those of intraocular fluid regarding OT screening, and vitreous humor samples showed increased local specific IgG and nonspecific IgE production compared with aqueous humor samples. Overall, our results indicate that GWC and intraocular IgE production have referential values in diagnosing ocular toxocariasis. PMID:26899678

  12. Association between toxocariasis and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Lance D; Gale, Shawn D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    The ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) may infect humans resulting in toxocariasis. A prior study associated species of Toxocara Stiles, 1905 with cognitive deficits in children. To determine if a similar association between toxocariasis and cognition exists in adults, we analysed a large dataset from the United States' Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used linear-regression and multivariate models to examine the association between toxocariasis as assessed by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies and three measures of cognitive function - simple reaction time (SRT), symbol-digit substitution (SDS) and serial-digit learning (SDL) in 4 279 adults aged 21 to 59 years. Toxocara seroprevalence did not vary with age or blood-lead concentration but did vary with gender, ethnicity, educational attainment and poverty-to-income ratio. Controlling for gender, age, blood-lead concentration, educational attainment, ethnic background and the poverty-to-income ratio, we found that toxocariasis predicted worse performance on the SDS but not on the SRT or the SDL. Moreover, there were significant interactions between toxocariasis and age, gender and educational attainment. In conclusion, toxocariasis appears to be associated with decreased cognitive function. Interactions between toxocariasis and gender, age and educational attainment further suggest that certain groups may be more susceptible than others to the cognitive dysfunction associated with toxocariasis in adults. PMID:26374832

  13. Are alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder synonymous diagnoses?

    PubMed

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Estey, Alisa J; Segal, Daniel L; Marle, Peter D

    2013-02-01

    Relationships among alexithymia, personality disorders, and higher-order psychopathological and interpersonal dimensions were examined in 199 college students and a close relative of each. Alexithymia, the difficulty to express and identify emotions, was measured by the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS; [Haviland, M. G., Warren, W. L., & Riggs, M. L. (2000). An observer scale to measure alexithymia. Psychosomatics, 41, 385-392]), which was completed by each student's relative. Each student completed three self-report measures: the Coolidge Axis II Inventory (CATI; [Coolidge, F. L. (2000). Coolidge Axis II Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author.), the Five Dimensional Personality Test (5DPT; [van Kampen, D. (2009). Personality and psychopathology: A theory-based revision of Eysenck's PEN model. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 5, 9-21]), and the Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory (HCTI; [Coolidge, F. L. (1998). Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author]). Results indicated that higher levels of alexithymia are associated with personality disorders and their traits, such as schizoid, avoidant, and paranoid. With regard to the issue of the similarity and difference between alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder, there was sufficient evidence across all of the measures to suggest that they are not synonymous entities. Finally, alexithymic traits were associated with concurrent depressive traits even in a non-clinical sample.

  14. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Harper, Tisha; Georges, Karla; Bridgewater, Elmo

    2001-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs. PMID:11737880

  15. Molecular phylogeny and biotechnological potential of bacterial endophytes associated with Malpighia emarginata.

    PubMed

    Specian, V; Costa, A T; Felber, A C; Polonio, J C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-01-01

    Acerola (Malpighia emarginata) is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical climates, which has great commercial interest due to the high vitamin C content of its fruit. However, there are no reports of the endophytic community of this plant species. The aim of this study was to verify the genetic diversity of the leaf endophytic bacterial community of two varieties (Olivier & Waldy Cati 30) of acerola, and to evaluate their biotechnological ability by assessing their in vitro control of pathogenic fungi and the enzymatic production of cellulase, xylanase, amylase, pectinase, protease, lipase, esterase, and chitinase. In total, 157 endophytic bacteria were isolated from the leaves of two varieties of the plant at 28° and 37°C. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of 58 bacteria, 39.65% of which were identified at the species level. For the first time, the genus Aureimonas was highlighted as an endophytic bacterium. Furthermore, 12.82% of the isolates inhibited the growth of all phytopathogens evaluated and at least one of the above-mentioned enzymes was produced by 64.70% of the endophytes, demonstrating that M. emarginata isolates have potential use in biotechnological studies. PMID:27173262

  16. Late Quaternary East Asian monsoon evolution deduced from elemental XRF scanning data in the western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z.; Liu, Z.; Li, J.; Xie, X.

    2010-12-01

    The East Asian monsoon system dominates seasonal patterns of precipitation and runoff and causes monsoon-induced upwelling off middle Vietnam in the western South China Sea. Our investigation is to decipher the evolution of the East Asian monsoon variations during late Quaternary by analyzing high-resolution elemental XRF scanning data from Core MD05-2899 (13°47.66'N, 112°10.89'E, water depth 2393 m), which is located in the western South China Sea upwelling region. Oxygen isotope results indicate that the 38.86 m long core spans over the last 533 ka. The elemental XRF scanning data present clear glacial-interglacial variations for most of elements. We choose K, Ti, and Zr as proxies of terrigenous input, and Ca and Ba as indicators of nutrient and sea surface productivity. Generally, coherent downcore variations in K/Ti, Zr/Ti, Ba/Ti and Ca/Ti ratios indicate obvious glacial-interglacial cyclicity. The highest element ratios occur during interglacial maxima, indicating that both terrigenous input and sea surface productivity increased when the enhanced East Asia summer monsoon causes intensified precipitation, runoff, and upwelling. In contrast, during the glacials the element ratios decreased when the East Asian summer monsoon was weakened. In addition, the Ba/Ti ratio along with the carbonate mass accumulation rate present much higher values in MIS 3 and 9, reflecting the stronger East Asian summer monsoon activity.

  17. Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

  18. Metabolic engineering of seeds can achieve levels of omega-7 fatty acids comparable to the highest levels found in natural plant sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.T.; Shanklin, J.; Mishra, G.; Whittle, E.; Bevan, S. A.; Merlo, A. O.; Walsh, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Plant oils containing {omega}-7 fatty acids (FAs; palmitoleic 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} and cis-vaccenic 18:1{Delta}{sup 11}) have potential as sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important octene via metathesis chemistry. Engineering plants to produce seeds that accumulate high levels of any unusual FA has been an elusive goal. We achieved high levels of {omega}-7 FA accumulation by systematic metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A plastidial 16:0-ACP desaturase has been engineered to convert 16:0 to 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} with specificity >100-fold than that of naturally occurring paralogs, such as that from cat's claw vine (Doxantha unguis-cati). Expressing this engineered enzyme (Com25) in seeds increased {omega}-7 FA accumulation from <2% to 14%. Reducing competition for 16:0-ACP by down-regulating the {beta}-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II 16:0 elongase further increased accumulation of {omega}-7 FA to 56%. The level of 16:0 exiting the plastid without desaturation also increased to 21%. Coexpression of a pair of fungal 16:0 desaturases in the cytosol reduced the 16:0 level to 11% and increased {omega}-7 FA to as much as 71%, equivalent to levels found in Doxantha seeds.

  19. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis

    PubMed Central

    Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes. With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. PMID:26969697

  20. A 3600-year fan delta record of alpine floods: Potentialities of flood hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, L.; Peña, J. C.; Burjachs, F.; Pernas, J.; Carvalho, F.; Schmidt, Th.; Baró, M.; Oliva, M.; Barriendos, M.; Veit, H.

    2009-04-01

    During the last decade the significance of flood magnitude, frequency and triggering forces in mountain regions is discussed in the context of Global Change. In the Swiss Alps these variables have also been even more investigated and modeled on a local scale due to the outstanding magnitude of discharges and economic losses (211 million CHF) of the 2005 flood event on August 23rd. With regard to the discussion about future extreme events as a consequence of present day global warming, the key question arises if floods occurred in the past during warmer or cooler climate conditions. The variability of fluvial environments of the Lütschine and Lombach catchments in the Swiss Alps during Late Holocene is traced from a composed 3600-year fan delta record using a multi-proxy approach integrating methods of various disciplines as sedimentology, geochronology, pedology, geomorphology, hydrology, palynology, history and archaeology. Furthermore, the paper examines the potential of fluvial archives with regard to flood hazard assessment. The lithology and geochemical data of the Lütschine and Lombach fan delta records studied in several key sections and cores show several aggradation phases from 3600 cal yr BP to present. The major aggradational pulses of the Lütschine fan delta recorded by coarse grained flood layers occur at intervals from 580 to 200 years, whereas in the Lombach catchment intervals range from 350 to 120 years. At least nineteen minor aggradational pulses indicated by the Ca/Ti ratios and organic carbon content are reported in the Lütschine catchment at a medium recurrence interval around 116 years at least from 3300 yr cal BP until 1100 yr cal BP and in the Lombach basin 10 pulses at an average interval of 105 years from 2800 yr cal BP until 1150 yr cal BP. Despite the different fluvial regimes, glacio-nival regime of the Lütschine river and pluvio-nival of the Lombach river, the following correlation can be pointed out: a) synchronous trends of the

  1. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic helminths in feral cats in Gran Canaria island (Macaronesian archipelago-Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ponce, Eligia; González, Jorge F; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Hernández, Julia N; Raduan Jaber, J

    2016-09-01

    The presence of zoonotic parasites in feral cats have been widely considered all over the world. In Gran Canaria (Macaronesian archipelago, Canary Islands, Spain) the number of feral cats has grown out of control in urban and rural areas. 48 of Felis catus captured in different Gran Canaria areas were studied. Animals were necropsied and several organs were systematically examined in order to collect and identify macroscopic parasites. In addition, coprological tests were done in 28 cats. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate among sex, age or capture area, showing an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.1%. The most common tapeworms were Dipylidium caninum (64.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (31.3%), followed by the nematodes Toxocara cati (20.8%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (18.8%), Aelurostrongylusabstrusus (10.4%) and Trichuris vulpis (2.08%). We also find several eggs of Alaria alata in the small intestine of one cat (2.08%), being the first description of this trematode in cats in the Canary Islands. Aproximatelly, 40% of the studied cats harboured more than one parasite. High rates of zoonotic species found in these animals suggest the need of controling parasitic infections and preventive measures against them. PMID:27447205

  2. Intestinal parasites in various animals at a zoo in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y A L; Ngui, R; Shukri, J; Rohela, M; Mat Naim, H R

    2008-10-20

    A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites from different groups of mammals housed in a zoological garden in Malaysia. A total of 197 faecal samples were collected randomly from various primates (99), hoofed mammals (70) and feline (28). It was discovered that 89.3% of feline, 54.5% of primates and 45.7% of hoofed mammals were infected with intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasites found in primates were Balantidium coli (19.2%), Cryptosporidium spp. (14.1%), hookworm (10.1%), Trichuris spp. (5.1%), Ascaris (4.0%) and Blastocystis spp. (2.0%). For hoofed mammals, hookworm had the highest prevalence (34.3%) followed by Trichuris spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.7%). Meanwhile, for feline, Toxocara cati was the most prevalent (64.3%), followed by Cryptosporidium spp. (14.3%), Spirometra spp. (7.1%), and hookworm (3.6%). Animals that were infected were all asymptomatic with low parasite load. Routine monitoring of the presence of parasites in animals kept in the zoo is imperative in assisting zoo management in the formulation and implementation of preventive and control measures against the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among animals within the zoo or to humans.

  3. Intestinal Parasites of Owned Dogs and Cats from Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas: Prevalence, Zoonotic Risks, and Pet Owner Awareness in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Berrilli, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%−60.42%) and dogs (57.41%−43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas. PMID:24883320

  4. Genetic Variation in BDNF is Associated with Antipsychotic Treatment Resistance in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Lencz, Todd; Geisler, Stephen; DeRosse, Pamela; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia. However, a substantial proportion of patients are poorly responsive or resistant to first-line treatments, and clozapine treatment is often indicated. Therefore, we and others have used clozapine treatment as a proxy phenotype for antipsychotic treatment resistance in pharmacogenetic studies. In the present study, we utilized this phenotype to test previously-identified candidate genes for antipsychotic treatment response. Method We assessed 89 Caucasian schizophrenia patients clinically assigned to clozapine treatment versus 190 Caucasian patients that were not selected for clozapine treatment. We conducted gene-based association tests on a set of 74 relevant candidate genes nominated in the CATIE pharmacogenetic study (Need et al, 2009), using the GATES procedure (Li et al, 2011). Results After correcting for multiple testing in the gene-based association test, the gene for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was significantly associated with treatment resistance. The top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BDNF included rs11030104 (OR=2.57), rs10501087 (OR=2.19) and rs6265 (Val66Met) (OR=2.08). These SNPs appear to be in high linkage disequilibrium with each other. Conclusion BDNF appears to have a strong association with antipsychotic treatment resistance. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding and further elucidate the biological pathways underlying the association between BDNF and antipsychotic drug response. PMID:23433505

  5. Barium concentration in rock varnish: Implications for calibrated rock varnish dating curves

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, C.D.; Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Krier, D.

    1990-05-01

    Cation-ratio dating rock varnish is a recently developed technique for obtaining surface exposure ages of a wide variety of geomorphic surfaces. As originally proposed, the technique utilizes a ratio among minor cations [(K + Ca)/Ti] in rock varnish. Although this varnish cation ratio is related to the Ti concentration, it can also be affected by the presence of Ba that may be partially included in the analyzed concentration of Ti. During energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Ba L-alpha and L-beta peaks overlap with Ti K-alpha and K-beta peaks. We have compared the effect of Ba concentration on calculated varnish cation ratios using quantitative EDS with the scanning electron microscope (SEM), quantitative wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) with a Cameca electron probe microanalyzer (EPM) and qualitative EDS with the SEM that does not decompose Ti and Ba lines. In this paper we document that, in fact, such separation of Ba from Ti is possible using both a quantitative (MICRO Q) and a semi-quantitative (SQ) Tracor Northern EDS analytical programs that decompose Ti and Ba lines. We also document that SEM EDS analyses may yield markedly similar results to wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) analyses of the same varnish using an EPM. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Set-valued dynamic treatment regimes for competing outcomes.

    PubMed

    Laber, Eric B; Lizotte, Daniel J; Ferguson, Bradley

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic treatment regimes (DTRs) operationalize the clinical decision process as a sequence of functions, one for each clinical decision, where each function maps up-to-date patient information to a single recommended treatment. Current methods for estimating optimal DTRs, for example Q-learning, require the specification of a single outcome by which the "goodness" of competing dynamic treatment regimes is measured. However, this is an over-simplification of the goal of clinical decision making, which aims to balance several potentially competing outcomes, for example, symptom relief and side-effect burden. When there are competing outcomes and patients do not know or cannot communicate their preferences, formation of a single composite outcome that correctly balances the competing outcomes is not possible. This problem also occurs when patient preferences evolve over time. We propose a method for constructing DTRs that accommodates competing outcomes by recommending sets of treatments at each decision point. Formally, we construct a sequence of set-valued functions that take as input up-to-date patient information and give as output a recommended subset of the possible treatments. For a given patient history, the recommended set of treatments contains all treatments that produce non-inferior outcome vectors. Constructing these set-valued functions requires solving a non-trivial enumeration problem. We offer an exact enumeration algorithm by recasting the problem as a linear mixed integer program. The proposed methods are illustrated using data from the CATIE schizophrenia study.

  7. Cohort Profile: The Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) Study

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Janet F; Martin, Sean A; Taylor, Anne W; Wilson, David H; Araujo, Andre; Adams, Robert JT; Jenkins, Alicia; Milne, Robert W; Hugo, Graeme J; Atlantis, Evan; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    The Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) Study was established in 2009 to investigate the associations of sex steroids, inflammation, environmental and psychosocial factors with cardio-metabolic disease risk in men. The study population consists of 2569 men from the harmonisation of two studies: all participants of the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS) and eligible male participants of the North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS). The cohort has so far participated in three stages of the MAILES Study: MAILES1 (FAMAS Wave 1, from 2002–2005, and NWAHS Wave 2, from 2004–2006); MAILES2 (FAMAS Wave 2, from 2007–2010, and NWAHS Wave 3, from 2008–2010); and MAILES3 (a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey of all participants in the study, conducted in 2010). Data have been collected on a comprehensive range of physical, psychosocial and demographic issues relating to a number of chronic conditions (including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis and mental health) and health-related risk factors (including obesity, blood pressure, smoking, diet, alcohol intake and inflammatory markers), as well as on current and past health status and medication. Initial approaches or enquiries regarding the study can be made to either the principal investigator (gary.wittert@adelaide.edu.au) or the project coordinator (sean.martin@adelaide.edu.au). PMID:23785097

  8. Intestinal parasites in various animals at a zoo in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y A L; Ngui, R; Shukri, J; Rohela, M; Mat Naim, H R

    2008-10-20

    A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites from different groups of mammals housed in a zoological garden in Malaysia. A total of 197 faecal samples were collected randomly from various primates (99), hoofed mammals (70) and feline (28). It was discovered that 89.3% of feline, 54.5% of primates and 45.7% of hoofed mammals were infected with intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasites found in primates were Balantidium coli (19.2%), Cryptosporidium spp. (14.1%), hookworm (10.1%), Trichuris spp. (5.1%), Ascaris (4.0%) and Blastocystis spp. (2.0%). For hoofed mammals, hookworm had the highest prevalence (34.3%) followed by Trichuris spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.7%). Meanwhile, for feline, Toxocara cati was the most prevalent (64.3%), followed by Cryptosporidium spp. (14.3%), Spirometra spp. (7.1%), and hookworm (3.6%). Animals that were infected were all asymptomatic with low parasite load. Routine monitoring of the presence of parasites in animals kept in the zoo is imperative in assisting zoo management in the formulation and implementation of preventive and control measures against the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among animals within the zoo or to humans. PMID:18723289

  9. Parasitic infections detected by FLOTAC in zoo mammals from Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Maesano, Gianpaolo; Capasso, Michele; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of intestinal parasites in groups of mammals kept in the Warsaw zoological garden (Poland). 71 pools of fecal samples were analyzed using the FLOTAC techniques. 48% of animals were positive and 47% of positivities showed multiple infections. Toxocara cati (71.4%) was found in felines; marsupials were infected with Coccidia (90%). Giardia spp. (24.0%), Blastocystis spp. (12.3%), Iodamoeba spp. (10.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (6.0%) and Entamoeba coli (3.3%) were found in primates. Gastrointestinal strongyles (60.5%) were prevalent in ruminants which resulted positive also to Coccidia (Eimeria spp. = 50.0%), Trichuris spp. (25.0%) and Nematodirus (14.0%). Strongyles (34.0%) were the most frequent parasites in monogastric herbivores, followed by Parascaris equorum (17.0%). None of the animals showed any symptom associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections. According to our results the need to prevent, diagnose, control, and treat intestinal parasitism trough specific control programs is mandatory for animal welfare in order to limit the spread of parasitic infections in animals and humans. PMID:24827109

  10. Characterization of hydroxyapatite film with mixed interface by Ar+ ion beam enhanced deposition.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Weng, J; Tong, W; Zuo, C; Zhang, X; Wang, P; Liu, Z

    1997-11-01

    Ar+ ion beam enhanced deposition (IBED) was used to produce a hydroxyapatite (HA) film on polished titanium substrates. In this study, the HA ceramic target was sputtered by an argon-ion beam with an energy of 1.5 KeV, and the sputtered film was intermittently bombarded by energetic argon-ions at 60 KeV. An effective Ca-Ti mixed layer produced by the energetic argon-ion bombardment was confirmed by using Auger electron spectroscopy. The characteristics of the deposited films were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. XRD analysis revealed that the as-deposited film was amorphous, and a hydroxyapatite-type structure was obtained from the post-heat treatment of the deposited films. SEM observations showed that no distinct difference in surface morphology was found between the as-deposited and heat-treated samples for Ar+ IBED films, suggesting a strongly bonded HA film on the titanium substrate. In comparison with the HA target, some chemistry alterations were brought about in the deposited films, such as the incorporation of CO3, the loss of the OH groups and some distortion of the phosphate lattice.

  11. Enteric protozoa of cats and their zoonotic potential-a field study from Austria.

    PubMed

    Hinney, Barbara; Ederer, Christina; Stengl, Carina; Wilding, Katrin; Štrkolcová, Gabriela; Harl, Josef; Flechl, Eva; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2015-05-01

    Domestic cats can be infected with a variety of enteric protozoa. Genotyping of protozoan species, especially Giardia as the most common, can improve assessment of their relevance as zoonotic agents. For an overview on the occurrence of feline enteric protozoa, 298 faecal samples of cats from private households, catteries and animal shelters in Austria were collected. All samples were examined by flotation and using a rapid test for Giardia (FASTest). For the detection of Tritrichomonas blagburni, freshly voided faeces (n = 40) were processed using a commercial culturing system (InPouch TF-Feline). Genotyping was done at the β-giardin gene loci (each sample) and triosephosphate isomerase gene loci (positive samples) for Giardia and at the 18S rRNA gene (positive samples) for Cryptosporidium. Thirty-seven samples (12.4%) were positive for Giardia by flotation and/or using a rapid test. Cryptosporidium was present in 1.7%, Cystoisospora in 4.0%, Sarcocystis in 0.3% and T. blagburni in 2.5% of the samples. Genotyping revealed Giardia cati, the potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium felis. Most of the infected cats had no diarrhoea. Cats from shelters were significantly more often infected than owned cats (p = 0.01). When comparing Giardia detection methods, the rapid test had a higher sensitivity than flotation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were mostly independent from the other two tests. PMID:25762189

  12. Chronic polyarthritis as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Viola, Gabriela R; Giacomin, Maria Fernanda A; França, Camila M P; Sallum, Adriana M E; Jacob, Cristina M A; Silva, Clovis A

    2016-01-01

    Human toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis mainly caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati and is acquired by ingestion of the parasite's embryonated eggs. Arthralgia and/or arthritis were reported in up to 17% of the cases, generally with acute duration (less than 6 weeks). However, to our knowledge, chronic polyarthritis, as the isolated presentation of Toxocara infection, was not reported. One of the 5809 patients that was followed up at our service (0.017%) had chronic polyarthritis as the single manifestation of toxocariasis and was described herein. A 3-year-old girl was referred to our service with severe painful chronic polyarthritis for a period longer than 10 weeks and morning stiffness of 30min. Dog contact exposure history in the recreational areas of neighborhood was reported. Her exams showed high levels of eosinophils in peripheral blood (29%), bone marrow aspirate revealed marked eosinophilia (32%) and Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was positive (1:1280). She was treated with paracetamol (40mg/kg/day) and thiabendazole (25mg/kg/day) for 10 days, and all manifestations reduced. After eight months of follow-up, she was on clinical and laboratorial remission. In conclusion, we described a case of chronic polyarthritis, as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis, mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis and leukemia. Importantly, this zoonosis should be considered in patients with arthritis and eosinophilia.

  13. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jenny; Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-05-15

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. PMID:26969697

  14. A survey of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores from the Tatra National Park, southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Borecka, Anna; Gawor, Jakub; Zieba, Filip

    2013-01-01

    From January 2011 to July 2012, 144 faecal samples of wild carnivores from the Tatra National Park were examined to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal helminths--72 of wolves (Canis lupus), 45 of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 15 of pine martens (Martes martes) and 12 of brown bears (Ursus arctos). In wolves, monospecific infection with Trichuris vulpis (13.9%), Toxocara canis (6.9%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria (5.6%) and taeniids (1.4%) was revealed. In red foxes, the most prevalent infection was 7 vulpis (64.4%), followed by T. canis (11.1%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria (8.9%) and taeniids (2.2%). Monospecific infection with T. vulpis was more frequent (44.4%), than infection with two species, i.e. T > vulpis with Ancylostoma/Uncinaria, T. vulpis with T. canis or T. vulpis with taeniids (17.8%). In pine martens, Trichuris spp. was the most prevalent (40.0%), while T. cati and Ancylostoma/Uncinaria were found in 13.3% and 6.7% samples, respectively. In faeces from brown bears, no parasite eggs were found. The present survey of wild carnivores revealed a significant prevalence of parasites such as Toxocara spp. and Trichuris spp. (8.3% and 31.0% in all examined samples, respectively), which are hazardous to human and animal health.

  15. Cross transmission of gastrointestinal nematodes between captive neotropical felids and feral cats.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Romero-Callejas, Evangelina; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Muñoz-García, Claudia I

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen cross transmission between wildlife and domestic animals represents an extinction risk for wildlife; however, reliable verification is difficult to perform, and in some cases, it is even considered unlikely to be conducted. The aim of this work was to identify cross transmission of helminths between feral cats and captive wild felids at a zoological park in southeastern Mexico. Feces were collected from jaguars (Panthera onca), cougars (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi). A flotation technique and macroscopic sieving were performed on the feces. Additionally, as part of the noxious fauna control program of the park, feral cats were captured and euthanized. To perform parasitologic studies, helminths from these animals were recovered. Toxocara cati and Trichuris campanula were shared by jaguarundis and feral cats. Ancylostoma sp. was found in jaguar and ocelot and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in feral cats. Additionally, during this study, a couple of jaguarundis died with clinical signs of trichuriasis. This is the first report of T. campanula in jaguarundi. Because feral cats roam freely in the park, transmission could occur from these vertebrates to wild felids. This study shows the risk that parasites represent to wild felids; a similar situation could be found in free-living species, especially in fragmented habitats that favor contact with domestic animals.

  16. Development and characterization of high temperature, high energy density dielectric materials to establish routes towards power electronics capacitive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, Dennis P.

    The maximum electrostatic energy density of a capacitor is a function of the relative permittivity (epsilonr) and the square of the dielectric breakdown strength (Eb). Currently, state-of-the art high temperature (>200 °C), SiC-based power electronics utilize CaZrO3-rich NP0/C0G-type capacitors, which have low relative permittivities of epsilonr ˜ 30-40, high breakdown strengths (> 1.0 MV/cm), and are chosen for their minimal change in energy storage with temperature. However, with operating temperatures exceeding the rated temperatures for such capacitors, there is an opportunity to develop new dielectric ceramics having higher energy densities and volumetric efficiencies at high temperatures (>200 °C) by utilizing higher permittivity dielectrics while maintaining high breakdown strengths via doping. The solid solution behavior of was characterized in order to determine the optimal composition for balancing permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength to obtain high energy densities at elevated temperatures. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed Vegard's law behavior across the solid solution with minimal 2nd phases. To determine a Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 composition that will also minimize electronic or band conduction, the optical properties of the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 solid solution were investigated to identify a composition on the CaTiO3 - rich end of the solid solution with a large band gap. Both ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and spectroscopic ellipsometry were utilized to determine the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 band gaps and optical properties. The resistivity at 250 °C scaled with the band gap energy across the solid solution. Comparing the current-voltage (I--V) behavior at 250 °C for Ca(Tix-yMnyZr0.2)O3 (CTZ + Mn) where x = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and y = 0.005, it was found that the Ca(Ti 0.795Mn0.005Zr0.2)O3 composition showed the lowest current density and a decrease in current density of 5 orders of magnitude compared to the un

  17. Chronic polyarthritis as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Viola, Gabriela R; Giacomin, Maria Fernanda A; França, Camila M P; Sallum, Adriana M E; Jacob, Cristina M A; Silva, Clovis A

    2016-01-01

    Human toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis mainly caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati and is acquired by ingestion of the parasite's embryonated eggs. Arthralgia and/or arthritis were reported in up to 17% of the cases, generally with acute duration (less than 6 weeks). However, to our knowledge, chronic polyarthritis, as the isolated presentation of Toxocara infection, was not reported. One of the 5809 patients that was followed up at our service (0.017%) had chronic polyarthritis as the single manifestation of toxocariasis and was described herein. A 3-year-old girl was referred to our service with severe painful chronic polyarthritis for a period longer than 10 weeks and morning stiffness of 30min. Dog contact exposure history in the recreational areas of neighborhood was reported. Her exams showed high levels of eosinophils in peripheral blood (29%), bone marrow aspirate revealed marked eosinophilia (32%) and Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was positive (1:1280). She was treated with paracetamol (40mg/kg/day) and thiabendazole (25mg/kg/day) for 10 days, and all manifestations reduced. After eight months of follow-up, she was on clinical and laboratorial remission. In conclusion, we described a case of chronic polyarthritis, as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis, mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis and leukemia. Importantly, this zoonosis should be considered in patients with arthritis and eosinophilia. PMID:27267534

  18. Endoparasites of cats from the Tirana area and the first report on Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) in Albania.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimitër; Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Winter, Renate; Visser, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    Following the recovery of first-stage nematode larvae indicative of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in the faeces of free-roaming cats from the greater Tirana area, examination of 18 cats at necropsy revealed nine of them harbouring adult A. abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) in the lungs (prevalence, 50%; range, 1-11). In addition to A. abstrusus, Eucoleus aerophilus (16.7%; 1-9) was isolated from the lungs, and Toxocara cati (83.3%; 2-33), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (44.4%; 1-20), Dipylidium caninum (83.3%; 1-164), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (11.1%; 1-3) and one specimen of an acanthocephalan (5.5%) were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, oocysts of Cystoisospora felis and C. rivolta were found in the rectal faeces of 5.6% and 11.1% of the cats, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence of endoparasite infection in free-roaming cats in Tirana can be considered to be high. The occurrence of A. abstrusus, which may cause respiratory distress in cats, is reported for the first time in Albania.

  19. What types of H defects control really the storage capacity of water in olivine and how to reconcile observations, experiments and computational results?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrin, J.; Liu, J.; Balan, E.; Kohn, S.; Kovacs, I.

    2011-12-01

    questions our use of a linear function of fH2O for more than 15 years to fit and extrapolate water solubility in olivine. An identification of the origin of OH bands at 3600 and 3555 cm-1 is now essential since the variation to 1 of the n value will depend strongly of the nature of these defects. [1] Lemaire, C. et al. (2004) Phys. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 147, 48-57. [2] Balan, E. et al. (2011) Eur. J. Mineral. 23, 285-292. [3] Bai, Q. and Kohlstedt, D.L. (1992) Nature 357, 672-674. [4] Kohlstedt, D.L. (1996) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 123, 345-357. [5] Mosenfelder et al. (2006) Amer. mineral. 91, 285-294. [6] Withers et al. (2011) Amer. Mineral. 96, 1039-1053.

  20. The Need for Wind Profile Measurements From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Källén, E.

    2008-12-01

    . This has implications for our understanding of the processes that govern Arctic warming and the retreat of Arctic sea ice (Graversen et al., 2008). References: Graversen, R.G., Källén, E., M. Tjernström and H. Körnich, 2007: Atmospheric mass transport inconsistencies in the ERA-40 reanalysis. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 133, 673-680. Graversen, R.G., Mauritsen, T., Tjernström, M., E. Källén and G. Svensson, 2008: Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming. Nature, 451, 53-57. Kistler, R. et al., 2001: The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 247-267. Stoffelen et al., 2005: The atmospheric dynamics mission for global wind field measurement. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 73-87. WMO, 2004: Third WMO Workshop on the Impact of Various Observing Systems on NWP. Alpbach, Austria, 9-12 March 2004. Proceedings published by WMO.

  1. CLIVAR-GSOP/GODAE Ocean Synthesis Inter-Comparison of Global Air-Sea Fluxes From Ocean and Coupled Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivieso, Maria

    2014-05-01

    .I. and E.C. Kent (2009), A New Air-Sea Interaction Gridded Dataset from ICOADS with Uncertainty Estimates. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc 90(5), 645-656. doi: 10.1175/2008BAMS2639.1. Dee, D. P. et al. (2011), The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 137: 553-597. doi: 10.1002/qj.828. Kanamitsu M., Ebitsuzaki W., Woolen J., Yang S.K., Hnilo J.J., Fiorino M., Potter G. (2002), NCEP-DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83:1631-1643. Large, W. and Yeager, S. (2009), The global climatology of an interannually varying air-sea flux data set. Clim. Dynamics, Volume 33, pp 341-364 Valdivieso, M. and co-authors (2014): Heat fluxes from ocean and coupled reanalyses, Clivar Exchanges. Issue 64. Yu, L., X. Jin, and R. A. Weller (2008), Multidecade Global Flux Datasets from the Objectively Analyzed Air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project: Latent and Sensible Heat Fluxes, Ocean Evaporation, and Related Surface Meteorological Variables. Technical Report OAFlux Project (OA2008-01), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Zhang, Y., WB Rossow, AA Lacis, V Oinas, MI Mishchenk (2004), Calculation of radiative fluxes from the surface to top of atmsophere based on ISCCP and other global data sets. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984-2012) 109 (D19).

  2. Constraints on silicates formation in the Si-Al-Fe system: Application to hard deposits in steam generators of PWR nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Gilles; Million-Picallion, Lisa; Lefevre, Grégory; Delaunay, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    -clay interactions in the nuclear waste storage, and by contrast with basic thermodynamic predictions. Conclusion: The Fe-clays and steam generators contexts imply relatively close aqueous environments: hydrothermal, reduced, diluted, neutral to slightly alkaline. The main difference is the status of iron: ferric/ferrous (magnetite) in the steam generators, metallic in the Fe-clay experiments. The concentration of aqueous iron when supplied by magnetite is low and does not allow its incorporation in secondary phases. By contrast, aqueous ferrous iron released by the corrosion of steel is not limited by the source, rather by the sink, and produces Fe-rich silicates. This example illustrates the discrepancy between complex mineral reactions and oversimplified predictions when sorption/passivation and nucleation/growth constraints are ignored. Reference: [1] Lanson et al. (2012) Amer. Min. 97, 864-871. [2] Lantenois et al. (2005) Clays & Clay Min. 53, 597-612. [3] Mosser-Ruck et al. (2010) Clays & Clay Min. 58, 280-291. [4] Perronnet et al. (2008) App. Clay Sci. 38, 187-202. [5] Osacky et al. (2010) App. Clay Sci. 50, 237-244. [6] Guillaume et al. (2003) Clay Min. 38, 281-302. [7] Rivard et al. (2013) Amer. Mineral. 98, 163-180. [8] Svensson and Hansen (2013) Clays & Clay Min. 61, 566-579.

  3. Temporal variation of oceanic spreading and crustal production rates during the last 180 My

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogné, Jean-Pascal; Humler, Eric

    2004-11-01

    We present a re-evaluation of seafloor spreading and generation rates, mainly based on a direct measurement of the remaining surfaces of oceanic crust and isochron lengths defined in the most recent isochron maps [J.Y. Royer, R.D. Müller, L.M. Gahagan, L.A. Lawyer, C.L. Mayes, D. Nürnberg, J.G. Sclater, A global isochron chart, Tech. Rep. 117, Austin, Univ. of Tex. Inst. for Geophys., 1992; R.D. Müller, W.R. Roest, J.Y. Royer, L.M. Gahagan, J.G. Sclater, Digital isochrons of the world's ocean floor, J. Geophys. Res., 102 (1997), 3211-3214]. Our evaluation of the amount of oceanic crust per unit age {d A/d t} as a function of age, which can be expressed as d A/d t= Co(1- t/ tm), is in fairly good agreement with previous determinations [J.G. Sclater, B. Parsons, C. Jaupart, Oceans and continents: similarities and differences in the mechanisms of heat loss, J. Geophys. Res., 86 (1981) 11,535-11,552; D.B. Rowley, Rate of plate creation and destruction: 180 Ma to present, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 114 (2002) 927-933], with Co=2.850±0.119 km 2 year -1 and tm=180.2±9.7 Ma. Dividing these d A/d t by the ridge lengths L, defined as the isochron length at each epoch allowed us to compute the evolution of global half-spreading rates. These have been roughly constant at 25.9±3.3 mm year -1 for at least the last 150 Ma. We propose that the global seafloor surface generation rate is roughly constant as well, with a mean half-value of 1.298±0.284 km 2 year -1 and varying ±20% with time. This study corroborates the recent conclusion of Rowley [D.B. Rowley, Rate of plate creation and destruction: 180 Ma to present, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 114 (2002) 927-933], of a constant generation rate since 180 Ma, and completely contradicts the commonly accepted idea of high seafloor spreading and surface generation rates during a large part of the Cretaceous. Combining the oceanic surface generation rates derived here with crustal thicknesses deduced from the chemical composition of old

  4. Elevated blood mercury and neuro-otological observations in children of the Ecuadorian gold mines.

    PubMed

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando; Laurell, Göran

    2002-01-25

    The prevalence of mercury (Hg) intoxication was investigated in 114 Andean Saraguro and non-Saraguro (Mestizo) children living in remote gold-mining settlements in Nambija and Portovelo, Ecuador. Venous blood samples showed a mean total blood mercury (B-Hg) level of 18.2 microg/L (SD 15.5; range 2-89.) for 77 Saraguro and non-Saraguro children in the Nambija settlement, which was significantly higher than that of children in the Portovelo and reference groups. Comparison of groups showed mean B-Hg levels of 26.4 microg/L (range 4-89 microg/L) for 32 indigenous/Saraguro children; 12.3 microg/L (range 2-33 microg/L) for 45 non-Saraguro children; 4.9 microg/L (range 1-10 microg/L) for 37 children in Portovelo; and 2.4 microg/L (range 1-6 microg/L) for a reference group of 15 children. Fisher's post hoc analysis revealed significant differences among groups, except between the Portovelo and the reference groups. Neuro-otological symptoms and abnormalities were observed in Saraguro, non-Saraguro, and Portovelo children. Samples of soil collected at sites near the local school were found to contain Hg levels ranging from 0. 1 to 38 ppm, cadmium (Cd) levels from 0.07 to 0.82 ppm and arsenic (As) levels from < 1 to 3.9 ppm. in conclusion, the children of Nambija, particularly the Saraguro "Amer-Indians," exhibited elevated B-Hg levels from exposure to Hg used in the gold-mining process, and are at risk for neurological impairment. The children of Portovelo who reported neuro-otological symptoms but had low B-Hg levels (<10 microg/L) may be affected by exposure to sodium cyanide, which is used extensively in the local gold-mining operations.

  5. Observation, Manipulation and Control of Femtosecond Pulse Propagation in Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Antoinette

    2003-03-01

    Adaptive control, in combination with ultrafast pulse shaping techniques provides a compelling approach to harness events that occur on the fastest timescales, with fundamental applications in both the basic and applied sciences [1]. In this talk we describe the application of adaptive pulse shaping to femtosecond (fs) pulse propagation at a wavelength of 1550 nm in single mode fiber. With this method, through feedback control, light fields are designed with specific fs features to optimize specific parameters in the nonlinear propagation of fs pulses in optical fibers. Numerical simulations, based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, are presented to motivate and illustrate the power of this adaptive technique applied to fs pulse propagation in fibers [2]. Experimental implementations of this technique are then described where we demonstrate that it is possible to defeat higher order nonlinear effects through the use of an adaptive control feedback loop that acts on the spectral phase of the fs optical pulses launched in the fiber [3,4]. In one set of experiments, compensation for significant (>50through the propagation of 200 fs pulses in the nonlinear regime is demonstrated by suitably pre-shaping the input pulse using an adaptive feedback loop. In a second set of experiments, we demonstrate the use of adaptive feedback to control the amount of Raman self-frequency shift. The ultimate goal in these experiments is to transmit the maximum amount of energy in a short pulse in a highly nonlinear regime through the fiber. [1] R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500 (1992). [2] F. G. Omenetto, B. P. Luce, and A. J. Taylor, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 16, 2005 (1999). [3] F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, M. D. Moores, and D. H. Reitze, Opt. Lett. 26, 938 (2001). [4] F. G. Omenetto, D. H. Reitze, B. P. Luce, M. D. Moores, and A. J. Taylor, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 690 (2002).

  6. Indian summer monsoon simulations with CFSv2: a microphysics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Hazra, Anupam; Saha, Subodh K.; Dhakate, Ashish; Pokhrel, Samir

    2016-07-01

    The present study explores the impact of two different microphysical parameterization schemes (i.e. Zhao and Carr, Mon Wea Rev 125:1931-1953, 1997:called as ZC; Ferrier, Amer Meteor Soc 280-283, 2002: called as BF) of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) on Indian summer monsoon (ISM). Critical relative humidity (RHcrit) plays a crucial role for the realistic cloud formation in a general circulation model (GCM). Hence, impact of RHcrit along with microphysical scheme on ISM is evaluated in the study. Model performance is evaluated in terms of simulation of rainfall, lower and upper tropospheric circulations, cloud fraction, cloud condensate and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). Climatological mean features of rainfall are better represented by all the sensitivity experiments. Overall, ZC schemes show relatively better rainfall patterns as compared to BF schemes. BF schemes along with 95 % RHcrit (called as BF95) show excess precipitable water over Indian Ocean basin region, which seems to be unrealistic. Lower and upper tropospheric features are well simulated in all the sensitivity experiments; however, upper tropospheric wind patterns are underestimated as compared to observation. Spatial pattern and vertical profile of cloud condensate is relatively better represented by ZC schemes as compared to BF schemes. Relatively more (less) cloud condensate at upper level has lead to relatively better (low) high cloud fraction in ZC (BF) simulation. It is seen that OLR in ZC simulation have great proximity with observation. ZC (BF) simulations depict low (high) OLR which indicates stronger (weaker) convection during ISM period. It implies strong (weak) convection having stronger (weaker) updrafts in ZC (BF). Relatively more (less) cloud condensate at upper level of ZC (BF) may produce strong (weak) latent heating which may lead to relatively strong (weak) convection during ISM. The interaction among microphysics

  7. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. PMID:26101336

  8. A Riemann-Hilbert approach to asymptotic questions for orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deift, P.; Kriecherbauer, T.; McLaughlin, K. T.-R.; Venakides, S.; Zhou, X.

    2001-08-01

    A few years ago the authors introduced a new approach to study asymptotic questions for orthogonal polynomials. In this paper we give an overview of our method and review the results which have been obtained in Deift et al. (Internat. Math. Res. Notices (1997) 759, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 52 (1999) 1491, 1335), Deift (Orthogonal Polynomials and Random Matrices: A Riemann-Hilbert Approach, Courant Lecture Notes, Vol. 3, New York University, 1999), Kriecherbauer and McLaughlin (Internat. Math. Res. Notices (1999) 299) and Baik et al. (J. Amer. Math. Soc. 12 (1999) 1119). We mainly consider orthogonal polynomials with respect to weights on the real line which are either (1) Freud-type weights d[alpha](x)=e-Q(x) dx (Q polynomial or Q(x)=x[beta], [beta]>0), or (2) varying weights d[alpha]n(x)=e-nV(x) dx (V analytic, limx-->[infinity] V(x)/logx=[infinity]). We obtain Plancherel-Rotach-type asymptotics in the entire complex plane as well as asymptotic formulae with error estimates for the leading coefficients, for the recurrence coefficients, and for the zeros of the orthogonal polynomials. Our proof starts from an observation of Fokas et al. (Comm. Math. Phys. 142 (1991) 313) that the orthogonal polynomials can be determined as solutions of certain matrix valued Riemann-Hilbert problems. We analyze the Riemann-Hilbert problems by a steepest descent type method introduced by Deift and Zhou (Ann. Math. 137 (1993) 295) and further developed in Deift and Zhou (Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 48 (1995) 277) and Deift et al. (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 95 (1998) 450). A crucial step in our analysis is the use of the well-known equilibrium measure which describes the asymptotic distribution of the zeros of the orthogonal polynomials.

  9. Contribution to the study of thermal properties of clay bricks reinforced by date palm fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekhermeche, A.; Kriker, A.; Dahmani, S.

    2016-07-01

    The Saharan regions of Algeria are characterized by a hot and dry climate. The most used cement materials such as theconcrete or the mortar blocks have bad thermal characteristic. However, these regions have several local materials: clay, dune sand and some natural fibers, which are formerly proved their thermal efficiency. The price of construction material used therefore depends on the international market constantly destabilized by theeconomic crisis coupled with the energy crisis in recent times. To produce a framework of life at a lower cost, it is important, therefore, to circumvent the influence of the cost of energy by upgrading the local materials of construction. In order to improve thermal performances in Saharan building materials this study was lanced. The aim of this research isthen to fabricate some bricks using three local materials: namely the clay, sand dune and the fibers of date palm. The percentage of sand and fibers varies from 0% to 40% and 0% to 3% by mass respectively. A sand dune of Ain El Beida of Ouargla of Algeria was used. Clay was extracted from Beldet Amer of Touggourt Ouargla Algérie. The fibers used in this study were vegetable fibers from date palm of Ouargla Algeria. The results showed that increasing in the mass fraction of sand and of fiber were beneficial for improving thermal properties. As function of increasing the percentage of sand dune and fibers there were: A decrease in: thermal conductivity, specific heat, heat capacity, thermal effusivity and thermal diffusivity and there were an increase in the thermal resistance.

  10. The effect of the reproductive system on mutation load.

    PubMed

    Hopf, F A; Michod, R E; Sanderson, M J

    1988-06-01

    J. B. S. Haldane (Amer. Nat. 71, 337-349, 1937) argued that, in equilibrium populations, the effect of deleterious mutation on average fitness depends primarily on the mutation rate and is independent of the severity of the mutations. Specifically, the equilibrium population fitness is e-microH, where microH is the haploid genomic mutation rate. Here we extend Haldane's result to a variety of reproductive systems. Using an analysis based on the frequency of classes of individuals with a specified number of mutations, we show that Haldane's principle holds exactly for haploid sex, haploid apomixis, and facultative haploid sex. In the cases of diploid automixis with terminal fusion, diploid automixis with central fusion, and diploid selfing, Haldane's principle holds exactly for recessive mutations and approximately for mutations with some heterozygous effect. In the cases of K-ploid apomixis, diploid endomitosis, and haplodiploidy, we show that Haldane's principle holds exactly for recessive lethal mutations. In addition we extend Haldane's result to various mixtures of the above-mentioned reproductive systems. In the case of diploid out-crossing sexuals, we do not obtain an exact analytic result, but present arguments and computer simulations which show that Haldane's result extends to this case as well in the limit as the number of loci becomes large. Although diverse reproductive systems are equally fit at equilibrium, different reproductive systems harbor vastly different numbers of recessive genes at equilibrium and we provide estimates of these numbers. These different numbers of mutations may create transient selective pressures on individuals with reproductive systems different from that of the equilibrium population. PMID:3232115

  11. Acoustic-Gravity Waves from Bolide Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Douglas O.

    2008-06-01

    We have developed a new approach to modeling the acoustic-gravity wave (AGW) radiation from bolide sources. This first effort involves entry modeling of bolide sources that have available satellite data through procedures developed in ReVelle (Earth Moon Planets 95, 441-476, 2004a; in: A. Milani, G. Valsecchi, D. Vokrouhlicky (eds) NEO Fireball Diversity: Energetics-based Entry Modeling and Analysis Techniques, Near-earth Objects: Our Celestial Neighbors (IAU S236), 2007b). Results from the entry modeling are directly coupled to AGW production through line source blast wave theory for the initial wave amplitude and period at x=10 (at 10 blast wave radii and perpendicular to the trajectory). The second effort involves the prediction of the formation and or dominance of the propagation of the atmospheric Lamb, edge-wave composite mode in a viscous fluid (Pierce, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 35, 1798-1807, 1963) as a function of the source energy, horizontal range and source altitude using the Lamb wave frequency that was deduced directly during the entry modeling and that is used as a surrogate for the source energy. We have also determined that Lamb wave production by bolides at close range decreases dramatically as either the source energy decreases or the source altitude increases. Finally using procedures in Gill ( Atmospheric-Ocean Dynamics, 1982) and in Tolstoy ( Wave Propagation, 1973), we have analyzed two simple dispersion relationships and have calculated the expected dispersion for the Lamb edge-wave mode and for the excited, propagating internal acoustic waves. Finally, we have used the above formalism to fully evaluate these techniques for four large bolides, namely: the Tunguska bolide of June 30, 1908; the Revelstoke bolide of March 31, 1965; the Crete bolide of June 6, 2002 and the Antarctic bolide of September 3, 2004. Due to page limitations, we will only present results in detail for the Revelstoke bolide.

  12. Nonlinear Interaction of Waves in Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Progress of 1990s - 2000s in studying vibroacoustic nonlinearities in geomaterials is largely related to experiments in resonance samples of rock and soils. It is now a common knowledge that many such materials are very strongly nonlinear, and they are characterized by hysteresis in the dependence between the stress and strain tensors, as well as by nonlinear relaxation ("slow time"). Elastic wave propagation in such media has many peculiarities; for example, third harmonic amplitude is a quadratic (not cubic as in classical solids) function of the main harmonic amplitude, and average wave velocity is linearly (not quadratically as usual) dependent on amplitude. The mechanisms of these peculiarities are related to complex structure of a material typically consisting of two phases: a hard matrix and relatively soft inclusions such as microcracks and grain contacts. Although most informative experimental results have been obtained in rock in the form of resonant bars, few theoretical models are yet available to describe and calculate waves interacting in such samples. In this presentation, a brief overview of structural vibroacoustic nonlinearities in rock is given first. Then, a simple but rather general approach to the description of wave interaction in solid resonators is developed based on accounting for resonance nonlinear perturbations which are cumulating from period to period. In particular, the similarity and the differences between traveling waves and counter-propagating waves are analyzed for materials with different stress-strain dependences. These data can be used for solving an inverse problem, i.e. characterizing nonlinear properties of a geomaterial by its measured vibroacoustic parameters. References: 1. L. Ostrovsky and P. Johnson, Riv. Nuovo Chimento, v. 24, 1-46, 2007 (a review); 2. L. Ostrovsky, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., v. 116, 3348-3353, 2004.

  13. Chromophores from Photolyzed Ammonia Reacting with Acetylene: Application to Jupiter’s Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Robert W.; Baines, K. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Filacchione, G.

    2012-10-01

    The production mechanisms of chromophores at Jupiter, and notably at the Great Red Spot (GRS), have been long-standing puzzles. A clue to the formation of the GRS coloring agent may be the great height of this storm, which can upwell ammonia to pressure levels of a few hundred mbar where solar photons capable of dissociating NH3 penetrate. Acetylene formed at higher altitudes can diffuse down and react with the NH3 photodissociation products, forming a deposit that absorbs in the ultraviolet and visible region (Ferris and Ishikawa, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 110, 4306-4312, 1988). We have investigated the system NH3 + C2H2 + CH4 using a Zn lamp emitting at 214 nm to produce NH2 + H and subsequent reaction products. The deposits produced in these reactions were analyzed by optical and infrared spectroscopy and soft-ionization (He*) time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. The combination of NH3 + CH4 produced no visibly absorbing material, but NH3 + C2H2 and NH3 + C2H2 + CH4 mixtures both produced a yellow-orange film whose transmission spectra are similar to that of the GRS obtained by Cassini VIMS. Infrared spectra show a strong band at 2056 wavenumbers which may arise from nitrile (-CN), isonitrile (-NC), or diazide (-CNN) functional groups. The high-resolution mass spectra are consistent with compounds of the form CnH2n+1Nm, similar to the products formed in NH3 + CH4 spark discharges (Molton and Ponnamperuma, Icarus 21, 166-174, 1974). We thank NASA's Planetary Atmospheres Program for support.

  14. Photometric Survey for Asynchronous Binary Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, P.

    2005-05-01

    Asynchronous binary asteroids have been found to be abundant among fast- spinning near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) smaller than 2 km in diameter; Pravec et al. (2005, Icarus, submitted) derived that 15 +/- 4 % of NEAs in the size range 0.3 to 2 km are binary with the secondary-to-primary mean diameter ratio >=0.18. The early re-sults from the surveys of the Vesta family and the Hungaria group (Ryan et al., 2004, Planet. Space Sci. 42, 1093; 2004, Bull. Amer. Astron. Society 36, 1181; Warner et al., 2005, IAU Circ. 8511) suggest that the popula-tion extends beyond the region of terrestrial planets, but with characteristics shifted to larger sizes and longer periods; the four known binaries in the Vesta family/Hungaria group are 3 to 6 km large and they have primary rotation periods in a range of 3 to ~4 h, i.e., on the tail of the distribution of primary rotation periods of NEAs. The comparison suggests that formation and evolution mechanisms of asynchronous NEA and main-belt binaries may be similar and are related to their fast spins and rubble-pile structure. None of the current theories of their formation of evolution, however, explains the observed properties of both NEA and main- belt asynchronous bina-ries in full. We have established a collaborative observational program, called "Photometric Survey for Asynchro-nous Binary Asteroids" to discover and describe asynchronous binaries over a range of heliocentric distances from NEAs through Mars-crossers to inner main-belt asteroids. One new binary Amor asteroid, 2005 AB has been found during the first few months of the survey operation (Reddy et al., 2005, IAU Circ. 8483), and we have obtained follow-up data for two other binary systems. I outline the motivations, the technique, and the strategy of the Survey.

  15. Remote estimation of gross primary productivity in crops: from close range to satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.; Gitelson, A. A.; Sakamoto, T.; Masek, J. G.; Rundquist, D.; Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Verma, S.; Suyker, A.

    2013-12-01

    An accurate estimation of crop gross primary productivity (GPP) is essential for monitoring regional and global carbon exchanges. In this study, with ten-year observations throughout 2001 to 2010 at three irrigated and rainfed AmerFlux sites in Mead, Nebraska, a simple model was tested to estimate crop GPP using a product of chlorophyll-related vegetation index and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Vegetation indices (VI), a proxy of canopy chlorophyll, were calculated from canopy reflectance at various spatial and temporal resolution, including daily observations of four-band radiance 6 m above the ground, weekly in-situ measurements of hyperspectral reflectance, and satellite data (Landsat and MODIS). This model was able to estimate GPP accurately in croplands with different crop species, field managements and climatic conditions. It showed that the used VI was quite sensitive to detect daily GPP variation in crops even under stressed conditions when total Chl content is closely tied to seasonal dynamic of GPP. To minimize the uncertainty of GPP variations, which do not follow fluctuations of incoming PAR, potential PAR was introduced into the model as a better representative of radiation absorbed by canopy for photosynthesis. The model using satellite data and potential PAR is entirely based on remotely sensed data not requiring any ground-based observation. The indices using green and NIR Landsat bands were found to be the most accurate in GPP estimation with coefficients of variation below 13% for maize and 15% for soybean. Using MODIS 250 m data, EVI2 and WDRVI were accurate estimating GPP with coefficient of variation below 20% in maize and 25% in soybean.

  16. Elucidating the Complex Lineshapes Resulting from the Highly Sensitive, Ion Selective, Technique Nice-Ohvms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, James N.; Siller, Brian; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-06-01

    The technique Noise Immune Cavity Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy, or NICE-OHVMS, has been used to great effect to precisely and accurately measure a variety of molecular ion transitions from species such as H_3^+, CH_5^+, HeH^+, and HCO^+, achieving MHz or in some cases sub-MHz uncertainty. It is a powerful technique, but a complete theoretical understanding of the complex NICE-OHVMS lineshape is needed to fully unlock its potential. NICE-OHVMS is the direct result of the combination of the highly sensitive spectroscopic technique Noise Immune Cavity Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Molecular Spectroscopy(NICE-OHMS) with Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy(VMS), applying the most sensitive optical detection method with ion species selectivity. The theoretical underpinnings of NICE-OHMS lineshapes are well established, as are those of VMS. This presentation is the logical extension of those two preceding bodies of work. Simulations of NICE-OHVMS lineshapes under a variety of conditions and fits of experimental data to the model are presented. The significance and accuracy of the various inferred parameters, along with the prospect of using them to extract additional information from observed transitions, are discussed. J.~N. Hodges, et al. J. Chem. Phys. (2013), 139, 164201. A.~J. Perry, et al. J. Chem. Phys. (2014), 141, 101101. K.~N. Crabtree, et al. Chem. Phys. Lett. (2012), 551, 1-6. F.~M. Schmidt, et al. J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (2008), 24, 1392--1405. J.~W. Farley, J. Chem. Phys. (1991), 95, 5590--5602.

  17. Roll-over test--errors in interpretation, due to inaccurate blood pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, A; Ziv, I; Tzeel, A; Ovadia, J

    1985-01-01

    In order to make the earliest possible prediction of the type of woman likely to develop pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), one hundred and ninety-six primigravidas underwent a roll-over test (ROT) during wk 28-32 of their pregnancy. Blood pressure (BP) readings were taken with a standard 12 cm cuff as well as with cuffs adapted to various arm circumferences. We found that the prediction rate of ROT readings with a standard 12 cm cuff was relatively low (38.5%) as compared with Gant's study (94%) (Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec., 120 (1974) 1). When a suitably sized cuff was used, the prediction rate dropped (to 14.7%). Data analysis at term for the whole population of this study shows that, by measuring with a standard 12 cm cuff, 10.2% of the women were found to have PIH, whereas measuring with a suitable cuff showed PIH in only 2.55% of the cases (1:4 ratio). We suggest that the low prediction rates in this and other studies demonstrate that the ROT test is not sufficiently reliable as a tool for predicting which women are liable to develop PIH, but there is definitely enough in it to predict which group will not develop PIH (in this study 89-93%). It has been recommended that ROT be considered only as a test of possible reliability. It should be done according to proper criteria for BP measuring, and a repeat ROT should be considered after several days before starting any kind of treatment. PMID:3979651

  18. Search for volatiles on icy satellites. I. Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Tokunaga, A.T.; Smith, R.G.; Clark, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    New reflectance spectra have been obtained for both the leading and trailing sides of Europa, using the Cooled Grating Array Spectrometer (CGAS) of the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). The spectra are of higher precision than any yet obtained. Spectra of Europa's trailing side (central meridian longitude ???300??) obtained in 1985 show two weak absorptions near 2.2 and 2.3 ??m. Both of these features as well as others are seen in spectra obtained by R. N. Clark, R. B. Singer, P. D. Owensby, and F.P. Fanale (1980a, Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc. 12, 713-714) at similar central meridian longitude. Data obtained with an improved detector array in 1986, however, do not show the absorptions seen in the 1980 and 1985 spectra. It is not clear why the newest data do not show the apparent absorptions seen in previous years, but the suggestion is that either the 1980 and 1985 data are spurious or that the material responsible for the weak absorptions is no longer detectable. Analysis of the 1980 and 1985 data did not reveal any obvious source of systematic error capable of introducing spurious features, but we are skeptical of any explanation that cites transient deposition, movement, and/or destruction of material on Europa's trailing side to account for the nondetection of the features in the 1986 data. If the weak absorptions seen in the 1980 and 1985 data are real, they can be interpreted as indicating the transient spectroscopic presence of a molecular component on Europa's trailing side different from the water ice that is known to be the dominant surface constituent. Further monitoring is required to determine if the apparent absorptions are real. ?? 1988.

  19. Childcare Service Centers’ Preferences and Intentions to Use a Web-Based Program to Implement Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policies and Practices: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher Michael; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca; Jones, Jannah; Freund, Megan; Wiggers, John Henry; Nathan, Nicole; Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is a significant public health problem that impacts a large number of children globally. Supporting childcare centers to deliver healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices is a recommended strategy for obesity prevention, given that such services provide access to a substantial proportion of children during a key developmental period. Electronic Web-based interventions represent a novel way to support childcare service providers to implement such policies and practices. Objective This study aimed to assess: (1) childcare centers’ current use of technology, (2) factors associated with intention to use electronic Web-based interventions, and (3) Web-based features that managers rated as useful to support staff with implementing healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices. Methods A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) was conducted with service managers from long day care centers and preschools. The CATI assessed the following: (1) childcare center characteristics, (2) childcare centers’ use of electronic devices, (3) intention to use a hypothetical electronic Web-based program—assessed using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with ratings between 1 (strongly disagree) and 7 (strongly agree), and (4) features rated as useful to include in a Web-based program. Results Overall, 214 service centers out of 277 (77.3%) consented to participate. All service centers except 2 reported using computers (212/214, 99.1%), whereas 40.2% (86/214) used portable tablets. A total of 71.9% (151/210) of childcare service managers reported a score of 6 or more for intention to use a hypothetical electronic Web-based program. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, intention to use the program was significantly associated with perceived ease of use (P=.002, odds ratio [OR] 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.2) and perceived usefulness (P<.001, OR 28,95% CI 8.0-95.2). Features reported by

  20. AB019. Longitudinal asthma management profiles: visualisation of patient histories using multiple data sources

    PubMed Central

    Van Ganse, Eric; Herbage, Sandrine; Dima, Alexandra L.; de Bruin, Marijn; Texier, Nathalie; Jacoud, Flore; Nolin, Maëva; Langlois, Carole; Laforest, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic medical records (EMR) offer valuable information for research and clinical case management, but are currently underused. Barriers to EMR use include the limited information on medication use and health outcomes provided by single data sources, the challenge of linking multiple sources, and the lack of methods to integrate all information to reconstitute patients’ complete medical trajectories. The ASTRO-LAB cohort study, assessing the safety of long-acting β-agonists (LABA) in asthma, collected data from direct patient follow-up and healthcare databases, and thus allowed a more comprehensive exploration of medication use patterns, asthma control and exacerbations over time. To develop longitudinal asthma management patient profiles for the ASTROLAB cohort by integrating data on prescription and dispensation events, and patient-reported medication exposure and occurrence of severe asthma exacerbations (SAEx). Methods Children and adults with persistent asthma (aged 6–40) were included in France and the United Kingdom (UK) if on a stable therapy pattern of either LABA without inhaled corticosteroids (ICs), ICs without LABAs, LABAs and ICs in separate canisters, or fixed-dose combination (FDC) for ≥6 of 12 baseline months. The main study outcome was occurrence of asthma-related courses of oral corticosteroids, unscheduled medical contacts or death (SAEx). Patients were followed for ≤24 months via 4-monthly computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATIs) inquiring on recent asthma control, medication use, and SAEx, and via monthly text messages. Linkage was performed with prescription data (UK primary care records, physician reports in France) and dispensing data (French health insurance records). Prescription and exposure patterns were described and data visualization plots of longitudinal medication management profiles during follow-up developed for each patient. Results At inclusion, of 1,051 patients [(48.3% women, mean (SD) age =21

  1. Microinclusion of Lower-Mantle Rock in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix; Wirth, Richard

    2014-05-01

    A microinclusion of a rock fragment was identified within one of the diamonds from the Rio Soriso placer deposit in the Juina area, Brazil. It is composed of iron carbide, magnesiowüstite and two orthorhombic, postspinel phases, Fe-Mg-Cr and Ca-Cr oxides. All mineral grains are closely intergrown, demonstrating their single-stage origin, except iron carbide, which is partly resorped that implies its early crystallization. Diffraction patterns of iron carbide grains reveal two mineral species, nitrogen-containing analogues of chalypite Fe7C3 (or Fe2C) [1] and yarlongite Fe9C4 [2]. They contain up to 17.5 at.% of N in the cation part (N/(C+N) = 0.47) and should be considered as nitrocarbides. In addition to N, admixtures of O and Si present in these mineral species. Magnesiowüstite has, in its cation composition, 47.75-67.16 at.% Fe, 36.72-47.75 at.% Mg, and minor admixtures of Mn and Cr. Among the two new oxides with orthorhombic structure, one is a polymorph of chromite (Fe2+,Mg,Mn) (Cr,Fe3+,Al,V)2O4, which is new in terrestrial environment. It is analogues to xieite, found in the Suizhou meteorite [3], but strongly enriched in Fe. The other orthorhombic mineral fits the stoichiometry Ca(Cr,Fe3+)2O4. This compound is new in the natural environment; the CaCr2O4 postspinel phase is known only as a synthetic compound [4]. The studied association was formed within the lower mantle at pressure conditions above 40 GPa (that correspond to the formation of CaTi2O4 [5]). The presence of magnesiowüstite and chalypite suggests the rock origin in the lower part of the lower mantle. References: Kaminsky, F.V., Wirth, R. (2011) Iron carbide inclusions in lower-mantle diamond from Juina, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist 49(2), p. 555-572. Shi, N., Bai, W., Li, G., Xiong, M., Fang, Q., Yang, J., Ma, Z., Rong, H. (2009) Yarlongite: A new metallic carbide mineral. Acta Geologica Sinica 83(1), 52-56. Chen, M., Shu, J., Mao, H.-k. (2008) Xieite, a new mineral of high-pressure FeCr2O4

  2. Toxocariasis diagnosed in international travelers at the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium, from 2000 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Van Den Broucke, Steven; Kanobana, Kirezi; Polman, Katja; Soentjens, Patrick; Vekemans, Marc; Theunissen, Caroline; Vlieghe, Erika; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Jacobs, Jan; Van Den Enden, Erwin; Van Den Ende, Jef; Van Gompel, Alfons; Clerinx, Jan; Bottieau, Emmanuel

    2015-03-01

    Although infection with Toxocara canis or T. catis (commonly referred as toxocariasis) appears to be highly prevalent in (sub)tropical countries, information on its frequency and presentation in returning travelers and migrants is scarce. In this study, we reviewed all cases of asymptomatic and symptomatic toxocariasis diagnosed during post-travel consultations at the reference travel clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. Toxocariasis was considered as highly probable if serum Toxocara-antibodies were detected in combination with symptoms of visceral larva migrans if present, elevated eosinophil count in blood or other relevant fluid and reasonable exclusion of alternative diagnosis, or definitive in case of documented seroconversion. From 2000 to 2013, 190 travelers showed Toxocara-antibodies, of a total of 3436 for whom the test was requested (5.5%). Toxocariasis was diagnosed in 28 cases (23 symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic) including 21 highly probable and 7 definitive. All but one patients were adults. Africa and Asia were the place of acquisition for 10 and 9 cases, respectively. Twelve patients (43%) were short-term travelers (< 1 month). Symptoms, when present, developed during travel or within 8 weeks maximum after return, and included abdominal complaints (11/23 symptomatic patients, 48%), respiratory symptoms and skin abnormalities (10 each, 43%) and fever (9, 39%), often in combination. Two patients were diagnosed with transverse myelitis. At presentation, the median blood eosinophil count was 1720/μL [range: 510-14160] in the 21 symptomatic cases without neurological complication and 2080/μL [range: 1100-2970] in the 5 asymptomatic individuals. All patients recovered either spontaneously or with an anti-helminthic treatment (mostly a 5-day course of albendazole), except both neurological cases who kept sequelae despite repeated treatments and prolonged corticotherapy. Toxocariasis has to be considered in travelers returning

  3. Impact of Second-Generation Antipsychotics and Perphenazine on Depressive Symptoms in a Randomized Trial of Treatment for Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Addington, Donald E.; Mohamed, Somaia; Rosenheck, Robert A.; Davis, Sonia M.; Stroup, Thomas Scott; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the American Psychiatric Association Clinical Practice Guidelines for schizophrenia, second-generation antipsychotics may be specifically indicated for the treatment of depression in schizophrenia. We examined the impact of these medications on symptoms of depression using the data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE), conducted between January 2001 and December 2004. Method Patients with DSM-IV–defined schizophrenia (N = 1,460) were assigned to treatment with a first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) or one of 4 second-generation drugs (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone) and followed for up to 18 months (phase 1). Patients with tardive dyskinesia were excluded from the randomization that included perphenazine. Depression was assessed with the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Mixed models were used to evaluate group differences during treatment with the initially assigned drug. An interaction analysis evaluated differences in drug response by whether patients had a baseline score on the CDSS of ≥ 6, indicative of a current major depressive episode (MDE). Results There were no significant differences between treatment groups on phase 1 analysis, although there was a significant improvement in depression across all treatments. A significant interaction was found between treatment and experiencing an MDE at baseline (P = .05), and further paired comparisons suggested that quetiapine was superior to risperidone among patients who were in an MDE at baseline (P = .0056). Conclusions We found no differences between any second-generation antipsychotic and the first-generation antipsychotic perphenazine and no support for clinical practice recommendations, but we did detect a signal indicating a small potential difference favoring quetiapine over risperidone only in patients with an MDE at baseline. PMID:20868641

  4. The first case of Demodex gatoi in Austria, detected with fecal flotation.

    PubMed

    Silbermayr, Katja; Joachim, Anja; Litschauer, Barbara; Panakova, Lucia; Sastre, Natalia; Ferrer, Lluis; Horvath-Ungerboeck, Christa

    2013-08-01

    Feline demodicosis is a rare parasitic condition caused by three different species of mites (Demodex cati, Demodex gatoi, and an unnamed species). D. gatoi inhabits the superficial skin layer (stratum corneum) and is easily transmitted between individual cats. A 2-year-old female spayed Cornish Rex was presented with alopecia and pruritus. The dermatological examination revealed bilateral alopecia and excoriations on trunk, limbs, and belly. The second cat in the household, a 3-year-old female spayed Thai, showed no clinical signs. Superficial and deep skin scrapings were performed and cellophane tapes applied, and living D. gatoi mites could be detected in both cats. Oral ivermectin (0.25 mg/kg every other day) was subscribed. Feces were collected from both cats and fecal flotation with sugar and zinc solutions performed. When compared to skin scrapings and cellophane tapes, D. gatoi was detected more frequently and in higher numbers in fecal samples. Our findings suggest that D. gatoi can be efficiently diagnosed with coproscopy, particularly in asymptomatic carrier animals. DNA was extracted from the flotation liquid, and a PCR protocol for the species verification was designed. A fragment targeting a 325-bp DNA fragment of the D. gatoi mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene was amplified with a 100% similarity to the D. gatoi entry in GenBank® (GI 421920216). We report the first finding of D. gatoi in Austria and propose fecal flotation as a valuable tool for mite detection. Fecal flotation liquid is suitable for DNA extraction and PCR-based species verification of D. gatoi.

  5. Glacial-Interglacial, Orbital and Millennial-Scale Climate Variability for the Last Glacial Cycle at Shackleton Site U1385 based on Dinoflagellate Cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datema, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Shackleton Site (IODP Expedition 339 Site U1385), located off the West-Portuguese Margin, preserves a continuous high-fidelity record of millennial-scale climate variability for the last several glacial cycles (~1.4 Myr) that can be correlated precisely to patterns observed in polar ice cores. In addition, rapid delivery of terrestrial material to the deep-sea environment allows the correlation of these marine records to European terrestrial climate records. This unique marine-ice-terrestrial linkage makes the Shackleton Site the ideal reference section for studying Quaternary abrupt climate change. The main objective of studying Site U1385 is to establish a marine reference section of Pleistocene climate change. We generated (sub)millennial-scale (~600 year interval) dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblage records from Shackleton Site U1385 (IODP Expedition 339) to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST) and productivity/upwelling over the last 152 kyrs. In addition, our approach allows for detailed land-sea correlations, because we also counted assemblages of pollen and spores from higher plants. Dinocyst SST and upwelling proxies, as well as warm/cold pollen proxies from Site U1385 show glacial-interglacial, orbital and stadial-interstadial climate variability and correlate very well to Uk'37, planktic foraminifer δ18O and Ca/Ti proxies of previously drilled Shackleton Sites and Greenland Ice Core δ18O. The palynological proxies capture (almost) all Dansgaard-Oeschger events of the last glacial cycle, also before ~70 ka, where millennial-scale variability is overprinted by precession. We compare the performance and results of the palynology of Site U1385 to proxies of previously drilled Shackleton Sites and conclude that palynology strengthens the potential of this site to form a multi-proxy reference section for millennial scale climate variability across the Pleistocene-Holocene. Finally, we will present a long-term paleoceanographic perspective down

  6. Phylogenetic relationships and new genetic tools for the detection and discrimination of the three feline Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Silbermayr, Katja; Horvath-Ungerboeck, Christa; Eigner, Barbara; Joachim, Anja; Ferrer, Lluis

    2015-02-01

    Two feline Demodex mite species have been described as causative agents of feline demodicosis, until recently a third species was detected. We provide an updated analysis on the phylogenetic relationship of Demodex mites. In addition, we present the first qPCR assay for the detection and differentiation of all three feline mite species in a single reaction. Specimen of Demodex cati, Demodex gatoi, and the recently discovered third species were collected from skin scrapings and fecal flotation for DNA extraction, conventional PCR, sequencing, and alignment. A total of 24 sequences of the partial 16S rRNA gene were used to estimate the evolutionary divergence in a p-distance model and a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree. For the qPCR assay, new primers and fluorescent probes for the simultaneous detection of all three feline Demodex mites were designed. A consensus fragment of 351 bp was phylogenetically analyzed. The third species sequence of our study shares 98.6 % similarity to the available sequence in GenBank®. It is most similar to D. gatoi (82.41 %) and most distant to the canine Demodex injai (78.28 %). In contrast, D. gatoi is most similar to human Demodex brevis (87.01 %). The multiplex qPCR detected and discriminated the three different mite species in one reaction. The detection limit is ≤1.4 ng of mite DNA. The three feline Demodex species have distinct genotypes and did not cluster in one genetic clade. The species differentiation and assessment of evolutionary relationships will ultimately support correct diagnostics and treatment approaches. PMID:25468382

  7. Field evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies in human toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K C; Yamasaki, H; Mak, J W; Wong, S F; Chong, C W; Yap, I K S; Ambu, S; Kumarasamy, V

    2015-08-01

    Human toxocariasis which is caused mainly by the larvae of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, is a worldwide zoonotic disease that can be a potentially serious human infection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigens harvested from T. canis larvae is currently the serological test for confirming toxocariasis. An alternative to producing large amounts of Toxocara TES and improved diagnosis for toxocariasis is through the development of highly specific recombinant antigens such as the T. canis second stage larva excretory-secretory 30 kDa protein (recTES-30). The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid diagnostic kit (RDT, named as iToxocara kit) in comparison to recTES-30 ELISA in Serendah Orang Asli village in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 133 subjects were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates by ELISA and RDT were 29.3% and 33.1%, respectively, with more positive cases detected in males than females. However, no association was found between toxocariasis and gender or age. The percentage sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of RDT were 85.7%, 90.1%, 80% and 93.2%, respectively. The prevalence for toxocariasis in this population using both ELISA and RDT was 27.1% (36/133) and the K-concordance test suggested good agreement of the two tests with a Cohen's kappa of 0.722, P<0.01. In addition, the followed-up Spearman rank correlation showed a moderately high correlation at R=0.704 and P<0.01. In conclusion, the RDT kit was faster and easier to use than an ELISA and is useful for the laboratory diagnosis of hospitalized cases of toxocariasis. PMID:25910623

  8. Development of a Luminex Bead Based Assay for Diagnosis of Toxocariasis Using Recombinant Antigens Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John P.; Rascoe, Lisa N.; Levert, Keith; Chastain, Holly M.; Reed, Matthew S.; Rivera, Hilda N.; McAuliffe, Isabel; Zhan, Bin; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Hotez, Peter J.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Pohl, Jan; Handali, Sukwan

    2015-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human disease caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati ranges from visceral and ocular larva migrans to covert toxocariasis. The parasite is not typically recovered in affected tissues, so detection of parasite-specific antibodies is usually necessary for establishing a diagnosis. The most reliable immunodiagnostic methods use the Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens (TES-Ag) in ELISA formats to detect Toxocara-specific antibodies. To eliminate the need for native parasite materials, we identified and purified immunodiagnostic antigens using 2D gel electrophoresis followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Three predominant immunoreactive proteins were found in the TES; all three had been previously described in the literature: Tc-CTL-1, Tc-TES-26, and Tc-MUC-3. We generated Escherichia coli expressed recombinant proteins for evaluation in Luminex based immunoassays. We were unable to produce a functional assay with the Tc-MUC-3 recombinant protein. Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26 were successfully coupled and tested using defined serum batteries. The use of both proteins together generated better results than if the proteins were used individually. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay for detecting visceral larval migrans using Tc-CTL-1 plus Tc-TES-26 was 99% and 94%, respectively; the sensitivity for detecting ocular larval migrans was 64%. The combined performance of the new assay was superior to the currently available EIA and could potentially be employed to replace current assays that rely on native TES-Ag. PMID:26485145

  9. Toxocariasis Diagnosed in International Travelers at the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium, from 2000 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Broucke, Steven; Kanobana, Kirezi; Polman, Katja; Soentjens, Patrick; Vekemans, Marc; Theunissen, Caroline; Vlieghe, Erika; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Jacobs, Jan; Van Den Ende, Jef; Van Gompel, Alfons; Clerinx, Jan; Bottieau, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Although infection with Toxocara canis or T. catis (commonly referred as toxocariasis) appears to be highly prevalent in (sub)tropical countries, information on its frequency and presentation in returning travelers and migrants is scarce. In this study, we reviewed all cases of asymptomatic and symptomatic toxocariasis diagnosed during post-travel consultations at the reference travel clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. Toxocariasis was considered as highly probable if serum Toxocara-antibodies were detected in combination with symptoms of visceral larva migrans if present, elevated eosinophil count in blood or other relevant fluid and reasonable exclusion of alternative diagnosis, or definitive in case of documented seroconversion. From 2000 to 2013, 190 travelers showed Toxocara-antibodies, of a total of 3436 for whom the test was requested (5.5%). Toxocariasis was diagnosed in 28 cases (23 symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic) including 21 highly probable and 7 definitive. All but one patients were adults. Africa and Asia were the place of acquisition for 10 and 9 cases, respectively. Twelve patients (43%) were short-term travelers (< 1 month). Symptoms, when present, developed during travel or within 8 weeks maximum after return, and included abdominal complaints (11/23 symptomatic patients, 48%), respiratory symptoms and skin abnormalities (10 each, 43%) and fever (9, 39%), often in combination. Two patients were diagnosed with transverse myelitis. At presentation, the median blood eosinophil count was 1720/μL [range: 510–14160] in the 21 symptomatic cases without neurological complication and 2080/μL [range: 1100–2970] in the 5 asymptomatic individuals. All patients recovered either spontaneously or with an anti-helminthic treatment (mostly a 5-day course of albendazole), except both neurological cases who kept sequelae despite repeated treatments and prolonged corticotherapy. Toxocariasis has to be considered in travelers

  10. Phylogenetic relationships and new genetic tools for the detection and discrimination of the three feline Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Silbermayr, Katja; Horvath-Ungerboeck, Christa; Eigner, Barbara; Joachim, Anja; Ferrer, Lluis

    2015-02-01

    Two feline Demodex mite species have been described as causative agents of feline demodicosis, until recently a third species was detected. We provide an updated analysis on the phylogenetic relationship of Demodex mites. In addition, we present the first qPCR assay for the detection and differentiation of all three feline mite species in a single reaction. Specimen of Demodex cati, Demodex gatoi, and the recently discovered third species were collected from skin scrapings and fecal flotation for DNA extraction, conventional PCR, sequencing, and alignment. A total of 24 sequences of the partial 16S rRNA gene were used to estimate the evolutionary divergence in a p-distance model and a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree. For the qPCR assay, new primers and fluorescent probes for the simultaneous detection of all three feline Demodex mites were designed. A consensus fragment of 351 bp was phylogenetically analyzed. The third species sequence of our study shares 98.6 % similarity to the available sequence in GenBank®. It is most similar to D. gatoi (82.41 %) and most distant to the canine Demodex injai (78.28 %). In contrast, D. gatoi is most similar to human Demodex brevis (87.01 %). The multiplex qPCR detected and discriminated the three different mite species in one reaction. The detection limit is ≤1.4 ng of mite DNA. The three feline Demodex species have distinct genotypes and did not cluster in one genetic clade. The species differentiation and assessment of evolutionary relationships will ultimately support correct diagnostics and treatment approaches.

  11. Penile Implants among Prisoners—A Cause for Concern?

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Lorraine; Butler, Tony; Richters, Juliet; Malacova, Eva; Wand, Handan; Smith, Anthony M. A.; Grant, Luke; Richards, Alun; Donovan, Basil

    2013-01-01

    Background We report the prevalence of penile implants among prisoners and determine the independent predictors for having penile implants. Questions on penile implants were included in the Sexual Health and Attitudes of Australian Prisoners (SHAAP) survey following concerns raised by prison health staff that increasing numbers of prisoners reported having penile implants while in prison. Methods Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) of a random sample of prisoners was carried out in 41 prisons in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia). Men were asked, “Have you ever inserted or implanted an object under the skin of your penis?” If they responded Yes: “Have you ever done so while you were in prison?” Univariate logistic regression and logistic regression were used to determine the factors associated with penile implants. Results A total of 2,018 male prisoners were surveyed, aged between 18 and 65 years, and 118 (5.8%) reported that they had inserted or implanted an object under the skin of their penis. Of these men, 87 (73%) had this done while they were in prison. In the multivariate analysis, a younger age, birth in an Asian country, and prior incarceration were all significantly associated with penile implants (p<0.001). Men with penile implants were also more likely to report being paid for sex (p<0.001), to have had body piercings (p<0.001) or tattoos in prison (p<0.001), and to have taken non-prescription drugs while in prison (p<0.05). Conclusions Penile implants appear to be fairly common among prisoners and are associated with risky sexual and drug use practices. As most of these penile implants are inserted in prison, these men are at risk of blood borne viruses and wound infection. Harm reduction and infection control strategies need to be developed to address this potential risk. PMID:23326383

  12. Prevalence of faecal-borne parasites in colony stray cats in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Domenichini, Giulia; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Traldi, Giorgio; Ferro, Elisabetta

    2013-08-01

    Endoparasitic infections are common in stray cats. Many of these parasites are responsible for zoonoses, and stray cats can be a source of environmental contamination. The prevalence of parasites in 139 stray colony cats in the city of Milan, northern Italy, was investigated by faecal examination. The overall prevalence of endoparasites was 50.4%, with 11 different parasites found. Parasites with zoonotic potential were detected in 49.6% of cats. Concurrent infections with two or more zoonotic parasites were recorded in 14.3% of cats. Among the parasites found, the most common was Toxocara cati (33.1%; P <0.0001). The other species found by coproscopic examination were: Ancylostoma tubaeformae (7.2%), Isospora species (4.3%), Trichuris vulpis (2.9%), Dipylidium caninum (2.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (2.9%), Eucoleus aerophilus (syn Capillaria aerophila) (1.4%), Spirometra species (1.4%), Taenia pisiformis (0.7%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.7%). Coproantigen specific for Giardia duodenalis was detected in 2.9% of the samples. Pseudoparasites (eggs of mites) were found in 4.3% of the samples. No sample contained Toxoplasma gondii oocysts, despite the fact that 70 cats tested positive for T gondii-specific IgG antibodies, and none of the diarrhoetic samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium species oocysts. Variables linked to infection were body condition score (BCS), the presence of diarrhoea and infection with G duodenalis. Cats infected with G duodenalis were more likely to have a low BCS (odds ratio (OR) = 11.5, P = 0.02) and diarrhoea (OR = 30.7, P = 0.0007). The results of the present study confirm that endoparasitic infections, most of which have zoonotic potential, are distributed in stray colony cats of Milan.

  13. Survey on parasitic infections in wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777) by scat collection.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Ettore; Anile, Stefano; Arrabito, Carmelo; Scornavacca, Davide; Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Gaglio, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore; Brianti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Wildcats are endangered felid species living in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Regrettably, scientific information on parasites of wildcats is particularly meager and they often rely on data gained by necropsies of a small number of animals. In the present study, scat collection was used to assess the parasite spectrum of European wildcats living in the Etna Park (Sicily, Italy). Scat collection was performed from May to September 2010 by weekly walking four transects for a total of 391 km. Samples were then analyzed by flotation and sedimentation techniques to investigate wildcat parasitic fauna. A total of 121 scats of wildcats were collected, and parasitic forms (i.e., oocysts, eggs, and larvae) were retrieved in 110 (90.9 %) of the samples. Parasites found were Physaloptera sp. (52.1 %), tapeworms (45.5 %), Toxocara cati (43.8 %), Eucoleus aerophilus (27.3 %), Ancylostoma sp. (22.3 %), Troglostrongylus brevior (15.7 %), trematodes (9.9 %), Isospora felis (4.1 %), Cylicospirura sp. (1.7 %), and Acanthocephala (0.8 %). The prevalence of endoparasitic infections herein recorded is similar to that described in other studies conducted using necropsy technique. The species richness of parasites found in the present survey, with a total of nine helminths and one protozoon, is the highest ever reported for wildcat in Europe. Scat collection and examination are reliable and rapid non-invasive tools which can be used in a systematic survey design to study the parasite spectrum of wildcat as well as that of other endangered wild species.

  14. Characterization of Presolar Material in the CR Chondrite Northwest Africa 852

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, J.; Vollmer, C.; Hoppe, P.; Zipfel, J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the inventory of presolar silicate, oxide, and silicon carbide (SiC) grains in the CR2 chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 852. Thirty-one O-anomalous grains were detected: 24 were identified as silicates (~78 ppm) the remaining 7 are Al-rich oxides (~38 ppm). NWA 852 is the first C2 chondrite containing O-anomalous presolar dust in concentrations comparable to other more primitive meteorites. Eight presolar SiC grains have been found, representing the highest abundance (~160 ppm) observed so far in primitive meteorites. 15N-enriched matter is also present, although very heterogeneously distributed. Twenty-six of the O-anomalous grains are enriched in 17O, originating from the outflows of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We calculate a silicate/oxide abundance ratio of ~2, which indicates a higher degree of aqueous alteration than observed for other presolar-grain-rich meteorites. NWA 852 thus stands between the presolar-grain-rich CR3 chondrites (MET 00426, QUE 99177) and CR2 chondrites with low presolar grain abundances (Renazzo, NWA 530). We calculate an initial presolar silicate abundance of ~800 ppm for NWA 852, if silicate destruction by aqueous alteration is taken into account. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigation of one presolar Al-rich grain of an AGB star origin revealed that the grain mainly consists of a single crystal of hibonite with slightly varying orientations. A distinct subgrain (d < 100 nm) with a Ca/Ti ratio of ~1 is located in the central region, most likely indicating a perovskite-like phase. Our data suggest this phase to be a primary condensate and not an alteration product.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Baylisascaris schroederi, Baylisascaris ailuri and Baylisascaris transfuga from giant panda, red panda and polar bear.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yue; Zhang, Zhihe; Wang, Chengdong; Lan, Jingchao; Li, Yan; Chen, Zhigang; Fu, Yan; Nie, Huaming; Yan, Ning; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2011-08-15

    Roundworms of the genus Baylisascaris are the most common parasitic nematodes of the intestinal tracts of wild mammals, and most of them have significant impacts in veterinary and public health. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes provide a foundation for studying epidemiology and ecology of these parasites and therefore may be used to assist in the control of Baylisascariasis. Here, we determined the complete sequences of mtDNAs for Baylisascaris schroederi, Baylisascaris ailuri and Baylisascaris transfuga, with 14,778 bp, 14,657 bp and 14,898 bp in size, respectively. Each mtDNA encodes 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs, typical for other chromadorean nematodes. The gene arrangements for the three Baylisascaris species are the same as those of the Ascaridata species, but radically different from those of the Spirurida species. Phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes from nine nematode species indicated that the three Baylisascaris species are more closely related to Ascaris suum than to the three Toxocara species (Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis) and Anisakis simplex, and that B. ailuri is more closely related to B. transfuga than to B. schroeder. The determination of the complete mt genome sequences for these three Baylisascaris species (the first members of the genus Baylisascaris ever sequenced) is of importance in refining the phylogenetic relationships within the order Ascaridida, and provides new molecular data for population genetic, systematic, epidemiological and ecological studies of parasitic nematodes of socio-economic importance in wildlife.

  16. Occurrence, prevalence and intensity of internal parasite infections of African lions (Panthera leo) in enclosures at a recreation park in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mukarati, Norman L; Vassilev, George D; Tagwireyi, Whatmore M; Tavengwa, Michael

    2013-09-01

    A coprological survey was conducted to determine the types, prevalence, and intensity of infection of internal parasites in a population of captive African lions (Panthera leo) at a recreational game park in Zimbabwe. Individual fecal samples were collected on three occasions over a 4-month period from each of 30 lions (55%) out of 55 animals held. The samples were examined using flotation and sedimentation techniques to assess the presence and count of parasite eggs, oocysts, and cysts per gram of feces as well as larvae identification. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 100% (30/30), and 80% (24/30) of fecal samples also were positive for protozoan parasite forms. Eggs of Ancylostoma spp. were found in the feces of 23 (76.7%) lions, Physaloptera sp. in 14 (46.7%) lions, Toxascaris leonina in 13 (43.3%) lions, Toxocara cati in 12 (40%) lions, and Gnathostoma spinigerum and Toxocara canis in 2 (6.7%) lions. Furthermore, eggs of Cylicospirura subequalis, Gnathostoma spp., Lagochilascaris major, Acanthocephalan and Linguatula spp. as well as larvae of Aelurostrongylus sp. were identified in the feces of one lion. Oocysts of five apicomplexan parasites and cysts of one mastigophoran protozoan parasite were recorded, namely, Cystoisospora leonina in 11 (36.7%) lions' feces, Cystoisospora spp. in 9 (30.0%) lions, Cystoisospora felis in 5 (16.7%) lions; Toxoplasma-like spp. in 5 (16.7 %) lions, and Giardia spp. in 8 (26.7%) lions. The majority of lions (28/30) showed mixed infections with different internal parasites, whereas only two animals had single parasite infections. The intensity of infection was relatively low. Some parasite forms observed and identified, such as Eimeria spp. oocysts, were spurious and probably originated from the prey species for the lions. Among the parasites identified were some of zoonotic importance that have health implications for at-risk personnel and visitors who get into contact with the animals.

  17. Survey on parasitic infections in wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris Schreber, 1777) by scat collection.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Ettore; Anile, Stefano; Arrabito, Carmelo; Scornavacca, Davide; Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Gaglio, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore; Brianti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Wildcats are endangered felid species living in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Regrettably, scientific information on parasites of wildcats is particularly meager and they often rely on data gained by necropsies of a small number of animals. In the present study, scat collection was used to assess the parasite spectrum of European wildcats living in the Etna Park (Sicily, Italy). Scat collection was performed from May to September 2010 by weekly walking four transects for a total of 391 km. Samples were then analyzed by flotation and sedimentation techniques to investigate wildcat parasitic fauna. A total of 121 scats of wildcats were collected, and parasitic forms (i.e., oocysts, eggs, and larvae) were retrieved in 110 (90.9 %) of the samples. Parasites found were Physaloptera sp. (52.1 %), tapeworms (45.5 %), Toxocara cati (43.8 %), Eucoleus aerophilus (27.3 %), Ancylostoma sp. (22.3 %), Troglostrongylus brevior (15.7 %), trematodes (9.9 %), Isospora felis (4.1 %), Cylicospirura sp. (1.7 %), and Acanthocephala (0.8 %). The prevalence of endoparasitic infections herein recorded is similar to that described in other studies conducted using necropsy technique. The species richness of parasites found in the present survey, with a total of nine helminths and one protozoon, is the highest ever reported for wildcat in Europe. Scat collection and examination are reliable and rapid non-invasive tools which can be used in a systematic survey design to study the parasite spectrum of wildcat as well as that of other endangered wild species. PMID:26377843

  18. Stray animal and human defecation as sources of soil-transmitted helminth eggs in playgrounds of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Zain, S N; Rahman, R; Lewis, J W

    2015-11-01

    Soil contaminated with helminth eggs and protozoan cysts is a potential source of infection and poses a threat to the public, especially to young children frequenting playgrounds. The present study determines the levels of infection of helminth eggs in soil samples from urban and suburban playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia and identifies one source of contamination via faecal screening from stray animals. Three hundred soil samples from 60 playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia were screened using the centrifugal flotation technique to identify and determine egg/cyst counts per gram (EPG) for each parasite. All playgrounds, especially those in Penang, were found to be contaminated with eggs from four nematode genera, with Toxocara eggs (95.7%) the highest, followed by Ascaris (93.3%), Ancylostoma (88.3%) and Trichuris (77.0%). In addition, faeces from animal shelters were found to contain both helminth eggs and protozoan cysts, with overall infection rates being 54% and 57% for feline and canine samples, respectively. The most frequently occurring parasite in feline samples was Toxocara cati (37%; EPG, 42.47 ± 156.08), while in dog faeces it was Ancylostoma sp. (54%; EPG, 197.16 ± 383.28). Infection levels also tended to be influenced by season, type of park/playground and the texture of soil/faeces. The occurrence of Toxocara, Ancylostoma and Trichuris eggs in soil samples highlights the risk of transmission to the human population, especially children, while the presence of Ascaris eggs suggests a human source of contamination and raises the issue of hygiene standards and public health risks at sites under investigation.

  19. Factors associated with the rejection of active euthanasia: a survey among the general public in Austria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent decades, the general public has become increasingly receptive toward a legislation that allows active voluntary euthanasia (AVE). The purpose of this study was to survey the current attitude towards AVE within the Austrian population and to identify explanatory factors in the areas of socio-demographics, personal experiences with care, and ideological orientation. A further objective was to examine differences depending on the type of problem formulation (abstract vs. situational) for the purpose of measuring attitude. Methods A representative cross-sectional study was conducted across the Austrian population. Data were acquired from 1,000 individuals aged 16 years and over based on telephone interviews (CATI). For the purpose of measuring attitude toward AVE, two different problem formulations (abstract vs. situational) were juxtaposed. Results The abstract question about active voluntary euthanasia was answered negatively by 28.8%, while 71.2% opted in favour of AVE or were undecided. Regression analyses showed rejection of AVE was positively correlated with number of adults and children in the household, experience with care of seriously ill persons, a conservative worldview, and level of education. Mean or high family income was associated with lower levels of rejection. No independent correlations were found for variables such as sex, age, political orientation, self-rated health, and experiences with care of terminally ill patients. Correlation for the situational problem formulation was weaker and included fewer predictors than for the abstract question. Conclusions Our results suggest that factors relating to an individual’s interpersonal living situation and his/her cognitive convictions might be important determinants of the attitude toward AVE. If and to the extent that personal care experience plays a role, it is rather associated with rejection than with acceptance of AVE. PMID:23826902

  20. Efremovka E49: A compact type-A CAI containing a partially molten spinel-melilite-diopside xenolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E. K.

    1994-07-01

    Eframovka E49 is a triangular 2-mm segment from a Compact Type A (CTA) inclusion with large portions of intact core and rim sequence. It is probably a fragment from an originally round approximately equal to 4-mm Ca-Al rich Inclusion (CAI). The core consists of two lithologically different assemblages: (1) The major portion of the CAI contains melilite sprinkled with rare spinel, perovskite, and the new Ca-Ti silicate. It is covered by a six-layer rim consisting of (from the interior outward): two layers of Zr- and Y-rich perovskite, spinel, Al-diopside, diopside, and forsteritic olivine. (2) A 650-micron wide complex xenolith contains coarse spinel, melilite, perovskite, and metal in its interior, surrounded by a broad shell of Al-diopside, diopside, and minor fassaite and anorthite, and in the rim fassaite yields Al-diopside yields diopside. Coarse spinels abundantly display resorbtion outlines and some of the grains have been broken down to several amoeboid fragments floating in the eutectic assemblage. All these textures are evidence of local melting of the xenolith followed by fast cooling. No such features are observed in the host CAI. Since melting is confined to the xenolith, the melt event must have predated its capture into the core of E49. Ion microprobe trace-element studies reveal distinct differences between Rare Earth Element (REE) abundances in perovskites in the xenolith and the host CAI. Perovskites in the xenolith display REE patterns with prominent Yb and small Ce excesses and large Eu depletions. Perovskites in the xenolith show higher abundances of Nb, Zr, and V. Magnesium in xenolith and the host is almost unfractionated. Excesses of Mg-26 are found both in the xenolith and the host with data points plotting along a line with a slope of 4 x 105. This is in accord with the petrographic interpretation and indicates that the melting of the xenolith and its capture in E49 took place early.

  1. Unemployment and smoking: does psychosocial stress matter?

    PubMed Central

    De Vogli, R; Santinello, M

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Research indicates that cigarette smoking is strongly associated with unemployment. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms explaining this relationship. The aim of this study is to examine the role of psychosocial factors as potential mediators between unemployment and smoking. Participants: 4002 non-institutionalised, civilian adults living in the Veneto region of Italy. Design: The study was based on a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). Linear by linear association tests were used to examine bivariate associations between unemployment, psychosocial factors, and smoking. Logistic regression models were developed to analyse the relationship between unemployment and smoking when adjusting for psychological factors. Results: The odds of smoking among the unemployed was 2.78 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68 to 4.62) greater than that of higher managers and professionals controlling for demographic factors. The relationship between unemployment and smoking weakened (odds ratio 2.41, 95% CI 1.43 to 4.05) when psychosocial factors were entered into the analysis. The odds of the inability to control important things in life was 1.39 times (95% CI 1.11 to 1.75) greater, and the odds of emotional isolation was 1.45 times (95% CI 1.06 to 1.99) greater, among smokers compared to non-smokers controlling, for all other factors. Conclusions: Given that the data were cross sectional, firm conclusions cannot be drawn regarding the causal pathway connecting unemployment and smoking. However, this study suggests that psychosocial factors such as the inability to control and emotional isolation may be plausible mediators for the relationship. PMID:16319362

  2. The sedimentary records of Holocene environmental changes from the Central High of the Sea of Marmara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filikci, Betul; Çağatay, Namık; Kadir Eriş, Kürşad; Akyol, Mustafa; Yalamaz, Burak; Uçarkuş, Gülsen; Henry, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The Sea of Marmara (SoM) is located between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, to which it is connected via the Istanbul (Bosphorus) and Canakkale (Dardanelles) straits having sill depths of 65 and 35 m, respectively. It has a two-way water mass exchange with a permanent pycnocline located at 20-25 m water depth. With the objective of determining Holocene paleoenvironmental changes, we studied a 8.36 m-long piston core recovered from the Central High of the SoM at a water depth of 835 m, using multiproxy analyses such as total organic and inorganic carbon, high resolution µ-XRF core scanner analysis, grain size, magnetic susceptibility and density. A 2 cm-thick tephra layer with high K and Zr and relatively low magnetic susceptibility occurs at 2.1 meter below sea floor (mbsf), which is correlated with the Avellino (Somma-Vesuvius, Italy) eruption dated at 3.9 ka BP, according to the previous studies. Using this age and assuming a uniform sedimentation rate, the base of the core dates back to ca 8 ka BP. The core includes organic-rich (sapropelic) sediments with 1.5 % to 2.2%) in its top 3.5 m and bottom 1 m. Sapropelic layers are olive green and in part laminated, and contain occasional reddish brown spots and laminae formed by oxidation of iron monosulphides. The core also contains some few mm- to cm-thick sandy-silty mass-flow units below 2.4 mbsf, some of which could have been triggered by the earthquake activity on the Central High segment of the North Anatolian Fault, just a few km away from the core location. Variations in Ca-Ti ratio suggest millennial-scale climatic changes during the Holocene. Keywords: Sea of Marmara, Holocene paleoenvironmental records, tephra, turbidites, TOC analysis, XRF analysis, physical properties.

  3. An experimental study of trace element partitioning between perovskite, hibonite and melt: Equilibrium values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, A. K.; Lofgren, G. E.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of perovskite (CATiO3) and hibonite (Ca Al12O19) within different regions of Calcium-, Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAI) and the trace element concentrations of these minerals in each circumstance, constrain models of precursor formation, nebular condensation, the thermal history of inclusions with relict perovskite and hibonite, and the formation of the Wark-Lovering rim. At present mineral/melt partition coefficient data for hibonite are limited to a few elements in simple experimental systems, or to those derived from hibonite-glass pairs in hibonite/glass microspherules. Similarly, there is only limited data on perovskite D that are applicable to meteorite compositions. Apart from the importance of partitioning studies to meteorite research, D values also are invaluable in the development of thermodynamic models, especially when data is available for a large number of elements that have different ionic charge and radii. In addition, study of the effect of rapid cooling on partitioning is crucial to our understanding of meteorite inclusions. To expand our knowledge of mineral/melt D for perovskite and hibonite, a study was instituted where D values are obtained in both equilibrium and dynamic cooling experiments. As an initial phase of this study mineral/melt D was measured for major elements (Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, and Si), 15 rare earth elements (La-Lu) and 8 other elements (Ba, Sr, U, Th, Nb, Zr, Hf, and Ge) in perovskite and hibonite grown under equilibrium conditions, in bulk compositions that are respectively similar to Compact Type A (CTA) CAI and to a hibonite/glass microspherule. Experimental mixes were doped with REE at 20-50x chondritic (ch) abundances, Ba at 50 ppm, Sr, Hf, Nb, and Zr at 100 ppm and, U and Th at 200 ppm. Trace element abundances were measured with the PANURGE ion microprobe. Major element compositions were obtained by electron microprobe analysis.

  4. Development of a Luminex Bead Based Assay for Diagnosis of Toxocariasis Using Recombinant Antigens Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John P; Rascoe, Lisa N; Levert, Keith; Chastain, Holly M; Reed, Matthew S; Rivera, Hilda N; McAuliffe, Isabel; Zhan, Bin; Wiegand, Ryan E; Hotez, Peter J; Wilkins, Patricia P; Pohl, Jan; Handali, Sukwan

    2015-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human disease caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati ranges from visceral and ocular larva migrans to covert toxocariasis. The parasite is not typically recovered in affected tissues, so detection of parasite-specific antibodies is usually necessary for establishing a diagnosis. The most reliable immunodiagnostic methods use the Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens (TES-Ag) in ELISA formats to detect Toxocara-specific antibodies. To eliminate the need for native parasite materials, we identified and purified immunodiagnostic antigens using 2D gel electrophoresis followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Three predominant immunoreactive proteins were found in the TES; all three had been previously described in the literature: Tc-CTL-1, Tc-TES-26, and Tc-MUC-3. We generated Escherichia coli expressed recombinant proteins for evaluation in Luminex based immunoassays. We were unable to produce a functional assay with the Tc-MUC-3 recombinant protein. Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26 were successfully coupled and tested using defined serum batteries. The use of both proteins together generated better results than if the proteins were used individually. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay for detecting visceral larval migrans using Tc-CTL-1 plus Tc-TES-26 was 99% and 94%, respectively; the sensitivity for detecting ocular larval migrans was 64%. The combined performance of the new assay was superior to the currently available EIA and could potentially be employed to replace current assays that rely on native TES-Ag. PMID:26485145

  5. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts. PMID:26345057

  6. Consumer reporting of adverse events following immunization (AEFI): identifying predictors of reporting an AEFI.

    PubMed

    Parrella, Adriana; Gold, Michael; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Baghurst, Peter; Marshall, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Passive reporting of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) by consumers or healthcare professionals is the primary mechanism for post-marketing surveillance of vaccine safety. Although recent initiatives have promoted consumer reporting, there is a lack of research concerning consumer reporters. Computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) were conducted in 2011 of a cross-sectional, random, general population sample of 191 South Australian parents who stated that their children had previously experienced an AEFI. We compared awareness of surveillance, vaccine safety opinions, and demographics of parents reporting an AEFI to either healthcare professionals or surveillance authorities with those who did not report their children's AEFI. Multivariate regression analyses measured: the association between reporting and safety views; and demographic predictors of reporting an AEFI. Reporting an AEFI to a healthcare professional or a surveillance authority was not significantly associated with awareness of a surveillance system. AEFI reporters, when compared with non-reporters, were more likely to be Australian-born (OR = 4.58, [1.64, 12.78], P = 0.004); were associated with the perception that a serious reaction was more likely to occur at their children's last immunization (OR = 2.54 [95%CI 1.22, 5.30], P = 0.013); and were less accepting of the risk of febrile convulsion, (OR = 3.59 [95%CI 1.50, 8.57], P = 0.004). Although reporting an AEFI was not associated with awareness of surveillance or most socio-demographics, the results suggest some difference in safety opinions. Further studies are required to ascertain if these differences pre-date the occurrence of an AEFI or are a consequence of the AEFI and how consumers can contribute further to vaccine safety surveillance. PMID:24406315

  7. Going against the Herd: Psychological and Cultural Factors Underlying the 'Vaccination Confidence Gap'.

    PubMed

    Browne, Matthew; Thomson, Patricia; Rockloff, Matthew Justus; Pennycook, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    By far the most common strategy used in the attempt to modify negative attitudes toward vaccination is to appeal to evidence-based reasoning. We argue, however, that focusing on science comprehension is inconsistent with one of the key facts of cognitive psychology: Humans are biased information processors and often engage in motivated reasoning. On this basis, we hypothesised that negative attitudes can be explained primarily by factors unrelated to the empirical evidence for vaccination; including some shared attitudes that also attract people to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In particular, we tested psychosocial factors associated with CAM endorsement in past research; including aspects of spirituality, intuitive (vs analytic) thinking styles, and the personality trait of openness to experience. These relationships were tested in a cross-sectional, stratified CATI survey (N = 1256, 624 Females). Whilst educational level and thinking style did not predict vaccination rejection, psychosocial factors including: preferring CAM to conventional medicine (OR .49, 95% CI .36-.66), endorsement of spirituality as a source of knowledge (OR .83, 95% CI .71-.96), and openness (OR .86, 95% CI .74-.99), all predicted negative attitudes to vaccination. Furthermore, for 9 of the 12 CAMs surveyed, utilisation in the last 12 months was associated with lower levels of vaccination endorsement. From this we suggest that vaccination scepticism appears to be the outcome of a particular cultural and psychological orientation leading to unwillingness to engage with the scientific evidence. Vaccination compliance might be increased either by building general confidence and understanding of evidence-based medicine, or by appealing to features usually associated with CAM, e.g. 'strengthening your natural resistance to disease'.

  8. An Australian survey of cognitive health beliefs, intentions, and behaviours through the adult life course

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Diane E.; Sargent-Cox, Kerry A.; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Information is required regarding cognitive health beliefs and behaviours from across the life in order to inform the design of interventions to optimise cognitive health and reduce the risk of cognitive impairment. Methods A survey of Australian adults aged 20–89 was administered via Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) software to respondents recruited by random digit dialling (N = 900). Socio-demographic and self-reported health information was collected to investigate associations with cognitive health responses. Results Alcohol abuse was nominated by the highest proportion of respondents (34.3%) as detrimental for brain health. Fewer than 5% nominated elevated cholesterol, blood pressure, obesity, poor education, or ageing. The most frequently endorsed protective activity was socialising (70%). Socio-demographic factors predicted responses. Age-group differences were apparent in the proportions nominating alcohol (X2 = 24.2; p < .001), drugs (X2 = 56.8; p < .001), smoking (X2 = 13.1; p = .001), nutrition (X2 = 20.4; p < .001), and mental activity (X2 = 12.8; p = .002) as relevant to brain health. Activities undertaken for cognitive benefit also differed by age. Across all ages the perceived benefit of activities was not supported by intentions to undertake activities. Conclusions Interventions are needed to inform and motivate people across the life-course to undertake behaviours specifically to optimise their cognitive health. PMID:26844109

  9. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts.

  10. Pharmacological management of atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Trino; ElFakih, Yamily; Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Sandia, Ignacio; Tálamo, Eduardo; Araujo de Baptista, Enma; Beaulieu, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Excessive bodyweight gain was reported during the 1950s as an adverse effect of typical antipsychotic drug treatment, but the magnitude of bodyweight gain was found to be higher with the atypical antipsychotic drugs that were introduced after 1990. Clozapine and olanzapine produce the greatest bodyweight gain, ziprasidone and aripiprazole have a neutral influence, and quetiapine and risperidone cause an intermediate effect. In the CATIE study, the percentage of patients with bodyweight gain of >7% compared with baseline differed significantly between the antipsychotic drugs, i.e. 30%, 16%, 14%, 12% and 7% for olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, perphenazine (a typical antipsychotic) and ziprasidone, respectively (p<0.001). Appetite stimulation is probably a key cause of bodyweight gain, but genetic polymorphisms modify the bodyweight response during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. In addition to nutritional advice, programmed physical activity, cognitive-behavioural training and atypical antipsychotic switching, pharmacological adjunctive treatments have been assessed to counteract excessive bodyweight gain. In some clinical trials, nizatidine, amantadine, reboxetine, topiramate, sibutramine and metformin proved effective in preventing or reversing atypical antipsychotic-induced bodyweight gain; however, the results are inconclusive since few randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have been conducted. Indeed, most studies were short-term trials without adequate statistical power and, in the case of metformin, nizatidine and sibutramine, the results are contradictory. The tolerability profile of these agents is adequate. More studies are needed before formal recommendations on the use of these drugs can be made. Meanwhile, clinicians are advised to use any of these adjunctive treatments according to their individual pharmacological and tolerability profiles, and the patient's personal and family history of bodyweight gain and metabolic dysfunction.

  11. Individual and Environmental Factors Determining Sedentary Lifestyle of the Polish Population

    PubMed Central

    BIERNAT, Elżbieta; PIĄTKOWSKA, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the sedentary lifestyle of the Polish population and its link with prolonged sitting in light of individual and environmental factors. Methods The sample consisted of 1505 Polish people between 18 and 64 years old. The Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) survey was conducted with the Polish version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-LF) and the survey of the determinants of a sport activity among the Polish population. The relationships between the time spent sitting and the individual and environmental factors among Polish citizens were investigated through log-linear analysis. Results The total time Polish people spent sitting was 2812.4±1593.9 min/week. During the weekend, men (Chi2=45.0; P=0.04) spent significantly more time sitting than women (251.1±170.1min/week, 230.9±155.0 min/week, respectively). Despite the relatively high proportion of people declaring participation in the Sport for All initiative (67.8%), only 9.6% of Polish people undertake a physical activity on a daily basis. The odds ratios above the median (>2545 min/week) are higher (OR=1.33; 95% CI=1.03—1.72) for those who are not physically active (54.5% vs. 45.5%). There was no relationship between prolonged sitting time and the environmental factors. Conclusion It is necessary to increase consistent efforts to create an environment that would successfully promote anactive lifestyle among Polish citizens in their place of residence and prevent sedentary behaviours within this population. The recommendations for physical activity should include the guidelines intervening in the time people spend sitting. PMID:25927033

  12. Mediterranean Outflow Water during the late Pliocene: New stratigraphic constraints from micropaleontology and XRF core-scanning (IODP Expedition 339, Hole U1389E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunert, Patrick; Balestra, Barbara; Flores, José-Abel; Garcia Gallardo, Ángela; Auer, Gerald; Röhl, Ulla; Piller, Werner E.

    2015-04-01

    IODP Hole U1389E, at present located in the lower core of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) at 640m water depth in the northern Gulf of Cadiz, represents a key-site for the understanding of changes in MOW contribution to the North Atlantic during the late Pliocene thermal optimum and the transition into the Pleistocene ice house climate. Zr/Al ratios of the recovered sediments as well as δ18O and Mg/Ca of benthic foraminifera imply major changes in MOW strength in the studied interval. However, to consider these data in a broader paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic context, a well-constrained age model is essential. New data from calcareous nannoplankton and XRF core-scanning suggest that the shipboard age model for the site has to be reconsidered as major changes in sedimentation rates have not been recognized in the original comparably low resolution data-sets. While the new, higher-resolution biostratigraphic data confirm the overall time frame of 2.6 to 3.6 Myrs, they also imply a potential sedimentary hiatus within the Pliocene thermal optimum and a significant increase in sedimentation rates thereafter. A distinct cyclic pattern is recognized in the CaCO3 and TOC contents as well as Ca/Ti ratios. Based on the estimated sedimentation rates these cycles are most likely linked to precessional forcing, resembling cyclic changes in riverine input from southern Spain recognized at several drill-sites at the northern shelf break. A detailed cyclostratigraphic analysis is currently in progress to confirm the precessional signal and to further constrain the duration of the sedimentary hiatus during the Pliocene thermal optimum. This study contributes to project P25831-N29 of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and is financially supported by grants of ECORD and the Max Kade Foundation.

  13. Designing lead-free and stable perovskite materials for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiyang; Zhang, Shengbai

    A critical barrier for large-scale deployment of the current perovskite solar materials is the use of Pb to achieve high power conversion efficiency. While this appears to be a technical issue, there are more fundamental reasons behind. The current research has mainly focused on the replacement of Pb by other elements, in particular, Sn. However, in halide perovskites (i.e., I-II-VII3 composition), Sn is in its less stable 2 + state. The formation of more stable 4 + centers in the Sn(II)-based materials under ambient conditions makes the device efficiency very low. Worse, there might be no other elements across the Periodic Table that can replace Pb while maintaining the desirable properties, such as band gap. Out-of-the-box ideas are therefore called for to stimulate the research in this field. In this talk, two approaches are proposed based on state-of-the-art first-principles calculations. Through a screening of chalcogenide perovskite materials, CaTiS3, BaZrS3, CaZrSe3, and CaHfSe3 have been predicted to have suitable band gaps for making solar cells. Among these materials, BaZrS3 have been synthesized experimentally. Another proposed approach is to introduce dual anions (i.e., splitting the anion sites) that allow the composition to satisfy charge neutrality, while replacing Pb by more environmentally benign elements. One of the candidate materials is CH3NH3BiSI2, which is predicted to have band gap around 1.4 eV and high optical absorption.

  14. Going against the Herd: Psychological and Cultural Factors Underlying the ‘Vaccination Confidence Gap’

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    By far the most common strategy used in the attempt to modify negative attitudes toward vaccination is to appeal to evidence-based reasoning. We argue, however, that focusing on science comprehension is inconsistent with one of the key facts of cognitive psychology: Humans are biased information processors and often engage in motivated reasoning. On this basis, we hypothesised that negative attitudes can be explained primarily by factors unrelated to the empirical evidence for vaccination; including some shared attitudes that also attract people to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In particular, we tested psychosocial factors associated with CAM endorsement in past research; including aspects of spirituality, intuitive (vs analytic) thinking styles, and the personality trait of openness to experience. These relationships were tested in a cross-sectional, stratified CATI survey (N = 1256, 624 Females). Whilst educational level and thinking style did not predict vaccination rejection, psychosocial factors including: preferring CAM to conventional medicine (OR .49, 95% CI .36–.66), endorsement of spirituality as a source of knowledge (OR .83, 95% CI .71–.96), and openness (OR .86, 95% CI .74–.99), all predicted negative attitudes to vaccination. Furthermore, for 9 of the 12 CAMs surveyed, utilisation in the last 12 months was associated with lower levels of vaccination endorsement. From this we suggest that vaccination scepticism appears to be the outcome of a particular cultural and psychological orientation leading to unwillingness to engage with the scientific evidence. Vaccination compliance might be increased either by building general confidence and understanding of evidence-based medicine, or by appealing to features usually associated with CAM, e.g. ‘strengthening your natural resistance to disease’. PMID:26325522

  15. Involvement of two genetic lineages of Sarcoptes scabiei mites in a local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makouloutou, Patrice; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Takeuchi, Masahiko; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sato, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Similar to wild mammals on the continents, mange caused by the mange mite, Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) is spreading in wild mammals in most of Japan. We collected crusted or alopetic skin from 120 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), three raccoons (Procyon lotor), six Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), one Japanese marten (Martes melampus), one stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris), four wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax), and one Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), mainly in an area where mangy wild animals have been increasingly noted in the past 4 yr. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of the ribosomal RNA gene and the partial 16S and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) genes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were characterized in these skin samples. The ITS2 sequencing (404 base pairs [bp]) identified the causative mite for mangy skin lesions of 128 animals as S. scabiei, regardless of host origin. The cat mite (Notoedres cati) was the cause in one raccoon dog and one raccoon. Most mites had almost identical ITS2 nucleotide sequences to those recorded in a variety of mammals worldwide. Partial 16S and cox-1 fragments of mtDNA amplified and sequenced successfully (331 bp and 410 bp, respectively) showed an identical nucleotide sequence except for one site (C vs. T) for the former and four sites (G, C, C, C vs. A, T, T, T, respectively) for the latter fragment. These substitutions were always synchronized, with the two mitochondrial DNA haplotypes (i.e., C/GCCC and T/ATTT) appearing to separately colonize in geographic units. The T/ATTT haplotype fell into a clade where animal-derived mites worldwide dominated, whereas the C/GCCC haplotype formed a geographic branch unique to Japanese isolates. These results suggest that heterologous populations of monospecific S. scabiei are expanding their populations and distributions regardless of host species in an apparently local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan. PMID

  16. Prevalence of Fleas and Gastrointestinal Parasites in Free-Roaming Cats in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, Germinal J.; Guerrero, Roberto I.; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M.; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P<0.01), between season and ectoparasites load, more fleas were obtained in the summer and autumn than in the winter and spring; however, no statistical difference was observed for endoparasites load (P>0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094). PMID:23573282

  17. Photo-oxidation of gaseous ethanol on photocatalyst prepared by acid leaching of titanium oxide/hydroxyapatite composite

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Y.; Rachi, T.; Yokouchi, M.; Kamimoto, Y.; Nakajima, A.; Okada, K.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Photocatalyst powder was prepared by acid leaching of TiO{sub 2}/apatite composite. ► The photocatalytic activity was evaluated from in situ FT-IR study using ethanol. ► Apatite in the composite had positive effect for the photo-oxidation of ethanol. ► The enhanced oxidation rate was explained by the difference in deactivation rate. - Abstract: Highly active photocatalysts were synthesized by leaching of heat-treated titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})/hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder with hydrochloric acid at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 mol/l, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated from in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study of photo-oxidation of gaseous ethanol. By changing the acid concentration, the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composite had different atomic ratios of Ca/Ti (0.0–2.8) and P/Ti (0.3–2.1). It was found that phosphate group remained on the surface of TiO{sub 2} particle even in the sample treated with concentrated acid (0.75 mol/l). These acid-treated samples showed higher rates for ethanol photo-oxidation than the commercial TiO{sub 2} powder, Degussa P25. The highest rate was obtained in the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composite treated with the dilute (0.25 mol/l) acid in spite of its low content of TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. This enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to the result that the deactivation with repeated injections of ethanol gas was suppressed in the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composites compared with the TiO{sub 2} powders.

  18. Severe cooling episodes at the onset of deglaciations on the Southwestern Iberian margin from MIS 21 to 13 (IODP site U1385)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Garcia, Gloria M.; Alonso-Garcia, Montserrat; Sierro, Francisco J.; Hodell, David A.; Flores, José A.

    2015-12-01

    Here we reconstruct past sea surface water conditions on the SW Iberian Margin by analyzing planktonic foraminifer assemblages from IODP Site U1385 sediments (37°34.285‧N, 10°7.562‧W; 2585 m depth). The data provide a continuous climate record from Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 21 to 13, extending the existing paleoclimate record of the Iberian Margin back to the ninth climatic cycle (867 ka). Millennial-scale variability in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) occurred during interglacial and glacial periods, but with wider amplitude (> 5 °C) at glacial onsets and terminations. Pronounced stadial events were recorded at all deglaciations, during the middle Pleistocene. These events are recorded by large amplitude peaks in the percentage of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral coincident with heavy values of planktonic δ18O and low Ca/Ti ratios. This prominent cooling of surface waters along the Portuguese margin is the result of major reorganizations of North Atlantic surface and deep-water circulation in response to freshwater release to the North Atlantic when ice sheets collapse at the onset of deglaciations. In fact, most of these cooling events occurred at times of maximum or increasing northern Hemisphere summer insolation. The slowdown of deep North Atlantic deep-water formation reduced the northward flow of the warm subtropical North Atlantic Drift, which was recorded on the Iberian margin by enhanced advection of northern cold subpolar waters. Following each episode of severe cooling at the onset of deglaciations, surface water experienced abrupt warming that initiated the climatic optimum during the early phase of interglacials. Abrupt warming was recorded by a sudden increase of the subtropical assemblage that indicates enhanced northward transport of heat through the North Atlantic Drift. At the onset of glaciations, SST along the Portuguese margin remained relatively warm while the surface waters of the North Atlantic experienced cooling, generating a

  19. Mediterranean Outflow Water at the Pliocene/Pleistocene transition: New stratigraphic constraints from IODP Site U1389 (Gulf of Cadiz, IODP Expedition 339)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunert, Patrick; Balestra, Barbara; Auer, Gerald; Flores, José-Abel; Richter, Carl; García Gallardo, Ángela; Röhl, Ulla; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-04-01

    IODP Hole U1389E, at present located in the lower core of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) at 640m water depth in the northern Gulf of Cadiz, represents a key-site for the understanding of changes in MOW contribution to the North Atlantic during the late Pliocene and the transition into the Pleistocene ice house climate. Integrated geophysical, micropalaeontological and geochemical proxy records of the recovered sediments imply major changes in MOW strength over the studied interval. However, to consider these data in a broader paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic context, a well-constrained age model is essential. New bio-, chemo-, magnetostratigraphic data and XRF core-scanning suggest that the shipboard age model for the site has to be reconsidered as major changes in the depositional environment have not been recognized in the original, comparably low resolution data-sets. While the new, high-resolution biostratigraphic data confirm the overall time frame of 2.6 to 3.6 Myrs for the studied interval, they also indicate that the last occurrence of Discoaster tamalis in the succession should be reconsidered. New palaeomagnetic data constrain the Gauss normal chron and its subchrons more accurately. Finally, a high-resolution δ18O-record of the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber allows the identification of many marine isotopic chrons, further refining the stratigraphic framework. Cyclic patterns are recognized in the CaCO3 and TOC contents as well as Ca/Ti- and Zr/Al-ratios. A preliminary cyclostratigraphic analysis of these records in well-recovered intervals suggests an interplay of obliquity and precessional forcing reflected in a change from deposits strongly influenced by terrestrial input (3.0-2.8 Myrs) to deposits strongly affected by MOW (2.8-2.6 Myrs). This study contributes to project P25831-N29 of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and is financially supported by grants of ECORD and the Max Kade Foundation.

  20. Toxocariasis diagnosed in international travelers at the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium, from 2000 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Van Den Broucke, Steven; Kanobana, Kirezi; Polman, Katja; Soentjens, Patrick; Vekemans, Marc; Theunissen, Caroline; Vlieghe, Erika; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Jacobs, Jan; Van Den Enden, Erwin; Van Den Ende, Jef; Van Gompel, Alfons; Clerinx, Jan; Bottieau, Emmanuel

    2015-03-01

    Although infection with Toxocara canis or T. catis (commonly referred as toxocariasis) appears to be highly prevalent in (sub)tropical countries, information on its frequency and presentation in returning travelers and migrants is scarce. In this study, we reviewed all cases of asymptomatic and symptomatic toxocariasis diagnosed during post-travel consultations at the reference travel clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. Toxocariasis was considered as highly probable if serum Toxocara-antibodies were detected in combination with symptoms of visceral larva migrans if present, elevated eosinophil count in blood or other relevant fluid and reasonable exclusion of alternative diagnosis, or definitive in case of documented seroconversion. From 2000 to 2013, 190 travelers showed Toxocara-antibodies, of a total of 3436 for whom the test was requested (5.5%). Toxocariasis was diagnosed in 28 cases (23 symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic) including 21 highly probable and 7 definitive. All but one patients were adults. Africa and Asia were the place of acquisition for 10 and 9 cases, respectively. Twelve patients (43%) were short-term travelers (< 1 month). Symptoms, when present, developed during travel or within 8 weeks maximum after return, and included abdominal complaints (11/23 symptomatic patients, 48%), respiratory symptoms and skin abnormalities (10 each, 43%) and fever (9, 39%), often in combination. Two patients were diagnosed with transverse myelitis. At presentation, the median blood eosinophil count was 1720/μL [range: 510-14160] in the 21 symptomatic cases without neurological complication and 2080/μL [range: 1100-2970] in the 5 asymptomatic individuals. All patients recovered either spontaneously or with an anti-helminthic treatment (mostly a 5-day course of albendazole), except both neurological cases who kept sequelae despite repeated treatments and prolonged corticotherapy. Toxocariasis has to be considered in travelers returning

  1. Involvement of two genetic lineages of Sarcoptes scabiei mites in a local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makouloutou, Patrice; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Takeuchi, Masahiko; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sato, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Similar to wild mammals on the continents, mange caused by the mange mite, Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) is spreading in wild mammals in most of Japan. We collected crusted or alopetic skin from 120 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), three raccoons (Procyon lotor), six Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), one Japanese marten (Martes melampus), one stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris), four wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax), and one Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), mainly in an area where mangy wild animals have been increasingly noted in the past 4 yr. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of the ribosomal RNA gene and the partial 16S and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) genes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were characterized in these skin samples. The ITS2 sequencing (404 base pairs [bp]) identified the causative mite for mangy skin lesions of 128 animals as S. scabiei, regardless of host origin. The cat mite (Notoedres cati) was the cause in one raccoon dog and one raccoon. Most mites had almost identical ITS2 nucleotide sequences to those recorded in a variety of mammals worldwide. Partial 16S and cox-1 fragments of mtDNA amplified and sequenced successfully (331 bp and 410 bp, respectively) showed an identical nucleotide sequence except for one site (C vs. T) for the former and four sites (G, C, C, C vs. A, T, T, T, respectively) for the latter fragment. These substitutions were always synchronized, with the two mitochondrial DNA haplotypes (i.e., C/GCCC and T/ATTT) appearing to separately colonize in geographic units. The T/ATTT haplotype fell into a clade where animal-derived mites worldwide dominated, whereas the C/GCCC haplotype formed a geographic branch unique to Japanese isolates. These results suggest that heterologous populations of monospecific S. scabiei are expanding their populations and distributions regardless of host species in an apparently local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan.

  2. Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy, Volume 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2004-10-01

    This book is the fifth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). These OSA Books are intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. This book offers a unique collection of chapters dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, educational policies, public outreach, publication studies, research communication, evaluation procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and sometimes enlightening ‘lessons learned’ sections. The book concludes with an updated bibliography of publications related to socio-astronomy and to the interactions of the astronomy community with the society at large. This book will be most usefully read by researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as by students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. The book includes a CD-ROM containing the visionary and fascinating work of L. Pešek as a space artist. "More than anything else, Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy is about change, recording where we've been and how we have evolved, and extrapolating to where we will be in the coming decades." Caty Pilachowski, outgoing President of the AAS

  3. Prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming cats in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Germinal J; Guerrero, Roberto I; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P<0.01), between season and ectoparasites load, more fleas were obtained in the summer and autumn than in the winter and spring; however, no statistical difference was observed for endoparasites load (P>0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094).

  4. Experimental studies and thermodynamic modelling of volatilities of uranium, plutonium, and americium from their oxides and from their oxides interacted with ash

    SciTech Connect

    Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

    1993-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to identify the types and amounts of volatile gaseous species of U, Pu, and Am that are produced in the combustion chamber offgases of mixed waste oxidation processors. Primary emphasis is on the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Transpiration experiments have been carried out on U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with various ash materials, PuO{sub 2}(s), PuO{sub 2} interacted with ash materials, and a 3%PuO{sub 2}/0.06%AmO{sub 2}/ash material, all in the presence of steam and oxygen, and at temperatures in the vicinity of 1,300 K. UO{sub 3}(g) and UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) have been identified as the uranium volatile species and thermodynamic data established for them. Pu and Am are found to have very low volatilities, and carryover of Pu and Am as fine dust particulates is found to dominate over vapor transport. The authors are able to set upper limits on Pu and Am volatilities. Very little lowering of U volatility is found for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with typical ashes. However, ashes high in Na{sub 2}O (6.4 wt %) or in CaO (25 wt %) showed about an order of magnitude reduction in U volatility. Thermodynamic modeling studies were carried out that show that for aluminosilicate ash materials, it is the presence of group I and group II oxides that reduces the activity of the actinide oxides. K{sub 2}O is the most effective followed by Na{sub 2}O and CaO for common ash constituents. A more major effect in actinide activity lowering could be achieved by adding excess group I or group II oxides to exceed their interaction with the ash and lead to direct formation of alkali or alkaline earth uranates, plutonates, and americates.

  5. Projections of long-term changes in solar radiation based on CMIP5 climate models and their influence on energy yields of photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Henschel, Florian; Müller, Björn

    2015-04-01

    ller, B. 2015: Projections of long-term changes in solar radiation based on CMIP5 climate models and their influence on energy yields of photovoltaic systems, submitted. Muller, B., Wild, M., Driesse, A., and Behrens, K., 2014: Rethinking solar resource assessments in the context of global dimming and brightening, Solar Energy, 99, 272-282. Wild, M. 2012: Enlightening Global Dimming and Brightening. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 27-37, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00074.1

  6. Loess Magnetostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, F.

    More than 10 percent of the earth's land surface are covered by a fine centimetre to metre thick blanket of glacial dust called loess. In the foreland of formerly glaciated regions, loess may achieve much greater thicknesses - up to several hundred metres. The age of the thick loess piles in Central and Eastern Asia, in Europe and the Amer- icas was largely unknown until about 20 years ago. Key information about age and deposition history was first provided by magnetostratigraphic polarity studies on the Chinese loess plateau. Although natural remanent magnetization of the Chinese loess is often extremely viscous, the polarity sequence of the stable magnetization compo- nent could be determined successfully. The major geomagnetic reversal boundaries of the last 2.5 Myr have been identified by a number of researchers. The beginning of loess formation was found to coincide with the onset of ice-rafted detritus in the North Atlantic. Meanwhile the record has been extended down below the loess (sensu stricto) of the Chinese loess plateau into a Pliocene aeolian red clay formation, so that the aeolian record can now be carried back beyond 7 million years B.P. In all loess studies, the Matuyama/Brunhes boundary (MBB) always served as a key element for chronological purposes, and it has recently been found for the first time in one of the numerous intramontane loess basins of South America. The occurrence, appearance and position of reversal boundaries in loess has become a matter of considerable de- bate. A close look at the MBB in the Chinese loess reveals multiple magnetization reversals over short stratigraphic intervals. Furthermore, it is observed in sediments deposited during a glacial interval. In the marine polarity record, however, this bound- ary consists of a single transition well established in an interglacial horizon. These fundamental differences can be explained by lock-in models which take into account the effects of (post-)detrital and chemical

  7. Event attribution using data assimilation in an intermediate complexity atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metref, Sammy; Hannart, Alexis; Ruiz, Juan; Carrassi, Alberto; Bocquet, Marc; Ghil, Michael

    2016-04-01

    attribution of weather and climate-related events, Climatic Change, (in press). Held I. M. and M. J. Suarez, (1994): A Proposal for the Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Atmospheric General Circulation Models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75, 1825-1830. Bourke W. (1972): A multi-level spectral model. I. Formulation and hemispheric integrations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102, 687-701.

  8. Experimental Constraints on the Partitioning and Valence of V and Cr in Garnet and Coexisting Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Berthet, S.; Newville, M.

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments with garnet and coexisting melt have been carried out across a range of oxygen fugacities (near hematite-magnetite (HM) to below the iron-wustite (IW) buffers) at 1.7 GPa to study the partitioning and valence of Cr and V in both phases. Experiments were carried out in a non end loaded piston cylinder apparatus, and the run products were analyzed with electron microprobe and xray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis at beamline 13-ID at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Lab. The valence of vanadium and chromium were determined using the position and intensity of the Ka pre-edge peaks, calibrated on a series of Cr and Vbearing standard glasses. This technique has been applied to V and Cr in glasses and V in spinels previously, and in these isotropic phases there are no orientational effects on the XANES spectra (Righter et al., 2006, Amer. Mineral. 91, 1643-1656). We also now demonstrate this to be true for V and Cr in garnet. Also, previous work has shown that V has a higher valence in the glass (or melt) than in the coexisting spinel. This is also true for V in garnet-glass pairs in this study. Vanadium valence in garnets varies from 2.7 below the IW buffer to 3.7 near HM, and for coexisting glass it varies from 3.2 to 4.3. Vanadium valence measured in some natural garnets from mantle localities indicates V in the more reduced range at 2.5. Comparisons will be made between fO2 estimated from V valence and other methods for garnet-bearing mantle samples. In contrast, Cr valence measured in garnet and coexisting glass for all experimental and natural samples is 2.9- 3.0, suggesting that the valence of Cr does not vary within either phase across a large fO2 range. These results demonstrate that while V varies from 2+ to 3+ to 4+ in garnet-melt systems, Cr does not, and this will ultimately affect the partitioning behavior of these two elements in natural systems. Garnet/melt D(Cr) are between 12 and 17 across this range

  9. Did CO2 injection induce 2006-2011 earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GAN, W.; Frohlich, C.

    2013-12-01

    as a strategy for managing climate change. 1. Davis SD, Pennington WD (1989) Induced seismic deformation in the Cogdell oil field of west Texas. Bull Seismol Soc Amer 79:1477-1495.

  10. To b or not to b ?? A nonextensive view of b-value in the Gutenberg-Richter law.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    , 048501 Telesca, L. (2012). Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer., 102,886-891. Tsallis, C. (2009). Introduction to Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics, Approaching a Complex World Springer, New York Vallianatos, F. and P. Sammonds, (2013). Tectonophysics 590, 52-58 Wesnousky, S. G. (1999). Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 89, 1131-1137.

  11. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    . (1991) On a reactive continuum representation of organic matter diagenesis. Amer. J. Sci. 291, 507-538. Mogollon, J. M., Dale, A. W., Fossing, H. and Regnier, P. (2012) Timescales for the development of methanogenesis and free gas layers in recently-deposited sediments of Arkona Bason (Baltic Sea). Biogeosciences 9, 1915-1933.

  12. Assessment of Changes in Blocking Activity Over Southeastern Brazil Under Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, S. E.; Pedroso, D.; Nascimento, E. D.; Da Rocha, R.; Ambrizzi, T.

    2013-05-01

    . Forecasting, 18, p. 55-74. E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, A. Leetmaa, R. Reynolds, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K.C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, Roy Jenne, and Dennis Joseph, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis project. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 77, p. 437-471. Nascimento, E. L., and T. Ambrizzi, 2002: The influence of atmospheric blocking on the Rossby wave propagation in Southern Hemisphere winter flows. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 80, p. 139-159. Tibaldi, S., E. Tosi, A. Navarra, and L. Pedulli, 1994: Northern and Southern Hemisphere seasonal variability of blocking frequency and predictability. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, p. 1971-2003.

  13. Impact of Ca-amendments and soil management in physical properties linked to soil-water relationship in degraded Ultisols from South-Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariscal-Sancho, I.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, P.; León, P.; Gómez-Paccard, C.; Benito, M.; Espejo, R.

    2012-04-01

    Cañamerós raña formation in western Spain was cleared for cropping in 1940´s. Its highly weathered acidic soils (Ultisols) were deeply affected by tillage. The soil organic matter (SOM) content and specially the particulate organic matter (POM), a labile fraction, were drastically reduced, and most of their chemical and physical soil properties related to its quality were negatively affected. The extraction of Ca through the harvest and the release of Al retained in organic-Al complexes resulted in a lower Ca/Al ratio which increased the Al toxicity. These effects led to a drastic yield reduction and the abandon of many degraded fields after 20-70 years of unsustainable managements. On these degraded soils we studied the effect of different soil management strategies (no-till with wild pasture (WP) and no-till with an improved pasture (IP)), and amendment applications (sugar foam waste (SF), and SF + Phosphogypsum (PH) versus control (C)). One of the objectives of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of these practices to recover soil quality parameters, especially those related to soil-water relationship. A Split-plot experiment was established in a degraded field. We evaluated the changes in superficial infiltration, bulk density, and content of water-stable aggregates per 100 g of soil before the Ca-amendment applications and pasture establishments, and after 4.5 years. We also measured the changes in SOM and POM contents which are closely related with the previous parameters. The Ca applications reduced Al toxicity, improved the pasture yield and increased organic matter inputs to soil. The results showed a significant increase of POM in all treatment compared with the POM content at the beginning of this experiment. However the "SOM minus POM" which could be classified as recalcitrant organic matter did not show significant increments. The increase of POM had a positive effect on the content of water-stable aggregates per 100 g of soil and the water

  14. The diversity of early Life on Earth : implications for life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.; Southam, G.

    expression will still be subtle. Westall, F. & Southam, G. 2006. Early life on Earth. AGU Geophys. Monogr., "Archean Geodynamics and Environment"s 164. pp 283-304. Westall, F. et al. 2006. The 3.466 Ga Kitty's Gap Chert, an Early Archaean microbial ecosystem. In Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec Pub., Processes on the Early Earth 405, 105-131. 1 Allwood, A. et al., 2006. Stromatolite reef from the Early Archaean era of Australia. Nature, 441, 714-718. 2

  15. 13C NMR and fluorescence analysis of tryptophan dynamics in wild-type and two single-Trp variants of Escherichia coli thioredoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Kemple, M D; Yuan, P; Nollet, K E; Fuchs, J A; Silva, N; Prendergast, F G

    1994-01-01

    The rotational motion of tryptophan side chains in oxidized and reduced wild-type (WT) Escherichia coli thioredoxin and in two single-tryptophan variants of E. coli thioredoxin was studied in solution in the temperature range 20-50 degrees C from 13C-NMR relaxation rate measurements at 75.4 and 125.7 MHz and at 20 degrees C from steady-state and time-resolved trp fluorescence anisotropy measurements. Tryptophan enriched with 13C at the delta 1 and epsilon 3 sites of the indole ring was incorporated into WT thioredoxin and into two single-trp mutants, W31F and W28F, in which trp-28 or trp-31 of WT thioredoxin was replaced, respectively, with phenylalanine. The NMR relaxation data were interpreted using the Lipari and Szabo "model-free" approach (G. Lipari and A. Szabo. 1982. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 104:4546-4559) with trp steady-state anisotropy data included for the variants at 20 degrees C. Values for the correlation time for the overall rotational motion (tau m) from NMR of oxidized and reduced WT thioredoxin at 35 degrees C agree well with those given by Stone et al. (Stone, M. J., K. Chandrasekhar, A. Holmgren, P. E. Wright, and H. J. Dyson. 1993. Biochemistry. 32:426-435) from 15N NMR relaxation rates, and the dependence of tau m on viscosity and temperature was in accord with the Stokes-Einstein relationship. Order parameters (S2) near 1 were obtained for the trp side chains in the WT proteins even at 50 degrees C. A slight increase in the amplitude of motion (decrease in S2) of trp-31, which is near the protein surface, but not of trp-28, which is partially buried in the protein matrix, was observed in reduced relative to oxidized WT thioredoxin. For trp-28 in W31F, order parameters near 1 (S2 > or = 0.8) at 20 degrees C were found, whereas trp-31 in W28F yielded the smallest order parameters (S2 approximately 0.6) of any of the cases. Analysis of time-resolved anisotropy decays in W28F and W31F yielded S2 values in good agreement with NMR, but gave tau m values

  16. Predictive Framework and Experimental Tests of the Kinetic Isotope Effect at Redox-Active Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavner, A.; John, S.; Black, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    -1741. J. R. Black, Umeda, G., Dunn, B., McDonough, W. F. and A. Kavner. (2009), J. Amer. Chem. Soc., vol. 131, No.29 2009 pp. 9904-9905 DOI: 10.1021/ja903926x. J. R. Black, S. John, E.D. Young, and A. Kavner, (2010), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol 74 (18) pp. 5187-5201. J. R. Black, J. Crawford, S. John, and A. Kavner, (2011) Redox-driven stable isotope fractionation, in Aquatic Redox Chemistry ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 1071. Tratnyek, P.G., T. J. Grundl, and S. B. Haderlein, eds. Chapter 16, pp 345-359

  17. Model-based estimation of changes in air temperature seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Trigo, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    , 2008. Changing seasonality in North Atlantic coastal sea level from the analysis of long tide gauge records. Tellus, 60A, 165-177. Barbosa, SM, 2009. Changing seasonality in Europe's air temperature. European Physical Journal - Special Topics, 174, 81-89. Compo,G.P., J.S. Whitaker, and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2006: Feasibility of a 100 year reanalysis using only surface pressure data. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 87, 175-190.

  18. Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) during the past 12 months: An Overview of the Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Ya.; Kattsov, V. M.; Lawford, R. G.

    2009-04-01

    across disciplines. References: Groisman P.Ya. and S.V. Ivanov (eds.) 2009: Regional Aspects of Climate-Terrestrial-Hydrologic Interactions in Non-boreal Eastern Europe. Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 251 pp. Groisman, P.Ya. and A. Reissell (eds.) 2009: Proceedings of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) Regional Science Team Meeting devoted to the High Latitudes, 2-6 June, Helsinki,Finland. iLEAPS Science Report Series No 1, University of Helsinki Press, Helsinki, Finland [Available also at http://www.iLEAPS.org]. Groisman, P.Ya., and 27 Co-Authors, 2009: The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership: An Example of Science Applied To Societal Needs. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. (in press). Gutman, G. (ed.) 2009: Arctic land cover and land use in a changing climate: Focus on Eurasia. Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (in press).

  19. Preliminary Experiments and Determination of the Thermal Gradient in a 12.7 mm CaF2 Furnace Assembly, Humboldt State University Piston-Cylinder Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, B. E.

    2004-12-01

    A 12.7 mm piston-cylinder laboratory has been established at Humboldt State University. A series of double-thermocouple (DTC) experiments were performed to measure the thermal profile of the furnace assembly following the procedures of Pickering et al. (1998, Amer. Min.). Furnace assemblies consist of a 304 stainless base plug, CaF&_{2} sleeve, straight-walled graphite heater tube, crushable MgO inner parts, and lower graphite plug and ring which allow for extrusion of the graphite heater tube during shortening of the sleeve and MgO pieces. Careful measurement of pre- and post-run assembly parts indicate an average 30-35% shortening of the assembly. DTC results show a thermal peak that is displaced \\sim2.0 mm above the center of the effective furnace, defined as the length of inner MgO pieces post-run. This offset is in the same direction (upward, toward base plug), but slightly less than the offset described by Pickering et al. (1998). A secondary measure of the thermal profile using spinel growth via reaction between MgO and Al_{2}O_{3} assembly parts (e.g., Watson et al., 2002, CMP) is underway. A single partial melting experiment was performed at 1.0 GPa and 1330\\degC for 72 hours using intermediate peridotite starting material INT-A in a graphite-lined Pt capsule with vitreous carbon spheres as a melt sink. Phase compositions were determined by electron microprobe and mass balance calculations were made to determine melt fraction and mineral mode. Initial calculations yield glass:olivine:cpx:opx:spinel proportions of: 5.0:54.2:15.9:23.9:1.1. These preliminary results correspond well with previous work performed at the University of Oregon on the same starting material (Schwab and Johnston, 2001). The best match is with a 1315\\degC experiment (INT-A13) in terms of mode (6.9:53.7:13.4:25.0:1.0) and glass composition, indicating that the temperature of this initial experiment may be slightly cooler than the target temperature, however the results of this

  20. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-01-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed mine soils (RMS). Experimental sites characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoil were identified. These sites are owned by Americal Electrical Power and are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. The sites chosen were: (1) reclaimed without topsoil application (three under forest and three under continuous grass cover), (2) reclaimed with topsoil application (three under forest and three under continuous grass cover) and (3) unmined sites (one under forest and another grass cover). Soil samples were collected from 0 to 15 cm and 15 to 30 cm depths from each of the experimental site under continuous grass and SOC and, total nitrogen (TN) concentration, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined. The results of the study for the quarter (30 September to 31 December, 2003) showed that soil pH was > 5.5 and EC < 4 dS m{sup -1} for all sites and depths and therefore favorable for grass growth. Among the three reclamation treatments, SOC concentration increased from 1.9 g kg{sup -1} for site reclaimed in 2003 (newly reclaimed and at baseline) to 11.64 g kg{sup -1} for site reclaimed in 1987 (a 5-fold increase) to 20.41 g kg{sup -1} for sites reclaimed in 1978 (a 10- fold increase). However, for sites reclaimed without topsoil application, soil pH, EC, SOC and TN concentrations were similar for both depths. The SOC concentrations in reclaimed sites with topsoil application in 0 to 15 cm depth increased from a base value of 0.7 g kg{sup -1} at the rate of 0.76 g kg{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The high SOC concentration for 0-15 cm layer for site reclaimed in 1978 showed the high carbon sequestration potential upon reclamation and establishment of the grass cover on minesoils.

  1. Eruption reconstruction, formation of flow-lobe tumuli and eruption duration in the 5900 BP Helgafell lava field (Heimaey), south Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Hannes B.; Höskuldsson, Ármann

    2005-10-01

    volumetric effusion rates, we suggest that our estimated eruption duration for Helgafell is reasonable. Our results, building on the suggestion by Hon et al. (1994) [Hon, K., Kauhikaua, J., Denlinger, R., MacKay, K., 1994. Emplacement and inflation of pahoehoe sheet flows: observations and measurements of active lava flows on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 106, 351-370] that the duration of inflation can be estimated for individual flows by measuring inflation features, show that by combining abundant and measureable inflation features with a well-established stratigraphy the duration of an entire pre-historic eruption can be estimated.

  2. Persistance des épidémies de konzo à Kahemba, République Démocratique du Congo: aspects phénoménologiques et socio-économiques

    PubMed Central

    E-Andjafono, Daniel Okitundu Luwa; Makila-Mabe, Guy Bumoko; Ayanne, Marie-Thérèse Sombo Safi; Kikandau, Jackin Kambale; Mashukano, Nicole; Kayembe, Théodore Kazadi; Ngoyi, Dieudonné Mumba; Boivin, Michael Joseph; Tamfum-Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Mayambu, Jean-Pierre Banea; Tshala-Katumbay, Désiré

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Identifier les facteurs déterminant la persistance du konzo à Kahemba en République Démocratique du Congo. Méthodes Une enquête transversale a été réalisée à Kahemba en 2011 auprès des ménages de 123 enfants avec konzo (critères OMS) et de 87 enfants sans konzo. La récolte des données s'est faite par interviews, enquête socio-économique par le questionnaire HOME; observation, mesures anthropométriques et examen clinique; mesure du taux de cyanure (CN) dans la farine de manioc et thiocyanate (SCN) urinaire; et analyses sérologiques pour exclure les infections rétrovirales HTLV-I/II et HIV-I/II. L'analyse statistique a été faite par ANOVA, test de Chi-carré, et Kruskall-Wallis au seuil de signification de 0.05. Résultats La survenue et la sévérité du konzo étaient associées à la pauvreté des ménages (p < 0,05). Les enfants atteints de konzo présentaient une dégradation nutritionnelle avancée (p < 0,05 ml/l) chez les enfants konzo vs. non-konzo. La population attribuait souvent la maladie à la sorcellerie. Conclusion L'intoxication chronique au manioc amer, la malnutrition, ainsi que les croyances superstitieuses favorisent la persistance du konzo à Kahemba. La pauvreté porte le risque d'apparition et de gravité du konzo. Les épidémies de Kahemba dévoilent le risque transgénérationel associé au konzo. L'antécédent de konzo dans la famille élargie constituait un facteur de risque pour la survenue de la maladie (OR= 1,92; p = 0,042). Le taux moyen (±ET) de cyanure dans la farine de manioc était de 92,2 (± 56,2) ppm pour les ménages testés. Les taux moyens (±ET) de SCN urinaire étaient respectivement de 520,4 ± 355,7vs. 382,5± 226,3. PMID:25419339

  3. Geology and the origin of trachytes and pantellerites from the Eburru volcanic field, Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velador, J. M.; Omenda, P. A.; Anthony, E. Y.

    2002-12-01

    (1975, Min. Mag. 40, 405-414) reached the same conclusion and noted high correlation coefficients among F, Zr, and Rb on one hand and Cl, Nb, and Y as a second group. They argued that a halogen-bearing vapor is important to the genesis of the pantellerites. We have verified the same elemental correlations for our data set. Lowenstern (1994, Amer. Min. 79, 353-369) documented immiscible halide fluids in fluid inclusions from the type locality Pantelleria, Italy. This direct observation of halide lends credence to the importance of fluids in peralkaline rhyolites. We are currently examining fluid inclusions from the Eburru samples for similar evidence of a complex volatile phase.

  4. Overview of Lockheed Martin cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nast, T.; Olson, J.; Champagne, P.; Evtimov, B.; Frank, D.; Roth, E.; Renna, T.

    2006-02-01

    Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center (LM-ATC) in Palo Alto, California, has been active in space cryogenic developments for over 30 years. In prior years, work focused on stored cryogen systems for temperatures up to 125 K. As the mechanical cryocoolers matured and demonstrated reliable operation these stored cryogen systems gradually became replaced. LM-ATC is currently developing solid hydrogen systems for temperatures below 7 K [Naes L, Wu S, Cannon J. WISE solid hydrogen cryostat design overview. In: Proceedings of SPIE, cryogenic optical systems and instruments XI, vol. 5904, August, 2005], but these coolers will soon be replaced by mechanical cryocoolers. This paper will present a summary of cryocooler developments at LM-ATC and will describe the recent performance of multiple stage systems. A four-stage pulse tube cryocooler developed under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been recently developed and operated at 3.8 K [Olson JR, Moore M, Champagne P, Roth E, Evtimov B, Jensen J, et al. Development of a space-type-4-stage pulse tube cryocooler for very low temperatures, Adv Cryogen Engr, vol. 50, Amer Inst of Physics, New York, in press]. Coolers with one, two and three stages have also been widely developed [Nast TC et al. Miniature pulse tube cryocooler for space applications. Cryocoolers, vol. 11. New York: Plenum Press; 2000. p. 145-54; Olson J et al. Development of a 10 K pulse tube cryocooler for space applications. In: Ross R, editor. Cryocoolers, vol. 12. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2003. p. 241-6; Nast TC et al. Lockheed Martin two-stage pulse tube cryocooler for GIFTS. Cryocoolers, vol. 13. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2005; Frank D et al. Lockheed Martin RAMOS engineering model cryocooler. Cryocoolers, vol. 13. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2005]. A staging approach is required to achieve very low temperatures, and also provides cooling at warmer temperatures, which is

  5. The liming of the Earth after the Chicxulub large meteorite impact at the K/T boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrinier, P.; Michard, G.; Martinez, I.; Scharer, U.; Deutsch, A.

    2005-05-01

    Shock metamorphism induced by large meteorite impacts on Earth decomposes sediments (carbonates: CaCO3, CaMg(CO3)2 and sulfates: CaSO4) into CaO, MgO, CO2 and SO2. For the Chicxulub case at the K/T boundary, up to 2850 Gt of CO2 and up to 550 Gt of SO2 were liberated into the atmosphere (Ivanov et al., 1996; Pierazzo et al., 1998; Gupta et al., 2002). Though numerous works have depicted the resulting environmental consequences of dispersing CO2, SO2, dust into the atmosphere (greenhouse warming, aerosol cooling, acid rains,...), no study has described the fate of the corresponding liberated CaO and MgO (up to 3718 Gt of CaO) in the atmosphere. Considering the high reactivity and the caustic nature of CaO (lime), we argue that spreading lime on the Earth surface increases the pH of natural waters up to 12.5. It would produce harmful environmental effects (carbonate and metal depletion in natural waters, oxydation of organic matter) and symptomatic isotopic 13C- and 18O-depleted, metal-enriched carbonates would form. Neutralization by the natural carbonate acid-base system (H2CO3/HCO3-/CO32-) of waters, by acid rains (H2CO3, H2SO4, HNO3) produced by the impact generated-CO2 and SO2, NOx and atmospheric CO2 pumping control the duration of this high pH effect on lands, while at the surface of the oceans, dilution and mixing with normal pH (? 8) seawater further reduce the duration of this high pH effect. The timescale of this high pH severe effects would be as short as a few months. As a conclusion, due to its high reactivity, lime rapidly neutralizes a significant part of the acidic atmospheric perturbation produced by the impact-liberated CO2, SO2, NOx. Ivanov et al., 1996 ; Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Pap., 307, 125-142. Pierazzo et al., 1998; J. Geophys. Res., Planet 103(E12), 28607-28625. Gupta et al., 2002; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 201, 1-12

  6. A Coupled Geochemical and Geodynamical Approach for Mantle Melting Beneath Hawaii.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambart, S.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    Paulo & Stolper JGR 1996; 9-Putirka Miner. Soc. Amer. Geochem. Soc. 2008; 10-Turcotte & Schubert Cambridge Press 2002

  7. Fault block kinematics at a releasing stepover of the Eastern California shear zone: Partitioning of rotation style in and around the Coso geothermal area and nascent metamorphic core complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluhar, Christopher J.; Coe, Robert S.; Lewis, Jonathan C.; Monastero, Francis C.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.

    2006-10-01

    , K. Richards-Dinger, The Coso geothermal field: a nascent metamorphic core complex, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 117 (2005) 1534-1553.] characterize as a nascent metamorphic core complex. Consistent with upper plate disruption above a detachment, surface rocks (i.e. the upper plate of the detachment system) at the Coso geothermal area are tilted westward. However they appear to exhibit no detectable rotation. Thus, the style of block rotation may be partitioned: with clockwise vertical-axis rotation dominating in the Wild Horse Mesa and horizontal axis rotation (tilting) in the geothermal area.

  8. Using TRMM and GPM precipitation radar for calibration of weather radars in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisologo, Irene; Bookhagen, Bodo; Smith, Taylor; Heistermann, Maik

    2016-04-01

    . Koistinen, D. Michelson, M. Peura, T. Pfaff, D. B. Wolff (2015): The Emergence of Open Source Software for the Weather Radar Community, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00240.1

  9. CPIC: a curvilinear Particle-In-Cell code for plasma-material interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delzanno, G.; Camporeale, E.; Moulton, J. D.; Borovsky, J. E.; MacDonald, E.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    magnetosphere to the ionosphere [2]. [1] G.L. Delzanno, E. Camporeale, "CPIC: a new Particle-in-Cell code for plasma-material interaction studies", in preparation (2012). [2] J.E. Borovsky, D.J. McComas, M.F. Thomsen, J.L. Burch, J. Cravens, C.J. Pollock, T.E. Moore, and S.B. Mende, "Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Observatory (MIO): A multisatellite mission designed to solve the problem of what generates auroral arcs," Eos. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 79 (45), F744 (2000).

  10. Multiscale Simulation of Moist Global Atmospheric Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2015-04-13

    the sphere of Jablonowski and Williamson (Q. J. R. Met. Soc. 2006), and moist extension of the Held-Suarez idealized climate benchmark (Held and Suarez, Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 1994).

  11. Frequency-dependent Effects of Rupture for the 2004 Parkfield, California, Mainshock at UPSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    velocity and back azimuth to specific locations on the San Andrea fault (Fletcher et al., 2006, Bull. Seism. Soc. Amer.), the values suggest that the low frequency energy comes from shallower parts of the fault and trails the high frequency energy radiated by the rupture front, but we have not investigated the frequency-dependence of this correction.

  12. Generation of high-resolution wind fields from the dense meteorological station network WegenerNet in South-Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Christoph; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Fuchsberger, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    To investigate weather and climate on a local scale as well as for evaluating regional climate models (RCMs) the Wegener Center at the University of Graz established the long-term field experiment WegenerNet Feldbach region, a dense grid of 153 meteorological stations. The observations of these stations are managed by an automatic WegenerNet Processing system. This system includes a quality check of collected observations and a Data Product Generator (DPG), among other subsystems. Products already implemented in the DPG are gridded weather and climate products, generated from the main parameters temperature, precipitation and relative humidity (Kirchengast et. al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 227-242, 2014). Missing elements are gridded wind fields from wind observations. Wind is considered as one of the most difficult meteorological variables to model and depends on many different parameters such as topography and surface roughness. Therefore a simple interpolation can only be performed in case of uniform characteristics of landscape. The presentation introduces our method of generation of wind fields from near real-time observations of the WegenerNet. Purpose of this work is to provide a database with 3D wind fields in a high spatial and time resolution as addition to the existing products, for evaluating convection permitting climate models as well as investigating weather and climate on a local scale. Core of the application is the diagnostic California Meteorological Model (CALMET). This model computes 3D wind fields based on meteorological observational data, a digital elevation model and land use categories. The application generates the required input files from meteorological stations of the WegenerNet Feldbach region and triggers the start of the CALMET model with these input files. In a next step the modeled wind fields are stored automatically every 30 minutes with a spatial resolution of 100 x 100 m in the WegenerNet database. To verify the

  13. Depositional sequences of offshore Canterbury, New Zealand, and preliminary results of stable isotope analyses of the samples from IODP Expedition 317

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyanagi, K.; Koto, S.; Kawagata, S.; Fulthorpe, C.; Blum, P.; Shipboard Scientific Party, E.

    2010-12-01

    provide precise age control. The analyses are carried out at the Kochi Core Research Center using a mass spectrometer (IsoPrime, Isoprime Ltd.). REFERENCES Haq et al., 1987, Science, 235, 1156-1167. Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005, Paleoceanography, 20, PA1003. Lu and Fulthorpe, 2004, Geol., Soc. Amer. Bull., 116, 1345-1366.

  14. Magnetic Characterization of Synthetic SD-like Pyrrhotite and Its Demagnetization under Hydrostatic Pressure up to 1.8 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezaeva, N. S.; Chareev, D. A.; Rochette, P.; Kars, M.; Gattacceca, J.

    2014-12-01

    0 is observed. References: [1] Chareev D. A., Voronin M. V., Osadchii E. G. 2014. Amer. Mineral., doi:10.2138/am-2014-4753 (accepted). [2] Sadykov R.A. et al. 2008. Rev. Sci. Instr. 79: 115102. [3] Dekkers M.J. 1988. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 52, 376-393.

  15. Automatic computation of the travelling wave solutions to nonlinear PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Songxin; Jeffrey, David J.

    2008-05-01

    Bulow, Comput. Phys. Comm. 90 (1995) 102. [2] S.A. Elwakil, S.K. El-Labany, M.A. Zahran, R. Sabry, Phys. Lett. A 299 (2002) 179. [3] E. Fan, Phys. Lett. 277 (2000) 212. [4] W. Malfliet, Amer. J. Phys. 60 (1992) 650. [5] W. Malfliet, W. Hereman, Phys. Scripta 54 (1996) 563. [6] E.J. Parkes, B.R. Duffy, Comput. Phys. Comm. 98 (1996) 288.

  16. Symbolic Dynamics of Reanalysis Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, J. W.; Dickens, P. M.

    2003-12-01

    {Crutchfield, J. and Feldman, D., Chaos, {bf 13}, 25-54 (2003).} 5{Kalnay, E.~, Kanamitsu, M.~, Kistler, R.~, Collins, W.~, Deaven, D.~, Gandin, L.~, Iredell, M.~, Saha, S.~, White, G.~, Woolen, J.~, Zhu, Y.~, Chelliah, M.~, Ebisuzaki, W.~, Higgins, W.~, Janowiak, J.~, Mo, K.~C.~, Ropelewski, C.~, Wang, J.~, Leetmaa, A.~, Reynolds, R.~, Jenne, R.~, and Joseph, D.~, Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 77, 437-471 (1996).}

  17. Basanite-nephelinite suite from early Kilauea: carbonated melts of phlogopite-garnet peridotite at Hawaii's leading magmatic edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, T. W.; Kimura, J.-I.; Coombs, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    A basanite-nephelinite glass suite from early submarine Kilauea defines a continuous compositional array marked by increasing concentrations of incompatible components with decreasing SiO2, MgO, and Al2O3. Like peripheral and post-shield strongly alkalic Hawaiian localities (Clague et al. in J Volcanol Geotherm Res 151:279-307, 2006; Dixon et al. in J Pet 38:911-939, 1997), the early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite glasses are interpreted as olivine fractionation products from primary magnesian alkalic liquids. For early Kilauea, these were saturated with a garnet-phlogopite-sulfide peridotite assemblage, with elevated dissolved CO2 contents responsible for the liquids’ distinctly low-SiO2 concentrations. Reconstructed primitive liquids for early Kilauea and other Hawaiian strongly alkalic localities are similar to experimental 3 GPa low-degree melts of moderately carbonated garnet lherzolite, and estimated parent magma temperatures of 1,350-1,400°C (olivine-liquid geothermometry) match the ambient upper mantle geotherm shortly beneath the base of the lithosphere. The ~3 GPa source regions were too hot for stable crystalline carbonate and may have consisted of ambient upper mantle peridotite containing interstitial carbonate-silicate or carbonatitic liquid, possibly (Dixon et al. in Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9(9):Q09005, 2008), although not necessarily, from the Hawaiian mantle plume. Carbonate-enriched domains were particularly susceptible to further melting upon modest decompression during upward lithospheric flexure beneath the advancing Hawaiian Arch, or by conductive heating or upward drag by the Hawaiian mantle plume. The early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite suite has a HIMU-influenced isotopic character unlike other Hawaiian magmas (Shimizu et al. in EOS Tran Amer Geophys Union 82(47): abstr V12B-0962, 2001; Shimizu et al. in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66(15A):710, 2002) but consistent with oceanic carbonatite involvement (Hoernle et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol

  18. Basaltic Martian analogues from the Baikal Rift Zone and Mongolian terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgurewicz, J.; Kostylew, J.

    2007-08-01

    these results with those of Martian missions. The range of the recorded spectra is from 400 to 2000 cm-1. Characteristic absorption bands in the spectra confirm the presence of minerals observed in thin sections and moreover, indicate the presence of leucite, analcime and saponite. The analyzed spectra have been compared with those of the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer of the Mars Express mission. The long wavelength channel of this spectrometer has a similar spectral range, from 230 to 2000 cm-1. This comparison indicates the similar absorption bands of clinopyroxenes in both spectra. References: [1] Komatsu G. (2003) Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXIV, abstract 1314. [2] Soja C. M. and White B. (2006) Geol. Soc. Amer., 38, 90. [3] Parfenov L. M. et al. (2002) Northeast Asia geodynamics map.

  19. Basanite-nephelinite suite from early Kilauea: Carbonated melts of phlogopite-garnet peridotite at Hawaii's leading magmatic edge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Coombs, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    A basanite-nephelinite glass suite from early submarine Kilauea defines a continuous compositional array marked by increasing concentrations of incompatible components with decreasing SiO2, MgO, and Al2O3. Like peripheral and post-shield strongly alkalic Hawaiian localities (Clague et al. in J Volcanol Geotherm Res 151:279-307, 2006; Dixon et al. in J Pet 38:911-939, 1997), the early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite glasses are interpreted as olivine fractionation products from primary magnesian alkalic liquids. For early Kilauea, these were saturated with a garnet-phlogopite-sulfide peridotite assemblage, with elevated dissolved CO2 contents responsible for the liquids' distinctly low-SiO2 concentrations. Reconstructed primitive liquids for early Kilauea and other Hawaiian strongly alkalic localities are similar to experimental 3 GPa low-degree melts of moderately carbonated garnet lherzolite, and estimated parent magma temperatures of 1,350-1,400??C (olivine-liquid geothermometry) match the ambient upper mantle geotherm shortly beneath the base of the lithosphere. The ???3 GPa source regions were too hot for stable crystalline carbonate and may have consisted of ambient upper mantle peridotite containing interstitial carbonate-silicate or carbonatitic liquid, possibly (Dixon et al. in Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9(9):Q09005, 2008), although not necessarily, from the Hawaiian mantle plume. Carbonate-enriched domains were particularly susceptible to further melting upon modest decompression during upward lithospheric flexure beneath the advancing Hawaiian Arch, or by conductive heating or upward drag by the Hawaiian mantle plume. The early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite suite has a HIMU-influenced isotopic character unlike other Hawaiian magmas (Shimizu et al. in EOS Tran Amer Geophys Union 82(47): abstr V12B-0962, 2001; Shimizu et al. in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66(15A):710, 2002) but consistent with oceanic carbonatite involvement (Hoernle et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol

  20. Remote Sensing of Surficial Process Responses to Extreme Meteorological Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. Robert

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events are associated with changing environmental means. Such events are important in human affairs, and can also be investigated by orbital remote sensing. During the course of this project, we applied ERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat, and an airborne sensor (AIRSAR-TOPSAR) to measure flood extents, flood water surface profiles, and flood depths. We established a World Wide Web site (the Dartmouth Flood Observatory) for publishing remote sensing-based maps of contemporary floods worldwide; this is also an online "active archive" that presently constitutes the only global compilation of extreme flood events. We prepared an article for EOS concerning SAR imaging of the Mississippi Valley flood; an article for the International Journal of Remote Sensing on measurement of a river flood wave using ERS-2, began work on an article (since completed and published) on the Flood Observatory for a Geoscience Information Society Proceedings volume, and presented lectures at several Geol. Soc. of America Natl. Meetings, an Assoc. of Amer. Geographers Natl. Meeting, and a Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium (all on SAR remote sensing of the Mississippi Valley flood). We expanded in-house modeling capabilities by installing the latest version of the Army Corps of Engineers RMA two-dimensional hydraulics software and BYU Engineering Graphics Lab's Surface Water Modeling System (finite elements based pre- and post-processors for RMA work) and also added watershed modeling software. We are presently comparing the results of the 2-d flow models with SAR image data. The grant also supported several important upgrades of pc-based remote sensing infrastructure at Dartmouth. During work on this grant, we collaborated with several workers at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Remote Sensing/GIS laboratory (for flood inundation mapping and modeling; particularly of the Illinois River using the AIRSAR/TOPSAR/ERS-2 combined data), with Dr

  1. Helium Isotopes in Basalt-Hosted Olivines From the Yellowstone Plateau: Implications on Volcanic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedini, A. A.; van Soest, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Kennedy, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    River basalt from Island Park, 18.6 ± 4.0 RA; 4. Osprey basalt from north of the caldera, 25.3 ± 4.4 RA. These ratios are all within the range of OIB and suggest that the preponderance of lower, ~7 RA values in fluid samples involves crustal contamination. Christiansen et al., 2002, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 114 (10), 1245-1256. Craig et al., 1978, Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 897-900. Kennedy et al., 1985, Geochim Cosmochim. Acta, 49 (5), 1251-1261.

  2. Geochemical and stable isotopic evolution of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sracek, Ondra; Hirata, Ricardo

    2002-09-01

    informe es explicar las tendencias geoquímicas y de los isótopos estables en la unidad brasileña del Sistema Acuífero Guaraní (acuíferos de Botucatu y Piramboya), en el Estado de Sao Paulo. Las concentraciones de especies disueltas y los resultados de modelaciones geoquímicas indican que el intercambio catiónico y la disolución de carbonatos desempeñan un papel importante en la evolución aguas abajo del acuífero. La disminución de calcio por el intercambio con sodio origina la disolución de carbonatos, dando lugar a aguas subterráneas de tipo bicarbonatado sódico. El frente de intercambio catiónico se desplaza a una velocidad probablemente mucho más lenta que la del flujo de agua; actualmente, se halla cerca de las ciudades de Sertaozinho y Aguas de Santa Bárbara (pozos PZ-34 y PZ-148, respectivamente), en una zona confinada somera que dista entre 50 y 70 km del área de recarga. Parte del sodio entra probablemente en el Sistema Acuífero Guaraní junto con el cloruro y el sulfato procedentes de la Formación Piramboia inferior, debido a la difusión relacionada con la disolución de evaporitas como la halita y los yesos. Se puede explicar las elevadas concentraciones de flúor (hasta 13,3 mg/L) por la disolución de fluoruro mineral, que sucede también por intercambio catiónico. Sin embargo, no está claro si la disolución ocurre directamente en el Sistema Acuífero Guaraní o en la Formación basáltica superior de Serra Geral. Hay una reducción de δ2H y de δ18O a favor del gradiente hidráulico. Hay un enriquecimiento en δ13C inorgánico aguas abajo, lo que indica que la calcita se disuelve en condiciones de sistema cerrado. Los valores de δ13C inorgánico en pozos geotérmicos profundos son muy altos (mayores que -6,0‰), y probablemente apuntan a un intercambio isotópico con carbonatos de δ13C que tiene un valor del orden del -3,0‰. Las líneas de investigación deberían centrarse en evaluar los flujos verticales y el potencial de

  3. A 400-kyr record of millennial-scale carbonate preservation events in the Southern Ocean: Implications for Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, D. A.; Vautravers, M. J.; Barker, S.; Charles, C.; Crowhurst, S.

    2014-12-01

    Hodell et al. (2001) suggested that carbonate preservation in the deep Cape Basin represented a qualitative, high-resolution record of the temporal evolution of the carbonate saturation state of the deep sea. The carbonate signal reflects both transient events in the redistribution of alkalinity and DIC in the deep ocean and steady-state mass balance processes. Here we re-analyzed the carbonate records of Sites 1089/TN057-21 using an Avaatech XRF core scanner and measured elemental variations at 2.5-mm resolution for the past 400 kyrs. Log Ca/Ti is highly correlated to weight percent carbonate content and other dissolution proxies and resolves millennial-scale events in carbonate preservation. A high-pass filter removes the low-frequency (orbital) variability in carbonate preservation, which is attributed mainly to steady-state mass balance processes. The high-frequency (suborbital) component reflects transient responses to the redistribution of carbonate ion that is related mainly to changing deep-water circulation. During the last glacial period, distinct millennial-scale increases in carbonate preservation in piston core TN057-21 occurred during times of enhanced Atlantic Meridional Overtunring Circulation (AMOC) (Barker et al., 2010; Barker and Diz, 2014), as supported by increases in benthic δ13C and less radiogenic ɛNd values. Carbonate preservation peaked particularly during long, warm interstadials in Greenland when a deep water mass with high carbonate ion concentration was formed in the North Atlantic. Export of NADW may have been greater than the Holocene during some of these events ("overshoots") and/or preformed carbonate ion concentrations in North Atlantic source areas may have been higher owing to lower atmospheric CO2 and less carbonate production in surface water. Each South Atlantic carbonate peak is associated with the start of Antarctic cooling and declining or leveling of atmospheric CO2, reflecting the signature of a thermal bipolar seesaw

  4. Social Amplification of Risk and Crisis Communication Planing - Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.

    2012-04-01

    Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The

  5. Isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains from pork and environmental samples in Xiamen, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongbao; Zhang, Zhigang; Yan, He; Li, Jianrong; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae isolated from swine meat and the breeding environment. A total of 102 MDR Enterobacteriaceae strains belonging to five genera were obtained from 210 samples collected from a large-scale swine farm from March 2012 to June 2013 in Xiamen, People's Republic of China. Among these MDR isolates, Escherichia coli strains were found most frequently in both meat and environmental samples, followed by Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Shigella spp. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that 70.3 % of Escherichia and 50 % of Citrobacter isolates from meat samples shared 100 % homology with relevant isolates from environmental samples. Resistance was most frequently observed to sulfonamide, trimethoprim, aminoglycoside, chloramphenicol, β-lactam, and tetracycline. Close correlation was noted between antibiotic resistance phenotype and the genes responsible for resistance to sulfonamide (sulI), trimethoprim (dhfrI), aminoglycoside (aadA, aac(3)-I, aphA-1, and aac(3)-IV), chloramphenicol (catI and cmlA), β-lactam (blaSHV, blaOXA, and blaTEM), florfenicol (floR), and tetracycline (tet(A) and tet(B)), which were widely distributed with prevalences of 72.5, 6.9, 62.7, 14.7, 78.4, 11.8, 25.5, 42.2, 12.7, 14.7, 39.2, 87.2, 68.6, and 34.3 % , respectively. Class 1 integrons carrying aadA22, dfrA17-aadA5, or dfrA12-aadA2 cassette arrays were commonly found in isolates from all samples. The gene cassette aac(6')-Ib-cr-arr-3-dfrA27-aadA16 was first found in an Enterobacter amnigenus isolate. Conjugation experiments revealed the plasmid-mediated transfer of class 1 integrons. Our results indicate that swine meat and the farming environment can be sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which could be potentially transmitted to humans via the meat products industry chain.

  6. Characterization of flux-grown Trace-element-doped titanite using the high-mass-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazdab, F.K.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of titanite can be readily grown under ambient pressure from a mixture of CaO, TiO2 and SiO2 in the presence of molten sodium tetraborate. The crystals produced are euhedral and prismatic, lustrous and transparent, and up to 5 mm in length. Titanite obtained by this method contains approximately 4300 ppm Na and 220 ppm B contributed from the flux. In addition to dopant-free material, titanite containing trace alkali and alkaline earth metals (K, Sr, Ba), transition metals (Sc, Cr, Ni, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf and Ta), rare-earth elements (REE), actinides (Th, U) and p-block elements (F, S, Cl, Ge, Sn and Pb) have been prepared using the same procedure. Back-scattered electron (BSE) imaging accompanied by ion-microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) analysis confirms significant incorporation of selected trace-elements at structural sites. Regardless of some zonation, the large size of the crystals and broad regions of chemical homogeneity make these crystals useful as experimental starting material, and as matrix-matched trace-element standards for a variety of microbeam analytical techniques where amorphous titanite glass, heterogeneous natural titanite or a non-titanite standard may be less than satisfactory. Trace-element-doped synthetic crystals can also provide a convenient proxy for a better understanding of trace-element incorporation in natural titanite. Comparisons with igneous, authigenic and high-temperature metasomatic titanite are examined. The use of high-mass-resolution SIMS also demonstrates the analytical challenges inherent to any in situ mass-spectrometry-based analysis of titanite, owing to the production of difficult-to-resolve molecular interferences. These interferences are dominated by Ca-Ca, Ca-Ti and Ti-Ti dimers that are significant in the mass range of 80-100, affecting all isotopes of Sr and Zr, as well as 89Y and 93Nb. Methods do exist for the evaluation of interferences by these dimers and of polyatomic interferences on the LREE.

  7. Historical flood analysis of the Eistlenbach and Farnigraben torrents in the Hasli Valley (Bernese Alps) inferred from sedimentary records, historical maps and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monterrubio, Glòria; Schulte, Lothar

    2016-04-01

    Historical sources report that in 1624 the village of Hofstetten was ravaged by a major debris flow from the Eistlenbach torrent, and in 1797 another event erupted from the Lammbach, Schwanderbach and Eistlenbach torrents, demolishing 37 buildings (Eisbacher and Clague,1984). Years later there occurred more debris flows and floods in the area, which also affected buildings and farmlands in the valley. Every debris flow and flood leaves its footprint and shapes the morphology of the landscape causing aggradation in the distal area. The knowledge how landforms such as alluvial fans develop and which areas have been repeatedly affected by geomorphic dynamics is crucial for the assessment and management of hydrological hazards in mountain regions. The study aims to reconstruct historical floods and changes in the geomorphology of the distal areas of Eistlenbach and Farnigraben fans. First results show distinct flood layers which can be related to debris flow and flood events during the last 700 years. Peaks of Log (Zr/Ti) and Ca/Ti correlate with coarse-grained flood layers which can be compared with historical sources, whereas the organic-rich beds and soils indicate higher land surface stability and lower flood activity. In addition a spatial analysis is conducted to identify geomorphological dynamics and changes of the alluvial fan, particularly those which are related to the village of Hofstetten. Thus, survey of aerial photographs and satellite images as well as the interpolation of historical maps from 1797 to present, provide essential information of landform (e.g channels, levees and debris flow lobes) and land cover changes (vegetation, land-use, reforestation). For example, one of the most remarkable observations is the flow change of the Eistlenbach torrent. Previously to 1949 the channel path was straight to the watercourse of Fulbach in the valley bottom and was blocked by the rock drumlin Ballenberg in the south. But since then the channel started to

  8. Health Systems and Sustainability: Doctors and Consumers Differ on Threats and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jane; Walkom, Emily J.; Henry, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Healthcare systems face the problem of insufficient resources to meet the needs of ageing populations and increasing demands for access to new treatments. It is unclear whether doctors and consumers agree on the main challenges to health system sustainability. Methodology We conducted a mail survey of Australian doctors (specialists and general practitioners) and a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) of consumers to determine their views on contributors to increasing health care costs, rationing of services and involvement in health resource allocation decisions. Differences in responses are reported as odds ratios (OR) and 99% confidence intervals (CI). Results Of 2948 doctors, 1139 (38.6%) responded; 533 of 826 consumers responded (64.5% response). Doctors were more concerned than consumers with the effects of an ageing population (OR 3.0; 99% CI 1.7, 5.4), and costs of new drugs and technologies (OR 5.1; CI 3.3, 8.0), but less likely to consider pharmaceutical promotional activities as a cost driver (OR 0.29, CI 0.22, 0.39). Doctors were more likely than consumers to view ‘community demand’ for new technologies as a major cost driver, (OR 1.6; 1.2, 2.2), but less likely to attribute increased costs to patients failing to take responsibility for their own health (OR 0.35; 0.24, 0.49). Like doctors, the majority of consumers saw a need for public consultation in decisions about funding for new treatments. Conclusions Australian doctors and consumers hold different views on the sustainability of the healthcare system, and a number of key issues relating to costs, cost drivers, roles and responsibilities. Doctors recognise their dual responsibility to patients and society, see an important role for physicians in influencing resource allocation, and acknowledge their lack of skills in assessing treatments of marginal value. Consumers recognise cost pressures on the health system, but express willingness to be involved in health care decision

  9. Chronic pain in Australia: a prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Blyth, F M; March, L M; Brnabic, A J; Jorm, L R; Williamson, M; Cousins, M J

    2001-01-01

    This study reports chronic pain prevalence in a randomly selected sample of the adult Australian population. Data were collected by Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) using randomly generated telephone numbers and a two-stage stratified sample design. Chronic pain was defined as pain experienced every day for three months in the six months prior to interview. There were 17,543 completed interviews (response rate=70.8%). Chronic pain was reported by 17.1% of males and 20.0% of females. For males, prevalence peaked at 27.0% in the 65--69 year age group and for females, prevalence peaked at 31.0% in the oldest age group (80--84 years). Having chronic pain was significantly associated with older age, female gender, lower levels of completed education, and not having private health insurance; it was also strongly associated with receiving a disability benefit (adjusted OR=3.89, P<0.001) or unemployment benefit (adjusted OR=1.99, P<0.001); being unemployed for health reasons (adjusted OR=6.41, P<0.001); having poor self-rated health (adjusted OR=7.24, P<0.001); and high levels of psychological distress (adjusted OR=3.16, P<0.001). Eleven per cent of males and 13.5% of females in the survey reported some degree of interference with daily activities caused by their pain. Prevalence of interference was highest in the 55--59 year age group in both males (17.2%) and females (19.7%). Younger respondents with chronic pain were proportionately most likely to report interference due to pain, affecting 84.3% of females and 75.9% of males aged 20--24 years with chronic pain. Within the subgroup of respondents reporting chronic pain, the presence of interference with daily activities caused by pain was significantly associated with younger age; female gender; and not having private health insurance. There were strong associations between having interfering chronic pain and receiving disability benefits (adjusted OR=3.31, P<0.001) or being unemployed due to health reasons

  10. Oxygen Isotope Zoning in Skarn Garnets: Evidence for Spatial and Temporal Fluid Source Variability in the Sierra Nevada and Mojave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevedon, M. L.; Ryan-Davis, J.; Lackey, J. S.; Barnes, J.; Kitajima, K.; Valley, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Skarns provide insight to the depth, longevity, and dominant fluid regime associated with Sierra Nevada plutonism and Mesozoic magmatism in the Mojave National Preserve, which represent different spatial and temporal exposures of the Mesozoic arc. Skarns from these regions may serve as proxies for intricacies in the fluid source, and have the potential to resolve magmatic flare-ups and relative depths of emplacement. Both laser fluorination (LF) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) δ18O analyses of garnet from multiple Mojave (Lucerne valley) skarns indicate a strong, early influence of meteoric fluid despite the presence of relatively deep plutonism. LF data from individual whole garnets and garnet chips broken during sample preparation reveal variation from +4.2‰ to -8.8‰ (n = 24), with an average of approximately -4.0‰. The large spread in these LF data suggest that (A) δ18O reflects an average of varying δ18O (fluid) compositions spanning multiple garnet growth oscillations; or (B) multiple generations of garnets exist within individual skarns, the growth of each coinciding with changes in the hydrothermal source and composition. SIMS analysis of two individual Mojave skarn garnets with oscillatory zoning (seen in backscatter electron images) reveal crystal cores with δ18O values of -9.6‰, internal variations of -9.4‰ to -3.3‰, and crystal rims of -2.2‰ and -2.9‰ (precision ±0.3; 2σ). In general, δ18O values negatively correlate with andradite compositions, with high andradite zones having lower δ18O values ([AND + CaTi] compositions range from 100 to 73). Similar analyses (both SIMS and LF) of garnets from Sierra Nevadan skarns (Tungsten Hills region) show variation in δ18O values with LF data ranging from 5.4‰ to 6.2‰ (n = 8), with an average of 5.7‰, and an additional 2.7‰ value obtained from a garnet interior. SIMS data show δ18O compositional variation from 4.0‰ to 5.9‰. Data across the two Tungsten Hills garnets

  11. Isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains from pork and environmental samples in Xiamen, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongbao; Zhang, Zhigang; Yan, He; Li, Jianrong; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae isolated from swine meat and the breeding environment. A total of 102 MDR Enterobacteriaceae strains belonging to five genera were obtained from 210 samples collected from a large-scale swine farm from March 2012 to June 2013 in Xiamen, People's Republic of China. Among these MDR isolates, Escherichia coli strains were found most frequently in both meat and environmental samples, followed by Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Shigella spp. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that 70.3 % of Escherichia and 50 % of Citrobacter isolates from meat samples shared 100 % homology with relevant isolates from environmental samples. Resistance was most frequently observed to sulfonamide, trimethoprim, aminoglycoside, chloramphenicol, β-lactam, and tetracycline. Close correlation was noted between antibiotic resistance phenotype and the genes responsible for resistance to sulfonamide (sulI), trimethoprim (dhfrI), aminoglycoside (aadA, aac(3)-I, aphA-1, and aac(3)-IV), chloramphenicol (catI and cmlA), β-lactam (blaSHV, blaOXA, and blaTEM), florfenicol (floR), and tetracycline (tet(A) and tet(B)), which were widely distributed with prevalences of 72.5, 6.9, 62.7, 14.7, 78.4, 11.8, 25.5, 42.2, 12.7, 14.7, 39.2, 87.2, 68.6, and 34.3 % , respectively. Class 1 integrons carrying aadA22, dfrA17-aadA5, or dfrA12-aadA2 cassette arrays were commonly found in isolates from all samples. The gene cassette aac(6')-Ib-cr-arr-3-dfrA27-aadA16 was first found in an Enterobacter amnigenus isolate. Conjugation experiments revealed the plasmid-mediated transfer of class 1 integrons. Our results indicate that swine meat and the farming environment can be sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which could be potentially transmitted to humans via the meat products industry chain. PMID:25581181

  12. Multi-parameter analysis of seismoturbidites in the Kumburgaz Basin of Sea of Marmara: Implications for creeping versus locked Central High segment of the North Anatolian Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakupoǧlu, Nurettin; Uçarkuş, Gülsen; Eriş, K. Kadir; Çaǧatay, M. Namık; Henry, Pierre; Yalamaz, Burak; Sabuncu, Asen; Acar, Dursun

    2016-04-01

    proxies (Ca/Ti, Fe, and K) are determined with the μ-XRF core scanner equipped with X-ray radiography. Radiographic images reveal the abrupt changes of the sedimentary structures and smear-slide analysis point out the possible sources of sediments for different turbidites. Keywords: Sea of Marmara, Seismoturbidite, Kumburgaz Basin, Paleoseismology

  13. Spinel and post-spinel phase assemblages in Zn2TiO4: an experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanyao; Liu, Xi; Shieh, Sean R.; Bao, Xinjian; Xie, Tianqi; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Zhigang; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2016-09-01

    Zn2TiO4 spinel (Zn2TiO4-Sp) was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method (1573 K, room P and 72 h) and quasi-hydrostatically compressed to 24 GPa using a DAC coupled with a synchrotron X-ray radiation (ambient T). We found that the Zn2TiO4-Sp was stable up to 21 GPa and transformed to another phase at higher P. With some theoretical simulations, we revealed that this high-P phase adopted the CaTi2O4-type structure (Zn2TiO4-CT). Additionally, the isothermal bulk modulus (K T) of the Zn2TiO4-Sp was experimentally obtained as 156.0(44) GPa and theoretically obtained as 159.1(4) GPa, with its first pressure derivative K_{T}' as 3.8(6) and 4.37(4), respectively. The volumetric and axial isothermal bulk moduli of the Zn2TiO4-CT were theoretically obtained as K T = 150(2) GPa (K_{T}' = 5.4(2); for the volume), K T-a = 173(2) GPa (K_{{T-}a}' = 3.9(1); for the a-axis), K T-b = 74(2) GPa (K_{{T-}b}' = 7.0(2); for the b-axis), and K T-c = 365(8) GPa (K_{{T-}c}' = 1.5(4); for the c-axis), indicating a strong elastic anisotropy. The Zn2TiO4-CT was found as 10.0 % denser than the Zn2TiO4-Sp at ambient conditions. The spinel and post-spinel phase assemblages for the Zn2TiO4 composition at high T have been deduced as Zn2TiO4-Sp, ZnTiO3-ilmenite + ZnO-wurtzite, ZnTiO3-ilmenite + ZnO-rock salt, ZnTiO3-perovskite + ZnO-rock salt, and Zn2TiO4-CT as P increases, which presumably implies a potential stability field for a CT-type Mg2SiO4 at very high P.

  14. Estimate of the size and demographic structure of the owned dog and cat population living in Veneto region (north-eastern Italy).

    PubMed

    Capello, Katia; Bortolotti, Laura; Lanari, Manuela; Baioni, Elisa; Mutinelli, Franco; Vascellari, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the size and demographic structure of animal populations is a necessary prerequisite for any population-based epidemiological study, especially to ascertain and interpret prevalence data, to implement surveillance plans in controlling zoonotic diseases and, moreover, to provide accurate estimates of tumours incidence data obtained by population-based registries. The main purpose of this study was to provide an accurate estimate of the size and structure of the canine population in Veneto region (north-eastern Italy), using the Lincoln-Petersen version of the capture-recapture methodology. The Regional Canine Demographic Registry (BAC) and a sample survey of households of Veneto Region were the capture and recapture sources, respectively. The secondary purpose was to estimate the size and structure of the feline population in the same region, using the same survey applied for dog population. A sample of 2465 randomly selected households was drawn and submitted to a questionnaire using the CATI technique, in order to obtain information about the ownership of dogs and cats. If the dog was declared to be identified, owner's information was used to recapture the dog in the BAC. The study was conducted in Veneto Region during 2011, when the dog population recorded in the BAC was 605,537. Overall, 616 households declared to possess at least one dog (25%), with a total of 805 dogs and an average per household of 1.3. The capture-recapture analysis showed that 574 dogs (71.3%, 95% CI: 68.04-74.40%) had been recaptured in both sources, providing a dog population estimate of 849,229 (95% CI: 814,747-889,394), 40% higher than that registered in the BAC. Concerning cats, 455 of 2465 (18%, 95% CI: 17-20%) households declared to possess at least one cat at the time of the telephone interview, with a total of 816 cats. The mean number of cats per household was equal to 1.8, providing an estimate of the cat population in Veneto region equal to 663,433 (95% CI: 626

  15. Antimicrobial resistance determinants of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from some rivers in Osun State, South-Western Nigeria: Implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Titilawo, Yinka; Obi, Larry; Okoh, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    The inevitable development of resistance has sunk the great success achieved in the discovery of antimicrobial agents and dashed the hope of man in the recovery from infections and illnesses, as diseases and disease agents that were once thought to be controlled by antimicrobials are now re-emerging in new leagues resistance to therapy. A total of 300 PCR confirmed Escherichia coli isolates recovered from different river sources in Osun State, Nigeria were evaluated for their antibiogram profiling by the disc diffusion method and the resistant isolates were further profiled for their genotypic antimicrobial resistance determinants by polymerase chain reaction assays. Among the 20 antimicrobials selected from 10 families, resistance among sulfonamides, β-lactams and tetracyclines were found to be most frequent than phenicols and aminoglycosides with a noticeable increase in the number of multi-drug resistance ranging from three to nine antimicrobials. A total of 19 resistance determinants were assessed with their prevalence and distributions obtained as follows; [sulfonamides sulI (8%), sulII (41%)], [β-lactams; ampC 22%; blaTEM, (21%), and blaZ (18%),], [tetracyclines tetA (24%), tetB (23%), tetC (18%), tetD (78%), tetK (15%), and tetM, (10%)], [phenicols; catI (37%), catII (28%), and cmIA1 (19%)] and [aminoglycosides; aacC2 (8%), aphA1 (80%), aphA2 (80%), aadA (79%) and strA (38%)]. The Pearson chi-square exact test revealed many strong significant associations among ampC, blaTEM, blaZ and tetA genes with some determinants screened. The findings signify high increase in the prevalence of multidrug resistant E. coli isolates and resistance determinants indicating increased public health risks associated with the ingestion of waters from untreated sources. Hence, a necessity for safe water supply, provision of proper sanitation facilities and good surveillance programmes to monitor antimicrobial resistance patterns in water bodies.

  16. Exposure to indoor tanning in France: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tanning lamp sessions have increased in Europe in recent years. Recent epidemiological studies have confirmed a proven link between melanoma and artificial UV exposure. However, in France, little information is available to determine the exposure of the population. This article presents the results from the ‘Baromètre cancer 2010’ concerning the proportion of users exposed to artificial UV radiation in France, their characteristics and level of information on the risks associated. Methods A two stage random sampling telephone survey assisted by CATI system (household, individual) was performed from 3 April 2010 to 7 August 2010 on a sample of 3,359 people aged 15 to 75 years old. Results In 2010, 13.4% of the French population reported to have tanning lamp sessions at least once in their lifetime and 3.5% of the total population reported the use of artificial UV radiation over the last twelve months. Exposure over the last twelve months is most commonly seen among females (5.0%) and young population between 20–25 years old (9.6%). In addition, 3.5% of those under 18 years report having attended UV booths at least once during their lifetime even though they are forbidden to minors. Moreover, more than one the third of users reported more than 10 exposures within a year. The places of exposure cited most often were beauty salons (50%) and tanning centers (46%). Only 49.2% of those surveyed felt that they were well informed on the risks of cancer associated with UV booths. Furthermore, the population was found to have misconceptions about artificial UV radiation. One quarter of the population, believe that artificial UV radiation use before vacation protects the skin from sunburn. Conclusions This first study on artificial UV radiation exposure in France has better quantified and characterized the users. It has also defined the state of knowledge and the perception of risk by the general French population. This work will contribute to determine

  17. Toxocara canis: Molecular basis of immune recognition and evasion

    PubMed Central

    Maizels, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Toxocara canis has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in the tissues of diverse vertebrate species, as well as to develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive canid host. Human disease is caused by larval stages invading musculature, brain and the eye, and immune mechanisms appear to be ineffective at eliminating the infection. Survival of T. canis larvae can be attributed to two molecular strategies evolved by the parasite. Firstly, it releases quantities of ‘excretory–secretory’ products which include lectins, mucins and enzymes that interact with and modulate host immunity. For example, one lectin (CTL-1) is very similar to mammalian lectins, required for tissue inflammation, suggesting that T. canis may interfere with leucocyte extravasation into infected sites. The second strategy is the elaboration of a specialised mucin-rich surface coat; this is loosely attached to the parasite epicuticle in a fashion that permits rapid escape when host antibodies and cells adhere, resulting in an inflammatory reaction around a newly vacated focus. The mucins have been characterised as bearing multiple glycan side-chains, consisting of a blood-group-like trisaccharide with one or two O-methylation modifications. Both the lectins and these trisaccharides are targeted by host antibodies, with anti-lectin antibodies showing particular diagnostic promise. Antibodies to the mono-methylated trisaccharide appear to be T. canis-specific, as this epitope is not found in the closely related Toxocara cati, but all other antigenic determinants are very similar between the two species. This distinction may be important in designing new and more accurate diagnostic tests. Further tools to control toxocariasis could also arise from understanding the molecular cues and steps involved in larval development. In vitro-cultivated larvae express high levels of four mRNAs that are translationally silenced, as the proteins they encode are not detectable in

  18. Immunodiagnostic approaches for the detection of human toxocarosis.

    PubMed

    Boldiš, Vojtech; Ondriska, František; Špitalská, Eva; Reiterová, Katarína

    2015-12-01

    Human toxocarosis is an important zoonosis caused by larvae of Toxocara canis/cati. The objective was to evaluate the role of IgG anti-Toxocara antibody detection and the specific IgG avidity in diagnostics of human toxocarosis. Anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies and IgG avidity were evaluated by excretory-secretory (ES)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The IgG anti-Toxocara seroprevalence in people (n = 7678) from western Slovakia was 15.3% and found to be highest in the oldest age groups. The presence of low- IgG avidity in 179 suspected patients for toxocarosis was evaluated in relation to sex, age, IgG antibody levels, eosinophilia, increased total IgE, domicile, geophagia, dog/cat ownership, anamnesis. Low- IgG avidity index was found in 30.7% of the patients. The low- IgG avidity in eosinophilic group (42.1%) was significantly higher than in non-eosinophilic group (22.0%; P = 0.043). Substantially higher eosinophilia was detected in children (under 10 years old; 55.6%) than in adults (aged ≥ 41 years; 17.6%; P = 0.009). Significant difference between seroprevalence of total IgE in patients coming from towns (48.8%) and patients from villages (21.3%) was established (P = 0.007). Mild negative correlation (r = -0.477, P = 0.043) was observed between the amounts of eosinophils and the values of IgG avidity. The sensitivity and specificity of IgG avidity assay were 43.8% and 83.3%, respectively. Our results suggest that besides anti-Toxocara IgG, measurement of IgG avidity may be useful for the determination of acute toxocarosis. Moreover, these tests should be accompanied by other immunological markers and determinants of examined patients such as eosinophilia, increased total IgE and age. PMID:26505549

  19. Toxocariasis-associated cardiac diseases--A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kuenzli, Esther; Neumayr, Andreas; Chaney, Matthew; Blum, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara catis, is a worldwide occurring parasitic disease, reaching high prevalences especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic seropositivity to life threatenting disease, depending on the organ system involved. Cardiac involvement, one of the possible manifestations of human Toxocara spp. infection, is rarely reported in case reports. As far as we know, no systematic reviews of clinical presentations have been published till now and no clear recommendations regarding the treatment of Toxocara spp. infection involving the heart exist. In a systematic review of the literature, 24 published cases of Toxocara spp. infection involving the heart were identified. The cardiac entities described included myocarditis, pericarditis, and Loeffler's endocarditis. The clinical presentation ranged from asymptomatic or mild disease to life threatening myocarditis/pericarditis with heart failure or cardiac tamponade, leading to death. In most cases, the diagnosis was based on a combination of clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Only in three of the nine cases in which histological analysis was performed (either pre- or post-mortem), granulomas or remnants of the parasite were detected. In the other six cases, findings were non-specific; the damage of the heart was equally caused by direct invasion of the larvae and by immunological reactions, either caused by the systemic hypereosinophilia or by the presence of the larvae in the tissue. The treatment regimen described mostly consisted of anthelmintic drugs in combination with corticosteroids. Even though dosage and duration of treatment varied widely, ranging from days to months, most patients were treated successfully. Cardiac involvement in Toxocara spp. infection is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of a very common disease. The therapeutic regimens vary widely especially with regard to the

  20. Hydrothermal Fluids, Nebular Vapors and Silicate MELTS As Seem through the Eyes of Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, R. O.

    2014-12-01

    Three cases where advances in mineral thermochemistry provide new insights into geological processes are discussed: (I) Sb-rich fahlores are used to constrain compositions of hydrothermal fluids and processes responsible for Ag-Pb-Zn sulfide ores from three Ag mining districts, Keno Hill, (Yukon, Canada); Julcani, (Angaraes, Peru); Coeur d'Alene, (Idaho, USA), confirming that the Ag initially contained in galena solid solutions was a substantial contributor to the total Ag mined in each of them; (II) Al8/3O4-rich MgAl2O4-Al8/3O4 spinels may have condensed from the primordial solar nebula, with their Al8/3O4 annealed out with cooling, as AgSbS2 is "annealed" out of galena in Ag-Pb-Zn ore deposits. Such spinels may explain inconsistencies between mineral condensation sequences recorded in Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in carbonaceous chondrites and those calculated assuming spinel was MgAl2O4. A new thermodynamical model and corundum-bearing CAIs, suggest we may anticipate realization of higher temperatures and pressures of canonical condensation than currently in vogue; (III) Fassitic pyroxenes in the composition space CaMgSi2O6 (Di) - CaTiAlSiO6 (Gr) - CaTi1/2Mg1/2AlSiO6 (AlBf) - CaAl2SiO6 (CATS) exhibit at least one prominent gap evident in composition data from CAIs. This may be interpreted as due to the near superposition of the extension of the Di- AlBf gap into this fassaite tetrahedron, with an isolated two-phase region formed by the double intersections of the (Gr+CATS) - AlBf critical curve with the surfaces of constant Ti(Al)-1 exchange potential characteristic of CAIs. A thermodynamic model for fassaites may provide context for critical thinking about CAI petrogenesis, as well as presaging potential refinements to the thermochemical model for pyroxenes in MELTS.

  1. Assessment of the Hf N, Zr N and Ti N phase diagrams at high pressures and temperatures: balancing between MN and M3N4 (M = Hf, Zr, Ti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Peter

    2004-04-01

    We study the nitrogen-rich part of the phase diagram Hf-N, Zr-N and Ti-N, employing first-principle calculations for an assessment of energy and enthalpy as a function of pressure. At zero pressure the novel cubic Th3P4-type structures are metastable modifications of M3N4 (M = Hf,Zr). The lowest energy configuration of both compounds is an orthorhombic Zr3N4-type. This orthorhombic structure will transform into the Th3P4-type at 9 and 6 GPa, for Hf3N4 and Zr3N4, respectively. The lowest energy configuration of Ti3N4 is a CaTi2O4-type structure. It will first transform into the orthorhombic Zr3N4-type at 3.8 GPa, then further transform into the cubic Th3P4-type at 15 GPa. The spinel type is metastable throughout the phase diagram for all three systems. The phase boundary between mononitrides MN and the M3N4-phases is accessed as a function of pressure. We include the entropy of gaseous nitrogen from tabulated data to estimate the free enthalpy DgrG of the nitride phases. The orthorhombic modification of Hf3N4 turns out to be thermodynamically stable with respect to a decomposition into the mononitrides and nitrogen for temperatures up to about 1000 °C. The stability of Zr3N4 is in question; within the estimated error no final conclusion can be drawn. Ti3N4, on the other hand, will only be metastable. At higher pressures, however, the free energy of nitrogen is substantially reduced and the 3:4 compositions become more stable. We reproduce the experimental requirements (18 GPa and 2800 K) for the synthesis of the novel Hf3N4. At 2800 K the pressures needed to synthesize cubic phases of Zr3N4 and Ti3N4 are estimated to be 40 and 100 GPa, respectively.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance determinants of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from some rivers in Osun State, South-Western Nigeria: Implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Titilawo, Yinka; Obi, Larry; Okoh, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    The inevitable development of resistance has sunk the great success achieved in the discovery of antimicrobial agents and dashed the hope of man in the recovery from infections and illnesses, as diseases and disease agents that were once thought to be controlled by antimicrobials are now re-emerging in new leagues resistance to therapy. A total of 300 PCR confirmed Escherichia coli isolates recovered from different river sources in Osun State, Nigeria were evaluated for their antibiogram profiling by the disc diffusion method and the resistant isolates were further profiled for their genotypic antimicrobial resistance determinants by polymerase chain reaction assays. Among the 20 antimicrobials selected from 10 families, resistance among sulfonamides, β-lactams and tetracyclines were found to be most frequent than phenicols and aminoglycosides with a noticeable increase in the number of multi-drug resistance ranging from three to nine antimicrobials. A total of 19 resistance determinants were assessed with their prevalence and distributions obtained as follows; [sulfonamides sulI (8%), sulII (41%)], [β-lactams; ampC 22%; blaTEM, (21%), and blaZ (18%),], [tetracyclines tetA (24%), tetB (23%), tetC (18%), tetD (78%), tetK (15%), and tetM, (10%)], [phenicols; catI (37%), catII (28%), and cmIA1 (19%)] and [aminoglycosides; aacC2 (8%), aphA1 (80%), aphA2 (80%), aadA (79%) and strA (38%)]. The Pearson chi-square exact test revealed many strong significant associations among ampC, blaTEM, blaZ and tetA genes with some determinants screened. The findings signify high increase in the prevalence of multidrug resistant E. coli isolates and resistance determinants indicating increased public health risks associated with the ingestion of waters from untreated sources. Hence, a necessity for safe water supply, provision of proper sanitation facilities and good surveillance programmes to monitor antimicrobial resistance patterns in water bodies. PMID:25862994

  3. Mid- to Late Holocene Climate Shift in the Southern Gulf of California and Tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Fucugauchi, J. U.; Velasco, V.; Rodriguez, A.; Choumiline, K.

    2014-12-01

    A multiproxy record has been acquired from a gravity core (DIPAL-I K47) taken in La Paz Basin, an area which is situated in the southwestern sector of the Gulf of California at the junction to the Tropical Pacific Ocean. The high-resolution data sets, from XRF, TOC, magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis measurements, were used to track climatic changes in the tropical climate system at sub-centennial time scales over the past 7.3 cal kyr BP. The paleoprecipitation record shows variation trends, with a shift during the mid- to late Holocene, characterized by changes from high to low humidity. Pluvial, biogenic and eolian input, marked by variations in Ti, Si, Fe, K, Ca, Zr/Ti, Ca/Ti and magnetic susceptibility, shows trend changes between 7-5 cal kyr, 5-4.5 cal kyr, 4.5-3.5 cal kyr and 2.15-1.4 kyr. Drought events are recognized from 3.7 to 3.4, 2.8 to 1.8 cal kyr BP, and between 1.4 and 1.2 cal kyr BP. The southern Gulf is well suited for documenting the climatic and precipitation changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean associated with ITCZ latitudinal migration, PDO, ENSO events and the North American monsoon. Analysis of sourcing, transport and deposition of sediments is used for reconstructing the changing ocean-atmosphere circulation patterns, particularly sensitive to paleoprecipitation. The Bay receives sediments mainly from the surrounding volcanic ranges of the peninsular Baja California. There are no rivers in the peninsula and sediments are related to pluvial input trough ephemeral creeks along the steep cliff ranges and narrow shelf. Biogenic sediments are associated with productivity and oceanographic conditions through upwellings and mesoscale gyres. Eolian sediments are transported into the basin from the peninsula and continent, including transport of fine dust from the northern desert of Sonora-Mojave and arid terrains in the peninsula. It is important to highlight that a common 1800 yr solar variation spectral periodicity has been captured

  4. A hypothesis-driven association study of 28 nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Zai, Clement C; Tiwari, Arun K; Brandl, Eva J; Derkach, Andriy; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Müller, Daniel J; Sun, Lei; Kennedy, James L

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondria are the main source of energy for neurons and have a role in many vital neuronal functions. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been described in schizophrenia, and antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine have been associated with differences in gene expression in mitochondria. We investigated the hypothesis that nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, particularly those involved in oxidative phosphorylation or involved in oxidative stress, mitochondrial biogenesis, inflammation, and apoptosis, would be associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG). In total, we selected 28 genes and analyzed 60 SNPs (50 are functional), in 283 schizophrenia subjects, treated with atypical medications for up to 14 weeks. Association between AIWG (as measured by the % of weight gain from baseline) and SNP genotypes were tested using linear regression with treatment duration, baseline body weight, and medication type as covariates. We observed a significant association between rs6435326 in the NDUFS1 gene and AIWG in the subset of European patients (N=150, Pcorrected=0.02). The haplotype carrying the risk alleles of rs6435326 and two other SNPs (rs1053517 and rs1801318) in NDUFS1 was also nominally associated with percentage of weight gain (T-C-G vs A-T-A, P=0.005). In addition, stepwise linear regression was performed to select important variables predictive of the outcome, and a gene-gene interaction analysis was carried out. We observed a significant interaction between the TT risk genotype of rs6435326 in NDUFS1 and AG genotype of rs3762883 in COX18 (Pcorrected=0.001). A permutation-based test of all 60 SNPs jointly showed significant association with weight gain (P=0.02). Finally, our replication study of rs6435326, rs1053517 and rs1801318 in NDUFS1 using samples from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) showed that rs1801318 was significantly associated with AIWG (N=200, Pcorrected=0.04), and the three SNPs were

  5. Parasites of domestic owned cats in Europe: co-infestations and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cats can be infested by a large range of parasite species. Parasitic infestations may cause very different clinical signs. Endoparasites and ectoparasites are rarely explored in the same study and therefore multiparasitism is poorly documented. The present survey aimed to improve knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors associated with ecto- and endoparasite infestations in owned cats in Europe. Methods From March 2012 to May 2013, 1519 owned cats were included in a multicenter study conducted in 9 veterinary faculties throughout Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Hungary, Italy, Romania and Spain). For each cat, ectoparasites were checked by combing of the coat surface associated with otoscopic evaluation and microscopy on cerumen samples. Endoparasites were identified by standard coproscopical examinations performed on fresh faecal samples. Risk factors and their influence on parasitism were evaluated by univariate analysis followed by a multivariate statistical analysis (including center of examination, age, outdoor access, multipet status, and frequency of treatments as main criteria) with logistic regression models. Results Overall, 50.7% of cats resulted positive for at least one internal or one external parasite species. Ectoparasites were found in 29.6% of cats (CI95 27.3-32.0%). Otodectes cynotis was the most frequently identified species (17.4%), followed by fleas (15.5%). Endoparasites were identified in 35.1% of the cats (CI95 32.7-35.7%), including gastro-intestinal helminths in 25.7% (CI95 23.5-28.0), respiratory nematodes in 5.5% (CI95 4.2-7.0%) and protozoans in 13.5% (CI95 11.8-15.3%). Toxocara cati was the most commonly diagnosed endoparasite (19.7%, CI95 17.8-21.8%). Co-infestation with endoparasites and ectoparasites was found in 14.0% of the cats, and 11.9% harbored both ectoparasites and gastro-intestinal helminths. Age, outdoor access, living with other pets, and anthelmintic or insecticide treatments were significantly

  6. Alert but less alarmed: a pooled analysis of terrorism threat perception in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous Australian research has highlighted disparities in community perceptions of the threat posed by terrorism. A study with a large sample size is needed to examine reported concerns and anticipated responses of community sub-groups and to determine their consistency with existing Australian and international findings. Methods Representative samples of New South Wales (NSW) adults completed terrorism perception questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in 2007 (N = 2081) and 2010 (N = 2038). Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Data sets from the two surveys were pooled and multivariate multilevel analyses conducted to identify health and socio-demographic factors associated with higher perceived risk of terrorism and evacuation response intentions, and to examine changes over time. Results In comparison with 2007, Australians in 2010 were significantly more likely to believe that a terrorist attack would occur in Australia (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR) = 1.24, 95%CI:1.06-1.45) but felt less concerned that they would be directly affected by such an incident (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI:0.55-0.75). Higher perceived risk of terrorism and related changes in living were associated with middle age, female gender, lower education and higher reported psychological distress. Australians of migrant background reported significantly lower likelihood of terrorism (AOR = 0.52, 95%CI:0.39-0.70) but significantly higher concern that they would be personally affected by such an incident (AOR = 1.57, 95%CI:1.21-2.04) and having made changes in the way they live due to this threat (AOR = 2.47, 95%CI:1.88-3.25). Willingness to evacuate homes and public places in response to potential incidents increased significantly between 2007 and 2010 (AOR = 1.53, 95%CI:1.33-1.76). Conclusion While an increased proportion of Australians believe that the national threat of terrorism remains high, concern about being personally affected has moderated and

  7. Late Pleistocene to Holocene paleoceanographic and paleo-climatic changes in Gulf of Gemlik, Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filikci, Betül; Kadir Eriş, K.; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Gasperini, Luca; Sabuncu, Asen; Acar, Dursun; Yalamaz, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Gulf of Gemlik is an east-west oriented marine inlet with a maximum depth of 113 m in the south-eastern part of the Sea of Marmara. It is located on the middle branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. While the Gulf of Gemlik is separated from the SoM by a bedrock sill at -50 m, there were presumably several disconnections during the Late Pleistocene to Holocene, but the timing of the youngest connection around the onset of the Holocene is still controversial. Here, we attempt to elucidate the paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental changes during the late glacial-Holocene using the multi-proxy analysis of a core extending back to 13 ka BP. The multi-proxy data include physical and geochemical properties together with AMS 14C ages. The core sediments covering the time period of the last 13 ka BP consists of two main lithostratigraphic units. The lower Unit L2 represents the lacustrine phase of the gulf prior to 10.6 ka BP, while the upper Unit L1 is an overlying transgressive mud drape deposited during the main part of the Holocene. Unit L2 deposited prior 10.6 ka BP represents Bølling-Allerød and Younger Dryas climatic periods, when prograding shelf edge sediments were deposited in the form of well sorted medium sands with brackish water bivalve shells (Dreissenapolymorpha). At the beginning of the Holocene, the rising sea level in the Sea of Marmara breached the -50 m sill at 10.6 ka BP, and therefore the Gulf of Gemlik was converted into a marine realm. Soon after, the water stratifications allowed to the formation of the previously studied two sapropels in the gulf, as shown by increased TOC contents. μ-XRF Ca/Ti and Sr/Ca profiles of Unit L1 provide evidence of rapid climatic changes at 8.2 ka BP and 4.2 ka BP, representing cold and dry short climatic periods which are well correlated with previous marine and lake studies in İznik Lake south of the Sea of Marmara. Keywords: Gemlik Gulf, core, paleoclimate, Late Pleistocene to Holocene

  8. High precision titanium isotope measurements on geological samples by high resolution MC-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leya, Ingo; Schönbächler, Maria; Wiechert, Uwe; Krähenbühl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2007-05-01

    A method has been developed for the precise and reproducible measurement of Ti isotopes in natural materials using high resolution MC-ICPMS. Instrumental mass fractionation is internally corrected using 49Ti/47Ti. Replicate measurements of synthetic standard solutions, terrestrial rocks, and the carbonaceous chondrite Allende yield a long-term reproducibility (2[sigma]) of 0.28[var epsilon], 0.34[var epsilon], and 0.28[var epsilon] for 50Ti/47Ti, 48Ti/47Ti, and 46Ti/47Ti, respectively. Isobaric interferences from 46,48Ca+, 50V+, 50Cr+, and doubly charged Zr can be corrected for reliably in separated Ti solutions with Ca/Ti < 5, V/Ti < 0.3, Cr/Ti < 0.2, and Zr/Ti < 1, respectively. Such elemental ratios are achieved easily in most samples using the anion-exchange procedure presented. Single and double charged polyatomic ions can either be resolved, e.g., 14N36Ar+, or do not compromise the measurements. The method has been successfully applied to terrestrial rocks, meteorites, and various mineral separates. Terrestrial samples and standards agree within analytical uncertainties but are consistently different from the recommended values of Niederer et al. [F.R. Niederer, D.A. Papanastassiou, G.J. Wasserburg, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45 (1981) 1017] with the largest effect on 50Ti/47Ti. The new results provide evidence that the recommended terrestrial 50Ti/47Ti is not well constrained; our data are higher by ~13[var epsilon] than the recommended value. Better agreement is found with the values recommended by Heydegger et al. [H.R. Heydegger, J.J. Foster, W. Compston, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 58 (1982) 406]. Our best estimate for the isotopic composition of terrestrial Ti (relative to 49Ti/47Ti = 0.749766) is: 50Ti/47Ti = 0.73010, 48Ti/47Ti = 10.06884, and 46Ti/47Ti = 1.09325. This corresponds to an atomic weight of 47.877, significantly different from the value of 47.867 recommended by IUPAC. A 50Ti/47Ti anomaly for bulk Allende of 3.37 ± 0.51[var epsilon] is found

  9. Qualitative and quantitative research into the development and feasibility of a video-tailored physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Continued low adherence to physical activity recommendations illustrates the need to refine intervention strategies and increase their effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to conduct formative research related to the development of a next generation of computer-tailored interventions that use online tailored video-messages to increase physical activity. Methods Five focus groups (n = 30), aimed at males and females, aged between 35 and 60 years, that do not meet the physical activity recommendation, were conducted to allow in-depth discussion of various elements related to the development of an online video-tailored intervention. In addition, a series of questions were delivered to a random sample (n = 1261) of Australians, using CATI survey technology, to gain more information and add a quantitative assessment of feasibility related to the development of the intervention. Focus group data was transcribed, and summarised using Nvivo software. Descriptive and frequency data of the survey was obtained using SPSS 18.0. Results Nearly all of the focus group participants supported the concept of a video-tailored intervention and 35.8% of survey participants indicated that they would prefer a video-based over a text-based intervention. Participants with a slow internet-connection displayed a lower preference for video-based advice (31.9%); however less than 20% of the survey sample indicated that downloading videos would be slow. The majority of focus group and survey participants did not support the idea of using mobile phones to receive this kind of intervention and indicated that video-tailored messages should be shorter than 5 minutes. Video-delivery of content is very rich in information, which increases the challenge to appropriately tailor content to participant characteristics; focus-group outcomes indicated a large diversity in participant preferences. 52.4% of survey participants indicated that the videos should be convincing and motivating

  10. [The quality of life in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Lecardeur, L

    2015-09-01

    to change and to treatments and negatively correlated with symptoms (PANSS) and with clinical state (CGI). Two of the recent major antipsychotic efficacy trials, CATIE and CUtLASS, both adopted the Quality of Life Scale as a measure of quality of life.

  11. A pollen-based environmental reconstruction in Lake Hazar (Eastern Turkey) during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene: Example for the Eastern Mediterranean Realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biltekin, Demet; Kadir Eris, Kürsad; Namik Cagatay, Memet; Nagihan Arslan, Tugce; Akcer On, Sena; Acar, Dursun

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Mediterranean realm historically is a melting area for ancient civilisations. This region has been therefore anthropogenically influenced since the Late Pleistocene. The understanding the processes between vegetation and climate, pollen analysis is a significant proxy in the investigation of past climate, vegetation records and the human influence on the environment. In this research, we carried out the environmental changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene using multi-proxy analysis (palynology, XRF core scanner, magnetic susceptibility and TOC) in the sediment core obtained from 54.39 m depth on the northern shelf of Lake Hazar using a percussion piston corer. Lake Hazar (38° 31' N-39° 25' E) is located at ca. 1255 m above sea level, 22 km south-east of Elazıǧ city in eastern Turkey in the south-east Taurus Mountains. It is an oligotrophic, alkaline soda and a tectonic lake being situated on East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). The chronology of the sediment core has been determined using AMS radiocarbon method. We present the first pollen record from the core sediments in Lake Hazar, providing insight into multi-millennial scale climatic changes over the last ~15 14C ka BP. In the piston core, the Bølling/Allerød period is associated by the presence of Pistacia reflecting milder winter conditions with high biological productivity. Onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) period is marked by increase in herbaceous plants and lake level lowering that can also be documented by high magnetic susceptibility and Ca/Ti ratio. The spread of deciduous Quercus at the beginning of Holocene can be attributed to significant forestation due to a high humidity that was presumably sufficient for the establishment of oak forest. An increase in Quercus continued in most of the early and middle Holocene. The 3rd millenium crisis is strongly characterized by an increase in herbal elements, and a decline in Quercus, pointing to dry climatic conditions. The most striking

  12. [Transverse myelitis associated with toxocariasis and the importance of locally produced antibodies for diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Ural, Serap; Özer, Behiye; Gelal, Fazıl; Dirim Erdoğan, Derya; Sezak, Nurbanu; Balık, Recep; Demirdal, Tuna; Korkmaz, Metin

    2016-07-01

    Toxocariasis caused by Toxocara canis or less frequently by T.catis is a common parasitic infection worldwide. Clinical spectrum in humans can vary from asymptomatic infection to serious organ disfunction depending on the load of parasite, migration target of the larva and the inflammatory response of the host. Transverse myelitis (TM) due to toxocariasis is an uncommon illness identified mainly as case reports in literature. In this report, a case of TM who was diagnosed as neurotoxocariasis by serological findings has been presented. A 44-year-old male patient complained with backache was diagnosed as TM in a medical center in which he has admitted two years ago, and treated with pregabalin and nonsteroidal drugs for six months. Because of the progression of the lesions he readmitted to another center and treated with high dose steroid therapy for three months. After six months of follow up, improvement has been achieved, however, since his symptoms reccurred in the following year he was admitted to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed a TM in a lower segment of spinal cord. He was suffering with weakness and numbness in the left lower extremity. There was no history of rural life or contact with cats or dogs in his anamnesis. Physical examination revealed normal cranial nerve functions, sensory and motor functions. There has been no pathological reflexes, and deep tendon reflexes were also normal. Laboratory findings yielded normal hemogram and biochemical tests, negative PPD and parasitological examination of stool were negative for cysts and ova. Viral hepatitis markers, anti-HIV, toxoplasma-IgM, CMV-IgM, rubella-IgM, EBV-VCA-IgM, VDRL, Brucella tube agglutination, echinococcus antibody, autoantibody tests and neuromyelitis optica test were negative. Examination of CSF showed 20 cells/mm3 (mononuclear cells), 45 mg/dl protein and normal levels of glucose and chlorine. In both serum and CSF samples of the patient Toxocara

  13. Cross sectional survey of human-bat interaction in Australia: public health implications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Flying foxes (megachiroptera) and insectivorous microbats (microchiroptera) are the known reservoirs for a range of recently emerged, highly pathogenic viruses. In Australia there is public health concern relating to bats’ role as reservoirs of Australian Bat Lyssavirus (ABLV), which has clinical features identical to classical rabies. Three deaths from ABLV have occurred in Australia. A survey was conducted to determine the frequency of bat exposures amongst adults in Australia’s most populous state, New South Wales; explore reasons for handling bats; examine reported practices upon encountering injured or trapped bats or experiencing bat bites or scratches; and investigate knowledge of bat handling warnings. Methods A representative sample of 821 New South Wales adults aged 16 years and older were interviewed during May and June 2011, using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) method. Frequencies, proportions and statistical differences in proportion were performed. Using an α-value of 0.05 and power of 80%, it was calculated that a sample size of 800 was required to provide statistical significance of +/− 5% for dichotomous variables. Results One-hundred-and-twenty-seven (15.5%) respondents indicated that they had previously handled a bat, being 22% (48/218) rural and 13% (78/597) urban respondents (χ2 = 9.8, p = 0.0018). Twenty one percent of males (63/304) had handled bats compared with 12% (64/517) of females (χ2 = 10.2, p = 0.0014). Overall, 42.0% (n = 345) of respondents reported having seen or heard a warning about handling bats. If faced with an injured or trapped bat, 25% (206/821) indicated that they would handle the bat, with 17% (36/206) saying that they would use their bare hands. For minor scratches, 14% (117/821) indicated that they would ignore the injury while four respondents would ignore major scratches or bites. Conclusions Previous human-bat interactions were relatively common. Bat exposures

  14. Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Kok, Dawie J; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Alva, Roberto; Irwin, Jennifer; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12 mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ≥ 99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel

  15. Perceived coping & concern predict terrorism preparedness in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of major terrorist incidents research shows population shifts towards protective behaviours, including specific preparedness and avoidance responses. Less is known about individual preparedness in populations with high assumed threat but limited direct exposure, such as Australia. In this study we aimed to determine whether individuals with high perceived coping and higher concern would show greater preparedness to respond to terrorism threats. Methods Adults in New South Wales (NSW) completed terrorism perception and response questions as part of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) in 2010 (N=2038). Responses were weighted against the NSW population. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between personal coping/concern factors and terrorism-related preparedness and avoidance behaviours, and to control for potential confounders such as socio-demographic and threat perception factors. Results Increased vigilance for suspicious behaviours was the most commonly reported behavioural response to perceived terrorism threat. Multivariate analyses showed that the factor combination of high perceived coping and higher concern was the most consistent predictor of terrorism preparedness behaviours and evacuation intentions, including increased vigilance (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR)=2.07, p=0.001) learning evacuation plans (AOR=1.61, p=0.05), establishing emergency contact plans (AOR=2.73, p<0.001), willingness to evacuate homes (AOR=2.20, p=0.039), and willingness to evacuate workplaces or public facilities (AOR=6.19, p=0.015) during potential future incidents. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that terrorism preparedness behaviours are strongly associated with perceived high coping but that this relationship is also mediated by personal concerns relating to this threat. Cognitive variables such as coping self-efficacy are increasingly targeted as part of natural hazard preparedness

  16. Toxocara Seropositivity, Atopy and Wheezing in Children Living in Poor Neighbourhoods in Urban Latin American

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Lívia Ribeiro; Veiga, Rafael Valente; Dattoli, Vitor Camilo Cavalcante; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina; Fiaccone, Rosemeire; Santos, Jackson; Cruz, Álvaro Augusto; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Cooper, Philip John; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma. Objectives To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city. Methods The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE). Skin prick test (SPT), total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy. Findings Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE≥0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity. Conclusion The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction. PMID:23133689

  17. Termochemical Models For Slags and Silicate Melts, Review and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottonello, G.

    R.O. (1983) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 84, 107-145. [3] Papale P. (1997) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 126, 237-251. [4] Papale P. (1999) Amer. Mineral., 84, 477-492. [5] Nuccio P.M. and Paonita A. (2999) Earth Planet. Sci. Letters., 183, 499-512. [6] Berman R.G. and Brown T.H. (1984) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 48, 661-678. [7] Lin P.L. and Pelton A.D. (1979) Metall. Trans. B., 10B, 667-675. [8] Pelton A.D. and Blander M. (1986) Metall. Trans. B., 17B, 805-15. [9] Kapoor M.L., Mehrotre G.M. and Frohberg M.G. (1975) Proc. Aust. Inst. Mining Metall., 254, 11. [10] Kapoor M.L., Frohberg G.M. (1971) Proc. Symp. "Chemical Metallurgy of Iron and Steel" Sheffield. [11] Taylor J.R. and Dinsdale A.T. (1990] CALPHAD, 14, 71-88. [12] Sastri P. and Lahiri A.K. (1986) Metall. Trans. B., 17B, 105-110. [13] Bjorkman B. (1985) CALPHAD, 9, 271-282. [14] Hastie J.W., Horton W.S., Plante E.R. and Bonnell D.W. (1982) High Temp. High Press., 14, 669-679. [15] Goel R.P., Kellogg H.H. and Larrain J.M. (1980) Metall. Trans. B., 11B, 107-117. [16] Hillert M., Sundman B. and Wang X. (1990) Metall. Trans. B., 21B, 303-12. [17] Hoch M. and Arpshofen I. (1984) Zeits. fur Metallkde., 75, 23-29. [18] Masson C.R. (1965) Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A287, 201-221. [19] Masson C.R. (1968) J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 51, 134-143. [20] Masson C.R. (1972) Jour. Iron Steel Inst., 210, 89-96. [21] Toop G.W. and Samis C.S. (1962) Can. Met. Quart., 1, 129-52. [22] Toop G.W. and Samis C.S. (1962) Trans. AIME, 224, 878-87. [23] Ottonello G., Moretti R., Marini L. and Vetuschi Zuccolini M. (2000) Chem. Geol., 174, 157-179. [24] Ottonello G. (2001) J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 282, 72-85. [25] Moretti R. and Ottonello G. (2002) , Metall. Trans. (submitted).

  18. Experimental investigations of influence of pressure on the solubility of sulfur in silicate melts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, Anastasia; Gorbachev, Nikolay

    2010-05-01

    observe an extremum around 1.5 GPa. Solubility of sulfur increases from 0.31 wt.% to 1.01 wt.% at P=1-1.5 GPa, T=1300°С and decreases till 0.19 wt.% at P=2.5 GPa, T=1350°С. At ultrahigh (>4GPa) pressure concentration of sulfur in magmas will change slightly, considering increase of magnesian basalt liquidus in temperature and positive influence of temperature on the solubility of sulfur. Extreme character of the pressure dependences plays an important role in transportation of sulfide-silicate melts from the deep magmatic centers into the modern magmatic chambers where most of open deposits of hypabyssal ore-bearing magmas are localized. Possible explanation of an extremum in the field of 1.5-2.0 GPa is character of dissolution of water in silicate melts. Supported by grant RFBR 09-05-01131, 10-05-00928. References: 1.Luhr, J. F. Experimental phase relations of water- and sulphur-saturated arc magmas and the 1982 eruptions of El Chichòn Volcano. Journal of Petrology 31, 1990, p. 1071-1114. 2.Carroll, M. R. & Rutherford, M. J. The stability of igneous anhydrite: experimental results and implications for sulphur behavior in the 1982 El Chichòn trachyandesite and other evolved magmas. Journal of Petrology 28, 1987. p. 781-801. 3.Haughton, D. R., Roeder, P. L. & Skinner, B. J. Solubility of sulphur in mafic magmas. Economic Geology 69, 1974. p. 451-466 4.Wallace P., and Carmachael L.S.E. Sulfur in basaltic magmas. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 1992. p. 1863-1874. 5.Fincham, C. J. B. & Richardson, F. D. Behaviour of sulphur in silicate and aluminate melts. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 223, 1954. p. 40-62. 6.Carroll M.R. and Webster J.D. Solubilities of sulfur, noble gases, nitrogen, chlorine and fluorine in magmas. In Volatiles in Magmas (1994); pp. 231-279. Rev. mineral. 30, Mineralogical Society of America. 7.Mysen B.O., Popp R.N. Amer.J.Sci. V. 280. № 2. 1980 P.788-792. 8.Wendlandt R.F. Sulfide saturation of basalt and andesite melts at high pressure

  19. The STATFLUX code: a statistical method for calculation of flow and set of parameters, based on the Multiple-Compartment Biokinetical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, F.; Mesa, J.; Arruda-Neto, J. D. T.; Helene, O.; Vanin, V.; Milian, F.; Deppman, A.; Rodrigues, T. E.; Rodriguez, O.

    2007-03-01

    radioactive substances, through environmental pathways, is very important for radiological protection of populations. One such pathway, associated with the food chain, is the grass-animal-man sequence. The distribution of trace elements in humans and laboratory animals has been intensively studied over the past 60 years [R.C. Pendlenton, C.W. Mays, R.D. Lloyd, A.L. Brooks, Differential accumulation of iodine-131 from local fallout in people and milk, Health Phys. 9 (1963) 1253-1262]. In addition, investigations on the incidence of cancer in humans, and a possible causal relationship to radioactive fallout, have been undertaken [E.S. Weiss, M.L. Rallison, W.T. London, W.T. Carlyle Thompson, Thyroid nodularity in southwestern Utah school children exposed to fallout radiation, Amer. J. Public Health 61 (1971) 241-249; M.L. Rallison, B.M. Dobyns, F.R. Keating, J.E. Rall, F.H. Tyler, Thyroid diseases in children, Amer. J. Med. 56 (1974) 457-463; J.L. Lyon, M.R. Klauber, J.W. Gardner, K.S. Udall, Childhood leukemia associated with fallout from nuclear testing, N. Engl. J. Med. 300 (1979) 397-402]. From the pathways of entry of radionuclides in the human (or animal) body, ingestion is the most important because it is closely related to life-long alimentary (or dietary) habits. Those radionuclides which are able to enter the living cells by either metabolic or other processes give rise to localized doses which can be very high. The evaluation of these internally localized doses is of paramount importance for the assessment of radiobiological risks and radiological protection. The time behavior of trace concentration in organs is the principal input for prediction of internal doses after acute or chronic exposure. The General Multiple-Compartment Model (GMCM) is the powerful and more accepted method for biokinetical studies, which allows the calculation of concentration of trace elements in organs as a function of time, when the flow parameters of the model are known. However, few

  20. Traces of life on Mars are likely to be very small and very challenging to find

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.; Foucher, F.; Cavalazzi, B.

    2009-04-01

    coccoids 0.4-0.8 µm in diameter that occur in colonial associations of many hundreds of individuals, the colonies reaching sizes of several tens of µm in diameter. Because these sediments have been silicified, specific sample preparation involving delicate acid etching is necessary to reveal the microfossils. Although there may be other modes of preservation of microorganisms on Mars, the recent revelations of amorphous hydrothermal silica (6) suggest that Noachian volcanic lithologies may have been silicified, as in the Early Archaean. Future in situ martian missions, such as MSL and ExoMars, carry microscopes but they will not be able to reveal the presence of individual microfossils like the chemolithotrophs of the Kitty's Gap Chert and probably not even the colonies given the sample preparation necessary (the resolution of the MSL microscope is 12µm and that of ExoMars is 4 µm). However, Raman spectroscopy could identify carbonaceous phases and GC-MS could provide details of the organic composition, even at low bulk C concentrations. On the other hand, organic molecules in the Early Archaean cherts are very degraded and have generally lost their biogenic specificity (7). It may therefore not be possible to unambiguously identify martian biosignatures using in situ instrumentation and returning samples to Earth for detailed analysis in a terrestrial laboratory will probably be necessary. 1. Bibring, J.P., Langevin, Y., Mustard, J et al., 2006.. Science, 312, 400-4. 2. Carr, M., 2006. The surface of Mars. Cambridge Planetary Science, 306 pp. 3. Southam, G., Rothschilde, L., Westall, F., 2007., Space Science Reviews, 129, 7-34. 4. Westall, F. , et al., 2006a. In Processes on the Early Earth (W.U. Reimold & R. Gibson, Eds.), Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec Pub., 405, 105-131. 5. Hofmann, A. & Bohlar, R., 2007. Astrobiology, 7, 355-388. 6. Bishop,J.L., Dobrea, E.Z.N., McKeown, N.K., et al. 2008. Science, 321, 830 - 833. 7. Derenne, S. et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 272, 476

  1. Regionalization of the Turc-Mezentsev water balance formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebecherel, Laure; Andréassian, Vazken

    2013-04-01

    equation for annual evaporation using field observations and results from a biophysical model. Journal of Hydrology, 216(1-2): 99-110. Donohue, R., Roderick, M., McVicar, T., 2011. Assessing the differences in sensitivities of runoff to changes in climatic conditions across a large basin. J. Hydrol., 406(3-4): 234-244. Dooge, J.C.I., 1992. Sensitivty of runoff to climate change - A Hortonian approach. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 73(12): 2013-2024. Mezentsev, V., 1955. More on the computation of actual evaporation (Yechio raz o rastchetie srednevo summarnovo ispareniia). Meteorologia i Gidrologia, 5: 24-26. Oudin, L., Andréassian, V., Lerat, J., Michel, C., 2008. Has land cover a significant impact on mean annual streamflow? An international assessment using 1508 catchments. Journal of Hydrology, 357(3-4): 303-316. Potter, N.J., Zhang, L., 2009. Interannual variability of catchment water balance in Australia. Journal of Hydrology, 369: 120-129. Roderick, M.L., Farquhar, G.D., 2011. A simple framework for relating variations in runoff to variations in climatic conditions and catchment properties. Water Resour. Res., 47. Turc, L., 1954. Le bilan d'eau des sols: relation entre les précipitations, l'évaporation et l'écoulement. Annales Agronomiques, Série A(5): 491-595.

  2. Primary Ferric Iron-Bearing Rhönite in Plutonic Igneous Angrite NWA 4590: Implications for Redox Conditions on the Angrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehner, S. M.; Irving, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    equilibrated at oxygen fugacities near QFM - 2 log units and relatively high temperatures. Although not previously known from angrites, rhönite has been reported from terrestrial alkalic rocks, CV chondrites and a lunar mare basalt [5]. [1] Irving A. et al. (2006) EOS, Trans. AGU 87, #P51E-1245; Kuehner S. and Irving A. (2007) LPS XXXVIII, #1344 [2] Prinz M. et al. (1977) EPSL 35, 317-330 [3] Mukhopadhyay D. and Lindsley D. (1983) Amer. Mineral. 68, 1089-1094 [4] Jurewicz A. et al. (1991) Science 252, 695-698; McKay G. et al. (1994) GCA 58, 2911-2919 [5] Treiman A. (2007) LPS XXXVIII, #1244.

  3. Regional hydroacoustic perspective of the January 2006 eruption at the East Pacific Rise, 9º- 50'N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R. P.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Matsumoto, H.; Fowler, M. J.; Haxel, J. H.; Lau, T.

    2004-12-01

    in succession from being centered at 9°-50'N, south ~20 km to 9°-40'N, then back to back to as far north as 9°-59'N within the 1 hr time period. Roughly 15 hrs after the last earthquake located at the eruption site occurred a sequence of 17 earthquakes began along the western Clipperton Transform, and possibly on the eastern flank of the ridge segment to the north of 9°- 50'N, likely in response to the magma intrusion at the ridge crest. Tolstoy, M, et al., A seafloor spreading event captured by seismometers, Science, 1920-1922, 2006. Cowen, J.P., et al., Volcanic Eruptions at East Pacific Rise Near 9°-50‧N, Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Un., 88, No. 7, 81, 2007

  4. Regional hydroacoustic perspective of the January 2006 eruption at the East Pacific Rise, 9º- 50'N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R. P.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Matsumoto, H.; Fowler, M. J.; Haxel, J. H.; Lau, T.

    2007-12-01

    in succession from being centered at 9°-50'N, south ~20 km to 9°-40'N, then back to back to as far north as 9°-59'N within the 1 hr time period. Roughly 15 hrs after the last earthquake located at the eruption site occurred a sequence of 17 earthquakes began along the western Clipperton Transform, and possibly on the eastern flank of the ridge segment to the north of 9°- 50'N, likely in response to the magma intrusion at the ridge crest. Tolstoy, M, et al., A seafloor spreading event captured by seismometers, Science, 1920-1922, 2006. Cowen, J.P., et al., Volcanic Eruptions at East Pacific Rise Near 9°-50‧N, Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Un., 88, No. 7, 81, 2007

  5. Deep sulfur cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, N.; Mandeville, C. W.

    2009-12-01

    .8 - +5.2‰ with majority between +3 and +5), Krakatau (+1.5 - +8.6‰ with a cluster around +3 - +5), and Augustine (+8 - +12‰) show larger variations among arc magmas than previously known, (4) olivine-hosted melt inclusions from a FAMOUS lava (519-4-1) range from -9.5 to +10.5‰, and (5) undegassed submarine glasses from Samoa (with M. Jackson) appear to show separate ranges for individual islands, including Vailulu clustering around -1.9 to +2.1‰ and Malumalu ranging from -0.9 to -12.1‰. Overall, the results clearly show that low temperature signatures are not completely erased during recycling and isotopic exchange with the mantle infinite reservoir, and that mantle-derived melts still display large isotopic variations for small sampling scales, similar to observations on other isotope systems. Canfield, D. E. (2004) Amer. Jour. Sci., 304, 839-861. Rouxel, O. et al., (2009) Goldschmidt Conf. Abstract.

  6. Drought analysis in Serbia using the Standardized Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosic, I.; Krzic, A.; Djurdjevic, V.; Unkasevic, M.; Rajkovic, B.

    2010-09-01

    the SPI-12 for August during the period 2071-2100 were drawn to determine the spatial changes of droughts. According to the obtained results, moderately dry climate is expected over greater part of the southern Europe, while severely dry climate is expected in southern Greece. From the analysis we can conclude that the EBU-POM model could capture the climatic data and also the drought indices well. Also, this analysis showed how SPI12 can be used to monitor drought conditions in Serbia. Djurdjevic, V., B. Rajkovic (2008) Verification of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model using satellite observations over the Adriatic Sea. Annales Geophysicae, 26, 1935-1954 McKee, T. B., N. J. Doesken, J. Kleist (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 179-184 Unkasevic, M., I. Tosic, D. Vujovic, 2004: Variability and probability of annual and extreme precipitation over Serbia and Montenegro, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 79, 103-109

  7. Secondary iron sulphates in AMD: a minerochemical analysis on jarosite supporting the valorization of its geoenvironmental contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Teresa; Figueiredo, Maria-Ondina

    2010-05-01

    . An improved calculation of the exergy of natural resources for exergetic life cycle assessment (ELCA). Environ. Sci. Technol. 40 (2006) 6844-6851. [2] M.O. Figueiredo, T.P. Silva & J. Mirão (2007) How does the uptake of lead along acid mine drainage processes affect the chemical exergy of jarosite in Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment (ELCA)? IEEES-3, 3rd Internat. Energy, Exergy & Environment Symp. (2007), CD-ROM, 4 pp., Edt. A.F. Miguel et al. (ISBN 978-989-95091-1-5). [3] B. Hendricks. The crystal structure of alunite and jarosite. Amer. Inst. Min. Metallurg. Engr. Technical Publ. 22 (1937) 773-784. [4] A.S. Wills et al. Magnetic properties of pure and diamagnetically doped jarosites: model kagomé antiferromagnets with variable coverage of the magnetic lattice. Phys. Rev B 61 (2000) 6156-6169. [5] S. Menchetti & C. Sabelli. Crystal chemistry of alunite series: crystal structure refinement of alunite and synthetic jarosite. Neues Jahrb. Miner. Monatsch. Heft 9 (1976) 406-417.

  8. Nucleation and Growth of Tetrataenite (FeNi) in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Williams, D. B.; Zhang, J.

    1992-07-01

    should also be given by the alpha/alpha + gamma" and gamma"/alpha + gamma" boundaries of the Fe-Ni phase diagram (Figure 1). However, the Ni content of kamacite and tetrataenite in black plessite, which forms below 400 degrees C, is ~10 wt% in kamacite and ~57 to 60 wt% in tetrataenite, much higher than the values given by the equilibrium phase diagram (3). It has been observed experimentally (4) that the Ni composition of the gamma phase formed by martensite decomposition below 400 degrees C lies along a metastable extension of the high temperature gamma/alpha + gamma phase boundary, Figure 2. Therefore, the FeNi phase formed by alpha(sub)2 decomposition below 400 degrees C has a non-equilibrium Ni content, >50 to 56 wt%. The growth or thickening of the FeNi phase occurs by some combination of interface and diffusion control (3). References: (1) Clarke R. S. and Scott E. R. D. (1980) Amer. Mineral. 65, 624-630. (2) Reuter K. B., Williams D. B., and Goldstein J. I. (1989) Met. Trans. 20A, 719-725. (3) Zhang J., Williams D. B. and Goldstein J. I. (1992) Submitted to Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. (4) Zhang J., Williams L). B. and Goldstein J. I. (1992) Submitted to Met. Trans. Figure 1, which in the hard copy appears here, is an Fe-Ni phase diagram (2). Figure 2, which in the hard copy appears here, shows measured FeNi composition from heat-treated alloys (4).

  9. The Thermal History of Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1992-07-01

    the sulfides, suggesting major differences in the thermal history of the EL and EH chondrites. Two points may be made from the data in Table 1. The EH3 and EL3 chondrites have similar En-CaS equilibration temperatures to those of the higher petrologic types which we suspect reflect pre-metamorphic equilibria. Second, both the cubic sulfides and the phosphides yield metamorphic temperatures for the EH chondrites which are similar to those for ordinary chondrites, while EL chondrites yield very low temperatures. The EL chondrite parent body must have cooled at especially slow rates, perhaps because it was much larger than the EH parent body, or maybe the cooling rate on EL body was governed by the attenuation of the heat source rather than burial depth. Chang Y., Benoit P.H. and Sears D.W.G. (1992) Lunar and Planet. Sci. 23, 217-218. Doan A.S. and Goldstein J.I. (1970) Met. Trans. 1, 1759-1767. El Goresy A. and Ehlers K (1989) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53, 1657-1668. Fogel R.A., Hess P.C. and Rutherford M.C. (1989) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53, 2735-2746. Kissin S.A.(1989) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53, 1649-1655. Larimer J.W. and Buseck P.R. (1974) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 38, 471-477. Skinner B.J. and Luce F.D. (1971) Amer. Min. 56, 1269-1296. Figure 1, which in the hard copy appears here, shows isotherm from the Fe-Ni-P phase diagram with data for enstatite chondrites superimposed.

  10. Aerosol Climatology at Pune, Western India: Implications to Direct Radiative Forcing and Heating Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandithurai, G.; Pinker, R. T.; Devara, P. C.; Raj, P. E.; Jayarao, Y.; Dani, K. K.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Sonbawne, S. M.; Saha, S. K.; Bhawar, R.; Shinde, U. P.

    2005-12-01

    .C.S., R.S. Maheskumar, P.E. Raj, G. Pandithurai and K.K. Dani (2002), Recent trends in aerosol climatology and air pollution as inferred from multi-year lidar observations over a tropical urban station, Int. J. Climatol., 22, 435-449. Nakajima, T., G. Tonna, R. Rao et al. (1996), Use of sky brightness measurements from ground for remote sensing of particulate polydispersions, Appl. Opt., 35, 2672-2686. Pandithurai, G., R.T. Pinker, P.C.S. Devara and T. Takamura (2004), Aerosol radiative forcing over a tropical urban station in India, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L12107, doi: 10.1029/2004GL019702. Ricchiazzi, P., S. Yang, C. Gautier and D. Sowle (1998), SBDART, A research and teaching software tool for plane parallel radiative transfer in the Earth's atmosphere, Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 79, 2101-2114.

  11. Occurrence and environmental implications of the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater treatment plants of Valencia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picó, Yolanda; Andres-Costa, M. Jesus; Andreu, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    of monitoring period, with the exception of 6-ACMOR. Regarding the determination of drugs of abuse in the effluent, the compounds with the highest removals (100%) were AMP, MAMP, THC-COOH and COC. BECG values of removal efficiency ranged from 93.4% in Quart-Benàger to 98.5% in Pinedo II. MDMA removal efficiency is variable depending on the WWTPs while ketamine removal efficiency was negligible. Ecotoxicological risk were calculated for drugs of abuse founded in the effluents of the WWTPs. MDMA could pose a medium risk, KET could pose low risk to the aquatic organisms while BECG couldn't pose environmental risk. Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness trough the project SCARCE-CDS 2009-0065, CGL 2011-29703-C02-01 and GCL CGL 2011-29703-C02-02. MJ Andrés Costa also acknowledges to this Ministry the FPI grant to perform her PhD. References Boles TH., Wells MJM. Analysis of amphetamine and methamphetamine as emerging pollutants in wastewater and wastewater-impacted streams. Journal of Chromatography A 2010; 1217: 2561-2568. Daughton CG In: Daughton CG., Jones-Lepp TL., editors Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment. Scientific and regulatory issues. Washington: Americal Chemical Society (2001) , 348-164.

  12. Possible alteration of rocks observed by Chemcam along the traverse to Glenelg in Gale crater on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Gilles; Blaney, Diana; Bridges, John; Cousin, Agnès; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Mangold, Nicolas; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pinet, Patrick; d'Uston, Claude; Wiens, Roger C.; MSL ScienceTeam, The

    2013-04-01

    few silica-rich spots are more problematic and local Ca-rich salt contamination may also be envisaged rather than a strong leaching which is not reflected in the alkali content of rocks. However, the slight alteration of the mafic constituents into oxides and nontronite remains perhaps possible in rocks, although no sign of alteration is detected in the neighboring soils. Given the likely volcanic context, such a partial alteration of the mafic constituents and the precipitation of Si- and Ca-rich phase may be consistent with an early, local and ephemeral alteration stage by the degassing volatiles affected these rocks during or just after their formation, as suggested by [6], making the alteration history of the local rocks different from the soils. Reference: [1] Wiens R. C. et al. (2012) Spa. Sci. Rev., doi:10.1007/S11214-012-9902-4. [2] Maurice S. et al. (2012) Spa. Sci. Rev., doi:10.1007/s11214-012-9912-2. [3] Berger G. et al. (2009) Amer. Min., 94, 1279-1282. [4] Hurowitz J. A. et al. (2006) J.G.R., doi:10.1029 /2005JE002515. [4] Ehlmann B. L. et al. (2012) Space Sci. rev., doi: 10.1007/s11214-012-9930-0. [5] Meunier A. et al. (2010) Nature Geoscience, doi: 10.1038/NGEO1572.

  13. Thermodynamic Database for the Terrestrial and Planetary Mantle Studies: Where we stand, and some future directions involving experimental studies, numerical protocol for EoS and atomistic calculations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, J.; Tirone, M.; Sorcar, N.

    2013-12-01

    problem of appropriate combination of binary mixing properties in a multicomponent system, and present simplified a-x formalisms for complex multi-site solutions the full-blown treatment of which requires a body of experimental data that are unlikely to be available in the near future. It appears that Cp and the coefficients of thermal expansion and compression of solids could be calculated quite well form density functional theory (DFT) (e.g. 7), so that the future development of databases should not only consider the available DFT data, but also have active involvement in such studies 'to fill the gap' when reliable data are not available. While the current trend in geodynamic modeling is to use thermodynamic properties in tabulated form, more realistic simulations, which we would try to illustrate by examples, would require real-time thermodynamic calculations for evolving bulk compositions; hence the development of a robust yet simple thermodynamic formulation becomes essential. 1. Fabrichnaya et al. (2004), Springer-verlag; 2. Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni, Geophys. J. Int. (2011) 184, 1180-1213. 3. Holland et al. ( 2013) J. Petrol. 4. Report, Geomaterials Genome Project, March 19-23, 2013, Miami, Florida, NSF Geoinformatics program. 5. Ferreira et al. (1988) Phys Rev B, 37, 10547-10570; 6. Ganguly et al. (1993) Amer Min 78, 583-593 7. Ottonello et a. (2009) PCM 36, 87-106

  14. Safety in GPR prospecting: a rarely-considered issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pajewski, Lara; Trela, Christiane; Carrick Utsi, Erica

    2016-04-01

    Optical Society of Americ

  15. Effects of Long-Term Acid-Mine Drainage Contamination on Diversity and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Natural Salt Marsh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, J. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    -grained black muds that are distinguishable from coarser pyrite cinders, and exhibit a noticeably strong sulfide odor. Aero- and halo-tolerant SRB were enriched from circumneutral pH cores, and we hypothesize that acido-tolerant SRB may also be present. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of whole community 16S rDNA extracted from each core shows an expected increase in diversity between acidic and circumneutal sediments, and clone libraries from both contaminated and uncontaminated marsh sediments are being compared to assess the impact of long-term contamination. References: Webb et al. 1998, J. Appl. Microbio., 84, 240-248; Moreau et al. 2003, Amer. Min., in review; URS Corp. 2001, Report 51.09967067.00.

  16. Simulation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds with the ECHAM GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ickes, Luisa; Lohmann, Ulrike; Hoose, Corinna

    2013-04-01

    Mixed-phase clouds are the dominant cloud type in the Arctic and crucial for the Arctic climate and its seasonality by having a profound impact on the radiation balance and thus on the sea ice coverage [1, 2]. The formation and evolution of these clouds is highly dependent on their microphysical processes. Aerosols acting as ice nuclei (IN) cause heterogeneous freezing of water droplets and deposition ice nucleation from the water vapour phase (formation of a mixed-phase cloud). A modest change in IN concentrations can influence the lifetime of mixed-phase clouds. However, the interaction of IN with Arctic clouds is not very well represented in many (global) models, which could be related to inadequate parameterizations of ice nuclei, heterogeneous freezing processes and the cloud processing of aerosols. In this study the freezing processes in mixed-phase clouds and their role for Arctic climate are analyzed using the global climate model ECHAM with a two-moment cloud microphysics scheme [3] coupled to the aerosol module HAM [4]. Therefore a new freezing parameterization scheme based on Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) [5] is introduced into ECHAM. This scheme is able to incorporate laboratory data to describe microphysical properties of the IN. It will be evaluated against two different Arctic case studies in comparison to an empirical freezing parameterization. For evaluation the data of the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment and observations (MPACE) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) is used. In this study we will investigate if the new freezing parameterization leads to a better representation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds in ECHAM. [1] A.J. Prenni, J.Y. Harrington, M. Tjernström, P.J. DeMott, A. Avramov, C.N. Long, S.M. Kreidenweis, P.Q. Olsson, and J. Verlinde. Can ice nucleating aerosols affect arctic seasonal climate? Bull. Amer. Meteorolog. Soc., 88(4):541-550, 2007. [2] H. Morrison, M.D. Shupe, J.O. Pinto, and J.A. Curry

  17. Acquisition and Evaluation of Thermodynamic Data for Morenosite-Retgersite Equilibria at 0.1 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, I.; Seal, R. R.

    2002-12-01

    Metal-sulfate salts are common minerals found in mine drainage environments, and thermodynamic data for these salts are needed for constructing paragenetic models as well as formulating remediation strategies. Thermodynamic data for these salts are either not available or in poor agreement. However, recent development of the humidity-buffer technique (Chou et al., 2002, Amer. Mineral., 87, 108-114) provides an efficient and reliable method for obtaining and evaluating these data. These salts commonly occur in nature as solid solutions and can contain Fe, Cu, Mg, Zn, Al, Mn, Ni, Co, Cd, and other elements. To establish a useful thermodynamic database for the interpretation of natural assemblages, it is necessary to first study thermodynamic properties of end member salts (Chou et al., ibid. for Fe and Cu; Chou and Seal, 2001, Goldschmidt Conf., p. 3114.pdf for Zn, and Chou and Seal, 2001, GSA Abstr. With Progr., 33, p. A-403 for Mg). This study extends the database to the Ni end-member system; dissolved Ni has known toxicity to aquatic ecosystems in mine drainage settings. Published estimates for the equilibrium relative humidity (RH) for the reaction: Morenosite (NiSO4.7H2O) = Retgersite (NiSO4.6H2O) + H2O, at 25°C range from 67 to 96%. To evaluate these data, the humidity-buffer technique (Chou et al., 2002, ibid.) was used to determine equilibrium constants for this reaction between 5 and 22°C at 0.1 MPa. Reversals along five humidity-buffer curves yield ln K = 17.58 + 6303.35/T, where K is the equilibrium constant, and T is temperature in K. The derived standard Gibbs free energy of reaction is 8.84 kJ/mol, which agrees very well with the values of 8.90, 8.83, and 8.85 kJ/mol based on the vapor pressure measurements of Schumb (1923, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 45, 342-345), Bornell and Burridge (1935, Trans. Faraday Soc., 31, 473-478) and Stout et al. (1966, J. Chem. Phys., 44, 405-409), respectively. However, this value is considerably different from the values of 8

  18. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    the Paleo-Asian Ocean the Jiamusi Block underwent a very rapid exhumation in the late Permian. In the early Mesozoic the area went into a basin developing stage and formed a large basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. In the Late Cretaceous the Jiamusi Block started uplifting and the basin was broken into isolate small basins. References: Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Heilongjiang Province. Regional geology of Heilongjiang Province. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993.578-581. Cao Chengrun, Zheng Qingdao. Structural evolution feature and its significance of hydrocarbon exploration in relict basin formation, Eastern Heilongjiang province. Journal of Jilin university (Earth Science Edition), 2003, 33(2):167-172. Lang Xiansheng. Biologic Assemblage features of Coal-bearing Strata in Shuangyashan-Jixian coal-field. Coal geology of China, 2002, 14(2):7-12. Piao Taiyuan , Cai Huawei , Jiang Baoyu. On the Cretaceous coal-bearing Strata in Eastern Heilongjiang. Journal Of Stratigraphy, 2005, 29:489-496. Wang Jie , He Zhonghua , Liu Zhaojun , Du Jiangfeng , Wang Weitao. Geochemical characteristics of Cretaceous detrital rocks and their constraint on provenance in Jixi Basin. Global Geology,2006, 25(4):341-348. DickinsonW R and Christopher A. Suczek. Plate Tectonics and Sandstone Composition. AAPG B. 1979,63(12 ):2164-2182. DickinsonW R, Beard L S, Brakenridge G R, et al. Provenance of North American Phanerozoic sandstones in relation to tectonic setting. Bull Geo-Soc Amer, 1983, 94: 222-235. Maruyama S, Seno T. Orogeny and relative plate motions: Example of the Japanese Islands. Tectonophysics, 1986,127(3-4):305-329. Maruyama S, Isozaki Y, Kimura Gand Terabayashi M C.Paleogeographic maps of the Japanese Islands: plate tectonic systhesis from 750 Ma to the present. Island Arc, 1997,6:121-142.

  19. Topographic control of sorted circle morphology on Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Joana; Hauber, Ernst; Reiss, Dennis; Hiesinger, Harald; Johnsson, Andreas; van Gasselt, Stephan; Balme, Matt; Head, Jim; de Verra, Jean-Pierre; Steinbrügge, Gregor; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    ). For these morphologies, we also measured the slope, aspect and TWI to correlate the topographical parameters with the geomorphological characteristics of the patterned ground, and with predictions from modeling [7]. Our results confirm that the dependence of morphology on topography of sorted circles can be measured using a combination of plan-view and topographic remote sensing data. Thus, as the same quality of data is available on Mars, these same measurements could be made there in order to test whether the circle morphology depends on the local relief patterns in the same ways as in our terrestrial study. A positive result would argue that the Martian features may have formed in the same way (freeze-thaw) as the terrestrial ones. [1] Washburn, A.L. (1956) Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 67, 823-866. [2] Balme et al. (2013) Prog. Phys. Geog. 37, 289-324. [3] Balme et al. (2009) Icarus 200, 30-38. [4] Kreslavsky, M.A., Head, J.W. (2014) LPSC 45, abstract 2715. [5] Hauber et al. (2011) GSA Spec. Paper 483, 177-201. [6] Tolgensbakk, J., Sollid, J.L. (1987) Kvadehuksletta, Geomorfologi og Kvartærgeologi (geomorphological map; scale 1:10,000), Universitet i Oslo. [7] Kessler, M.A., Werner, B.T. (2003) Science 299, 380-383.

  20. Mechanism of early meteoric diagenesis in carbonate dune sands, Tarama Island, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumai, N.; Matsuda, H.

    2012-12-01

    isotopic compositions of both sediments are obviously different from the primary values of recent shallow-marine carbonates. It is, therefore, pointed out that the diagenetic alteration occurs within about 90,000 years at least after the deposition. With the increase in LMC content by early meteoric diagenesis, ARG contents within both UCS and WCS decrease linearly, while HMC is hardly included within WCS. Further, although δ13C and δ18O values change gradually at the same rates with the increase in LMC content within UCS, both values change quickly and the change rate of δ13C value is larger than that of δ18O value within WCS. The petrographical observation shows that transformation within UCS and transformation and cementation within WCS is dominant. It is, therefore, pointed out that the difference of diagenetic process within UCS and WCS controls the change rates of the mineral and isotopic compositions. REFERENCES Hudson, J. D. (1977) Stable isotopes and limestone lithification. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, 133, 637-660. Longman, M. W. (1980) Carbonate diagenetic textures from nearsurface diagenetic environments. Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,64, 461-487.