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Sample records for bertoni extract supplementation

  1. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni extract supplementation improves lipid and carnitine profiles in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Eun; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2010-05-01

    Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a non-caloric natural-source alternative to artificially produced sugar substitutes. This study investigated the effect of stevia extract on lipid profiles in C57BL/6J mice. Forty mice were divided into four groups: N-C (normal diet and distilled water), H-C (high-fat diet and distilled water), H-SC (high fat diet and sucrose, 1 mL kg(-1) per day), and H-SV (high-fat diet and stevia extract, 1 mL kg(-1) per day). Body weight gain was significantly higher in the H-SC group than in the H-SV group. Triglyceride concentrations in serum and liver were lower in the H-SV group than in the H-SC group. Serum total cholesterol concentrations were lower in the H-SV and H-C groups compared to the H-SC group. The concentrations of acid-insoluble acylcarnitine (AIAC) in serum were higher in the H-SV group than in the H-C and H-SC groups and the acyl/free carnitine level in liver was significantly higher in the H-SV group than in the N-C group. These results were supported by mRNA expression of enzymes related to lipid metabolism (ACO, PPARalpha, ACS, CPT-I, ACC) assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that the supplementation of stevia extract might have an anti-obesity effect on high-fat diet induced obese mice.

  2. Antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts from two Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni varieties adapted to cultivation in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Moguel Ordoñez, Yolanda Beatriz; Matus Basto, Ángel; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2014-09-12

    The recent introduction of the cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Mexico has gained interest for its potential use as a non-caloric sweetener, but some other properties of this plant require studies. Extracts from two varieties of S. rebaudiana Bertoni adapted to cultivation in Mexico were screened for their content of some phytochemicals and antioxidant properties. Total pigments, total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts ranged between 17.7-24.3 mg/g, 28.7-28.4 mg/g, and 39.3-36.7 mg/g, respectively. The variety "Criolla" exhibited higher contents of pigments and flavonoids. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged between 618.5-623.7 mM/mg and DPPH decolorization assay ranged between 86.4-84.3%, no significant differences were observed between varieties. Inhibition of β-carotene bleaching ranged between 62.3-77.9%, with higher activity in the variety "Criolla". Reducing power ranged between 85.2-86% and the chelating activity ranged between 57.3-59.4% for Cu²⁺ and between 52.2-54.4% for Fe²⁺, no significant differences were observed between varieties. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that polar compounds obtained during the extraction like chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids contribute to the antioxidative activity measured. The leaves of S. rebaudiana Bertoni could be used not only as a source of non-caloric sweeteners but also naturally occurring antioxidants.

  3. Glucosylation of Steviol and Steviol-Glucosides in Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Hitoshi; Sonoke, Satoru; Ochiai, Hideo; Nishihashi, Hideji; Yamada, Masaharu

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate and characterize stevioside biosynthetic pathway in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni cv Houten, two enzyme fractions that catalyze glucosylation of steviol (ent-13-hydroxy kaur-16-en-19-oic acid) and steviol-glucosides (steviol-13-O-glucopyranoside, steviolbioside and stevioside), utilizing UDP-glucose as the glucose donor, were prepared from the soluble extracts of S. rebaudiana leaves. Enzyme fraction I, passed through DEAE-Toyopearl equilibrated with 50 millimolar K-phosphate pH 7.5, catalyzed the glucosylation to steviol and 19-O-methylsteviol, but not to iso-steviol and 13-O-methylsteviol, indicating that 13-hydroxyl group of the steviol skeleton is glucosylated first from UDP-glucose to produce steviol-13-O-glucopyranoside. Enzyme fraction II, eluted from the DEAE-Toyopearl column with 0.15 molar KCI, catalyzed the glucose transfer from UDP-glucose to steviol-13-O-glucopyranoside, steviolbioside and stevioside, but not to rubusoside (13, 19-di-O-glucopyranoside) and rebaudioside A. The reaction products glucosylated from steviol-13-O-glucopyranoside, steviolbioside and stevioside were identified to be steviolbioside, stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. These results indicate that in the steviol-glucoside biosynthetic pathway, steviol-13-O-glucopyranoside produced from the steviol glucosylation is successively glucosylated to steviolbioside, then to stevioside producing rebaudioside A. PMID:16667943

  4. Extraction of rebaudioside-A by sonication from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf and decolorization of the extract by polymers.

    PubMed

    Gasmalla, Mohammed Abdalbasit A; Yang, Ruijin; Hua, Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Optimization of steviol glycosides extraction from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf was carried out by investigating the effects of isopropyl alcohol concentration (60 %, v/v), time (6-24 min), temperature (30 °C) and sonic power (300-480 W) on extraction of rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana leaves and decolorization of the extract by polymer (Separan AP30 and Resin ADS-7). The results showed that isopropyl alcohol was suitable for the extraction of rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana leaves and the yield of rebaudioside A achieved 35.61 g/100 g when the output power was 360 W and treatment time was 18 min. The sonication had influence on the particle size of stevia leaf and the color of the extracted solution. As the sonication intensity increased, the particle size decreased. The colour of differently treated stevia solutions were significantly different (P < 0.05). Separan AP30 and adsorption resin ADS-7 were performed to remove the colour impurity. The results showed that more than 65 % of the coloured impurity was removed by Separan AP30 combined with Calcium oxide (CaO).

  5. Validation of green-solvent extraction combined with chromatographic chemical fingerprint to evaluate quality of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chin Chye; Tan, Swee Ngin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong; Hew, Choy Sin; Ong, Eng Shi

    2009-02-01

    An approach that combined green-solvent methods of extraction with chromatographic chemical fingerprint and pattern recognition tools such as principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the quality of medicinal plants. Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were used and their extraction efficiencies to extract two bioactive compounds, namely stevioside (SV) and rebaudioside A (RA), from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (SB) under different cultivation conditions were compared. The proposed methods showed that SV and RA could be extracted from SB using pure water under optimized conditions. The extraction efficiency of the methods was observed to be higher or comparable to heating under reflux with water. The method precision (RSD, n = 6) was found to vary from 1.91 to 2.86% for the two different methods on different days. Compared to PHWE, MAE has higher extraction efficiency with shorter extraction time. MAE was also found to extract more chemical constituents and provide distinctive chemical fingerprints for quality control purposes. Thus, a combination of MAE with chromatographic chemical fingerprints and PCA provided a simple and rapid approach for the comparison and classification of medicinal plants from different growth conditions. Hence, the current work highlighted the importance of extraction method in chemical fingerprinting for the classification of medicinal plants from different cultivation conditions with the aid of pattern recognition tools used.

  6. Preparative separation and purification of Rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni crude extracts by mixed bed of macroporous adsorption resins.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Zhenbin; Di, Duolong

    2012-05-01

    The separation and purification of Rebaudioside A (RA) from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni crude extracts (Steviosides) by macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) mixed bed were systematically investigated. MAR mixed bed of HPD750-LSA40-LSA30-DS401 was selected due to its better separation degree. Based on the kinetics/thermodynamics experiment of the mixed bed, it was found that the experimental data fitted better to the pseudo-second-order model, and intra-particle diffusion was rate-limiting step. The adsorption isotherm was consistent with IV equilibrium adsorption isotherm classified by Brunauer. Furthermore, the influencing factors for the separation of RA based on HPLC were also investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the separation degree for RA (DAS) increased from 0.771 to 1.54. Moreover, the experimental results showed that the purity of the obtained product increased from 60% to 97%.

  7. Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Functional Ingredients from Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Voća, Sandra; Dobričević, Nadica; Brnčić, Mladen; Dujmić, Filip; Rimac Brnčić, Suzana

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to reveal an effective extraction procedure for maximization of the yield of steviol glycosides and total phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activity in stevia extracts. Ultrasound assisted extraction was compared with conventional solvent extraction. The examined solvents were water (100°C/24 h) and 70% ethanol (at 70°C for 30 min). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of steviol glycosides in the extracts obtained were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and radical scavenging capacity by 2, 2-azino-di-3-ethylbenzothialozine- sulphonic acid) assay were also determined. The highest content of steviol glycosides, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in stevia extracts were obtained when ultrasound assisted extraction was used. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was correlated with the total amount of phenolic compounds. The results indicated that the examined sonication parameters represented as the probe diameter (7 and 22 mm) and treatment time (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min) significantly contributed to the yield of steviol glycosides, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids. The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of steviol glycosides, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids were as follows: extraction time 10 min, probe diameter 22 mm, and temperature 81.2°C.

  8. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    PubMed

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) extract and N-nitro-L-arginine on renal function and ultrastructure of kidney cells in experimental type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ozbayer, Cansu; Kurt, Hulyam; Kalender, Suna; Ozden, Hilmi; Gunes, Hasan V; Basaran, Ayse; Cakmak, Ecir A; Civi, Kismet; Kalender, Yusuf; Degirmenci, Irfan

    2011-10-01

    Diabetes is the leading cause of chronic renal failure. Our purpose was to determine the effects of N-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) and an extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) (SrB) leaves on renal function in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA)-induced diabetic rats. Rats were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups were controls. Diabetes was induced by STZ-NA in the other four. Diabetic rats were treated with SrB (200 mg/kg), L-NNA (100 mg/kg), or SrB + L-NNA for 15 days after 5-8 weeks of diabetes. At the end of the experiments, urine and blood samples were collected from the rats, and kidney tissue samples were collected with the animals under ether anesthesia. Renal filtration changes were determined by measuring urine pH, urine volume, and serum and urine creatinine. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured in kidney homogenates. Alterations in kidney ultrastructure were determined by electron microscopy, and histological changes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. No statistical differences were observed in urine creatinine or creatinine clearance. Even so, we observed higher NOS activity in SrB-treated diabetic rats. SrB-treated diabetic rats had less mitochondrial swelling and vacuolization in thin kidney sections than other diabetic groups. The control groups showed normal histological structure, whereas in the diabetic groups, membrane thickening, tubular epithelial cells, and cellular degeneration were observed. Thus, SrB has beneficial effects on diabetes compared with l-NNA. Our results support the validity of SrB for the management of diabetes as well as diabetes-induced renal disorders.

  10. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of total extract, stevioside and rebaudioside-A from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) leaves, using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling.

    PubMed

    Ameer, Kashif; Bae, Seong-Woo; Jo, Yunhee; Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Ameer, Asif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-08-15

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) consists of stevioside and rebaudioside-A (Reb-A). We compared response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling for their estimation and predictive capabilities in building effective models with maximum responses. A 5-level 3-factor central composite design was used to optimize microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to obtain maximum yield of target responses as a function of extraction time (X1: 1-5min), ethanol concentration, (X2: 0-100%) and microwave power (X3: 40-200W). Maximum values of the three output parameters: 7.67% total extract yield, 19.58mg/g stevioside yield, and 15.3mg/g Reb-A yield, were obtained under optimum extraction conditions of 4min X1, 75% X2, and 160W X3. The ANN model demonstrated higher efficiency than did the RSM model. Hence, RSM can demonstrate interaction effects of inherent MAE parameters on target responses, whereas ANN can reliably model the MAE process with better predictive and estimation capabilities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Micropropagation and acclimatization of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Chotikadachanarong, Kittisak; Dheeranupattana, Srisuluk

    2013-09-01

    Multiple shoot induction of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni was studied by node explants that were cultured on solidified MS media and supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg L-1 kinetin for 4 weeks. The results showed the maximum amount of multiple shoot induction (9.31+/-4.17 shoots/explant) when cultured on MS media supplemented with 3 mg L-1 kinetin. In vitro shoots were rooted on solidified MS media supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 2 mg L-1 Naphthaleneacetic Acid (NAA) for 4 weeks. The highest number of roots (11.18+/-1.34 roots/shoot) was detected on a concentration of 0.1 mg L-1 NAA while the high survival rate (80%) was obtained when the rooted plantlets were transferred to greenhouse conditions.

  12. An efficient microwave-assisted extraction process of stevioside and rebaudioside-A from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    PubMed

    Jaitak, Vikas; Bikram Singh, Bandna; Kaul, V K

    2009-01-01

    Stevioside and rebaudioside-A are major low-calorie diterpene steviol glycosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. They are widely used as natural sweeteners for diabetic patients, but the long extraction procedures required and the optimisation of product yield present challenging problems. To develop a rapid and effective methodology for the extraction of stevioside and rebaudioside-A from S. rebaudiana leaves and to compare yields using different extraction techniques. Dried and powdered leaves of S. rebaudiana were extracted by conventional, ultrasound and microwave-assisted extraction techniques using methanol, ethanol and water as single solvents as well as in binary mixtures. Conventional cold extraction was performed at 25 degrees C for 12 h while ultrasound extraction was carried out at temperature of 35 +/- 5 degrees C for 30 min. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was carried out at a power level of 80 W for 1 min at 50 degrees C. MAE yielded 8.64 and 2.34% of stevioside and rebaudioside-A, respectively, while conventional and ultrasound techniques yielded 6.54 and 1.20%, and 4.20 and 1.98% of stevioside and rebaudioside-A, respectively. A rapid and efficient method has been developed for the extraction of stevioside and rebaudioside-A in optimum yields using MAE procedure. This method has the advantage of rapid extraction and fast screening of a large number of S. rebaudiana samples for assessment of planting material. MAE saves considerable time, energy and has implications in the quality assessment of stevioside and rebaudioside-A prior to their industrial production from the leaves of S. rebaudiana. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as a natural antioxidant/antimicrobial for high pressure processed fruit extract: processing parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Barba, Francisco José; Criado, María Nieves; Belda-Galbis, Clara Miracle; Esteve, María José; Rodrigo, Dolores

    2014-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the optimal high pressure processing treatment (300-500 MPa, 5-15 min) combined with Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia) addition (0-2.5% (w/v)) to guarantee food safety while maintaining maximum retention of nutritional properties. A fruit extract matrix was selected and Listeria monocytogenes inactivation was followed from the food safety point of view while polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (TEAC and ORAC) were studied from the food quality point of view. A combination of treatments achieved higher levels of inactivation of L. monocytogenes and of the oxidative enzymes, succeeding in completely inactivating POD and also increasing the levels of TPC, TEAC and ORAC. A treatment of 453 MPa for 5 min with a 2.5% (w/v) of Stevia succeeded in inactivating over 5 log cycles of L. monocytogenes and maximizing inactivation of PPO and POD, with the greatest retention of bioactive components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological Activity of Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni and Their Relationship to Health.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda Beatriz; Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi

    2015-10-19

    The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has nutrients and phytochemicals, which make it an adequate source for the extraction and production of functional food ingredients. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest therapeutic and pharmacological applications for stevia and their extracts because they are not toxic and exhibit several biological activities. This review presents the biological activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and their relationship to antidiabetic, anticariogenic, antioxidant, hypotensive, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, anti-inflamatory and anti-tumor activities. Consumption and adverse effects were also reviewed.

  15. Sweeteners from plants--with emphasis on Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) and Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle).

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul S; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    In addition to their widely recognized use as dietary supplement ingredients, plant-derived compounds are increasingly used as natural sweeteners. The search for nonnutritive sweeteners has been stimulated over the last 20-30 years by concern over demonstrated or suspected relationships between consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrups and a variety of health-related conditions. In the USA, there is increased use of plant extracts known to contain highly sweet terpenoids. Purified extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) containing the diterpene glycosides stevioside and rebaudioside A are popular as sweeteners and are also used as dietary supplements, and soft drinks and nutritional and energy shakes incorporating extracts of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) fruits containing sweet triterpene glycosides such as mogroside V are also on the market. Here, we review recent studies on these two important sources of noncaloric natural sweeteners, including analytical methods used to identify and quantify specific constituents and structural features relating to their sweetness. We also review the generally recognized as safe status of specific components and their status with respect to review by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

  16. Use of the modified Gompertz equation to assess the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antilisterial kinetics.

    PubMed

    Belda-Galbis, Clara Miracle; Pina-Pérez, María Consuelo; Espinosa, Josepa; Marco-Celdrán, Aurora; Martínez, Antonio; Rodrigo, Dolores

    2014-04-01

    In order to assess the antibacterial activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Stevia), Listeria innocua growth was characterized at 37 °C, in reference medium supplemented with a leaf infusion, a crude extract, and a steviol glycosides purified extract. Experimental data were fitted to the modified Gompertz model and the antibacterial activity of Stevia was determined based on the lag time (λ) and the maximum growth rate (μmax) reached, depending on the incubation conditions. As the leaf infusion showed the most marked elongation of λ and the most marked μmax reduction, its antimicrobial effect was evaluated at different concentrations, at 37, 22 and 10 °C. According to the results obtained, in general, the lower the temperature or the higher the Stevia concentration, the longer the λ and the lower the μmax, statistically significant being the effect of reducing temperature from 37 or 22 to 10 °C, the effect of increasing Stevia concentration from 0 or 0.5 to 1.5 or 2.5% (w/v), at 37 °C, and the elongation of λ observed in presence of 1.5 and 2.5% (w/v) of Stevia, at 22 °C. These results show that Stevia could be a bacterial growth control measure if a cold chain failure occurs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni a Non Cariogenic Sweetener? A Review.

    PubMed

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria Fabrizio; Cantile, Tiziana; Alcidi, Brunella; Coda, Marco; Ingenito, Aniello; Zarrelli, Armando; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Pollio, Antonino

    2015-12-26

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a small perennial shrub of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family that is native to South America, particularly Brazil and Paraguay, where it is known as "stevia" or "honey leaf" for its powerful sweetness. Several studies have suggested that in addition to their sweetness, steviosides and their related compounds, including rebaudioside A and isosteviol, may offer additional therapeutic benefits. These benefits include anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-diarrheal, diuretic, and immunomodulatory actions. Additionally, critical analysis of the literature supports the anti-bacterial role of steviosides on oral bacteria flora. The aim of this review is to show the emerging results regarding the anti-cariogenic properties of S. rebaudiana Bertoni. Data shown in the present paper provide evidence that stevioside extracts from S. rebaudiana are not cariogenic. Future research should be focused on in vivo studies to evaluate the effects on dental caries of regular consumption of S. rebaudiana extract-based products.

  18. Antidiabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Himanshu; Soni, Manish; Silawat, Narendra; Mehta, Darshana; Mehta, B. K.; Jain, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the medicative effects of medium-polar (benzene:acetone, 1:1, v/v) extract of leaves from Stevia rebaudiana (family Asteraceae) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in adult albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan (180 mg/kg). Medium-polar extract was administered orally at daily dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. basis for 10 days. The control group received normal saline (0.9%) for the same duration. Glibenclamide was used as positive control reference drug against Stevia extract. Results: Medium-polar leaf extract of S. rebaudiana (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a delayed but significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the blood glucose level, without producing condition of hypoglycemia after treatment, together with lesser loss in the body weight as compared with standard positive control drug glibenclamide. Conclusions: Treatment of diabetes with sulfonylurea drugs (glibenclamide) causes hypoglycemia followed by greater reduction in body weight, which are the most worrisome effects of these drugs. Stevia extract was found to antagonize the necrotic action of alloxan and thus had a re-vitalizing effect on β-cells of pancreas. PMID:21687353

  19. Additional minor diterpene glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2013-10-31

    Two additional novel minor diterpene glycosides were isolated from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The structures of the new compounds were identified as 13-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-O-β-D-glucupyranosyl-ester} (1), and 13-{β-D-6-deoxy-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl-ester} (2), on the basis of extensive 1D (1H- and 13C-) 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and MS spectroscopic data as well as chemical studies.

  20. Development of an efficient high-performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of jasmonic acid in leaf tissue of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Kilam, Divya; Saifi, M; Agnihotri, A; Abdin, M Z

    2017-02-13

    Determination of endogenous levels of jasmonic acid (JA) is essential, as it plays a pivotal role in the physiological processes during a plant's life cycle. A high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed for the detection and quantification of JA in leaf extracts of medicinal plant, Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni. The separation was achieved using the solvents ethyl acetate-benzene (1:1, v/v) as the mobile phase, followed by scanning and quantification at 295 nm. Densitometric analysis of leaf extract resulted in compact spots for JA at Rf = 0.45 ± 0.02. The linear regression analysis showed good relationship with r value. The recovery rate of JA indicated good reproducibility and repeatability of the assay. The statistical analysis proved the reproducibility of the method; therefore, it can be employed for routine quantification of JA in different tissue samples of S. rebaudiana and may also be extrapolated to other biological samples.

  1. Efficient micropropagation and chlorocholine chloride induced stevioside production of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Dey, Avishek; Kundu, Sayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Bhattacharjee, Aloke

    2013-01-01

    A promising method of micropropagation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has been developed with an aim to increase the biomass, survivability of the plantlets and stevioside production, using chlorocholine chloride (CCC). Microshoots transferred to the MS medium containing different combinations CCC and IBA were found to be most effective in terms of growth pattern, hardening ability of the plantlets and stevioside content, compared to MS medium containing either IBA or CCC. Among other combinations tested, MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l CCC and 3 mg/l IBA was found most effective in inducing significant changes like reduced shoot length, increased number of roots, higher leaf size, increased biomass and chlorophyll retaining capacity, higher survival percentage and most importantly the elevated stevioside content. Collectively, the major observations of this research indicate that application of CCC in micropropagation of S. rebaudiana Bertoni is a promising approach and has commercial prospects. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of different drying methods on the composition of steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda-González, Irma; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Moguel-Ordóñez, Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    Drying techniques can modify the composition of certain plant compounds. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of different drying methods on steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves. Four different drying methods were applied to Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves, which were then subjected to aqueous extraction. Radiation or convection drying was performed in stoves at 60°C, whereas shade or sun drying methods were applied at 29.7°C and 70% of relative humidity. Stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside B, rebaudioside C, rebaudioside D, dulcoside A, and steviolbioside were quantified by a validated HPLC method. Among steviol glycosides, the content (g 100 g-1 dry basis) of stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside B, and rebaudioside C varied according to the drying method. The total glycoside content was higher in sun-dried samples, with no significant differences compared to shade or convection drying, whereas radiation drying adversely affected the content of rebaudioside A and rebaudioside C (p <0.01) and was therefore a method lowering total glycoside content. The effect of the different drying methods was also reflected in the proportion of the sweetener profile. Convection drying could be suitable for modern food processing industries while shadow or sun drying may be a low-cost alternative for farmers.

  3. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

  4. Lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of acidic aqueous extracts of some dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Raman, Priyadarshini; Dewitt, David L; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-02-01

    The botanical supplement market is growing at a fast pace with more and more people resorting to them for maintaining good health. Echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, Siberian ginseng, grape seed extract, kava kava, saw palmetto and St John's wort are some of the popular supplements used for a variety of health benefits. These supplements are associated with various product claims, which suggest that they possess cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme and lipid s inhibitory activities. COX enzymes are found to be at elevated levels in inflamed and cancerous cells. To test some of the product claims, selected supplements were analysed for their ability to inhibit COX-1 and -2 enzymes and lipid peroxidation in vitro. The supplements were extracted with acidified water (pH 2) at 37 degrees C to simulate the gastric environment. The supplements tested demonstrated varying degrees of COX enzyme inhibition (5-85% for COX-1 and 13-28% for COX-2). Interestingly, extracts of garlic (Meijer), ginkgo (Solaray), ginseng (Nature's Way), Siberian ginseng (GNC, Nutrilite, Solaray, Natrol), kava kava (GNC, Sundown, Solaray) and St John's wort (Nutrilite) selectively inhibited COX-2 enzyme. These supplements also inhibited lipid peroxidation in vitro (5-99%). The results indicated that the consumption of these botanical supplements studied possess health benefits.

  5. Effect of supplementation of soft drinks with green tea extract on their erosive potential against dentine.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, C S; Kato, M T; Buzalaf, M A R

    2011-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors reduce dentine erosion. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of soft drinks with green tea extract, a natural inhibitor of MMPs, on their erosive potential against dentine. For each drink tested (Coca-Cola, Kuat guarana, Sprite and light Coca-Cola), 40 dentine specimens were divided into two subgroups differing with respect to supplementation with green tea extract at 1.2% (OM24, 100%Camellia sinensis leaf extract, containing 30 ± 3% of catechin; Omnimedica, Switzerland) or not (control). Specimens were subjected to four pH cycles, alternating de- and remineralization in one day. For each cycle, samples were immersed in pure or supplemented drink (10 minutes, 30 mL per block) and in artificial saliva (60 minutes, 30 mL per block) at 37 °C, under agitation. Dentine alterations were determined by profilometry (μm). Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (p < 0.05). A significant difference was observed among the drinks tested with Sprite leading to the highest surface loss and light Coca-Cola to the lowest. Supplementation with green tea extract reduced the surface loss by 15% to 40% but the difference was significant for Coca-Cola only. Supplementation of soft drinks with green tea extract might be a viable alternative to reduce their erosive potential against dentine. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Determination of Oxalate Content in Herbal Remedies and Dietary Supplements Based on Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel; Blanco, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Lifestyle, especially diet, is a prominent risk factor that affects the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Urinary oxalate excretion is directly related to the amount of oral intake and intestinal absorption rate of oxalate. This work evaluated the possibility of increasing oxalate ingestion, which could lead to secondary hyperoxaluria, associated with the intake of herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts. A wide variety of 17 commercially available drugs and dietary supplements were analyzed using ion chromatography. The results showed remarkable differences in oxalate contents of the extracts. Total oxalate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 2.2 mg/g in solid samples and from 0.005 to 0.073 mg/mL in liquid samples. The selected herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts represent only a low risk for calcium oxalate stone formers, if the recommended daily dose is not exceeded.

  7. Effects of grape seed extract supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Başaralı, Kemal

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on exercise performance and oxidative stress in acutely and chronically exercised rats. A total of sixty-four male rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into six groups: control, chronic exercise control, acute exercise control (AEC), GSE-supplemented control, GSE-supplemented chronic exercise and GSE-supplemented acute exercise groups. Chronic exercise consisted of treadmill running at 25 m/min, 45 min/d, 5 d a week for 6 weeks. Rats in the acute exercise groups were run on the treadmill at 30 m/min until exhaustion. GSE were given at 100 mg/kg of body weight with drinking water for 6 weeks. Plasma was separated from blood samples for the analysis of oxidative stress markers. There was no significant difference in time of exhaustion between the acute exercise groups. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were higher in the acute exercise groups and lower in the chronic exercise groups. GSE supplementation decreased MDA levels. Xanthine oxidase and adenosine deaminase activities were higher in the AEC group compared to all the other groups. NO levels were increased with both chronic exercise and GSE supplementation. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were lower in the acute exercised groups and higher in the chronic exercised groups. GSE supplementation caused an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, GSE supplementation prevents exercise-induced oxidative stress by preventing lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities.

  8. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni - chemical composition and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Marcinek, Katarzyna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Sweetleaf (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), currently investigated by many researchers, has been known and used for more than a thousand years indigenous tribes of South America, who called it "kaa-hee" ("sweet herb"). Thanks to its chemical composition and processability sweetleaf may be an alternative for synthetic sweeteners. Nutritional and health-promoting aspects of Stevia rebaudiana are presently being studied in many research centres. The aim of this study is to present nutritional and health-promoting value of the still-little known sweetleaf.

  9. Effect of tomato extract supplementation against high-fat diet-induced hepatic lesions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Higher intake of tomatoes or tomato-based products has been associated with lower risk for liver cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementing tomato extract (TE), which contains mainly lycopene (LY) and less amounts of its precursors, phytoene (PT) and phytofluene (PTF) agains...

  10. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  11. Current and New Insights in the Sustainable and Green Recovery of Nutritionally Valuable Compounds from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Roselló-Soto, Elena; Šic Žlabur, Jana; Režek Jambrak, Anet; Brnčić, Mladen; Grimi, Nabil; Boussetta, Nadia; Barba, Francisco J

    2015-08-12

    The South American plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a great source of noncaloric sweeteners (steviol glycosides), mainly concentrated in its leaves, but also has important antioxidant compounds (vitamin C, polyphenols, chlorophylls, and carotenoids) and other important macro- and micronutrients such as folic acid and all of the essential amino acids except tryptophan. Traditionally, conventional methods have been used to recover nutritionally valuable compounds from plant food matrices. However, nowadays, the need for obtaining greener, sustainable, and viable processes has led both food industries and food scientists to develop new processes in full correspondence with the green extraction concept. This review focuses on some of the most promising nonconventional and emerging technologies, which may constitute a potential alternative to conventional methods or even could be combined to obtain a synergistic effect, thus reducing extraction time as well as solvent consumption and avoiding the use of toxic solvents.

  12. Polyhouse cultivation of invitro raised elite Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: An assessment of biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyhouse cultivated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants, initially raised from synthetic seeds, were assessed for biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics and compared with their mother plant. Synthetic seeds were produced using nodal segments containing single axillary buds excised from in vitr...

  13. The influence of supplementation with Rhodiola rosea L. extract on selected redox parameters in professional rowers.

    PubMed

    Skarpanska-Stejnborn, Ana; Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, Lucja; Basta, Piotr; Deskur-Smielecka, Ewa

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Rhodiola rosea supplementation on the balance of oxidants and antioxidants in the serum and erythrocytes of competitive rowers. This double-blinded study included 22 members of the Polish Rowing Team who were participating in a preparatory camp. Participants were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 11), who received 100 mg of R. rosea extract twice daily for 4 wk, or the placebo group (n = 11). At the beginning and end of the study, participants performed a 2,000-m maximum test on a rowing ergometer. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein before each exercise test, 1 min after completing the test, and after a 24-hr restitution period. The following redox parameters were assessed in erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances concentrations. In addition, creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and uric acid concentrations were measured in serum. After supplementation, the total plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly higher (p = .0002) in the supplemented group than in the placebo group, and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes directly after and 24 hr after the ergometry was significantly (p = .0461) lower in athletes receiving R. rosea extracts than in the placebo group. In conclusion, supplementation with R. rosea increased antioxidant levels in the plasma of professional rowers but had no effect on oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise.

  14. Study of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antioxidant activities and cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Bender, Cecilia; Graziano, Sara; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and proliferative properties in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stems. Leaves extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than stems extract, through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Stevioside and rebaudioside A, the main sweetening metabolites in stevia leaves, exhibited a low ORAC value in comparison with plant extracts, while did not elicit any CAA. Stevia rebaudiana did not exhibit toxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells. No proliferative nor catalase modulations were observed in cells treated with such extracts. Our findings support the promising role of stevia that, apart from its sweetness, can act as a source of antioxidants, even at the intracellular level. This activity makes S. rebaudiana crude extract an interesting resource of natural sweetness with antioxidant properties which may find numerous applications in foods and nutritional supplements industries.

  15. Micropropagation and Biomass Production of True-to-Type Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Modi, Arpan R; Sharma, Vikas; Patil, Ghanshyam; Singh, Amritpal S; Subhash, N; Kumar, Nitish

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe an efficient micropropagation protocol for Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. We present experiments carried out to optimize the suitable media for in vitro shoot multiplication and root induction and to study the effect of culture vessel on shoot multiplication. Among all different media tested for in vitro shoot multiplication, hormone-free liquid medium is most suitable. The highest number of nodes per shoot (5.4) and length of shoot (4.76 cm) at 4 weeks after subculturing are observed when single node explants are placed on modified MS medium supplemented with 1 % sucrose and 0.7 % agar. The highest response of multiplication rate (9.56) is observed on half strength of macroelement of MS with full strength of microelement of MS and 170 mg/l KH2PO4, and 185 mg/l MgSO4 in plastic growth container. Further, RAPD marker analysis of in vitro-raised plants maintained their clonal fidelity and true-to-type without showing any somaclonal variation.

  16. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni effect on the hemolytic potential of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Sansano, S; Rivas, A; Pina-Pérez, M C; Martinez, A; Rodrigo, D

    2017-06-05

    The effect of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni on the hemolytic potential of Listeria monocytogenes was studied by means of the assessment of the Listeriolysin O (LLO) production. The three factors under study, stevia concentration in the range [0-2.5] % (w/v), incubation temperature (10 and 37°C), and exposure time (0-65h) significantly affected (p≤0.05) the hemolytic activity of L. monocytogenes. Results showed that at the lower incubation temperature the hemolytic potential of the bacterium was significantly reduced, from 100% at 37°C to 8% at 10°C (after 65h of incubation) in unsupplemented substrate (0% stevia). Irrespective of the temperature, 10 or 37°C, supplementation of the medium with stevia at 2.5 % (w/v) reduced the bacterium's hemolytic activity by a maximum of 100%. Furthermore, the time of exposure to 2.5 % (w/v) stevia concentration was also a significant factor reducing the hemolytic capability of L. monocytogenes. The possibility of reducing the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes (hemolysis) by exposure to stevia should be confirmed in real food matrices, opening a research niche with a valuable future impact on food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of dietary marigold extract supplementation on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuhao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with marigold extract on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. Methods A total of 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups with 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The chickens of control group were fed with basal diet and other experimental groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.60% marigold extract respectively (the corresponding concentrations of lutein were 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg). Results The results showed that marigold extract supplementation increased the yellowness values of shank, beak, skin and muscle and the redness (a*) value of thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity, and the activities of superoxide dismutase in liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01) and significantly decreased the malondialdehyde contents of liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly decreased the drip loss and shear force of thigh muscles (linear, p<0.01). There was no significant effect on growth performance with marigold extract supplementation. Conclusion In conclusion, dietary supplementation of marigold extract significantly increased the yellowness values of carcass, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. PMID:27282969

  18. Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin S

    2009-11-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for desired effects on memory, insomnia, mood and anxiety. This review focuses on supplements which have anxiolytic or mild relaxation properties and enhance mood. For example, Kava (Piper methysticum) is reported to have anaxiolytic actions and to reduce tension through skeletal muscle relaxation. Dried passion flower (genus Passiflora) is reported to reduce insomnia and hysteria. Skullcap (genus Scutellaria), hops (Humulus lupulus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) and Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root are all herbs reported as anaxiolytic calming agents. Further, extracts of Magnolia and Phellondendron bark are mild sedatives. Supplements such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), theanine, tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) are reported to promote relaxation. In general, these supplements appear to act as GABA receptor agonists or to boost GABA levels, although Kava inhibits both norephinephrine uptake and sodium and potassium channels and 5-HTP may act through elevation of serotonin. While questions remain in the literature regarding the medicinal value of these supplements in treating mood and anxiety disorders, based on cellular and animal studies as well as human clinical trials the literature supports a role for these preparations as useful alternatives in the management of the stress and anxiety of everyday life.

  19. Carotenoid composition of marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower extract used as nutritional supplement.

    PubMed

    Hadden, W L; Watkins, R H; Levy, L W; Regalado, E; Rivadeneira, D M; van Breemen, R B; Schwartz, S J

    1999-10-01

    Commercially prepared marigold flower (Tagetes erecta) extract was saponified and analyzed for carotenoid composition. HPLC analyses were performed on two normal-phase columns (beta-Cyclobond and silica) and on a C(30) reversed-phase column. The extract contained 93% utilizable pigments (detected at 450 nm), consisting of all-trans and cis isomers of zeaxanthin (5%), all-trans and cis isomers of lutein, and lutein esters (88%). All were identified by chromatographic retention, UV-visible spectra, and positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry in comparison to authentic standards. Contrary to previous findings, insignificant levels (<0.3%) of lutein oxidation products were detected in the saponified extract. This compositional determination is important for the application of marigold extract in nutritional supplements and increases its value as a poultry feed colorant because it contains more biologically useful lutein compounds than previously believed.

  20. FlexiQule (Boswellia extract) in the supplementary management of osteoarthritis: a supplement registry.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Ledda, A; Pellegrini, L; Cesarone, M R; Hosoi, M; Errichi, M; Francis, S; Cornelli, U

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present pilot, registry study was an assessment in a supplement study of FlexiQule (standardized Boswellia extract) capsules in the supplementary management of patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) also treated with the "standard management" (SM) in comparison with a group of patients only managed with SM. This 4-week study included patients with symptomatic knee arthrosis (X-ray). Registry subjects were able to perform a treadmill walking test and to understand questions from the WOMAC questionnaire. Exclusion criteria were conditions requiring drug treatment, Body Mass Index >25, metabolic disorders, surgery within three months prior to inclusion, oncological condition or inability to walk. Twenty-seven registry subjects using the supplement+SM and 28 using only SM completed the registry; at inclusion, the two groups were comparable including Karnofsky scale, WOMAC Score and the Treadmill Test. Of the subjects completing the registry 24 preferred to use the combination SM and the supplement. Safety evaluation: no problems - indicating the suspension of the supplementation ‑ were observed. Routine blood tests were normal at inclusion and did not significantly vary at 4 weeks. The Karnofski Scale at 4 weeks was improved in both groups: from 74.3;3.1 to 88.9;5.3 (P<0.05) in the Boswellia group in comparison with a variation from 75.3;5.2 to 79.4;3.3 (P<0.05) in the SM. The effects of the supplement were significantly higher (P<0.05). The WOMAC Score was decreased significantly more in the supplement+SM group in comparison with controls considering pain, stiffness and physical functions (P<0.05). Social/emotional functions improved better with the supplement (P<0.05). Both groups improved their walking distance at 4 weeks. The improvement was higher (P<0.05) in the Boswellia group. The need for other drugs or tests during the registry period was reduced more in the supplement group (P<0.05). The difference between SM and the

  1. Isolation, NMR Spectral Analysis and Hydrolysis Studies of a Hepta Pyranosyl Diterpene Glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Chen, Steven; Yu, Oliver; Mao, Guohong

    2013-09-30

    From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a minor steviol glycoside, 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(2-O-(3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester] (1); also known as rebaudioside O having seven sugar units has been isolated. Its structural characterization has been achieved by the extensive 1D (1H and 13C), and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC) as well as mass spectral data. Further, hydrolysis studies were performed on rebaudioside O using acid and enzymatic methods to identify aglycone and sugar residues in its structure as well as their configurations.

  2. Isolation, NMR Spectral Analysis and Hydrolysis Studies of a Hepta Pyranosyl Diterpene Glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash; Chen, Steven; Yu, Oliver; Mao, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a minor steviol glycoside, 13-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(2-O-(3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl) ester] (1); also known as rebaudioside O having seven sugar units has been isolated. Its structural characterization has been achieved by the extensive 1D (1H and 13C), and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC) as well as mass spectral data. Further, hydrolysis studies were performed on rebaudioside O using acid and enzymatic methods to identify aglycone and sugar residues in its structure as well as their configurations. PMID:24970189

  3. Supplementation of Emblica officinalis (Amla) extract reduces oxidative stress in uremic patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Chang, Yen-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Emblica Officinalis (also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry), a natural, traditional and functional food in Asia, has physiological benefits such as hepato-, cyto- and radio- protection, as well as hypolipidemic effects. In addition, Amla often functions as a potent antioxidant due to the high level of ascorbic acid (ranging from 1,100 to 1,700 mg/100 g of fruit) in its fruit. The aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation with Amla extract could reduce oxidative stress in patients with uremia. The findings show that supplementation with Amla extract for 4 months reduced the plasma oxidative marker, 8-iso-prostaglandin, (M0 vs. M4 = 1415 +/- 1234 pg/ml vs. 750 +/- 496 pg/ml, p < 0.05) and increased plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) (M0 vs. M4 = 2.32 +/- 0.14 mM vs. 2.55 +/- 0.24 mM, p < 0.05) in uremic patients. On the other hand, there were no significant differences observed in liver function (GOP and GPT), renal function (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid), diabetic index (plasma glucose and adiponectin) and atherogenic index (LDL/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and homocysteine) in patients treated with Amla for 4 months. Our data suggest that Amla supplementation may increase plasma antioxidant power and decrease oxidative stress in uremic patients. However, Amla extract did not influence hepatic or renal function, or diabetic and atherogenic indices in uremic patients.

  4. [Combined estrogenic activity of soybean extract used in a dietary supplement and ethinyl estradiol].

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Sadahiro; Naka, Kazuna; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Obara, Tomomi; Arizono, Koji; Hashimoto, Kaori; Hojo, Yasuji; Suzuki, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We examined the combined estrogenic activity of soybean extract used in a dietary supplement and ethinyl estradiol (EE) contained in an oral contraceptive. Olive oil (control), soybean extract (0.0036 or 0.36 g/kg corresponding to doses of total isoflavone of 0.83 or 83 mg/kg respectively), EE (1 or 10 microg/kg), and soybean extract+EE were administered to ovariectomized CD-1 mice by oral gavage for 4 consecutive days. Soybean extract (0.0036 or 0.36 g/kg) and EE (1 microg/kg) did not increase the relative uterine weight. The relative uterine weight of the soybean extract (0.0036 or 0.36 g/kg)+EE (10 microg/kg) group was significantly higher than that of the control. The relative uterine weight of the soybean extract (0.36 g/kg)+EE (10 microg/kg) group was also significantly higher than that of the EE (10 microg/kg) group. Soybean extract showed estrogenic activity for human estrogen receptor (hER)-alpha and -beta. Coadministration of EE with soybean extract increased the estrogenic activity for hER-alpha and -beta.

  5. A Novel Diterpene Glycoside with Nine Glucose Units from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Ma, Gil; Bunders, Cynthia; Charan, Romila D; Ramirez, Catherine; Devkota, Krishna P; Snyder, Tara M

    2017-01-31

    Following our interest in new diterpene glycosides with better taste profiles than that of Rebaudioside M, we have recently isolated and characterized Rebaudioside IX-a novel steviol glycoside-from a commercially-supplied extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. This molecule contains a hexasaccharide group attached at C-13 of the central diterpene core, and contains three additional glucose units when compared with Rebaudioside M. Here we report the complete structure elucidation-based on extensive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis (1H, 13C, Correlation Spectroscopy (COSY), Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence-Distortionless Enhancement Polarization Transfer (HSQC-DEPT), Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC), 1D Total Correlation Spectroscopy (TOCSY), Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy (NOESY)) and mass spectral data-of this novel diterpene glycoside with nine sugar moieties and containing a relatively rare 16 α-linked glycoside. A steviol glycoside bearing nine glucose units is unprecedented in the literature, and could have an impact on the natural sweetener catalog.

  6. A Novel Diterpene Glycoside with Nine Glucose Units from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Indra; Ma, Gil; Bunders, Cynthia; Charan, Romila D.; Ramirez, Catherine; Devkota, Krishna P.; Snyder, Tara M.

    2017-01-01

    Following our interest in new diterpene glycosides with better taste profiles than that of Rebaudioside M, we have recently isolated and characterized Rebaudioside IX—a novel steviol glycoside—from a commercially-supplied extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. This molecule contains a hexasaccharide group attached at C-13 of the central diterpene core, and contains three additional glucose units when compared with Rebaudioside M. Here we report the complete structure elucidation—based on extensive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis (1H, 13C, Correlation Spectroscopy (COSY), Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence-Distortionless Enhancement Polarization Transfer (HSQC-DEPT), Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC), 1D Total Correlation Spectroscopy (TOCSY), Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy (NOESY)) and mass spectral data—of this novel diterpene glycoside with nine sugar moieties and containing a relatively rare 1→6 α-linked glycoside. A steviol glycoside bearing nine glucose units is unprecedented in the literature, and could have an impact on the natural sweetener catalog. PMID:28146121

  7. Comparing DNA extraction methods for analysis of botanical materials found in anti-diabetic supplements.

    PubMed

    Llongueras, Jose P; Nair, Saraswathy; Salas-Leiva, Dayana; Schwarzbach, Andrea E

    2013-03-01

    A comparative performance evaluation of DNA extraction methods from anti-diabetic botanical supplements using various commercial kits was conducted, to determine which produces the best quality DNA suitable for PCR amplification, sequencing and species identification. All plant materials involved were of suboptimal quality showing various levels of degradation and therefore representing real conditions for testing herbal supplements. Eight different DNA extraction methods were used to isolate genomic DNA from 13 medicinal plant products. Two methods for evaluation, DNA concentration measurements that included absorbance ratios as well as PCR amplifiability, were used to determine quantity and quality of extracted DNA. We found that neither DNA concentrations nor commonly used UV absorbance ratio measurements at A(260)/A(280) between 1.7 and 1.9 are suitable for globally predicting PCR success in these plant samples, and that PCR amplifiablity itself was the best indicator of extracted product quality. However, our results suggest that A(260)/A(280) ratios below about 1.3 and above 2.3 indicated a DNA quality too poor to amplify. Therefore, A(260)/A(280) measurements are not useful to identify samples that likely will amplify but can be used to exclude samples that likely will not amplify reducing the cost for unnecessarily subjecting samples to PCR. The two Nucleospin(®) plant II kit extraction methods produced the most pure and amplifiable genomic DNA extracts. Our results suggest that there are clear, discernable differences between extraction methods for low quality plant samples in terms of producing contamination-free, high-quality genomic DNA to be used for further analysis.

  8. The influence of supplementation with artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on selected redox parameters in rowers.

    PubMed

    Skarpanska-Stejnborn, Anna; Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, Lucia; Basta, Piotr; Deskur-Smielcka, Ewa; Horoszkiewicz-Hassan, Magorzata

    2008-06-01

    High-intensity physical exercise decreases intracellular antioxidant potential. An enhanced antioxidant defense system is desirable in people subjected to exhaustive exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of supplementation with artichoke-leaf extract on parameters describing balance between oxidants and antioxidants in competitive rowers. This double-blinded study was carried out in 22 members of the Polish rowing team who were randomly assigned to a supplemented group (n = 12), receiving 1 gelatin capsule containing 400 mg of artichoke-leaf extract 3 times a day for 5 wk, or a placebo group (n = 10). At the beginning and end of the study participants performed a 2,000-m maximal test on a rowing ergometer. Before each exercise test, 1 min after the test completion, and after a 24-hr restitution period blood samples were taken from antecubital vein. The following redox parameters were assessed in red blood cells: superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione levels, and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances concentrations. Creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and serum lipid profiles were assessed. During restitution, plasma TAC was significantly higher (p < .05) in the supplemented group than in the placebo group. Serum total cholesterol levels at the end of the study were significantly (p < .05) lower in the supplemented group than in the placebo group. In conclusion, consuming artichoke-leaf extract, a natural vegetable preparation of high antioxidant potential, resulted in higher plasma TAC than placebo but did not limit oxidative damage to erythrocytes in competitive rowers subjected to strenuous training.

  9. Effect of green tea extract supplementation on glycogen replenishment in exercised human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsen-Wei; Chang, Chia-Chen; Liao, Su-Fen; Liao, Yi-Hung; Hou, Chien-Wen; Tsao, Jung-Piao; Cheng, I-Shiung

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on promoting postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis and systemic energy substrate utilisation in young college students. A total of eight healthy male participants (age: 22·0 (se 1·0) years, BMI: 24·2 (se 0·7) kg/m2, VO2max: 43·2 (se 2·4) ml/kg per min) participated in this study. GTE (500 mg/d for 8 weeks) was compared with placebo in participants in a double-blind/placebo-controlled and crossover study design with an 8-week washout period. Thereafter, all participants performed a 60-min cycling exercise (75 % VO2max) and consumed a carbohydrate-enriched meal immediately after exercise. Vastus lateralis muscle samples were collected immediately (0 h) and 3 h after exercise, and blood and gaseous samples were collected during the 3-h postexercise recovery period. An 8-week oral GTE supplementation had no effects on further promoting muscle glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle, but the exercise-induced muscle GLUT type 4 (GLUT4) protein content was greater in the GTE supplementation trial (P<0·05). We observed that, during the postexercise recovery period, GTE supplementation elicited an increase in energy reliance on fat oxidation compared with the placebo trial (P<0·05), although there were no differences in blood glucose and insulin responses between the two trials. In summary, 8-week oral GTE supplementation increases postexercise systemic fat oxidation and exercise-induced muscle GLUT4 protein content in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. However, GTE supplementation has no further benefit on promoting muscle glycogen resynthesis during the postexercise period.

  10. Green tea extract supplementation gives protection against exercise-induced oxidative damage in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Jówko, Ewa; Sacharuk, Jaroslaw; Balasińska, Bozena; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Charmas, Malgorzata; Charmas, Robert

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a long-term (4-week) green tea extract (GTE) supplementation in combination with strength training on selected blood markers of oxidative stress and muscular damage after a short-term exercise in previously untrained men. We hypothesized that GTE supplementation would elevate antioxidant potential and attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscular damage. Thirty-five male students were exposed to 4 weeks of strength training and received (in a randomized, double-blind design) GTE (n = 17; 640 mg polyphenols/d) or placebo (P; n = 18). Before (term I) and after 4 weeks of strength training and supplementation (term II), students performed a short-term muscular endurance test. Blood samples were collected at rest, 5 minutes after the muscular endurance test, and after 24 hours of recovery. Supplementation with GTE enhanced plasma total polyphenols at rest and 5 minutes after the muscular endurance test. Supplementation also contributed to the rise of resting total antioxidant status in plasma. Throughout the experiment (terms I and II), a reduction in plasma lipid hydroxyperoxides was observed 24 hours after the muscular endurance test. Four weeks of strength training resulted in an increase in plasma lipid hydroxyperoxides at rest, but only in the P group. In term I, the muscular endurance test induced an increase in activity of creatine kinase in plasma after 24 hours of recovery in both the P and GTE groups. In term II, plasma creatine kinase activity after 24 hours of recovery was elevated only in the P group. In conclusion, in previously untrained men, dietary supplementation with GTE (in combination with strength training) enhances the antioxidant defense system in plasma at rest and, in turn, may give protection against oxidative damage induced by both short-term muscular endurance test and long-term strength training.

  11. Rice bran enzymatic extract-supplemented diets modulate adipose tissue inflammation markers in Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Candiracci, Manila; Justo, Maria Luisa; Castaño, Angelica; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Rosalia; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2014-04-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity is characterized by macrophage accumulation in white adipose tissue and adipokine production deregulation. Obesity also is characterized by oxidative stress related to inflammatory signaling. The aim of this study was to analyze whether dietary supplementation with a rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE), rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic properties, would ameliorate the inflammatory state existing in visceral adipose tissue of obese Zucker rats. Obese Zucker rats and their littermate controls, lean Zucker rats ages 8 wk, were daily fed an enriched diet with either 1% or 5% RBEE supplementation over 20 wk. Measurement of adipocyte size and mRNA expression of proinflammatory molecules from visceral abdominal/epididymal tissue was performed. An RBEE-supplemented diet decreased the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as the overproduction of IL-6 and iNOs in visceral abdominal adipose tissue and visceral epididymal adipose tissue, respectively. An RBEE-supplemented diet modified the adipocyte-size distribution pattern in both abdominal and epididymal adipose tissue, shifting it toward smaller cell sizes. Chronic administration of a novel water-soluble RBEE, rich in polyphenols, tocotrienols and γ-oryzanol, could be a suitable treatment to ameliorate the obesity-associated proinflammatory response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Dietary Supplement Containing Standardized Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Influences Body Composition of Overweight Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Celleno, Leonardo; Tolaini, Maria Vittoria; D'Amore, Alessandra; Perricone, Nicholas V.; Preuss, Harry G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: More than one billion human adults worldwide are overweight and, therefore, are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and a variety of other chronic perturbations. Many believe that use of natural dietary supplements could aid in the struggle against obesity. So-called "starch blockers" are listed among natural weight loss supplements. Theoretically, they may promote weight loss by interfering with the breakdown of complex carbohydrates thereby reducing, or at least slowing, the digestive availability of carbohydrate-derived calories and/or by providing resistant starches to the lower gastrointestinal tract. Aims: The present research study examines a dietary supplement containing 445 mg of Phaseolus vulgaris extract derived from the white kidney bean, previously shown to inhibit the activity of the digestive enzyme alpha amylase, on body composition of overweight human subjects. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 60 pre-selected, slightly overweight volunteers, whose weight had been essentially stable for at least six months. The volunteers were divided into two groups, homogeneous for age, gender, and body weight. The test product containing Phaseolus vulgaris extract and the placebo were taken one tablet per day for 30 consecutive days before a main meal rich in carbohydrates. Each subject's body weight, fat and non-fat mass, skin fold thickness, and waist/hip/thigh circumferences were measured. Results: After 30 days, subjects receiving Phaseolus vulgaris extract with a carbohydrate-rich, 2000- to 2200-calorie diet had significantly (p<0.001) greater reduction of body weight, BMI, fat mass, adipose tissue thickness, and waist,/hip/ thigh circumferences while maintaining lean body mass compared to subjects receiving placebo. Conclusion: The results indicate that Phaseolus vulgaris extract produces significant decrements in body weight and suggest decrements in fat mass in the

  13. Effects of Combined Creatine Plus Fenugreek Extract vs. Creatine Plus Carbohydrate Supplementation on Resistance Training Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lem; Poole, Chris; Pena, Earnest; Lewing, Morgan; Kreider, Richard; Foster, Cliffa; Wilborn, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined creatine and fenugreek extract supplementation on strength and body composition. Forty- seven resistance trained men were matched according to body weight to ingest either 70 g of a dextrose placebo (PL), 5 g creatine/70 g of dextrose (CRD) or 3.5 g creatine/900 mg fenugreek extract (CRF) and participate in a 4-d/wk periodized resistance-training program for 8-weeks. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects were tested on body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic capacity. Statistical analyses utilized a separate 3X3 (condition [PL vs. CRD vs. CRF] x time [T1 vs. T2 vs. T3]) ANOVAs with repeated measures for all criterion variables (p ≤ 0.05). No group x time interaction effects or main effects (p > 0.05) were observed for any measures of body composition. CRF group showed significant increases in lean mass at T2 (p = 0.001) and T3 (p = 0.001). Bench press 1RM increased in PL group (p = 0.050) from T1-T3 and in CRD from T1-T2 (p = 0. 001) while remaining significant at T3 (p < 0.001). CRF group showed a significant increase in bench press 1RM from T1-T2 (p < 0.001), and also increased from T2-T3 (p = 0.032). Leg press 1RM significantly increased at all time points for PL, CRD, and CRF groups (p < 0.05). No additional between or within group changes were observed for any performance variables and serum clinical safety profiles (p > 0.05). In conclusion, creatine plus fenugreek extract supplementation had a significant impact on upper body strength and body composition as effectively as the combination of 5g of creatine with 70g of dextrose. Thus, the use of fenugreek with creatine supplementation may be an effective means for enhancing creatine uptake while eliminating the need for excessive amounts of simple carbohydrates. Key points Fenugreek plus creatine supplementation may be a new means of increasing creatine uptake. Creatine plus fenugreek seems to be just as effective as the

  14. Ancient peat and apple extracts supplementation may improve strength and power adaptations in resistance trained men.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jordan M; Vogel, Roxanne M; Moon, Jordan R; Falcone, Paul H; Mosman, Matt M; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Reyes, Tania; Kim, Michael P

    2016-07-18

    Increased cellular ATP levels have the potential to enhance athletic performance. A proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been supposed to increase ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of this supplement on athletic performance when used during 12 weeks of supervised, periodized resistance training. Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects completed this study. Subjects supplemented once daily with either 1 serving (150 mg) of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extract (TRT) or an equal-volume, visually-identical placebo (PLA) daily. Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2 week overreach and a 2 week taper phase. Strength was determined using 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) testing in the barbell back squat, bench press (BP), and deadlift exercises. Peak power and peak velocity were determined during BP at 30 % 1RM and vertical jump tests as well as a 30s Wingate test, which also provided relative power (watt:mass) A group x time interaction was present for squat 1RM, deadlift 1RM, and vertical jump peak power and peak velocity. Squat and deadlift 1RM increased in TRT versus PLA from pre to post. Vertical jump peak velocity increased in TRT versus PLA from pre to week 10 as did vertical jump peak power, which also increased from pre to post. Wingate peak power and watt:mass tended to favor TRT. Supplementing with ancient peat and apple extract while participating in periodized resistance training may enhance performance adaptations. ClinicalTrials.gov registration ID: NCT02819219 , retrospectively registered on 6/29/2016.

  15. Acute inflammation and hematological response in Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Dotta, G; Ledic-Neto, J; Gonçalves, E L T; Brum, A; Maraschin, M; Martins, M L

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenin in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia supplemented with the mixture of natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis (1:1) at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% in diet during 15 days. Thirty-six fish were distributed into four treatments with three replicates: fish supplemented with 0.5% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1) injected with 500 µg carrageenin; fish supplemented with 1% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1) injected with 500 µg carrageenin; fish supplemented with 2% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1), injected with 500 µg carrageenin and unsupplemented fish injected with 500 µg carrageenin. Six hours after injection, samples of blood and exudate from the swim bladder of fish were collected. It was observed an increase in the leukocyte count in the swim bladder exudate of fish supplemented with extracts of propolis and Aloe injected with carrageenin. The most frequent cells were macrophages followed by granular leukocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes. Supplementation with propolis and Aloe to 0.5% caused a significant increase in the number of cells on the inflammatory focus mainly macrophages, cells responsible for the phagocytic activity in tissues, agent of innate fish immune response.

  16. Joint effect of commercial preparations of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and sodium monoketocholate on glycemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Raskovic, Aleksandar; Jakovljevic, Vida; Mikov, Momir; Gavrilovic, Maja

    2004-01-01

    A study was made of the combined effect of two commercial products of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and sodium monoketocholate (mkc) on blood glucose concentration in mice. One group of animals was treated four days with mkc, 4 mg/kg, s.c., second with 200 mg/kg, i.p., of Stevita (Stevita Co, INC, Arlington, Texas) (stevia), third with 20 mg/kg, i.p., of Clear Steviosides Liquid (Stevita Co, INC, Herbal supplement, Brazil) (stevioside), fourth with the combination of stevia and mkc, and the fifth with stevisode and mkc. Blood glucose concentration was measured before treatment, after the first and fourth dose, as well as after subjecting animals to glucose-tolerance test (500 mg/kg, p.o.) or provoking glycemia by injecting adrenaline (0.2 mg/kg, s.c.). It was found that one dose of stevioside combined with mkc caused a significant increase of glycemia with respect of mkc alone and control (10.80:7.90:8.01). However, when repeated four days, the same pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease of glycemia compared with single-dose pretreatment (10.80:7.20). The increase in glycemia with the mice that received four doses of stevioside and mkc and then were subjected to glucose-tolerance test was significantly lower compared to that in mice that were pretreated four days only with mkc before receiving glucose (6.33:7.80). Analogous difference was observed between the animals given mkc alone and mkc plus stevioside after injecting adrenaline (13.33:10.54). As for the interaction of mkc and stevia it was found that the combined pretreatment yielded lower values of glycemia compared with that measured after treatment with stevia alone (6.40:7.82).

  17. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO₂ Algal Extracts.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Saeid, Agnieszka

    2017-01-03

    The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO₂ extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilitarian properties of the extract-based products. The extracts were analysed for the presence of biologically active molecules (e.g., plant hormones, polyphenols) which provide useful properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. The bio-products were tested in germination tests and underwent field trials to search for plant growth biostimulatory properties. Tests on animals (laying hens experiments) were conducted to assess pro-health properties of new dietary feed supplement. Another application were cosmetic formulations (dermatological tests). The results of the application tests were very promising, however further studies are required for the registration of the products and successful implementation to the market.

  18. Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey po...

  19. Anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts of berries in food supplements--analysis with problems.

    PubMed

    Krenn, L; Steitz, M; Schlicht, C; Kurth, H; Gaedcke, F

    2007-11-01

    The fundamental nutritional benefit of fruit and vegetables in the prevention of degenerative diseases--especially in the light of the current "anti-aging wave"--has directed the attention of scientists and consumers to a variety of berry fruits and their constituents. Many of these fruits, e.g. blueberries, elderberries or cranberries, have a long tradition in European and North American folk medicine. Based on these experiences and due to the growing interest the number of food supplements on the market containing fruit powders, juice concentrates or extracts of these fruits has increased considerably. Advertising for these products mainly focusses on the phenolic compounds, especially the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins and their preventive effects. Most of the preparations are combinations, e.g. of extracts of different fruits with vitamins and trace elements, etc. which are labelled in a way which does not allow a comparison of the products. Typically, information on the extraction solvent, the drug: extract ratio and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins is missing. Besides that, the analysis of these polyphenols causes additional problems. Whereas the quality control of herbal medicinal products is regulated in detail, no uniform requirements for food supplements are existing. A broad spectrum of methods is used for the assay of the constituents, leading to differing, incomparable results. In addition to that, the methods are quite interference-prone and consequently lead to over- or underestimation of the contents. This publication provides an overview of some selected berries (lingonberry, cranberry, black elderberry, black chokeberry, black currant, blueberry), their constituents and use. The analytical methods currently used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols in these berries are described, including an evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Growth of Campylobacter incubated aerobically in fumarate-pyruvate media or media supplemented with dairy, meat, or soy extracts and peptones.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    The ability of Campylobacter to grow aerobically in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with dairy, meat, or soy extracts or peptones was examined. Optical densities (OD) of Campylobacter cultured in basal media, media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 7.5% beef extract was measured. Growth was also compared in media supplemented with other extracts or peptones. Finally, cfu/mL of Campylobacter recovered from basal media or media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate, casamino acids, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract and soytone was determined. Results indicated that OD of cultures grown in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 5.0 or 7.5% beef extract were higher than OD of isolates grown in basal media or media supplemented with lower concentrations of beef extract. Highest OD were produced by isolates grown in media supplemented with beef extract, peptone from meat, polypeptone, proteose peptone, or soytone. Also, more cfu/mL were recovered from media with fumarate-pyruvate, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract-soytone than from basal media or media with casamino acids. Findings indicate that media supplemented with organic acids, vitamins, and minerals and media supplemented with extracts or peptones containing these metabolites can support aerobic growth of Campylobacter.

  1. Reduction of behavioural disturbances in elderly dogs supplemented with a standardised Ginkgo leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Reichling, J; Frater-Schröder, M; Herzog, K; Bucher, S; Saller, R

    2006-05-01

    In this open clinical trial conducted in 10 veterinary practices, Ginkgo leaf extract was administered as a dietary supplement to 42 elderly dogs (mean age 11.4 years) at a daily dose of 40 mg/ 10 kg body weight for 8 weeks. The "severity of the geriatric condition" in dogs with a history of geriatric behavioural disturbances (mean duration 12 months), was significantly reduced after 8 weeks of treatment (P = 0.0002). The positive effect was already apparent after 4 weeks. Thirty-six % of the dogs were completely free of clinical signs at study end. Overall efficacy of treatment as judged by the investigator was good or very good in 79% of the dogs. Five of six clinical sign scores (disorientation, sleep/activity changes, behavioural changes, general behaviour and general physical condition/vitality) also showed a significant decrease over the treatment period. In conclusion, these findings provide promising results that could increase the quality of life in the elderly dog and, as a consequence, that of the pet owner. The Ginkgo leaf extract appears to be an efficacious agent that provides a safe dietary supplement for the elderly dog with age-related behavioural disturbances.

  2. Supplementing diet with blackberry extract causes a catabolic response with increments in insulin sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Kenia; Amusquivar, Encarnación; García-Seco, Daniel; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz; Gutierrez-Mañero, Javier; Herrera, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) fruit has a high content of anthocyanins, but its health benefits have not been sufficiently explored in healthy individuals. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the effects of blackberry extract on lipid and glucose variables in female and male rats. Sprague Dawley rats were given a standard pellet (SD) or cafeteria (CD) diet supplemented (SD+R and CD+R) or not with Rubus extract for 80 days. Female rats given SD+R had lower body and liver weights than SD females; both sexes given SD+R showed lower plasma glucose and insulin, higher plasma NEFA, glycerol and 3-hydroxybutyrate, and higher liver concentration of triacylglycerols than SD rats. The homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA) was lower in SD+R rats than in SD rats, but higher in CD rats. No effects of Rubus extract were observed in CD rats. In conclusion, Rubus extract, in rats given SD, decreased glycemia and increased insulin sensitivity. It also increased lipid breakdown in adipose tissue. The effects were greater in females than in males. No effect was seen in rats given CD, probably as a result of their high insulin resistance.

  3. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Nehra, Vikas; Kumar, Sarvan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. PMID:27047040

  4. DNA extraction from plant food supplements: Influence of different pharmaceutical excipients.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana; Amaral, Joana S; Fernandes, Telmo J R; Batista, Andreia; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    The consumption of plant food supplements (PFS) has been growing globally, with an increase of misleading labeling and fraudulent practices also being reported. Recently, the use of molecular biology techniques has been proposed to detect botanical adulterations, one of the possible frauds in PFS. However, difficulties in recovering DNA from some PFS samples have been described. Aiming at using DNA-based methods for the unequivocal identification of plant species in PFS, adequate DNA isolation is required. However, PFS often contain pharmaceutical excipients known to have adsorbent properties that might interfere with DNA extraction. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the effect of different excipients (talc, silica, iron oxide and titanium dioxide) on the recovery/amplification of DNA. For that purpose, known amounts of template maize DNA were spiked either to PFS or to model mixtures of excipients and quantified by real-time PCR. The tested excipients evidenced clear adsorption phenomena that justify the hampering effect on DNA extraction from PFS. The use of either 10% talc or 0.5% dyes completely adsorbed DNA, resulting in negative PCR amplifications. For the first time, pharmaceutical excipients were shown to affect DNA extraction explaining the inability of recovering DNA from some PFS samples in previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of grape extract used as a dietary supplement on healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Yubero, Noemí; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Guadarrama, Alberto; Villanueva, Sonia; Carrión, Juan M; Larrarte, Eider; Moro, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Eminol®, the polyphenol-rich grape extract supplement (700 mg), on cardiovascular risk and oxidant stress indicators in a sample of volunteers. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed over 56 days and included 60 volunteers. Thirty volunteers took 700 mg of the grape extract, Eminol® (E), and 30 took the placebo (P). On comparison of the results, a decrease in total cholesterol (E: 213.77 ± 4.1 mg/dl and P: 245.57 ± 4.1 mg/dl; p = 0.01) and LDL cholesterol (E: 142.17 ± 3.1 mg/dl and P: 165.13 ± 3.1 mg/dl; p = 0.02) levels as well as an increase in antioxidant capacity (E: 65.63 ± 5.8 μmol TE/mg and P: 57.80 ± 7.7 μmol TE/mg; p < 0.01) and vitamin E (E: 11.46 ± 0.5 μg/ml and P: 9.06 ± 0.5 μg/ml; p = 0.018) was observed. This result indicates that the grape extract Eminol® modulated the lipid profile in terms of cardiovascular risk indicators, lowering total blood cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

  6. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Powdered Microcapsule of Tomato Extract during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hae-Soo; Chimed, Chogsom; Yoo, Sang-Hun; Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of Appenzeller cheese supplemented with different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%, w/w) of powdered microcapsules of tomato extracts (PMT) during ripening at 14℃ for 6 mon. The particle sizes of PMT ranged from 1 to 10 m diameter with an average particle size of approximately 2 m. Butyric acid (C4) concentrations of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were significantly higher than that of the control. Lactic acid bacteria counts in the cheese were not significantly influenced by ripening time from 0 to 6 mon or the concentrations (0-4%, w/w) of PMT. In terms of texture, the hardness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese was significantly increased compared to the control. The gumminess and chewiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were similar to those of the control. However, both cohesiveness and springiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were slightly decreased. In sensory analysis, bitterness and sourness of Appenzeller cheese were not significantly changed after supplementation of PMT, but sweetness of the cheese was significantly increased after increasing the ripening time from 0 to 6 mon and increasing the concentration from 1 to 4% (w/w). Based on these results, the addition of the concentrations (1-4%, w/w) of PMT to Appenzeller cheese can be used to develop functional Appenzeller cheese.

  7. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Powdered Microcapsule of Tomato Extract during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hae-Soo; Chimed, Chogsom; Yoo, Sang-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of Appenzeller cheese supplemented with different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%, w/w) of powdered microcapsules of tomato extracts (PMT) during ripening at 14℃ for 6 mon. The particle sizes of PMT ranged from 1 to 10 m diameter with an average particle size of approximately 2 m. Butyric acid (C4) concentrations of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were significantly higher than that of the control. Lactic acid bacteria counts in the cheese were not significantly influenced by ripening time from 0 to 6 mon or the concentrations (0-4%, w/w) of PMT. In terms of texture, the hardness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese was significantly increased compared to the control. The gumminess and chewiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were similar to those of the control. However, both cohesiveness and springiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were slightly decreased. In sensory analysis, bitterness and sourness of Appenzeller cheese were not significantly changed after supplementation of PMT, but sweetness of the cheese was significantly increased after increasing the ripening time from 0 to 6 mon and increasing the concentration from 1 to 4% (w/w). Based on these results, the addition of the concentrations (1-4%, w/w) of PMT to Appenzeller cheese can be used to develop functional Appenzeller cheese. PMID:27194934

  9. The effects of Taraxacum officinale extracts (TOE) supplementation on physical fatigue in mice.

    PubMed

    Jinchun, Zhang; Jie, Chen

    2011-01-01

    The study is to investigate the effect of Taraxacum officinale extracts (TOE) supplementation on physical fatigue based on the forced swimming capacity in mice. Forty Kunming male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e., normal control (NC) and three doses of TOE treated group (High-dose, Middle-dose and Low-dose). Three TOE treated groups were treated by oral TOE with 10, 30 and 100mg/kg b.w respectively for a period of 42 days. The normal control group was given a corresponding volume of sterile distilled water. After 6 weeks, the forced swimming capacity and blood biochemical parameters in mice were measured, and the result showed that TOE had an anti- physical fatigue effect. It enhanced the maximum swimming capacity of mice, effectively delayed the lowering of glucose in the blood, and prevented the increase in lactate and triglyceride concentrations.

  10. Black tea extract supplementation decreases oxidative damage in Jurkat T cells.

    PubMed

    Erba, D; Riso, P; Foti, P; Frigerio, F; Criscuoli, F; Testolin, G

    2003-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of black tea (BT) extract against induced oxidative damage in Jurkat T-cell line. Cells supplemented with 10 or 25 mg/L BT were subjected to oxidation with ferrous ions. Malondialdehyde (MDA) production as marker of lipid peroxidation, DNA single strand breaks as marker of DNA damage, and modification of the antioxidant enzyme activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were measured. Results show the efficacy of BT polyphenols to decrease DNA oxidative damage and to affect GPX activity (P<0.05), while no effect was shown on MDA production. The succeeding investigation of the activity of caffeine and epigallocatechin gallate demonstrated their antioxidant potential with respect to the cellular markers evaluated. In conclusion, this study supports the protective effect of BT against ferrous ions induced oxidative damage to DNA and the ability of BT to affect the enzyme antioxidant system of Jurkat cells.

  11. Oxidative DNA damage preventive activity and antioxidant potential of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, a natural sweetener.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, Srijani; Banerjee, Anindita; Poddar, Avijit; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2007-12-26

    At 0.1 mg/mL, the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of the crude 85% methanolic extract (CAE) of Stevia rebaudiana leaves exhibited preventive activity against DNA strand scission by *OH generated in Fenton's reaction on pBluescript II SK (-) DNA. Its efficacy is better than that of quercetin. The radical scavenging capacity of CAE was evaluated by the DPPH test (IC50=47.66+/-1.04 microg/mL). EAE was derived from CAE scavenged DPPH (IC50=9.26+/-0.04 microg/mL), ABTS+ (IC50=3.04+/-0.22 microg/mL) and *OH (IC50=3.08+/-0.19 microg/mL). Additionally, inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced with 25 mM FeSO 4 on rat liver homogenate as a lipid source was noted with CAE (IC50=2.1+/-1.07 mg/mL). The total polyphenols and total flavonoids of EAE were 0.86 mg gallic acid equivalents/mg and 0.83 mg of quercetin equivalents/mg, respectively. Flavonoids, isolated from EAE, were characterized as quercetin-3-O-arabinoside, quercitrin, apigenin, apigenin-4-O-glucoside, luteolin, and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside by LC-MS and NMR analysis. These results indicate that Stevia rebaudiana may be useful as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  12. Short-term supplementation with Aronia melanocarpa extract improves platelet aggregation, clotting, and fibrinolysis in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Joanna; Broncel, Marlena; Markowicz, Magdalena; Chałubiński, Maciej; Wojdan, Katarzyna; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta

    2012-08-01

    A diet rich in berries is believed to play a distinct role in the prevention of metabolic diseases associated with obesity. So far, there have been no published clinical observations evaluating the influence of Aronia melanocarpa on hemostasis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of A. melanocarpa extract (AM) supplementation on platelet aggregation, clot formation, and lysis in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). Middle-aged non-medicated subjects with MS (n = 38) and 14 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Patients with MS were treated with 100 mg of AM three times daily for 2 months. We observed a significant reduction in the concentration of TC, LDL-C, and TG after AM supplementation. Beneficial changes in coagulation parameters were also observed. After 1 month of AM administration, we noticed significant inhibition of platelet aggregation. However, this effect became less pronounced after 2 months of supplementation. In the case of coagulation induced by endogenic thrombin, a significant decrease in the overall potential for coagulation was induced after 1 or 2 months of supplementation. Moreover, after 1 month of AM extract supplementation, we observed a beneficial reduction in the overall potential for clot formation and fibrinolysis. We observed the normalization of hemostasis parameters in MS patients after both 1 and 2 months of AM administration. After 1 month of AM supplementation, we found favorable changes in regards to the overall potential for plasma clotting, clot formation, and lysis, as well as in the lipid profiles of subjects.

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation with propolis and Aloe barbadensis extracts on hematological parameters and parasitism in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Dotta, Geovana; Brum, Aline; Jeronimo, Gabriela Tomas; Maraschin, Marcelo; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diet supplementation with propolis and Aloe barbadensis on hematological parameters and parasitism in tilapia. One hundred and eighty fish were distributed among 12 water tanks forming four treatments: fish supplemented with a 1:1 mixture of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% propolis and aloe extracts. After the fish had been fed on the experimental diets for 15 and 21 days, blood samples were taken and parasites collected. The monogeneans Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, C. halli, C. thurstonae and Scutogyrus longicornis were identified in the gills. Between the sampling times, there were increases in the numbers of erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes, as observed after 21 days, possibly due to the stress level over the course of the assay and/or accumulation of substances in the organism. Supplementation with the mixture of propolis and aloe for 15 days showed the highest efficacy against the parasites. This was possibly due to the association between the two compounds. The results demonstrated that supplementation with mixtures of extracts did not produce hematological alterations and also favored a significant reduction in the number of gill parasites. The best results were achieved after 15 days of feeding with a diet with 0.5% and 1% supplementation with the extract mixture, which increased efficiency by 83 and 85% respectively.

  14. Combination of Mangifera indica L. extract supplementation plus methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    López Mantecón, Ana M; Garrido, Gabino; Delgado-Hernández, René; Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects and the safety of Mangifera indica extract (Vimang tablets, 300 mg) combined with methotrexate (MTX) on reducing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty patients with active RA underwent a year of treatment with MTX (12.5 mg/week) associated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or prednisone (5-10 mg/day) were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n=10), that received the extract supplementation (900 mg/day) or preceding usual treatment (n=10) during 180 days. RA activity was evaluated using the tender and swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, disease activity score-28 (DAS 28), visual analogue scale (VAS) and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). Treatment's efficacy was demonstrated with ACR criteria. Only the patients of MTX-Vimang group revealed statistically significant improvement in DAS 28 parameters with respect baseline data but no differences were observed between groups. ACR improvements amounted 80% only in MTX-Vimang group at the 90 days (p<0.001). In MTX-Vimang group, 100% of patients decreased NSAIDs administration (p<0.01) and 70% of those eradicated gastrointestinal side effects (p<0.01) ensuing of the preceding treatment. Other adverse effects were not reported.

  15. Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan; You, Jeong-Soon; Zhao, Xu; Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf has been used to treat obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Four week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups with 8 rats in each group for a period of 6 weeks (normal diet, N group; high fat diet, HF group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract, HFL group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract + taurine, HFLT group). Lotus leaf hot water extract was orally administrated to HFL and HFLT groups and the same amount of distilled water was orally administered (400 mg/kg/day) to N and HF groups. Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v). The body weight gain and relative weights of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues were significantly lower in N, HFL and HFLT groups compared to HF group. HFL and HFLT groups showed lower concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum. HFLT group showed higher the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol compared to HFL group. HFLT group showed better blood lipid profiles compared to HFL group. Lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation showed antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects in high fat diet-induced obese rats, which was more effective than lotus leaf hot water extract alone.

  16. Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf has been used to treat obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods Four week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups with 8 rats in each group for a period of 6 weeks (normal diet, N group; high fat diet, HF group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract, HFL group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract + taurine, HFLT group). Lotus leaf hot water extract was orally administrated to HFL and HFLT groups and the same amount of distilled water was orally administered (400 mg/kg/day) to N and HF groups. Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v). Results The body weight gain and relative weights of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues were significantly lower in N, HFL and HFLT groups compared to HF group. HFL and HFLT groups showed lower concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum. HFLT group showed higher the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol compared to HFL group. HFLT group showed better blood lipid profiles compared to HFL group. Conclusions Lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation showed antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects in high fat diet-induced obese rats, which was more effective than lotus leaf hot water extract alone. PMID:20804619

  17. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows. The cows were fed a high forage (HF) or a low forage (LF) diet with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 59:41 or 41:59 on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (62 ± 8.8 d in milk) were used. The design of the experiment was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and each period lasted 21 d (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). Four dietary treatments were tested: HF without CTE, HF with CTE (HF+CTE), LF without CTE, and LF with CTE (LF+CTE). Commercial quebracho CTE was added to the HF+CTE and the LF+CTE at a rate of 3% of dietary DM. Intake of DM averaged 26.7 kg/d across treatments, and supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by CTE supplementation. Milk yield averaged 35.3 kg/d across treatments, and yields of milk and milk component were not influenced by CTE supplementation. Negative effects of CTE supplementation on feed intake resulted in increased feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake). Although concentration of milk urea N (MUN) decreased by supplementing CTE in the diets, efficiency of N use for milk N was not affected by CTE supplementation. Feeding the LF diet decreased ruminal pH (mean of 6.47 and 6.33 in HF and LF, respectively). However, supplementation of CTE in the diets did not influence ruminal pH. Supplementing CTE decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration regardless of level of forage. With CTE supplementation, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased in the HF diet, but not in the LF diet, resulting in interactions between forage level and CTE supplementation. Concentration of ammonia-N tended to decrease with supplementation of

  18. Supplementation of Rosemary extract in the diet of Nero Siciliano pigs: evaluation of the antioxidant properties on meat quality.

    PubMed

    Liotta, L; Chiofalo, V; D'Alessandro, E; Lo Presti, V; Chiofalo, B

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. dietary supplementation on meat quality and oxidative stability of Nero Siciliano pigs was examined. During the growing-fattening period, 32 Nero Siciliano pigs were allotted into two treatment groups consisting of 8 replicates with 2 pigs per pen. For 90 days, the animals received a basal diet: one group (CTR) was not dietary supplemented, whereas the other group received (1 g/kg) rosemary extract (ROX). Supplementation with rosemary extract significantly improved the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the meat, which showed higher values in the meat of the ROX group compared with the CTR group (P0.05). Color measurement performed in the present study on meat samples from the two dietary treatments showed that redness decreased (P=0.046) and hue values increased (P=0.036), indicating that a deterioration of the initial color occurred and that the rosemary extract was ineffective in preventing color deterioration. Nevertheless, the lightness, yellowness and chroma color descriptors showed similar values in relation to dietary treatment (P>0.05). Considering the nutritional value of meat as an important contributor to the overall quality, the results obtained in this study support the possibility of the dietary supplementation with R. officinalis L. extract in pigs as a functional additive in livestock feeding.

  19. Rearing conditions influence nutrient availability of plant extracts supplemented diets when fed to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Bravo, D; Rose, S P

    2014-08-01

    The effects of a standardised mixture of essential oils, including 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde and 2% capsicum (XT 6930; Pancosma S.A), on dietary apparent metabolisable energy corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn), nutrient digestibility and mucin secretions, measured as sialic acid (SA) were investigated in broilers fed on the same diet but reared under different conditions, that is, cages and floor pens littered with wood shavings used in previous broiler study. The use of XT reduced (p < 0.05) nitrogen digestibility (0.585 vs. 0.544) and tended (p = 0.072) to reduce dry matter digestibility (0.733 vs. 0.717) of the diet when fed to birds reared in cages. However, XT supplementation improved (p < 0.05) fat digestibility (0.844 vs. 0.862) and tended (p = 0.093) to increase AMEn (14.01 vs. 14.25 MJ/kg DM) of the same diet when fed to broilers reared in floor pens. Essential oils supplementation tended (p = 0.059) to increase the secretion of SA, when fed to birds reared in cages (11.24 vs. 14.18 μg), but did not influence (p > 0.05) the SA secretion from birds reared in floor pens. The results obtained from the cage study tend to be the opposite of those obtained from the floor pen study. This suggests that the efficiency of dietary plant extracts may be influenced by the rearing/hygienic conditions of poultry. Based on the overall results, it can be concluded that information on rearing conditions should be taken into account for more complete interpretation of the experimental data emanating from experiments involving use of essential oils typified by those considered in this study. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Qualitative Characteristics and Determining Shelf-Life of Milk Beverage Product Supplemented with Coffee Extracts.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Woo; Ahn, Sung-Il; Kim, Ha-Na; Park, Jun-Hong; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Oh, Duk-Geun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gur-Yoo

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish the shelf-life of a milk beverage product supplemented with coffee extracts. Qualitative changes including peroxide value (PV), microorganism content, caffeine content, and sensory evaluation were measured periodically in beverages kept at 10, 20, and 30°C for 8 wk. Lipid oxidation of the product was measured by peroxide value analysis, and apparent changes were observed during a 4 wk storage period. Caffeine analysis revealed that the changes in caffeine content were negligible during the storage period. Total aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, yeast, and mold were not detected in the products during an 8 wk storage period. Sensory evaluation revealed that after 4 wk of storage overall acceptance was less than 3 points on a 5-point scale. In this study, PV was used as an indicator of the shelf-life of the milk beverage product. PV analysis revealed that a value of 20 meq/kg was the end of the shelf-life using the Arrhenius equation and the accelerated shelf-life test (ASLT). Assuming that the beverages are kept at 4°C during distribution, calculation of when the PV reached the quality limit point (20 meq/kg) was done with the equation ln(PV) = 0.3644X - 2.21834 and, using that equation, PV = e(0.3644X-2.21834) was calculated. Therefore, 14.3086 wk was determined to be the shelf-life of the milk beverage supplemented with coffee when stored at 4°C.

  1. Transcript Quantification of Genes Involved in Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Modi, Arpan; Kumar, Nitish; Narayanan, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a medicinal plant having sweet, diterpenoid glycosides known as steviol glycosides which are 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose (0.4 % solution). They are synthesized mainly in the leaves via plastid localized 2-C-methyl-D-erythrose-4-phosphate pathway (MEP pathway). Fifteen genes are involved in the formation of these glycosides. In the present protocol, a method for the quantification of transcripts of these genes is shown. The work involves RNA extraction and cDNA preparation, and therefore, procedures for the confirmation of DNA-free cDNA preparation have also been illustrated. Moreover, details of plant treatments are not mentioned as this protocol may apply to relative gene expression profile in any medicinal plant with any treatment. The treatments are numbered as T0 (Control), T1, T2, T3, and T4.

  2. Dietary supplementation of Avicennia marina extract on immune protection and disease resistance in Amphiprion sebae against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Dhayanithi, Nagarajan Balachandran; Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan Ajith; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2015-07-01

    The effect of Avicennia marina aqueous leaf extract on innate immune mechanisms such as total white blood cell counts (WBC), serum lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay, alternative complement (ACH50) assay, phagocytic activity assay, disease resistance, gut bacteria, and survival rate of clownfish (Amphiprion sebae) against Vibrio alginolyticus is reported. Healthy fish challenged with V. alginolyticus (1 × 10(7) cells ml(-1)) were fed with diets supplemented (0, 1, 2, and 4%) with A. marina extract. The survival rate was 85% and 80% in infected fish fed with 4% and 8% supplementation diet; with 1% diet it was 70% while in the infected untreated group it was only 10%. The total gut bacteria flora was high in 8% and 4% supplementation diet groups with 2.8 × 10(5) and 4.7 × 10(4) cfu/g while it was 8.9 × 10(3) cfu/g in 1% diet group. The immunological parameters significantly increased on weeks 6 and 8 when infected fish were fed with 1% or 4% supplementation diet. This study reports that in clownfish challenged with V. alginolyticus, dietary administration of the 1% or 4% of A. marina extract improved the immune status and survival rate.

  3. Adverse Effects of Grape Seed Extract Supplement: A Clinical Case and Long-Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Berry, Andrew C; Nakshabendi, Rahman; Abidali, Hussein; Atchaneeyasakul, Kunakorn; Dholaria, Kevin; Johnson, Cassandra; Kishore, Varsha A; Baltz, Aaron C

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) supplement use is becoming more popular today for its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic role. We report a 49-year-old male who presented with recurrent nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and acute weakness following GSE use. A thorough medical workup ensued and no causes were identified clinically, procedurally, or with imaging. Symptoms resolved after GSE discontinuation and the patient remained symptom-free 5 years later. This case illustrates the paucity of documented detailed clinical cases and lack of controlled trials detailing a thorough and reproducible adverse effect profile of GSE supplement.

  4. Effect of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) Extract Supplementation in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Ângelo C.; Król, Ewelina; Lemos, Virgínia C.; Santos, Sónia A. O.; Bento, Fernanda P. M. S.; Costa, Carina P.; Almeida, Adelaide; Szczepankiewicz, Dawid; Kulczyński, Bartosz; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Rocha, Sílvia M.

    2016-01-01

    Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) lipophilic and polar extract dietary supplementation effects were evaluated according to diabetes management indices, using an in vivo model. A research pipeline was constructed, that ranged from extract preparation, partial chemical characterization and toxicity evaluation, to examining the elderberry extract dietary supplementation effects on biofluid and tissues. Extracts toxicity was screened using an Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence model. A concentration of up to 60 mg/L was selected, and rat doses for oral supplementation were computed applying the interspecies correlation between A. fischeri and rats. Wistar type 2 diabetic rats, induced by streptozotocin (STZ), were fed a high-fat diet and supplemented for 4 weeks at doses of 190 and 350 mg/kg body weight/day of lipophilic and polar extract, respectively. As far as we know, lipophilic elderberry extract supplementation was assessed for the first time, while polar extract was administrated at higher doses and for a shorter period compared to previous studies, aiming to evaluate subacute supplementation effects. The polar extract modulated glucose metabolism by correcting hyperglycemia, while the lipophilic extract lowered insulin secretion. Both extracts lowered insulin resistance, without remarkable alterations to hematological indices, sera lipids and sera and tissular trace element homeostasis. In conclusion, elderberries are a potential source of bioactive compounds for formulations to be used as co-adjuvants in diabetes management. PMID:28025494

  5. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers’ yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers’ yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer’s yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers’ yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers’ yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed “Vegemite Beer” would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings. PMID:27602264

  6. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Edward D; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers' yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers' yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer's yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers' yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers' yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed "Vegemite Beer" would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings.

  7. Properties of Milk Supplemented with Peanut Sprout Extract Microcapsules during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y. K.; Ganesan, P.; Kwak, H. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk with added powdered peanut sprout extract microcapsules (PPSEM) during the storage at 4°C for 16 d. The size of PPSEM varies from 3 to 10 μm as observed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pH values of all samples ranged from 6.8 to 6.6 during the storage. Release of resveratrol for 0.5 and 1% PPSEM addition was about 0.89 μl/ml and TBARS value found to lower during storage of 16 d. The a* and b* color values of high concentrations (1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0%) of PPSEM-added milk samples were significantly increased during the storage (p<0.05). The sensory test revealed that the overall acceptability of PPSEM (0.5 and 1%) added milk sample were quite similar to that of control. Based on the data, it was concluded that the low concentrations of the microcapsules (0.5 and 1.0%, w/v) could be suitable to produce the microcapsule-supplemented milk without significant adverse effects on the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk. PMID:25049901

  8. Properties of Milk Supplemented with Peanut Sprout Extract Microcapsules during Storage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K; Ganesan, P; Kwak, H S

    2013-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk with added powdered peanut sprout extract microcapsules (PPSEM) during the storage at 4°C for 16 d. The size of PPSEM varies from 3 to 10 μm as observed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pH values of all samples ranged from 6.8 to 6.6 during the storage. Release of resveratrol for 0.5 and 1% PPSEM addition was about 0.89 μl/ml and TBARS value found to lower during storage of 16 d. The a* and b* color values of high concentrations (1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0%) of PPSEM-added milk samples were significantly increased during the storage (p<0.05). The sensory test revealed that the overall acceptability of PPSEM (0.5 and 1%) added milk sample were quite similar to that of control. Based on the data, it was concluded that the low concentrations of the microcapsules (0.5 and 1.0%, w/v) could be suitable to produce the microcapsule-supplemented milk without significant adverse effects on the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk.

  9. Leukocyte phagocytosis and lysozyme activity in Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Dotta, Geovana; de Andrade, Jaqueline Inês Alves; Tavares Gonçalves, Eduardo Luiz; Brum, Aline; Mattos, Jacó Joaquim; Maraschin, Marcelo; Martins, Maurício Laterça

    2014-08-01

    Although there is evidence on the benefits in the use of immunostimulants in aquaculture, there are few commercial products being used. This study evaluated the use of natural substances as potential sources for the production of immunostimulants. Propolis and Aloe barbadensis have been widely studied and its extracts have different chemical constituents responsible for antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant. Tilapia juveniles were fed for two weeks with diets supplemented mix of propolis extracts and aloe (1:1) in different concentrations: 0.5, 1 e 2%. After the experimental period, fish blood was collected for hematoimmunological as follows : hematocrit, total plasma protein, erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC), differential leukocyte count, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, and serum antimicrobial activity, serum antimicrobial activity (evaluated against Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterococcus durans and Escherichia coli). Except for higher number of thrombocytes in 1%-supplemented fish, the rest did not show significant difference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective effect of red orange extract supplementation against UV-induced skin damages: photoaging and solar lentigines.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Offerta, Alessia; Saija, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico; Venera, Cardile

    2014-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations causes important oxidative damages that result in clinical and hystopathological changes, contributing to premature skin aging. Hyperpigmented lesions, also known as age spots, are one of the most visible alterations in skin photoaging. Skin is naturally equipped with antioxidant systems against UV-induced ROS generation; however, these antioxidant defenses are not completely efficient during exposure to sunlight. Oral antioxidants are able to counteract the harmful effects of UV radiation and to strengthen the physiological skin antioxidant defenses. The present study was performed to evaluate the in vivo skin photo-protecting and anti-aging effects of a red orange (Citrus sinensis varieties Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) extract supplementation. Previous studies showed that red orange extracts possess strong in vitro free radical scavenging/antioxidant activity and photo-protective effects on human skin. The photo-protective effects of red orange extract intake against UV-induced skin erythema and melanin production in solar lentigo was evaluated on healthy volunteers by an objective instrumental method (reflectance spectrophotometry). Data obtained from in vivo studies showed that supplementation of red orange extract (100 mg/daily) for 15 days brought a significant reduction in the UV-induced skin erythema degree. Moreover, skin age spots pigmentation (melanin content) decreased from 27% to 7% when subjects were exposed to solar lamp during red orange extract supplementation. Red orange extract intake can strengthen physiological antioxidant skin defenses, protecting skin from the damaging processes involved in photo-aging and leading to an improvement in skin appearance and pigmentation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Supplementation of Pueraria radix water extract on changes of antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in ethanol-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Sook

    2004-09-01

    Water extract of Pueraria radix (PRWE), traditional oriental medicinal plant, may have an effect on the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in ethanol-treated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, ethanol, PRWE and ethanol-PRWE supplemented groups. Twenty-five percent (v/v) ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) was orally administered once a day for 5 weeks. The PRWE was supplemented in a diet based on 1500 mg of raw PRWE/kg body weight/day. Ethanol feeding resulted in a higher alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and lower aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. After PRWE supplementation, both activities were increased. The PRWE supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the plasma and liver total cholesterol concentrations in the ethanol-treated rats. Ethanol administration significantly lowered the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), whereas it increased the plasma and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. However, PRWE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in the SOD and CAT activities and a significant decrease in the TBARS and the GSH-Px activities in the ethanol-treated rats. PRWE can contribute to alleviating the adverse effect of ethanol ingestion by enhancing the lipid metabolism as well as the hepatic antioxidant defense system.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation with a herbal extract on the performance of broilers infected with a mixture of Eimeria species.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, M; Selek, N; Küçükyilmaz, K; Eren, H; Güven, E; Çatli, A U; Çinar, M

    2012-01-01

    1. A herbal extract containing a blend of three essential oils, derived from oregano, laurel leaf and lavender, was investigated as a feed additive alternative to the conventional anticoccidial sodium monensin. 2. Broilers were infected with a mixture of Eimeria species or left uninfected. Both infected and uninfected broilers were provided with diets containing either herbal extract (HEX), monensin (MON) or without these supplements (CON). The HEX group had 50 mg herbal extract/kg diet and the MON group 100 mg monensin/kg diet. 3. All of the uninfected broilers exhibited higher body weight gain and better feed conversion when compared with their infected counterparts at d 28 and 42 of age. Both HEX and MON supplements caused significant improvements in performance in the infected broilers, but failed to have any effect on uninfected broilers. 4. Faecal oocyst output measured daily by sampling excreta, and expressed on a per bird basis, was lower in the HEX and MON groups than in the CON group. However, the herbal extract was not as effective as monensin in reducing oocyst excretion. Coccidial infection caused a significant increase in total intestinal length and caecal weight, but the dietary treatments did not influence these measurements. 5. These results indicate that providing a herbal extract in the diet was not as effective as monensin in protecting broilers exposed to a coccidial challenge.

  13. Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract.

    PubMed

    Caso Marasco, A; Vargas Ruiz, R; Salas Villagomez, A; Begoña Infante, C

    1996-01-01

    To remedy the deterioration in quality of life in large cities, the addition of ginseng root extract to a multivitamin base appears to produce a promising dietary supplement. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality-of-life parameters in subjects receiving multivitamins plus ginseng with those found in subjects receiving multivitamins alone. The study was comparative, randomized and double-blind, and it involved 625 patients of both sexes divided into two groups taking one capsule per day for 12 weeks. Group A received vitamins, minerals, trace elements and ginseng extract G115 (Pharmaton Capsules) while group B received vitamins, minerals and trace elements (multivitamin capsules) only. The resulting quality-of-life was assessed by a standardized 11-item questionnaire, validated by the Medical School of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Of the 625 patients recruited, 124 were excluded from the study due to lack of compliance with the treatment, so that 338 patients in group A and 163 patients in group B completed the study. By the end of the study, the 4th of the monthly assessments showed that both the group-A and the group-B treatments had induced a significant increase in the quality-of-life index, the change being 11.9 points for Pharmaton Capsules in group A which was significantly superior to the 6.4 average increase with the group-B capsules containing multivitamins alone. Group A showed significant improvement in every one of the 11 questionnaire items, whereas group B did not show significant improvement in any of these items. Significant increases in body weight and in diastolic blood pressure were recorded in the group B treated with the multivitamin alone. Adverse effects of the capsules were minimal in both groups. This study has demonstrated that Pharmaton Capsules were more effective than the multivitamin capsules alone in improving the quality-of-life in a population subjected to the stress of high physical and

  14. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, extract, and related dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-09-05

    Dietary supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African mango, AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the U.S. market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of AM-based dietary supplements (AMDSs) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of AM seeds, AM seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available AMDSs have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry method. Ellagic acid, mono-, di-, and tri-O-methyl-ellagic acids, and their glycosides were found as major components in AM seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of AM extract and related dietary supplements.

  15. The Influence of Chlorella and Its Hot Water Extract Supplementation on Quality of Life in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Naoto; Maruyama, Isao; Yamada, Akira

    2014-01-01

    A self-control, randomized, and open-label clinical trial was performed to test the effects of the unicellular green algae Chlorella and hot water extract supplementation on quality of life (QOL) in patients with breast cancer. Forty-five female patients with breast cancer who were living at home and not hospitalized were randomly assigned to 3 groups receiving vitamin mix tablet (control), Chlorella granules (test food-1), or Chlorella extract drink (test food-2) daily for one month. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B), the Izumo scale for abdominal symptom-specific QOL, and a narrative-form questionnaire were used to determine outcomes. Data of thirty-six subjects were included for final analysis. FACT-B scores at presupplementation found no significant group differences in all subscales. Scores on the breast cancer subscale in the Chlorella granule group significantly increased during the supplementation period (P = 0.042). Fifty percent of the Chlorella extract group reported positive effects by the test food such as reduction of fatigue and improvements of dry skin (P < 0.01 versus control group). The findings suggested the beneficial effects of Chlorella on breast cancer-related QOL and of Chlorella extract on vitality status in breast cancer patients. These findings need to be confirmed in a larger study. PMID:24799942

  16. Multiresidue pesticide analysis of botanical dietary supplements using salt-out acetonitrile extraction, solid-phase extraction cleanup column, and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Douglas G; Wong, Jon W; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Kai; Lee, Nathaniel S; DiBenedetto, Alex L; Hengel, Mathew J

    2013-05-07

    Dietary supplements form an increasing part of the American diet, yet broadly applicable multiresidue pesticide methods have not been evaluated for many of these supplements. A method for the analysis of 310 pesticides, isomers, and pesticide metabolites in dried botanical dietary supplements has been developed and validated. Sample preparation involved acetonitrile:water added to the botanical along with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride for extraction, followed by cleanup with solid-phase extraction using a tandem cartridge consisting of graphitized carbon black (GCB) and primary-secondary amine sorbent (PSA). Pesticides were measured by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Accuracy and precision were evaluated through fortifications of 24 botanicals at 10, 25, 100, and 500 μg/kg. Mean pesticide recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) for all botanicals were 97%, 91%, 90%, and 90% and 15%, 10%, 8%, and 6% at 10, 25, 100, and 500 μg/kg, respectively. The method was applied to 21 incurred botanicals. Quinoxyfen was measured in hops (100-620 μg/kg). Tetraconazole (48 μg/kg), tetramethrin (15 μg/kg), methamidophos (50 μg/kg), and chlorpyrifos (93 μg/kg) were measured in licorice, mallow, tea, and tribulus, respectively. Quintozene, its metabolites and contaminants (pentachloroaniline, pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, and pentachlorothioanisole and hexachlorobenzene and tecnazene, respectively), with hexachlorocyclohexanes and DDT were identified in ginseng sources along with azoxystrobin, diazinon, and dimethomorph between 0.7 and 2800 μg/kg. Validation with these botanicals demonstrated the extent of this method's applicability for screening 310 pesticides in a wide array of botanical dietary supplements.

  17. Masquelier's grape seed extract: from basic flavonoid research to a well-characterized food supplement with health benefits.

    PubMed

    Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt

    2017-01-19

    Careful characterization and standardization of the composition of plant-derived food supplements is essential to establish a cause-effect relationship between the intake of that product and its health effect. In this review we follow a specific grape seed extract containing monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols from its creation by Jack Masquelier in 1947 towards a botanical remedy and nutraceutical with proven health benefits. The preparation's research history parallels the advancing insights in the fields of molecular biology, medicine, plant and nutritional sciences during the last 70 years. Analysis of the extract's flavanol composition emerged from unspecific colorimetric assays to precise high performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting techniques. The early recognition of the preparation's auspicious effects on the permeability of vascular capillaries directed research to unravel the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Recent clinical data revealed a multitude of favorable alterations in the vasculature upon an 8 weeks supplementation which summed up in a health benefit of the extract in healthy humans. Changes in gene expression of inflammatory pathways in the volunteers' leukocytes were suggested to be involved in this benefit. The historically grown scientific evidence for the preparation's health effects paves the way to further elucidate its metabolic fate and molecular action in humans.

  18. Nutrient intake, digestibility and performance of Gaddi kids supplemented with tea seed or tea seed saponin extract.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Kannan, A; Bhar, R; Gulati, A; Gaurav, A; Sharma, V K

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS) extract. Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T0 (control), T1, and T2, consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50). Animals in group III (T2) were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI), and group II (T1) were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T2. Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. The tea seed (T1) or TSS (T2) supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were improved (p<0.05) for T1 and T2 as compared to T0. The microbial protein supply was also higher (p<0.05) for T1 and T2 for both the periods. There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level increased (p<0.05) in T2 as compared with T0 and T1. Supplementation also did not affect the cell mediated and humoral immune response in goats. Tea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis.

  19. Nutrient intake, digestibility and performance of Gaddi kids supplemented with tea seed or tea seed saponin extract

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M.; Kannan, A.; Bhar, R.; Gulati, A.; Gaurav, A.; Sharma, V. K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS) extract. Methods Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T0 (control), T1, and T2, consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50). Animals in group III (T2) were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI), and group II (T1) were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T2. Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. Results The tea seed (T1) or TSS (T2) supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were improved (p<0.05) for T1 and T2 as compared to T0. The microbial protein supply was also higher (p<0.05) for T1 and T2 for both the periods. There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level increased (p<0.05) in T2 as compared with T0 and T1. Supplementation also did not affect the cell mediated and humoral immune response in goats. Conclusion Tea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis. PMID:27608635

  20. A new acylated quercetin glycoside from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Jiang, Hua; Shi, Renbing

    2009-01-01

    A new acylated quercetin glycoside quercetin-3-O-(4'''-O-trans-caffeoyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-galacopyranoside (1), along with luteolin (2), quercetin (3), luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (4), apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), quercitrin (6), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-arabinoside (7) and 4,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (8) have been isolated from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods (1H- and 13C-NMR, IR and MS) and by 2D-NMR experiments.

  1. Dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall Extract Supplementation Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Modulates Serum Amino Acids Profiles in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Martínez, Yordan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract (SCCWE) on growth performance, oxidative stress, intestinal morphology, and serum amino acid concentration in weaned piglets. Utilizing a completely randomized design, 40 healthy piglets weaned at 21 d were grouped into 4 experimental treatments with 10 pigs per treatment group. Treatments consisted of a basal diet (T0), a basal diet with a 0.05% SCCWE (T1), a basal diet with a 0.10% SCCWE (T2), and a basal diet with a 0.15% SCCWE (T3). SCCWE supplementation increased the average daily gain and final body weight compared with T0 (P < 0.05). SCCWE in T2 and T3 improved the average daily feed intake and decreased the feed/gain ratio compared with T1 and T2 (P < 0.05). SCCWE decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly compared to T0 (P < 0.05). SCCWE increased the concentration of Ile compared to T0 (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentrations of Leu, Phe, and Arg were higher in T2 and T3 (P < 0.05). These findings indicate beneficial effects of SCCWE supplementation on growth performance, the concentration of some essential amino acids, and alleviation of oxidative stress in weaned piglets. PMID:28386308

  2. Anti-inflammatory effect of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense supplementation in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Ju; Yen, Chi-Hua; Liu, Jen-Tzu; Tseng, Yu-Fen; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2016-03-30

    Many studies have demonstrated that Graptopetalum paraguayense has good antioxidant ability; however, few studies have examined its anti-inflammatory effect. The study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of water extracts of G. paraguayense (WGP, 4 g day(-1)) in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Intervention was administered for 12 weeks. Levels of inflammatory markers [high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured. Forty-two subjects completed the 12 week intervention study (placebo, n = 19; WGP, n = 23). After 12 weeks supplementation, subjects in WGP group had significantly lower levels of inflammatory markers than the baseline (P < 0.05) and the placebo group (CRP, P = 0.07; TNF-α, P = 0.04; IL-6, P = 0.03). The changes in levels of the inflammatory markers were significantly decreased in WGP group (CRP, P = 0.04; TNF-α, P = 0.06; IL-6, P = 0.01) compared to the placebo group. Levels of inflammatory markers were significantly negatively correlated with the antioxidant enzymes activities after supplementation. This study demonstrated a significant reduction in inflammatory status in MS after WGP supplementation. WGP may exert an anti-inflammatory effect on MS in addition to its antioxidant ability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    Cross, D E; McDevitt, R M; Acamovic, T

    2011-04-01

    1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the control treatment, for organoleptic properties in the meat. 2. Female broiler chicks were fed on wheat-soybean meal diets from 0-42 d of age. These chicks were given either the basal diet (control), or the basal diet with one of rosemary, garlic or yarrow herbs, mimosa, cranberry or grapeseed CT's, or thyme EO supplements (8 treatments in total). Body weight (BW) and feed consumption (FC) were measured. 3. The garlic supplement tended to improve growth rate over the first 7 d, while mimosa CT and thyme EO supplements reduced weight gains. The mimosa supplement in diets significantly reduced FC to d 21. Meanwhile, the addition of a cranberry supplement reduced the digestibility of DM, OM and N, compared with the controls. Dietary thyme EO, yarrow, rosemary and garlic supplements modified caecal isovaleric and isobutyric acid proportions (presented as 'Other VFA'; p < 0.05). Dietary herb significantly affected the intensity of meat flavour, and the potential of observing both garlic and abnormal flavours. There were large differences between the consumption of red and white meat samples, while meat temperature affected several flavour attributes. 4. Broiler performance and digestibility for birds given dietary garlic and grapeseed CT supplements were similar to the controls, and these supplements appear suitable for dietary inclusion. Careful choices are necessary when selecting dietary plant extract supplements for broilers, but beneficial effects can be observed.

  4. Does chronic supplementation of the diet with dietary fibre extracted from pea or carrot affect colonic motility in man?

    PubMed

    Guédon, C; Ducrotté, P; Antoine, J M; Denis, P; Colin, R; Lerebours, E

    1996-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess, in healthy volunteers and under physiological conditions, the acceptability, clinical tolerance and effects on colonic motility of chronic supplementation of the usual diet with new dietary fibre sources. Three studies were carried out, one after a period of habitual diet, and two after randomized 3-week periods of supplementation with fibre extracted either from pea hulls or carrots, added to the meals as a fine powder. The 24 h motility was recorded on an unprepared colon at five levels to determine the initiation site and the number of high amplitude propagated contractions (HAPC) and to quantify motor activity every 30 min, particularly in the two periods following lunch and breakfast. With the habitual diet the motility pattern was an irregular alternation of quiescence and sporadic non-propagated contractions. HAPC always started from the ascending colon and occurred mainly after breakfast. With either type of fibre the 24 h motor profiles, the 24 h variations and the number of HAPC were not significantly modified but a more distal initiation of HAPC was found. The colonic postprandial motor response was more diffuse after dietary enrichment with carrot fibre than after enrichment with pea-hull fibre. In healthy volunteers the long-term addition of fibre extracted from pea hulls and carrots to the usual diet was easy and well-tolerated without clinical side-effects, but with limited colonic motor effects. However, the more distal initiation of HAPC observed could be deleterious.

  5. Densitometric HPTLC analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

    PubMed

    Alam, Prawez

    2013-08-01

    To develop and validate a simple, accurate HPTLC method for the analysis of 8-gingerol and to determine the quantity of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. The analysis was performed on 10×20 cm aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) with n-hexane: ethyl acetate 60: 40 (v/v) as mobile phase. Camag TLC Scanner III was used for the UV densitometric scanning at 569. This system was found to give a compact spot of 8-gingerol at retention factor (Rf) value of (0.39±0.04) and linearity was found in the ranges 50-500 ng/spot (r (2)=0.9987). Limit of detection (12.76 ng/spot), limit of quantification (26.32 ng/spot), accuracy (less than 2 %) and recovery (ranging from 98.22-99.20) were found satisfactory. The HPTLC method developed for quantification of 8-gingerol was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and is applicable to the analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

  6. Densitometric HPTLC analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Prawez

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a simple, accurate HPTLC method for the analysis of 8-gingerol and to determine the quantity of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. Methods The analysis was performed on 10×20 cm aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) with n-hexane: ethyl acetate 60: 40 (v/v) as mobile phase. Camag TLC Scanner III was used for the UV densitometric scanning at 569. Results This system was found to give a compact spot of 8-gingerol at retention factor (Rf) value of (0.39±0.04) and linearity was found in the ranges 50-500 ng/spot (r2=0.9987). Limit of detection (12.76 ng/spot), limit of quantification (26.32 ng/spot), accuracy (less than 2 %) and recovery (ranging from 98.22-99.20) were found satisfactory. Conclusions The HPTLC method developed for quantification of 8-gingerol was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and is applicable to the analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. PMID:23905021

  7. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K. K.; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken. PMID:27536035

  8. Amelioration of arsenic-induced toxic effects in mice by dietary supplementation of Syzygium cumini leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Barai, Milan; Ahsan, Nazmul; Paul, Nilanjana; Hossain, Khaled; Abdur Rashid, Mohammad; Kato, Masashi; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Azim Akhand, Anwarul

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic created a serious public health problem in Bangladesh due to its presence in groundwater and dissemination of the toxic effects to millions of people. The scarcity of the treatment options to manage this affected population has made the situation much worse. To find a promising treatment option, this study was undertaken to examine the ameliorating roles of Syzygium cumini leaf extract (SLE) against arsenic-induced toxic effects in mice. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups where 'control' group received pure water + normal feed, 'arsenic (As)' group received sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)-containing water (10 μg/g body weight/day) + normal feed, 'As+SLE' group received NaAsO2-containing water + feed supplemented with SLE (50 µg/g body weight/day) and finally the 'SLE' group received pure water + feed supplemented with SLE. A gradual increase in body weight gain was observed in control mice; however, the body weight gain in As-exposed mice was decreased. This decrease in body weight gain was prevented in As+SLE group mice that received SLE supplemented feed. Arsenic showed a secondary effect by causing enlargement of spleen, kidney and liver of 'As' group mice and this enlargement of the organs was minimized with SLE supplementation. In addition, SLE abrogated arsenic-mediated elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), uric acid and glucose. These results, therefore, suggest that SLE might have future therapeutic value for preventing or reducing arsenic-induced toxic effects.

  9. Amelioration of arsenic-induced toxic effects in mice by dietary supplementation of Syzygium cumini leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Barai, Milan; Ahsan, Nazmul; Paul, Nilanjana; Hossain, Khaled; Abdur Rashid, Mohammad; Kato, Masashi; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Azim Akhand, Anwarul

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arsenic created a serious public health problem in Bangladesh due to its presence in groundwater and dissemination of the toxic effects to millions of people. The scarcity of the treatment options to manage this affected population has made the situation much worse. To find a promising treatment option, this study was undertaken to examine the ameliorating roles of Syzygium cumini leaf extract (SLE) against arsenic-induced toxic effects in mice. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups where ‘control’ group received pure water + normal feed, ‘arsenic (As)’ group received sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)-containing water (10 μg/g body weight/day) + normal feed, ‘As+SLE’ group received NaAsO2-containing water + feed supplemented with SLE (50 µg/g body weight/day) and finally the ‘SLE’ group received pure water + feed supplemented with SLE. A gradual increase in body weight gain was observed in control mice; however, the body weight gain in As-exposed mice was decreased. This decrease in body weight gain was prevented in As+SLE group mice that received SLE supplemented feed. Arsenic showed a secondary effect by causing enlargement of spleen, kidney and liver of ‘As’ group mice and this enlargement of the organs was minimized with SLE supplementation. In addition, SLE abrogated arsenic-mediated elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), uric acid and glucose. These results, therefore, suggest that SLE might have future therapeutic value for preventing or reducing arsenic-induced toxic effects. PMID:28626252

  10. Influence of Grape Seed Extract and Zinc Containing Multivitamin-Mineral Nutritional Food Supplement on Lipid Profile in Normal and Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Zincovit tablet is combination of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement. Aims: To investigate the influence of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement tablets (Zincovit) on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets doses ranged from 40 to 160 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Results: Hypercholesterolemic animals treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (nutritional food supplement) at 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg exhibited drastic decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and rise of HDL-C in comparison to hypercholesterolemic control group animals. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet was comparable with the standard drug atorvastatin treated animals and the variations were statistically non-significant. There was no significant impact of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets on lipid profile among normal animals in comparison with normal control group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet is the potential functional nutritional food supplements that could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats. PMID:25653967

  11. Influence of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Satyam, Shakta Mani; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai

    2014-12-01

    Zincovit tablet is combination of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement. To investigate the influence of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and zinc containing multivitamin-mineral nutritional food supplement tablets (Zincovit) on lipid profile in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets doses ranged from 40 to 160 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated in normal and diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemic animals treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (nutritional food supplement) at 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg exhibited drastic decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and rise of HDL-C in comparison to hypercholesterolemic control group animals. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet was comparable with the standard drug atorvastatin treated animals and the variations were statistically non-significant. There was no significant impact of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets on lipid profile among normal animals in comparison with normal control group. The present study demonstrated that the single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablet is the potential functional nutritional food supplements that could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats.

  12. Speciation analysis of arsenic in prenatal and children's dietary supplements using microwave-enhanced extraction and ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wolle, Mesay M; Rahman, G M Mizanur; Kingston, H M Skip; Pamuku, Matt

    2014-03-25

    A study was conducted to develop a microwave-enhanced extraction method for the determination of arsenic species in prenatal and children's dietary supplements prepared from plant materials. The method was optimized by evaluating the efficiency of various solutions previously used to extract arsenic from the types of plant materials used in the dietary supplement formulations. A multivitamin standard reference material (NIST SRM 3280) and a prenatal supplement sample were analyzed in the method optimization. The identified optimum conditions were 0.25 g of sample, 5 mL of 0.3 mol L(-1) orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4) and microwave heating at 90 °C for 30 min. The extracted arsenic was speciated by cation exchange ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). The method detection limit (MDL) for the arsenic species was in the range 2-8 ng g(-1). Ten widely consumed prenatal and children's dietary supplements were analyzed using the optimized protocol. The supplements were found to have total arsenic in the concentration range 59-531 ng g(-1). The extraction procedure recovered 61-92% of the arsenic from the supplements. All the supplementary products were found to contain arsenite (As(3+)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Arsenate (As(5+)) was found in two of the supplements, and an unknown specie of arsenic was detected in one product. The results of the analysis were validated using mass balance by comparing the sum of the extracted and non-extracted arsenic with the total concentration of the element in the corresponding samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune Fr.:Fr. extract during accelerated storage.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Heng, Pei Ying; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    The oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune's crude extract (CE), the formic acid (FA) fraction and semipurified subfractions (SF) II and IV were tested, compared to BHA and alpha-tocopherol, by measuring their peroxide value, iodine value, p-anisidine value, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and free fatty acid content. Their total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were also evaluated. FA and CE exhibited highest DPPH* scavenging, while FA and SFIV showed the highest FRAP; TPC was found to be highest in CE, FA, and SFIV. BHA and alpha-tocopherol are more protective in stabilizing the sunflower oil; SFII and SFIV had short-term protective effect in secondary oxidation for 1 year, while CE and FA retarded secondary oxidation and extended the shelf life 1 1/2 years and 2 years, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis found (+)-catechin in Sch. commune's extracts. Sch. commune's extracts did not show similar retardation of lipid oxidation in sunflower oil as compared to alpha-tocopherol and BHA at the 200 ppm level. However, the higher concentration of Sch. commune's extract that provided the protective effect in stabilizing sunflower oil can be further studied.

  15. Oreochromis mossambicus diet supplementation with Psidium guajava leaf extracts enhance growth, immune, antioxidant response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Gobi, Narayanan; Ramya, Chinnu; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    In this research, we focused on the efficacy of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) based experimental diets on the growth, immune, antioxidant and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental diets were prepared by mixing powdered (1, 5 and 10 mg/g) aqueous and ethanol extract of guava leaf with commercial diet. The growth (FW, FCR and SGR), non-specific cellular immune (myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen activity and reactive nitrogen activity) humoral immune (complement activity, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase activity and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant enzyme responses (SOD, GPX, and CAT) were examined after 30 days of post-feeding. A significant enhancement in the biochemical and immunological parameters of fish were observed fed with experimental diets compared to control. The dietary supplementation of P. guajava leaf extract powder for 30 days significantly reduced the mortality and increased the disease resistance of O. mossambicus following challenge with A. hydrophila at 50 μl (1 × 10(7) cells ml(-1)) compared to control after post-infection. The results suggest that the guava leaf extract could be used as a promising feed additive in aquaculture.

  16. Glucose concentration in the blood of intact and alloxan-treated mice after pretreatment with commercial preparations of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    PubMed

    Raskovic, Aleksandar; Gavrilovic, Maja; Jakovljevic, Vida; Sabo, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The study was concerned with the effect of mice pretreatment with two commercial products of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni on the blood glucose concentration. One group of mice was pretreated four days with 200 mg/kg of Stevita (Stevita Co, INC, Arlington Texas) (stevia) and the other with 20 mg/kg of Clear Steviosides liquid (Stevita Co, INC, Herbal supplement, Brazil) (stevioside), whereas the animals of control group received at the same time physiological solution. Blood glucose concentration was measured before pretreatment and four days after that. The changes in glucose level were provoked by glucose-tolerance test (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and subcutaneous injection of adrenaline (0.2 mg/kg). The same procedure of measuring blood glucose was applied on the mice with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus (two doses of 100 mg/kg with a 24-hour interval). Blood glucose levels in mice pretreated with stevia and stevioside were lower compared with control (7.82:6.82:8.01). Also, a smaller increase in this parameter compared to control was registered with pretreated mice in the glucose-tolerance test, pretreatment with stevioside being again more effective (8.68:6.36:5.82). Pretreatment with stevioside caused no significant increase in blood glucose concentration after administering adrenaline, which was not the case with the animals pretreated with stevia and control. Pretreatment with stevia, and to a greater extent with stevioside, protected test animals from the toxic action of alloxan compared with controls.

  17. Antioxidant activity of ginger extract as a daily supplement in cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Danwilai, Kwanjit; Konmun, Jitprapa; Sripanidkulchai, Bung-orn; Subongkot, Suphat

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant activity of ginger extract oral supplement in newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy compared to placebo. Patients and methods Newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving moderate-to-high emetogenic potential adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to receive either a ginger extract (standardized 6-gingerol 20 mg/day) or a placebo 3 days prior to chemotherapy, which they continued daily. Oxidant/antioxidant parameters, including the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total glutathione (GSH/GSSG), lipid peroxidation products detected as malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO2−/NO3−, were measured at baseline and at days 1, 22, 43 and 64 after undergoing chemotherapy. Two-sided statistical analysis, with P < 0.05, was used to determine statistical significance. Results A total of 43 patients were included in the study: 19 and 24 patients were randomly assigned to the ginger group and placebo group, respectively. Antioxidant activity parameters, including SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH/GSSG, were significantly increased at day 64 in the ginger group compared to those in the placebo group, while MDA and NO2−/NO3− levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.0001). When compared to the baseline, the activities of SOD and CAT and the levels of GPx and GSH/GSSG were significantly higher on day 64 (P = 0.01), while the blood levels of MDA and NO2−/NO3− were significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Conclusion Daily supplement of ginger extract started 3 days prior to chemotherapy has been shown to significantly elevate antioxidant activity and reduce oxidative marker levels in patients who received moderate-to-high emetogenic potential chemotherapy compared to placebo. PMID:28203106

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Tsuji, Tomoko

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans by a double- blind, randomized, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled trial. In the Active group, eleven subjects ingested a supplement containing omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil (docosahexaenoic acid 783 mg/day, eicosapentaenoic acid 162 mg/day), bilberry extract (anthocyanidin 59 mg/day), and lutein (17.5 mg/day) in soft gel capsule form, every day for 4 weeks. In the Placebo group, nine subjects ingested placebo capsules. Before and after supplementation, subjects completed a questionnaire to determine their asthenopia symptoms and were also assessed for mental fatigue symptom by the visual analog scale (VAS) test. Asthenopia symptoms such as "stiff shoulder, low back pain", "frustration", "dry-eye", and "stuffy head" were improved in the Active group. Furthermore, a score of mental fatigue was improved after 4 weeks of supplementation, and no side effects were observed after the 4-week supplementation and a 2-week washout period in the Active group. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with the combination of omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein may safely improve subjective symptoms of asthenopia and mental fatigue in humans.

  19. Development of glial cells cultured from prenatally alcohol treated rat brain: effect of supplementation of the maternal alcohol diet with a grape extract.

    PubMed

    Ledig, M; Holownia, A; Copin, J C; Tholey, G; Anokhina, I

    1996-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of supplementation of a maternal alcohol diet with a grape extract on glial cell development. Glial cells were cultured during 4 weeks from cortical brain cells of the new born offspring in DMEM medium supplemented with fetal calf serum. Enzymatic markers of nerve cell development were measured (enolase isoenzymes and glutamine synthetase). Since alcohol consumption produces free radicals the antioxidant system superoxide dismutase was also investigated. Compared to the decrease found in only alcohol treated animals, all parameters except neuron-specific enolase were antagonized and even stimulated after grape extract supplementation. The effect was more important after only 1 month than 3 months of treatment. Also in the total brain an alcohol antagonizing effect and a glutamine synthetase activation were found. Our data demonstrate that addition of a grape extract to the maternal alcohol diet may partially or completely overcome the alcohol induced retardation of glial cell development.

  20. Molecular imprinting-based micro-stir bar sorptive extraction for specific analysis of Glibenclamide in herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoli; Liu, Jie; Wu, Jinhua; Wang, Yang; Xue, Cheng; Wang, Ruoyu; Hong, Junli; Zhou, Xuemin

    2012-12-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) coated micro-stir bar (MSB) for Glibenclamide (GM) was developed. The MIPs, with GM as template molecular and methacrylic acid as functional monomer, were synthesized at the surface of the silylated MSB that was filled with magnetic core as substrate. Computational simulation was used for the optimal selection of functional monomers and porogen. The thickness of MIPs coating for MSB was about 10 μm, the adsorption and desorption time were about 40 and 20 min, respectively. The MIPs coated MSB possessed mechanical stability, high adsorption capacity, and good selectivity for GM. To achieve the optimum extraction performance, several parameters including extraction and desorption time, stirring rate, extraction and desorption solvent were investigated. A method for the determination of GM in herbal dietary supplements by MIPs coated MSB coupled with HPLC-UV was established. The results exhibited good linear ranges of 10-6250 μg L(-1) with the low limit of detection of GM (3.05 μg L(-1)) and the good recoveries (81.9-101.4%).

  1. Neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract in epilepsy and effect of glucose supplementation during hypoxia: glutamate receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Paulose, C S; Chathu, Finla; Khan, S Reas; Krishnakumar, Amee

    2008-09-01

    The experiments were designed to study the glutamate gene expression during epilepsy in adult and hypoxic insult to brain during the neonatal period and the therapeutic role of neuroprotective supplements. We investigated the role of metabotropic glutamate-8 receptor (mGluR8) gene expression in cerebellum during epilepsy and neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract in epilepsy. We also studied the effect of NMDA receptor 1 (NMDAR1) gene expression during neonatal hypoxia and therapeutic role of glucose, oxygen and epinephrine supplementation. During epilepsy a significant down-regulation (P < 0.01) of mGluR8 gene expression was observed which was up-regulated (P < 0.05) near control level after B. monnieri treatment which is supported by Morris water maze experiment. In hypoxic neonates we observed up-regulation (P < 0.001) of the NMDAR1 gene expression whereas glucose and glucose + oxygen was able to significantly reverse (P < 0.001) the gene expression to near control level when compared to hypoxia and epinephrine treatment which was supported by open field test. Our results showed that B. monnieri treatment to epileptic rats significantly brought the reversal of the down-regulated mgluR8 gene expression toward control level. In neonatal rats, hypoxia induced expressional and functional changes in the NMDAR1 receptors of neuronal cells which is corrected by supplementation of glucose alone or glucose followed by oxygen during the resuscitation to prevent the glutamate related neuronal damage. Thus, the results suggest the clinical significance of corrective measures for epileptic and hypoxic management.

  2. Long-term green tea extract supplementation does not affect fat absorption, resting energy expenditure, and body composition in adults.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2015-05-01

    Green tea (GT) extract may play a role in body weight regulation. Suggested mechanisms are decreased fat absorption and increased energy expenditure. We examined whether GT supplementation for 12 wk has beneficial effects on weight control via a reduction in dietary lipid absorption as well as an increase in resting energy expenditure (REE). Sixty Caucasian men and women [BMI (in kg/m²): 18-25 or >25; age: 18-50 y] were included in a randomized placebo-controlled study in which fecal energy content (FEC), fecal fat content (FFC), resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient (RQ), body composition, and physical activity were measured twice (baseline vs. week 12). For 12 wk, subjects consumed either GT (>0.56 g/d epigallocatechin gallate + 0.28-0.45 g/d caffeine) or placebo capsules. Before the measurements, subjects recorded energy intake for 4 consecutive days and collected feces for 3 consecutive days. No significant differences between groups and no significant changes over time were observed for the measured variables. Overall means ± SDs were 7.2 ± 3.8 g/d, 6.1 ± 1.2 MJ/d, 67.3 ± 14.3 kg, and 29.8 ± 8.6% for FFC, REE, body weight, and body fat percentage, respectively. GT supplementation for 12 wk in 60 men and women did not have a significant effect on FEC, FFC, REE, RQ, and body composition. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed. PMID:26101533

  4. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Byun, A Ri; Chun, Hyejin; Lee, Jin; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo; Shim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: one group consumed a single capsule of barley leaf extract daily (n = 25, 42.48 ± 13.58 years) and the other consumed placebo capsules (n = 26, 40.54 ± 11.1 years) for 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol were not lower in the barley sprout extract group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.415 and p = 0.351, resp.) and no differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between both groups. Conclusion. Our study failed to show significant lipid-lowering effects of barley sprout extract, possibly due to dosage, duration of therapy, and small sample size. Despite our nonsignificant findings, barley sprout has a possibility as a functional health food; therefore future research is needed.

  5. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  6. Supplementation with plant extracts (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsaicin): its effects on acid-base status and productive performance in growing/finishing bull calves.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Joaquín; Benedito, José Luís; Vázquez, Patricia; Pereira, Victor; Méndez, Jesús; Sotillo, Juan; Castillo, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the in vivo effects of a commercial blend of plant extracts (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsaicin) on blood acid-base balance and serum lactate levels in a 148-day feedlot experimentwith 24 double-muscled Belgian Blue bull calves. Animals were allotted randomly to one of two experimental groups: 1) a control group (C, no supplementation; n = 10), and 2) a group receiving dietary supplementation with a combination of plant extracts (PE, 100 mg per kg DM of concentrate; n = 14). All animals received a high-grain ration, typical of diets fed commercially to feedlot cattle in Spain, consisting mainly of barley plus other components in proportions depending on the production phase. Production data (weight, DMI, ADG and feed-to-gain ratio) were recorded, and venous blood pH, pCO2, HCO3(-), Base Excess -BE- and serum L-lactate were determined. Apparently, beneficial effects of supplementation on production parameters were observed in both growing and finishing periods, though statistically significant effects were only observed in the finishing period. As regards blood parameters, no significant effects of supplementation (or the supplementation x time interaction) were observed, except for an effect on blood pH in the growing period, when supplemented animals showed significantly higher values than controls. A beneficial supplementation x time interactive effect was observed on serum L-lactate levels: from the first week of the study until the end, supplemented animals showed significantly lower levels than controls. These in vivo results support the utility of this dietary supplement in feedlot cattle receiving a barley-based high-grain diet.

  7. Magnesium supplementation through seaweed calcium extract rather than synthetic magnesium oxide improves femur bone mineral density and strength in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun Jung; Bu, So Young; Kim, Jae Young; Yeon, Jee-Young; Sohn, Eun-Wha; Jang, Ki-Hyo; Lee, Jae-Cheol; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Commercially available seaweed calcium extract can supply high amounts of calcium as well as significant amounts of magnesium and other microminerals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which the high levels of magnesium in seaweed calcium extract affects the calcium balance and the bone status in ovariectomized rats in comparison to rats supplemented with calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide. A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley female rats (7 weeks) were divided into four groups and bred for 12 weeks: sham-operated group (Sham), ovariectomized group (OVX), ovariectomized with inorganic calcium and magnesium supplementation group (OVX-Mg), and ovariectomized with seaweed calcium and magnesium supplementation group (OVX-SCa). All experimental diets contained 0.5% calcium. The magnesium content in the experimental diet was 0.05% of the diet in the Sham and OVX groups and 0.1% of the diet in the OVX-Mg and OVX-SCa groups. In the calcium balance study, the OVX-Mg and OVX-SCa groups were not significantly different in calcium absorption compared to the OVX group. However, the femoral bone mineral density and strength of the OVX-SCa group were higher than those of the OVX-Mg and OVX groups. Seaweed calcium with magnesium supplementation or magnesium supplementation alone did not affect the serum ALP and CTx levels in ovariectomized rats. In summary, consumption of seaweed calcium extract or inorganic calcium carbonate with magnesium oxide demonstrated the same degree of intestinal calcium absorption, but only the consumption of seaweed calcium extract resulted in increased femoral bone mineral density and strength in ovariectomized rats. Our results suggest that seaweed calcium extract is an effective calcium and magnesium source for improving bone health compared to synthetic calcium and magnesium supplementation.

  8. Use of Onion Extract as a Dairy Cattle Feed Supplement: Monitoring Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate as a Marker of Its Effect on Milk Attributes.

    PubMed

    Abad, Paloma; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Gil, Lidia; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-02-01

    Onion extract is used as a feed supplement for the diet of dairy cows, acting as inhibitor of methane production; however, its properties could alter sensory attributes of milk. In this work, we propose a method to evaluate the influence of this extract on milk properties, using propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) as a marker. PTSO is extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure and monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The method was applied to milk samples obtained from 100 dairy cows fed during 2 months with enriched feed. In addition, a milk tasting panel was established to evaluate the PTSO residue that should not be exceeded to guarantee milk sensory attributes. It was established that a value of PTSO lower than 2 mg kg(-1) does not alter milk organoleptic properties. This fact makes onion extract an interesting alternative as a feed supplement to control the methane emissions without any influence on milk attributes.

  9. Malolactic bioconversion using a Oenococcus oeni strain for cider production: effect of yeast extract supplementation.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario

    2003-12-01

    Yeast extract addition to reconstituted apple juice had a positive impact on the development of the malolactic starter culture used to ensure malolactic fermentation in cider, using active but non-proliferating cells. In this work, the reuse of fermentation lees from cider is proposed as an alternative to the use of commercial yeast extract products. Malolactic enzymatic assays, both in whole cells and cell-free extracts, were carried out to determine the best time to harvest cells for use as an inoculum in cider. Cells harvested at the late exponential phase, the physiological stage of growth corresponding to the maximum values of specific malolactic activity, achieved a good rate of malic acid degradation in controlled cider fermentation. Under the laboratory conditions used, malic acid degradation rates in the fermentation media turned out to be near 2.0 and 2.5 times lower, compared with the rates obtained in whole-cell enzymatic assays, as useful data applicable to industrial cider production.

  10. Comparison between in toto peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) supplementation and its polyphenolic extract on rat liver xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Canistro, Donatella; Vivarelli, Fabio; Cirillo, Silvia; Costa, Guglielmo; Andreotti, Carlo; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-11-01

    Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in the natural constituents of foods as a potential means of cancer control. To date, epidemiology studies seem to indicate an inverse association between regular consumption of fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. Here, the potential chemopreventive activity of the polyphenolic extract (PPE) of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and of the freeze-dried fruit in toto (LFT), focusing on the modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in vivo, was investigated. Rats were daily supplemented with LFT at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. or with the corresponding amount of PPE (2.5 and 5 mL/kg b.w., respectively) for either 7 or 14 days. While PPE treatment resulted in a widespread phase-I inactivation, a complex modulation pattern with drastic decreases (7α-testosterone hydroxylase, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD)), coupled with marked up-regulations of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) after LFT administration, was seen. A notable down-regulation (over 50%) following LFT or PPE treatment for the phase-II enzymes was also recorded. The observed remarkable changes in XMEs, if reproduced in humans, might have public health implications. These data suggest caution in promoting peach fruit (mono-diet) consumption or its polyphenolic extract in the field of chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effects of salinity stress on cytosolic calciumin Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni cells].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ling Yuan; Xu, Jin Sen; Hong, Fu Xiang; Chen, Mu Chuan

    2002-06-01

    Fluo-3/AM, a calcium indicator, was introduced by low temprature loading method into callus protoplasts of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The microscope observation results showed that NaCl in different concentrations (30-200mmol/L) can elevate the intracellular calcium concentration in protoplasts. The elevation was related to the amount of salinity. The effect of salinity stress was inhibited by LiCl pretreatment but restored by inositol pretreatment. This suggested that salinity stress promoted the cytoplasmic calcium activity, perhaps by activating the phosphoinoditide system. As a result of salinity stress signals, elevated calcium activity may trigger corresponding metabolic changes, such as synthesis of enzyme via activating other members of calcium signal system, fit the cells for the change of the environment.

  12. Mutagenicity and human chromosomal effect of stevioside, a sweetener from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed Central

    Suttajit, M; Vinitketkaumnuen, U; Meevatee, U; Buddhasukh, D

    1993-01-01

    Leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni have been popularly used as a sweetener in foods and beverages for diabetics and obese people due to their potent sweetener stevioside. In this report, stevioside and steviol were tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 and for chromosomal effects on cultured human lymphocytes. Stevioside was not mutagenic at concentrations up to 25 mg/plate, but showed direct mutagenicity to only TA98 at 50 mg/plate. However, steviol did not exhibit mutagenicity in either TA98 or TA100, with or without metabolic activation. No significant chromosomal effect of stevioside and steviol was observed in cultured blood lymphocytes from healthy donors (n = 5). This study indicates that stevioside and steviol are neither mutagenic nor clastogenic in vitro at the limited doses; however, in vivo genotoxic tests and long-term effects of stevioside and steviol are yet to be investigated. PMID:8143647

  13. Effect of onion peel extract supplementation on the lipid profile and antioxidative status of healthy young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungmi; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo H2O2-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women. PMID:24133616

  14. Effect of onion peel extract supplementation on the lipid profile and antioxidative status of healthy young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmi; Cha, Yong-Jun; Lee, Kyung-Hea; Park, Eunju

    2013-10-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo H2O2-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women.

  15. Supplementation of a Standardized Extract from Phyllanthus emblica Improves Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Platelet Aggregation in Overweight/Class-1 Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Savita; Das, Amitava; Spieldenner, James; Rink, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01858376) was to determine the effect of oral supplementation of a standardized extract of Phyllanthus emblica (CAPROS®) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight adult human subjects from the US population. Overweight/Class-1 obese (body–mass index: 25–35) adult subjects received 500 mg of CAPROS supplement b.i.d for 12 weeks. The study design included two baseline visits followed by 12 weeks of supplementation and then 2 weeks of washout. At all visits, peripheral venous blood was collected in sodium citrate tubes. Lipid profile measurements demonstrated a significant decrease in calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein following 12 weeks of CAPROS supplementation when compared to averaged baseline visits. Circulatory high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were significantly decreased after 12 weeks of supplementation. In addition, both ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation was significantly downregulated following 12 weeks of supplementation. Overall, the study suggests that oral CAPROS supplementation may provide beneficial effects in overweight/Class-1 obese adults by lowering multiple global CVD risk factors. PMID:25756303

  16. Supplementation of a standardized extract from Phyllanthus emblica improves cardiovascular risk factors and platelet aggregation in overweight/class-1 obese adults.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Savita; Das, Amitava; Spieldenner, James; Rink, Cameron; Roy, Sashwati

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01858376) was to determine the effect of oral supplementation of a standardized extract of Phyllanthus emblica (CAPROS(®)) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight adult human subjects from the US population. Overweight/Class-1 obese (body-mass index: 25-35) adult subjects received 500 mg of CAPROS supplement b.i.d for 12 weeks. The study design included two baseline visits followed by 12 weeks of supplementation and then 2 weeks of washout. At all visits, peripheral venous blood was collected in sodium citrate tubes. Lipid profile measurements demonstrated a significant decrease in calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein following 12 weeks of CAPROS supplementation when compared to averaged baseline visits. Circulatory high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were significantly decreased after 12 weeks of supplementation. In addition, both ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation was significantly downregulated following 12 weeks of supplementation. Overall, the study suggests that oral CAPROS supplementation may provide beneficial effects in overweight/Class-1 obese adults by lowering multiple global CVD risk factors.

  17. A non-targeted approach to chemical discrimination between green tea extract-based dietary supplements and green tea leaves by LC/MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Green tea extract-based dietary supplements (GTDS) have gained in popularity in the U.S. market in recent years. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition of several GTDS in comparison to the composition of green tea leaves using a LC-MS fingerprinting technique coupled with chemometric an...

  18. Extract-filter-shoot liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for analysis of vitamin D2 in a powdered supplement capsule and SRM 3280

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An ‘extract-filter-shoot’ method for analysis of vitamin D2, ergocalciferol, in a dry powdered dietary supplement capsule containing rice flour excipient and in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM) 3280 is reported. Quantification of vitamin D2 was...

  19. Toxicity studies of Blockal, a dietary supplement containing Phase 2 Starch Neutralizer (Phase 2), a standardized extract of the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Dilip

    2006-01-01

    The number of available dietary supplements containing "starch blockers" intended for weight loss has risen dramatically in recent years. These supplements are believed to reduce carbohydrate-derived calories by interfering with alpha-amylase, the digestive enzyme responsible for conversion of complex carbohydrates to simple absorbable sugars. The present paper reports the findings of single- and multiple-dose (4-week) oral toxicity studies in rats of the marketed dietary supplement Blockal. Blockal contains as its main ingredient Phase 2 Starch Neutralizer (Phase 2 or Phaseolamin 2250), a standardized extract derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) that has been shown to have alpha-amylase-inhibiting activity. The Blockal acute oral LD50 exceeded the highest dose tested (3 g/kg body weight [bw]), which provided a single dose of 1668 mg/kg bw of Phase 2 white kidney bean extract. The no-observed-effect level (NOEL) seen in the 4-week study was equivalent to the highest Blockal dose tested (2 g/kg bw/day), which provided 1112 mg/kg/day of Phase 2 white kidney bean extract. The results of these studies support and are consistent with the safety of the marketed dietary supplement Blockal, and indirectly, the safety of its main ingredient, Phase 2 Starch Neutralizer (Phase 2 or Phaseolamin 2250), a standardized extract derived from the common white kidney bean.

  20. Effect of nitrogen sources on some morphological characteristics of in vitro stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Akbari, F; Arminian, A; Kahrizi, D; Fazeli, A

    2017-02-28

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni belongs to Asteraceae family that leaves 200-300 times sweeter than sugar. Low seed fertility is one of the most important problems in Stevia production. So, Plant tissue culture is an efficient method for mass propagation of Stevia. In this research, we studied the effect of various concentrations of nitrogen on some morphological traits of stevia under in vitro conditions. We used axillary nodes as explants and they were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing inorganic nitrogen sources i.e. NH4NO3(0, 825 and 1650 mg/l), KNO3(0, 950 and 1900 mg/l) were observed. The cultures were kept for 4 weeks at a temperature of 25±2°C with a photoperiod of 16/8 hour low light/dark each day. Maximum shoot length (89.33 mm), dry weight of plants (0.10 mg) and leaf fresh weight (0.42 mg) was observed on MS medium with 1650 mg/l NH4NO3 and 950 mg/l KNO3. Minimum shoot length (6.13 mm), root length (6.60 mm), leaf number (4.26), leaf dry weight (0.01 mg), leaf fresh weight (0.05 mg), total dry and fresh weight (0.02 and 0.15 mg) and growth rate was observed on a MS medium without nitrogen sources. Moreover, presence of nitrogen sources increases both shooting and rooting in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

  1. Effects of long-term supplementation of chestnut and valonea extracts on methane release, digestibility and nitrogen excretion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wischer, G; Greiling, A M; Boguhn, J; Steingass, H; Schollenberger, M; Hartung, K; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-06-01

    The long-term effects of adding chestnut (CHE; Castanea sativa) and valonea (VAL; Quercus valonea) tannin-rich extracts to sheep feed were investigated. In Experiment 1, sheep (65 kg BW) were fed 842 g/day of a ryegrass-based hay. The control-treated animals (CON) received 464 g/day of concentrate, and tannin-treated animals received the same amount of concentrate additionally containing 20 g of the respective tannin-rich extract. Hay and concentrates were offered together in one meal. After the onset of treatment, methane release was measured in respiration chambers for 23.5-h intervals (nine times) in a 190-days period. Faeces and urine were collected three times (including once before the onset of the tannin treatment) to assess digestibility and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Based on the results obtained from Experiment 1, a second experiment (Experiment 2) was initiated, in which the daily tannin dosage was almost doubled (from 0.9 (Experiment 1) to 1.7 g/kg BW0.75). With the exception of the dosage and duration of the treatment (85 days), Experiment 2 followed the same design as Experiment 1, with the same measurements. In an attempt to compare in vitro and in vivo effects of tannin supplementation, the same substrates and tannin treatments were examined in the Hohenheim gas test. In vitro methane production was not significantly different between treatments. None of the tannin-rich extract doses induced a reduction in methane in the sheep experiments. On the 1st day of tannin feeding in both experiments, tannin inclusion tended to decrease methane release, but this trend disappeared by day 14 in both experiments. In balance period 3 of Experiment 1, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility was noted for tannin treatments. The digestibility of CP, but not NDF or ADF, was reduced in both experiments. A significant shift in N excretion from urine to faeces was observed for both tannin-rich extracts in both experiments, particularly in

  2. Supplementation with Brazil nuts and green tea extract regulates targeted biomarkers related to colorectal cancer risk in humans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; McIntosh, Graeme H; Le Leu, Richard K; Somashekar, Roshini; Meng, Xing Q; Gopalsamy, Geetha; Bambaca, Libby; McKinnon, Ross A; Young, Graeme P

    2016-12-01

    Se and green tea have been shown in epidemiological, observational and preclinical studies to be inversely related to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there are limited studies to evaluate their regulatory effects on genes/proteins that relate to CRC oncogenesis in human subjects, such as selenoproteins, WNT signalling pathway, inflammation and methylation. This study examined the effects of supplementation of Se using Brazil nuts and green tea extract (GTE) capsules, alone and in combination, on targeted biomarkers. In total, thirty-two volunteers (>50 years of age) with plasma Se≤1·36 µmol/l were randomised to one of three treatment groups: nine to Se (approximately 48 µg/d) as six Brazil nuts, eleven to four GTE capsules (800 mg (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate) and twelve to a combination of Brazil nuts and GTE. Blood and rectal biopsies were obtained before and after each intervention. Plasma Se levels, rectal selenoprotein P (SePP) and β-catenin mRNA increased significantly in subjects consuming Brazil nuts alone or in combination, whereas rectal DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) and NF-κB mRNA were reduced significantly in subjects consuming GTE alone or in combination. None of the interventions significantly affected rectal acetylated histone H3 or Ki-67 expression at the protein level or plasma C-reactive protein. Effects of the combination of Brazil nuts and GTE did not differ from what would be expected from either agent alone. In conclusion, supplementation of Brazil nuts and/or GTE regulates targeted biomarkers related to CRC oncogenesis, specifically genes associated with selenoproteins (SePP), WNT signalling (β-catenin), inflammation (NF-κB) and methylation (DNMT1). Their combination does not appear to provide additional effects compared with either agent alone.

  3. Immune Responses in Broiler Chicks Fed Propolis Extraction Residue-supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Eyng, C.; Murakami, A. E.; Santos, T. C.; Silveira, T. G. V.; Pedroso, R. B.; Lourenço, D. A. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of propolis extraction residue in the feed of broilers from 1 to 21 d of age on phagocytic activity of macrophages, cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin, antibody production against Newcastle disease, lymphoid organ weight and hematological profile and to determine the optimal level of inclusion. 120 chicks, reared in metabolism cages until 21 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of propolis residue) and six replications. The relative weight of thymus and monocyte percentage were affected by propolis residue, with a quadratic response (p<0.05) and lowest values estimated at 2.38% and 2.49%, respectively. Changes in relative weight of cloacal bursa and spleen, percentage of lymphocyte, heterophil, basophil, eosinophil, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, antibody production against Newcastle disease, phagocytic activity of macrophages and the average number of phagocytosed erythrocytes were not observed. The nitric oxide production with regard to positive control (macrophages+erythrocytes) decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased doses of propolis residue. The remaining variables of nitric oxide production (negative control – macrophages, and difference between the controls) were not affected by propolis residue. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin as determined by the increase in interdigital skin thickness exhibited a quadratic response (p<0.05), which predicted a lower reaction response at a dose of 2.60% of propolis residue and highest reaction response after 43.05 hours of phytohemagglutinin injection. The inclusion of 1% to 4% of propolis extraction residue in broiler diets from 1 to 21 days of age was not able to improve the immune parameters, despite the modest changes in the relative weight in thymus, blood monocyte percentage, nitric oxide concentration, and

  4. Food supplementation with rice bran enzymatic extract prevents vascular apoptosis and atherogenesis in ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ternero, C; Herrera, M D; Laufs, U; Alvarez de Sotomayor, M; Werner, C

    2017-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is associated with reduced mononuclear cell (MNC) telomere length, and senescent cells have been detected in atherosclerotic plaques. Rice bran is a source of γ-oryzanol, phytosterols and tocols with potential lipid-lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE) impacts on apoptosis, telomere length and atherogenesis in mice. Seven-week-old male ApoE-/- mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) or isocaloric HFD supplemented with 5 % (w/w) RBEE for 23 weeks. Wild-type mice of the same age were kept under standard diet as controls. RBEE treatment reduced total cholesterol (19.24 ± 1.63 vs 24.49 ± 1.71 mmol/L) and triglycerides (1.13 ± 0.18 vs 1.75 ± 0.22 mmol/L) and augmented HDL-cholesterol (1.86 ± 0.20 vs 1.07 ± 0.20 mmol/L). RBEE attenuated macrophage infiltration by 56.69 ± 4.65 % and plaque development (7737 ± 836 vs 12,040 ± 1001 μm(2)) in the aortic sinus. In the aorta, RBEE treatment reduced expression of the apoptosis pathway components p16, p53 and bax/bcl-2 ratio. RBEE prevented apoptosis of aortic endothelial cells (2.81 ± 0.71-1.14 ± 0.35 apoptotic nuclei/ring for ApoE-/- HFD and ApoE-/- HFD 5 % RBEE, respectively). In contrast, MNC of RBEE-fed mice exhibited enhanced apoptosis marker expression with increased p53 and bax/bcl-2 protein levels. Compared to WT, ApoE-/- mice on HFD were characterized by significant telomere shortening in aorta (11 ± 2 %) and MNC (73 ± 7 %), which was reduced by supplementation with RBEE (aorta: 40 ± 7 %; MNC: 105 ± 10 %). Expression of telomere repeat-binding factor 2 was increased in RBEE-fed mice. Long-term food supplementation with RBEE lowers cholesterol and prevents atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE-/- mice. Differential regulation of vascular and MNC apoptosis and senescence were identified as potential mechanisms.

  5. Antioxidant and hepatic protective effects of lotus root hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan; Zhao, Xu; You, Jeong-Soon; Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    Nelumbo nucifera, known as sacred lotus, is a well-known medicinal plant and this lotus root is commonly used as food compared to different parts of this plant. This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and hepatic protective effects of lotus root hot water extract with taurine supplementation in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats (4-week-old) were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) for 6 weeks (normal diet, N group; high fat diet, HF group; high fat diet + lotus root hot water extract, HFR group; high fat diet + lotus root hot water extract + taurine, HFRT group). Lotus root hot water extract was orally administrated (400 mg/kg/day) to HFR and HFRT groups and the same amount of distilled water was orally administered to N and HF groups. Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v). The activities of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum were lower in HFR and HFRT groups compared to HF group. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance contents in all groups fed a high fat diet were higher compared to N group. The activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes were higher in HFR and HFRT groups compared to HF group. These results suggest that lotus root hot water extract with taurine supplementation shows antioxidant and hepatic protective effects in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

  6. High-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wylie, Philip L; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-12-17

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with selected ion monitor method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts, and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) methanol and 10% formic acid, liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, and derivatization with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH). Separation of two saturated (C13:0 and C15:0) and six unsaturated ginkgolic acid methyl esters with different positional double bonds (C15:1 Δ8 and Δ10, C17:1 Δ8, Δ10, and Δ12, and C17:2) was achieved on a very polar (88% cyanopropyl) aryl-polysiloxane HP-88 capillary GC column. The double bond positions in the GAs were determined by ozonolysis. The developed GC/MS method was validated according to ICH guidelines, and the quantitation results were verified by comparison with a standard high-performance liquid chromatography method. Nineteen G. biloba authenticated and commercial plant samples and 21 dietary supplements purported to contain G. biloba leaf extracts were analyzed. Finally, the presence of the marker compounds, terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides for Ginkgo biloba in the dietary supplements was determined by UHPLC/MS and used to confirm the presence of G. biloba leaf extracts in all of the botanical dietary supplements.

  7. The urinary metabolomic profile following the intake of meals supplemented with a cocoa extract in middle-aged obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Romo-Hualde, Ana; Gonzalez-Navarro, Carlos J; Zulet, M Angeles; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    Metabolomics is used to assess the compliance and bioavailability of food components, as well as to evaluate the metabolic changes associated with food consumption. This study aimed to analyze the effect of consuming ready-to-eat meals containing a cocoa extract, within an energy restricted diet on urinary metabolomic changes. Fifty middle-aged volunteers [30.6 (2.3) kg m(-2)] participated in a 4-week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. Half consumed meals supplemented with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (645 mg polyphenols) while the remaining subjects received meals without cocoa supplementation. Ready-to-eat meals were included within a 15% energy restricted diet. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks and were analyzed by high-performance-liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS) in negative and positive ionization modes followed by multivariate analysis. The relationship between urinary metabolites was evaluated by the Spearman correlation test. Interestingly, the principal component analysis discriminated among the baseline group, control group at the endpoint and cocoa group at the endpoint (p < 0.01), although in the positive ionization mode the baseline and control groups were not well distinguished. Metabolites were related to theobromine metabolism (3-methylxanthine and 3-methyluric acid), food processing (L-beta-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), flavonoids (2,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavanone-5-O-glucoside and 7,4'-dimethoxy-6-C-methylflavanone), catecholamine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol-sulphate) and endogenous metabolism (uridine monophosphate). These metabolites were present in higher (p < 0.001) amounts in the cocoa group. 3-Methylxanthine and l-beta-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine were confirmed with standards. Interestingly, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol-sulphate was positively correlated with 3-methylxanthine (rho = 0.552; p < 0.001) and 7,4'-dimethoxy-6-C-methylflavanone (rho = 447; p = 0.002). In

  8. Physiological response and semen quality of rabbit bucks supplemented with Moringa leaves ethanolic extract during summer season.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, N I; Hashem, N M; Elkomy, A; Abo-Elezz, Z R

    2017-09-01

    Exposure of rabbit bucks to summer heat stress reduces their homeostasis and semen quality leading to a temporal subfertility. The potentiality of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (M. oleifera ethanolic extract (MLEE)) to reduce negative impacts of heat stress on physiological and semen quality traits was investigated. A total of 28 adult V-line rabbit bucks were randomly distributed among four experimental groups of seven rabbits each. The first group received water (placebo) and served as a control (M0). The other three groups were given orally MLEE at levels of 50 (M50), 100 (M100) and 150 (M150) mg/kg BW every other day for 12 consecutive weeks during the summer season. Chemical constituents of MLEE were detected by gas chromatography/MS. During the experimental period, ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded daily and were used to estimate temperature and humidity index. Feed intake, BW, rectal temperature were recorded and blood serum biochemical attributes were determined. Semen samples were collected weekly and were analyzed for semen quality traits. Results showed that MLEE contained high percentages of long-chain fatty acids and antioxidant agents. Feed intake and BW were not affected significantly by the treatment, however rectal temperature was decreased significantly by 0.42°C, 0.24°C and 0.40°C in the M50, M100 and M150 groups, respectively, compared with the M0 group. Treatment with 50 mg/kg BW increased concentration of serum albumin (115%; P<0.05), total antioxidant capacity (132%; P<0.05) and testosterone (160%; P=0.098) as well as seminal plasma initial fructose (127%; P=0.092) compared with the control group. Compared with the control, MLEE supplementation with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg BW increased significantly sperm concentration by 118%, 151% and 158%, sperm progressive motility by 117%, 120% and 118%, sperm viability by 129%, 137% and 127%, sperm normal morphology by 114%, 113% and 114%, intact acrosome sperm by

  9. Effects of propolis (Trigona sp.) extract supplementation on the growth and blood profile of Pangasius djambal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, Firman M.; Nugroho, Rudy Agung; Fachmy, Syafrizal

    2017-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the effects of propolis extract (PE) on the growth (G), growth rate (GR), specific growth rate (SGR) and blood profile (erythrocyte, leukocyte, and hemoglobin) of catfish (Pangasius djambal). five groups of fish with three replicates, containing 10 fish each group were fed various concentration of PE, viz 2 (P1), 4 (P2), 6 (P3), 8 (P4) and 10 (P5) g kg-1 of PE in a basal diet and compared to control (C) fish without PE at a rate 3% of body weight for 4 weeks. At the end of the trial, G, GR, SGR, and blood profile (erythrocyte, leukocyte, and hemoglobin) of all groups of fish were examined. The results showed that PE in the fish diet significantly increased G, GR, SGR, erythrocyte, hemoglobin while leukocyte was not affected by dietary any concentration of PE. The dietary 10 g kg-1 PE in the diet of fish showed the highest growth while the highest number of erythrocyte and hemoglobin activity was found in the fish fed 6 g kg-1 PE in the diet. These findings suggested that the inclusion of PE higher than 8 g kg-1 in the diet is beneficial to improve growth, growth rate, specific growth rate, erythrocyte and hemoglobin of Pangasius djambal.

  10. Studying the effects of natural extracts with metabolomics: A longitudinal study on the supplementation of healthy rats with Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc.

    PubMed

    Peron, Gregorio; Uddin, Jalal; Stocchero, Matteo; Mammi, Stefano; Schievano, Elisabetta; Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2017-06-05

    A longitudinal study was performed to evaluate the effects of Polygonum cuspidatum extract (standardized at 20% resveratrol) supplementation on healthy rats. The effects were explored by monitoring urinary metabolome changes using UPLC-HRMS and (1)H NMR-based approaches. The aim of the study was to explore the effects of P. cuspidatum supplementation on a healthy animal model using metabolomics, in order to determine possible modes of action and obtain information on bioactivity. Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were orally supplemented with 100mg/kg of dried P. cuspidatum extract for 49days and 24-h urinary outputs were collected. Samples were analysed by untargeted UPLC-HRMS and (1)H NMR approaches and the obtained data sets were modelled by an adaptation of post-transformation of PLS2 to longitudinal studies. Putative markers were discovered by a stability selection procedure and specific oxidative stress markers were monitored by a targeted HPLC-MS/MS analysis to assess the in vivo antioxidant activity of P. cuspidatum extract. UPLC-HRMS and (1)H NMR platforms showed two different but complementary patterns of metabolites describing the changes ascribable to P. cuspidatum supplementation and using both approaches, a comprehensive resveratrol metabolism and urinary excretion could be observed. Markers of P. cuspidatum supplementation effects identified by UPLC-HRMS were mainly related to its antioxidant activity and to a possible "adaptogenic" activity. Urinary changes observed by (1)H NMR were mainly related to energy metabolism. UPLC-HRMS and (1)H NMR metabolomics approaches allowed the effects of a prolonged supplementation with P. cuspidatum on healthy rats to be observed. The statistical models built from both data sets showed metabolic changes in urines related to rat aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Changbai Mountain Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) Extract Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Energy Utilization and Decreases Fatigue-Associated Parameters in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guo-Dong; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Hou, Chien-Wen; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2017-02-05

    Changbai Mountain Ginseng (CMG, Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) is a traditional medicine commonly found in Northeast China and grows at elevations of 2000 m or higher in the Changbai Mountain Range. CMG, considered to be a "buried treasure medicine", is priced higher than other types of ginseng. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of CMG supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and the biochemical profile. The major compound of CMG extract was characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Male ICR mice were divided into 3 groups, the vehicle, CMG-1X and CMG-5X groups (n = 8 per group), and respectively administered 0, 5, or 25 mg/kg/day of CMG extract orally for four weeks. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS results showed that the major compound in CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro. CMG extract significantly increased muscle weight and relative muscle weight (%). CMG extract supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time, decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (CK, p = 0.0002), and blood urea nitrogen (p < 0.0001), and economized glucose levels (p < 0.0001) after acute exercise challenge. The glycogen in the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly increased with CMG extract treatment. Biochemical profile results showed that creatinine and triacylglycerol significantly decreased and total protein and glucose increased with CMG treatment. This is the first report that CMG extract supplementation increases muscle mass, improves exercise performance and energy utilization, and decreases fatigue-associated parameters in vivo. The major component of CMG extract is ginsenoside Ro, which could be a potential bioactive compound for use as an ergogenic aid ingredient by the food industry.

  12. Antimicrobial potential of extracts from Stevia rebaudiana leaves against bacteria of importance in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Fredy; Chaves, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the antimicrobial activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf extracts against a large number of microorganisms has been evaluated, but not its activity against microorganisms of importance in dental caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaf extracts against cariogenic bacteria. Extracts were obtained from the dried Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves in hexane, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform. The antimicrobial activity of the 5 extracts against 16 bacterial strains of the genera Streptococcus (n= 12) and Lactobacillus (n= 4) was evaluated by the well diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts in hexane, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform on the 16 bacterial strains were respectively 30 mg/ml, 120 mg/ml, 120 mg/ml, 60 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml. The zones of inhibition present at the MIC were variable, ranging from 9 mm to 17.3 mm. Our results suggest that inhibition zones with a hexane extract are similar to those obtained with ethanol and methanol, but the minimal inhibitory concentration (30 mg/ml) is lower. For the four Lactobacillus species, the inhibition zones obtained between 12.3 and 17.3 mm were somewhat larger with ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts, suggesting they were the most susceptible microorganisms.

  13. Antihypertensive effect of passion fruit peel extract and its major bioactive components following acute supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Brandon J; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Craig, Teresa A; Mehring-Franklin, Cynthia E; Defreitas, Zoraida; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Extracts from leaves, peels or flowers of Passiflora are noted for their medicinal effects. Passiflora edulis peel extract (PFPE) has been proposed to lower blood pressure (BP); however, only indirect measurement techniques have been employed. To more accurately measure the effect of PFPE on hemodynamic parameters and determine the minimal effective dose, hemodynamic parameters were directly measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) implanted with radiotelemeters. PFPE was given orally at 0, 2.5, 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) to determine the minimal effective dose. Once this dose was determined, the potential active components, edulilic acid (EA), anthocyanin fraction (AF) or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were tested to determine which may contribute to the reductions in BP. The 50 mg PFPE/kg BW dose was the lowest dose that significantly reduced all hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. When the potential actives were provided at equivalent doses to those found in 50 mg PFPE/kg BW, the EA and AF significantly reduced all measured hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. GABA did not significantly affect any hemodynamic parameters compared to control and significantly increased heart rate. These direct measurements indicate that PFPE can decrease hemodynamic parameters in SHR and indicate that EA and AF are active compounds that contribute to the antihypertensive effects of PFPE supplementation. While these results are encouraging, detailed mechanistic studies are needed to determine the putative value of PFPE for blood pressure control in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rebaudiosides T and U, minor C-19 xylopyranosyl and arabinopyranosyl steviol glycoside derivatives from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Perera, Wilmer H; Ghiviriga, Ion; Rodenburg, Douglas L; Alves, Kamilla; Bowling, John J; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A; McChesney, James D

    2017-03-01

    Two diterpene glycosides were isolated from a commercial Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract. One was found to be 13-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-(2-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl- β-d-glucopyranosyl) ester (rebaudioside T), whereas the other was determined to be 13-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-(6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl) ester (rebaudioside U). In addition, five C-19 sugar free derivatives were prepared and identified as follows: 13-[(2-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)]oxy]kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (dulcoside A1); 13-[(2-O-β-d-xylopyranosy-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]kaur-16-en-19-oic acid; 13-[(2-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-)oxy]kaur-16-en-19-oic acid; 13-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-xylopyranosyl-)oxy]kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (rebaudioside R1) and 13-[(2-O-6-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, respectively. Chemical structures were determined by NMR experiments. HPLC analyses were also useful to differentiate different steviol-C13 sugar substituent patterns by elution position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of dietary Tartary buckwheat extract supplementation on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant activity in ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junxing; Li, Kan; Su, Rui; Liu, Wenzhong; Ren, Youshe; Zhang, Chunxiang; Du, Min; Zhang, Jianxing

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary Tartary buckwheat extract (TBE) supplementation on animal growth performance, meat quality and antioxidative activity in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of lambs. The results showed that dietary TBE increased body weight, average daily gain, carcass weight, dry matter intake, and digestive organ weight. Dietary TBE had no effect on the pH, color, shear force or intramuscular fat of Longissimus muscle examined, whereas the cooking loss was decreased. The total antioxidative capacity and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) activity of Longissimus muscle were increased in lambs fed TBE. The mRNA contents of superoxide dismutase, catalase, GPx4 and nuclear factor-like-2 factor (Nrf2) did not vary among the groups, and greater protein levels of GPx4 and Nrf2 were observed. Taken together, these results suggest that TBE can be used as a feed ingredient in lamb production to improve its growth performance, and relieve oxidative stress and increase water holding capacity of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Food supplementation with an olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract reduces blood pressure in borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, Tania; Busjahn, Andreas; Schmidlin, Caesar; Schmidt, Annette; Bradl, Barbara; Aydogan, Cem

    2008-09-01

    Hypertension is a harmful disease factor that develops unnoticed over time. The treatment of hypertension is aimed at an early diagnosis followed by adequate lifestyle changes rather than pharmacological treatment. The olive leaf extract EFLA943, having antihypertensive actions in rats, was tested as a food supplement in an open study including 40 borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins. Twins of each pair were assigned to different groups receiving 500 or 1000 mg/day EFLA943 for 8 weeks, or advice on a favourable lifestyle. Body weight, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose and lipids were measured fortnightly. Blood pressure changed significantly within pairs, depending on the dose, with mean systolic differences of < or =6 mmHg (500 mg vs control) and < or =13 mmHg (1000 vs 500 mg), and diastolic differences of < or =5 mmHg. After 8 weeks, mean blood pressure remained unchanged from baseline in controls (systolic/diastolic: 133 +/- 5/77 +/- 6 vs 135 +/- 11/80 +/- 7 mmHg) and the low-dose group (136 +/- 7/77 +/- 7 vs 133 +/- 10/76 +/- 7), but had significantly decreased for the high dose group (137 +/- 10/80 +/- 10 vs 126 +/- 9/76 +/- 6). Cholesterol levels decreased for all treatments with significant dose-dependent within-pair differences for LDL-cholesterol. None of the other parameters showed significant changes or consistent trends. Concluding, the study confirmed the antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering action of EFLA943 in humans.

  17. Successful isolation and PCR amplification of DNA from National Institute of Standards and Technology herbal dietary supplement standard reference material powders and extracts.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Matthew T

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-four herbal dietary supplement powder and extract reference standards provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were investigated using three different commercially available DNA extraction kits to evaluate DNA availability for downstream nucleotide-based applications. The material included samples of Camellia, Citrus, Ephedra, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Serenoa, And Vaccinium. Protocols from Qiagen, MoBio, and Phytopure were used to isolate and purify DNA from the NIST standards. The resulting DNA concentration was quantified using SYBR Green fluorometry. Each of the 24 samples yielded DNA, though the concentration of DNA from each approach was notably different. The Phytopure method consistently yielded more DNA. The average yield ratio was 22 : 3 : 1 (ng/microL; Phytopure : Qiagen : MoBio). Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer II region using PCR was ultimately successful in 22 of the 24 samples. Direct sequencing chromatograms of the amplified material suggested that most of the samples were comprised of mixtures. However, the sequencing chromatograms of 12 of the 24 samples were sufficient to confirm the identity of the target material. The successful extraction, amplification, and sequencing of DNA from these herbal dietary supplement extracts and powders supports a continued effort to explore nucleotide sequence-based tools for the authentication and identification of plants in dietary supplements. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  18. Grape seed extract supplementation attenuates the heat stress-induced responses of jejunum epithelial cells in Simmental × Qinchuan steers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Yang, You; Liu, Shimin; Yang, Jing; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Zhihong

    2014-08-14

    Grape seed extract (GSE), a rich source of polyphenols, is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The objective of the present study was to determine whether GSE could attenuate the heat stress-induced responses of jejunum epithelial cells (JEC) in cattle. The JEC of a steer (Simmental × Qinchuan) were exposed to heat stress for 2 h in the absence (0 μg/ml) or presence (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml) of GSE in the culture medium. When cultured at 40°C, JEC supplemented with GSE exhibited increased glutathione peroxidase activity (P= 0·04), viability (P= 0·004), and mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF; P= 0·03) and EGF receptor (EGFR; P = 0·01). Under the same conditions, the cells exhibited decreased mRNA expression of IL-8 (P= 0·01) and TNF-α (P= 0·03) and decreased protein concentrations of IL-1β (P= 0·02), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4; P= 0·04) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70; P< 0·001). When cultured at 43°C, JEC supplemented with GSE exhibited increased catalase activity (P= 0·04), viability (P< 0·001), and mRNA expression of EGF (P< 0·001) and EGFR (P< 0·001) and decreased protein concentrations of IL-1β (P< 0·001), TLR4 (P= 0·03) and HSP70 (P< 0·001), as well as mRNA expression of IL-8 (P< 0·001), TLR4 (P= 0·002) and TNF-α (P< 0·001). Temperature × GSE concentration interactions were also observed for the concentrations of IL-1β (P< 0·001), IL-8 (P< 0·001), TNF-α (P= 0·01) and HSP70 (P= 0·04) and viability (P< 0·001) of JEC. The results of the present study indicate that GSE can attenuate the responses of JEC induced by heat stress within a certain range of temperatures.

  19. Effects of oral supplementation with plant superoxide dismutase extract on selected redox parameters and an inflammatory marker in a 2,000-m rowing-ergometer test.

    PubMed

    Skarpanska-Stejnborn, Anna; Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, Lucja; Basta, Piotr; Deskur-Smielecka, Ewa; Woitas-Slubowska, Donata; Adach, Zdzislaw

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant superoxide dismutase extract (GliSODin) supplementation on the balance of oxidants and antioxidants in the serum and erythrocytes of competitive rowers. The double-blinded study included 19 members of the Polish rowing team who were participating in a preparatory camp. Subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 10), who received 2 capsules (500 mg) of GliSODin extract once daily for 6 weeks, or the placebo group (n = 9). At the beginning and end of the study, subjects performed a 2,000-m maximum-effort test on a rowing ergometer. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein before each exercise test, 1 min after completing the test, and after a 24-hr restitution period. The following redox parameters were assessed in erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and concentrations of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances. In addition, creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were measured in serum. After supplementation, SOD activity was significantly higher (p = .0037) in the supplemented group than the placebo group, and C-reactive protein was significantly (p = .00001) lower in athletes receiving GliSODin than those in the placebo group. In conclusion, supplementation with an extract rich in SOD activity promoted antioxidant status and protected against increased inflammation in the serum of professional rowers but had no effect on oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise.

  20. Effect of maternal fish oil and seaweed extract supplementation on colostrum and milk composition, humoral immune response, and performance of suckled piglets.

    PubMed

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; Lynch, B P; O'Doherty, J V

    2010-09-01

    An experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (n = 10 sows/treatment) was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation with seaweed extract (SWE: 0 vs. 10.0 g/d) and fish oil (FO) inclusion (0 vs. 100 g/d) from d 109 of gestation until weaning (d 26) on sow colostrum and milk composition, humoral immune response on d 5 and 12 of lactation, and suckling piglet performance. Furthermore, the influence of dietary treatment on the phagocytic activity of whole blood white cells at weaning was examined. The SWE (10 g) contained laminarin (1 g), fucoidan (0.8 g), and ash (8.2 g) and was extracted from a Laminaria spp. The FO contained approximately 40% eicosapentaenoic acid and 25% docosahexaenoic acid. The SWE-supplemented sows had greater colostrum IgG (P < 0.01) and milk protein (P < 0.05) concentrations on d 12 of lactation compared with non-SWE-supplemented sows. Piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had greater serum IgG (P < 0.01) and IgA (P < 0.05) concentrations on d 5 and IgG concentrations on d 12 (P < 0.05) of lactation compared with those suckling non SWE-supplemented sows. In contrast, FO supplementation exerted a suppressive effect on piglet serum IgA concentrations on d 5 of lactation (P < 0.05) compared with non-FO-supplemented diets. Dietary FO supplementation enhanced the n-3 PUFA proportion of sow milk (P < 0.001) and piglet serum at weaning (P < 0.001). Piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had a greater percentage of Escherichia coli phagocytizing leukocytes (P < 0.05) and a reduced percentage of E. coli phagocytizing lymphocytes (P < 0.01) compared with non-SWE-supplemented sows. Piglets suckling FO-supplemented sows had a greater percentage of leukocytes (P < 0.05) and lymphocytes (P < 0.05) phagocytizing E. coli compared with non-FO-supplemented sows. However, total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil numbers were not influenced by sow dietary treatment. Average piglet weaning weight and ADG

  1. Determination of hydrastine and berberine in goldenseal raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paula N; Roman, Mark C

    2008-01-01

    A multilaboratory collaborative study was conducted on a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method utilizing UV detection, previously validated using AOAC single-laboratory validation guidelines for determination of hydrastine and berberine in goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements at levels ranging from 0.4 to 6% (w/w). Nine collaborating laboratories determined the hydrastine and berberine content in 8 blind samples. Sample materials included powdered botanical raw materials, whole root material, and 4 finished product dietary supplements containing either goldenseal powdered root material or extract. The materials were extracted with an acidified water and acetonitrile solution. HPLC analyses of the extracts were performed on a C18 column using UV detection at 230 nm. Results for powdered root material and capsule products ranged from about 0.2% (w/w) for each alkaloid to about 4% (w/w) for each alkaloid. Liquid tincture results were approximately 4000-5000 microg/mL for each alkaloid. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) for hydrastine ranged from 2.68 to 6.65%, with HorRat values ranging from 0.77 to 1.89. RSDR for berberine ranged from 5.66 to 7.68%, with HorRat values ranging from 1.32 to 2.12. All finished products containing goldenseal extract yielded HorRat values <2.0. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for determination of hydrastine and berberine in goldenseal raw materials and dietary supplement finished products containing powdered goldenseal and goldenseal extract.

  2. Determination of Hydrastine and Berberine in Goldenseal Raw Materials, Extracts, and Dietary Supplements by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV: Collaborative Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Paula N.; Roman, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    A multilaboratory collaborative study was conducted on a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method utilizing UV detection, previously validated using AOAC single-laboratory validation guidelines for determination of hydrastine and berberine in goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements at levels ranging from 0.4 to 6% (w/w). Nine collaborating laboratories determined the hydrastine and berberine content in 8 blind samples. Sample materials included powdered botanical raw materials, whole root material, and 4 finished product dietary supplements containing either goldenseal powdered root material or extract. The materials were extracted with an acidified water and acetonitrile solution. HPLC analyses of the extracts were performed on a C18 column using UV detection at 230 nm. Results for powdered root material and capsule products ranged from about 0.2% (w/w) for each alkaloid to about 4% (w/w) for each alkaloid. Liquid tincture results were approximately 4000–5000 μg/mL for each alkaloid. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) for hydrastine ranged from 2.68 to 6.65%, with HorRat values ranging from 0.77 to 1.89. RSDR for berberine ranged from 5.66 to 7.68%, with HorRat values ranging from 1.32 to 2.12. All finished products containing goldenseal extract yielded HorRat values <2.0. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for determination of hydrastine and berberine in goldenseal raw materials and dietary supplement finished products containing powdered goldenseal and goldenseal extract. PMID:18727526

  3. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chee Keong; Mohamad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Abdullah, Mohamad Rusli; George, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta® a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions. PMID:25013692

  4. Supplementation with the Extract of Schisandrae Fructus Pulp, Seed, or Their Combination Influences the Metabolism of Lipids and Glucose in Mice Fed with Normal and Hypercholesterolemic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Nan; Zhu, Pei-Li; Jia, Zhan-Hong; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Schisandrae Fructus (SF), which possesses five tastes: sweet (fruit skin), sour (pulp), bitter/pungent (seed core), and saltiness (all parts), can produce a wide spectrum of biological activities in the body. Here, we investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract of SF pulp, seed, or their combination (namely, EtSF-P, EtSF-S, or EtSF-P/S, resp.; collectively called EtSF) on the metabolism of lipids and glucose in normal diet- (ND-) and hypercholesterolemic diet- (HCLD-) fed mice. Supplementation with EtSF significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 18–47% in both ND- and HCLD-fed mice. EtSF supplementation reduced serum triglyceride levels (approximately 29%), whereas EtSF-P and EtSF-S/P elevated serum cholesterol (up to 26 and 44%, resp.) in HCLD-fed mice. Treatment with EtSF decreased hepatic glucose levels (by 9–44%) in both ND- and HCLD-fed mice. Supplementation with EtSF-S or EtSF-S/P (at 1 and 3%) increased biliary or fecal TC contents in HCLD-fed mice. However, supplementation with EtSF-S/P at 9% reduced biliary TC levels in HCLD-fed mice. EtSF-P or EtSF-S/P supplementation reduced serum alanine aminotransferase activity in HCLD-fed mice. The findings suggested that supplementation with EtSF lowered lipid and glucose accumulation in the liver and increased fecal cholesterol contents in mice. Dietary supplementation with EtSF-P or EtSF-S/P attenuated liver damage in HCLD-fed mice. PMID:24876871

  5. Cell-recycle continuous fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 for economical production of lactic acid by reduction of yeast extract supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ryun-Kyung; Ryu, Hwa-Won; Oh, Hurok; Kim, Mina; Wee, Young-Jung

    2014-05-01

    Both lactic acid productivity and cell growth were linearly correlated with yeast extract supplementation in batch fermentation. During conventional continuous operation, although fresh feed was introduced into the bioreactor with a significantly low dilution rate (0.04 h(-1)), the amount of yeast extract employed was not enough to maintain the growth of microorganism. However, when the fresh feed contained 100 g/l glucose and 2 g/l yeast extract during cell-recycle continuous operation at a dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1), more than 90 g/l lactic acid was continuously produced, with the average productivity of 3.72 g/l·h. In this experiment, 82 g of yeast extract (77% of reduction yield) could be reduced for the production of 1 kg of lactic acid compared with batch fermentation of a similar volumetric productivity.

  6. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Cláudio A.; Lira, Fábio S.; Rosa Neto, José C.; Pimentel, Gustavo D.; Souza, Gabriel I. H.; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; de Souza, Cláudio T.; Ribeiro, Eliane B.; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M.; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Oyama, Lila M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water); CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract); HW (high-fat diet and water); HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract). The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage) with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.). The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice. PMID:23431242

  7. Green tea extract supplementation induces the lipolytic pathway, attenuates obesity, and reduces low-grade inflammation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cláudio A; Lira, Fábio S; Rosa Neto, José C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Gabriel I H; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; de Souza, Cláudio T; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Oyama, Lila M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water); CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract); HW (high-fat diet and water); HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract). The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage) with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.). The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  8. Solid-phase extraction assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet to determine sildenafil and its analogues in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Roh, Si Hun; Shaodong, Jia; Hong, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Shin, Byong-Kyu; Park, Jeong Hill; Lee, Jeongmi; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-08-01

    A novel analytical method for the simultaneous determination of the concentration of sildenafil and its five analogues in dietary supplements using solid-phase extraction assisted reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet combined with ion-pairing liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector was developed. Parameters that affect extraction efficiency were systematically investigated, including the type of solid-phase extraction cartridge, pH of the extraction environment, and the type and volume of extraction and dispersive solvent. The method linearity was in the range of 5.0-100 ng/mL for sildenafil, homosildenafil, udenafil, benzylsildenafil, and thiosildenafil and 10-100 ng/mL for acetildenafil. The coefficients of determination were ≥0.996 for all regression curves. The sensitivity values expressed as limit of detection were between 2.5 and 7.5 ng/mL. Furthermore, intraday and interday precisions expressed as relative standard deviations were less than 5.7 and 9.9%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of sildenafil and its five analogues in complex dietary supplements. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Freshwater clam extract supplementation improves wound healing by decreasing the tumor necrosis factor α level in blood.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi-Chi; Fwu-LinYang; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Tien, Chin-Chieh; Lee, Ru-Ping

    2017-03-01

    The freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) is a widely consumed functional food in Asia and is traditionally used to improve health and either prevent or treat inflammation-related diseases. Numerous studies have proposed that freshwater clams act to prevent and attenuate inflammatory responses, and also serve as a possible inhibitor to systemic inflammation. However, there is limited information available about the effects of freshwater clams on wound healing. The present study investigated the influence of freshwater clam extract (FCE) on wound healing and inflammatory responses in a cutaneous incision model. Sixteen rats were used and divided into two groups: the FCE group and the normal saline (NS) group. The rats underwent dorsal full-thickness skin excisional wounds (diameter 20 × 10 mm). FCE or NS was administered for oral feeding twice daily for 14 days after wounding. Blood samples were taken and analyzed, and wound areas were measured at several time points during the 2 weeks after excision. On day 14 after wounding, skin biopsies from the wound sites were sent for histological examination. Treatment with FCE (71.63 ± 9.51 pg mL(-1) ) decreased tumor necrosis factor-α levels compared to the NS group (109.86 ± 12.55 pg mL(-1) ) after wounding at 3 h (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the levels of white blood cells, interleukin (IL)-6, or IL-10. The wound areas of the NS group (23.9%) were larger than those in the FCE group (8.26%) on day 14 (P < 0.05). Numerous fibroblasts and collagen fiber organization were observed in the FCE group. FCE supplementation improves the wound healing process. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Green tea extract supplementation does not hamper endurance-training adaptation but improves antioxidant capacity in sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Chi; Lin, Jung-Charng; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation combined with endurance training on endurance capacity and performance in sedentary men. Forty untrained men (age: 20 ± 1 years) participated in this study. Subjects were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (i) placebo-control (CTRL), (ii) GTE, (iii) endurance training (Ex), and (iv) endurance training with GTE (ExGTE). During the 4-week intervention, exercise training was prescribed as 75% oxygen uptake reserve for three 20-min sessions per week, and either GTE (250 mg/day) or placebo was provided. Endurance capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), and creatine kinase (CK) were examined. Ex and ExGTE but not GTE improved exhaustive-run time (Ex: +8.2%, p = 0.031; ExGTE: +14.3%, p < 0.001); in addition, Ex and ExGTE significantly increased maximal oxygen uptake by ∼14% (p = 0.041) and ∼17% (p = 0.017) above the values of the CTRL group, respectively. Both Ex and ExGTE significantly decreased the increase of CK by ∼11%-32% below that of CTRL following an exhaustive run (Ex: p = 0.007; ExGTE: p = 0.001). Moreover, TAS levels increased by ∼11% in ExGTE after training (p = 0.040), and GTE, Ex, and ExGTE markedly attenuated exercise-induced MDA production (p = 0.01, p = 0.005, p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, this investigation demonstrated that daily ingestion of GTE during endurance training does not impair improvements in endurance capacity. Moreover, endurance training combined with GTE not only increases antioxidant capacity without attenuating endurance training adaptations, but also further attenuates acute exercise-induced CK release.

  11. Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojtěch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P < 0.05) and pH decrease of the growth media as compared with the positive controls (medium containing glucose as a carbon source and de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth). We concluded that a suggested prebiotic effect was not confirmed either in the case of rebaudioside A or in the case of the sweetener Natusweet M001 containing a mixture of steviol glycosides.

  12. Nitrogen Limitation Alters Biomass Production but Enhances Steviol Glycoside Concentration in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    PubMed Central

    Barbet-Massin, Claire; Giuliano, Simon; Alletto, Lionel; Daydé, Jean; Berger, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The need for medicinal and aromatic plants for industrial uses creates an opportunity for farmers to produce alternative crops. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a perennial shrub originating from Paraguay, is of increasing interest as a source of zero-calorie natural sweeteners: the steviol glycosides (SVglys). The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of nitrogen (N) supply for leaf yield and for SVgly concentrations in leaves, which are the two major components of S. rebaudiana productivity. In this regard, the relationship between leaf N concentration, CO2 assimilation, leaf production and SVgly accumulation was investigated. The experiments were conducted consecutively in growth-chamber (CC: controlled conditions), in greenhouse (SCC: semi-controlled conditions) and in field conditions (FC) on two genotypes. In CC and SCC, three levels of N fertilization were applied. Plants were grown on four locations in the FC experiment. Both N supply (CC and SCC) and location (FC) had a significant effect on N content in leaves. When light was not limiting (SCC and FC) N content in leaves was positively correlated with CO2 assimilation rate and biomass accumulation. Irrespective of the growth conditions, N content in leaves was negatively correlated with SVgly content. However, increased SVgly content was correlated with a decreased ratio of rebaudioside A over stevioside. The evidence that the increased SVgly accumulation compensates for the negative effect on biomass production suggests that adequate SVgly productivity per plant may be achieved with relatively low fertilization. PMID:26192921

  13. Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

    2013-06-19

    This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K⁺ content and K⁺/Na⁺ ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition.

  14. Nitrogen Limitation Alters Biomass Production but Enhances Steviol Glycoside Concentration in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Barbet-Massin, Claire; Giuliano, Simon; Alletto, Lionel; Daydé, Jean; Berger, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The need for medicinal and aromatic plants for industrial uses creates an opportunity for farmers to produce alternative crops. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a perennial shrub originating from Paraguay, is of increasing interest as a source of zero-calorie natural sweeteners: the steviol glycosides (SVglys). The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of nitrogen (N) supply for leaf yield and for SVgly concentrations in leaves, which are the two major components of S. rebaudiana productivity. In this regard, the relationship between leaf N concentration, CO2 assimilation, leaf production and SVgly accumulation was investigated. The experiments were conducted consecutively in growth-chamber (CC: controlled conditions), in greenhouse (SCC: semi-controlled conditions) and in field conditions (FC) on two genotypes. In CC and SCC, three levels of N fertilization were applied. Plants were grown on four locations in the FC experiment. Both N supply (CC and SCC) and location (FC) had a significant effect on N content in leaves. When light was not limiting (SCC and FC) N content in leaves was positively correlated with CO2 assimilation rate and biomass accumulation. Irrespective of the growth conditions, N content in leaves was negatively correlated with SVgly content. However, increased SVgly content was correlated with a decreased ratio of rebaudioside A over stevioside. The evidence that the increased SVgly accumulation compensates for the negative effect on biomass production suggests that adequate SVgly productivity per plant may be achieved with relatively low fertilization.

  15. Glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Possess Insulin-Mimetic and Antioxidant Activities in Rat Cardiac Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Cecilia; Zambonin, Laura; Rizzo, Benedetta; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a shrub having a high content of sweet diterpenoid glycosides in its leaves, mainly stevioside and rebaudioside A, which are used as noncaloric, natural sweeteners. The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about the insulin-mimetic effect exerted by four different mixtures of steviol glycosides, rich in stevioside and rebaudioside A, in neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts. The potential antioxidant activity of these steviol glycosides was also assessed, as oxidative stress is associated with diabetes. Likewise the insulin effect, steviol glycosides caused an increase in glucose uptake into rat fibroblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway, thus inducing Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane. The presence of S961, an insulin antagonist, completely abolished these effects, allowing to hypothesize that steviol glycosides could act as ligands of the same receptor engaged by insulin. Moreover, steviol glycosides counteracted oxidative stress by increasing reduced glutathione intracellular levels and upregulating expression and activity of the two antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. The present work unravels the insulin-mimetic effect and the antioxidant property exerted by steviol glycosides, suggesting their potential beneficial role in the cotreatment of diabetes and in health maintenance.

  16. Potential Roles of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Abrogating Insulin Resistance and Diabetes: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Radzman, Nabilatul Hani; Ismail, W. I. W.; Adam, Zainah; Jaapar, Siti Safura; Adam, Aishah

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key factor in metabolic disorders like hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, which are promoted by obesity and may later lead to Type II diabetes mellitus. In recent years, researchers have identified links between insulin resistance and many noncommunicable illnesses other than diabetes. Hence, studying insulin resistance is of particular importance in unravelling the pathways employed by such diseases. In this review, mechanisms involving free fatty acids, adipocytokines such as TNFα and PPARγ and serine kinases like JNK and IKKβ, asserted to be responsible in the development of insulin resistance, will be discussed. Suggested mechanisms for actions in normal and disrupted states were also visualised in several manually constructed diagrams to capture an overall view of the insulin-signalling pathway and its related components. The underlying constituents of medicinal significance found in the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant (among other plants that potentiate antihyperglycemic activities) were explored in further depth. Understanding these factors and their mechanisms may be essential for comprehending the progression of insulin resistance towards the development of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24324517

  17. Potential Roles of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Abrogating Insulin Resistance and Diabetes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Radzman, Nabilatul Hani; Ismail, W I W; Adam, Zainah; Jaapar, Siti Safura; Adam, Aishah

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key factor in metabolic disorders like hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, which are promoted by obesity and may later lead to Type II diabetes mellitus. In recent years, researchers have identified links between insulin resistance and many noncommunicable illnesses other than diabetes. Hence, studying insulin resistance is of particular importance in unravelling the pathways employed by such diseases. In this review, mechanisms involving free fatty acids, adipocytokines such as TNF α and PPAR γ and serine kinases like JNK and IKK β , asserted to be responsible in the development of insulin resistance, will be discussed. Suggested mechanisms for actions in normal and disrupted states were also visualised in several manually constructed diagrams to capture an overall view of the insulin-signalling pathway and its related components. The underlying constituents of medicinal significance found in the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant (among other plants that potentiate antihyperglycemic activities) were explored in further depth. Understanding these factors and their mechanisms may be essential for comprehending the progression of insulin resistance towards the development of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Transcriptional profiling of genes involved in steviol glycoside biosynthesis in Stevia rebaudiana bertoni during plant hardening.

    PubMed

    Modi, Arpan; Litoriya, Nitesh; Prajapati, Vijay; Rafalia, Rutul; Narayanan, Subhash

    2014-09-01

    Stevioside is a diterpene glycoside found in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae) and is 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose. It is synthesized through a plastid localized 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Fifteen genes are involved in the formation of steviol glycosides (stevioside and rebaudioside A). In the present investigation, micropropagated plants were allowed to harden for one month during which transcriptional profiling of candidate genes was carried out. Sampling from all the plants was carried out during hardening at different time intervals (day 10, 20, and 30) along with control plants (day 0). Stevioside content was also measured. Of 15 genes, 9 were up-regulated two-fold or greater. Nine genes were expressed at higher levels after 30 days than in the untreated controls. Moreover, these transcriptional differences were correlated with a significant enhancement in stevioside content from 0- (11.48%) to 30- (13.57%) day-old plants. MEP pathway genes in stevia are expressed at higher levels during hardening, a change to vegetative growth from reproductive growth. Although there were higher transcript levels of candidate genes at the initial phase of hardening, the highest stevioside content was found after 30 days of hardening, suggesting translational/posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Adilson; Pegas Pereira, Elisangela Samartin; Assumpção, Elvira Cancio; Calixto dos Santos, Felipe Borba; Ota, Fernanda Sayuri; de Oliveira Pereira, Margareth; Fidelis, Maria Carolina; Fávaro, Raquel; Barros Langen, Stephanie Selma; Favaro de Arruda, Lúcia Helena; Abildgaard, Eva Nydal

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet) marine protein (105 mg), vitamin C (27 mg), grape seed extract (13.75 mg), zinc (2 mg), and tomato extract (14.38 mg) in the improvement of skin aging in men. Methods This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images. Results Forty-one subjects (87%) completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05). The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05), dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001), and reduction of skin pH (P<0.05). No statistical improvement in relation to sebum was found. The photographic assessment showed an improvement in the overall appearance. The results of the objective measurements were found to be correlated with the subjects’ satisfaction by an increase of collagen and elastic fibers. Conclusion The use of an oral supplement based on a unique biomarine complex, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract produced improvements in the signs of skin aging in men. PMID:26170708

  20. Microwave-assisted extraction coupled with single drop microextraction and high-performance column liquid chromatography for the determination of trace estrogen adulterants in soybean isoflavone dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaohua; Yin, Yi; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive and accurate method consisting of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) coupled with single drop microextraction (SDME) and HPLC was developed for the determination of four trace estrogen adulterants, including estriol (E3), estradiol (E2), ethinyl estradiol (EE), and estrone (E1), in different soybean dietary supplements. The samples were extracted by MAE; the extracts were cleaned up and enriched by SDME, and then analyzed by HPLC. The conditions of MAE were optimized, and the effects of solvent and extraction time in SDME on the enrichment capacity were studied. The enrichment factors of E3, E2, EE, and E1 under the optimized conditions were 247-, 335-, 316-, and 319-fold, respectively. The linear range of the MAE-SDME-HPLC method ranged from 5.0 to 180.0 microg/L, and the detection limit from 1.1 to 1.2 microg/L. The RSD ranged from 7.9 to 9.6%. Three soybean dietary supplements, including oral liquid, capsule, and tablet forms, were analyzed. The spike recovery was more than 70%, with RSD lower than 13.2%. It was shown that the proposed method was accurate, sensitive, and suitable for the determination of trace analytes in complex samples.

  1. Protective effects of saffron extract and crocin supplementation on fatty liver tissue of high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mashmoul, Maryam; Azlan, Azrina; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Khaza'ai, Huzwah; Khoo, Hock Eng; Farzadnia, Mehdi; Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher

    2016-10-22

    Saffron is the dried stigma of Crocus sativus L. flower which commonly used as a natural remedy to enhance health and even fights disease in the Middle-East and Southeast Asian countries. This study was aimed to investigate protective effect of saffron extract and crocin in fatty liver tissue of high-fat diet induced obese rats. A total of 36 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups. Two groups served as controls, a normal diet (ND) and a high-fat diet (HFD). The other four groups were each supplemented with saffron extract and crocin at concentrations of 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight/day for 8 weeks. All groups except ND were fed with HFD until end of the study. At baseline, blood sample was collected for determination of levels of hepatic marker enzymes, including aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatise and albumin. Liver sample was collected, weighed and stained with haematoxylin and eosin for further histopathological examination. Saffron extract and crocin at concentrations of 40 and 80 mg/kg had dose-dependently alleviated levels of liver enzymes and histopathological changes in diet-induced obese rat model compared to control (HFD group). This study suggested that saffron extract and crocin supplements have hepatoprotective effect against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and HFD-induced liver damage.

  2. Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Li, Xiao-Hong; McRobb, Lucinda S.; Heather, Alison K.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction, contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The popularity of natural product supplements has increased in recent years, especially those with purported anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effects. The efficacy and mechanism of many of these products are not yet well understood. In this study, we tested the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a supplement, HIPER Health Supplement (HIPER), on cytokine-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HIPER is a mixture of French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), honey, aloe vera, and papaya extract. Treatment for 24 hours with HIPER reduced TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was associated with decreased NADPH oxidase 4 and increased superoxide dismutase-1 expression. HIPER inhibited TNF-α induced monocyte adhesion to HCAECs that was in keeping with decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Further investigation of mechanism showed HIPER reduced TNF-α induced IκBα and p38 and MEK1/2 MAP kinases phosphorylation. Our findings show that HIPER has potent inhibitory effects on HCAECs inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that may protect against endothelial dysfunction that underlies early atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:26664450

  3. Effect of grape seed extract, Cistus ladanifer L., and vegetable oil supplementation on fatty acid composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular fat of lambs.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2010-10-13

    Thirty-six lambs were used in a 6 week experiment to evaluate the effect of vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 vs 60 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and two dietary condensed tannin sources, grape seed extract (0 vs 25 g/kg of DM) and Cistus ladanifer L. (0 vs 250 g/kg of DM), on fatty acid (FA) composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular polar and neutral lipids. Grape seed extract did not affect the FA profile of abomasal digesta or muscle lipid fractions. C. ladanifer had a minor effect in lambs fed diets with no oil but greatly changed the abomasal and muscle FA profiles in oil-supplemented lambs. It decreased 18:0 and increased 18:1 trans-11 in abomasal digesta and increased 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (P = 0.062) in muscle neutral lipids, resulting in an important enrichment of meat 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 when compared to other oil-supplemented diets (19.2 vs 41.7 mg/100 g of muscle).

  4. Extract-filter-shoot liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the analysis of vitamin D2 in a powdered supplement capsule and standard reference material 3280.

    PubMed

    Byrdwell, William Craig

    2014-08-01

    An "extract-filter-shoot" method for the analysis of vitamin D2, ergocalciferol, in a dry powdered dietary supplement capsule containing rice flour excipient and in a National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference material 3280 is reported. Quantification of vitamin D2 was done by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring, two transitions of selected reaction monitoring, and extracted ion chromatograms from full scans. UV detection was used for the quantification of Vitamin D2 in the dry powder capsule, whereas interfering species rendered UV detection unreliable for standard reference material 3280. Average values for standard reference material 3280 ranged from 8.27 ± 0.58 to 8.33 ± 0.57 μg/g using internal standard calibration and response factor approaches, compared to the previous National Institute of Standards and Technology internal value for vitamin D2 of 8.78 ± 0.11 μg/g, and the recently updated reference value of 8.6 ± 2.6 μg/g. The powdered supplement capsule was found to contain 28.19 ± 0.35 to 28.67 ± 0.90 μg/capsule for a capsule labeled to contain 25.00 μg. The triacylglycerol composition of the rice flour excipient in the powdered supplement capsule determined by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is also reported.

  5. Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests.

    PubMed

    Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

    2008-03-01

    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 +/- 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 +/- 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (-12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as "tired eyes," "blurry eyes," "muscle pain/stiffness," "early satiety," "epigastralgia," "dizziness," "arthralgia" and "easily breaking into a sweat." The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for "dizziness." On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy.

  6. The supplementation of Korean mistletoe water extracts reduces hot flushes, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and muscle loss in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jung; Park, Jong-Heum; Kwon, Dae Young; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Shin, Bae Keun; Moon, Na Rang; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Since Korean mistletoe (Viscum album) has been used for alleviating metabolic diseases, it may also prevent the impairment of energy, glucose, lipid, and bone metabolisms in an estrogen-deficient animal model. We determined that long-term consumption of Korean mistletoe water extract (KME) can alleviate menopausal symptoms such as hot flush, increased abdominal fat mass, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and decreased bone mineral density in ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed a high-fat diet, and explored the mechanisms of the effects. OVX rats were divided into four groups and fed high-fat diets supplemented with either 0.6% dextrin (control), 0.2% lyophilized KME + 0.4% dextrin (KME-L), or 0.6% lyophilized KME (KME-H). Sham rats were fed with the high-fat diets with 0.6% dextrin as a normal-control without estrogen deficiency. After eight weeks, OVX rats exhibited impaired energy, glucose and lipid metabolism, and decreased uterine and bone masses. KME-L did not alleviate energy dysfunction. However, KME-H lowered serum levels of total-, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides and elevated serum HDL-cholesterol levels in OVX rats with dyslipidemia, to similar levels as normal-control rats. Furthermore, KME-H improved HOMA-IR, an indicator of insulin resistance, in OVX rats. Surprisingly, KME-H fed rats had greater lean mass in the abdomen and leg without differences in fat mass but neither dosage of KME altered bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femur. The increased lean mass was related to greater phosphorylation of mTOR and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in the quadriceps muscles. Hepatic triglyceride contents were lowered with KME-H in OVX rats by increasing carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) expression and decreasing fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression. In conclusion, KME may be useful for preventing some menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, dyslipidemia

  7. Supplementation of Seaweeds Extracts Suppresses Azoxymethane-induced Aberrant DNA Methylation in Colon and Liver of ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bu, So Young; Kwon, Hoonjeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Seamustard and seatangle are commonly consumed seaweeds in Korea and rich sources of non-digestible polysaccharides which possess biological activities. However anti-mutagenic and anti-cancer activities of these seaweeds under physiological condition have not been clarified yet. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of seaweeds consumption on azoxymethane (AOM) -induced DNA methylation at N7 and O6 position of guanine base, an indicator of DNA damage related to cancer initiation. Methods: Thirty ICR mice were divided into five groups and fed one of the following diets for two weeks: control diet, diet containing 10% water-soluble or water-insoluble fraction of seamustard or seatangle. After two weeks of experimental diet AOM was injected at 6 hours before sacrifice and N7-methylguanine (N7-meG) and O6-methylguanine (O6-meG) from the colon and liver DNA were quantified using a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Results: Water-soluble fractions of both seamustard and seatangle significantly reduced AOM-induced production of N7-meG guanine in colon and liver. Also water-soluble fractions of these seaweeds suppressed the level of methylation at O6-guanine of colon and liver directly responsible for tumorigenesis. While water-insoluble fraction of seamustard suppressed the production of N7-meG in liver this seaweed fraction decreased O6-meG and the ratio of O6/N7-meG in liver. Water insoluble fraction of seatangle decreased both O6- and N7-meG in colon and liver. Supplementation of all seaweeds extracts increased fecal weight of animals and the increase of fecal weight by water-insoluble fraction of seaweeds were higher than that by water-soluble fraction. Conclusion: Seamustard and seatangle intake may effectively prevent colon and liver carcinogenesis by decreasing DNA damage and the mechanism of inhibiting carcinogenesis by seaweeds in a long term study are warranted. PMID:25337591

  8. Protective and ameliorative effect of sea buckthorn leaf extract supplementation on lead induced hemato-biochemical alterations in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Rizwana; Raghuwanshi, Pratiksha; Rastogi, Ankur; Koul, Aditi Lal; Khajuria, Pallavi; Ganai, Aafreen Wahid; Kour, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the protective and ameliorative effect of aqueous sea buckthorn leaf extract (SLE) on hemato-biochemical profile in lead intoxicated Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted for 60 days. 36 adult male Wistar rats with a mean body weight of 177.8±12.6 g were divided into five groups and were subjected to various daily oral treatment regimens. Group I served as a negative control receiving only feed and water, Group II (positive control for lead) received lead acetate at 250 ppm in drinking water, and Group III (positive control for SLE) received SLE at 100 mg/kg b.wt. Animals in Group IV received a combination of lead acetate at 250 ppm in drinking water for the first 45 days and SLE at 100 mg/kg b.wt. throughout the experimental period of 60-day, and in Group V for the last 15 days of the trial after the administration of lead acetate until the first 45 days of the trial to study the protective and ameliorating effects of SLE, respectively. Blood samples were collected from retro-orbital fossa of each rat on 0th, 45th, and 60th day of the experiment for hemato-biochemical analysis including hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine. Results: Significantly (p<0.01) lower levels of serum total proteins and albumin, and a significantly (p<0.01) higher serum cholesterol, urea and creatinine levels were observed in Group II (lead intoxicated group) in comparison to Group I (negative control). Administration of SLE at 100 mg/kg body wt. to lead intoxicated Wistar rats resulted in normalization of almost all the biochemical parameters studied in both the treatment Groups, i.e., IV and V (protective and ameliorative). However, the effects were more pronounced in the protective group. No effects of SLE supplementation were observed on Hb levels. PCV levels improved in protective groups, but no effect was observed in ameliorative group

  9. The supplementation of Korean mistletoe water extracts reduces hot flushes, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and muscle loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Park, Jong-Heum; Kwon, Dae Young; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Shin, Bae Keun; Moon, Na Rang; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Sunmin

    2015-04-01

    Since Korean mistletoe (Viscum album) has been used for alleviating metabolic diseases, it may also prevent the impairment of energy, glucose, lipid, and bone metabolisms in an estrogen-deficient animal model. We determined that long-term consumption of Korean mistletoe water extract (KME) can alleviate menopausal symptoms such as hot flush, increased abdominal fat mass, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and decreased bone mineral density in ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed a high-fat diet, and explored the mechanisms of the effects. OVX rats were divided into four groups and fed high-fat diets supplemented with either 0.6% dextrin (control), 0.2% lyophilized KME + 0.4% dextrin (KME-L), or 0.6% lyophilized KME (KME-H). Sham rats were fed with the high-fat diets with 0.6% dextrin as a normal-control without estrogen deficiency. After eight weeks, OVX rats exhibited impaired energy, glucose and lipid metabolism, and decreased uterine and bone masses. KME-L did not alleviate energy dysfunction. However, KME-H lowered serum levels of total-, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides and elevated serum HDL-cholesterol levels in OVX rats with dyslipidemia, to similar levels as normal-control rats. Furthermore, KME-H improved HOMA-IR, an indicator of insulin resistance, in OVX rats. Surprisingly, KME-H fed rats had greater lean mass in the abdomen and leg without differences in fat mass but neither dosage of KME altered bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femur. The increased lean mass was related to greater phosphorylation of mTOR and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in the quadriceps muscles. Hepatic triglyceride contents were lowered with KME-H in OVX rats by increasing carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) expression and decreasing fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression. In conclusion, KME may be useful for preventing some menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, dyslipidemia

  10. Application of isotope dilution analysis for the evaluation of extraction conditions in the determination of total selenium and selenomethionine in yeast-based nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa Reyes, L; Marchante-Gayón, J M; García Alonso, J I; Sanz-Medel, A

    2006-03-08

    Isotope dilution analysis (IDA) has been used to quantify total selenium, total solubilized selenium, and the selenomethionine (SeMet) amount in yeast and yeast-based nutritional supplements after acid microwave digestion and different enzymatic extraction procedures. For this purpose, both a (77)Se-enriched SeMet spike, previously synthesized and characterized in our laboratory, and a (77)Se(VI) spike were used. In the analysis of the nutritional supplements, the SeMet spike was added to the sample and extracted under different conditions, and the (78)Se/(77)Se and (80)Se/(77)Se isotope ratios were measured as peak area ratios after high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. The formation of SeH(+) and mass discrimination were corrected using a natural SeMet standard injected every three samples. Similarly, total solubilized selenium was measured in the extracts after enzymatic hydrolysis using the (77)Se-enriched SeMet as a spike by direct nebulization without a chromatographic separation. To establish a mass balance, total selenium was also determined by IDA-ICP-MS on the yeast tablets after microwave digestion using (77)Se(VI) as a spike. Results showed that all enzymatic procedures tested were able to solubilize total selenium quantitatively from the solid. However, the recovery for the species SeMet, the major selenium compound detected, was seriously affected by the enzymatic procedure employed and also by the matrix composition of the supplement evaluated. For the yeast sample, SeMet recovery increased from 68 to 76% by the combined use of driselase and protease. For the nutritional supplements, the two most effective procedures appeared to be protease and driselase/protease, with a SeMet recovery ranging from 49 to 63%, depending upon the supplement evaluated. In the case of in vitro gastrointestinal enzymolysis, the results obtained showed 26-37% SeMet recovery, while the

  11. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract supplementation on performance, apparent total tract retention of nutrients, blood profile and meat quality of broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Aditya, Siska; Ahammed, Musabbir; Jang, Seong Hun; Ohh, Sang Jip

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary onion (Allium cepa) extract (OE) supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract retention (ATTR), blood profile, carcass characteristics and meat quality in broilers. Methods Four hundred male broiler chicks (Ross 308, 3-d old) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments for 28 d feeding trial. Each treatment has five replications with 20 birds each. Four dietary treatments were designated according to the OE supplementation levels (0 as control, 5, 7.5, and 10 g of OE per kg of basal diet respectively). On d 28, a total of 20 birds from each treatment were subjected for ATTR, serum biochemical assay, carcass characteristic and organ weight measurement. Results Overall weight gain of OE 7.5 g/kg group was higher (p = 0.04) than control group. The ATTRs of dietary energy (p<0.01) and ether extract (p = 0.04) linearly increased with increasing levels of dietary OE. However, no difference in ATTR of dry matter and crude protein was evident. Furthermore, serum IgG concentration increased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p = 0.03) with increasing OE supplementation. No differences in carcass dressing weight and amount of abdominal fat by treatments were observed. Also, the weight of organ including immune organ was not different among the treatments. The TBARS values of 10 d stored breast meat decreased linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) with increasing dietary OE levels. The meat color was also affected, with lower (p<0.01) redness score in meats from OE supplemented groups. This study showed that dietary OE improved broiler weight gain presumably by increasing feed intake and ATTR of both energy and ether extract. The dietary OE increased serum IgG level and meat anti-oxidation capacity. Conclusion This study implies that the recommended level of dietary OE supplementation could be beneficial for improving broiler performance and meat quality. PMID:27809460

  12. A comprehensive analysis of fifteen genes of steviol glycosides biosynthesis pathway in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hitesh; Kaul, Kiran; Bajpai-Gupta, Suphla; Kaul, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2012-01-15

    Stevia [Stevia rebuaidana (Bertoni); family: Asteraceae] is known to yield diterpenoid steviol glycosides (SGs), which are about 300 times sweeter than sugar. The present work analyzed the expression of various genes of the SGs biosynthesis pathway in different organs of the plant in relation to the SGs content. Of the various genes of the pathway, SrDXS, SrDXR, SrCPPS, SrKS, SrKO and three glucosyltransferases namely SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1 were reported from stevia. Here, we report cloning of seven additional full-length cDNA sequences namely, SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS, SrHDS, SrHDR, SrIDI and SrGGDPS followed by expression analysis of all the fifteen genes vis-à-vis SGs content analysis. SGs content was highest in the leaf at 3rd node position (node position with reference to the apical leaf as the first leaf) as compared to the leaves at other node positions. Except for SrDXR and SrKO, gene expression was maximum in leaf at 1st node and minimum in leaf at 5th node. The expression of SrKO was highest in leaf at 3rd node while in case of SrDXR expression showed an increase up to 3rd leaf and decrease thereafter. SGs accumulated maximum in leaf tissue followed by stem and root, and similar was the pattern of expression of all the fifteen genes. The genes responded to the modulators of the terpenopids biosynthesis. Gibberellin (GA(3)) treatment up-regulated the expression of SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS and SrUGT74G1, whereas methyl jasmonate and kinetin treatment down-regulated the expression of all the fifteen genes of the pathway.

  13. smRNAome profiling to identify conserved and novel microRNAs in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Mandhan, Vibha; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

    2012-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a family of small RNA (sRNA) population that regulates the gene expression and plays an important role in plant development, metabolism, signal transduction and stress response. Extensive studies on miRNAs have been performed in different plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa etc. and volume of the miRNA database, mirBASE, has been increasing on day to day basis. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is an important perennial herb which accumulates high concentrations of diterpene steviol glycosides which contributes to its high indexed sweetening property with no calorific value. Several studies have been carried out for understanding molecular mechanism involved in biosynthesis of these glycosides, however, information about miRNAs has been lacking in S. rebaudiana. Deep sequencing of small RNAs combined with transcriptomic data is a powerful tool for identifying conserved and novel miRNAs irrespective of availability of genome sequence data. To identify miRNAs in S. rebaudiana, sRNA library was constructed and sequenced using Illumina genome analyzer II. A total of 30,472,534 reads representing 2,509,190 distinct sequences were obtained from sRNA library. Based on sequence similarity, we identified 100 miRNAs belonging to 34 highly conserved families. Also, we identified 12 novel miRNAs whose precursors were potentially generated from stevia EST and nucleotide sequences. All novel sequences have not been earlier described in other plant species. Putative target genes were predicted for most conserved and novel miRNAs. The predicted targets are mainly mRNA encoding enzymes regulating essential plant metabolic and signaling pathways. This study led to the identification of 34 highly conserved miRNA families and 12 novel potential miRNAs indicating that specific miRNAs exist in stevia species. Our results provided information on stevia miRNAs and their targets building a foundation for future studies to understand their roles in key

  14. Crop-ecology and nutritional variability influence growth and secondary metabolites of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Pal, Probir Kumar; Kumar, Rajender; Guleria, Vipan; Mahajan, Mitali; Prasad, Ramdeen; Pathania, Vijaylata; Gill, Baljinder Singh; Singh, Devinder; Chand, Gopi; Singh, Bikram; Singh, Rakesh Deosharan; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2015-02-27

    Plant nutrition and climatic conditions play important roles on the growth and secondary metabolites of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni); however, the nutritional dose is strongly governed by the soil properties and climatic conditions of the growing region. In northern India, the interactive effects of crop ecology and plant nutrition on yield and secondary metabolites of stevia are not yet properly understood. Thus, a field experiment comprising three levels of nitrogen, two levels of phosphorus and three levels of potassium was conducted at three locations to ascertain whether the spatial and nutritional variability would dominate the leaf yield and secondary metabolites profile of stevia. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that the applications of 90 kg N, 40 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O ha-1 are the best nutritional conditions in terms of dry leaf yield for CSIR-IHBT (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research- Institute Himalayan Bioresource Technology) and RHRS (Regional Horticultural Research Station) conditions. The spatial variability also exerted considerable effect on the leaf yield and stevioside content in leaves. Among the three locations, CSIR-IHBT was found most suitable in case of dry leaf yield and secondary metabolites accumulation in leaves. The results suggest that dry leaf yield and accumulation of stevioside are controlled by the environmental factors and agronomic management; however, the accumulation of rebaudioside-A (Reb-A) is not much influenced by these two factors. Thus, leaf yield and secondary metabolite profiles of stevia can be improved through the selection of appropriate growing locations and proper nutrient management.

  15. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  16. Body Fat Accumulation in Zebrafish Is Induced by a Diet Rich in Fat and Reduced by Supplementation with Green Tea Extract

    PubMed Central

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets. PMID:25785691

  17. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extract may improve body composition without affecting hematology in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Joy, Jordan M; Falcone, Paul H; Vogel, Roxanne M; Mosman, Matt M; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-11-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is primarily known as a cellular source of energy. Increased ATP levels may have the potential to enhance body composition. A novel, proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts has been reported to increase ATP levels, potentially by enhancing mitochondrial ATP production. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the supplement's effects on body composition when consumed during 12 weeks of resistance training. Twenty-five healthy, resistance-trained, male subjects (age, 27.7 ± 4.8 years; height, 176.0 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 83.2 ± 12.1 kg) completed this study. Subjects supplemented once daily with either 1 serving (150 mg) of a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts (TRT) or placebo (PLA). Supervised resistance training consisted of 8 weeks of daily undulating periodized training followed by a 2-week overreach and a 2-week taper phase. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and ultrasound at weeks 0, 4, 8, 10, and 12. Vital signs and blood markers were assessed at weeks 0, 8, and 12. Significant group × time (p < 0.05) interactions were present for ultrasound-determined cross-sectional area, which increased in TRT (+0.91 cm(2)) versus PLA (-0.08 cm(2)), as well as muscle thickness (TRT: +0.46; PLA: +0.04 cm). A significant group × time (p < 0.05) interaction existed for creatinine (TRT: +0.06; PLA: +0.15 mg/dL), triglycerides (TRT: +24.1; PLA: -20.2 mg/dL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (TRT: +4.9; PLA: -3.9 mg/dL), which remained within clinical ranges. Supplementation with a proprietary blend of ancient peat and apple extracts may enhance resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy without affecting fat mass or blood chemistry in healthy males.

  18. Oxidised LDL levels decreases after the consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Ibero-Baraibar, I; Abete, I; Navas-Carretero, S; Massis-Zaid, A; Martinez, J A; Zulet, M A

    2014-04-01

    Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m(2)] were recruited to participate in a 4 week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. After following 3 days on a low-polyphenol diet, 25 volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (645.3 mg of polyphenols) and the other 25 participants received control meals, within a 15% energy restriction diet. On the 4th week of intervention individuals in both dietary groups improved (p < 0.05) anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure and blood biochemical measurements. Oxidised LDL cholesterol (oxLDL), showed a higher reduction (p = 0.030) in the cocoa group. Moreover, myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels decreased only in the cocoa supplemented group (p = 0.007). Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) decreased significantly in both groups, while Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) did not present differences after the 4 weeks of intervention. Interestingly, cocoa intake showed a different effect by gender, presenting more beneficial effects in men. The consumption of cocoa extract as part of ready-to-eat meals and within a hypocaloric diet improved oxidative status (oxLDL) in middle-aged subjects, being most remarkable in males. Registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01596309). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Kim, In H

    2014-06-01

    A total of 105 growing pigs (24.91 ± 1.06 kg) were used in a 6-week trial to investigate the effects of including Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract (SPE) in the diet on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions. Pigs were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (seven pens/treatment, five pigs/pen) according to initial body weight and sex (two gilts and three barrows). Treatments consisted of a corn soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SPE. There was a significant linear improvement (P < 0.05) in average daily gain, gain/feed, the apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and gross energy, blood lymphocyte percentage, immunoglobulin G concentration, fecal Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus counts as well as fecal NH3 and H2 S emissions associated with the inclusion of SPE in the diet. Average daily feed intake, red blood cells and white blood cells concentration were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by SPE supplementation in the diets. In conclusion, results indicate that dietary SPE supplementation can improve growth performance, digestibility and fecal microbiota, and decrease fecal gas emissions in growing pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Hepatic Gene Expression Related to Lower Plasma Cholesterol in Hamsters Fed High Fat Diets Supplemented with Blueberry Pomace and Extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We analyzed plasma lipid profiles, and genes related to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and inflammation in livers as well as adipose tissue from Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets supplemented with blueberry (BB) pomace byproducts including 8% dried whole blueberry peels (BBPWHL), 2% d...

  1. Nutritional characteristics and quality of eggs from laying hens fed on a diet supplemented with chestnut tannin extract (Castanea sativa Miller).

    PubMed

    Minieri, S; Buccioni, A; Serra, A; Galigani, I; Pezzati, A; Rapaccini, S; Antongiovanni, M

    2016-12-01

    The trial was performed with 80 laying hens belonging to two Tuscan autochthonous breeds: 40 birds of the Mugellese (MU) breed and 40 of the White Leghorn (WL) breed. The animals were allotted to 4 groups of individually caged 20 hens each: two groups were fed on a commercial diet and worked as the control groups (MUC and WLC); the other two groups received the same diet, integrated with 2 g of chestnut tannin (CT) extract per kg of diet (MUT and WLT). A sample of 70 eggs were randomly collected and analysed for cholesterol content, fatty acid (FA) profile, weight, thickness of shell and colour of yolk. Physical parameters, including yolk colour, and indices of egg quality were not affected by the treatments. The concentration of unsaturated FAs increased, whereas cholesterol was significantly decreased: -17% in WLT and -9% in MUT. Dietary supplementation with CT extract resulted in a modification of lipid composition, towards a more healthy quality of eggs.

  2. Determination of Catechins and Caffeine in Camillia sinensis Raw Materials, Extracts, and Dietary Supplements by HPLC-UV: Single-Laboratory Validation

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Mark C.; Hildreth, Jana; Bannister, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed to quantify seven catechins and caffeine in green tea (Camillia sinensis) raw material and powdered extract, and dietary supplements containing green tea extract. The method utilizes RP HPLC with a phenyl-based stationary phase and gradient elution. Detection is by UV absorbance. The total run time, including column re-equilibration, is 13 min. Single-laboratory validation (SLV) has been performed on the method to determine the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ, ruggedness, and linearity for (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, (−)-epicatechin gallate, (−)-epigallocatechin, (−)-gallocatechin gallate, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate, and (+)-gallocatechin, as well as caffeine. Repeatability precision and recovery results met AOAC guidelines for SLV studies for all catechins and caffeine down to a level of approximately 20 mg/g. Finished products containing high concentrations of minerals require the use of EDTA to prevent decomposition of the catechins. PMID:24282928

  3. Determination of catechins and caffeine in camillia sinensis raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by HPLC-uv: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Roman, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed to quantify seven catechins and caffeine in green tea (Camillia sinensis) raw material and powdered extract, and dietary supplements containing green tea extract. The method utilizes RP HPLC with a phenyl-based stationary phase and gradient elution. Detection is by UV absorbance. The total run time, including column re-equilibration, is 13 min. Single-laboratory validation (SLV) has been performed on the method to determine the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ, ruggedness, and linearity for (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, and (+)-gallocatechin, as well as caffeine. Repeatability precision and recovery results met AOAC guidelines for SLV studies for all catechins and caffeine down to a level of approximately 20 mg/g. Finished products containing high concentrations of minerals require the use of EDTA to prevent decomposition of the catechins.

  4. Supplementation with Hualian No. 4 wild bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata ser.) extract increases anti-fatigue activities and enhances exercise performance in mice

    PubMed Central

    HSIAO, Chien-Yu; CHEN, Yi-Ming; HSU, Yi-Ju; HUANG, Chi-Chang; SUNG, Hsin-Ching; CHEN, Sheng-Shih

    2017-01-01

    Hualian No. 4 wild bitter gourd (WBG) is a specific vegetable cultivated by the Hualien District Agricultural Research and Extension Station in Taiwan. WBG is commonly consumed as a vegetable and used as a popular folk medicine. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of WBG supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue and the biochemical profile. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of WBG extract on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Three groups of male ICR mice (n=8 per group) were orally administered 0, 1 or 2.5 g/kg/day of WBG for 4 weeks. They were respectively designated the vehicle, WBG-1X and WBG-2.5X groups. WBG significantly decreased body weight (BW) and epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight. Concerning physical performance, WBG supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength and endurance swimming time. Concerning anti-fatigue activity, WBG decreased levels of serum lactate, ammonia, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen, and economized glucose metabolism after acute exercise challenge. Glycogen in the liver and gastrocnemius muscle dose-dependently increased with WBG treatment. Concerning the biochemical profile, WBG treatment significantly decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urea acid (UA), and increased total protein (TP). Therefore, 4-week supplementation with WBG may decrease white adipose weight, enhance energy economy, increase glycogen storage to enhance exercise performance and reduce fatigue. PMID:28458274

  5. Supplementation with Hualian No. 4 wild bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata ser.) extract increases anti-fatigue activities and enhances exercise performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Chen, Yi-Ming; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Chi-Chang; Sung, Hsin-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Shih

    2017-06-29

    Hualian No. 4 wild bitter gourd (WBG) is a specific vegetable cultivated by the Hualien District Agricultural Research and Extension Station in Taiwan. WBG is commonly consumed as a vegetable and used as a popular folk medicine. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of WBG supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue and the biochemical profile. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of WBG extract on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Three groups of male ICR mice (n=8 per group) were orally administered 0, 1 or 2.5 g/kg/day of WBG for 4 weeks. They were respectively designated the vehicle, WBG-1X and WBG-2.5X groups. WBG significantly decreased body weight (BW) and epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight. Concerning physical performance, WBG supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength and endurance swimming time. Concerning anti-fatigue activity, WBG decreased levels of serum lactate, ammonia, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen, and economized glucose metabolism after acute exercise challenge. Glycogen in the liver and gastrocnemius muscle dose-dependently increased with WBG treatment. Concerning the biochemical profile, WBG treatment significantly decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urea acid (UA), and increased total protein (TP). Therefore, 4-week supplementation with WBG may decrease white adipose weight, enhance energy economy, increase glycogen storage to enhance exercise performance and reduce fatigue.

  6. Beneficial effects of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on increasing HDL-cholesterol in subjects with primary mild hypercholesterolaemia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Giacosa, Attilio; Opizzi, Annalisa; Faliva, Milena Anna; Sala, Patrizio; Perna, Simone; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) supplementation (250 mg, 2 b.i.d.) on the lipid pattern. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 92 overweight subjects with primary mild hypercholesterolaemia for 8 weeks. Forty-six subjects were randomized to supplementation (age: 54.2 ± 6.6 years, body mass index (BMI): 25.8 ± 3.9 kg/m(2), male/female: 20/26) and 46 subjects to placebo (age: 53.8 ± 9.0 years, BMI: 24.8 ± 1.6 kg/m(2), male/female: 21/25). Verum supplementation was associated with a significant increase in mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (p < 0.001) and in mean change in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (p = 0.004). A significantly decreased difference was also found for the mean change in total cholesterol (p = 0.033), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (p < 0.001), total cholesterol/HDL ratio (p < 0.001) and LDL/HDL ratio (p < 0.001), when verum and placebo treatment were compared. These results indicate that ALE could play a relevant role in the management of mild hypercholesterolaemia, favouring in particular the increase in HDL-C, besides decreasing total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol.

  7. Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Serum Samples following Curcuma longa Extract Supplementation in High-Fructose and Saturated Fat Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tranchida, Fabrice; Shintu, Laetitia; Rakotoniaina, Zo; Tchiakpe, Léopold; Deyris, Valérie; Hiol, Abel; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We explored, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics and fatty acids profiling, the effects of a common nutritional complement, Curcuma longa, at a nutritionally relevant dose with human use, administered in conjunction with an unbalanced diet. Indeed, traditional food supplements have been long used to counter metabolic impairments induced by unbalanced diets. Here, rats were fed either a standard diet, a high level of fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet, a diet common to western countries and that certainly contributes to the epidemic of insulin resistance (IR) syndrome, or a HFS diet with a Curcuma longa extract (1% of curcuminoids in the extract) for ten weeks. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) on the serum NMR profiles and fatty acid composition (determined by GC/MS) showed a clear discrimination between HFS groups and controls. This discrimination involved metabolites such as glucose, amino acids, pyruvate, creatine, phosphocholine/glycerophosphocholine, ketone bodies and glycoproteins as well as an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and a decrease of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although the administration of Curcuma longa did not prevent the observed increase of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels, discriminating metabolites were observed between groups fed HFS alone or with addition of a Curcuma longa extract, namely some MUFA and n-3 PUFA, glycoproteins, glutamine, and methanol, suggesting that curcuminoids may act respectively on the fatty acid metabolism, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and alcohol oxidation. Curcuma longa extract supplementation appears to be beneficial in these metabolic pathways in rats. This metabolomic approach highlights important serum metabolites that could help in understanding further the metabolic mechanisms leading to IR. PMID:26288372

  8. Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Serum Samples following Curcuma longa Extract Supplementation in High-Fructose and Saturated Fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, Fabrice; Shintu, Laetitia; Rakotoniaina, Zo; Tchiakpe, Léopold; Deyris, Valérie; Hiol, Abel; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We explored, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics and fatty acids profiling, the effects of a common nutritional complement, Curcuma longa, at a nutritionally relevant dose with human use, administered in conjunction with an unbalanced diet. Indeed, traditional food supplements have been long used to counter metabolic impairments induced by unbalanced diets. Here, rats were fed either a standard diet, a high level of fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet, a diet common to western countries and that certainly contributes to the epidemic of insulin resistance (IR) syndrome, or a HFS diet with a Curcuma longa extract (1% of curcuminoids in the extract) for ten weeks. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) on the serum NMR profiles and fatty acid composition (determined by GC/MS) showed a clear discrimination between HFS groups and controls. This discrimination involved metabolites such as glucose, amino acids, pyruvate, creatine, phosphocholine/glycerophosphocholine, ketone bodies and glycoproteins as well as an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and a decrease of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although the administration of Curcuma longa did not prevent the observed increase of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels, discriminating metabolites were observed between groups fed HFS alone or with addition of a Curcuma longa extract, namely some MUFA and n-3 PUFA, glycoproteins, glutamine, and methanol, suggesting that curcuminoids may act respectively on the fatty acid metabolism, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and alcohol oxidation. Curcuma longa extract supplementation appears to be beneficial in these metabolic pathways in rats. This metabolomic approach highlights important serum metabolites that could help in understanding further the metabolic mechanisms leading to IR.

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation of grape seed extract on the growth performance, lipid profile, antioxidant status and immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Farahat, M H; Abdallah, F M; Ali, H A; Hernandez-Santana, A

    2017-05-01

    Grape seed extracts (GSE) contain several beneficial bioactive constituents; therefore, can be utilized as a potential feed additive in broiler chickens. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of broiler chicken diets with GSE as a natural antioxidant at levels of 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm on the growth performance, serum lipid profile, liver glutathione-reduced, thigh muscle malondialdehyde and humoral immune response against Newcastle disease virus vaccines. This experiment was performed during the life-span of chickens from 0 to 42 days of age. The results of broilers fed on diet supplemented by GSE were compared with those fed on the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented by butylated hydroxytoluene as a synthetic antioxidant (BHT, 125 ppm). No significant differences were observed in the growth performance, percent livability, total lipid, high and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterols when the use of GSE or BHT were compared with the control. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased after intake of GSE compared with BHT in the feed diet. The glutathione-reduced level in liver tissues was significantly increased by inclusion of GSE, but not by BHT. Inclusion of GSE or BHT decreased significantly the malondialdehyde level found in meat tissue. The antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus vaccines was significantly elevated in 28 and 35-day-old broiler chickens fed with a diet supplemented with GSE or BHT, the former providing a higher response. It can be concluded that GSE can be used as an effective natural antioxidant and immunostimulant agent in broiler chicken diets, and that 125 to 250 ppm can be considered as the optimum dosage.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation with unprocessed and ethanol-extracted apple pomaces on caecal fermentation, antioxidant and blood biomarkers in rats.

    PubMed

    Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zary-Sikorska, Ewa; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Król, Bogusław; Jarosławska, Julia; Jurgoński, Adam

    2012-04-01

    The present 4-week study on growing Wistar rats was aimed at assessing the potential advantages of dietary supplementation with apple pomace containing both fibre and polyphenols, which enables nutritional exploitation of the physiological traits of both compounds. A total of twenty-four rats, assigned to the control (C), group fed with a diet supplemented with 14% of processed apple pomace (A) and group fed with a diet supplemented with 15% unprocessed apple pomace (AP) groups, were fed the following iso-fibrous diets: control, ethanol-extracted and unprocessed apple pomaces (low and high level of dietary polyphenols, i.e. 0·002 and 0·018%, respectively). To measure the animal response, parameters describing the caecal fermentation, antioxidative status and lipoprotein profile of rats were assessed. Both dietary apple pomaces were found to significantly (P≤0·05) decrease caecal pH and ammonia concentration, microbial β-glucuronidase activity as well as to increase caecal SCFA concentration in comparison to the control diet. The unprocessed pomace did not suppress caecal fermentation. Unlike the extracted one, the dietary apple pomace rich in polyphenols significantly (P≤0·05 v. C group) increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and serum antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances and significantly (P≤0·05 v. C group) decreased amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver tissue. Moreover, the 4-week administration of the AP diet to rats evoked a significant decrease in serum glucose concentration (P≤0·05 v. C and A groups). In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the polyphenol-rich fibre complexes from apple pomace exerted positive effects on gastrointestinal physiology and antioxidant status of rats.

  11. Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 ± 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 ± 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (−12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as “tired eyes,” “blurry eyes,” “muscle pain/stiffness,” “early satiety,” “epigastralgia,” “dizziness,” “arthralgia” and “easily breaking into a sweat.” The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for “dizziness.” On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy. PMID:18385825

  12. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and enzymatic activity of liver from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves/sunflower seed cake.

    PubMed

    Moyo, B; Oyedemi, S; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2012-08-01

    The study investigated antioxidant potency of Moringa oleifera leaves in different in vitro systems using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidative effect on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were investigated in goats supplemented with M. oleifera (MOL) or sunflower seed cake (SC). The acetone extract had higher concentrations of total flavonoids (295.01 ± 1.89 QE/g) followed by flavonols (132.74 ± 0.83 QE/g), phenolics (120.33 ± 0.76 TE/g) and then proanthocyanidins (32.59 ± 0.50 CE/g) than the aqueous extract. The reducing power of both solvent extracts showed strong antioxidant activity in a concentration dependent manner. The acetone extract depicted higher percentage inhibition against DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals which were comparable with reference standard antioxidants (vitamin C and BHT). MOL increased the antioxidant activity of GSH (186%), SOD (97.8%) and catalase (0.177%). Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by MOL. The present study suggests that M. oleifera could be a potential source of compounds with strong antioxidant potential.

  13. Coleus forskohlii Extract Supplementation in Conjunction with a Hypocaloric Diet Reduces the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Hayley L.; Astell, Katie J.; Mathai, Michael L.; Su, Xiao Q.

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies have shown that Coleus forskohlii extract may aid in weight management. This randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical study assessed the effects of supplementation with C. forskohlii extract on key markers of obesity and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese individuals. Thirty participants completed the trial and they were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg of C. forskohlii extract (n = 15) or a placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. All participants were advised to follow a hypocaloric diet throughout the study. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio, were monitored fortnightly. Dietary intake was assessed at the baseline and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales and blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipids, ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin at the baseline and end of the intervention. Significant reductions to waist and hip circumference (p = 0.02; p = 0.01, respectively) were recorded in both experimental and placebo groups after the 12 week intervention. Furthermore, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly increased (p = 0.01) in both groups. The experimental group showed a favorable improvement in insulin concentration and insulin resistance (p = 0.001; 0.01 respectively) compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that C. forskohlii extract in conjunction with a hypocaloric diet may be useful in the management of metabolic risk factors. PMID:26593941

  14. Coleus forskohlii Extract Supplementation in Conjunction with a Hypocaloric Diet Reduces the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Hayley L; Astell, Katie J; Mathai, Michael L; Su, Xiao Q

    2015-11-17

    Limited studies have shown that Coleus forskohlii extract may aid in weight management. This randomized, double blind placebo-controlled clinical study assessed the effects of supplementation with C. forskohlii extract on key markers of obesity and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese individuals. Thirty participants completed the trial and they were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg of C. forskohlii extract (n = 15) or a placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. All participants were advised to follow a hypocaloric diet throughout the study. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio, were monitored fortnightly. Dietary intake was assessed at the baseline and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales and blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipids, ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin at the baseline and end of the intervention. Significant reductions to waist and hip circumference (p = 0.02; p = 0.01, respectively) were recorded in both experimental and placebo groups after the 12 week intervention. Furthermore, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly increased (p = 0.01) in both groups. The experimental group showed a favorable improvement in insulin concentration and insulin resistance (p = 0.001; 0.01 respectively) compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that C. forskohlii extract in conjunction with a hypocaloric diet may be useful in the management of metabolic risk factors.

  15. Grape seed extract and Zinc containing nutritional food supplement delays onset and progression of Streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Satyam, Shakta Mani; Bairy, Laxminaryana Kurady; Pirasanthan, Rajadurai; Vaishnav, Rajdip Lalit

    2015-05-01

    Prevention of hyperglycemia and enhancement of antioxidant defense mechanisms remain major goals in the treatment of diabetic cataract. Earlier, we reported strong anti-hyperglycemic and in vitro antioxidant potential of the combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate effects of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets against streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract in Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were selected and diabetes was induced by streptozocin (35 mg/kg, i.p) and divided into four groups (group II-V). The normal control (group I) and streptozocin-induced diabetic cataract control rats received only vehicle. Groups III, IV and V animals received orally 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg of combined formulation of Zincovit tablets with grape seed extract respectively for a period of 150 days. The biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress, polyol pathway and alterations in adenosine triphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and blood glucose were investigated, to understand the possible mechanism of action of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets. Rats treated with combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets delayed the progression of diabetic cataract as well as it showed significant alterations in oxidative stress markers along with blood glucose, aldose reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphate level in lens. Over all, the results suggest that single combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets may be of great value in delaying diabetic cataract of human subjects as nutritional food supplement.

  16. Determination of selenium content in aqueous extract of medicinal plants used as herbal supplement for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kolachi, N F; Kazi, T G; Afridi, H I; Khan, S; Wadhwa, S K; Shah, A Q; Shah, F; Baig, J A; Sirajuddin

    2010-12-01

    The chemical constituents in medicinal plants (MPs), including elements, are partially responsible for their medicinal and nutritional properties as well as toxic effects. This research aimed to monitor selenium (Se) contents in aqueous extract of MPs used for treatment of cancer and different diseases. In present work the Se in MPs was extracted in aqueous media by microwave-assisted (ME) and conventional extraction (CE) methods. The total and residual Se in MPs were determined, prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The Se in aqueous extracts and digests were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimum extractable Se in MPs were obtained by ME and CE, required 2 and 40 min, respectively. Precision and accuracy of the methodologies were checked by standard addition method. The Se contents in aqueous extract of MPs were found in the range of 1.09-2.23 μg/g corresponding to 21-33% of total Se contents. The daily intake of Se from aqueous extract of MPs as recommended by herbalist (10 g of plant material) was found in the range of 20-40% of daily requirement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. smRNAome profiling to identify conserved and novel microRNAs in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a family of small RNA (sRNA) population that regulates the gene expression and plays an important role in plant development, metabolism, signal transduction and stress response. Extensive studies on miRNAs have been performed in different plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa etc. and volume of the miRNA database, mirBASE, has been increasing on day to day basis. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is an important perennial herb which accumulates high concentrations of diterpene steviol glycosides which contributes to its high indexed sweetening property with no calorific value. Several studies have been carried out for understanding molecular mechanism involved in biosynthesis of these glycosides, however, information about miRNAs has been lacking in S. rebaudiana. Deep sequencing of small RNAs combined with transcriptomic data is a powerful tool for identifying conserved and novel miRNAs irrespective of availability of genome sequence data. Results To identify miRNAs in S. rebaudiana, sRNA library was constructed and sequenced using Illumina genome analyzer II. A total of 30,472,534 reads representing 2,509,190 distinct sequences were obtained from sRNA library. Based on sequence similarity, we identified 100 miRNAs belonging to 34 highly conserved families. Also, we identified 12 novel miRNAs whose precursors were potentially generated from stevia EST and nucleotide sequences. All novel sequences have not been earlier described in other plant species. Putative target genes were predicted for most conserved and novel miRNAs. The predicted targets are mainly mRNA encoding enzymes regulating essential plant metabolic and signaling pathways. Conclusions This study led to the identification of 34 highly conserved miRNA families and 12 novel potential miRNAs indicating that specific miRNAs exist in stevia species. Our results provided information on stevia miRNAs and their targets building a foundation for future studies to

  18. Improvement on the productivity of continuous tequila fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of Agave tequilana juice with supplementation of yeast extract and aeration.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María; González-García, Yolanda; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Córdova, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) fermentations are traditionally carried out employing batch systems in the process of tequila manufacturing; nevertheless, continuous cultures could be an attractive technological alternative to increase productivity and efficiency of sugar to ethanol conversion. However, agave juice (used as a culture medium) has nutritional deficiencies that limit the implementation of yeast continuous fermentations, resulting in high residual sugars and low fermentative rates. In this work, fermentations of agave juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae were put into operation to prove the necessity of supplementing yeast extract, in order to alleviate nutritional deficiencies of agave juice. Furthermore, continuous fermentations were performed at two different aeration flow rates, and feeding sterilized and non-sterilized media. The obtained fermented musts were subsequently distilled to obtain tequila and the preference level was compared against two commercial tequilas, according to a sensorial analysis. The supplementation of agave juice with air and yeast extract augmented the fermentative capacity of S. cerevisiae S1 and the ethanol productivities, compared to those continuous fermentations non supplemented. In fact, aeration improved ethanol production from 37 to 40 g L(-1), reducing sugars consumption from 73 to 88 g L(-1) and ethanol productivity from 3.0 to 3.2 g (Lh)(-1), for non-aerated and aerated (at 0.02 vvm) cultures, respectively. Supplementation of yeast extract allowed an increase in specific growth rate and dilution rates (0.12 h(-1), compared to 0.08 h(-1) of non-supplemented cultures), ethanol production (47 g L(-1)), reducing sugars consumption (93 g L(-1)) and ethanol productivity [5.6 g (Lh)(-1)] were reached. Additionally, the effect of feeding sterilized or non-sterilized medium to the continuous cultures was compared, finding no significant differences between both types of cultures. The overall effect

  19. Effect of Centella asiatica Leaf Extract on the Dietary Supplementation in Transgenic Drosophila Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Naz, Falaq; Jyoti, Smita; Fatima, Ambreen; Khanam, Saba; Rahul; Ali, Fahad; Mujtaba, Syed Faiz; Faisal, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The role of Centella asiatica L. leaf extract was studied on the transgenic Drosophila model flies expressing normal human alpha synuclein (h-αS) in the neurons. The leaf extract was prepared in acetone and was subjected to GC-MS analysis. C. asiatica extract at final concentration of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 μL/mL was mixed with the diet and the flies were allowed feeding on it for 24 days. The effect of extract was studied on the climbing ability, activity pattern, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, glutathione content, and glutathione-S-transferase activity in the brains of transgenic Drosophila. The exposure of extract to PD model flies results in a significant delay in the loss of climbing ability and activity pattern and reduced the oxidative stress (P < 0.05) in the brains of PD flies as compared to untreated PD flies. The results suggest that C. asiatica leaf extract is potent in reducing the PD symptoms in transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25538856

  20. Chemical characterization and prebiotic activity of fructo-oligosaccharides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures.

    PubMed

    Sanches Lopes, Sheila Mara; Francisco, Mariane Grigio; Higashi, Bruna; de Almeida, Rafaela Takako Ribeiro; Krausová, Gabriela; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; Oliveira, Arildo José Braz de

    2016-11-05

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is widely studied because of its foliar steviol glycosides. Fructan-type polysaccharides were recently isolated from its roots. Fructans are reserve carbohydrates that have important positive health effects and technological applications in the food industry. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) from S. rebaudiana roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures and evaluate the potential prebiotic effect of these molecules. The in vitro adventitious root cultures were obtained using a roller bottle system. Chemical analyses (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, and off-line electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) revealed similar chemical properties of FOSs that were obtained from the different sources. The potential prebiotic effects of FOSs that were isolated from S. rebaudiana roots enhanced the growth of both bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, with strains specificity in their fermentation ability.

  1. Hypocholesterolemic effect of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed egg yolk supplemented diet

    PubMed Central

    Ikewuchi, Catherine Chidinma

    2012-01-01

    The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on daily weight gain, lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed egg yolk supplemented diet was studied. The control group was given normal feed while the other three groups received 50 g egg yolk/kg feed. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight; while the test control and control groups received appropriate volumes of water by the same route. On gas chromatographic analysis of the aqueous crude extract, the phytosterol and tannins fractions contained 100 % of β-sitosterol and tannic acid respectively. The mean daily weight gain of the test control group was higher though not significantly, than those of the other groups. The plasma total cholesterol levels, cardiac risk ratio and atherogenic coefficient of the test control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the test groups, but not significantly higher than that of the control group. The plasma low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of the test control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the control and test groups. The plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol of the test control group was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the control group, but not significantly lower than those of the test groups. There were no significant differences in the plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and the atherogenic index of plasma of all the groups. These results indicate a dose-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of the extract, thus suggesting a likely protective role of the extract against the development of cardiovascular diseases. It also revealed the presence of pharmacologically active agents in the leaves. PMID:27418909

  2. Purple rice extract supplemented diet reduces DMH- induced aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon by inhibition of bacterial β-glucuronidase.

    PubMed

    Summart, Ratasark; Chewonarin, Teera

    2014-01-01

    Purple rice has become a natural product of interest which is widely used for health promotion. This study investigated the preventive effect of purple rice extract (PRE) mixed diet on DMH initiation of colon carcinogenesis. Rats were fed with PRE mixed diet one week before injection of DMH (40 mg/kg of body weight once a week for 2 weeks). They were killed 12 hrs after a second DMH injection to measure the level of O6-methylguanine and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities. In rats that received PRE, guanine methylation was reduced in the colonic mucosa, but not in the liver, whereas PRE did not affect xenobiotic conjugation, with reference to glutathione-S-transferase or UDP-glucuronyl transferase. After 5 weeks, rats that received PRE with DMH injection had fewer ACF in the colon than those treated with DMH alone. Interestingly, a PRE mixed diet inhibited the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase in rat feces, a critical enzyme for free methylazoxymethanol (MAM) release in the rat colon. These results indicated that purple rice extract inhibited β-glucuronidase activity in the colonic lumen, causing a reduction of MAM-induced colonic mucosa DNA methylation, leaded to decelerated formation of aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon. The supplemented purple rice extract might thus prevent colon carcinogenesis by the alteration of the colonic environment, and thus could be further developed for neutraceutical products for colon cancer prevention.

  3. Dietary supplementation of grape skin extract improves glycemia and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice fed a Western high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-04-13

    Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.

  4. Oral supplements of aqueous extract of tomato seeds alleviate motor abnormality, oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity induced by rotenone in mice: relevance to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gokul, Krishna; Muralidhara

    2014-07-01

    Although tomato seeds (an industrial by-product) are known to contain several bioactive compounds, studies describing their health effects are limited. Previously, we evidenced that aqueous extract of tomato seeds (TSE) markedly attenuated rotenone (ROT)-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila system. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of TSE in a chronic ROT model of neurotoxicity in mice. Initially, we assessed the potential of oral supplements of TSE to modulate the levels of endogenous markers of oxidative stress in brain regions of mice. Subsequently, employing a co-exposure paradigm, the propensity of TSE (100 mg/kg bw, 3 weeks) to attenuate ROT-induced behavioral phenotype (gait abnormalities, anxiety-like state), oxidative dysfunctions and neurotoxicity was examined. We found that mice provided with TSE supplements exhibited progressive improvement in gait pattern and exploratory behavior. TSE markedly offset ROT-induced oxidative impairments, restored reduced glutathione levels, antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and protein carbonyls content in brain regions. Specifically, TSE effectively diminished ROT induced elevation in the activity levels of acetylcholinesterase and restored the dopamine levels in striatum. Interestingly, in mitochondria, TSE was able to restore the activity of mitochondrial complexes and redox state. Collectively, our findings in the chronic ROT model demonstrate the ability of TSE to alleviate behavioral phenotype, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Further studies in dopaminergic cell models are necessary to understand the precise molecular mechanism/s by which tomato seed bioactives offer significant neuroprotection.

  5. National Safety Associates nutritional supplementation trial of fruit and vegetable extracts and vascular function (NNTV): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Marietta; Tsiountsioura, Melina; Page, Polly; Del Rio, Dan; Ray, Sumantra

    2016-02-04

    Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology with a number of both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Although evidence indicates that dietary intake plays an important role, few studies have focused on the effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on early markers of vascular function. Therefore, we hypothesised that supplementation with capsules containing a combination of fruit and vegetable extracts over 12 weeks can significantly modulate biomarkers of vascular function compared with a control group receiving placebo. This is a double-blind, randomised controlled trial that includes overweight and obese but otherwise healthy participants. Participants are randomly allocated to one of two groups: active supplementation (encapsulated fruit and vegetable powder) or placebo taken twice daily for 12 weeks, whereas both groups will be given the '5-A-Day' dietary advice. The primary outcome is to measure changes to the carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) between the two groups from baseline (test visit 1) to 12 weeks later (test visit 2). The secondary outcomes include macro- and microvascular changes and changes to blood markers. In addition to the primary and secondary objectives, this explanatory trial incorporates potential novel biomarkers such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ISRCTN14315618. Registration date 27 February 2014.

  6. Combined use of HPLC-ICP-MS and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of cobalt compounds in nutritive supplements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang-Yu; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2014-03-15

    Speciation analysis of cobalt in nutritive supplements has been carried out using HPLC and ICP-MS equipped with a membrane desolvation sample introduction system as detector. In this study, cobalt containing compounds, namely Co(II), cyanocobalamin (CN-Cbl) and hydroxylcobalamin (OH-Cbl), were well separated by reversed phase HPLC with a C8-HPLC column as the stationary phase and 8 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate in 22%v/v methanol solution (pH 4) as the mobile phase using isocratic elution. Detection limit was in the range of 0.008-0.014 μg CoL(-1) for various Co species. Over 98% of the total cobalt species was extracted in nutritive supplements using a 0.5%v/v HNO3 solution in a microwave field; and the spike recovery was in the range of 92-108% for various species. The HPLC-ICP-MS results showed a satisfactory agreement with the total cobalt concentrations obtained by ICP-MS analysis of completely dissolved samples.

  7. Functional, textural and sensory properties of dry pasta supplemented with lyophilized tomato matrix or with durum wheat bran extracts produced by supercritical carbon dioxide or ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Flagella, Zina; Marrese, Pier Paolo; Piro, Gabriella; Perrotta, Carla; De Bellis, Luigi; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore

    2016-12-15

    A study was carried out to produce functional pasta by adding bran aqueous extract (BW) and bran oleoresin (BO) obtained using ultrasound and supercritical CO2, respectively, or a powdery lyophilized tomato matrix (LT). The bioactive compounds, hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activity (HAA and LAA) in vitro, were evaluated. BW supplementation did not improve antioxidant activity, whilst LT pasta showed unconventional taste and odor. BO pasta had good levels of tocochromanols (2551μg/100g pasta f.w.) and carotenoids (40.2μg/100g pasta f.w.), and the highest HAA and LAA. The oleoresin altered starch swelling and gluten network, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, therefore BO pasta had structural characteristics poor compared with the control (4.8% vs. 3.2% cooking loss), although this difference did not affect significantly overall sensory judgment (74 vs. 79 for BO and control, respectively). BO supplementation was most effective for increasing antioxidant activity without jeopardizing pasta quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation with red wine extract or vitamin E, in combination with linseed and fish oil, on lamb meat quality.

    PubMed

    Muíño, Iria; Apeleo, Elizabeth; de la Fuente, Jesús; Pérez-Santaescolástica, Cristina; Rivas-Cañedo, Ana; Pérez, Concepción; Díaz, María Teresa; Cañeque, Vicente; Lauzurica, Sara

    2014-10-01

    Thirty lambs were assigned to the following treatments: control diet (C) rich in omega-3 fatty acids; C plus 900ppm red wine extract (RWE), or C plus 300ppm vitamin E (VE). Oxidative stability and sensory properties of chops stored in MAP (70% O2/30% CO2) during 12days were evaluated. Chops from the VE group showed lower lipid oxidation (p<0.001) and protein carbonylation (p<0.05), stable omega-3 fatty acids proportions and overall liking sensory scores (p<0.05). Dietary RWE supplementation did not influence oxidative stability of chops, however levels of C20:5n-3 were greater (p<0.05) and n-6/n-3 ratio (p<0.01) was lower, relative to controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of plant tannin extracts supplementation on animal performance and gastrointestinal parasites infestation in steers grazing winter wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty-six stocker cattle (286.1 ± 25.7 kg) were used to quantify the effect of commercial plant tannin extracts (control vs. mimosa and chestnut tannins) on animal performance, gastrointestinal parasites control, and plasma metabolite changes in heifers grazing winter wheat forage (Triticum aestivu...

  10. Analytical optimization of a phenolic-rich herbal extract and supplementation in fermented milk containing sweet potato pulp.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Lorena Rodrigues; Santos, Jânio Sousa; Daguer, Heitor; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Granato, Daniel

    2017-04-15

    The aims of the present study were to optimize and characterize the phenolic composition of a herbal extract composed of green mate (Ilex paraguariensis), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and to propose the addition of this polyphenol-rich extract to fermented milks (FM) with/without sweet potato pulp (Ipomoea batatas). Proximate composition, pH, acidity, instrumental texture profile, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA) of all formulations were measured, and sensory attributes were also investigated. The addition of a lyophilized extract (1g 100g(-1)) containing 87.5% clove and 12.5% green mate increased the AA and TPC, while FM with added sweet potato pulp had the best sensory acceptance. The TPC and total reducing capacity had a slight change during 21days of storage. The data showed that herbal extracts and sweet potato pulp may be used to develop new dairy foods with potential functional properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of condensed tannin extract supplementation of performance, nitrogen, balance, gas emissions, and energetic losses of beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations are of increasing concern to regulatory agencies and consumers. We evaluated the effect of top-dressing a finishing diet (14.4% crude protein) for beef steers with a commercially-available condensed tannin extract (CT) at three levels (0...

  12. Effects of a supplement combining Pycnogenol(®) and l-arginine aspartate on lower urinary dysfunction compared with saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryo; Nishio, Kojiro; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction (SDys) are common problems that affect quality of life (QOL) in elderly men. In addition to prescribed drugs, many over-the-counter medications including supplements are used to treat QOL diseases. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are reported to be effective for both LUTS and SDys by increasing nitric oxide levels. French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol(®), which is a potent nitric oxide donor, is reported to be effective for SDys. However, no reports have been published on whether it ameliorates LUTS. Open-labeled, randomized study. The effects of two supplements, Nokogiriyashi EX(®) containing 160 mg saw palmetto (SP) extract per tablet and Edicare(®) containing 10 mg of Pycnogenol(®), 115 mg of l-arginine and 92 mg of aspartate (PAA) per tablet on International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS-QOL, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF5), Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), urinary 8-OHdG and uroflowmetry (UFM) of total 40 men with LUTS and SDys were examined. 19 subjects were instructed to take two tablets of SP, on the other 20 were on four tablets of PAA for 16 weeks. IPSS and IPSS-QOL showed statistically significant improvements in both groups. OABSS and IIEF5 were significantly improved in the PAA group. Conversely, ICIQ-SF, 8-OHdG and UFM did not change in either group. PAA might be an effective therapeutic alternative for elderly patients with LUTS and SDys.

  13. Evaluation of an oral supplement containing Phyllanthus emblica fruit extracts, vitamin E, and carotenoids in vitiligo treatment.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Roberta; Dragoni, Federica; Conti, Rossana; Pisaneschi, Lisa; Lazzeri, Linda; Moretti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Phyllanthus emblica, vitamin E, and caroteinods are compounds showing antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and repigmenting effects, whose role in vitiligo treatment has not been evaluated so far. Sixty-five subjects (group A) were treated with one tablet of an oral supplement containing P. emblica (100 mg), vitamin E (10 mg), and carotenoids (4.7 mg) three times/day for 6 months and compared with a control group (group B, 65 patients), which instead was not treated with antioxidants. Both groups were simultaneously treated with a comparable topical therapy and/or phototherapy. After a 6 months follow-up, a significantly higher number of patients in group A had a mild repigmentation on the head/neck regions (p = 0.019) and on the trunk (trend, p = 0.051). The number of patients who presented no repigmentation in head/neck, trunk, upper, and lower limbs was significantly higher in group B (respectively, p = 0.009, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.025). Moreover, group B patients showed higher signs of inflammation (p = 0.002), a more rapid growth of the lesions (p = 0.039), a higher percentage of worsening disease (p = 0.003), and more erythema (p = 0.059), whereas group A patients showed a higher percentage of steady disease (p = 0.065). Our results suggest that the supplement with antioxidants in patients with vitiligo might represent a valuable instrument to increase the effectiveness of other vitiligo treatments. [Correction added after online publication 06-Oct-2014: the dosages of vitamin E and carotenoids have been updated.].

  14. Compound K Production from Red Ginseng Extract by β-Glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus Supplemented with α-L-Arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyung-Chul; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Seo, Min-Ju; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside compound K (C-K) is attracting a lot of interest because of its biological and pharmaceutical activities, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-wrinkling, and anti-skin aging activities. C-K has been used as the principal ingredient in skin care products. For the effective application of ginseng extracts to the manufacture of cosmetics, the PPD-type ginsenosides in ginseng extracts should be converted to C-K by enzymatic conversion. For increased yield of C-K from the protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides in red-ginseng extract (RGE), the α-l-arabinofuranoside-hydrolyzing α-l-arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CS-abf) was used along with the β-d-glucopyranoside/α-l-arabinopyranoside-hydrolyzing β-glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SS-bgly) because SS-bgly showed very low hydrolytic activity on the α-l-arabinofuranoside linkage in ginsenosides. The optimal reaction conditions for C-K production were as follows: pH 6.0, 80°C, 2 U/mL SS-bgly, 3 U/mL CS-abf, and 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in RGE. Under these optimized conditions, SS-bgly supplemented with CS-abf produced 4.2 g/L C-K from 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in 12 h without other ginsenosides, with a molar yield of 100% and a productivity of 348 mg/L/h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest concentration and productivity of C-K from ginseng extract ever published in literature. PMID:26710074

  15. The effects of dietary supplementation of microencapsulated and the extract of seed on growth performance, immune functions, and serum biochemical parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Song, D; Wang, Y W; Hou, Y J; Dong, Z L; Wang, W W; Li, A K

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of microencapsulted (MEF) and the extract of seed (ECOS) on growth performance, immune functions, and serum biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-d-old male broilers were randomly allotted into 6 treatments with 8 replicates/treatment and 5 broilers in each cage. The dietary treatments included 1) a basal diet without antibiotic (group A), 2) the basal diet + 1 g MEF/kg diet (1 × 10 cfu/g MEF; group B), 3) the basal diet + 300 mg ECOS/kg diet (group C), 4) the basal diet + 300 mg ECOS/kg diet + 1 g MEF/kg diet (group D), 5) the basal diet + 500 mg ECOS/kg diet (group E), and 6) the basal diet + 500 mg ECOS/kg diet + 1 g MEF/kg diet (group F). The feeding experiment included 2 phases: the starter phase from Day 1 through 21 and the grower phase from Day 22 through 42. The results showed that a diet supplemented with MEF and ECOS had no significant effect on ADG, ADFI, feed conversion ratio, and average BW during the whole experimental period ( > 0.05), but group F showed an improving trend in growth performance. Serum IL-2, IgA, and IgG levels and spleen index were significantly affected by dietary treatment ( < 0.05). Serum IgA and IgG levels and spleen index in group F were significantly higher than in the group A ( < 0.05), and the IL-2 level was significantly decreased ( < 0.05) on Days 21 and 42. Compared with the group A, diets supplemented with MEF and ECOS can significantly decrease total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood urea nitrogen levels ( < 0.05) and increase the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level on Days 21 and 42. Concentrations of serum biochemical parameters were significantly increased in group F ( < 0.05). In summary, the results indicated that dietary supplementation of MEF and/or ECOS had no significant effect on growth performance but significantly increased spleen index and the levels of serum IgA and IgG and

  16. Bioactive Properties of Tabebuia impetiginosa-Based Phytopreparations and Phytoformulations: A Comparison between Extracts and Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Pires, Tânia C S P; Dias, Maria Inês; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria-João R P; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-12-21

    Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. has been used in traditional medicine for many centuries, being nowadays marketed as dried plant material (inner bark) for infusions, pills, and syrups. The main objective of the present work was to validate its popular use through the bioactivity evaluation of the inner bark (methanolic extract and infusion) and of two different formulations (pills and syrup) also based on the same plant-material. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by in vitro assays testing free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates. The cytotoxicity was determined in four human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2, and also in non-tumor cells (porcine liver primary cells, PLP2)). Furthermore, the sample was chemically characterized regarding free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, and tocopherols. Syrup and methanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity, related to their highest amount of phenolics and flavonoids. Methanolic extract was the only sample showing cytotoxic effects on the tested human tumor cell lines, but none of the samples showed toxicity in PLP2. Glucose and oxalic acid were, respectively, the most abundant sugar and organic acid in the sample. Unsaturated predominated over the saturated fatty acids, due to oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids expression. α- and γ-Tocopherols were also identified and quantified. Overall, T. impetiginosa might be used in different phytoformulations, taking advantage of its interesting bioactive properties and chemical composition.

  17. The Use of Green Coffee Extract as a Weight Loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Onakpoya, Igho; Terry, Rohini; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of green coffee extract (GCE) as a weight loss supplement, using data from human clinical trials. Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant articles, with no restrictions in time or language. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Five eligible trials were identified, and three of these were included. All studies were associated with a high risk of bias. The meta-analytic result reveals a significant difference in body weight in GCE compared with placebo (mean difference: −2.47 kg; 95%CI: −4.23, −0.72). The magnitude of the effect is moderate, and there is significant heterogeneity amongst the studies. It is concluded that the results from these trials are promising, but the studies are all of poor methodological quality. More rigorous trials are needed to assess the usefulness of GCE as a weight loss tool. PMID:20871849

  18. Serum Glucose and Malondialdehyde Levels in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats Supplemented with Methanolic Extract of Tacazzea Apiculata

    PubMed Central

    Gwarzo, M. Y.; Ahmadu, J. H.; Ahmad, M. B.; Dikko, A. U. A.

    2014-01-01

    Tacazzea apiculata is used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of wide range of diseases. The current work investigated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties of Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus. Five groups (n=10) of rats were fed on commercial diet. The rats were divided into Group 1 (NUT) as non-diabetic and untreated, group 2 (NDT) as non-diabetic and treated, group 3 (DT) diabetic and treated. Group 4 (DUT) as diabetic and untreated. Group five (CP) were diabetic treated with Chlorpropamide, a drug used in the management of diabetic mellitus, with no known antioxidant property. Diabetic induction was done by intra-peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg b. wt with alloxan. Fasting blood glucose was estimated seven days after induction to determine the severity of glucose elevation among the induced groups. Methanolic extract of T. apiculata leaf was administered to alloxan induced diabetic and non-diabetic control rats at 100mg/kg body weight for four weeks and blood glucose estimated on weekly basis. Malondialdehyde level was also estimated in the sera of the rats. Blood glucose level was monitored for additional 2 weeks post treatment. The results indicated that the extracts possess significant hypoglycemic effect on the diabetic rats (DT) having the mean glucose of (95.2 ± 9.12 mg/dl) compared to the diabetic untreated control group (DUT) with a mean glucose of (238.91 ± 4.42 mg/dl, p<0.05). The effect was sustained even on withdrawal of the extracts for two weeks. This was accompanied by a progressive increase in weight among all treated diabetic rats and non diabetic treated (DT and NDT) compared with diabetic untreated control rat (DUT) (p<0.05). A raised level in malondialdehyde was also observed among the diabetic rat prior to treatment and significantly decreased after the treatment. In conclusion the research demonstrated the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of methanolic leaf extract of T

  19. Toxicological evaluation of the ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. for use as a dietary supplement and in functional foods.

    PubMed

    Ribnicky, David M; Poulev, Alexander; O'Neal, Joseph; Wnorowski, Gary; Malek, Dolores E; Jäger, Ralf; Raskin, Ilya

    2004-04-01

    TARRALIN is an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus (Russian tarragon), a common medicinal and culinary herb with centuries of use. Artemisia dracunculus is a close relative of the French or cooking tarragon and contains components common to many herbs that are routinely consumed without reported adverse effects. Since safety information of Artemisia dracunculus and its extract is limited to historical use, TARRALIN was examined in a series of toxicological studies. Complete Ames analysis did not reveal any mutagenic activity either with or without metabolic activation. TARRALIN was tested in an acute limit test at 5000 mg/kg with no signs of toxicity noted. In a 14 day repeated dose oral toxicity study, rats appeared to well tolerate 1000 mg/kg/day. Subsequently, TARRALIN was tested in an oral subchronic 90-day toxicity study (rat) at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day. No noteworthy signs of toxicity were noted in feeding or body weight, functional observational battery or motor activity. Gross necropsy and clinical chemistry did not reveal any effects on organ mass or blood chemistry and microscopic examinations found no lesions associated with treatment. Therefore, TARRALIN appears to be safe and non-toxic in these studies and a no-observed adverse effect level in rats is established at 1000 mg/kg/day.

  20. Dietary supplementation with an extract of North American ginseng in adult and juvenile mice increases natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sandra C; Ti, Lianping; Shan, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Cells belonging to the innate immune system are referred to as natural killer (NK) cells. We recently demonstrated that normal, pre-weaned infant mice, injected with a proprietary extract of ginseng (CVT-E002) had augmented NK cell numbers vs. sham-injected mice. In the present study, we extended these observations into juvenile and adult mice. Thus, young adult (age: 8-9 wk) C3H mice were given daily dietary CVT-E002 for 4 wk followed by untreated chow for the following 2 months, then euthanized (age: 20-21 wk). Other C3H mice (juvenile: 4-wk-old) were given CVT-E002 under the same protocol and sampled at 18 wk of age. In spite of withdrawing the extract 2 months earlier, the absolute numbers of NK cells in the young adults, remained significantly (p < 0.01), and slightly, elevated in the spleen and bone marrow (BM), respectively. The relative numbers (%) of NK cells in the blood also remained elevated (p < 0.05). In juvenile mice fed CVT-E002, the absolute numbers (spleen, BM) and % (blood) of NK cells were all elevated (p<0.01 - p<0.05). The mechanisms responsible for these super-normal numbers of NK cells long after withdrawal of CVT-E002, is as yet unknown.

  1. Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Emeka, Promise Madu; Badger-Emeka, Lorina Ineta; Eneh, Chiamaka Maryann; Khan, Tahir Mahmood

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ), and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates. Chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, NK65 strain was used for the study. This was passaged intraperitoneally into albino mice with a 0.2ml standard inoculum consisting of 10(6) parasitized erythrocyte suspension in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Parasitaemia was ascertained by microscopical examination of blood films under oil immersion at X100 magnification. Nigella sativa seed in feed (NSSF), NSSF + CQ on day 4, produced 86.1% and 86.0% suppression respectively, while Nigella sativa oil extract in feed (NSOF) and in combination with CQ had 86.0% and 99.9% suppression respectively. The degree of suppression with the combination was significantly higher compared to CQ alone (P < 0.001) (36.1%). Complete parasitaemia clearance was obtained on the 20(th) and 15(th) day of treatment for NSSF, NSSF + CQ respectively, while that for NSOF and NSOF + CQ was on days 26 and 12 respectively. For CQ parasite clearance was 12 days with treatment. Also, the combinastion of 10 mg/kg Nigella sativa oil treatment injected intraperitoneally with oral CQ produced very significant parasite suppression (P < 0.0001) (93%). Survival rate in NSSF and NSOF and in combination with CQ groups was 100 and 60.0% for CQ alone. This study shows that the use of Nigella sativa seed and oil extract as dietary supplements in combination with CQ has a potential in enhancing the efficacy of CQ and could be of benefit in management of malaria.

  2. Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei

    PubMed Central

    Emeka, Promise Madu; Badger-Emeka, Lorina Ineta; Eneh, Chiamaka Maryann; Khan, Tahir Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ), and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates. Materials and Methods: Chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, NK65 strain was used for the study. This was passaged intraperitoneally into albino mice with a 0.2ml standard inoculum consisting of 106 parasitized erythrocyte suspension in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Parasitaemia was ascertained by microscopical examination of blood films under oil immersion at X100 magnification. Results: Nigella sativa seed in feed (NSSF), NSSF + CQ on day 4, produced 86.1% and 86.0% suppression respectively, while Nigella sativa oil extract in feed (NSOF) and in combination with CQ had 86.0% and 99.9% suppression respectively. The degree of suppression with the combination was significantly higher compared to CQ alone (P < 0.001) (36.1%). Complete parasitaemia clearance was obtained on the 20th and 15th day of treatment for NSSF, NSSF + CQ respectively, while that for NSOF and NSOF + CQ was on days 26 and 12 respectively. For CQ parasite clearance was 12 days with treatment. Also, the combinastion of 10 mg/kg Nigella sativa oil treatment injected intraperitoneally with oral CQ produced very significant parasite suppression (P < 0.0001) (93%). Survival rate in NSSF and NSOF and in combination with CQ groups was 100 and 60.0% for CQ alone. Conclusions: This study shows that the use of Nigella sativa seed and oil extract as dietary supplements in combination with CQ has a potential in enhancing the efficacy of CQ and could be of benefit in management of malaria. PMID:24991115

  3. Effects of a nutritional supplement containing Salacia oblonga extract and insulinogenic amino acids on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and breath hydrogen responses in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Collene, Angela L; Hertzler, Steven R; Williams, Jennifer A; Wolf, Bryan W

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the postprandial glycemic, insulinemic, and breath hydrogen responses to a liquid nutritional product containing Salacia oblonga extract, an herbal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, and two insulinogenic amino acids. In a randomized, double-masked, crossover design, 43 healthy subjects were fed the following meals on separate days after overnight fasting: control (C; 480 mL of a study beverage containing 82 g of carbohydrate, 20 g of protein, and 14 g of fat), control plus 3.5 g each of phenylalanine and leucine (AA), control plus 1000 mg of S. oblonga extract (S), and control plus S and AA (SAA). Postprandially, fingerstick capillary plasma glucose and venous serum insulin levels were measured for 180 min, and breath hydrogen excretion was measured for 480 min. The baseline-adjusted peak glucose response was not different across meals. However, changes in plasma glucose areas under the curve (0 to 120 min and 0 to 180 min, respectively) compared with C were -9% and -11% for AA (P>0.05 each), -27% and -24% for S (P=0.035 and 0.137), and -27% and -29% for SAA (P<0.05 each). Changes in insulin areas under the curve were +5% and +5% for AA (P>0.05 each), -35% and -36% for S (P<0.001 each), and -6% and -7% for SAA (P>0.05 each). Breath hydrogen excretion was 60% greater (P<0.001) in the S-containing meals than in the C- and AA-containing meals and was associated with mild flatulence. Salacia oblonga extract is a promising nutraceutical ingredient that decreased glycemia in this study. Supplementation with amino acids had no significant additional effect on glycemia.

  4. Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: decreased CIMT, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, Yacov; Gaitini, Diana; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of licorice root has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in atherosclerotic mice and in both hypercholesterolemic and normal lipidemic humans. This study examined the effect of licorice-root extract on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Individuals with hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥6.18 mmol/L [240 mg/dL]) and without significant stenosis were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group that consumed 0.2 g/day of ethanolic extract of licorice root for 12 months, and a control group that received a placebo. Of 110 eligible participants, 94 (41-80 years old) completed the study. A significant CIMT decrease from 0.92±0.25 mm to 0.84±0.21 mm was observed in the experimental group compared with an increase from 0.85±0.17 mm to 0.88±0.19 mm in the control group. Mean plasma total cholesterol levels and LDL cholesterol decreased, at the range baseline to 1 year, from 284±32 mg/dl to 262±25 mg/dl and from 183±8.5 mg/dl to 174±9.1 mg/dl, respectively, for the experimental group (p<0.001) and from 291±35 to 289±31 mg/dl and from 177.6±10.7 to 179.3±9.6 (p=0.08), respectively, for the control group. Mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not change significantly in either group. In the experimental group, systolic blood pressure decreased from 138±12 mmHg to 125±13 mmHg after 1 year (p=0.01) and increased from 136±15 mmHg to 137±13 mmHg in the control group. Diastolic blood pressure decreased from 92±9 mmHg to 84±10 mmHg (p=0.01) in the experimental group and increased from 89±11 mmHg to 90±8 mmHg in the control group. Following 1 year of licorice consumption, mean CIMT, total cholesterol, LDL levels, and blood pressure were decreased. This suggests that licorice may attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and of related cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aquatic Extract of Stevia in Pancreas of Diabetic Rats: PPARγ-dependent Regulation or Antioxidant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Assaei, Raheleh; Mokarram, Pooneh; Dastghaib, Sanaz; Darbandi, Sara; Darbandi, Mahsa; Zal, Fatemeh; Akmali, Masoumeh; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholam Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional medicines with anti-diabetic effects are considered suitable supplements to treat diabetes. Among medicinal herbs, Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni is famous for its sweet taste and beneficial effect in regulation of glucose. However, little is known about the exact mechanism of stevia in pancreatic tissue. Therefore, this study investigated the possible effects of stevia on pancreas in managing hyperglycemia seen in streptozotocin-induced Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups including normoglycemic, diabetic and two more diabetic groups in which, one was treated with aquatic extract of stevia (400 mg/kg) and the other with pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) for the period of 28 days. After completion of the experimental duration, rats were dissected; blood samples and pancreas were further used for detecting biochemical and histopathological changes. FBS, TG, cholestrol, HDL, LDL, ALT and AST levels were measured in sera. Moreover, MDA (malondialdehyde) level, catalase activity, levels of insulin and PPARγ mRNA expression were also measured in pancreatic tissue. Results: Aquatic extract of stevia significantly reduced the FBS, triglycerides, MDA, ALT, AST levels and normalized catalase activity in treated rats compared with diabetic rats (p<0.05). In addition to this, stevia surprisingly, increased PPARγ and insulin mRNA levels in treated rats (p<0.05). Furthermore, stevia compensated for the histopathological damage in diabetic rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that stevia acts on pancreatic tissue to elevate the insulin level and exerts beneficial anti-hyperglycemic effects through the PPARγ-dependent mechanism and stevia’s antioxidant properties. PMID:27141265

  6. Cranberry extract supplementation exerts preventive effects through alleviating Aβ toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong; Dong, Yu-Qing; Ye, Bo-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Cranberry extract (CBE) rich in polyphenols are potent to delay paralysis induced by alleviating β-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity in C. elegans model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to better apply CBE as an anti-AD agent efficiently, we sought to deterrmine whether preventive or therapeutic effect contributes more prominently toward CBE's anti-AD activity. As the level of Aβ toxicity and memory health are two major pathological parameters in AD, in the present study, we compared the effects of CBE on Aβ toxicity and memory health in the C. elegans AD model treated with preventive and therapeutic protocols. Our results revealed that CBE prominently showed the preventive efficacy, providing a basis for further investigation of these effects in mammals.

  7. Supplement of bamboo extract lowers serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentration in mice fed a diet containing a high level of saturated fat.

    PubMed

    Higa, Jason K; Liu, Wanyu; Berry, Marla J; Panee, Jun

    2011-12-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is an inflammatory chemokine up-regulated in obese subjects, contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of an ethanol-water extract from bamboo (BEX, Phyllostachys edulis) on the blood concentration of MCP-1. C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet with or without the BEX supplement (11 g dry mass/17 000 kJ) for 6 months. A total of ten mice were used in each group. Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly. After euthanisation, the weight of visceral fat and circulating MCP-1 concentration were measured. In comparison with the standard control group, the high-fat control group had increased body weight, abdominal fat storage and serum MCP-1 concentration by 60 % (P < 0·001), 266 % (P < 0·001) and 180 % (P < 0·01), respectively. In comparison with the high-fat control group, the high-fat BEX group showed a 3 % decrease in body weight (P < 0·01), 24 % decrease in mesenteric fat depot (P < 0·01) and 49 % decrease in serum MCP-1 concentration (P < 0·05). The present study suggests that the BEX supplement in the high-fat diet ameliorates elevated MCP-1 concentrations in the blood, and whether this is related to modulated endocrine properties of the visceral fat is to be studied.

  8. Interactive effects of phytase and xylanase supplementation with extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn in diets with adequate calcium and nonphytate phosphorus fed to broilers.

    PubMed

    Gehring, C K; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn (PS) and exogenous enzyme supplementation on N, starch, and energy digestibility in broilers fed diets adequate in Ca and nonphytate P. Broilers were randomly distributed into floor pens (6 replicate pens per treatment) with 28 birds per pen at 1 d of age. Treatments consisting of 4 sources of corn varying in PS (A, 58.1; B, 54.2; C, 53.7; and D, 30.6 mg of BSA equivalent values) with or without phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg) and xylanase (0 and 16,000 units of xylanase activity/kg) were randomly assigned to each pen. Different sources of corn were provided from 1 to 9 and 24 to 29 d of age. However, enzyme treatments were provided throughout the experiment. From 1 to 9 d of age, no interactions were observed. Apparent ileal N digestibility (AIND) and apparent ileal digestible energy (IDE) of diets with the lowest PS (based on corn D) were lower (P ≤ 0.05) than those of diets with a higher PS. Phytase increased (P ≤ 0.01) AIND and IDE by 5 and 16%, respectively, and xylanase exerted the opposite effect (P ≤ 0.03). From 24 to 29 d of age, phytase and xylanase in combination resulted in reduced (P ≤ 0.05) AIND of diets with a low PS (based on corn D) compared with the basal diet in broilers. Broilers fed diets with the highest or lowest PS (based on corn A or D) had lower (3-way interaction; P ≤ 0.05) IDE when phytase and xylanase were supplemented in combination compared with either enzyme alone. In conclusion, responses to exogenous enzyme supplementation are not constant and are influenced by the source of ingredients as well as the age of broilers. The magnitudes of the responses to phytase on nutrient and energy digestibility were greater at 9 compared with 29 d of age.

  9. Human Intervention Study to Assess the Effects of Supplementation with Olive Leaf Extract on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Boss, Anna; Kao, Chi Hsiu-Juei; Murray, Pamela M.; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    Olive leaf extract (OLE) has been used for many years for its putative health benefits, but, to date, scientific evidence for the basis of these effects has been weak. Although recent literature has described a link between ailments such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer and a protective effect of polyphenols in the OLE, the mode of action is still unclear. Here, we describe a double-blinded placebo (PBO)-controlled trial, in which gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy male volunteers (n = 29) were analysed to identify genes that responded to OLE, following an eight-week intervention with 20 mL daily consumption of either OLE or PBO. Differences between groups were determined using an adjusted linear model. Subsequent analyses indicated downregulation of genes important in inflammatory pathways, lipid metabolism and cancer as a result of OLE consumption. Gene expression was verified by real-time PCR for three genes (EGR1, COX-2 and ID3). The results presented here suggest that OLE consumption may result in health benefits through influencing the expression of genes in inflammatory and metabolic pathways. Future studies with a larger study group, including male and female participants, looking into direct effects of OLE on lipid metabolism and inflammation are warranted. PMID:27918443

  10. The effect of green tea extract supplementation on sputum smear conversion and weight changes in pulmonary TB patients: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Honarvar, Mohammad Reza; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Gill, Pooria; Jazayeri, Shima; Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Shamsardekani, Mohammad Reza; Abbasi, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acceleration in sputum smear conversion helps faster improvement and decreased probability of the transfer of TB. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of green tea extract supplementation on sputum smear conversion and weight changes in smear positive pulmonary TB patients in Iran. Methods: In this double blind clinical study, TB patients were divided into intervention, (n=43) receiving 500 mg green tea extract (GTE), and control groups (n=40) receiving placebo for two months, using balanced randomization. Random allocation and allocation concealment were observed. Height and weight were measured at the beginning, and two and six months post-treatment. Evaluations were performed on three slides, using the ZiehlNeelsen method. Independent and paired t test, McNemar’s, Wilcoxon, Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression model and Log-Rank test were utilized. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. This trial was registered under IRCT201212232602N11. Results: The interventional changes and the interactive effect of intervention on weight were not significant (p>0.05). In terms of shortening the duration of conversion, the case to control proportion showed a significant difference (p=0.032). Based on the Cox regression model, the hazard ratio of the relative risk of delay in sputum smear conversion was 3.7 (p=0.002) in the higher microbial load group compared to the placebo group and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31-0.94) in the intervention compared to the placebo group. Conclusion: GTE decreases the risk of delay in sputum smear conversion, but has no effect on weight gain. Moreover, it may be used as an adjuvant therapy for faster rehabilitation for pulmonary TB patients. PMID:27493925

  11. Determination of six steviol glycosides of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) from different geographical origin by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Montoro, Paola; Molfetta, Ilaria; Maldini, Mariateresa; Ceccarini, Lucia; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Macchia, Mario

    2013-11-15

    Liquid chromatography electro-spray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) was applied to the determination of sweet glycosides (steviol glycosides), and toxic aglycon steviol in 24 samples of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) aerial parts, which had been experimentally cultivated in Italy, although derived from seeds of different geographical origin. On the basis of the specific fragmentation of these compounds, an LC-MS/MS method was developed with the aim of quantifying analytes in plant material. Although toxic steviol was not detectable in all the samples, the samples with the highest levels of steviol glycosides were identified. Analysis of the different samples revealed that they were good quality samples, quality being directly linked to the presence of sweet glycosides in the plants cultivated in Italy, although there were differences in the content of these compounds according to the origin of the seeds, and in particular, a major concentration of compounds with major sweetness activity and minor toxicity was found in the population coming from Brazil (for example: sample 10, stevioside content 15.74±2.0% p/p and rebaudioside A content 3.09±0.39% p/p of dried plant). Finally, based on this metabolomic targeted approach, the results obtained for the samples were treated by Principal Component Analysis, identifying specific genotypic differences based on the geographic origin of the seeds.

  12. 2C-Methyl- D- erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a functional gene.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, Kashmir; Kumar, Sanjay

    2012-12-01

    Stevia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni)] is a perennial herb which accumulates sweet diterpenoid steviol glycosides (SGs) in its leaf tissue. SGs are synthesized by 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Of the various enzymes of the MEP pathway, 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (MDS) (encoded by MDS) catalyzes the cyclization of 4-(cytidine 5' diphospho)-2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2-phosphate into 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate. Complementation of the MDS knockout mutant strain of Escherichia coli, EB370 with putative MDS of stevia (SrMDS) rescued the lethal mutant, suggesting SrMDS to be a functional gene. Experiments conducted in plant growth chamber and in the field suggested SrMDS to be a light regulated gene. Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA; 50, 100 μM) down-regulated the expression of SrMDS at 4 h of the treatment, whereas, abscisic acid did not modulate its expression. A high expression of SrMDS was observed during the light hours of the day as compared to the dark hours. The present work established functionality of SrMDS and showed the role of light and IAA in regulating expression of SrMDS.

  13. Comprehensive review on agro technologies of low-calorie natural sweetener stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni): a boon to diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh; Walia, Swati; Singh, Bikram; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-04-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a low-calorie natural sweetener plant native to Paraguay. The leaves of stevia have sweetening compounds called steviol glycosides (SGs), which contain different marker compounds, i.e. stevioside (St), rebaudioside (Rb) A, B, C, D and E, dulcoside A and steviol biosides, which are nearly 300 times sweeter than sugar. Stevia is a better alternative to sugar in formulating food products, reducing the harmful effect of sugar and improving the nutrient properties. We have tried to compile a literature on various agronomic and management aspects which are helpful in increasing the yield and quality of stevia to be grown as a crop that will benefit farmers and industrialists. The stevioside thus obtained can be used to make different food products for sweetening purposes, which could be a boon to diabetic patients. Incorporation of different agronomic techniques like propagation method, transplanting time, intercropping, irrigation, mulching, plant geometry, pinching and harvesting time not only improve the biomass but also increase the quality of stevia. Therefore, agronomic considerations are of high priority to utilize its maximum potential. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A functional (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase exhibits diurnal regulation of expression in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hitesh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-09-15

    The leaves of stevia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni)] are a rich source of steviol glycosides that are used as non-calorific sweetener in many countries around the world. Steviol moiety of steviol glycosides is synthesized via plastidial 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway, where (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR) is the key enzyme. HDR catalyzes the simultaneous conversion of (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate into five carbon isoprenoid units, isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Stevia HDR (SrHDR) successfully rescued HDR lethal mutant strain MG1655 ara<>ispH upon genetic complementation, suggesting SrHDR to encode a functional protein. The gene exhibited diurnal variation in expression. To identify the possible regulatory elements, upstream region of the gene was cloned and putative cis-acting elements were detected by in silico analysis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, using a putative light responsive element GATA showed the binding of nuclear proteins (NP) isolated from leaves during light period of the day, but not with the NP from leaves during the dark period. Data suggested the involvement of GATA box in light mediated gene regulation of SrHDR in stevia.

  15. Synthesis of rebaudioside-A by enzymatic transglycosylation of stevioside present in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Adari, Bhaskar Rao; Alavala, Sateesh; George, Sara A; Meshram, Harshadas M; Tiwari, Ashok K; Sarma, Akella V S

    2016-06-01

    Rebaudioside-A is the second most abundant sweet diterpene glycoside (1-3%) present in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, and is now being considered as a possible sucrose substitute due to its pleasant organoleptic properties and associated health benefits. In the present study, a novel in situ enzymatic transglycosylation of stevioside has been developed by pre-treating the stevia leaves with cellulase and adding soluble starch as the glucosyl donor. The results confirm that the transglycosylation of stevioside led to an enrichment in the rebaudioside-A content from 4% to 66%. This was further purified by multiple column chromatography to obtain 95% pure rebaudioside-A. The isolated rebaudioside-A showed concentration-dependent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50=35.01 μg/ml. Thus the study highlights the biotransformation of stevioside present in stevia leaves to rebaudioside-A by a simple, inexpensive and eco-friendly process that has commercial potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary Supplementation with a Low Dose of Polyphenol-Rich Grape Pomace Extract Prevents Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Boussenna, Ahlem; Joubert-Zakeyh, Juliette; Fraisse, Didier; Pereira, Bruno; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Texier, Odile; Felgines, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from several epidemiological and experimental studies points to a beneficial role of dietary polyphenols in inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we investigate the protective effect of dietary supplementation with various amounts of a polyphenol-rich grape pomace extract (GPE) on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. Rats were fed 21 days on a semisynthetic diet enriched with GPE (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%), and acute colitis was induced by DSS (40 g/L in the drinking water) administration during the last 7 days. The low GPE content in the diet (0.1%) attenuated clinical signs and colon shortening and limited DSS-induced histological lesions. GPE 0.1% also attenuated the DSS-induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity and improved superoxide dismutase activity. Higher amounts of GPE in the diet induced only weak and nonsignificant protective effects. These results suggest that consumption of a low amount of polyphenol-rich GPE helps protect against colitis development.

  17. Determination of multiple mycotoxins in dietary supplements containing green coffee bean extracts using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Vaclavikova, Marta; Begley, Timothy H; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-22

    An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of 34 mycotoxins in dietary supplements containing green coffee bean (GCB) extracts was developed, evaluated, and used in the analysis of 50 commercial products. A QuEChERS-like procedure was used for isolation of target analytes from the examined matrices. Average recoveries of the analytes were in the range of 75-110%. The precision of the method expressed as relative standard deviation was below 12%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 1.0 to 50.0 μg/kg and from 2.5 to 100 μg/kg, respectively. Due to matrix effects, the method of standard additions was used to ensure accurate quantitation. Ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, fumonisin B1 and mycophenolic acid were found in 36%, 32%, 10%, and 16% of tested products, respectively. Mycotoxins occurred in the following concentration ranges: ochratoxin A, <1.0-136.9 μg/kg; ochratoxin B, <1.0-20.2 μg/kg; fumonisin B1, <50.0-415.0 μg/kg; mycophenolic acid, <5.0-395.0 μg/kg. High-resolution mass spectrometry operated in full MS and MS/MS mode was used to confirm the identities of the reported compounds.

  18. Effect of lecithin nanoliposome or soybean lecithin supplemented by pomegranate extract on post-thaw flow cytometric, microscopic and oxidative parameters in ram semen.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Mahdieh; Daghigh Kia, Hossein; Nazari, Maryam; Najafi, Abouzar

    2017-10-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of soybean lecithin 1.5% (wt/vol) (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg l(-1) pomegranate extract (PE)) or PE-loaded lecithin nanoliposome (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg l(-1)) to Tris-based extender. Sperm motility (CASA), viability, membrane integrity (HOS test), abnormalities, mitochondrial activity, apoptosis status, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) and antioxidant activities (GPX, SOD) were investigated following freeze-thawing. No significant differences were detected in motility parameters, viability, membrane integrity, and mitochondria activity after thawing sperm between soybean lecithin and lecithin nanoliposomes. It was shown that PE5 significantly improved sperm total and progressive motility, membrane integrity, viability, mitochondria activity, TAC and reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde concentration). Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic sperm in PE5 extenders was significantly the lowest among other treatments. Sperm abnormalities, SOD and GPX were not affected by the antioxidant supplements. For apoptotic status, no differences were observed between soybean lecithin and lecithin nanoliposome. We showed that lecithin nanoliposome extender can be a beneficial alternative extender to protect ram sperm during cryopreservation without any adverse effects. It was also observed that regarding pomegranate concentration, PE5 can improve the quality of ram semen after thawing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of Synephrine in Bitter Orange Raw Materials, Extracts, and Dietary Supplements by Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection: Single-Laboratory Validation

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Mark C.; Betz, Joseph M.; Hildreth, Jana

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantify synephrine in bitter orange raw material, extracts, and dietary supplements. Single-laboratory validation has been performed on the method to determine the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection/limit of quantification (LOQ), ruggedness, and linearity for p-synephrine and 5 other biogenic amines: octopamine, phenylephrine (m-synephrine), tyramine, N-methyltyramine, and hordenine, which may be present in bitter orange. p-Synephrine was found to be the primary biogenic amine present in all materials tested, accounting for >80% of the total biogenic amine content in all samples except a finished product. Repeatability precision for synephrine was between 1.48 and 3.55% RSD. Synephrine recovery was between 97.5 and 104%. The minor alkaloids were typically near the LOQ of the method (300–900 μg/g) in the test materials, and between-day precision for the minor compounds was poor because interferences could sometimes be mistakenly identified as one of the minor analytes. Recoveries of the minor components ranged from 99.1 to 103% at approximately 6000 μg/g spike level, to 90.7 to 120% at 300 μg/g spike level. PMID:17373438

  20. Effect of inulin extracts or inulin-containing plant supplement on blood lipid indices and fatty acid profile in fattener tissues.

    PubMed

    Grela, E R; Sobolewska, S; Roziński, T

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of inulin or dandelion, chicory and Jerusalem artichoke powder on lipid indices and fatty acid profile in fattener tissues. The experiment involved 120 crossbred pigs (PL x PLW) x Duroc with an initial body weight of 25.0 +/- 0.5 kg. Animals were assigned into 6 groups. A diet for group I (control) did not comprise an inulin additive, group II and III received 2% inulin (water or water-alcohol extraction of inulin from chicory root, respectively), while the mixtures for group IV, V and VI contained 4% root powder from Jerusalem artichoke (topinambur), chicory or dandelion, respectively. The animals were slaughtered at 115 kg body weight. The samples of blood, liver and the muscle longissimus dorsi tissues as well as whole hearts were collected for analysis. Fatty acid profile, some lipid indices and crude fat and cholesterol content were evaluated. Dietary supplement of 40 g dandelion powder resulted in preferable significant changes in the blood lipid indices and fatty acids composition (increased PUFA share and decreased n-6/n-3 ratio).

  1. Determination of synephrine in bitter orange raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M; Hildreth, Jana

    2007-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantify synephrine in bitter orange raw material, extracts, and dietary supplements. Single-laboratory validation has been performed on the method to determine the repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection/limit of quantification (LOQ), ruggedness, and linearity for p-synephrine and 5 other biogenic amines: octopamine, phenylephrine (m-synephrine), tyramine, N-methyltyramine, and hordenine, which may be present in bitter orange. p-Synephrine was found to be the primary biogenic amine present in all materials tested, accounting for >80% of the total biogenic amine content in all samples except a finished product. Repeatability precision for synephrine was between 1.48 and 3.55% RSD. Synephrine recovery was between 97.5 and 104%. The minor alkaloids were typically near the LOQ of the method (300-900 microg/g) in the test materials, and between-day precision for the minor compounds was poor because interferences could sometimes be mistakenly identified as one of the minor analytes. Recoveries of the minor components ranged from 99.1 to 103% at approximately 6000 microg/g spike level, to 90.7 to 120% at 300 microg/g spike level.

  2. Effects of pomegranate extract in supplementing gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy on idiopathic central precocious puberty in Chinese girls: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinsheng; Tang, Jiulai

    2017-02-22

    Central precocious puberty (CPP) without organic abnormality is called idiopathic CPP (ICPP). The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of pomegranate extract in supplementing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog therapy on ICPP-affected girls in the Chinese population. 286 girls, diagnosed with ICPP were initially enrolled into this trial, and among them 225 eligible patients were randomized to receive a combinational GnRH analog treatment supplemented with either a placebo or pomegranate extract on a daily basis for a period of 3 months. Their demographics, secondary sexual characteristics and hormone profiles were analyzed at baseline and end of trial. After 3 months of treatment, demographic profiles including bone age, growth velocity and height standard deviation score for bone age, and secondary sexual characteristics including uterus and ovary volume, as well as serum hormone profiles including estradiol, peak luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 were all significantly improved in girls receiving a combinational treatment of both GnRH analog and pomegranate extract. Daily consumption of pomegranate extract was able to supplement and improve the treatment outcomes of the GnRH analog therapy for ICPP in Chinese girls.

  3. Chloroplast ultra structure, photosynthesis and enzyme activities in regenerated plants of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni as influenced by copper sulphate in the medium.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pourvi; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2014-09-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni is an important medicinal plant used as noncaloric commercial sweetener. Plants regenerated with higher levels of copper sulphate in the medium exhibited enhanced activity of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) enzymes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed increase in size and number of electron dense inclusions in the chloroplasts of plants regenerated at optimised level of copper sulphate (0.5 microM) in the medium. There was decrease in chlorogenic acid (CGA) content. Chl-a-fluorescence transient pattern (OJIP) showed that the photosynthesis process was more efficient at 0.5 microM CuSO4 in the medium.

  4. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Stevia rebaudiana extracts (Var. Morita) and their incorporation into a potential functional bread.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, J C; Moguel-Ordoñez, Y B; Matus-Basto, A J; Segura-Campos, M R

    2015-12-01

    In this study a new wheat bread was designed whose sugars were replaced with S. rebaudiana Bertoni aqueous extract. The impact of the S. rebaudiana Bertoni aqueous extract on nutritional and sensory quality, its ability to reduce sugar intake and its antioxidant properties were investigated. Functional bread with 50 % of sugars replaced with S. rebaudiana extract was compared with traditional wheat bread. The extract demonstrated alpha amylase (IC50 = 198.40 μg/mL) glucosidase (596.77 μg/mL) inhibition. The radical scavenging activity exhibited an IC50 value of 335.94 mg/mL. In comparison with the control, the bread with stevia extract was softer and had lower microbial growth during the shelf-life study. The sensory test showed that the substitution of 50 % stevia extract was more acceptable when comparing with all quality characteristics. Regarding the nutritional contribution, the content of dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in the bread with stevia extract was higher and lower respectively, so caloric intake was significantly reduced. The results showed that the biological properties of S. rebaudiana extract were retained after the bread making process and that the proposed bread is suitable as functional food in human nutrition.

  5. Salt-tolerance mechanisms induced in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: Effects on mineral nutrition, antioxidative metabolism and steviol glycoside content.

    PubMed

    Cantabella, Daniel; Piqueras, Abel; Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Hernández, José A; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    In order to cope with challenges linked to climate change such as salinity, plants must develop a wide spectrum of physiological and molecular mechanisms to rapidly adapt. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants are a case in point. According to our findings, salt stress has no significant effect on plant growth in these plants, which accumulate sodium (Na(+)) in their roots, thus avoiding excessive Na(+) accumulation in leaves. Furthermore, salt stress (NaCl stress) increases the potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), chloride ion (Cl(-)) and proline concentrations in Stevia leaves, which could contribute to osmotic adjustment. We also found that long-term NaCl stress does not produce changes in chlorophyll concentrations in Stevia leaves, reflecting a mechanism to protect the photosynthesis process. Interestingly, an increase in chlorophyll b (Chlb) content occured in the oldest plants studied. In addition, we found that NaCl induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Stevia leaves and that this accumulation was more evident in the presence of 5 g/L NaCl, the highest concentration used in the study. Nevertheless, Stevia plants are able to induce (16 d) or maintain (25 d) antioxidant enzymes to cope with NaCl-induced oxidative stress. Low salt levels did not affect steviolbioside and rebaudioside A contents. Our results suggest that Stevia plants induce tolerance mechanisms in order to minimize the deleterious effects of salt stress. We can thus conclude that saline waters can be used to grow Stevia plants and for Steviol glycosides (SGs) production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of salinity on gene expression, morphological and biochemical characteristics of stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Fallah, F; Nokhasi, F; Ghaheri, M; Kahrizi, D; Beheshti Ale Agha, A; Ghorbani, T; Kazemi, E; Ansarypour, Z

    2017-08-15

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a famous medicinal plant for its low calorific value compounds which are named steviol glycosides (SGs) and they are 150-300 times sweeter than sugar. Among various SGs, stevioside and rebaudioside A considered to be the main sweetening compounds.  Soil salinity is one of the most essential stress in the world. Salinity affects the survival and yield of crops. In current study the effects of salinity and osmotic stress caused by different concentration of NaCl (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM) on morphological traits, genes expressionand amount of both stevioside and rebaudioside Aunder in vitro conditions has been investigated. The morphological traits such as bud numbers, root numbers, shoot length (after 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. With increasing salinity, the values of all studied morphological traits decreased. To investigation of UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 genes expression that are involved in the synthesis of SGs, RT-PCR was done and there were significant differences between all media. The highest expression of both genes was observed in plantlets grown on MS media (with NaCl-free). Also, the lowest amounts of gene expression of the both genes were seen in MS+ 60 mM NaCl. Based on HPLC results, the highest amount of both stevioside and rebaudioside A were observed in plantlets grown in MS media (with NaCl-free). Finally, it can be concluded that stevia can survive under salt stress, but it has the best performance in the lower salinity.

  7. Supplementation with aged garlic extract improves both NK and γδ-T cell function and reduces the severity of cold and flu symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutrition intervention.

    PubMed

    Nantz, Meri P; Rowe, Cheryl A; Muller, Catherine E; Creasy, Rebecca A; Stanilka, Joy M; Percival, Susan S

    2012-06-01

    Earlier studies show that dietary bioactive compounds can modify proliferation of γδ-T cells. Garlic contains numerous compounds that have this potential and, in addition, has been shown to influence NK cell function. Our primary aim was to demonstrate that aged garlic extract could modify these immune cells. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel intervention study recruited 120 healthy subjects (60 per group) to determine the effect of aged garlic extract supplementation (2.56 g/d) on immune cell proliferation and cold and flu symptoms. After 45 d of consuming an encapsulated aged garlic extract, γδ-T cells (p = 0.039, n = 56) and NK cells (p = 0.043, n = 56) were shown to proliferate better compared to placebo. After 90 d of supplementation, illness diary entries showed that the incidence of colds and flu, a secondary outcome, were not statistically different; however, the group consuming the aged garlic extract appeared to have reduced severity as noted by a reduction in the number of symptoms reported (21% fewer, p < 0.001, z-test of proportions), a reduction in the number of days (61% fewer, p < 0.001, z-test) and incidences (58% fewer p < 0.001, z-test) where the subjects functioned sub-optimally and the number of work/school days missed due to illness (58% fewer, p = 0.035, z-test). These results suggest that supplementation of the diet with aged garlic extract may enhance immune cell function and that this may be responsible, in part, for reduced severity of colds and flu. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect on LDL-cholesterol of a large dose of a dietary supplement with plant extracts in subjects with untreated moderate hypercholesterolaemia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Barrat, Emmanuel; Zaïr, Yassine; Sirvent, Pascal; Chauveau, Patrice; Maudet, Corinne; Housez, Béatrice; Derbord, Elodie; Lescuyer, Jean-François; Bard, Jean-Marie; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Peltier, Sébastien L

    2013-12-01

    To determine the effect of 4 weeks of supplementation, then, withdrawal of a dietary supplement (DS) containing red yeast rice extract, policosanol and artichoke leaf extract at twice the recommended daily dose (6 tablets, 6-TAB) compared to the usual dose (3-TAB) or to a placebo (PLA), on blood lipid profiles and safety biomarkers. Forty-five healthy subjects (15 per group), with untreated hypercholesterolaemia, were included in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. After 4 weeks of supplementation, LDL-C was significantly lower in 6-TAB (-0.21 g/l; 95 % CI -0.38 to -0.03 g/l; p = 0.0217) and 3-TAB (-0.25 g/l; 95 % CI -0.42 to -0.07 g/l; p = 0.0071) compared to PLA, although no difference in LDL-cholesterol was observed between the two groups, while no effect was seen on triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol. Four weeks after the end of supplementation, no difference in LDL-C was seen between the PLA group and the DS-treated groups. The muscle breakdown biomarkers, as well as biomarkers of liver and renal function, were altered by neither dose of the DS. Acute application of the DS on permeabilised skeletal muscle fibres of rats did not induce deleterious effects on mitochondrial function. Supplementation with twice the recommended dose of the DS was effective in reducing LDL-cholesterol and appeared safe, but according to the present results, no additional benefit could be achieved compared to the recommended dose.

  9. [Safety assessment of stevia rebaudiana bertoni grown in southeastern Mexico as food sweetener].

    PubMed

    Aranda-González, Irma; Barbosa-Martín, Enrique; Toraya-Avilés, Rocío; Segura-Campos, Maira; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-09-01

    Stevia rebaudiana leaves and their glycosides have been recently and significantly used so important as sweeteners. However, it has been reported an antihyperglycemic effect of the extract and a glycoside. The aim of this study was to quantify S. rebaudiana glycosides, assess cytotoxicity of the extract and its acute and chronic effect on blood glucose in animal models and in human. The glycosides of the Morita II and Criolla extract were quantified by HPLC, using a C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm and particle size of 5 uM) with UV detection at 210 nm, mobile phase of acetonitrile/sodium phosphate buffer 10 mmol/L, pH 2.6 (32:68 v/v). Cytotoxicity study was performed in Vero cells, whereas an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and a chronic consumption assay (4 weeks) were executed in an animal model of diabetes; finally the glycemic index (G.I.) was determined in healthy individuals. The glycoside content is higher in the Morita variety II although both had a CC50 >300 g/mL. The areas under the curve of the IPGTT and fasting glucose of the animals were not significantly different (p> 0.05) and the I.G. extract was 11.11 %, which classifies the extract as low I.G. The extract of S. rebaudiana Morita II has a low glycemic index and, in the doses tested, is not cytotoxic nor has acute or chronic effect on blood sugar, which makes it a safe sweetener.

  10. Heavy metals removal from wastewater using extracellular polymeric substances produced by Cloacibacterium normanense in wastewater sludge supplemented with crude glycerol and study of extracellular polymeric substances extraction by different methods.

    PubMed

    Nouha, Klai; Kumar, Ram Saurabh; Tyagi, R D

    2016-07-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances synthesis by Cloacibacterium was affected by different concentrations of glycerol in the medium. The concentration of EPS in 72h fermentation was increased from 13g/L with no external carbon supplementation to 21.3±0.7g/L with 2% (w/v) crude glycerol addition. Physical and chemical extraction methods (heating, centrifugation and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)) were used in this study and their performance to extract EPS was compared. A significant variation in concentration of extracted B-EPS (broth-EPS) by heating (20.8±0.5g/L) and centrifugation (21.3±0.7g/L) extraction methods was not observed. However, in case of extraction with EDTA (5g/L), the B-EPS concentration extracted was 25.5±0.9g/L, which exhibited high flocculation activity of 95.3±0.5% at optimum dose of 23.1mgB-EPS/gkaolin. Moreover, Ni removal efficiency of 80% from primary treated wastewater was achieved using 35mg/L of B-EPS extracted by centrifugation method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect and safety of highly standardized Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract supplementation on inflammation and chronic pain in NSAIDs poor responders. A pilot study in subjects with knee arthrosis.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Faliva, Milena Anna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Peroni, Gabriella; Degli Agosti, Irene; Perna, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring. The secondary endpoints were the assessment of Visual Analog Scale for Pain, health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36), anthropometric parameters, hydration. After supplementation, a significant improvement of 12.27 points was observed for Lysholm scale score (p < 0.05), SF-36 (p < 0.05), and a decrease in -0.52 cm in knee circumference (left) (p < 0.01). This pilot study provides feasibility and safety data for the use of highly standardised ginger and Echinacea extract supplementation in people with knee OA.

  12. Characterization and quantitation of yohimbine and its analogs in botanicals and dietary supplements using LC/QTOF-MS and LC/QQQ-MS for determination of the presence of bark extract and yohimbine adulteration.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Derick; Neal-Kababick, James; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    The compound yohimbine HCl has been restricted in Australia and categorized as a scheduled prescription drug in other parts of the world, including the United States where it is monographed as a drug in the U. S. Pharmacopeia. However, the bark of the yohimbe plant and its extract is considered a botanical that can be used as a dietary supplement in some parts of the world. For these reasons, methods to characterize the indole alkaloids of the bark and quantify yohimbine and its analogs are presented using accurate mass LC/quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF)-MS and triple quadrupole LC/MS, respectively. Samples were extracted with a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method to characterize and quantify the indole alkaloids. With the LC/QTOF-MS in auto MS/MS mode the indole alkaloids were identified, and the isomeric response of each could be used to determine whether the actual bark or extract was in samples of dietary supplements and not adulteration with yohimbine HCl. Analogs were identified and include yohimbic acid, methyl yohimbine, and hydroxyl yohimbine. Many isomers of each were also detected, but identified only by the number of chromatographic peaks. Quantification of yohimbine and ajmalicine spiked extracts showed recoveries of 99 to 103% with RSD of 3.6% or lower and LODs of less than 100 ppt. Calibration of the two standards gave r(2) = 0.9999 in a range from 0.1 to 100 ppb. Dietary supplements quantified for these two compounds showed a range from not detected to 3x the amounts found in the bark.

  13. The effect of acute pomegranate extract supplementation on oxygen uptake in highly-trained cyclists during high-intensity exercise in a high altitude environment.

    PubMed

    Crum, Emma May; Che Muhamed, Ahmad Munir; Barnes, Matthew; Stannard, Stephen Robert

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that pomegranate extract (POMx) may improve performance during aerobic exercise by enhancing the matching of vascular oxygen (O2) provision to muscular requirements. POMx is rich in ellagitannin polyphenols and nitrates (NO3(-)), which are both associated with improvements in blood flow and O2 delivery. Primarily, this study aimed to determine whether POMx improves performance in a cycling time trial to exhaustion at 100%VO2max (TTE100%) in highly-trained cyclists. In addition, we investigated if the O2 cost (VO2) of submaximal exercise was lower with POMx, and whether any changes were greater at high altitude where O2 delivery is impaired. Eight cyclists exercised at three submaximal intensities before completing a TTE100% at sea-level (SEA) and at 1657 m of altitude (ALT), with pre-exercise consumption of 1000 mg of POMx or a placebo (PLAC) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Data were analysed using a three way (treatment x altitude x intensity) or two-way (treatment x altitude) repeated measures ANOVA with a Fisher's LSD post-hoc analysis. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The effect size of significant interactions was calculated using Cohen's d. TTE100% performance was reduced in ALT but was not influenced by POMx (p > 0.05). Plasma NO3(-) were 10.3 μmol greater with POMx vs. PLAC (95% CI, 0.8, 19.7,F1,7 = 7.83, p < 0.04). VO2 measured at five minutes into the TTE100% was significantly increased in ALTPOMx vs. ALTPLAC (+3.8 ml.min(-1)kg(-1), 95% CI, -5.7, 9.5, F1,7 = 29.2, p = 0.001, ES = 0.6) but unchanged in SEAPOMx vs. SEAPLAC (p > 0.05). Submaximal VO2 values were not affected by POMx (p ≥ 0.05). The restoration of SEA VO2 values at ALT is likely driven by the high polyphenol content of POMx, which is proposed to improve nitric oxide bioavailability. Despite an increase in VO2, no change in exercise performance occurred and therefore this study does not support the use

  14. Dietary supplementation with whey protein and ginseng extract counteracts oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziem, Sekena H; Hassan, Aziza M; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2011-07-14

    Aflatoxins (AF) are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens and aflatoxin-B1 (AFB(1)) is classified as a group-1 carcinogen. Since the ingestion of aflatoxins-contaminated food is associated with several liver diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether AF-induced damage in rats can be counteracted by feeding with whey-protein concentrates (WPC) and Korean ginseng extract (KGE). Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight equal groups and treated daily for 30 days as follows: a control group (fed an AF-free diet), a group fed ad libitum an AF-contaminated diet (2.5mg/kg diet), a group treated orally with WPC (0.5ml/rat/day), a group treated orally with KGE (20mg/kg body weight), a group treated orally with WPC+KGE, and three groups that were fed the AF-contaminated diet and were treated orally with WPC, KGE or WPC+KGE, respectively. Throughout the experimental period, animals received WPC or KGE during the consumption of their respective diet. Bone-marrow micronucleus formation, DNA fragmentation, fatty-acid synthesis (FAS) and phospholipid-hydroperoxide-glutathione-peroxidase (PHGPx) mRNA expression, and oxidative stress were assayed in liver and testis. The results indicated that ingestion of aflatoxin resulted in a significant increase in micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (Mn-NCE) in bone marrow, DNA fragmentation, FAS mRNA expression and lipid peroxidation in both organs, and a significant decrease in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes/micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) ratio in bone marrow, PHGPx gene expression and GSH in liver and testis. Treatments with WPC and/or KGE had a significant effect on Mn-NCE or the PCE/NCE ratio in bone marrow. However, KGE or KGE+WPC increased PHGPx gene expression and GSH in testis accompanied with a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation in liver and testis and FAS-mRNA expression in liver. WPC, KGE or WPC+KGE treatments combined with exposure

  15. Supplementing with Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and Dioscorea nipponica Makino extracts synergistically attenuates menopausal symptoms in estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2014-08-08

    Prickly pear cactus grown in Korea (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill, KC) and Buchema (Dioscorea nipponica Makino, B) have been traditionally used in East Asia and South America to treat various metabolic diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the extracts of KC, B, and KC+B can prevent the impairments of energy, glucose, lipid and bone homeostasis in estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rats and to explore their mechanisms. OVX rats were divided into 4 groups and fed high fat diets supplemented with either 3% dextrin (control), 3% KC, 3% B or 1.5% KC+1.5% B. Sham rats were fed 3% dextrin. After 12 weeks of diet consumption, energy, lipid, glucose and bone metabolisms were analyzed and Wnt signaling in the femur and hepatic signaling were determined. OVX impaired energy, glucose and lipid metabolism and decreased uterine and bone masses. B and KC+B prevented the decrease in energy expenditure, especially from fat oxidation, in OVX rats, but did not affect food intake. KC+B and B reduced body weight and visceral fat levels, as compared to the OVX-control, by decreasing fat synthesis and inhibiting FAS and SREBP-1c expression. KC+B and B prevented the increases in serum lipid levels and insulin resistance by improving hepatic insulin signaling (pIRS→pAkt→pGSK-3β). KC and KC+B also prevented decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) in the femur and lumbar spine in OVX rats. This was related to decreased expressions of bone turnover markers such as serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone-specific ALP levels, and increased serum P levels. KC and KC+B upregulated low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and β-catenin in OVX rats, but suppressed the expression of dickkopf-related protein 1. B alone improved energy, lipid and glucose homeostasis, but not bone loss, whereas KC alone enhanced BMD, but not energy, lipid or glucose homeostasis. KC+B synergistically attenuated impairments of bone, energy, lipid and glucose

  16. Combined Supplementation with Grape Pomace and Omija Fruit Ethanol Extracts Dose-Dependently Improves Body Composition, Plasma Lipid Profiles, Inflammatory Status, and Antioxidant Capacity in Overweight and Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye Jin; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Su-Jung; Kim, Ae Hyang; Han, Youngji; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of combined grape pomace and omija fruit ethanol extracts (GO) on metabolic disorders in overweight or obese subjects. Seventy-six subjects (30-70 years, body mass index ≥23.0 kg/m2) were divided into control (starch, 4 g/day, n = 24), low-GO (low dose GO, grape pomace extract [342.5 mg/day] + omija fruit extract [57.5 mg/day], n = 26), and high-GO (high dose GO, grape pomace extract [685 mg/day] + omija fruit extract [115 mg/day], n = 26) groups. Body composition, nutrient intake, plasma lipid profiles, inflammation, antioxidant capacity, and hepatotoxicity markers were assessed in all subjects at the baseline and 10 weeks after taking the supplements. The body weight and body fat of overweight or obese subjects was not significantly altered in the low-GO and high-GO groups. However, the high-GO supplement significantly decreased the baseline-adjusted final plasma total-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels and increased the baseline-adjusted final plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-1 level compared with that of the control group. In addition, the high-GO supplement significantly lowered apo B, apo B/apo A-1, lipoprotein a (Lp[a]), atherogenic index, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and elevated erythrocyte antioxidant capacity compared with the control group or the baseline levels. The low-GO supplement decreased the plasma IL-1β level and elevated erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity compared with that at baseline. However, in general, high-GO exerted a greater effect than low-GO. There were no significant differences in activities of plasma glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase between the groups. This study is a preliminary clinical study to verify that GO could be beneficial for amelioration of obesity-related dyslipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress

  17. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Massey, Patrick B

    2002-01-01

    The amount of published information on dietary supplements mushroomed in the 1990s. In fewer than 5 years, publications increased at least 100-fold in the medical literature alone. Dietary supplements are an uncharted territory that warrants complete and accurate exploration. One should not be surprised that disease and illness may respond to dietary supplements. Nutrition is the foundation to good health, and dietary supplements may prove to be some of the most powerful medicines ever discovered. An especially exciting discovery is that dietary supplements may enhance the effects of specific drugs. This discovery may lead to more effective and safer protocols for the treatment of cancer, heart and lung disease, and a host of chronic medical conditions. Information about dietary supplements is becoming more common in the popular medical literature and is creating increased curiosity and an increased awareness. The explosion of the dietary supplement market is compelling physicians to become aware of dietary supplements. Whether or not they are used in clinical practice is a decision for the individual physician. Given the increasing number of patients who are using dietary supplements, however, it is imperative that physicians have a good understanding of this topic. Considering the increasing complexity and magnitude of this topic, physician specialization may be essential. There are many good reference books, review articles, and internet sites on specific supplements that probably should be part of every physician's reference library. The accompanying box provides a brief list of such sources.

  18. Effects of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) extract supplementation on antioxidant status and hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimpour Koujan, Soraiya; Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem; Mobasseri, Majid; Valizadeh, Hadi; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-02-15

    Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder and oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to its pathogenesis and complications. Since Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) extract is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties, this randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of silymarin supplementation on oxidative stress indices and hs-CRP in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. For the present paralleled, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 40 type 2 diabetes patients aged 25-50 yr old and on stable medication were recruited from the Iranian Diabetes Society and endocrinology clinics in East Azarbayjan (Tabriz, Iran) and randomly assigned into two groups. Patients in the silymarin treatment group received 140 mg, thrice daily of dried extracts of Silybum marianum (n = 20) and those in the placebo group (n = 20) received identical placebos for 45 days. Data pertaining to height, weight, waist circumference and BMI, as well as food consumption, were collected at base line and at the conclusion of the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained and antioxidant indices and hs-CRP were assessed at baseline, as well as at the end of the trial. All 40 patients completed the study and did not report any adverse effects or symptoms with the silymarin supplementation. Silymarin supplementation significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) compared to patients taking the placebo, by 12.85%, 30.32% and 8.43%, respectively (p < 0.05). There was a significant reduction in hs-CRP levels by 26.83% (p < 0.05) in the silymarin group compared to the placebo group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration significantly decreased by 12.01% (p < 0.05) in the silymarin group compared to the baseline. Silymarin supplementation improves some antioxidant indices (SOD, GPX and TAC) and decrease hs-CRP levels in T2DM patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  19. Efficient regeneration for enhanced steviol glycosides production in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    PubMed

    Aman, Nazish; Hadi, Fazal; Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Ahmad, Nisar

    2013-10-01

    An efficient method of regeneration for antidiabetic plant (Stevia rebaudiana) has been established for healthy biomass and main steviol glycosides (SGs) production, using different PGRs and agar concentrations. Higher callus induction (93.3%) was recorded when leaf explants were placed on an MS medium supplemented with 3.5 gL(-1) agar and 2.0 mgL(-1) 2,4-D. The addition of 7.0 gL(-1) agar and BA (1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mgL(-1)) significantly (P<0.01) influences shooting response (100%). A maximum mean shoot length (13.03 cm) and 28 shoots per explant were observed on a medium containing 1.0 mgL(-1) BA. However, the maximum number of leaves (132.67) was encouraged by the addition of BA (1.0 mgL(-1)) and Kin (1.0 mgL(-1)). Lower agar (3.5 gL(-1)), IAA (2.0 mgL(-1)), and NAA (2.0 mgL(-1)) concentrations significantly influence the rooting percent (100%), the mean root length (2.9 cm), and the number of roots per plantlet (26.3). These plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soil. The BA (3.0 mgL(-1)) in combination with Kin (3.0 mgL(-1)) and 3.5 gL(-1) agar increases dulcoside-A content (Dul-A; 71.8 μg/g-DW) in shoots compared to control (50.81 μg/g-DW). Similar PGRs with 7.0 gL(-1) significantly increases the production of steviosides (Stev. 82.48 μg/g-DW). A higher rebaudioside-A content (Reb-A; 12.35 μg/g-DW) was observed in shoots that underwent the addition of BA (1.0 mgL(-1)) and 7.0 gL(-1) agar than in control (07.39 μg/g-DW). Hereby, we developed an efficient and cost-effective method for regeneration and major SGs production, which could be helpful for future studies on this species. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  20. Comparison of two different solvents employed for pressurised fluid extraction of stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana: methanol versus water.

    PubMed

    Pól, Jaroslav; Varadová Ostrá, Elena; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal; Benesová, Karolínka; Kotlaríková, Pavla; Cáslavský, Josef

    2007-08-01

    Pressurised fluid extraction using water or methanol was employed for the extraction of stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The extraction method was optimised in terms of temperature and duration of the static or the dynamic step. Extracts were analysed by liquid chromatography followed by UV and mass-spectrometric (MS) detections. Thermal degradation of stevioside was the same in both solvents within the range 70-160 degrees C. Methanol showed better extraction ability for isolation of stevioside from Stevia rebaudiana leaves than water within the range 110-160 degrees C. However, water represents the green alternative to methanol. The limit of detection of stevioside in the extract analysed was 30 ng for UV detection and 2 ng for MS detection.

  1. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements can play an important role in health. For example, calcium and vitamin D are important for keeping bones ...

  2. Evaluation of congruence among dietary supplement use and motivation for supplementation in young, Canadian athletes.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is endemic in young athletes; however, it is unclear if their choices are congruent with their motivation for supplementation and the established benefits of the dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dietary supplement use and self-reported rationale in young athletes. Canadian athletes (n = 567; 11-25 years; 76% club or provincial level, 24% national or higher) completed a questionnaire designed to assess supplementation patterns and motivation for supplementation. Chi square tests examined associations between dietary supplements and self-reported rationale for use. Vitamin and mineral supplements, including vitamin-enriched water, were associated with several health- and performance- related reasons (p < 0.001). Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and glutamine were linked to improving diet and immune function (p < 0.01), but were more strongly associated with performance reasons, as were performance foods (protein powder, sport bars, sport gels, etc.). Plant extracts and fatty acids were primarily associated with health reasons, particularly immune support (p < 0.001). Congruencies exist between performance rationales and supplementation for common ergogenic aids, however, less so for vitamin and mineral supplements, vitamin-enriched water, and plant extracts. Incongruences were found between fatty acids, protein supplements, vitamin and mineral supplements, vitamin-enriched water, and plant extracts and health motivators for supplementation. Educational interventions are essential to ensure young athletes are using dietary supplements safely and effectively.

  3. A low-fat yoghurt supplemented with a rooster comb extract on muscle joint function in adults with mild knee pain: a randomized, double blind, parallel, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa-Maria; Martorell, Isabel; Giralt, Montserrat; Pedret, Anna; Taltavull, Núria; Romeu, Marta; Rodríguez, Àurea; Moriña, David; Lopez de Frutos, Victor; Montero, Manuel; Casajuana, Maria-Carmen; Pérez, Laura; Faba, Jenny; Bernal, Gloria; Astilleros, Anna; González, Roser; Puiggrós, Francesc; Arola, Lluís; Chetrit, Carlos; Martinez-Puig, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Preliminary results suggested that oral-administration of rooster comb extract (RCE) rich in hyaluronic acid (HA) was associated with improved muscle strength. Following these promising results, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low-fat yoghurt supplemented with RCE rich in HA on muscle function in adults with mild knee pain; a symptom of early osteoarthritis. Participants (n = 40) received low-fat yoghurt (125 mL d(-1)) supplemented with 80 mg d(-1) of RCE and the placebo group (n = 40) consumed the same yoghurt without the RCE, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel trial over 12 weeks. Using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 4), RCE consumption, compared to control, increased the affected knee peak torque, total work and mean power at 180° s(-1), at least 11% in men (p < 0.05) with no differences in women. No dietary differences were noted. These results suggest that long-term consumption of low-fat yoghurt supplemented with RCE could be a dietary tool to improve muscle strength in men, associated with possible clinical significance. However, further studies are needed to elucidate reasons for these sex difference responses observed, and may provide further insight into muscle function.

  4. Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-06-19

    Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements.

  5. Supplementation of a grape seed and grape marc meal extract decreases activities of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factors NF-κB and Nrf2 in the duodenal mucosa of pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In pigs, enteric infections and the development of gut disorders such as diarrhoea are commonly observed, particularly after weaning. The present study investigated the hypothesis that feeding a grape seed and grape marc extract (GSGME) as a dietary supplement has the potential to suppress the inflammatory process in the small intestine of pigs by modulating the activities of NF-κB and Nrf2 due to its high content of flavonoids. Methods Twenty-four crossbred, 6 weeks old pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 12 animals each and fed nutritionally adequate diets without or with 1% GSGME for 4 weeks. Results Pigs administered GSGME had a lower transactivation of NF-κB and Nrf2 and a lower expression of various target genes of these transcription factors in the duodenal mucosa than control pigs (P < 0.05). Concentrations of α-tocopherol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver and plasma and total antioxidant capacity of plasma and relative mRNA abundances of NF-κB and Nrf2 target genes in the liver did not differ between the two groups. However, the ratio of villus height:crypt depth and the gain:feed ratio was higher in the pigs fed GSGME than in control pigs (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study shows that dietary supplementation of a polyphenol rich GSGME suppresses the activity of NF-κB in the duodenal mucosa of pigs and thus might provide a useful dietary strategy to inhibit inflammation in the gut frequently occurring in pigs. Feeding GSGME did not influence vitamin E status and the antioxidant system of the pigs but improved the gain:feed ratio. In overall, the study suggests that polyphenol-rich plant extracts such GSGME could be useful feed supplements in pig nutrition, in order to maintain animal health and improve performance. PMID:23453040

  6. High-resolution gas chromatography/mas spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A high resolution GC/MS with Selected Ion Monitor (SIM) method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) meth...

  7. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  8. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  9. Creatine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Trojian, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Creatine monohydrate is a dietary supplement that increases muscle performance in short-duration, high-intensity resistance exercises, which rely on the phosphocreatine shuttle for adenosine triphosphate. The effective dosing for creatine supplementation includes loading with 0.3 g·kg·d for 5 to 7 days, followed by maintenance dosing at 0.03 g·kg·d most commonly for 4 to 6 wk. However loading doses are not necessary to increase the intramuscular stores of creatine. Creatine monohydrate is the most studied; other forms such as creatine ethyl ester have not shown added benefits. Creatine is a relatively safe supplement with few adverse effects reported. The most common adverse effect is transient water retention in the early stages of supplementation. When combined with other supplements or taken at higher than recommended doses for several months, there have been cases of liver and renal complications with creatine. Further studies are needed to evaluate the remote and potential future adverse effects from prolonged creatine supplementation.

  10. Clastogenic activity of pure chlorophyll and anticlastogenic effects of equivalent amounts of crude extract of Indian spinach leaf and chlorophyllin following dietary supplementation to mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, D; Sharma, A; Talukder, G

    1996-01-01

    Dietary consumption of green vegetables has been associated with protection against mutagenic and clastogenic activity of genotoxicants. Chlorophyll, being present in all green plants, had earlier been suggested to be the principal factor involved. Mice were administered (i) crude aqueous extract of leaf of Indian spinach, Beta vulgaris L. var.benghalensis Hort., and equivalent amounts of (ii) chlorophyll extracted from the leaf; (iii) purified chlorophyll, (iv) chlorophyllin, a sodium-copper derivative of chlorophyll; daily for 7 days. On day 7, one set of mice from each treatment was administered potassium dichromate-a known metallic clastogen. The mice were sacrificed after 24 hours. Chromosome preparations were made from bone marrow following the usual colchicine-air dry-Giemsa schedule. The cytogenetic endpoints scored were chromosomal aberrations and damaged cells. Crude leaf extract and chlorophyllin were nonclastogenic and reduced the clastogenic effects of potassium dichromate to the control distilled water level. Chlorophyll alone, whether extracted from the leaf or obtained in commercially purified form, was clastogenic and could reduce the effects of the chromium salt only to its own level. The protective action of the crude leaf extract may be attributed to the total effect of the interaction between the different components within the leaf extract, in which the clastogenicity of chlorophyll had been neutralized.

  11. Efficacy of Cistanche Tubulosa and Laminaria Japonica Extracts (MK-R7) Supplement in Preventing Patterned Hair Loss and Promoting Scalp Health

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Joon; Kim, Tae Su; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sung Pyo; Kang, Myung Hwa; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2015-01-01

    Cistanche tubulosa and Laminaria japonica have been reported to have anti-oxidative, anticoagulant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. They are expected to be a promising candidates for promoting hair growth and treating dandruff and scalp inflammation as a consequence. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we investigated the efficacy of Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) in promoting hair health in patients with mild to moderate patterned hair loss. Using phototrichogram (Folliscope 4.0, LeadM, Seoul, Korea), we compared the density and diameter of hairs in patients receiving a placebo or Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks of the study. In order to determine the efficacy of treatment on dandruff and scalp inflammation, investigator's assessment score and patient's subjective score were also performed. We found a statistically significant increase in the hair density of the test group (n = 45, MK-R7 400 mg) after 16 weeks of consuming the MK-R7 (test group: 23.29 n/cm2 ± 24.26, control: 10.35 n/cm2 ± 20.08, p < 0.05). In addition, we found a statistically significant increase in hair diameter in the test group compared to control group at week 16 (test group: 0.018 mm ± 0.015, control: 0.003 mm ± 0.013, p < 0.05). There were also significant outcomes regarding the investigator's visual assessment and patient's subjective score of dandruff and scalp inflammation in the test group compared to those in control group. Based on the results of this clinical study, we conclude that Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) are promising substances for promoting health of the scalp and hair. PMID:25954733

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotics and palm fruits extracts on the antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the mucosae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Esteban, M A; Cordero, H; Martínez-Tomé, M; Jiménez-Monreal, A M; Bakhrouf, A; Mahdhi, A

    2014-08-01

    Antioxidant activity is particularly important, since oxidation is an unavoidable reaction in all living bodies. At present, natural antioxidants to be used on food as an alternative to synthetic ones are being sought. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) specimens were fed for 4 weeks with diets enriched with bacterial probiotics (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 and Bacillus sp), single or in combination with Tunisian dates palm fruit extracts. The expression of the main antioxidant enzyme genes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the mucosae (gut, skin and gill) was evaluated after 2 and 4 weeks. Previously, free radical scavenging and several antioxidant assays were developed to know the antioxidant properties present on the palm fruits extracts. The results demonstrated that experimental diets alter the expression of the studied antioxidant genes, primarily in the gill and skin. Furthermore, the tested probiotics and mainly, the aqueous date palm fruits extracts had significant antioxidant properties based on their protective effect against the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, especially when administering during 4 weeks. For this reason, probiotics and date palm fruit extracts may serve as good natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food ingredient for fish in farms.

  13. Cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and blueberry extracts supplementation improves spatial memory and regulates hippocampal ERK expression in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Long; Yang, Hong Peng; Pang, Wei; Lu, Hao; Hu, Yan Dan; Li, Jing; Lu, Shi Jun; Zhang, Wan Qi; Jiang, Yu Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether the antioxidation and the regulation on the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) signaling pathway are involved in the protective effects of blueberry on central nervous system. 30 Senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into three groups and treated with normal diet, blueberry extracts (200 mg/kg•bw/day) and cyaniding-3-O-galactoside (Cy-3-GAL) (50 mg/kg•bw/day) from blueberry for 8 weeks. 10 SAMR1 mice were set as control group. The capacity of spatial memory was assessed by Passive avoidance task and Morris water maze. Histological analyses on hippocampus were completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression of ERK were detected. Both Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts were shown effective functions to relieve cellular injury, improve hippocampal neurons survival and inhibit the pyramidal cell layer damage. Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts also increased SOD activity and reduced MDA content in brain tissues and plasma, and increased hippocampal phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression in SAMP8 mice. Further more, the passive avoidance task test showed that both the latency time and the number of errors were improved by Cy-3-GAL treatment, and the Morris Water Maze test showed significant decreases of latency were detected by Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts treatment on day 4. Blueberry extracts may reverse the declines of cognitive and behavioral function in the ageing process through several pathways, including enhancing the capacity of antioxidation, altering stress signaling. Cy-3-GAL may be an important active ingredient for these biological effects. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... For example, teen athletes who use medications like human growth hormone (hGH) that haven't been prescribed for them can have problems with growth, and may develop diabetes and heart problems. Lots of sports organizations have developed policies on sports supplements. The National ...

  15. The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Onakpoya, Igho; Hung, Shao Kang; Perry, Rachel; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to examine the efficacy of Garcinia extract, hydroxycitric acid (HCA) as a weight reduction agent, using data from randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant articles, with no restrictions in language or time. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Twenty-three eligible trials were identified and twelve were included. Nine trials provided data suitable for statistical pooling. The meta-analysis revealed a small, statistically significant difference in weight loss favouring HCA over placebo (MD: −0.88 kg; 95% CI: −1.75, −0.00). Gastrointestinal adverse events were twice as common in the HCA group compared with placebo in one included study. It is concluded that the RCTs suggest that Garcinia extracts/HCA can cause short-term weight loss. The magnitude of the effect is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain. Future trials should be more rigorous and better reported. PMID:21197150

  16. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance. PMID:18500959

  17. The microbiological and immunomodulatory effects of spray-dried versus wet dietary supplementation of seaweed extract in the pig gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhya, A; O'Doherty, J V; Smith, A; Bahar, B; Sweeney, T

    2012-12-01

    Seaweeds and seaweed extract (SWE) possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, prebiotic, and growth-promoting properties. Extracts can be prepared in different ways including wet, spray-dried, and freeze-dried forms. The aim of this study was to determine if spray drying of laminarin and fucoidan derived from Laminaria digitata had an effect on the microbiological and cytokine profile of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) compared to the wet SWE in newly weaned pigs. No differences in cytokine expression were observed between wet and spray dried SWE formulation in either the ileum or colon. Bifidobacteria counts were greater (P < 0.05) in the wet SWE formulation relative to both spray dried SWE and the basal diet in the ileum. In conclusion, neither of the SWE formulations had significant effects on the cytokine profile in the ileum or colon. However, a prebiotic effect observed in the ileum of piglets in response to the wet SWE formulation was lost following spray drying of the SWE.

  18. The effectiveness of Echinacea extract or composite glucosamine, chondroitin and methyl sulfonyl methane supplements on acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis rat model.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Nadia Ms; Hamuda, Hayam M; Melek, Samuel T; Darwish, Sahar K

    2013-03-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of the oral administration for 15 days of either Echinacea (E) or genuphil (a composite of chondroitin sulphate, glucosamine and methyl sulfonyl methane [GCM]) nutraceutical supplements on female rat model of acute or chronic arthritis induced by bacterial outer membrane protein (OMP) from faecal flora of healthy and rheumatic humans. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP2), C-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) values increased (p < 0.05) in both arthritic groups as compared to normal values. The rheumatic markers anti-CCP2, CRP and RF values decreased significantly in E- and GCM-treated groups compared to arthritic none-treated acute or chronic groups. The results of RF values of GCM-treated groups in acute and chronic models decreased exhibiting no statistical difference compared with the normal value. Histological examinations of the hind paw sections revealed moderate inflammation, oedema and mild proliferation of synovial cells in acute arthritic rats and more damage to cartilage and bone with severe inflammation in chronic ones. Echinacea acute treated group showed edema with proliferated synovial membrane and partial damage in cartilage and bone. While in the E-chronic treated group, rough edge with destructed cartilage and bone existed. However, the acute GCM group revealed mild cartilage damage. But the chronic GCM group showed mild synovial cells proliferation and revealed no inflammation with mild cartilage damage edge. Results demonstrated the OMP arthropathic property and through promising light on arthritis treatment using E- or GCM, with the advantage of GMC results over that of E-. The composite GCM is needed for further studies over the dose and duration to assess its preventive effects against the bacterial OMP arthrogenicity.

  19. Effects of two herbal extracts and virginiamycin supplementation on growth performance, intestinal microflora population and Fatty Acid composition in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Zulkifli, Idrus; Rahim, Nordiana Asyikin Abdul; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-03-01

    The competency of garlic and pennywort to improve broiler chicken growth and influence intestinal microbial communities and fatty acid composition of breast meat were studied. Two hundred forty, "day-old" chicks were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups consisting of 6 replications of 10 chicks in each pen. The groups were assigned to receive treatment diets as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) basal diet plus 0.5% garlic powder (GP), iii) basal diet plus 0.5% pennywort powder (PW) and iv) 0.002% virginiamycin (VM). Birds were killed at day 42 and intestinal samples were collected to assess for Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli. The pectoralis profundus from chicken breast samples was obtained from 10 birds from each treatment group on day 42 and frozen at -20°C for further analyses. Fatty acid profile of breast muscles was determined using gas liquid chromatography. Feed intake and weight gain of broilers fed with GP, PW, and VM were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to control. Feeding chicks GP, PW, and VM significantly reduced Escherichia coli count (p<0.05) while Lactobacillus spp count were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the gut when compared to control group on day 42. Supplemented diet containing pennywort increased the C18:3n-3 fatty acid composition of chickens' breast muscle. Garlic and pennywort may be useful in modulating broiler guts as they control the enteropathogens that help to utilize feed efficiently. This subsequently enhances the growth performances of broiler chickens.

  20. Effects of Two Herbal Extracts and Virginiamycin Supplementation on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microflora Population and Fatty Acid Composition in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Zulkifli, Idrus; Rahim, Nordiana Asyikin Abdul; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    The competency of garlic and pennywort to improve broiler chicken growth and influence intestinal microbial communities and fatty acid composition of breast meat were studied. Two hundred forty, “day-old” chicks were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups consisting of 6 replications of 10 chicks in each pen. The groups were assigned to receive treatment diets as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) basal diet plus 0.5% garlic powder (GP), iii) basal diet plus 0.5% pennywort powder (PW) and iv) 0.002% virginiamycin (VM). Birds were killed at day 42 and intestinal samples were collected to assess for Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli. The pectoralis profundus from chicken breast samples was obtained from 10 birds from each treatment group on day 42 and frozen at −20°C for further analyses. Fatty acid profile of breast muscles was determined using gas liquid chromatography. Feed intake and weight gain of broilers fed with GP, PW, and VM were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to control. Feeding chicks GP, PW, and VM significantly reduced Escherichia coli count (p<0.05) while Lactobacillus spp count were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the gut when compared to control group on day 42. Supplemented diet containing pennywort increased the C18:3n-3 fatty acid composition of chickens’ breast muscle. Garlic and pennywort may be useful in modulating broiler guts as they control the enteropathogens that help to utilize feed efficiently. This subsequently enhances the growth performances of broiler chickens. PMID:25049964

  1. Supplementation of a Fermented Soybean Extract Reduces Body Mass and Prevents Obesity in High Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6J Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Aravinthan, Adithan; Park, Young Shik; Hwang, Kyo Yeol; Seong, Su-Il; Hwang, Kwontack

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem that many countries face, mostly due to the consumption of a Westernized diet. In this present study we observed the effects of a soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1) containing 1-deoxynojirimycin against high fat diet-induced obesity. The results obtained from this study indicated that BTD-1 reduced body weight, regulated hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue, and also affected liver antioxidant enzymes and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that administration of BTD-1 affects obesity by inhibiting hyperglycemia and free radical-mediated stress; it also reduces lipid accumulation. Therefore, BTD-1 may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity and its related secondary complications. PMID:27752494

  2. Reliable screening and confirmation of 156 multi-class illegal adulterants in dietary supplements based on extracted common ion chromatograms by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Hye; Seo, Hee Seung; Ki, Nam Yong; Park, Na-Hyun; Lee, Wonwoong; Do, Jung Ah; Park, Sungkwan; Baek, Sun Young; Moon, Bongjin; Oh, Han Bin; Hong, Jongki

    2017-03-31

    An analytical method for the reliable screening and confirmation of 156 illegal drugs (58 erectile dysfunction drugs, 49 synthetic steroids, 26 anabolic steroids, and 23 anti-histamine drugs) in supplementary diets using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS) was developed. Various types of supplements (liquid, capsule, powder, pill and tablet) with complicated matrices were pretreated by simple liquid-liquid extraction. The wide scope of 156 target compounds was effectively determined within 15min in the positive ion mode, detecting the compounds at a sub-ppb level. Their MS/MS spectra were preferentially investigated to find diagnostic common ions according to the structural similarity of diverse adulterants. For the rapid screening of multiple classes of the target adulterants, extracted common ion chromatograms (ECICs) based on specific fragments of similar molecular moieties were attempted. A database including the elemental compositions, retention times, and MS/MS spectra was built for the confirmation of adulterants. The established method was validated in terms of the linearity, limits of detection (LOD), precision, and accuracy. The linear correlation coefficient and limit of detection ranged from 0.9880 to 1 and from 0.02 to 16.04ng/mL, respectively. The precision and accuracy of intra- and inter-day experiments for the spiked samples at the range of 0.2 and 16.0ng/mL were from 0.16 to 13.50% and 0.19-11.48%, respectively, with relative standard deviation. Mean recoveries ranged from 81.6 to 124.7%, and relative standard deviation was less than 9.20%. The screening and confirmation method demonstrated the usefulness of UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS combined with ECICs as a promising approach for the analysis of multi-class adulterants. Finally, the established method was successfully applied for the monitoring of several types of dietary supplements in routine analysis.

  3. Effect of aqueous extract of Ajuga iva supplementation on plasma lipid profile and tissue antioxidant status in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chenni, A; Yahia, D Ait; Boukortt, F O; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2007-01-19

    The present study was designed to explore the possible antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (0.5% in the diet) in rats fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet (HCD). The results indicated that the HCD-Ai versus HCD treatment led to many changes in biochemical parameters. They showed a decrease of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and VLDL-cholesterol but an increase of HDL(2)-cholesterol. The triacylglycerol contents were reduced in plasma and in VLDL. The lipid peroxidation determined by TBARS was decreased by 75% in plasma. TBARS in liver, heart and kidneys were highly reduced excepted in the adipose tissue. Ajuga iva treatment enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in liver and kidney. Glutathione reductase activity was lowered in adipose tissue but increased in liver and in kidney. A significant increase was noted in glutathione peroxidase activity in liver, heart and kidney but a low value in adipose tissue was observed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that in addition to its potent TG and TC-lowering effects, Ajuga iva is effective in improving the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation in plasma and tissues and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes in rats fed high-cholesterol diet. Furthermore, Ajuga iva may reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption.

  4. The safety of green tea extract supplementation in postmenopausal women at risk for breast cancer: results of the Minnesota Green Tea Trial.

    PubMed

    Dostal, Allison M; Samavat, Hamed; Bedell, Sarah; Torkelson, Carolyn; Wang, Renwei; Swenson, Karen; Le, Chap; Wu, Anna H; Ursin, Giske; Yuan, Jian-Min; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2015-09-01

    Green tea is thought to provide health benefits, though adverse reactions to green tea extract (GTE) have been reported. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of GTE on breast cancer biomarkers, including mammographic density, in which 1075 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to consume GTE containing 843 mg (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) or placebo daily for one year. There were no significant differences in % of women with adverse events (AEs, 75.6% and 72.8% of the GTE group and placebo group, respectively) or serious AEs (2.2 % and 1.5% of GTE and placebo groups, respectively). Women on GTE reported significantly higher incidence of nausea (P < 0.001) and dermatologic AEs (P = 0.05) and significantly lower diarrhea incidence (P = 0.02). More women in the GTE group experienced an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation compared with placebo group (n = 36, (6.7%) vs. n = 4, (0.7%); P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in frequencies of other AEs. Overall, AEs were mainly mild and transient, indicating that daily consumption of GTE containing 843 mg EGCG is generally well tolerated by a group of predominantly Caucasian postmenopausal women. However, 6.7% of GTE consumers experienced ALT elevations, with 1.3% experiencing ALT-related serious AEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Daily consumption of an aqueous green tea extract supplement does not impair liver function or alter cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jan; George, Trevor W; Lodge, John K; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana M; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Minihane, Anne Marie; Rimbach, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Regular consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) is thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but has also been associated with liver toxicity. The present trial aimed to assess the safety and potential CVD health beneficial effects of daily GTP consumption. We conducted a placebo-controlled parallel study to evaluate the chronic effects of GTP on liver function and CVD risk biomarkers in healthy men. Volunteers (treatment: n = 17, BMI 26.7 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2), age 41 +/- 9 y; placebo, n = 16, BMI 25.4 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2), age 40 +/- 10 y) consumed for 3 wk 6 capsules per day (2 before each principal meal) containing green tea extracts (equivalent to 714 mg/d GTP) or placebo. At the beginning and end of the intervention period, we collected blood samples from fasting subjects and measured vascular tone using Laser Doppler Iontophoresis. Biomarkers of liver function and CVD risk (including blood pressure, plasma lipids, and asymmetric dimethylarginine) were unaffected by GTP consumption. After treatment, the ratio of total:HDL cholesterol was significantly reduced in participants taking GTP capsules compared with baseline. Endothelial-dependent and -independent vascular reactivity did not significantly differ between treatments. In conclusion, the present data suggests that the daily consumption of high doses of GTP by healthy men for 3 wk is safe but without effects on CVD risk biomarkers other than the total:HDL cholesterol ratio.

  6. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Webster, Diana; Wildgoose, Joanne

    2010-08-04

    and extracted the data. Six trials were found, of which three trials reporting the results of a total of 56 participants, were suitable for inclusion in the review. The blood tyrosine concentrations were significantly higher in the participants receiving tyrosine supplements than those in the placebo group, mean difference 23.46 (95% confidence interval 12.87 to 34.05). No significant differences were found between any of the other outcomes measured. From the available evidence no recommendations can be made about whether tyrosine supplementation should be introduced into routine clinical practice. Further randomised controlled studies are required to provide more evidence.

  7. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Webster, Diana; Wildgoose, Joanne

    2013-06-05

    and extracted the data. Six trials were found, of which three trials reporting the results of a total of 56 participants, were suitable for inclusion in the review. The blood tyrosine concentrations were significantly higher in the participants receiving tyrosine supplements than those in the placebo group, mean difference 23.46 (95% confidence interval 12.87 to 34.05). No significant differences were found between any of the other outcomes measured. From the available evidence no recommendations can be made about whether tyrosine supplementation should be introduced into routine clinical practice. Further randomised controlled studies are required to provide more evidence.

  8. Quercetin and Green Tea Extract Supplementation Downregulates Genes Related to Tissue Inflammatory Responses to a 12-Week High Fat-Diet in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Ghosh, Sujoy; Meaney, Mary Pat; Knab, Amy M; Shanely, R Andrew; Nieman, David C

    2017-07-19

    Quercetin (Q) and green tea extract (E) are reported to counter insulin resistance and inflammation and favorably alter fat metabolism. We investigated whether a mixture of E + Q (EQ) could synergistically influence metabolic and inflammation endpoints in a high-fat diet (HFD) fed to mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 40) were put on HFD (fat = 60%kcal) for 12 weeks and randomly assigned to Q (25 mg/kg of body weight (BW)/day), E (3 mg of epigallocatechin gallate/kg BW/day), EQ, or control groups for four weeks. At 16 weeks, insulin sensitivity was measured via the glucose tolerance test (GTT), followed by area-under-the-curve (AUC) estimations. Plasma cytokines and quercetin were also measured, along with whole genome transcriptome analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues. Univariate analyses were conducted via analysis of variance (ANOVA), and whole-genome expression profiles were examined via gene set enrichment. At 16 weeks, plasma quercetin levels were higher in Q and EQ groups vs. the control and E groups (p < 0.05). Plasma cytokines were similar among groups (p > 0.05). AUC estimations for GTT was 14% lower for Q vs. E (p = 0.0311), but non-significant from control (p = 0.0809). Genes for cholesterol metabolism and immune and inflammatory response were downregulated in Q and EQ groups vs. control in adipose tissue and soleus muscle tissue. These data support an anti-inflammatory role for Q and EQ, a result best captured when measured with tissue gene downregulation in comparison to changes in plasma cytokine levels.

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba-Moringa oleifera-Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2016-04-01

    This 60-day, 30-subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45-measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86-item self-reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of -2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba–Moringa oleifera–Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kaats, Gilbert R.; Preuss, Harry G.

    2016-01-01

    This 60‐day, 30‐subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45‐measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86‐item self‐reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X‐ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat‐free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of −2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:26871553

  11. Effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on physiology and steviol glycosides production in micropropagated shoots of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Javed, Rabia; Usman, Muhammad; Yücesan, Buhara; Zia, Muhammad; Gürel, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to address the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 or 1000 mg L(-1)) of engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (34 nm in size) on growth parameters, steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A and stevioside) production and antioxidant activities in the tissue culture grown shoots of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The highest percentage of shoot formation (89.6%) at 1 mg L(-1) of ZnO nanoparticles concentration suggests a positive influence of ZnO nanoparticles on S. rebaudiana growth as compared to other treatments with or without ZnO nanoparticles. Additionally, HPLC results illustrate a significant enhancement of steviol glycosides (almost doubled as compared to the control) in micropropagated shoots grown under an oxidative stress of 1 mg L(-1) of ZnO nanoparticles. This finding is further affirmed by an increased 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total anti-oxidant capacity, total reducing power, total flavonoid content and total phenolic content, with an ascending oxidative pressure and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the antioxidant activities, formation of secondary metabolites and the physiological parameters showed a sudden decline after crossing a threshold of 1 mg L(-1) concentration of ZnO nanoparticles and falls to a minimum at 1000 mg L(-1), elucidating maximum phytotoxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles at this concentration. This is the first study evaluating both the favorable and adverse effects of ZnO nanoparticles employed to a highly valuable medicinal plant, S. rebaudiana.

  12. Effect of decapitation and nutrient applications on shoot branching, yield, and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Pal, Probir Kumar; Prasad, Ramdeen; Pathania, Vijaylata

    2013-11-15

    The axillary buds of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) often remain dormant for a long time and sometimes remain dormant permanently until the plants enter into the reproductive stage. The present study was conducted to ascertain whether decapitation and foliar fertilization enhance the productivity and quality of stevia through breaking the apical dominance and increasing physiological activities. Ten treatment combinations comprising two cultural operations (non-decapitation and decapitation) and five foliar spray treatments (water spray control, KNO3 @ 5.0gL(-1), Ca(NO3)2 @ 4.06gL(-1), CuSO4·5H2O 2.0gL(-1) and (NH4)6Mo7O24 @ 1.0gL(-1)) were applied. The decapitation of apical buds of stevia increased the branches and increased dry leaf yield by 13 and 17% compared with non-decapitation during 2010 and 2011, respectively, without affecting quality. Foliar application of nutrient solutions also exerted a considerable effect on growth parameters, yield attributes and chlorophyll content, and significantly (P=0.05) higher dry leaf yield ranging from 8 to 26% over the control. Among the foliar spray treatments, KNO3 @ 5.0gL(-1) and Ca (NO3)2 4.06gL(-1) were found most effective in dry leaf yield. Thus, the decapitation of apical buds and foliar application of KNO3 and Ca (NO3)2 could enhance the productivity of stevia through improving the growth of axillary buds and physiological activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. A rapid HPLC post-column reaction analysis for the quantification of ergothioneine in edible mushrooms and in animals fed a diet supplemented with extracts from the processing waste of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, The Han; Giri, Anupam; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2012-07-15

    For establishing an efficient and sensitive method for the quantitative determination of 2-thiol-l-histidine-betaine (ergothioneine, ERG) in edible mushrooms and the blood and muscles of animals, a technique using reversed-phase separation and post-column reaction between 2'-dipyridyl disulphide and ERG was developed. A corresponding derivative 2-thiopyridone, detected at 343 nm, was used for estimating ERG concentration. The flow rate, temperature, pH, and composition of the solution were optimised. A low limit of quantification (1.41 ppm) and a simpler sample preparation made this technique more rapid compared to other methods using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The coefficient of variation (CV) values for the reproducibility and recovery of ERG were within the acceptable values of 6% and 97.5-100.0%, respectively. The efficiency of this methodology was compared with that of spectrophotometric and mass-spectrometric quantitative methods, and was assessed in the light of previous studies. The ERG contents in different mushrooms were 12.69-234.85 mg/kg wet weight basis. Dietary supplementation with extracts from mushroom processing waste significantly improved ERG bioavailability in the blood of yellowtail fish and muscle tissue of cattle.

  14. Determination of the appetite suppressant P57 in Hoodia gordonii plant extracts and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MSD-TOF) and LC-UV methods.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Pawar, Rahul S; Shukla, Yatin J; Schaneberg, Brian; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2006-01-01

    Hoodia gordonii is traditionally used in South Africa for its appetite suppressant properties. P57AS3 (P57), an oxypregnane steroidal glycoside, is the only reported active constituent from this plant as an appetite suppressant. Effective quality control of these extracts or products requires rapid methods to determine P57 content. New methods of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC-UV for analysis of P57 from H. gordonii have been developed. The quantitative determination of P57 was achieved with a Phenomenex Gemini (Torrance, CA) reversed-phase column using gradient mobile phase of water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.1% acetic acid. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, and limits of detection and quantification. Good results were obtained in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation <5.0%) and recovery (98.5-103.5%). The developed methods were applied to the determination of P57 for H. gordonii plant samples, one related genus (Opuntia ficus-indica), and dietary supplements that claim to contain H. gordonii.

  15. Long-Term Supplementation of Green Tea Extract Does Not Modify Adiposity or Bone Mineral Density in a Randomized Trial of Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Dostal, Allison M; Arikawa, Andrea; Espejo, Luis; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2016-02-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) consumption has been linked to favorable changes in adiposity and bone mineral density (BMD), although it is unknown if these effects are due to green tea catechins or caffeine. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype may also modify these associations. We examined the impact of decaffeinated GTE on body composition (using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and obesity-associated hormones. The Minnesota Green Tea Trial was a 12-mo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 937 postmenopausal women (aged 50-70 y) assigned to receive either GTE containing 843 mg (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate or placebo. This substudy was conducted in 121 overweight/obese participants [body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) ≥25.0]. There were no differences in changes in BMI (-0.13 ± 0.11 compared with -0.05 ± 0.11; P = 0.61), total fat mass (-0.30 ± 0.16 compared with -0.12 ± 0.15 kg; P = 0.40), percentage of body fat (-0.15% ± 0.17% compared with -0.15% ± 0.16%; P = 0.99), or BMD (-0.006 ± 0.002 compared with -0.003 ± 0.002 g/cm(2); P = 0.49) over 12 mo between women taking GTE (n = 61) and those taking a placebo (n = 60). Interactions were observed between treatment and time for gynoid percentage of fat (%fat) and tissue %fat. Gynoid %fat increased from baseline to month 12 in the placebo group as baseline BMI increased and decreased over time as baseline BMI increased in the GTE group (P-interaction = 0.02). Tissue %fat increased from baseline to month 12 in the placebo group as baseline BMI increased. In the GTE group, tissue %fat decreased during the intervention as baseline BMI increased (P-interaction = 0.04). No changes were seen in circulating leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, or insulin concentrations. COMT genotype did not modify the effect of GTE on any variable. Decaffeinated GTE was not associated with overall reductions in adiposity or improvements in BMD in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. However, GTE may be

  16. Long-Term Supplementation of Green Tea Extract Does Not Modify Adiposity or Bone Mineral Density in a Randomized Trial of Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal Women1234

    PubMed Central

    Dostal, Allison M; Arikawa, Andrea; Espejo, Luis; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Green tea extract (GTE) consumption has been linked to favorable changes in adiposity and bone mineral density (BMD), although it is unknown if these effects are due to green tea catechins or caffeine. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype may also modify these associations. Objective: We examined the impact of decaffeinated GTE on body composition (using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and obesity-associated hormones. Methods: The Minnesota Green Tea Trial was a 12-mo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 937 postmenopausal women (aged 50–70 y) assigned to receive either GTE containing 843 mg (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate or placebo. This substudy was conducted in 121 overweight/obese participants [body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) ≥25.0]. Results: There were no differences in changes in BMI (−0.13 ± 0.11 compared with −0.05 ± 0.11; P = 0.61), total fat mass (−0.30 ± 0.16 compared with −0.12 ± 0.15 kg; P = 0.40), percentage of body fat (−0.15% ± 0.17% compared with −0.15% ± 0.16%; P = 0.99), or BMD (−0.006 ± 0.002 compared with −0.003 ± 0.002 g/cm2; P = 0.49) over 12 mo between women taking GTE (n = 61) and those taking a placebo (n = 60). Interactions were observed between treatment and time for gynoid percentage of fat (%fat) and tissue %fat. Gynoid %fat increased from baseline to month 12 in the placebo group as baseline BMI increased and decreased over time as baseline BMI increased in the GTE group (P-interaction = 0.02). Tissue %fat increased from baseline to month 12 in the placebo group as baseline BMI increased. In the GTE group, tissue %fat decreased during the intervention as baseline BMI increased (P-interaction = 0.04). No changes were seen in circulating leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, or insulin concentrations. COMT genotype did not modify the effect of GTE on any variable. Conclusions: Decaffeinated GTE was not associated with overall reductions in adiposity or improvements

  17. Does supplementation with green tea extract improve insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetics? A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chung-Hua; Liao, Ying-Li; Lin, Su-Ching; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Huang, Chien-Jung; Chou, Pesus

    2011-06-01

    Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is believed to have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, one of which is type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of a decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) providing a daily dose of 856 mg of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The clinical trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted from December 2007 through November 2008. The subjects were randomly assigned to either receive 1,500 mg of a decaffeinated GTE or placebo daily for 16 weeks. Sixty-eight of 80 subjects, ages 20-65 years with BMI > 25 kg/m2 and type 2 diabetes for more than one year, completed this study. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as the major outcome measurement. At baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment, anthropometric measurements, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C percent (HbA1C), hormone peptides, and plasma lipoproteins were measured from both groups. No statistically significant differences were detected between the decaffeinated GTE and placebo groups in any measured variable. A statistically significant within-group 0.4-percent reduction in HbA1C (from 8.4 to 8.0%) was observed after GTE treatment compared to baseline. Within-group comparison also revealed that the GTE group had significant reductions in waist circumference (WC), HOMA-IR index, and insulin level, and a significant increase in the level of ghrelin. Within-group comparison of those in the placebo group showed a significant increase in the level of ghrelin. This study found no statistical difference in any measured variable between the decaffeinated GTE and placebo groups; however, there were some statistically significant within-group changes detected. More research is required to determine whether a decaffeinated GTE standardized for EGCG content will provide any clinical benefits in obese

  18. Common Herbal Dietary Supplement-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Asher, Gary N; Corbett, Amanda H; Hawke, Roy L

    2017-07-15

    Nearly 25% of U.S. adults report concurrently taking a prescription medication with a dietary supplement. Some supplements, such as St. John's wort and goldenseal, are known to cause clinically important drug interactions and should be avoided by most patients receiving any pharmacologic therapy. However, many other supplements are predicted to cause interactions based only on in vitro studies that have not been confirmed or have been refuted in human clinical trials. Some supplements may cause interactions with a few medications but are likely to be safe with other medications (e.g., curcumin, echinacea, garlic, Asian ginseng, green tea extract, kava kava). Some supplements have a low likelihood of drug interactions and, with certain caveats, can safely be taken with most medications (e.g., black cohosh, cranberry, ginkgo, milk thistle, American ginseng, saw palmetto, valerian). Clinicians should consult reliable dietary supplement resources, or clinical pharmacists or pharmacologists, to help assess the safety of specific herbal supplement-drug combinations. Because most patients do not disclose supplement use to clinicians, the most important strategy for detecting herb-drug interactions is to develop a trusting relationship that encourages patients to discuss their dietary supplement use.

  19. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Pattanittum, Porjai; Kunyanone, Naowarat; Brown, Julie; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Barnes, Joanne; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2016-03-22

    Dysmenorrhoea refers to painful menstrual cramps and is a common gynaecological complaint. Conventional treatments include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), which both reduce myometrial activity (contractions of the uterus). A suggested alternative approach is dietary supplements. We used the term 'dietary supplement' to include herbs or other botanical, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and amino acids. We excluded traditional Chinese medicines. To determine the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements for treating dysmenorrhoea. We searched sources including the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO (all from inception to 23 March 2015), trial registries, and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary supplements for moderate or severe primary or secondary dysmenorrhoea. We excluded studies of women with an intrauterine device. Eligible comparators were other dietary supplements, placebo, no treatment, or conventional analgesia. Two review authors independently performed study selection, performed data extraction and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and adverse effects. We used a fixed-effect model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data, and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We presented data that were unsuitable for analysis either descriptively or in additional tables. We assessed the quality of the evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. We included 27 RCTs (3101 women). Most included studies were conducted amongst cohorts of students with primary dysmenorrhoea in their late teens or early twenties. Twenty-two studies were

  20. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  1. Supplemental citrulline is more efficient than arginine to increase systemic arginine availability in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arginine is considered an essential amino acid in various (patho)physiological conditions of high demand. However, dietary arginine supplementation (ARG) suffers various drawbacks, including extensive first-pass extraction. Citrulline supplementation (CIT) may be a better alternative than arginine, ...

  2. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-12-17

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined.

  3. Evaluation of supplementary stevia (Stevia rebaudiana, bertoni) leaves and stevioside in broiler diets: effects on feed intake, nutrient metabolism, blood parameters and growth performance.

    PubMed

    Atteh, J O; Onagbesan, O M; Tona, K; Decuypere, E; Geuns, J M C; Buyse, J

    2008-12-01

    A perennial schrub, stevia, and its extracts are used as a natural sweetener and have been shown to possess antimicrobial properties. Stevia contains high levels of sweetening glycosides including stevioside which is thought to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Little is known about the nutritional value of the schrub in livestock. This study determined the potential use of the shrub as a prebiotic animal feed supplement in light of the recent ban on the use of antibiotics in animal feed and the role of its constituent stevioside in the effects of the shrub. Male Cobb broiler chicks were fed a basal broiler diet without antibiotic but with performance enhancing enzyme mix (positive control), a basal diet without antibiotic and enzymes (negative control), or diets in which 2% of the negative control diet was replaced with either dried ground stevia leaves or 130 ppm pure stevioside during 2 week starter and 2 week grower periods. Body weight gains, feed conversion, abdominal fat deposition, plasma hormone and metabolites and caecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured in the broilers at 2 and 4 weeks of age. There was no significant effect of the treatments on feed intake during the starter period but birds fed diet supplemented with stevia leaves and stevioside consumed more feed (p < 0.05) than those fed the positive control diet during the grower period. Weight gain by birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was higher (p < 0.05) than those fed other diets only during the starter period. Feed/gain ratio of birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was superior (p < 0.05) to others. There was no effect of the treatments on nutrient retention and water content of the excreta. Dietary stevia leave and stevioside decreased total concentration of SCFA and changed their profile in the ceca. There was no effect of the treatments on pancreas weight. Dietary stevia reduced blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and

  4. Levels of supplementation for grazing beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Valente, Eriton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain.

  5. Characterization of Stevia leaves by LC-QTOF MS/MS analysis of polar and non-polar extracts.

    PubMed

    Molina-Calle, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2017-03-15

    Stevia is currently a well-known plant thanks to its sweeting power. Numerous studies that elucidate its composition were exclusively focused on determination of steviol and its glycosides. Untargeted analysis was applied to obtain a profile of main compounds present in extracts from Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) leaves using LC-MS in high resolution mode with a quadrupole-time of flight analyzer. Eighty-nine compounds were tentatively identified and classified into different families: flavonoids; quinic and caffeic acids and derivatives; diterpenoids (including steviol and glycosides); sesquiterpenoids; amino acids and derivatives; fatty amides and derivatives; fatty acids and derivatives; oligosaccharides; glycerolipids; purines; and retinoids. New steviol glycosides were tentatively identified and their possible structures proposed. Other compounds were tentatively identified in Stevia for the first time, such as fatty acid amides. These results reveal the wide range of compounds present in Stevia, which could be responsible for the nutraceutical effects ascribed to their leaves.

  6. Neurotoxicity of Dietary Supplements from Annonaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Höllerhage, Matthias; Rösler, Thomas W; Berjas, Magda; Luo, Rensheng; Tran, Kevin; Richards, Kristy M; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U; Maia, José Guilherme S; Moraes, Maria Rosa de; Godoy, Helena T; Höglinger, Günter U; Smith, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements containing plant materials of Annonaceae species (Annona muricata L., A. squamosa L., A. mucosa JACQ., A. squamosa × cherimola Mabb.) were extracted by hot, pressurized ethyl acetate and analyzed for their effect in vitro on Lund human mesencephalic neurons. Cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell death was determined by lactate dehydrogenase levels. Three supplements strongly decreased the cell viability at extract concentrations of 1 µg/mL, of which 1 decreased cell viability at 0.1 µg/µL. Also, strong neuronal toxicities of these supplements were found. Cell death was observed at concentrations of 10 µg/mL. The degree of toxicity was comparable to the ones found in Annonaceous fruit extracts. Two fruit pulps of Annonaceae (A. muricata and A. squamosa) showed a reduction in cell viability at lower concentrations. The fruit pulp extract of A. muricata revealed the strongest neurotoxic effect, with 67% cell death at a concentration of 1 µg/mL. A high reduction in cell viability coupled with pronounced cell death was found at 0.1 µg/mL for an Annonaceous seed extract. These results demonstrate that the intake of dietary supplements containing plant material from Annonaceae may be hazardous to health in terms of neurotoxicity.

  7. Grape Seed Extract Supplementation and the Effects on the Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Profiles in Female Volleyball Players: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Malekian, Elaheh; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Asemi, Zatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Only limited data are available for evaluating the effects of the administration of grape seed extract (GSE) on the metabolic status of female volleyball players. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the effects of GSE administration on the metabolic status of female volleyball players. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 40 female volleyball players. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, with members of the test group (n = 20) taking 300 mg of GSE twice a day for eight weeks and members of the control group (n = 20) taking a placebo pearl for the same period. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the eight-week intervention period in order to determine the related variables. Results Supplementation with GSE resulted in a significant rise in the plasma glutathione (GSH) level (+265.5 ± 344.2 vs. +2.2 ± 378.2 µmol/L, P = 0.02), as well as a significant decrease in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level (-1.4 ± 2.0 vs. -0.2 ± 1.2 µmol/L, P = 0.01) when compared to the placebo group. In addition, when compared to the group that received the placebo, the subjects who received GSE had significantly decreased serum insulin concentrations (-23.4 ± 23.4 vs. +1.8 ± 25.2 pmol/L, P = 0.002), a decreased homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0.7 ± 0.7 vs. +0.2 ± 0.9, P = 0.002), and an increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+0.01 ± 0.01 vs. -0.01 ± 0.02, P = 0.03). The administration of GSE had no significant effects on creatine phosphokinase (CPK), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxide (NO), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and lipid concentrations when compared with the administration of the placebo. However, after controlling for baseline NO levels, age, and baseline BMI, the changes in the plasma NO concentrations were significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions In conclusion, taking GSE

  8. Isolation and characterization of inulin with a high degree of polymerization from roots of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Sheila M S; Krausová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojtěch; Gonçalves, José E; Gonçalves, Regina A C; de Oliveira, Arildo J B

    2015-06-26

    The polysaccharide inulin has great importance in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The degree of polymerization (DP) of inulin influences important properties, such as, solubility, thermal stability, sweetness power and prebiotic activity. Molecules with a high degree of polymerization are obtained through physical techniques for enrichment of the inulin chains because they are not commonly obtained from plants extract. Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis showed that inulin from Stevia rebaudiana roots has a degree of polymerization (DPn 28) higher than the value of DPn 12-15 for inulins from other plant species. Furthermore, the methodology of freeze/thaw to enrich the chains allowed us to increase the DP, similarly to other methodologies used for the enrichment of inulin chains. The prebiotic assays confirm that inulin from S. rebaudiana has a high DP. The combined use of these molecules with low degree of polymerization fructans seems to be advantageous to prolong the prebiotic effect in the colon. Our results suggest that S. rebaudiana roots are a promising source of high degree polymerization inulins.

  9. Preventive effects of a soy-based diet supplemented with stevioside on the development of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Dyrskog, Stig Eric Underbjerg; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Colombo, Michele; Abudula, Reziwanggu; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2005-09-01

    The world witnesses an explosive increase in diabetes, demanding intensified prevention and treatment not least for the low-income population. The plant, Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, has been used for the treatment of diabetes in traditional medicine. We have previously demonstrated that stevioside, a diterpene glycoside isolated from the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, possesses insulinotropic, glucagonostatic, antihyperglycemic, and blood pressure-lowering effects in animal studies. We have also found that a dietary supplement, Abalon, of soy protein, isoflavones, and cotyledon fiber has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk markers in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate if the combination of stevioside and a dietary supplement of soy protein possesses beneficial qualities in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. We randomized male Zucker diabetic fatty rats into 4 groups and fed them the different test diets for 10 weeks: (A) standard carbohydrate-rich laboratory diet (chow), (B) chow+stevioside (0.03 g/kg body weight [BW] per day), (C) 50% soy (Abalon)+50% chow (adjusted for vitamins and minerals), and (D) 50% soy (Abalon)+50% chow+stevioside 0.03 g/kg BW per day. We measured plasma glucose, blood pressure, weight, and food intake once weekly. The animals were equipped with an intra-arterial catheter, and at week 10, the conscious rats underwent an intra-arterial glucose tolerance test (2.0 g/kg BW). Stevioside exerts beneficial effects in type 2 diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty rats, that is, lowers blood glucose (area under the glucose curve [AUC(30min)]: group A vs B, a 19% reduction; and group C vs D, a 12% reduction; P<.001). We did not detect any effect on insulin or glucagon responses. After 2 weeks of treatment, a decrease in the systolic blood pressure was observed in the stevioside-treated groups (P<.01). Abalon had beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk markers, that is, (1) lowers total cholesterol (P

  10. Validation of HPLC-UV method for determination of minor glycosides contained in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    PubMed

    Aranda-González, Irma; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2015-05-01

    Leaves of Stevia rebaudiana contain glycosides with sweetness and biological activity. However besides the major glycosides, there are other glycosides within extracts that may contribute to its activity, and therefore it is important to quantify them. In this work, an isocratic HPLC method was validated for determination of dulcoside A, steviolbioside, rebaudioside C and rebaudioside B. An HPLC method was performed using a C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, particle size 5 µm) and a UV detector set at 210 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a 32:68 (v/v) mixture of acetonitrile and sodium phosphate buffer (10 mmol/L, pH 2.6), set to a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The calculated parameters were: sensitivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy and precision. The calibration curves were linear over the working range 25-150 µg/mL, with coefficient of correlation of ≥0.99 and coefficient of determination of ≥0.98. The LOD was 5.68-8.81 µg/mL, while the LOQ was 17.21-26.69 µg/mL. The percentage recoveries of fortified samples were 100 ± 10% and precision, relative standard deviation, was <10%. The method validation showed accuracy, linearity and precision; therefore this method can be applied for quantitative analysis of minor steviol glycosides in S. rebaudiana leaves. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  12. Comparison of reduced sugar high quality chocolates sweetened with stevioside and crude stevia 'green' extract.

    PubMed

    Torri, Luisa; Frati, Alessandra; Ninfali, Paolino; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Morini, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The demand for zero and reduced-sugar food products containing cocoa is expanding continuously. The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing high-quality chocolate sweetened with a crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) prepared by a green microwave-assisted water-steam extraction procedure. Seven approximately isosweet chocolate formulations were developed, mixing cocoa paste, sucrose, commercial stevioside, crude green extract and maltitol in different proportions. All samples were analyzed for the determination of polyphenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and sensory acceptability. The use of a crude stevia extract allowed low-sugar, high-quality chocolates to be obtained that were also acceptable by consumers and had a significant increased antioxidant activity. Moreover, consumers' segmentation revealed a cluster of consumers showing the same overall liking for the sample with 50% sucrose replaced by the stevia crude extract as that obtained with the commercial stevioside and the control sample (without sucrose replacement). The results provide information that can contribute to promoting the development of sweet food products, with advantages in terms of an improved nutritional value (reduced sugar content and increased antioxidant activity) and a reduced impact of the production process on the environment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Evaluation of selenium in dietary supplements using elemental speciation.

    PubMed

    Kubachka, Kevin M; Hanley, Traci; Mantha, Madhavi; Wilson, Robert A; Falconer, Travis M; Kassa, Zena; Oliveira, Aline; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Selenium-enriched dietary supplements containing various selenium compounds are readily available to consumers. To ensure proper selenium intake and consumer confidence, these dietary supplements must be safe and have accurate label claims. Varying properties among selenium species requires information beyond total selenium concentration to fully evaluate health risk/benefits A LC-ICP-MS method was developed and multiple extraction methods were implemented for targeted analysis of common "seleno-amino acids" and related oxidation products, selenate, selenite, and other species relatable to the quality and/or accuracy of the labeled selenium ingredients. Ultimately, a heated water extraction was applied to recover selenium species from non-selenized yeast supplements in capsule, tablet, and liquid forms. For selenized yeast supplements, inorganic selenium was monitored as a means of assessing selenium yeast quality. A variety of commercially available selenium supplements were evaluated and discrepancies between labeled ingredients and detected species were noted.

  14. Supplements and athletes.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John A

    2004-09-01

    Supplements have become a staple with athletes. Athletes take supplements to enhance their performance through replenishment of real and perceived deficiencies, anabolic action of stimulants, increased energy and alertness, and for weight control. Physicians who deal with athletes should be aware of the supplements being utilized by athletes, the athletes' desired effects and the efficacy of the supplement, the adverse effects, and whether the supplement is banned by leagues or organizations in which the athletes are competing. For those athletes who are regularly drug tested for performance enhancers, it is important to remember that one cannot be 100% sure that any supplement will not result in a positive drug test, because there is no independent agency certifying purity.

  15. Opinion paper food supplements: the European regulation and its application in France. Thoughts on safety of food supplements.

    PubMed

    Maixent, J M

    2012-06-30

    The first definition of food supplements in France was established by decree 96-307 of April 10th 1996. In 2002, the European Community adopted a regulation for food supplements (European Directive 2002/46/CE June 10th). This was an important event in the regulation of food supplements. The European regulation was adopted in France, with some modifications, by decree 2006-352 of March 20th 2006. The European Regulation on food supplements is more defined than those for any other food types and is exemplary. The Regulation on addition of vitamins and minerals to food differs from the regulation on the addition of other substances such as amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibers, carbohydrates, various plant, and herbal extracts. While the Regulation includes vitamins and minerals to the positive list of supplements, other substances are included in the negative list of supplements. According to the Regulation, substances added to food supplements must have a nutritional or physiological effect. The increased use of food supplements led to the creation of a department specialized in the safety of food supplement. The safety of food supplements is a permanent concern for sanitary authorities. These authorities have recently combined scientific methodological approaches and a collective expertise to implement and monitor simple and useful rules that insure consumer's safety. Safety laws aim to protect the consumers of food supplements.

  16. Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.

    PubMed

    Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA.

  17. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  18. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  19. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to take. If you experience any side effects that concern you, stop taking the dietary supplement, and contact your health care provider. You can report serious problems suspected with dietary supplements to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of ...

  20. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  1. Determination of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in algal food supplements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H.; Scott, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    For the analysis of blue–green algal food supplements for cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a C18 solid-phase extraction column and a polygraphitized carbon solid-phase extraction column in series was an effective procedure for the clean-up of extracts. Determination of CYN was by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet light detection. At extract spiking levels of CYN equivalent to 25–500 μg g−1, blue–green algal supplement recoveries were in the range 70–90%. CYN was not detected in ten samples of food supplements and one chocolate product, all containing blue–green algae. The limit of detection for the method was 16 μg g−1, and the limit of quantification was 52 μg g−1. PMID:21623503

  2. Determination of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in algal food supplements.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Scott, P M

    2011-06-01

    For the analysis of blue-green algal food supplements for cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a C18 solid-phase extraction column and a polygraphitized carbon solid-phase extraction column in series was an effective procedure for the clean-up of extracts. Determination of CYN was by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet light detection. At extract spiking levels of CYN equivalent to 25-500 µg g(-1), blue-green algal supplement recoveries were in the range 70-90%. CYN was not detected in ten samples of food supplements and one chocolate product, all containing blue-green algae. The limit of detection for the method was 16 µg g(-1), and the limit of quantification was 52 µg g(-1).

  3. Levels of Supplementation for Grazing Beef Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Valente, Ériton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain. PMID:25050018

  4. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  5. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Melton, Genevieve B

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists.

  6. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists. PMID:26958277

  7. Term Coverage of Dietary Supplements Ingredients in Product Labels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yefeng; Adam, Terrence J; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the clinical application and consumption of dietary supplements has grown, their side effects and possible interactions with prescribed medications has become a serious issue. Information extraction of dietary supplement related information is a critical need to support dietary supplement research. However, there currently is not an existing terminology for dietary supplements, placing a barrier for informatics research in this field. The terms related to dietary supplement ingredients should be collected and normalized before a terminology can be established to facilitate convenient search on safety information and control possible adverse effects of dietary supplements. In this study, the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) was chosen as the data source from which the ingredient information was extracted and normalized. The distribution based on the product type and the ingredient type of the dietary supplements were analyzed. The ingredient terms were then mapped to the existing terminologies, including UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT by using MetaMap and RxMix. The large gap between existing terminologies and ingredients were found: only 14.67%, 19.65%, and 12.88% of ingredient terms were covered by UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT, respectively.

  8. Term Coverage of Dietary Supplements Ingredients in Product Labels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yefeng; Adam, Terrence J.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the clinical application and consumption of dietary supplements has grown, their side effects and possible interactions with prescribed medications has become a serious issue. Information extraction of dietary supplement related information is a critical need to support dietary supplement research. However, there currently is not an existing terminology for dietary supplements, placing a barrier for informatics research in this field. The terms related to dietary supplement ingredients should be collected and normalized before a terminology can be established to facilitate convenient search on safety information and control possible adverse effects of dietary supplements. In this study, the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) was chosen as the data source from which the ingredient information was extracted and normalized. The distribution based on the product type and the ingredient type of the dietary supplements were analyzed. The ingredient terms were then mapped to the existing terminologies, including UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT by using MetaMap and RxMix. The large gap between existing terminologies and ingredients were found: only 14.67%, 19.65%, and 12.88% of ingredient terms were covered by UMLS, RxNorm and NDF-RT, respectively. PMID:28269965

  9. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; da Silva Lopes, Katharina; Ota, Erika; Takemoto, Yo; Rumbold, Alice; Takegata, Mizuki; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-06

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review were to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (6 November 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation during pregnancy with one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions. We have included supplementation that started prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The quality of evidence is included for numerical results of outcomes included in the 'Summary of findings' tables. We included a total of 40 trials (involving 276,820 women and 278,413 pregnancies) assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Eight trials were cluster-randomised and contributed data for 217,726 women and 219,267 pregnancies in total.Approximately half of the included trials were assessed to have a low risk of bias for both random sequence generation and adequate concealment of participants to treatment and control groups. Vitamin C supplementation There was no difference in the risk of total fetal loss (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.40, seven trials, 18,949 women; high-quality evidence); early or late miscarriage (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.65 to 1

  10. Regular consumption of HolisFiit, a polyphenol-rich extract-based food supplement, improves mind and body well-being of overweight and slightly obese volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, parallel trial.

    PubMed

    Romain, Cindy; Alcaraz, Pedro Emilio; Chung, Linda Haiwon; Cases, Julien

    2017-02-23

    Modern lifestyles face growing demands for natural solutions to help improve general well-being. Accordingly, mind-body activities such as yoga have considerably grown. However, beneficial effects require regular workout. Besides, literature suggests that polyphenols may demonstrate positive effects on both mental and physical health. Overweight and obese volunteers, for which well-being might be perceived degraded, were included in a 16-week double-blind, randomized and parallel trial with a daily supplementation of HolisFiit(®), a polyphenol-rich food supplement. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technology; well-being was evaluated with both, Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and components from Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36). Body composition significantly rebalanced by 7.7% (p = .019) of the lean-to-fat mass ratio. Also, sleep quality significantly improved by 43% (p = .00015) as well as both physical and mental components from SF-36, respectively by 10% (p = .004) and 7% (p = .021). These data altogether, suggest that regular consumption of HolisFiit(®), might significantly improve mind and body well-being.

  11. Dietary supplements for football.

    PubMed

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  12. Supplements for exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  14. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    PubMed

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  15. Oral calorie supplements for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Rosalind L; Walters, Sarah

    2012-10-17

    Poor nutrition occurs frequently in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with other adverse outcomes. Oral calorie supplements are used to increase total daily calorie intake and improve weight gain. However, they are expensive and there are concerns they may reduce the amount of food eaten and not improve overall energy intake. To establish whether in people with CF, oral calorie supplements: increase daily calorie intake; and improve overall nutritional intake, nutritional indices, lung function, survival and quality of life. To assess adverse effects associated with using these supplements. We searched the Cochrane CF Trials Register comprising references from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We contacted companies marketing oral calorie supplements.Last search: 19 July 2012. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing use of oral calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with no specific intervention or additional nutritional advice in people with CF. We independently selected the included trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted the authors of included trials and obtained additional information for two trials. We identified 21 trials and included three, reporting results from 131 participants. There were no significant differences between people receiving supplements or dietary advice alone for change in weight, height, body mass index, z score or other indices of nutrition or growth. Changes in weight (kg) at three, six and twelve months respectively were: MD 0.32 (95% CI -0.09 to 0.72); MD 0.47 (95% CI -0.07 to 1.02 ); and MD 0.16 (-0.68 to 1.00). Total calorie intake was greater in people taking supplements at 12 months, MD 265.70 (95% CI 42.94 to 488.46). There were no significant differences between the groups for anthropometric measures of body composition, lung function

  16. Parenteral iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kumpf, V J

    1996-08-01

    Indications for the use of parenteral iron are limited to conditions in which the oral supplementation of iron is not possible or fails. An overview of iron balance and iron requirements is presented to describe situations in which iron supplementation may be required. When parenteral iron supplementation is required, careful attention to proper dosing and administration is necessary to optimize efficacy and safety. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding the clinical use of parenteral iron therapy and provide guidelines on dosing and administration. Methods of iron dextran administration, including the IV and intramuscular injection of undiluted drug and total dose infusion, are compared. Complications associated with the use of parenteral iron are also be reviewed. Finally, the use of iron supplementation in patients receiving parenteral nutrition care explored.

  17. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and can ... Drinking large quantities of milk may lead to iron deficiency anemia, as the child will be less interested ...

  18. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  19. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  20. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to synthesize additional vitamin D through routine sunlight exposure. However, published reports of cases of vitamin ... a vitamin supplement or from adequate exposure to sunlight. A number of factors decrease the amount of ...

  1. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2005familydoctor.org editorial staffOver-the-counter ProductsDrug-Nutrient Interactions and Drug-Supplement Interactions | Drug Interactions with St. John's WortOctober 2016October 2016familydoctor. ...

  2. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  3. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  4. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... has certain safety monitoring responsibilities. These include monitoring mandatory reporting of serious adverse events by dietary supplement ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  5. Supernumerary and supplemental teeth: case report.

    PubMed

    Lo Giudice, G; Nigrone, V; Longo, A; Cicciù, M

    2008-06-01

    This is to report the case of a ten year old child affected by a numeric dental anomaly showing the pathologic condition characterised by the simultaneous presence of supernumerary and supplemental teeth. The anomaly was analysed to plan the best surgical and orthodontic treatments. Dental history, clinical and instrumental examinations were made to perform a correct orthodontic examination and diagnosis. A young patient was affected by numeric dental anomaly in the upper jaw. We observed a high number of teeth, specifically two normally formed supplemental lateral permanent incisors and an unerupted mesiodens placed between the upper central incisors. Firstly, the supplemental lateral teeth were extracted. This surgical therapy and the application of a space maintainer were made to permit the eruption of the permanent canines. Then the mesiodens also underwent surgical treatment (i.e. extraction). Eventually, physiologic eruption of permanent teeth was allowed by the planned surgical-orthodontic treatment. Aim of the surgical-orthodontic treatment was extraction of the unerupted supernumerary teeth to obtain the physiologic eruption of the permanent ones. Orthodontic treatment is important to solve malocclusions and maintaining the space for the eruption of permanent teeth. Aesthetics and function are two important parameters in modern dentistry. All clinicians should try to make a correct and rational diagnosis for both simple and complex dental pathologies. Particularly in young children, invasive and surgical disinclusive techniques can be substituted by interceptive orthodontic treatments.

  6. Knowledge of dietary supplement label information among female supplement users.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carla K; Russell, Teri

    2004-03-01

    The use of dietary supplements is a popular form of health behavior, especially among women. Little research has been conducted to determine consumers' comprehension of supplement label information. Therefore, this research evaluated comprehension of supplement label information among women 25-45 years of age who consumed a dietary supplement > or =4 times per week. Participants (n=51) completed a written questionnaire about supplement practices, a 10-item knowledge test, and an individual interview about terms used on supplement labels. Participants answered 70% of the questions correctly on the knowledge test indicating adequate knowledge of dietary sources of nutrients. Knowledge of recommended dosages, dosing instructions, and instructions about inappropriate use of supplements for certain people also was adequate. However, misconceptions regarding the term "natural" on supplement labels, product claims, and testing for product safety existed among participants. Supplement users need additional education about supplement claims and testing for product safety and efficacy to make informed health care choices.

  7. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Thomas W. A.; Borisenko, Alex V.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    Background DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious. Methods We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components. Results All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven–by NGS). NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components. Conclusion Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product

  8. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

  9. [Dietary supplements--evaluation of patient inquiries at a drug information service].

    PubMed

    Goltz, L; Schröder, J; Kirch, W

    2012-04-01

    Dietary supplements are a product group of foods, which are meant to supplement the general nutrition with micronutrients and other substances. They are widely used in Germany. We evaluated the frequency of their use and of information requirements concerning dietary supplements in patients who contacted the independent drug information service at TU Dresden. All inquiries from 2008 to 2010 were evaluated regarding information requirement about dietary supplements, the kind of products used and characteristics of patients using supplements. Sociodemographic characteristics, kind and number of drugs and dietary supplements as well as underlying diseases were recorded from the inquiring patients. 23.3 % of persons looking for advice used dietary supplements. The most frequently used product groups included vitamins and minerals (52.5 %) as well as plant extracts (14.0 %). Information requirements were especially high for plant extracts and for products containing glucosamine/chondroitin and lutein/zeaxanthin. Users of dietary supplements were exposed to a higher number of different products than non-users. Information requirements were primarily detected for products without clearly proven benefits or for supplements which are advertised to relieve certain diseases or symptoms although the product characteristics do not support such utilization. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among patients which already receive multiple medications substantiates the necessity to include dietary supplements in assessments of drug interactions and to scrutinize indications for supplement use. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Dietary supplementation with fermented soybeans suppresses intimal thickening.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kazunao; Ichise, Hideyuki; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori; Urano, Tetsumei; Umemura, Kazuo

    2003-03-01

    Although soy foods have been consumed for more than 1000 y, it is only in the past 20 y that they have made inroads into Western diets. We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with natto extracts produced from fermented soybeans on intimal thickening of arteries after vessel endothelial denudation. Natto extracts include nattokinase, a potent fibrinolytic enzyme having four times greater fibrinolytic activity than plasmin. Intimal thickening was induced in the femoral arteries by intravenous infusion of rose bengal followed by focal irradiation with a transluminal green light. Dietary natto extract supplementation was started 3 wk before endothelial injury and continued for another 3 wk after. In ex vivo studies, euglobulin clot lysis times were measured 3 wk after the initial supplementation. Neointima formation and thickening were also initiated successfully. The intima media ratio 3 wk after endothelial injury was 0.15 +/- 0.03 in the control group. Dietary natto extract supplementation suppressed intimal thickening (0.06 +/- 0.01; P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Natto extracts shortened euglobulin clot lysis time, suggesting that their thrombolytic activities were enhanced. These findings suggest that natto extracts, because of their thrombolytic activity, suppress intimal thickening after vascular injury as a result of the inhibition of mural thrombi formation.

  11. Supplement Use and Risk of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Maryam M.; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Warton, E. Margaret; Friedman, Gary D.; White, Emily

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Laboratory and epidemiologic studies suggest that certain dietary supplements may alter risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). OBJECTIVE To examine the association between supplement use and SCC risk. METHODS Cases (n= 415) were defined as Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) members with a pathology-verified SCC in 2004 and controls (n=415) were age, gender, and race-matched members with no previous history of skin cancer. Supplement use and SCC risk factors were ascertained by questionnaire. Associations of SCC with use of multivitamins, vitamins A, C, D and E, and grape seed extract were estimated as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using conditional logistic regression. Models were adjusted for SCC risk factors and other supplement use. RESULTS Grape seed extract users had a significantly decreased risk of cutaneous SCC (adjusted OR = 0.26, CI: 0.08-0.89, p=0.031). Multivitamin use was associated with a borderline significant reduction in SCC risk (adjusted OR = 0.71, CI: 0.51-1.00, p= 0.049). Use of vitamins A, C, D, and E was not associated with SCC risk. LIMITATIONS The data may be prone to recall and selection bias due to the case-control design. No information was obtained on dose or duration of supplement use. CONCLUSIONS Use of grape seed extract may be associated with a decreased risk of cutaneous SCC. The other supplements included in our study did not reveal clear associations with SCC risk. PMID:21664718

  12. Fluid supplementation for neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Nai Ming; Ahmad Kamar, Azanna; Choo, Yao Mun; Kong, Juin Yee; Ngim, Chin Fang

    2017-08-01

    Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia is a common problem which carries a risk of neurotoxicity. Certain infants who have hyperbilirubinaemia develop bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus which may lead to long-term disability. Phototherapy is currently the mainstay of treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Among the adjunctive measures to compliment the effects of phototherapy, fluid supplementation has been proposed to reduce serum bilirubin levels. The mechanism of action proposed includes direct dilutional effects of intravenous (IV) fluids, or enhancement of peristalsis to reduce enterohepatic circulation by oral fluid supplementation. To assess the risks and benefits of fluid supplementation compared to standard fluid management in term and preterm newborn infants with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia who require phototherapy. We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 7 June 2017), Embase (1980 to 7 June 2017), and CINAHL (1982 to 7 June 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. We included randomised controlled trials that compared fluid supplementation against no fluid supplementation, or one form of fluid supplementation against another. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group using the Covidence platform. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the retrieved records. We expressed our results using mean difference (MD), risk difference (RD), and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Out of 1449 articles screened, seven studies were included. Three articles were awaiting classification, among them, two completed trials identified from the trial registry appeared to be unpublished so far.There were

  13. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Authentication of Ginkgo biloba herbal dietary supplements using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P

    2014-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (known as ginkgo or maidenhair tree) is a phylogenetically isolated, charismatic, gymnosperm tree. Herbal dietary supplements, prepared from G. biloba leaves, are consumed to boost cognitive capacity via improved blood perfusion and mitochondrial function. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay was designed and validated for the authentication of G. biloba in herbal dietary supplements (n = 22; sensitivity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00; specificity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.64-1.00). This assay was further used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled ginkgo herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America: DNA amenable to PCR could not be extracted from three (7.5%) of the 40 supplements sampled, 31 of 37 (83.8%) assayable supplements contained identifiable G. biloba DNA, and six supplements (16.2%) contained fillers without any detectable G. biloba DNA. It is hoped that this assay will be used by supplement manufacturers to ensure that their supplements contain G. biloba.

  15. DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  16. [Potential interactions between drugs and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Farghali, Hassan; Kameníková, Ludmila; Hodis, Jiří; Kutinová Canová, Nikolina

    2014-01-01

    Purified active plant constituents were isolated and assessed for their pharmacological activities that constitute a basis of modern drug development. The situation with herbal supplements is different because the extract or dried herb or mixture of herbs contains several substances beside the beneficial one(s) that might produce drug interaction with the conventional medicine(s). Most patients are misinformed and believe that anything "natural" must be safe. This article is focusing on plant-based substances referred as dietary supplements (DS). Examples of reported drug interactions and contraindications associated with DS with two case studies are presented. As supplements are typically not prescribed, many doctors seem to have no interest in drug-DS interactions since a typical medical history of the patients does not include any questions about self-prescribed remedies of this nature. Rather, patients are left alone when they are tempted to try this or that DS and tend to rely on advice from friends, or on material they read on internet. A better quality control, compliance, public awareness and healthcare professionals vigilance for potential interactions are needed. It is of utmost importance to appreciate the impact of supplements on different stages of pharmacokinetics, especially on drug absorption and metabolism.

  17. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of Pycnogenol dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Song, Fenhong; Lin, Long-Ze

    2009-01-01

    The bark of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) has been widely used as a remedy for various degenerative diseases. A standard high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure for Pycnogenol analysis is a method specified in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) monograph, which requires measurement of peak areas and identification of four components of the extract: caffeic acid, catechin, ferulic acid, and taxifolin. In this study, a fingerprint analysis using an HPLC method based on the USP monograph has been developed to provide additional qualitative information for the analysis of Pycnogenol-containing dietary supplements (PDS). Twelve commercially available PDS samples were purchased and analyzed along with a standard Pycnogenol extract. Their chromatographic fingerprints were analyzed using principal component analysis. The results showed that two of the samples were not consistent with the standard reference Pycnogenol extract. One contained other active ingredients in addition to Pycnogenol, and the other may have resulted from a quality control issue in manufacturing.

  18. Glutamine supplementation to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Moe-Byrne, Thirimon; Brown, Jennifer V E; McGuire, William

    2016-04-18

    Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid. Endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress. Evidence exists that glutamine supplementation improves clinical outcomes in critically ill adults. It has been suggested that glutamine supplementation may also benefit preterm infants. To determine the effects of glutamine supplementation on mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2015, Issue 12), MEDLINE, EMBASE and Maternity and Infant Care (to December 2015), conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared glutamine supplementation versus no glutamine supplementation in preterm infants at any time from birth to discharge from hospital. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We synthesised data using a fixed-effect model and reported typical relative risk, typical risk difference and weighted mean difference. We identified 12 randomised controlled trials in which a total of 2877 preterm infants participated. Six trials assessed enteral glutamine supplementation and six trials assessed parenteral glutamine supplementation. The trials were generally of good methodological quality. Meta-analysis did not find an effect of glutamine supplementation on mortality (typical relative risk 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.17; risk difference 0.00, 95% confidence interval -0.03 to 0.02) or major neonatal morbidities including the incidence of invasive infection or necrotising enterocolitis. Three trials that assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes in children aged 18 to 24 months and beyond did not find any effects. The available trial data do not provide evidence that glutamine

  19. Glutamine supplementation to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Moe-Byrne, Thirimon; Brown, Jennifer V E; McGuire, William

    2016-01-12

    Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid. Endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress. Evidence exists that glutamine supplementation improves clinical outcomes in critically ill adults. It has been suggested that glutamine supplementation may also benefit preterm infants. To determine the effects of glutamine supplementation on mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2015, Issue 12), MEDLINE, EMBASE and Maternity and Infant Care (to December 2015), conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared glutamine supplementation versus no glutamine supplementation in preterm infants at any time from birth to discharge from hospital. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We synthesised data using a fixed-effect model and reported typical relative risk, typical risk difference and weighted mean difference. We identified 12 randomised controlled trials in which a total of 2877 preterm infants participated. Six trials assessed enteral glutamine supplementation and six trials assessed parenteral glutamine supplementation. The trials were generally of good methodological quality. Meta-analysis did not find an effect of glutamine supplementation on mortality (typical relative risk 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.17; risk difference 0.00, 95% confidence interval -0.03 to 0.02) or major neonatal morbidities including the incidence of invasive infection or necrotising enterocolitis. Three trials that assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes in children aged 18 to 24 months and beyond did not find any effects. The available trial data do not provide evidence that glutamine

  20. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Gomez Malave, Heber; Flores-Urrutia, Monica C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-10-19

    Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women in low- and middle-income countries. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation has been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2015), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 July 2015) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (31 July 2015). Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. This review includes 27 trials from 15 countries, but only 21 trials (with 5490 women) contributed data to the review. All studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. The methodological quality of included studies was mixed and most had high levels of attrition.The overall assessment of the quality of the evidence for primary infant outcomes was low and for maternal outcomes very low.Of the 21 trials contributing data, three studies provided intermittent iron alone, 14 intermittent iron + folic acid and four intermittent iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals in comparison with the same composition of supplements provided in a daily regimen.Overall, for women receiving any intermittent

  1. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B

    2015-01-18

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 08 October 2014. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a cross-over design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels to the normal range after one month of

  2. Zinc supplements for preventing otitis media.

    PubMed

    Gulani, Anjana; Sachdev, Harshpal S

    2014-06-29

    Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear and is usually caused by infection. It affects people of all ages but is particularly common in young children. Around 164 million people worldwide have long-term hearing loss caused by this condition, 90% of them in low-income countries. As zinc supplements prevent pneumonia in disadvantaged children, we wanted to investigate whether zinc supplements could also prevent otitis media. To evaluate whether zinc supplements prevent otitis media in adults and children of different ages. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to February week 4, 2014) and EMBASE (1974 to March 2014). Randomised, placebo-controlled trials of zinc supplements given at least once a week for at least a month for preventing otitis media. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the included trials and extracted and analysed data. We summarised results using risk ratios (RRs) or rate ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data. We combined trial results where appropriate. No new trials were identified for inclusion in this update. We identified 12 trials for inclusion, 10 of which contributed outcomes data. There were a total of 6820 participants. In trials of healthy children living in low-income communities, two trials did not demonstrate a significant difference between the zinc-supplemented and placebo groups in the numbers of participants experiencing an episode of definite otitis media during follow-up (3191 participants); another trial showed a significantly lower incidence rate of otitis media in the zinc group (rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 0.79, n = 1621). A small trial of 39 infants undergoing treatment for severe malnutrition suggested a benefit of zinc for the mean number of episodes of otitis media (mean difference (MD) -1.12 episodes, 95% CI -2.21 to -0.03). Zinc supplements did not seem to cause any serious adverse

  3. Zinc supplements for preventing otitis media.

    PubMed

    Gulani, Anjana; Sachdev, Harshpal S

    2012-04-18

    Otitis media (OM) is inflammation of the middle ear and is usually caused by infection. It affects people of all ages but is particularly common in young children. Around 164 million people worldwide have long-term hearing loss caused by this condition, 90% of them in low-income countries. As zinc supplements prevent pneumonia in disadvantaged children, we wanted to investigate whether zinc supplements could also prevent OM. To evaluate whether zinc supplements prevent OM in adults and children of different ages. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2012, Issue 1) which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Groups' Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1950 to February week 1, 2012) and EMBASE (1974 to February 2012). Randomised, placebo-controlled trials of zinc supplements given at least once a week for at least a month for preventing OM. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the included trials and extracted and analysed data. We summarised results using risk ratios (RRs) or rate ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data. We combined trial results where appropriate. We identified 12 trials for inclusion, 10 of which contributed outcomes data. There was a total of 6820 participants. In trials of healthy children living in low-income communities, two trials did not demonstrate a significant difference between the zinc supplemented and placebo groups in the numbers of participants experiencing an episode of definite OM during follow-up (3191 participants); another trial showed a significantly lower incidence rate of OM in the zinc group (rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 0.79, n = 1621). A small trial of 39 infants undergoing treatment for severe malnutrition suggested a benefit of zinc for the mean number of episodes of OM (mean difference (MD) -1.12 episodes, 95% CI -2.21 to -0.03). Zinc supplements did not seem to cause

  4. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B; Price, Amy I

    2017-08-22

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. This is an updated version of the review. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 30 January 2017. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a cross-over design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin

  5. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jill Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices. Key pointsSupplement use among the child and adolescent athlete population is widespread with the most frequently used supplement being a form of vitamin/mineral supplement.The effects of supplement use on the growth and development of children and adolescents remain unclear and thus use of supplements by this population should be discouraged.It is likely that there is a misunderstanding as to the role of vitamins and minerals in the diet, their function in maintaining overall health, their role

  6. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and dietary supplements. This issue provides information about scope of use of complementary health practices by children , ... Systematic Reviews/Reviews/Meta-analyses (PubMed®) Randomized Controlled Trials (PubMed®) Research Spotlights National Survey Reports on CAM ...

  7. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  8. Supplemental TV Taped Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Robert G.; Frank, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Videotapes were developed as supplemental material for a course in chemical engineering thermodynamics. Describes the course, videotapes produced (includes list by topics as related to course content), and effectiveness of the tapes. Although no significant improvement in test performance was noted, students indicated they learned material faster…

  9. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  11. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  12. Liver injury from herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide, and HDS-induced liver injury in the United States has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements. Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute hepatitis-like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to multi-ingredient nutritional supplements, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment, and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of nonprescription products to guarantee their constituents and ensure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. (Hepatology 2017;65:363-373).

  13. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as a source of bioactive compounds: the effect of harvest time, experimental site and crop age on steviol glycoside content and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Tavarini, Silvia; Angelini, Luciana G

    2013-07-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the effect of harvest time, experimental site and crop age on the no-calorie sweetener steviol glycosides (SG) and on the antioxidant properties of stevia leaf extracts. The experiment was conducted over two growing seasons at two sites in the northeastern plain of Italy. The results showed that all analysed factors played an important role in defining the SG profile and the antioxidant properties of stevia extracts. A high level of phenols (78.24 mg GAE g⁻¹ DW by Folin-Ciocalteu method) and high antioxidant activity (812.6 µmol Fe²⁺ g⁻¹ DW by FRAP assay) were observed. The inhibition of DPPH free radicals was evaluated and an IC₅₀ mean value of 250 µg mL⁻¹ was obtained. Significant relationships among the total antioxidant capacity and the analysed compounds were found. The results showed the possibility of obtaining, in the tested environments, very high SG yields thanks to the long-day conditions during the spring/summer season. The harvest time played a key role in determining the stevia quality, influencing the rebaudioside A/stevioside ratio. The strong antioxidant properties make very interesting the possibility of using stevia extracts to improve functional food properties. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Anti-rotavirus effects by combination therapy of stevioside and Sophora flavescens extract.

    PubMed

    Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Jun-Gyu; Kim, Deok-Song; Hosmillo, Myra; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Lee, Ju-Hwan; Park, Sang-Ik; Kang, Mun-Il; Ryu, Young Bae; Park, Ki Hun; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Seung Woong; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Woo Song; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2014-06-01

    Anti-rotaviral activities of Sophora flavescens extract (SFE) and stevioside (SV) from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni either singly or in various combinations were examined in vitro and in vivo using a porcine rotavirus G5[P7] strain. Combination of SFE and SV inhibited in vitro virus replication more efficiently than each single treatment. In the piglet model, SV had no effect on rotavirus enteritis, whereas SFE improved but did not completely cure rotaviral enteritis. Interestingly, combination therapy of SFE and SV alleviated diarrhea, and markedly improved small intestinal lesion score and fecal virus shedding. Acute toxicity tests including the piglet lethal dose 50, and body weight, organ weight and pathological changes for the combination therapy did not show any adverse effect on the piglets. These preliminary data suggest that the combination therapy of SV and SFE is a potential curative medication for rotaviral diarrhea in pigs. Determination of the efficacy of this combination therapy in other species including humans needs to be addressed in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification, quantitation and biological activity of phytoestrogens in a dietary supplement for breast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Coldham, N G; Sauer, M J

    2001-12-01

    A hop-based dietary supplement, marketed for natural breast enhancement, was analysed to determine the identity and biological activity of active constituents and potential biological effects in man. Extracts of the dietary supplement were analysed by LC-MS(n) and phytoestrogens identified and quantitated by reference to appropriate standards. Only hop-associated phytoestrogens were found in the dietary supplement at significant concentrations as follows (mean+/-1 S.D.); 8-prenylnaringenin 10.9+/-0.3, 6-prenylnaringenin 27.4+/-1.2, 6,8-diprenylnaringenin 0.9+/-0.1, xanthohumol 321+/-17 and isoxanthohumol 81.1+/-1.6 microg/g of dietary supplement. The oestrogenic activity of extracts in an ERalpha reporter gene assay was equivalent to 48+/-6.3 ng 17beta-oestradiol/g supplement and consistent with the 8-prenylnaringenin content. The dietary supplement extract also inhibited reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activity, but to a greater extent than a concentration matched reference mixture of hop phytoestrogens. However, the supplement was only weakly active in mouse uterotrophic assays following administration in feed or after subcutaneous injection of extract at doses of 8-PN up to 250 times higher than that recommended for women. These preliminary findings suggest that the dietary supplement is unlikely to produce oestrogenic effects in vivo at the level of the uterus; supporting evidence is still required to demonstrate efficacy.

  17. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with C3-monocarboxylates and C4-dicarboxylates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were conducted to examine aerobic growth of Campylobacter spp. in media supplemented with C4-dicarboxylates (fumarate, succinate, or malate) and C3-monocarboxylates (pyruvate or lactate). Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplement...

  18. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients. PMID:28018115

  19. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-12-07

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients.

  20. Inappropriate Usage of Dietary Supplements in Patients by Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements. PMID:25431879

  1. Inappropriate usage of dietary supplements in patients by miscommunication with physicians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-11-26

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements.

  2. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  3. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  4. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2012-02-15

    Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation.Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials involving 414 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements had higher

  5. Oral calorie supplements for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Rosalind L; Rayner, Oli

    2014-11-03

    Poor nutrition occurs frequently in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with other adverse outcomes. Oral calorie supplements are used to increase total daily calorie intake and improve weight gain. However, they are expensive and there are concerns they may reduce the amount of food eaten and not improve overall energy intake. To establish whether in people with CF, oral calorie supplements: increase daily calorie intake; and improve overall nutritional intake, nutritional indices, lung function, survival and quality of life. To assess adverse effects associated with using these supplements. We searched the Cochrane CF Trials Register comprising references from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We contacted companies marketing oral calorie supplements.Last search: 03 July 2014. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing use of oral calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with no specific intervention or additional nutritional advice in people with CF. We independently selected the included trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted the authors of included trials and obtained additional information for two trials. We identified 21 trials and included three, reporting results from 131 participants lasting between three months and one year. Two trials compared supplements to additional nutritional advice and one to no intervention. Two of the included trials recruited only children. In one trial the risk of bias was low across all domains, in a second trial the risk of bias was largely unclear and in the third mainly low. Blinding of participants was unclear in two of the trials. Also, in one trial the clinical condition of groups appeared to be unevenly balanced at baseline and in another trial there were concerns surrounding allocation concealment. There were no significant differences between

  6. Oral calorie supplements for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Rosalind L; Rayner, Oli

    2017-05-04

    Poor nutrition occurs frequently in people with cystic fibrosis and is associated with other adverse outcomes. Oral calorie supplements are used to increase total daily calorie intake and improve weight gain. However, they are expensive and there are concerns they may reduce the amount of food eaten and not improve overall energy intake. This is an update of a previously published review. To establish whether in people with cystic fibrosis, oral calorie supplements: increase daily calorie intake; and improve overall nutritional intake, nutritional indices, lung function, survival and quality of life. To assess adverse effects associated with using these supplements. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register comprising references from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We contacted companies marketing oral calorie supplements.Last search: 18 October 2016. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing use of oral calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with no specific intervention or additional nutritional advice in people with cystic fibrosis. We independently selected the included trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted the authors of included trials and obtained additional information for two trials. We identified 21 trials and included three, reporting results from 131 participants lasting between three months and one year. Two trials compared supplements to additional nutritional advice and one to no intervention. Two of the included trials recruited only children. In one trial the risk of bias was low across all domains, in a second trial the risk of bias was largely unclear and in the third mainly low. Blinding of participants was unclear in two of the trials. Also, in one trial the clinical condition of groups appeared to be unevenly balanced at baseline and in another trial there were

  7. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. Objectives To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation. Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials

  8. Dietary supplements for established atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Bath-Hextall, Fiona J; Jenkinson, Claire; Humphreys, Rosemary; Williams, Hywel C

    2012-02-15

    Many people with atopic eczema are reluctant to use the most commonly recommended treatments because they fear the long-term health effects. As a result, many turn to dietary supplements as a possible treatment approach, often with the belief that some essential ingredient is 'missing' in their diet. Various supplements have been proposed, but it is unclear whether any of these interventions are effective. To evaluate dietary supplements for treating established atopic eczema/dermatitis.Evening primrose oil, borage oil, and probiotics are covered in other Cochrane reviews. We searched the following databases up to July 2010: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2007), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), ISI Web of Science, GREAT (Global Resource of EczemA Trials) database, and reference lists of articles. We searched ongoing trials registers up to April 2011. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary supplements for the treatment of those with established atopic eczema/dermatitis. Two authors independently screened the titles and abstracts, read the full text of the publications, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We included 11 studies with a total of 596 participants. Two studies assessed fish oil versus olive oil or corn oil placebo. The following were all looked at in single studies: oral zinc sulphate compared to placebo, selenium versus selenium plus vitamin E versus placebo, vitamin D versus placebo, vitamin D versus vitamin E versus vitamins D plus vitamin E together versus placebo, pyridoxine versus placebo, sea buckthorn seed oil versus sea buckthorn pulp oil versus placebo, hempseed oil versus placebo, sunflower oil (linoleic acid) versus fish oil versus placebo, and DHA versus control (saturated fatty acids of the same energy value). Two small studies on fish oil suggest a possible

  9. Supplementation patterns in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C; Gates, J R; Butler, J V; Pollett, L M; Dietrich, S J; Lutz, R D

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the use of supplements in a large group of endurance runners (no. = 347) who had participated in the 1987 Los Angeles Marathon. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for nutrient content and supplement usage. The runners' supplementation patterns with respect to demographics, dietary quality, training habits, and race performance were investigated. In general, no significant associations were found between supplement use and the aforementioned variables. Use of supplements, especially vitamins C and E, calcium, and zinc, increased with age (p less than .05). Daily use of at least one type of supplement was reported by 29% of the runners; 48% reported use of at least one type of supplement within the 3-day period.

  10. Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Transitioning to Passive Extraction at the Former DUS-II Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Noonkester, Jay V.; Looney, Brian B.

    2013-04-03

    This investigation evaluated mass extraction rate from individual wells associated with the Western Sector Treatment System (formerly known as the DUS-II project). This was critical since each individual well can have a radius of influence in excess of 100-ft when operating using an active extraction system. Future soil vapor extraction should use the existing active extraction system, supplemented with deployment of passive extraction where appropriate.

  11. Metals Content in Herbal Supplements.

    PubMed

    Barrella, Michelle Vieira; Heringer, Otavio Arruda; Cardoso, Priscylla Maria Martins; Pimentel, Elisangela Flavia; Scherer, Rodrigo; Lenz, Dominik; Endringer, Denise C

    2017-02-01

    Obesity has become an international epidemic. To evaluate the level of metals in extracts of plants prescribed as weight loss supplements, different brands containing Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Citrus aurantium L., Cordia ecalyculata Vell, Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil, Cissus quadrangularis L., Senna alexandrina Mill were purchased in local market, hot acid digested, and analyzed while metal content by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, ICP-OES. Quality assurance and quality control tests were carried out in order to monitor and control the reliability of the analytical method. For each metal evaluated, a calibration curve was prepared with certified reference material. The recovery test was performed for each batch of samples. Analyses were performed in triplicate. Quantification of aluminum, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, vanadium, and zinc were determined. The metals most frequently detected were manganese (15.3-329,60 mg kg(-1)) aluminum (11.76-342.4 mg kg(-1)), and iron (11.14-73.01 mg kg(-1)) with higher levels in products containing C. sinensis China origin, I. paraguariensis Brazilian origin, C. quadrangularis, and C. aurantium China origin, respectively. To ensure safety consumption, an adequacy of the certification of Brazilian suppliers for herbal weight loss products is indispensable.

  12. Fortification of the whey protein isolate antioxidant and antidiabetic activity with fraction rich in phenolic compounds obtained from Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.). Bertoni leaves.

    PubMed

    Milani, Paula Gimenez; Formigoni, Maysa; Lima, Yago Carvalho; Piovan, Silvano; Peixoto, Giuliana Maria Ledesma; Camparsi, Daiane Montoia; da Silva Rodrigues, Willian do Nascimento; da Silva, Jordana Quaglia Pereira; da Silva Avincola, Alexandre; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; da Costa, Cecília Edna Mareze; da Costa, Silvio Cláudio

    2017-06-01

    A stevia fraction (ASF) free of steviol glycosides was extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves (Stevia UEM-13). ASF essentially constitutes phenolic compounds (52.42%), which were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as caffeic acid, quercetin-3-o-glycoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, kaempferol, quercetin, apigenin, rozmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid and dicaffeoylquinic acid. ASF was used as a multi-functional source of phenolic compounds to fortify the whey protein isolate (WPI) obtained by membrane separation. WPI fortified with 0.2% ASF showed an 80% increase in its antioxidant activity and more pronounced antidiabetic effects than the unfortified WPI, mainly in the glycemic control of diabetic animals induced by streptozotocin. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of ASF may enhance the effects of WPI. Indeed, this pioneering study revealed that ASF can be used to enrich the antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of WPI.

  13. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Lombardo, Lia K; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-14

    Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. To examine whether oral supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (23 February 2015), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (31 January 2015), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 January 2015) and also contacted relevant organisations (31 January 2015). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. In this updated review we included 15 trials assessing a total of 2833 women, excluded 27 trials, and 23 trials are still ongoing or unpublished. Nine trials compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo and six trials compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium with no supplementation. Risk of bias in the majority of trials was unclear and many studies were at high risk of bias for blinding and attrition rates. Vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo Data from seven trials involving 868 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements alone, particularly on a daily basis, had higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D than those receiving no intervention or placebo, but this

  14. The regulation of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Larissa L; Berry, Judith A

    2003-09-01

    To discuss the regulatory history of dietary supplements, define the term dietary supplement, clarify ingredient and nutrition information labeling, and discuss safety issues and implications for practice. Review of primary and secondary sources, including both Internet sites and journal articles. In the United States, 6 out of every 10 people use dietary supplements. For decades, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) protected the public from mislabeled and unsafe products by regulating as foods those dietary supplements that included only essential nutrients. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 included herbs as dietary supplements. When the Dietary Supplement and Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 was passed, the FDA lost its regulatory power. The DSHEA expanded the definition of dietary supplements beyond essential nutrients. Dietary supplements are no longer considered food additives, which makes them exempt from prescreening or any safety and efficacy studies before they are released to the public. Under the DSHEA, the FDA may take action if a product poses a direct health threat and only after adverse health effects have already occurred. A good understanding of the regulatory procedures for dietary supplements will aid nurse practitioners (NPs) in patient education regarding these products. Patients should be advised to choose supplements that are made by nationally known food and drug manufacturers that belong to trade groups. NPs and patients can contact the manufacturer directly and can access government Internet sites for more product information.

  15. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with daily iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of daily oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women

  16. Osmolality of preterm formulas supplemented with nonprotein energy supplements.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Dias, M Pitta-Grós; Virella, D; Moreira, A C; Serelha, M

    2008-02-01

    Addition of energy supplements to preterm formulas is an optional strategy to increase the energy intake in infants requiring fluid restriction, in conditions like bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This strategy may lead to an undesirable increase in osmolality of feeds, the maximum recommended safe limit being 400 mOsm/kg. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in osmolality of several commercialized preterm formulas after addition of glucose polymers and medium-chain triglycerides. Osmolality was measured by the freezing point depression method. Six powdered formulas with concentrations of 14 g/100 ml and 16 g/100 ml, and five ready-to-feed liquid formulas were analyzed. All formulas, were supplemented with 10% (low supplementation) or 20% (high supplementation) of additional calories, respectively, in the form of glucose polymers and medium chain triglycerides, maintaining a 1:1 glucose:lipid calorie ratio. Inter-analysis and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of the measurements were always < 3.9%. The mean osmolality (mOsm/kg) of the non-supplemented formulas varied between 268.5 and 315.3 mOsm/kg, increasing by 3-5% in low supplemented formulas, and by 6-10% in high supplemented formulas. None of the formulas analyzed exceeded 352.8 mOsm/kg. The supplementation of preterm formulas with nonprotein energy supplements with up to 20% additional calories did not exceed the maximum recommended osmolality for neonatal feedings.

  17. Supplementing managed competition.

    PubMed

    Higgins, W

    President Clinton's proposal for health care reform calls for managed competition within global expenditure targets. However, it is unlikely that health plans will have sufficient leverage with providers to negotiate arrangements consistent with expenditure targets in nonurban areas. This paper describes a reimbursement system based on competitive prospective payment and capitation (CPPC) which can supplement managed competition in less populous areas or replace managed competition should that strategy prove unsuccessful. The CPPC system is capable of enforcing an expenditure target while encouraging the formation of capitated networks and creating strong incentives for efficiency. It is generally compatible with the Clinton administration's version of managed competition.

  18. Hyperkalemia from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Villgran, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte problem in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is typically caused by medications in patients with poor kidney function. Patients with comorbodities such as heart failure and diabetes are predisposed to electrolyte problems. Salt substitutes and dietary supplements are uncommon causes of hyperkalemia, but we propose that they are under-recognized and underdiagnosed causes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Our case report and literature review illustrates that a careful dietary history is essential in patients presenting with electrolyte disorders, especially hyperkalemia. PMID:27924248

  19. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  20. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence.

  1. Selenium supplementation for Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Albusta, Amira Y; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Carter, Ben; Pijl, Hanno

    2013-06-06

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common auto-immune disorder. The most common presenting symptoms may include anxiety, negative mood, depression, dry skin, cold intolerance, puffy eyes, muscle cramps and fatigue, deep voice, constipation, slow thinking and poor memory. Clinical manifestations of the disease are defined primarily by low levels of thyroid hormones; therefore it is treated by hormone replacement therapy, which usually consists of levothyroxine (LT4). Selenium might reduce antibody levels and result in a decreased dosage of LT4 and may provide other beneficial effects (e.g. on mood and health-related quality of life). To assess the effects of selenium supplementation on Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We searched the following databases up to 2 October 2012: CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science; we also screened reference lists of included studies and searched several online trial registries for ongoing trials (5 November 2012). Randomised controlled clinical trials that assessed the effects of selenium supplementation for adults diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Study selection, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and analyses were carried out by two independent review authors. We assessed the quality of the evidence of included studies using GRADE. We were unable to conduct a meta-analysis because clinical heterogeneity between interventions that were investigated is substantial. Four studies at unclear to high risk of bias comprising 463 participants were included. The mean study duration was 7.5 months (range 3 to 18 months). One of our primary outcomes-'change from baseline in health related quality of life'-and two of our secondary outcomes-'change from baseline in LT4 replacement dosage at end of the study' and 'economic costs'-were not assessed in any of the studies. One study at high risk of bias showed statistically significant improvement in subjective well-being with sodium

  2. Zinc supplementation in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  3. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women from developing countries who have insufficient iron intake to meet increased iron needs of both the mother and the fetus. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with the provision of daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals has recently been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (23 March 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for ongoing studies and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (23 March 2012). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results This review includes 21 trials from 13 different countries, but only 18 trials (with 4072 women) reported on our outcomes of interest and contributed data to the review. All of these studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. Three studies provided iron alone, 12 iron+folic acid and three more iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals. Their methodological quality was mixed

  4. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2012-07-11

    Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women from developing countries who have insufficient iron intake to meet increased iron needs of both the mother and the fetus.Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with the provision of daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals has recently been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (23 March 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for ongoing studies and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (23 March 2012). Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. This review includes 21 trials from 13 different countries, but only 18 trials (with 4072 women) reported on our outcomes of interest and contributed data to the review. All of these studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation.Three studies provided iron alone, 12 iron+folic acid and three more iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals. Their methodological quality was mixed and most had high levels of attrition. Overall, there was no clear evidence of differences between

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  6. Liver Injury from Herbal and Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Victor; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide and HDS induced liver injury in the U.S. has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements (MINS). Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic, but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute-hepatitis like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to MINS, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges, in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of non-prescription products to guarantee their constituents and insure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. PMID:27677775

  7. Methylerythritol and mevalonate pathway contributions to biosynthesis of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes and leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Wölwer-Rieck, Ursula; May, Bianca; Lankes, Christa; Wüst, Matthias

    2014-03-19

    The biosynthesis of the diterpenoid steviol glycosides rebaudioside A and stevioside in nonrooted cuttings of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated by feeding experiments using the labeled key precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone (d2-MVL) and [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose (d2-DOX). Labeled glycosides were extracted from the leaves and stems and were directly analyzed by LC-(-ESI)-MS/MS and by GC-MS after hydrolysis and derivatization of the resulting isosteviol to the corresponding TMS-ester. Additionally, the incorporation of the proffered d2-MVL and d2-DOX into volatile monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes on leaves and stems was investigated by headspace-solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Incorporation of the labeled precursors indicated that diterpenes in leaves and monoterpenes and diterpenes in glandular trichomes are predominately biosynthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas both the MEP and mevalonate (MVA) pathways contribute to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes at equal rates in glandular trichomes. These findings give evidence for a transport of MEP pathway derived farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol. Contrarily, the transport of MVA pathway derived geranyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursors from the cytosol to the plastid is limited.

  8. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  9. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Marketed as Dietary Supplements Hidden Risks of Erectile Dysfunction 'Treatments' Sold Online 'All Natural' Alternatives for Erectile Dysfunction: A Risky Proposition For More Information Questions and ...

  10. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  11. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  12. Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Jim

    For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.

  13. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  14. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24...

  15. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24...

  16. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24...

  17. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24...

  18. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24...

  19. Effects of growth stage and fulvic acid on the diversity and dynamics of endophytic bacterial community in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuejian; Yang, Jinshui; Wang, Entao; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn the interactions among the endophytic bacteria, the plant growth, the foliar spray of fulvic acid, and the accumulation of steviol glycosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the Stevia leaves at different growth stages with or without the fulvic acid treatment; and the diversity of endophytic bacteria in Stevia leaves was estimated by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. As results, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were found to be the dominant phyla despite the growth stages and fulvic acid application. Stevia growth stages strongly regulated composition of endophytic community. The genera Agrobacterium (12.3%) and Erwinia (7.2%) dominated in seedling stage were apparently declined in the vegetable and initial flowering stages, while Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium increased in mature leaves at harvest time, which showed that the mature leaves of Stevia preferred to accumulate some certain endophytic bacteria. Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium constituted an important part of the core endophytic community and were positively correlated with the stevioside content and UGT74G1 gene expression, respectively; while Erwinia, Agrobacterium, and Bacillus were negatively correlated with the stevioside accumulation. Fulvic acid treatment accelerated the variation of endophytes along the growth stages and increased the steviol glycosides content. This is the first study to reveal the community composition of endophytic bacteria in the Stevia leaves, to evidence the strong effects of growth stage and fulvic acid application on the endophytes of Stevia, and to demonstrate the correlation between the endophytic bacteria and the steviol glycosides accumulation.

  20. Effects of growth stage and fulvic acid on the diversity and dynamics of endophytic bacterial community in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuejian; Yang, Jinshui; Wang, Entao; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn the interactions among the endophytic bacteria, the plant growth, the foliar spray of fulvic acid, and the accumulation of steviol glycosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the Stevia leaves at different growth stages with or without the fulvic acid treatment; and the diversity of endophytic bacteria in Stevia leaves was estimated by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. As results, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were found to be the dominant phyla despite the growth stages and fulvic acid application. Stevia growth stages strongly regulated composition of endophytic community. The genera Agrobacterium (12.3%) and Erwinia (7.2%) dominated in seedling stage were apparently declined in the vegetable and initial flowering stages, while Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium increased in mature leaves at harvest time, which showed that the mature leaves of Stevia preferred to accumulate some certain endophytic bacteria. Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium constituted an important part of the core endophytic community and were positively correlated with the stevioside content and UGT74G1 gene expression, respectively; while Erwinia, Agrobacterium, and Bacillus were negatively correlated with the stevioside accumulation. Fulvic acid treatment accelerated the variation of endophytes along the growth stages and increased the steviol glycosides content. This is the first study to reveal the community composition of endophytic bacteria in the Stevia leaves, to evidence the strong effects of growth stage and fulvic acid application on the endophytes of Stevia, and to demonstrate the correlation between the endophytic bacteria and the steviol glycosides accumulation. PMID:26379644

  1. Comparison of fumerate-pyruvate media and beef extract media for aerobically culturing Campylobacter species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Media supplemented with fumarate, pyruvate, and a vitamin-mineral solution or with beef extract were compared for the ability to support aerobic growth of Campylobacter. Basal broth composed of tryptose, yeast extract, bicarbonate, and agar was supplemented with 30 mM fumarate, 100 mM pyruvate, and ...

  2. Increasing trends in elderly persons' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements and concurrent use of medications.

    PubMed

    Wold, Rosemary S; Lopez, Susan T; Yau, C Lillian; Butler, Lisa M; Pareo-Tubbeh, Shirley L; Waters, Debra L; Garry, Philip J; Baumgartner, Richard N

    2005-01-01

    Use of nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplements among an elderly cohort was surveyed to determine which were the most frequently used, and to report potential medication/supplement interactions observed. A retrospective review of the use of 22 supplements and prescription/over-the-counter medications was collected annually from 1994 to 1999. Supplement and medication records for an average of 359 male (36%) and female (64%) participants aged 60 to 99 years were reviewed annually. Ethnic distribution was 91% non-Hispanic white, 7% Hispanic, 1% Asian, and 1% African American. Descriptive statistics generated included mean, standard deviation, and frequency by percentage. To compare supplement user and nonsupplement user percentages across age groups, the chi 2 test was used. Linear regression was performed to test for longitudinal usage trends of each individual supplement. By 1999, glucosamine emerged as the most frequently used nonvitamin, nonmineral supplement followed by ginkgo biloba, chondroitin, and garlic. For women, there was a significant linear trend ( P < .05) over time for these 12 supplements: black cohosh, borage, evening primrose, flaxseed oil, chondroitin, dehydroepiandrosterone, garlic, ginkgo biloba, glucosamine, grapeseed extract, hawthorn, and St John's wort. For men, three supplements (alpha lipoic acid, ginkgo biloba, and grape-seed extract) showed a significant linear trend ( P <.05). Potential interactions between supplements and medications were seen for 10 of the 22 supplements surveyed, with a total of 142 potential interactions observed over the 6-year period. Examining nonvitamin, nonmineral supplement use in combination with prescription/over-the-counter medications in elderly persons is important to identify the potential risks of interactions.

  3. Acceptability of Aloysia citriodora-supplemented peach jams.

    PubMed

    Gámbaro, Adriana; Miraballes, Marcelo; Purtscher, Irene; Deandréis, Inés; Martínez, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    An unsupplemented peach jam and four peach jam samples prepared by supplementing the former with increasing amounts of Aloysia citriodora aqueous extract were subjected to sensory testing. A trained panel of eight assessors initially identified (reaching consensus) the relevant sensory attributes and then rated the jam samples on an individual basis. The jam samples were later evaluated for overall liking and willingness to purchase by a group of 95 interested consumers, who also provided their individual appraisal of the sensory features of the various samples by responding to an open-ended question. Overall, consumers appeared not to accept the sensory modifications introduced in traditional peach jam by the addition of A. citriodora extract, even though they were expressly acquainted with its health benefits. The degree of acceptance of the extract supplement decreased significantly with increasing amounts of extract in the jam. The groups identified to have the least and the greatest tolerance to the sensory modifications introduced in the supplemented jams differed in gender distribution, with male consumers having a greater tolerance than females. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  5. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on ... approved labels included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies ...

  6. Nutrition Supplements to Stimulate Lipolysis: A Review in Relation to Endurance Exercise Capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisu; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    Athletes make great efforts to increase their endurance capacity in many ways. Using nutrition supplements for stimulating lipolysis is one such strategy to improve endurance performance. These supplements contain certain ingredients that affect fat metabolism; furthermore, in combination with endurance training, they tend to have additive effects. A large body of scientific evidence shows that nutrition supplements increase fat metabolism; however, the usefulness of lipolytic supplements as ergogenic functional foods remains controversial. The present review will describe the effectiveness of lipolytic supplements in fat metabolism and as an ergogenic aid for increasing endurance exercise capacity. There are a number of lipolytic supplements available on the market, but this review focuses on natural ingredients such as caffeine, green tea extract, L-carnitine, Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid), capsaicin, ginseng, taurine, silk peptides and octacosanol, all of which have shown scientific evidence of enhancing fat metabolism associated with improving endurance performance. We excluded some other supplements owing to lack of data on fat metabolism or endurance capacity. Based on the data in this review, we suggest that a caffeine and green tea extract improves endurance performance and enhances fat oxidation. Regarding other supplements, the data on their practical implications needs to be gathered, especially for athletes.

  7. Determination of ephedrine alkaloids in dietary supplement standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Satterfield, Mary B; Ihara, Toshihide; Phinney, Karen W; Yen, James H; Wise, Stephen A; Gay, Martha L; Lam, Joseph W; McCooeye, Margaret; Gardner, Graeme; Fraser, Catharine; Sturgeon, Ralph; Roman, Mark

    2005-05-15

    A suite of five ephedra-containing dietary supplement Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with certified values for ephedrine alkaloids, synephrine, caffeine, and selected toxic trace elements. The materials represent a variety of natural, extracted, and processed sample matrixes that provide different analytical challenges. The constituents have been determined by multiple independent methods with measurements performed by NIST and by three collaborating laboratories. The methods utilized different sample extraction and cleanup steps in addition to different instrumental analytical techniques and approaches to quantification. In addition, food-matrix proximates were determined by National Food Processor Association laboratories for one of the ephedra-containing SRMs. The SRMs are primarily intended for method validation and for use as control materials to support the analysis of dietary supplements and related botanical materials.

  8. Nutritional Supplements in Canine Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Lowell

    1987-01-01

    Nutritionally-related dermatoses of dogs have received considerable attention in the veterinary community in the past few years and most of this attention has centered on the role of vitamin E, vitamin A, zinc, and the essential fatty acids. Nutritional supplements for dogs abound in the marketplace yet few actually meet the requirements of a pet with a skin problem. Many more are not formulated strictly for dermatological cases but rather as general supplements to augment the nutritional needs of pets. The potential actions of these different nutrients are discussed and comparisons made of the different commercial supplements. PMID:17422880

  9. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-11-23

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral zinc supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since zinc has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral zinc supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing zinc supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction and processing of foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumers are aware of the processing techniques used to manufacture food and health supplements and are concerned about the impact of those processes on their health and the environment. Processes that use supercritical fluids as an alternative to solvents that are used to extract nutrients and bio...

  11. Herbs and supplements in dialysis patients: panacea or poison?

    PubMed

    Dahl, N V

    2001-01-01

    The safety of herbal remedies and supplement use is of particular concern in patients with renal disease, and reliable information is not always easy to find. Predialysis patients may be drawn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) because they believe it can help prevent the progression of their renal disease. The purpose of this series of articles on alternative medicine for nephrologists is to address concerns and issues specific to CAM use in dialysis patients and to provide a guide to reliable sources of information. This introductory article emphasizes safety issues with a focus primarily on herbal medicine. Lack of regulation means that patients may not actually be taking what they think they are. Independent laboratory analyses have shown a lack of stated label ingredients and many instances of supplements and traditional remedies being contaminated with pesticides, poisonous plants, heavy metals, or conventional drugs. While certain supplements are always unsafe (carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, glandular extracts), others are specifically contraindicated in renal disease. Supplement use may be especially hazardous in renal disease because of unpredictable pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, negative effects on kidney function, nephrotoxicity, hemodynamic alterations, unpredictable effects on blood pressure or blood glucose, or potentiation of electrolyte abnormalities. There are no data on potential dialyzability of either active compounds, or their potentially active or toxic metabolites. Many supplements contain metal ions and other minerals. Transplant recipients are also at risk from potential unpredictable effects on immune function. Recommendations and information resources are listed.

  12. Gluten screening of several dietary supplements by immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Oancea, Simona; Wagner, Adriana; Cîrstea, Elena; Sima, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic intestinal disorder of public health concern caused by gluten ingestion in sensitive individuals. Gluten is a protein found not only in gluten-containing food but also as normal component of drugs and dietary supplements. Detection of gluten in dietary supplements is a very important task required for establishing their gluten status, which is highly important for the safety of products consumed by CD and gluten-sensitive patients. In this paper, we investigated the presence of gluten in twenty one common dietary supplements from the national market using the immunochromatographic assay. This visual assay proved to be an efficient rapid tool for gluten screening as an alternative to the ELISA techniques. The results have shown the presence of gluten in 23.8% of the investigated samples (vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, probiotics supplements, lactoferrin, propolis supplements). The results provide information which may contribute to the completion of the existing lists of gluten-free pharmaceuticals. It is known that for CD patients obtaining accurate information about the gluten content of a particular item is a difficult and time-consuming process.

  13. PATTERNS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENT USAGE IN DEMOGRAPHICALLY DIVERSE OLDER PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Kishiyama, Shirley S.; Leahy, Marjorie J.; Zitzelberger, Tracy A.; Guariglia, Robin; Zajdel, Daniel P.; Calvert, James F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Oken, Barry S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To analyze dietary supplement usage data from 494 older adults, aged 65 to 101 years. Setting Community dwellers living independently of institutionalized care. Design All dietary supplements, including botanicals, were recorded to aid in assessing the health status of older adults. Participants 1) 224 individuals enrolled in a study that follows the health of persons 85 years and older (oldest-old) in Klamath County, a non-metropolitan area in southern Oregon: 2) 134 participants of oldest-old age living in the metropolitan Portland area, enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of GBE biloba extract (GBE) for dementia prevention: and 3) 136 participants, ages 65–85 years (young-old), also of the Portland area, enrolled in a study of the effects of yoga and exercise on cognition. Measurements Data verified from labels, not from self-report. Results Of the participants, 70.6% used dietary supplements. Women took supplements more often than men, and usage decreased with age. A greater percentage, 67.4%, of the non-metropolitan oldest-old took supplements, compared to 56.7% of the metropolitan oldest-old. The greatest usage, 89.7%, was in the metropolitan young-olds. All of these percentages exceed those for comparable age groups in national representative surveys. Conclusions Dietary supplement usage by older adults in these studies in Oregon exceeded that in other reports and may reflect high interest in complementary and alternative medicine. This report confirms the results of other studies showing that elderly adults, particularly women, use dietary supplements more than other segments of the US population. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of this pattern and potential conflicts with research design or treatment regimen intended for older people. PMID:15945136

  14. Polyphenol supplementation: benefits for exercise performance or oxidative stress?

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Kathryn H

    2014-05-01

    Supplement use among athletes is widespread, including non-traditional and biological compounds. Despite increasing research, a comprehensive and critical review on polyphenol supplementation and exercise is still lacking. This review is relevant for researchers directly involved in the topic, as well as those with a broad interest in athletic performance enhancement and sports nutrition. The purpose of this review is to present background information on groups of polyphenols and their derivatives because their differing chemical structures influence mechanisms of action; to discuss the potential of plant, fruit and vegetable-based biological supplements, high in polyphenol content, to affect exercise performance and biomarkers of oxidative stress and exercise-induced muscle damage; and to critically discuss the exercise studies and biomarkers used. Subjects in the studies reviewed were either sedentary, healthy individuals, or active, recreationally trained or well-trained athletes. Polyphenol supplementation in exercise studies included mainly extracts (multicomponent or purified), juices, infusions or an increased intake of polyphenol-rich foods. This review includes details of supplement doses and exercise test protocols. Many studies considered only the performance or one or two selected biomarkers of antioxidant capacity instead of a comprehensive choice of biomarkers to assess damage to lipids or proteins. Evidence is insufficient to make recommendations for or against the use of polyphenol supplementation (neither specific polyphenols nor specific doses) for either recreational, competitive or elite athletes. Polyphenols have multiple biological effects, and future exercise studies must be designed appropriately and specifically to determine physiological interactions between exercise and the selected supplement, rather than considering performance alone.

  15. Simultaneous determination of vitamin A and beta-carotene in dietary supplements by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sundaresan, P Ramnathan

    2002-01-01

    Several liquid chromatography (LC) methods for analysis of vitamin A in foods and feeds have been previously reported but only a few have been applied in non-food matrixes. A validated LC method is needed for determination of vitamin A and beta-carotene in the various matrixes presented by dietary supplements. The performance of a reversed-phase method with methanol-isopropanol gradient elution was evaluated with standard retinyl derivatives and beta-carotene. The reversed-phase method is capable of separating retinol from other derivatives such as retinyl acetate, retinyl palmitate, and beta-carotene. Two types of extraction were used to extract the analytes from the dietary supplements: a hexane-methylene chloride extraction for soft-gel capsules containing beta-carotene, and a direct solvent extraction for dietary supplements in tablet form. The direct solvent extraction consisted of treatment with ethanol and methylene chloride following addition of hot water (55 degrees C). Results with the reversed-phase method for vitamin A and beta-carotene in the products examined (n = 8) indicated excellent method performance. The main form of vitamin A or beta-carotene in dietary supplements was the all-trans isomer. The reversed-phase method avoids saponification and is rapid, accurate, precise, and suitable for simultaneous determination of retinyl derivatives and beta-carotene in dietary supplements.

  16. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Nogiec, Christopher D; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology.

  17. To Supplement or Not to Supplement: A Metabolic Network Framework for Human Nutritional Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Nogiec, Christopher D.; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology. PMID:23967053

  18. Quality control of plant food supplements.

    PubMed

    Sanzini, Elisabetta; Badea, Mihaela; Santos, Ariana Dos; Restani, Patrizia; Sievers, Hartwig

    2011-12-01

    It is essential to guarantee the safety of unprocessed plants and food supplements if consumers' health is to be protected. Although botanicals and their preparations are regulated at EU level, at least in part, there is still considerable discretion at national level, and Member States may choose to classify a product either as a food supplement or as a drug. Accurate data concerning the finished products and the plant used as the starting point are of major importance if risks and safety are to be properly assessed, but in addition standardized criteria for herbal preparation must be laid down and respected by researchers and manufacturers. Physiologically active as well as potentially toxic constituents need to be identified, and suitable analytical methods for their measurement specified, particularly in view of the increasing incidence of economically motivated adulteration of herbal raw materials and extracts. It remains the duty of food operators to keep up with the scientific literature and to provide sufficient information to enable the adaptation of specifications, sampling schemes and analytical methods to a fast-changing environment.

  19. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Abba, Katharine; Sudarsanam, Thambu D; Grobler, Liesl; Volmink, Jimmy

    2008-10-08

    Tuberculosis is a serious infection affecting mainly the lungs. It may contribute to nutritional deficiencies which in turn may delay recovery by depressing immune functions. Nutritional supplements might therefore promote recovery in people being treated for tuberculosis. To assess the provision of oral nutritional supplements to promote the recovery of people being treated with antituberculous drug therapy for active tuberculosis. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register (June 2008), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 2), MEDLINE (June 2008), EMBASE (June 2008), LILACS (June 2008), mRCT (June 2008), the Indian Journal of Tuberculosis (1983 to June 2008), and checked the reference lists of all included studies. Randomized controlled trials comparing any oral nutritional supplement given for at least four weeks with no nutritional intervention, placebo, or dietary advice only for people being treated for active tuberculosis. Two authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous variables and mean differences (MD) for continuous variables, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We pooled data from trials with similar interventions and outcomes. Twelve trials (3393 participants) were included. Five trials had adequate allocation concealment. Interventions included a high energy supplement, high cholesterol diet, vitamin D, vitamin A, zinc, arginine, multiple micronutrient supplements, combined multiple micronutrient supplements and zinc, combined vitamin A and zinc, and combined vitamin A and selenium. The following supplements were associated with increased body weight at follow up: high energy supplements (MD 1.73 kg, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.65; 34 participants, 1 trial); multiple micronutrients plus additional zinc (MD 2.37 kg, 95% CI 2.21 to 2.53; 192 participants, 1 trial); and vitamin A plus zinc (MD 3.10 kg, 95% CI 0.74 to 5.46; 80 participants, 1 trial

  20. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is it OK to give my baby breast milk and formula? Although breast milk is the best nutritional choice for infants, in ... with a supplemental nursing system in which pumped milk or formula goes through a small tube that ...